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Sample records for free-flying space robot

  1. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    To accelerate the development of multi-armed, free-flying satellite manipulators, a fixed-base cooperative manipulation facility is being developed. The work performed on multiple arm cooperation on a free-flying robot is summarized. Research is also summarized on global navigation and control of free-flying space robots. The Locomotion Enhancement via Arm Pushoff (LEAP) approach is described and progress to date is presented.

  2. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  3. Exploiting nonholonomic redundancy of free-flying space robots

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Mukherjee, Ranjan

    1993-08-01

    Nonholonomic redundancy is an intrinsic property of nonholonomic mechanical systems. A free-flying space robot is a nonholonomic mechanical system, and exhibits the presence of nonholonomic redundancy even in the absence of ordinary kinematic redundancy. Like ordinary kinematic redundancy, nonholonomic redundancy can also be utilized while planning trajectories for the system. In the paper, a trajectory planning scheme for a 6-DOF space robot is developed in which nonholonomic redundancy for avoiding joint limits and obstacles are utilized.

  4. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Control techniques for self-contained, autonomous free-flying space robots are being tested and developed. Free-flying space robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require astronaut extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Use of robots will provide economic savings as well as improved astronaut safety by reducing and in many cases, eliminating the need for human EVA. The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a set of research projects using laboratory models of satellite robots. These devices use air-cushion-vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in two dimensions the drag-free, zero-g conditions of space. Current work is divided into six major projects or research areas. Fixed-base cooperative manipulation work represents our initial entry into multiple arm cooperation and high-level control with a sophisticated user interface. The floating-base cooperative manipulation project strives to transfer some of the technologies developed in the fixed-base work onto a floating base. The global control and navigation experiment seeks to demonstrate simultaneous control of the robot manipulators and the robot base position so that tasks can be accomplished while the base is undergoing a controlled motion. The multiple-vehicle cooperation project's goal is to demonstrate multiple free-floating robots working in teams to carry out tasks too difficult or complex for a single robot to perform. The Location Enhancement Arm Push-off (LEAP) activity's goal is to provide a viable alternative to expendable gas thrusters for vehicle propulsion wherein the robot uses its manipulators to throw itself from place to place. Because the successful execution of the LEAP technique requires an accurate model of the robot and payload mass properties, it was deemed an attractive testbed for adaptive control technology.

  5. Mini AERCam: A Free-Flying Robot for Space Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a free-flying camera system for remote viewing and inspection of human spacecraft. The AERCam project team is currently developing a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam, a spherical nanosatellite 7.5 inches in diameter. Mini AERCam development builds on the success of AERCam Sprint, a 1997 Space Shuttle flight experiment, by integrating new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving these productivity-enhancing capabilities in a smaller package depends on aggressive component miniaturization. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion, rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for laboratory demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides on-orbit views of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by space-walking crewmembers.

  6. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the work is to develop and perform a set of research projects using laboratory models of satellite robots. These devices use air cushion technology to simulate in two dimensions the drag-free, zero-g conditions of space. Five research areas are examined: cooperative manipulation on a fixed base; cooperative manipulation on a free-floating base; global navigation and control of a free-floating robot; an alternative transport mode call Locomotion Enhancement via Arm Push-Off (LEAP), and adaptive control of LEAP.

  7. Control of Free-Flying Space Robot Manipulator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Rock, Stephen M.; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report on the Stanford University portion of a major NASA program in telerobotics called the TRIWG Program, led strongly from NASA Headquarters by David Lavery This portion of the TRIWG research was carried out in Stanford's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) to (1) contribute in unique and valuable ways to new fundamental capability for NASA in its space missions (the total contribution came from some 100 PhD-student years of research), and (2) to provide a steady stream of very capable PhD graduates to the American space enterprise.

  8. Astrobee: A New Platform for Free-Flying Robotics on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trey; Barlow, Jonathan; Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Sanchez, Hugo; Smith, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The Astrobees are next-generation free-flying robots that will operate in the interior of the International Space Station (ISS). Their primary purpose is to provide a flexible platform for research on zero-g freeflying robotics, with the ability to carry a wide variety of future research payloads and guest science software. They will also serve utility functions: as free-flying cameras to record video of astronaut activities, and as mobile sensor platforms to conduct surveys of the ISS. The Astrobee system includes two robots, a docking station, and a ground data system (GDS). It is developed by the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 (HET-2) Project, which began in Oct. 2014, and will deliver the Astrobees for launch to ISS in 2017. This paper covers selected aspects of the Astrobee design, focusing on capabilities relevant to potential users of the platform.

  9. Experiments in Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Multi-Manipulator, Free-Flying Space Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Vincent Wei-Kang

    1992-01-01

    Sophisticated robots can greatly enhance the role of humans in space by relieving astronauts of low level, tedious assembly and maintenance chores and allowing them to concentrate on higher level tasks. Robots and astronauts can work together efficiently, as a team; but the robot must be capable of accomplishing complex operations and yet be easy to use. Multiple cooperating manipulators are essential to dexterity and can broaden greatly the types of activities the robot can achieve; adding adaptive control can ease greatly robot usage by allowing the robot to change its own controller actions, without human intervention, in response to changes in its environment. Previous work in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) have shown the usefulness of a space robot with cooperating manipulators. The research presented in this dissertation extends that work by adding adaptive control. To help achieve this high level of robot sophistication, this research made several advances to the field of nonlinear adaptive control of robotic systems. A nonlinear adaptive control algorithm developed originally for control of robots, but requiring joint positions as inputs, was extended here to handle the much more general case of manipulator endpoint-position commands. A new system modelling technique, called system concatenation was developed to simplify the generation of a system model for complicated systems, such as a free-flying multiple-manipulator robot system. Finally, the task-space concept was introduced wherein the operator's inputs specify only the robot's task. The robot's subsequent autonomous performance of each task still involves, of course, endpoint positions and joint configurations as subsets. The combination of these developments resulted in a new adaptive control framework that is capable of continuously providing full adaptation capability to the complex space-robot system in all modes of operation. The new adaptive control algorithm easily handles free-flying

  10. Astrobee: Developing a Free Flying Robot for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria; Barlow, Jonathan; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Trey; Zuniga, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Astronaut time will always be in short supply, consumables (e.g., oxygen) will always be limited, and some work will not be feasible, or productive, for astronauts to do manually. Free flyers offer significant potential to perform a great variety of tasks, include routine, repetitive or simple but long-duration work, such as conducting environment surveys, taking sensor readings or monitoring crew activities. The "Astrobee" project is developing a new free flying robot system suitable for performing Intravehicular Activity (IVA) work on the International Space Station (ISS). This paper will describe the Astrobee project objectives, initial design, concept of operations, and key challenges.

  11. Experiments in autonomous navigation and control of multi-manipulator, free-flying space robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Marc Albert

    Although space presents an exciting frontier for science and manufacturing, it has proven to be a costly and dangerous place for humans. It is an ideal environment for sophisticated robots capable of performing tasks that currently require the active participation of astronauts. The Aerospace Robotics Laboratory, working with NASA, has developed an experimental model of a multimanipulator, free-flying space robot capable of capturing and manipulating free-floating objects without human assistance. The experimental robot model uses air-cushion technology to simulate, in two dimensions, the drag-free, zero-g characteristics of space. Fully self-contained, the vehicle/manipulator system is equipped with gas-jet thrusters, two two-link manipulators, an electrical power system, digital and analog I/0 capabilities, high speed vision, and a multiprocessor real-time computer. These subsystems have been carefully integrated in a modular architecture that facilitates maintenance and ease of use. A sophisticated control system was designed and implemented to manage and coordinate the actions of the vehicle/manipulator system. A custom on-board vision system is used for closed-loop endpoint control and object tracking in the robot's local reference frame. A multicamera off-board vision system provides global positioning information to the robot via a wireless communication link. Successful rendezvous, tracking, and capture of free-flying, spinning objects is facilitated by simultaneously controlling the robot base position and manipulator motions. These actions are coordinated by a sophisticated event-driven finite-state machine. A graphical user interface enables a remotely situated operator to provide high-level task description commands to the robot and to monitor the robot's activities while it carries out these assignments. The user interface allows a task to be fully specified before any action takes place, thereby eliminating problems associated with communications

  12. Technology for an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Reuter, G. J.; Healey, Kathleen J.; Phinney, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Crew rescue and equipment retrieval is a Space Station Freedom requirement. During Freedom's lifetime, there is a high probability that a number of objects will accidently become separated. Members of the crew, replacement units, and key tools are examples. Retrieval of these objects within a short time is essential. Systems engineering studies were conducted to identify system requirements and candidate approaches. One such approach, based on a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot was selected for further analysis. A ground-based technology demonstration, now in its second phase, was designed to provide an integrated robotic hardware and software testbed supporting design of a space-borne system. The ground system, known as the EVA Retriever, is examining the problem of autonomously planning and executing a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles. The current prototype is an anthropomorphic manipulator unit with dexterous arms and hands attached to a robot body and latched in a manned maneuvering unit. A precision air-bearing floor is used to simulate space. Sensor data include two vision systems and force/proximity/tactile sensors on the hands and arms. Planning for a shuttle file experiment is underway. A set of scenarios and strawman requirements were defined to support conceptual development. Initial design activities are expected to begin in late 1989 with the flight occurring in 1994. The flight hardware and software will be based on lessons learned from both the ground prototype and computer simulations.

  13. Experiments in Neural-Network Control of a Free-Flying Space Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Four important generic issues are identified and addressed in some depth in this thesis as part of the development of an adaptive neural network based control system for an experimental free flying space robot prototype. The first issue concerns the importance of true system level design of the control system. A new hybrid strategy is developed here, in depth, for the beneficial integration of neural networks into the total control system. A second important issue in neural network control concerns incorporating a priori knowledge into the neural network. In many applications, it is possible to get a reasonably accurate controller using conventional means. If this prior information is used purposefully to provide a starting point for the optimizing capabilities of the neural network, it can provide much faster initial learning. In a step towards addressing this issue, a new generic Fully Connected Architecture (FCA) is developed for use with backpropagation. A third issue is that neural networks are commonly trained using a gradient based optimization method such as backpropagation; but many real world systems have Discrete Valued Functions (DVFs) that do not permit gradient based optimization. One example is the on-off thrusters that are common on spacecraft. A new technique is developed here that now extends backpropagation learning for use with DVFs. The fourth issue is that the speed of adaptation is often a limiting factor in the implementation of a neural network control system. This issue has been strongly resolved in the research by drawing on the above new contributions.

  14. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The ground-based demonstration of EVA Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out, (2) searches for and acquires the target, (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target, (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles, (5) reaches for and grapples the target, (6) returns to transfer the object, and (7) returns to base.

  15. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Phinney, Dale E.

    1989-01-01

    The ground based demonstration of the extensive extravehicular activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out; (2) searches for and acquires the target; (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target; (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles; (5) reaches for and grapples the target; (6) returns to transfer the object; and (7) returns to base.

  16. Control of a free-flying robot manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H.

    1986-01-01

    The development of and test control strategies for self-contained, autonomous free flying space robots are discussed. Such a robot would perform operations in space similar to those currently handled by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). Use of robots should reduce the expense and danger attending EVA both by providing assistance to astronauts and in many cases by eliminating altogether the need for human EVA, thus greatly enhancing the scope and flexibility of space assembly and repair activities. The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a program of research with a series of physical Satellite Robot Simulator Vehicles (SRSV's), two-dimensionally freely mobile laboratory models of autonomous free-flying space robots such as might perform extravehicular functions associated with operation of a space station or repair of orbiting satellites. It is planned, in a later phase, to extend the research to three dimensions by carrying out experiments in the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  17. Technology test results from an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Goode, R.; Grimm, K. A.; Hess, Clifford W.; Norsworthy, Robert S.; Anderson, Greg D.; Merkel, L.; Phinney, Dale E.

    1992-03-01

    The ground-based demonstrations of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice- supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, are designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the space station. The EVA Retriever software is required to autonomously plan and execute a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles with subsequent object handover. The software architecture incorporates a hierarchical decomposition of the control system that is horizontally partitioned into five major functional subsystems: sensing, perception, world model, reasoning, and acting. The design provides for supervised autonomy as the primary mode of operation. It is intended to be an evolutionary system improving in capability over time and as it earns crew trust through reliable and safe operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware, a focus on software, and a summary of results achieved recently from both computer simulations and air bearing floor demonstrations. Limitations of the technology used are evaluated. Plans for the next phase, during which moving targets and obstacles drive realtime behavior requirements, are discussed.

  18. Technology test results from an intelligent, free-flying robot for crew and equipment retrieval in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J.; Goode, R.; Grimm, K.; Hess, C.; Norsworthy, R.; Anderson, G.; Merkel, L.; Phinney, D.

    1992-01-01

    The ground-based demonstrations of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, are designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The EVA Retriever software is required to autonomously plan and execute a target rendezvous, grapple, and return to base while avoiding stationary and moving obstacles with subsequent object handover. The software architecture incorporates a heirarchical decomposition of the control system that is horizontally partitioned into five major functional subsystems: sensing, perception, world model, reasoning, and acting. The design provides for supervised autonomy as the primary mode of operation. It is intended to be an evolutionary system improving in capability over time and as it earns crew trust through reliable and safe operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware, a focus on software, and a summary of results achieved recently from both computer simulations and air bearing floor demonstrations. Limitations of the technology used are evaluated. Plans for the next phase, during which moving targets and obstacles drive realtime behavior requirements, are discussed.

  19. Control of a free-flying robot manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the research is to develop and test control strategies for a self-contained, free flying space robot. Such a robot would perform operations in space similar to those currently handled by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). The focus of the work is to develop and carry out a program of research with a series of physical Satellite Robot Simulator Vehicles (SRSV's), two-dimensionally freely mobile laboratory models of autonomous free-flying space robots such as might perform extravehicular functions associated with operation of a space station or repair of orbiting satellites. The development of the SRSV and of some of the controller subsystems are discribed. The two-link arm was fitted to the SRSV base, and researchers explored the open-loop characteristics of the arm and thruster actuators. Work began on building the software foundation necessary for use of the on-board computer, as well as hardware and software for a local vision system for target identification and tracking.

  20. Initial experiments in thrusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, W. J.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A two-arm free-flying robot has been constructed to study thrusterless locomotion in space. This is accomplished by pushing off or landing on a large structure in a coordinated two-arm maneuver. A new control method, called system momentum control, allows the robot to follow desired momentum trajectories and thus leap or crawl from one structure to another. The robot floats on an air-cushion, simulating in two dimensions the drag-free zero-g environment of space. The control paradigm has been verified experimentally by commanding the robot to push off a bar with both arms, rotate 180 degrees, and catch itself on another bar.

  1. Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.

  2. Experimental study on two-dimensional free-flying robot satellite model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umetani, Yoji; Yoshida, Kazuya

    1989-01-01

    The experimental study on a control method for a free flying space robotic arm was treated by means of a two-dimensional laboratory model. The main target is to develop a new control method for trajectory tracking or target capturing, considering dynamical interaction between the manipulator arm and the base vehicle in space micro-gravity environment. In order to simulate the micro-gravity environment mechanically, a laboratory model of a robot satellite supported on air bearings was developed. The model comprises a base equipped with power and air supplies and a two-link manipulator arm. This model has relatively low gravitational and frictional disturbance in planar motion. An on-line resolved motion rate control scheme with vision feedback is developed for experimenting capture operations. The scheme utilizes the Generalized Jacobian Matrix. In experiment, the acceleration environment of the model is evaluated firstly, then target capture operations are examined. The manipulator can properly chase and capture both a standing target and a moving target in spite of complex satellite/manipulator dynamical interactions. The experimental results confirm the validity of the Generalized Jacobian Matrix concept and the proposed control method.

  3. Tracking and stationkeeping for free-flying robots using sliding surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, Craig R.; Akin, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors use the concept of sliding surfaces for generating two types of tracking control laws for a free-flying robot engaged in zero-gravity assembly tasks. Suction control, developed elsewhere for controlling manipulators with stationary bases, is used here to track workspace trajectories for manipulators mounted on mobile platforms. Zone control is formulated for the purpose of stationkeeping a robot maneuvering unit during payload manipulation. Experimental results are described for tests performed on an air-bearing robot tracking payload trajectories along a glass surface.

  4. Capture of free-flying payloads with flexible space manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, T.; Uenohara, M.; Iikura, S.; Miura, H.; Shimoyama, I.

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed control system for capturing free-flying payloads with flexible manipulators is discussed. Three essential points in this control system are, calculating optimal path, using a vision sensor for an external sensor, and controlling active vibration. Experimental results are shown using a planar flexible manipulator.

  5. Astrobee: Space Station Robotic Free Flyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Chris; Bualat, Maria G.; Barlow, Jonathan; Fong, Terrence W.; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest E.; Sanchez, Hugo S.

    2016-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot that will fly inside the International Space Station and primarily serve as a research platform for robotics in zero gravity. Astrobee will also provide mobile camera views to ISS flight and payload controllers, and collect various sensor data within the ISS environment for the ISS Program. Astrobee consists of two free flying robots, a dock, and ground data system. This presentation provides an overview, high level design description, and project status.

  6. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  7. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  8. Development of a low-cost free-flying telerobotic space flight vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D.; Howard, R.; Smith, J.; Graves, J.; Gefke, G.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger, a low-cost moderate-risk high-return telerobotics flight experiment, is discussed. Range incorporates two manipulators, a grappling arm, and a camera-positioning manipulator all mounted on a free-flying base with limited orbital maneuvering capability. Ranger will provide data on neutral buoyancy simulations, advanced telerobotics control and design, remote maneuvering, human factors involved in ground-based control of space telerobotics, and advanced small spacecraft technology.

  9. Adjustably Autonomous Multi-agent Plan Execution with an Internal Spacecraft Free-Flying Robot Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Nicewarner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    We present an multi-agent model-based autonomy architecture with monitoring, planning, diagnosis, and execution elements. We discuss an internal spacecraft free-flying robot prototype controlled by an implementation of this architecture and a ground test facility used for development. In addition, we discuss a simplified environment control life support system for the spacecraft domain also controlled by an implementation of this architecture. We discuss adjustable autonomy and how it applies to this architecture. We describe an interface that provides the user situation awareness of both autonomous systems and enables the user to dynamically edit the plans prior to and during execution as well as control these agents at various levels of autonomy. This interface also permits the agents to query the user or request the user to perform tasks to help achieve the commanded goals. We conclude by describing a scenario where these two agents and a human interact to cooperatively detect, diagnose and recover from a simulated spacecraft fault.

  10. Experiments in cooperative-arm object manipulation with a two-armed free-flying robot. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross

    1990-01-01

    Developing computed-torque controllers for complex manipulator systems using current techniques and tools is difficult because they address the issues pertinent to simulation, as opposed to control. A new formulation of computed-torque (CT) control that leads to an automated computer-torque robot controller program is presented. This automated tool is used for simulations and experimental demonstrations of endpoint and object control from a free-flying robot. A new computed-torque formulation states the multibody control problem in an elegant, homogeneous, and practical form. A recursive dynamics algorithm is presented that numerically evaluates kinematics and dynamics terms for multibody systems given a topological description. Manipulators may be free-flying, and may have closed-chain constraints. With the exception of object squeeze-force control, the algorithm does not deal with actuator redundancy. The algorithm is used to implement an automated 2D computed-torque dynamics and control package that allows joint, endpoint, orientation, momentum, and object squeeze-force control. This package obviates the need for hand-derivation of kinematics and dynamics, and is used for both simulation and experimental control. Endpoint control experiments are performed on a laboratory robot that has two arms to manipulate payloads, and uses an air bearing to achieve very-low drag characteristics. Simulations and experimental data for endpoint and object controllers are presented for the experimental robot - a complex dynamic system. There is a certain rather wide set of conditions under which CT endpoint controllers can neglect robot base accelerations (but not motions) and achieve comparable performance including base accelerations in the model. The regime over which this simplification holds is explored by simulation and experiment.

  11. A computer program for an analysis of the relative motion of a space station and a free flying experiment module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the relative motion of a free flying experiment module in the vicinity of a space station under the perturbative effects of drag and earth oblateness was made. A listing of a computer program developed for determining the relative motion of a module utilizing the Cowell procedure is presented, as well as instructions for its use.

  12. AERCam Autonomy: Intelligent Software Architecture for Robotic Free Flying Nanosatellite Inspection Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Duran, Steve G.; Braun, Angela N.; Straube, Timothy M.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class Free Flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spacecraft. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam Free Flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35-pound, 14-inch diameter AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, power, propulsion, and imaging subsystems, including digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations, including automatic stationkeeping, point-to-point maneuvering, and waypoint tracking. The Mini AERCam Free Flyer is accompanied by a sophisticated control station for command and control, as well as a docking system for automated deployment, docking, and recharge at a parent spacecraft. Free Flyer functional testing has been conducted successfully on both an airbearing table and in a six-degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation with avionics hardware in the loop. Mini AERCam aims to provide beneficial on-orbit views that cannot be obtained from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by crewmembers during extravehicular activities (EVA s). On Shuttle or International Space Station (ISS), for example, Mini AERCam could support external robotic operations by supplying orthogonal views to the intravehicular activity (IVA) robotic operator, supply views of EVA operations to IVA and/or ground crews monitoring the EVA, and carry out independent visual inspections of areas of interest around the spacecraft. To enable these future benefits

  13. Mini AERCam: development of a free-flying nanosatellite inspection robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Abbott, Larry W.; Duran, Steve; Jochim, J. David; Studak, J. William; Wagenknecht, Jennifer D.; Williams, Nichole M.

    2003-08-01

    The Engineering Directorate of NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spaceflight activities, including International Space Station (ISS) operations. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam free flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35 pound, 14 inch AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including two digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations including automatic stationkeeping and point-to-point maneuvering. Free-flyer testing has been conducted on an air-bearing table and in a six degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation. The orbital simulation models the three-dimensional dynamics of the free-flyer in proximity to the ISS, and produces corresponding God's eye views and simulated free-flyer camera views. A high-fidelity simulation is achieved by directly interfacing to free-flyer thruster driver signals, emulating the MEMS gyro responses in hardware, and using the "truth" state to drive a GPS signal generator connected to the free-flyer GPS receiver.

  14. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  15. Redundancy of space manipulator on free-flying vehicle and its nonholonomic path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Mukherjee, Ranjan

    1989-01-01

    The nonholonomic mechanical structure of space robots and path planning is discussed. The angular momentum conservation works as a nonholonomic constraint while the linear momentum conservation is a holonomic one. Thus, a vehicle with a 6 d.o.f. manipulator is described as a 9 variable system with 6 inputs. This implies the possibility of controlling the vehicle orientation and the joint variables of the manipulator by actuating the joint variables, but only if the trajectory is carefully planned; however, both of them cannot be controlled independently. It means that by assuming feasible-path planning, a system that consists of a vehicle and a 6 d.o.f. manipulator can be utilized as 9 d.o.f. system. Initially, the nonholonomic mechanical structure of space vehicle/manipulator system is shown. Then a path planning scheme for nonholonomic systems is proposed using Lyapunov functions.

  16. Automation and robotics for COLUMBUS: An implementation concept for the free flying laboratory (MTFF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goelz, G.; Sommer, B.

    1992-01-01

    With nearly forty percent of the funding, Germany is the main contributor to the European COLUMBUS Programme, followed by Italy, France and further ESA member states. The COLUMBUS elements are the Attached Laboratory (APM) to be permanently attached to the Space Station FREEDOM, the polar platform (PPF) and the Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF). The latter element is regarded to be of special interest for the German micro-g community. Until now the implementation of A&R Technologies has not been included as part of the system concept for the COLUMBUS laboratory modules. Yet especially for the Free Flyer, a high degree of A&R will be indispensible. An A&R system concept and implementation options for A&R are given to make the COLUMBUS labs 'intelligent' laboratories in orbit.

  17. Station-Keeping Requirements for Constellations of Free-Flying Collectors Used for Astronomical Imaging in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ronald J.

    2007-08-01

    The accuracy requirements on station-keeping for constellations of free-flying collectors that are coupled as (future) imaging arrays in space for astrophysics applications are examined. The basic imaging element of these arrays is the two-element interferometer. Accurate knowledge of two quantities is required: the ``projected baseline length,'' which is the distance between the two interferometer elements projected on the plane transverse to the line of sight to the target, and the ``optical path difference,'' which is the difference in the distances from that transverse plane to the beam combiner. Rules of thumb are determined for the typical accuracy required on these parameters. The requirement on the projected baseline length is a ``knowledge'' requirement and depends on the angular size of the targets of interest. It is generally at a level of half a meter for typical stellar targets, decreasing to perhaps a few centimeters only for the widest attainable fields of view. The requirement on the optical path difference is a ``control'' requirement and is much tighter, depending on the bandwidth of the signal. It is at a level of half a wavelength for narrow (few percent) signal bands, decreasing to ~0.2 λ for the broadest bandwidths expected to be useful. Translation of these requirements into engineering requirements on station-keeping accuracy depends on the specific details of the collector constellation geometry. Several examples are provided to guide future application of the criteria presented here. Some implications for the design of such collector constellations and for the methods used to transform the information acquired into images are discussed.

  18. Rotating-unbalanced-mass Devices for Scanning Balloon-borne Experiments, Free-flying Spacecraft, and Space Shuttle/space Station Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    A new method is presented for scanning balloon-borne experiments, free-flying spacecraft, and gimballed experiments mounted to the space shuttle or the space station. It uses rotating-unbalanced-mass (RUM) devices for generating circular, line, or raster scan patterns and an auxiliary control system for target acquisition, keeping the scan centered on the target, and producing complementary motion for raster scanning. It is ideal for applications where the only possible way to accomplish the required scan is to physically scan the entire experiment or spacecraft as in x ray and gamma ray experiments. In such cases, this new method should have advantages over prior methods in terms of either power, weight, cost, performance, stability, or a combination of these.

  19. HP-9825A HFRMP trajectory processor (#TRAJ), detailed description. [relative motion of the space shuttle orbiter and a free-flying payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindall, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The computer code for the trajectory processor (#TRAJ) of the high fidelity relative motion program is described. The #TRAJ processor is a 12-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integrator (6 degrees of freedom for each of two vehicles) which can be used to generate digital and graphical data describing the relative motion of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a free-flying cylindrical payload. A listing of the code, coding standards and conventions, detailed flow charts, and discussions of the computational logic are included.

  20. Multiple robot systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs from a presentation on multiple robot systems in space are included. Topics covered include categories of robots in space; scenarios of robot applications in space; some characteristics of robots in space; and some interesting problems and issues.

  1. Cooperative intelligent robotics in space III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 16-18, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on cooperative intelligent robotics in space discusses sensing and perception, Space Station Freedom robotics, cooperative human/intelligent robot teams, and intelligent space robotics. Attention is given to space robotics reasoning and control, ground-based space applications, intelligent space robotics architectures, free-flying orbital space robotics, and cooperative intelligent robotics in space exploration. Topics addressed include proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using coherent lasar radar, ground operation of the mobile servicing system on Space Station Freedom, teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space stations, and knowledge-based task planning for the special-purpose dextrous manipulator. Also discussed are dimensions of complexity in learning from interactive instruction, an overview of the dynamic predictive architecture for robotic assistants, recent developments at the Goddard engineering testbed, and parallel fault-tolerant robot control.

  2. Control of intelligent robots in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, E.; Buehler, CH.

    1989-01-01

    In view of space activities like International Space Station, Man-Tended-Free-Flyer (MTFF) and free flying platforms, the development of intelligent robotic systems is gaining increasing importance. The range of applications that have to be performed by robotic systems in space includes e.g., the execution of experiments in space laboratories, the service and maintenance of satellites and flying platforms, the support of automatic production processes or the assembly of large network structures. Some of these tasks will require the development of bi-armed or of multiple robotic systems including functional redundancy. For the development of robotic systems which are able to perform this variety of tasks a hierarchically structured modular concept of automation is required. This concept is characterized by high flexibility as well as by automatic specialization to the particular sequence of tasks that have to be performed. On the other hand it has to be designed such that the human operator can influence or guide the system on different levels of control supervision, and decision. This leads to requirements for the hardware and software concept which permit a range of application of the robotic systems from telemanipulation to autonomous operation. The realization of this goal requires strong efforts in the development of new methods, software and hardware concepts, and the integration into an automation concept.

  3. Space Technology Game Changing Development Astrobee: ISS Robotic Free Flyer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Astrobee will be a free-flying robot that can be remotely operated by astronauts in space or by mission controllers on the ground. NASA is developing Astrobee to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station. These IVA tasks include interior environmental surveys (e.g., sound level measurement), inventory and mobile camera work. Astrobee will also serve as a platform for robotics research in microgravity. Here we describe the Astrobee project objectives, concept of operations, development approach, key challenges, and initial design.

  4. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  5. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  6. Logistics and operations integration requirements to support Space Station servicing of free flying spacecraft - OMV flight operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Mcgeehan, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    The logistics of OMV free-flyer servicing are examined, with emphasis on integrating the OMV operations into the overall STS-Space Station system. The depletion rate of consumables and lifetimes of free-flyer components are known quantities, which permits definition of a predictable maintenance schedule. Servicing with an OMV will depend on the position and capabilities of the OMV, Shuttle and Station when free-flyer maintenance is needed. Optimized orbital servicing of free-flyers will involve coordination of and resolution of schedule conflicts among STS, the OMV and the Station. The scheduled availability of any of the three components will be predicted in terms of probabilities that any one of the components will not be needed for another mission while performing the mission they are on.

  7. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  8. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  9. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  10. A Space Station robot walker and its shared control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Yangsheng; Brown, Ben; Aoki, Shigeru; Yoshida, Tetsuji

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we first briefly overview the update of the self-mobile space manipulator (SMSM) configuration and testbed. The new robot is capable of projecting cameras anywhere interior or exterior of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and will be an ideal tool for inspecting connectors, structures, and other facilities on SSF. Experiments have been performed under two gravity compensation systems and a full-scale model of a segment of SSF. This paper presents a real-time shared control architecture that enables the robot to coordinate autonomous locomotion and teleoperation input for reliable walking on SSF. Autonomous locomotion can be executed based on a CAD model and off-line trajectory planning, or can be guided by a vision system with neural network identification. Teleoperation control can be specified by a real-time graphical interface and a free-flying hand controller. SMSM will be a valuable assistant for astronauts in inspection and other EVA missions.

  11. Robot Serviced Space Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A robot serviced space facility includes multiple modules which are identical in physical structure, but selectively differing in function. and purpose. Each module includes multiple like attachment points which are identically placed on each module so as to permit interconnection with immediately adjacent modules. Connection is made through like outwardly extending flange assemblies having identical male and female configurations for interconnecting to and locking to a complementary side of another flange. Multiple rows of interconnected modules permit force, fluid, data and power transfer to be accomplished by redundant circuit paths. Redundant modules of critical subsystems are included. Redundancy of modules and of interconnections results in a space complex with any module being removable upon demand, either for module replacement or facility reconfiguration. without eliminating any vital functions of the complex. Module replacement and facility assembly or reconfiguration are accomplished by a computer controlled articulated walker type robotic manipulator arm assembly having two identical end-effectors in the form of male configurations which are identical to those on module flanges and which interconnect to female configurations on other flanges. The robotic arm assembly moves along a connected set or modules by successively disconnecting, moving and reconnecting alternate ends of itself to a succession of flanges in a walking type maneuver. To transport a module, the robot keeps the transported module attached to one of its end-effectors and uses another flange male configuration of the attached module as a substitute end-effector during walking.

  12. Innovative Robot Archetypes for In-Space Construction and Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Ambrose, Robert O.; Kennedy, Brett; Diftler, Myron; Mehling, Joshua; Bridgwater, Lyndon; Radford, Nicolaus; Goza, S. Michael; Culbert, Christopher

    2005-02-01

    The space environment presents unique challenges and opportunities in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of orbital and transit spaceflight systems. While conventional Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) technology, out of necessity, addresses each of the challenges, relatively few of the opportunities have been exploited due to crew safety and reliability considerations. Extra-Vehicular Robotics (EVR) is one of the least-explored design spaces but offers many exciting innovations transcending the crane-like Space Shuttle and International Space Station Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robots used for berthing, coarse positioning and stabilization. Microgravity environments can support new robotic archetypes with locomotion and manipulation capabilities analogous to undersea creatures. Such diversification could enable the next generation of space science platforms and vehicles that are too large and fragile to launch and deploy as self-contained payloads. Sinuous manipulators for minimally invasive inspection and repair in confined spaces, soft-stepping climbers with expansive leg reach envelopes and free-flying nanosatellite cameras can access EVA worksites generally not accessible to humans in spacesuits. These and other novel robotic archetypes are presented along with functionality concepts.

  13. Innovative Robot Archetypes for In-Space Construction and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Ambrose, Robert O.; Kennedy, Brett; Diftler, Myron; Mehling Joshua; Brigwater, Lyndon; Radford, Nicolaus; Goza, S. Michael; Culbert, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The space environment presents unique challenges and opportunities in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of orbital and transit spaceflight systems. While conventional Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) technology, out of necessity, addresses each of the challenges, relatively few of the opportunities have been exploited due to crew safety and reliability considerations. Extra-Vehicular Robotics (EVR) is one of the least-explored design spaces but offers many exciting innovations transcending the crane-like Space Shuttle and International Space Station Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robots used for berthing, coarse positioning and stabilization. Microgravity environments can support new robotic archetypes with locomotion and manipulation capabilities analogous to undersea creatures. Such diversification could enable the next generation of space science platforms and vehicles that are too large and fragile to launch and deploy as self-contained payloads. Sinuous manipulators for minimally invasive inspection and repair in confined spaces, soft-stepping climbers with expansive leg reach envelopes and free-flying nanosatellite cameras can access EVA worksites generally not accessible to humans in spacesuits. These and other novel robotic archetypes are presented along with functionality concepts

  14. NASA Robotics for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, RIchard T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

  15. SDIO robotics in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Robotics in space supporting the Strategic Defense System (SDS) program is discussed. Ongoing initiatives which are intended to establish an initial Robotics in Space capability are addressed. This is specifically being referred to as the Satellite Servicing System (SSS). This system is based on the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) with a Robotic Manipulator(s) based on the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and other SSS equipment required to do the satellite servicing work attached to the OMV. Specific Robotics in Space Requirements which have resulted from the completion of the Robotics Requirements Study Contract are addressed.

  16. Space Station robotics planning tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Bridget Mintz

    1992-01-01

    The concepts are described for the set of advanced Space Station Freedom (SSF) robotics planning tools for use in the Space Station Control Center (SSCC). It is also shown how planning for SSF robotics operations is an international process, and baseline concepts are indicated for that process. Current SRMS methods provide the backdrop for this SSF theater of multiple robots, long operating time-space, advanced tools, and international cooperation.

  17. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  18. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  19. Robotic space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.

  20. Experimental validation of docking and capture using space robotics testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spofford, John; Schmitz, Eric; Hoff, William

    1991-01-01

    This presentation describes the application of robotic and computer vision systems to validate docking and capture operations for space cargo transfer vehicles. Three applications are discussed: (1) air bearing systems in two dimensions that yield high quality free-flying, flexible, and contact dynamics; (2) validation of docking mechanisms with misalignment and target dynamics; and (3) computer vision technology for target location and real-time tracking. All the testbeds are supported by a network of engineering workstations for dynamic and controls analyses. Dynamic simulation of multibody rigid and elastic systems are performed with the TREETOPS code. MATRIXx/System-Build and PRO-MATLAB/Simulab are the tools for control design and analysis using classical and modern techniques such as H-infinity and LQG/LTR. SANDY is a general design tool to optimize numerically a multivariable robust compensator with a user-defined structure. Mathematica and Macsyma are used to derive symbolically dynamic and kinematic equations.

  1. Object-based task-level control: A hierarchical control architecture for remote operation of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, H. D.; Miles, E. S.; Rock, S. J.; Cannon, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Expanding man's presence in space requires capable, dexterous robots capable of being controlled from the Earth. Traditional 'hand-in-glove' control paradigms require the human operator to directly control virtually every aspect of the robot's operation. While the human provides excellent judgment and perception, human interaction is limited by low bandwidth, delayed communications. These delays make 'hand-in-glove' operation from Earth impractical. In order to alleviate many of the problems inherent to remote operation, Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed the Object-Based Task-Level Control architecture. Object-Based Task-Level Control (OBTLC) removes the burden of teleoperation from the human operator and enables execution of tasks not possible with current techniques. OBTLC is a hierarchical approach to control where the human operator is able to specify high-level, object-related tasks through an intuitive graphical user interface. Infrequent task-level command replace constant joystick operations, eliminating communications bandwidth and time delay problems. The details of robot control and task execution are handled entirely by the robot and computer control system. The ARL has implemented the OBTLC architecture on a set of Free-Flying Space Robots. The capability of the OBTLC architecture has been demonstrated by controlling the ARL Free-Flying Space Robots from NASA Ames Research Center.

  2. i-SAIRAS '90; Proceedings of the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space, Kobe, Japan, Nov. 18-20, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and automation in space encompasses robot systems, lunar and planetary robots, advanced processing, expert systems, knowledge bases, issues of operation and management, manipulator control, and on-orbit service. Specific issues addressed include fundamental research in AI at NASA, the FTS dexterous telerobot, a target-capture experiment by a free-flying robot, the NASA Planetary Rover Program, the Katydid system for compiling KEE applications to Ada, and speech recognition for robots. Also addressed are a knowledge base for real-time diagnosis, a pilot-in-the-loop simulation of an orbital docking maneuver, intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization, a fuzzy control method for a space manipulator system, hyperredundant manipulator applications, robotic servicing of EOS instruments, and a summary of astronaut inputs on automation and robotics for the Space Station Freedom.

  3. 'Smart SPHERES' Fly High Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 12 engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., and Johnson Space Center in Houston conducted an experiment using small, free-flying robotic satellites called "Smart SPH...

  4. Space robotics--DLR's telerobotic concepts, lightweight arms and articulated hands.

    PubMed

    Hirzinger, G; Brunner, B; Landzettel, K; Sporer, N; Butterfass, J; Schedl, M

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly outlines DLR's experience with real space robot missions (ROTEX and ETS VII). It then discusses forthcoming projects, e.g., free-flying systems in low or geostationary orbit and robot systems around the space station ISS, where the telerobotic system MARCO might represent a common baseline. Finally it describes our efforts in developing a new generation of "mechatronic" ultra-light weight arms with multifingered hands. The third arm generation is operable now (approaching present-day technical limits). In a similar way DLR's four-fingered hand II was a big step towards higher reliability and yet better performance. Artificial robonauts for space are a central goal now for the Europeans as well as for NASA, and the first verification tests of DLR's joint components are supposed to fly already end of 93 on the space station. PMID:12703511

  5. Experiments in thrusterless robot locomotion control for space applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, Warren Joseph

    1990-01-01

    While performing complex assembly tasks or moving about in space, a space robot should minimize the amount of propellant consumed. A study is presented of space robot locomotion and orientation without the use of thrusters. The goal was to design a robot control paradigm that will perform thrusterless locomotion between two points on a structure, and to implement this paradigm on an experimental robot. A two arm free flying robot was constructed which floats on a cushion of air to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero-g environment of space. The robot can impart momentum to itself by pushing off from an external structure in a coordinated two arm maneuver, and can then reorient itself by activating a momentum wheel. The controller design consists of two parts: a high level strategic controller and a low level dynamic controller. The control paradigm was verified experimentally by commanding the robot to push off from a structure with both arms, rotate 180 degs while translating freely, and then to catch itself on another structure. This method, based on the computed torque, provides a linear feedback law in momentum and its derivatives for a system of rigid bodies.

  6. NASA's first dexterous space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Harry G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is developing the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS), a robotic device that can be teleoperated under constant command of a human operator or run by itself under human supervision. Plans call for the FTS to assist the astronauts in the assembly, maintenance, servicing, and inspection of Space Station Freedom. The FTS project is driven by five major objectives: to reduce Space Station dependence on crew EVA, improve crew safety, enhance crew utilization, promote remote servicing capabilities for platforms, and accelerate technology transfer from research to U.S. industry. Another part of the FTS project is a ground system that will support operations and system evolution. Not only will the FTS provide a needed operational capability during the assembly and operation of Space Station Freedom, it will also provide an expanding foundation for proving more advanced robotic and telepresence concepts in space.

  7. Robotic space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixon, Randolph W.; Hankins, Walter W., III; Wise, Marion A.

    1988-01-01

    Research at Langley AFB concerning automated space assembly is reviewed, including a Space Shuttle experiment to test astronaut ability to assemble a repetitive truss structure, testing the use of teleoperated manipulators to construct the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures I truss, and assessment of the basic characteristics of manipulator assembly operations. Other research topics include the simultaneous coordinated control of dual-arm manipulators and the automated assembly of candidate Space Station trusses. Consideration is given to the construction of an Automated Space Assembly Laboratory to study and develop the algorithms, procedures, special purpose hardware, and processes needed for automated truss assembly.

  8. Space robotics in the '90s.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, C F

    1989-08-01

    This article describes the use of robots to perform work in space. In particular, telerobotics, which uses human operators to control the movement and operation of the robots, are explored. The relationship between the human operator and the robot is very complex but these systems are being used to explore planetary surfaces and will also be used in the construction of the space station. Research being conducted at NASA facilities is described, providing a picture of the future of space robotics. PMID:11540489

  9. Design Of Robots For Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roston, Gerald P.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses design of robots for use in zero gravity and vacuum, with attention to differences between requirements imposed on designs by outer space and by terrestrial applications. Terrestrial robots designed for multiple purposes and for minimal cost. Outer-space robots designed specialized to one task where cost has relatively low priority. Design optimal in one environment unlikely optimal in another.

  10. The UK Space & Planetary Robotics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Barnes, D.; Buckland, R.; Welch, C.; Garry, J.; Zarnecki, J.; Gebbie, J.; Green, A.; Smith, M.; Hall, D.; McInnes, C.; Winfield, A.; Nehmzhow, U.; Ball, A.

    A number of academic engineering research groups around the UK have become increasingly interested in the applications of robotics or robotics techniques to solving problems in space engineering. Although these groups have sprung up independently and have worked in essentially independent areas, they are seeking to form themselves into a network offering a diverse range of expertise within the UK with the capability of developing complete space robotic systems. Space robotics is an area in which the UK has dabbled in the past, but for the first time, the UK offers a solid base of expertise in mobile robotics and associated space engineering which would enable the UK to contribute to European space robotics projects funded by ESA and/ or national agencies. To that end, following the inaugural meeting of the Space & Planetary Robotics Network, an extended group of interested parties will be putting forward an application to EPSRC for Network funding.

  11. Advances in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varsi, Giulio

    1989-01-01

    The problem of the remote control of space operations is addressed by identifying the key technical challenge: the management of contact forces and the principal performance parameters. Three principal classes of devices for remote operation are identified: anthropomorphic exoskeletons, computer aided teleoperators, and supervised telerobots. Their fields of application are described, and areas in which progress has reached the level of system or subsystem laboratory demonstrations are indicated. Key test results, indicating performance at a level useful for design tradeoffs, are reported.

  12. The next decade of space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, Dave; Weisbin, Charles

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000.

  13. Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

  14. New luster for space robots and automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the potential role of robotics and automation in space transportation systems. Automation development requirements are defined for projects in space exploration, global services, space utilization, and space transport. In each category the potential automation of ground operations, on-board spacecraft operations, and in-space handling is noted. The major developments of space robot technology are noted for the 1967-1978 period. Economic aspects of ground-operation, ground command, and mission operations are noted.

  15. Robotics in near-earth space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The areas of space exploration in which robotic devices will play a part are identified, and progress to date in the space agency plans to acquire this capability is briefly reviewed. Roles and functions on orbit for robotic devices include well known activities, such as inspection and maintenance, assembly, docking, berthing, deployment, retrieval, materials handling, orbital replacement unit exchange, and repairs. Missions that could benefit from a robotic capability are discussed.

  16. Envisioning Cognitive Robots for Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stoica, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive robots in the context of space exploration are envisioned with advanced capabilities of model building, continuous planning/re-planning, self-diagnosis, as well as the ability to exhibit a level of 'understanding' of new situations. An overview of some JPL components (e.g. CASPER, CAMPOUT) and a description of the architecture CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) that combines these in the context of a cognitive robotic system operating in a various scenarios are presented. Finally, two examples of typical scenarios of a multi-robot construction mission and a human-robot mission, involving direct collaboration with humans is given.

  17. A perspective on space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

  18. Robotics in space-age manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Robotics technologies are developed to improve manufacturing of space hardware. The following applications of robotics are covered: (1) welding for the space shuttle and space station Freedom programs; (2) manipulation of high-pressure water for shuttle solid rocket booster refurbishment; (3) automating the application of insulation materials; (4) precision application of sealants; and (5) automation of inspection procedures. Commercial robots are used for these development programs, but they are teamed with advanced sensors, process controls, and computer simulation to form highly productive manufacturing systems. Many of the technologies are also being actively pursued in private sector manufacturing operations.

  19. Space environment robot vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John; Eichhorn, William L.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype twin-camera stereo vision system for autonomous robots has been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. Standard charge coupled device (CCD) imagers are interfaced with commercial frame buffers and direct memory access to a computer. The overlapping portions of the images are analyzed using photogrammetric techniques to obtain information about the position and orientation of objects in the scene. The camera head consists of two 510 x 492 x 8-bit CCD cameras mounted on individually adjustable mounts. The 16 mm efl lenses are designed for minimum geometric distortion. The cameras can be rotated in the pitch, roll, and yaw (pan angle) directions with respect to their optical axes. Calibration routines have been developed which automatically determine the lens focal lengths and pan angle between the two cameras. The calibration utilizes observations of a calibration structure with known geometry. Test results show the precision attainable is plus or minus 0.8 mm in range at 2 m distance using a camera separation of 171 mm. To demonstrate a task needed on Space Station Freedom, a target structure with a movable I beam was built. The camera head can autonomously direct actuators to dock the I-beam to another one so that they could be bolted together.

  20. Space robotics programs at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Existing robotic rover and space satellite technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), coupled with existing launch vehicles and converted military Multiple Independent Reentry Vehicle (MIRV) technologies, can be applied towards the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. SNL's Advanced Vehicle Development Department has been designing, producing, and operating prototype rover systems at the Robotic Vehicle Range facility since 1984, and has extensive experience with teleoperated and semiautonomous mobile robotic systems. SNL's Space Systems Directorate has been designing, producing, and operating satellite systems and subsystems in earth orbit for national security missions since the early 1960's. The facilities and robotic vehicle fleet at SNL's Robotic Vehicle Range (SNL-RVR) have been used to support technology base development in applications ranging from DoD battlefield and security missions, to multi-agency nuclear emergency response team exercises and the development of a prototype robotic rover for planetary exploration. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR include the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) prototype development program, exploratory studies on a Near Term Lunar Return Mission scenario for small robotic rovers based on existing space hardware technology, and demonstrations of the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low data rate teleoperation, multi-vehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, and standard bandwidth stereo vision. The paper describes Sandia National Laboratories' activities in the Space Robotics area, and highlights the laboratory's supporting technical capabilities.

  1. Space robotics programs at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Existing robotic rover and space satellite technologies at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), coupled with existing launch vehicles and converted military Multiple Independent Reentry Vehicle (MIRV) technologies, can be applied towards the realization of a robotic lunar rover mission in the near term. SNL`s Advanced Vehicle Development Department has been designing, producing, and operating prototype rover systems at the Robotic Vehicle Range facility since 1984, and has extensive experience with teleoperated and semiautonomous mobile robotic systems. SNL`s Space Systems Directorate has been designing, producing, and operating satellite systems and subsystems in earth orbit for national security missions since the early 1960`s. The facilities and robotic vehicle fleet at SNL`s Robotic Vehicle Range (SNL-RVR) have been used to support technology base development in applications ranging from DoD battlefield and security missions, to multi-agency nuclear emergency response team exercises and the development of a prototype robotic rover for planetary exploration. Recent activities at the SNL-RVR include the Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) prototype development program, exploratory studies on a Near Term Lunar Return Mission scenario for small robotic rovers based on existing space hardware technology, and demonstrations of the utility of existing rover technologies for performing remote field geology tasks similar to those envisioned on a robotic lunar rover mission. Specific technologies demonstrated include low data rate teleoperation, multi-vehicle control, remote site and sample inspection, and standard bandwidth stereo vision. The paper describes Sandia National Laboratories` activities in the Space Robotics area, and highlights the laboratory`s supporting technical capabilities.

  2. Supervised space robots are needed in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    High level systems engineering models were developed to simulate and analyze the types, numbers, and roles of intelligent systems, including supervised autonomous robots, which will be required to support human space exploration. Conventional and intelligent systems were compared for two missions: (1) a 20-year option 5A space exploration; and (2) the First Lunar Outpost (FLO). These studies indicate that use of supervised intelligent systems on planet surfaces will 'enable' human space exploration. The author points out that space robotics can be considered a form of the emerging technology of field robotics and solutions to many space applications will apply to problems relative to operating in Earth-based hazardous environments.

  3. Selected topics in robotics for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C. (Editor); Kaufman, Howard (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers and abstracts included represent both formal presentations and experimental demonstrations at the Workshop on Selected Topics in Robotics for Space Exploration which took place at NASA Langley Research Center, 17-18 March 1993. The workshop was cosponsored by the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee of the NASA Langley Research Center and the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) at RPI, Troy, NY. Participation was from industry, government, and other universities with close ties to either Langley Research Center or to CIRSSE. The presentations were very broad in scope with attention given to space assembly, space exploration, flexible structure control, and telerobotics.

  4. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

  5. Challenges of In Space Robotic Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    As future space missions extend beyond the friendly confines of low earth orbit, robots are becoming an increasingly vital component on flight manifests. While the main focus to-date has been on satellite servicing due to its high commercial potential, robots are also being considered for orbital debris removal, space construction, and asteroid sample retrieval. The robotic technologies and automation required to carry out these missions represent a significant advancement beyond the manipulation technology used previously on the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and planetary rovers. While higher demands are being driven by the more ambitious nature of the tasks, the handling of uncooperative targets such as satellites and asteroids, present a greater challenge.

  6. Free-Flying Magnetometer Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B.; Javadi, H.; Spencer, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) is an autonomous "sensorcraft" developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Enstrophy sounding rocket mission. This mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University and JPL. The science goal of the mission was the study of current filamentation phenomena in the northern auroral region through multipoint measurements of magnetic field. The technical objective of the mission was the proof of concept of the JPL FFM design and the demonstration of an in-situ multipoint measurement technique employing many free-flying spacecraft. Four FFMs were successfully deployed from a sounding rocket launched from Poker Flats, Alaska on February 11, 1999. These hockey-puck-sized (80 mm diameter, 38 mm. height, 250 gram mass) free flyers each carry a miniature 3-axis flux-gate magnetometer that output +/- 2 V signals corresponding to a +/- 60,000 nT measurement range for each axis. The FFM uses a synchronized four-channel Sigma(Delta) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) having a dynamic range of +/- 2.5V and converting at a rate of 279 samples/second/channel. Three channels are used to digitize the magnetometer signals to 17-bit (1.144 nT/bit) resolution. The fourth ADC channel is multiplexed for system monitoring of four temperature sensors and two battery voltages. The FFM also contains two sun sensors, a laser diode which emits a fan-shaped beam, a miniature S-band transmitter for direct communication to the ground station antennas, an ultra-stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, an integrated data subsystem implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), a 4 Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for data storage and Lithium Thionyl Chloride batteries for power. Communicating commands to the FFM prior to deployment is achieved with an infrared (IR) link. The FFM IR receiver responds to 9-bit pulse coded signals that are generated by an IR Light Emitting

  7. NASA's robotic servicing role for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L.; Goss, R.; Spencer, R.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to evaluations of the relative impacts on and benefits to the Space Station Program of various levels of robotics devices for space servicing operations. The leading robotic candidate concept for the IOC Space Station, the Smart Front End, uses a small, stiff and highly dexterous work effector controlled by a human-in-the-loop from a remote control station. This configuration offers both a quality multifunctional performance capability at the work site as well as technology transparency through the ground teleoperation control mode.

  8. The State-of-the-art in Space Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Pontuschka, Maurício N.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the space robotics and associate space applications. An overview of the space era and the robotic space probes is presented to contextualize the space robotics in the space exploration scenario. Concepts, classification and key-questions associated with robotics for space applications are presented and discussed. Safety-critical aspects of the space robotics are discussed as well the human limitation to operate in the hostile space environment and long time duration missions. The paper also focuses on the state-of-the- art of robotics for the International Space Station EVA operations, for the planetary exploration such as the ongoing Mars exploration, Hayabusa rendezvous and landing in asteroids and the robotic probe Rosetta landed in a comet recently. The paper also includes a discussion of the applications of new concepts like the robonauts, the space tugs applications and robots for future planetary exploration.

  9. ESA successfully conducts experiment in Advanced Space Robotics on Japanese satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    performed even without the artificial markers which are typically used to guide telemanipulation. This is an important capability for robotically servicing "non-cooperative" targets. The success of these experiments is an important step towards the development of a number of ESA space robot systems which will be launched and installed on the International Space Station in the next few years. Looking beyond the ISS, the functional demonstration of satellite capture by robotic means could also inspire novel applications for space robotics on free-flying servicing vehicles. Development work for the ESA experiments was funded by Belgium under the ESA Technology Demonstration Programme (TDP) and the ESA General Support Technology Programme (GSTP). After competitive tendering, the contract was awarded to a team led by TRASYS Space and including as sub-contractors SAS and two institutes at the Catholic University (KUL) in Louvain, Belgium. ETS-VII was launched in November 1997. It operates in a circular orbit at an altitude of 550 km and is controlled from the Tsukuba Space Centre via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. In the course of 1998, NASDA successfully performed a range of experiments in space robotics and rendez-vous and docking. In an effort to strengthen international cooperation NASDA offered ESA an opportunity to participate in the ETS-VII experiments. ESA responded positively with several proposals and in 1997 an ESA/NASDA Memorandum of Understanding was concluded concerning the joint robot experiment. Information on this and the other experiments on ETS-VII can be viewed on http://oss1.tksc.nasda.go.jp/ets-7index_e.html More information on ESA at http://www.esa.int

  10. Space searches with a quantum robot

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    2000-02-15

    Quantum robots are described as mobile quantum computers and ancillary systems that move in and interact with arbitrary environments. Their dynamics is given as tasks which consist of sequences of alternating computation and action phases. A task example is considered in which a quantum robot searches a space region to find the location of a system. The possibility that the search can be more efficient than a classical search is examined by considering use of Grover's Algorithm to process the search results. This is problematic for two reasons. One is the removal of entanglements generated by the (reversible) search process. The other is that (ignoring the entanglement problem), the search process in 2 dimensional space regions is no more efficient than a classical search. However quantum searches of higher dimensional space regions are more efficient than classical searches. Reasons why quantum robots are interesting independent of these results are briefly summarized.

  11. Smart SPHERES: A Telerobotic Free-Flyer for Intravehicular Activities in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Micire, Mark J.; Morse, Ted; Park, Eric; Provencher, Chris; To, Vinh; Wheeler, D. W.; Mittman, David; Torres, R. Jay; Smith, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Smart SPHERES is a prototype free-flying space robot based on the SPHERES platform. Smart SPHERES can be remotely operated by astronauts inside a spacecraft, or by mission controllers on the ground. We developed Smart SPHERES to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station (ISS). These IVA tasks include environmental monitoring surveys (radiation, sound levels, etc.), inventory, and mobile camera work. In this paper, we first discuss the motivation for free-flying space robots. We then describe the development of the Smart SPHERES prototype, including avionics, software, and data communications. Finally, we present results of initial flight tests on-board the ISS.

  12. Smart SPHERES: A Telerobotic Free-Flyer for Intravehicular Activities in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Micire, Mark J.; Morse, Ted; Park, Eric; Provencher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Smart SPHERES is a prototype free-flying space robot based on the SPHERES platform. Smart SPHERES can be remotely operated by astronauts inside a spacecraft, or by mission controllers on the ground. We developed Smart SPHERES to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station (ISS). These IVA tasks include environmental monitoring surveys (radiation, sound levels, etc.), inventory, and mobile camera work. In this paper, we first discuss the motivation for free- flying space robots. We then describe the development of the Smart SPHERES prototype, including avionics, software, and data communications. Finally, we present results of initial flight tests on-board the ISS.

  13. Proposal of a Tethered Space Walking Robot - REX-J: Robot Experiment on JEM -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Mitsushige; Sawada, Hirotaka; Yoshi, Masahiro; Konoue, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Ueno, Taihei

    A unique space robot is proposed to support astronauts' EVA work. The robot moves around the surface of a space facility, e.g. a space station. Usefulness of the proposed robot system will be tested in 2012 on the International Space Station Japanese Experiment Module.

  14. Dynamics modelling and Hybrid Suppression Control of space robots performing cooperative object manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshan, P.; Moosavian, S. Ali A.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics modelling and control of multi-body space robotic systems composed of rigid and flexible elements is elaborated here. Control of such systems is highly complicated due to severe under-actuated condition caused by flexible elements, and an inherent uneven nonlinear dynamics. Therefore, developing a compact dynamics model with the requirement of limited computations is extremely useful for controller design, also to develop simulation studies in support of design improvement, and finally for practical implementations. In this paper, the Rigid-Flexible Interactive dynamics Modelling (RFIM) approach is introduced as a combination of Lagrange and Newton-Euler methods, in which the motion equations of rigid and flexible members are separately developed in an explicit closed form. These equations are then assembled and solved simultaneously at each time step by considering the mutual interaction and constraint forces. The proposed approach yields a compact model rather than common accumulation approach that leads to a massive set of equations in which the dynamics of flexible elements is united with the dynamics equations of rigid members. To reveal such merits of this new approach, a Hybrid Suppression Control (HSC) for a cooperative object manipulation task will be proposed, and applied to usual space systems. A Wheeled Mobile Robotic (WMR) system with flexible appendages as a typical space rover is considered which contains a rigid main body equipped with two manipulating arms and two flexible solar panels, and next a Space Free Flying Robotic system (SFFR) with flexible members is studied. Modelling verification of these complicated systems is vigorously performed using ANSYS and ADAMS programs, while the limited computations of RFIM approach provides an efficient tool for the proposed controller design. Furthermore, it will be shown that the vibrations of the flexible solar panels results in disturbing forces on the base which may produce undesirable errors

  15. Maneuvering and control of flexible space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meirovitch, Leonard; Lim, Seungchul

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a flexible space robot capable of maneuvering payloads. The robot is assumed to consist of two hinge-connected flexible arms and a rigid end-effector holding a payload; the robot is mounted on a rigid platform floating in space. The equations of motion are nonlinear and of high order. Based on the assumption that the maneuvering motions are one order of magnitude larger than the elastic vibrations, a perturbation approach permits design of controls for the two types of motion separately. The rigid-body maneuvering is carried out open loop, but the elastic motions are controlled closed loop, by means of discrete-time linear quadratic regulator theory with prescribed degree of stability. A numerical example demonstrates the approach. In the example, the controls derived by the perturbation approach are applied to the original nonlinear system and errors are found to be relatively small.

  16. Adaptive control of space based robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Michael W.; Wee, Liang-Boon

    1991-01-01

    For space based robots in which the base is free to move, motion planning and control is complicated by uncertainties in the inertial properties of the manipulator and its load. A new adaptive control method is presented for space based robots which achieves globally stable trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties in the inertial parameters of the system. A partition is made of the fifteen degree of freedom system dynamics into two parts: a nine degree of freedom invertible portion and a six degree of freedom noninvertible portion. The controller is then designed to achieve trajectory tracking of the invertible portion of the system. This portion consist of the manipulator joint positions and the orientation of the base. The motion of the noninvertible portion is bounded, but unpredictable. This portion consist of the position of the robot's base and the position of the reaction wheel.

  17. Needs for supervised space robots in space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1992-01-01

    The areas of application for space robots in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are examined by reviewing the roles of SEI supervised robots particularly with planet-surface systems (PSSs). Treatment is given to both teleoperated conventional robot systems and autonomous intelligent systems for comparison in terms of safety, reliability, and productivity. Two development stages are proposed including one with a robotic actor, human observer, and a human supervisor and a second in which a closed-loop control and monitoring system is established. The use of remote control is shown to require robustness, self-calibration and -diagnosis, adjustable autonomy, and multitask capability. The requirements of intelligent control are also listed so that the PSSs of the SEI can be used to enable surface exploration, local-resource utilization potential, and reductions of human tasks.

  18. Space environments and their effects on space automation and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.

    1990-01-01

    Automated and robotic systems will be exposed to a variety of environmental anomalies as a result of adverse interactions with the space environment. As an example, the coupling of electrical transients into control systems, due to EMI from plasma interactions and solar array arcing, may cause spurious commands that could be difficult to detect and correct in time to prevent damage during critical operations. Spacecraft glow and space debris could introduce false imaging information into optical sensor systems. The presentation provides a brief overview of the primary environments (plasma, neutral atmosphere, magnetic and electric fields, and solid particulates) that cause such adverse interactions. The descriptions, while brief, are intended to provide a basis for the other papers presented at this conference which detail the key interactions with automated and robotic systems. Given the growing complexity and sensitivity of automated and robotic space systems, an understanding of adverse space environments will be crucial to mitigating their effects.

  19. Space robotic experiment in JEM flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagatomo, Masanori; Tanaka, Masaki; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Tsuda, Shinichi

    1994-01-01

    Japan is collaborating on the multinational space station program. The JEM, Japanese Experiment Module, has both a pressurized module and an Exposed Facility (EF). JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) will play a dominant role in handling/servicing payloads and the maintenance of the EF, and consists of two robotic arms, a main arm and a small fine arm. JEM Flight Demonstration (JFD) is a space robotics experiment using the prototype small fine arm to demonstrate its capability, prior to the Space Station operation. The small fine arm will be installed in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and operated by a crew from a dedicated workstation in the Aft Flight Deck of the orbiter.

  20. Artificial intelligence - NASA. [robotics for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents a vital common space support element needed to enable the civil space program and commercial space program to perform their missions successfully. It is pointed out that advances in AI stimulated by the Space Station Program could benefit the U.S. in many ways. A fundamental challenge for the civil space program is to meet the needs of the customers and users of space with facilities enabling maximum productivity and having low start-up costs, and low annual operating costs. An effective way to meet this challenge may involve a man-machine system in which artificial intelligence, robotics, and advanced automation are integrated into high reliability organizations. Attention is given to the benefits, NASA strategy for AI, candidate space station systems, the Space Station as a stepping stone, and the commercialization of space.

  1. Future needs for space robots for SEI. [Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.; Price, Charles R.; Cooke, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    High level systems engineering modeling and analysis activities for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, with emphasis on planet surface systems. Particular attention is given to SEI studies, preliminary space robotic system requirements, and usefulness of space robotic systems developed to operate on planetary surfaces on earth. It is concluded that supervised intelligent systems on the planet surfaces are necessary to make SEI planet surface activities reliable and productive and encompass capabilities for control and monitoring of all elements, including supervised autonomous robotic systems. Amplification of human capabilities due to applying more knowledge and reasoning in more flexible and appropriate ways than conventional automation approaches will provide more robust performance, greater choice of interaction modes with operators, and greater transparency of operation.

  2. The sixth generation robot in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butcher, A.; Das, A.; Reddy, Y. V.; Singh, H.

    1990-01-01

    The knowledge based simulator developed in the artificial intelligence laboratory has become a working test bed for experimenting with intelligent reasoning architectures. With this simulator, recently, small experiments have been done with an aim to simulate robot behavior to avoid colliding paths. An automatic extension of such experiments to intelligently planning robots in space demands advanced reasoning architectures. One such architecture for general purpose problem solving is explored. The robot, seen as a knowledge base machine, goes via predesigned abstraction mechanism for problem understanding and response generation. The three phases in one such abstraction scheme are: abstraction for representation, abstraction for evaluation, and abstraction for resolution. Such abstractions require multimodality. This multimodality requires the use of intensional variables to deal with beliefs in the system. Abstraction mechanisms help in synthesizing possible propagating lattices for such beliefs. The machine controller enters into a sixth generation paradigm.

  3. Key technology issues for space robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, Roger T.

    1987-01-01

    Robotics has become a key technology consideration for the Space Station project to enable enhanced crew productivity and to maximize safety. There are many robotic functions currently being studied, including Space Station assembly, repair, and maintenance as well as satellite refurbishment, repair, and retrieval. Another area of concern is that of providing ground based experimenters with a natural interface that they might directly interact with their hardware onboard the Space Station or ancillary spacecraft. The state of the technology is such that the above functions are feasible; however, considerable development work is required for operation in this gravity-free vacuum environment. Furthermore, a program plan is evolving within NASA that will capitalize on recent government, university, and industrial robotics research and development (R and D) accomplishments. A brief summary is presented of the primary technology issues and physical examples are provided of the state of the technology for the initial operational capability (IOC) system as well as for the eventual final operational capability (FOC) Space Station.

  4. Technology for robotic surface inspection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard; Balaram, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research in robotic inspection of space platforms. Three main areas of investigation are discussed: machine vision inspection techniques, an integrated sensor end-effector, and an orbital environment laboratory simulation. Machine vision inspection utilizes automatic comparison of new and reference images to detect on-orbit induced damage such as micrometeorite impacts. The cameras and lighting used for this inspection are housed in a multisensor end-effector, which also contains a suite of sensors for detection of temperature, gas leaks, proximity, and forces. To fully test all of these sensors, a realistic space platform mock-up has been created, complete with visual, temperature, and gas anomalies. Further, changing orbital lighting conditions are effectively mimicked by a robotic solar simulator. In the paper, each of these technology components will be discussed, and experimental results are provided.

  5. Use of control umbilicals as a deployment mode for free flying telerobotic work systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, J. S.; Selle, E. D.

    1987-01-01

    Work to date on telerobotic work systems for use in space generally consider two deployment modes, free flying, or fixed within a limited work envelope. Control tethers may be employed to obtain a number of operational advantages and added flexibility in the basing and deployment of telerobotic work systems. Use of a tether allows the work system to be separated into two major modules, the remote work package and the control module. The Remote Work Package (RWP) comprises the free flying portion of the work system while the Control Module (CM) remains at the work system base. The chief advantage of this configuration is that only the components required for completion of the work task must be located at the work site. Reaction mass used in free flight is stored at the Control module and supplied to the RWP through the tether, eliminating the need for the RWP to carry it. The RWP can be made less massive than a self contained free flying work system. As a result, reaction mass required for free flight is lower than for a self contained free flyer.

  6. Standards for space automation and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kader, Jac B.; Loftin, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The AIAA's Committee on Standards for Space Automation and Robotics (COS/SAR) is charged with the identification of key functions and critical technologies applicable to multiple missions that reflect fundamental consideration of environmental factors. COS/SAR's standards/practices/guidelines implementation methods will be based on reliability, performance, and operations, as well as economic viability and life-cycle costs, simplicity, and modularity.

  7. Study of robotics systems applications to the space station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of robotics systems to potential uses of the Space Station as an assembly facility, and secondarily as a servicing facility, are considered. A typical robotics system mission is described along with the pertinent application guidelines and Space Station environmental assumptions utilized in developing the robotic task scenarios. A functional description of a supervised dual-robot space structure construction system is given, and four key areas of robotic technology are defined, described, and assessed. Alternate technologies for implementing the more routine space technology support subsystems that will be required to support the Space Station robotic systems in assembly and servicing tasks are briefly discussed. The environmental conditions impacting on the robotic configuration design and operation are reviewed.

  8. Concept verification of three dimensional free motion simulator for space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Osamu; Nakaya, Teruomi; Pokines, Brett

    1994-01-01

    In the development of automatic assembling technologies for space structures, it is an indispensable matter to investigate and simulate the movements of robot satellites concerned with mission operation. The movement investigation and simulation on the ground will be effectively realized by a free motion simulator. Various types of ground systems for simulating free motion have been proposed and utilized. Some of these methods are a neutral buoyancy system, an air or magnetic suspension system, a passive suspension balance system, and a free flying aircraft or drop tower system. In addition, systems can be simulated by computers using an analytical model. Each free motion simulation method has limitations and well known problems, specifically, disturbance by water viscosity, limited number of degrees-of-freedom, complex dynamics induced by the attachment of the simulation system, short experiment time, and the lack of high speed super-computer simulation systems, respectively. The basic idea presented here is to realize 3-dimensional free motion. This is achieved by combining a spherical air bearing, a cylindrical air bearing, and a flat air bearing. A conventional air bearing system has difficulty realizing free vertical motion suspension. The idea of free vertical suspension is that a cylindrical air bearing and counter balance weight realize vertical free motion. This paper presents a design concept, configuration, and basic performance characteristics of an innovative free motion simulator. A prototype simulator verifies the feasibility of 3-dimensional free motion simulation.

  9. Robotic vision techniques for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1994-01-01

    Automation and robotics for space applications are being pursued for increased productivity, enhanced reliability, increased flexibility, higher safety, and for the automation of time-consuming tasks and those activities which are beyond the capacity of the crew. One of the key functional elements of an automated robotic system is sensing and perception. As the robotics era dawns in space, vision systems will be required to provide the key sensory data needed for multifaceted intelligent operations. In general, the three-dimensional scene/object description, along with location, orientation, and motion parameters will be needed. In space, the absence of diffused lighting due to a lack of atmosphere gives rise to: (a) high dynamic range (10(exp 8)) of scattered sunlight intensities, resulting in very high contrast between shadowed and specular portions of the scene; (b) intense specular reflections causing target/scene bloom; and (c) loss of portions of the image due to shadowing and presence of stars, Earth, Moon, and other space objects in the scene. In this work, developments for combating the adverse effects described earlier and for enhancing scene definition are discussed. Both active and passive sensors are used. The algorithm for selecting appropriate wavelength, polarization, look angle of vision sensors is based on environmental factors as well as the properties of the target/scene which are to be perceived. The environment is characterized on the basis of sunlight and other illumination incident on the target/scene and the temperature profiles estimated on the basis of the incident illumination. The unknown geometrical and physical parameters are then derived from the fusion of the active and passive microwave, infrared, laser, and optical data.

  10. Robots in space into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Weisbin, C R; Lavery, D; Rodriguez, G

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technological developments which are establishing the foundation for an exciting era of in situ exploration missions to planets, comets and asteroids with advanced robotic systems. Also outlines important concurrent terrestrial applications and spinoffs of the space robotics technology. These include high-precision robotic manipulators for microsurgical operations and dexterous arm control systems. PMID:11540587

  11. Robots in space into the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Lavery, D.; Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technological developments which are establishing the foundation for an exciting era of in situ exploration missions to planets, comets and asteroids with advanced robotic systems. Also outlines important concurrent terrestrial applications and spinoffs of the space robotics technology. These include high-precision robotic manipulators for microsurgical operations and dexterous arm control systems.

  12. TROTER's (Tiny Robotic Operation Team Experiment): A new concept of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng

    1990-01-01

    In view of the future need of automation and robotics in space and the existing approaches to the problem, we proposed a new concept of robots for space construction. The new concept is based on the basic idea of decentralization. Decentralization occurs, on the one hand, in using teams of many cooperative robots for construction tasks. Redundancy and modular design are explored to achieve high reliability for team robotic operations. Reliability requirement on individual robots is greatly reduced. Another area of decentralization is manifested by the proposed control hierarchy which eventually includes humans in the loop. The control strategy is constrained by various time delays and calls for different levels of abstraction of the task dynamics. Such technology is needed for remote control of robots in an uncertain environment. Thus, concerns of human safety around robots are relaxed. This presentation also introduces the required technologies behind the new robotic concept.

  13. Space technology and robotics in school projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villias, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Space-related educational activities is a very inspiring and attractive way to involve students into science courses, present them the variety of STEM careers that they can follow, while giving them at the same time the opportunity to develop various practical and communication skills necessary for their future professional development. As part of a large scale extracurricular course in Space Science, Space Technology and Robotics that has been introduced in our school, our students, divided in smaller groups of 3-4 students in each, try to understand the challenges that current and future space exploration is facing. Following a mixture of an inquiry-based learning methodology and hands-on practical activities related with constructions and experiments, students get a glimpse of the pre-mentioned fields. Our main goal is to gain practical knowledge and inspiration from the exciting field of Space, to attain an adequate level of team spirit and effective cooperation, while developing technical and research data-mining skills. We use the following two approaches: 1. Constructive (Technical) approach Designing and constructing various customized robotic machines, that will simulate the future space exploration vehicles and satellites needed to study the atmosphere, surface and subsurface of planets, moons or other planetary bodies of our solar system that have shown some promising indications for the existence of life, taking seriously into account their special characteristics and known existing conditions (like Mars, Titan, Europa & Enceladus). The STEM tools we use are the following: - LEGO Mindstorms: to construct rovers for surface exploration. - Hydrobots: an MIT's SeaPerch program for the construction of submarine semi-autonomous robots. - CanSats: Arduino-based microsatellites able to receive, record & transmit data. - Space balloons: appropriate for high altitude atmospheric measurements & photography. 2. Scientific approach Conducting interesting physics

  14. Robotic mobile servicing platform for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenthal, S. H.; Vanerden, L.

    1987-01-01

    The semi-autonomous inspection and servicing of the Space Station's major thermal, electrical, mechanical subsystems are critical needs for the safe and reliable operation of the station. A conceptual design is presented of a self-intelligent, small and highly mobile robotic platform. Equipped with suitable inspection sensors (cameras, ammonia detectors, etc.), this system's primary mission is to perform routine, autonomous inspection of the Station's primary subsystems. Typical tasks include detection of leaks from thermal fluid or refueling lines, as well as detection of micro-meteroid damage to the primary structure. Equipped with stereo cameras and a dexterous manipulator, simple teleoperator repairs and small On-orbit Replacement Unit (ORU) changeout can also be accomplished. More difficult robotic repairs would be left to the larger, more sophisticated Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS). An ancillary function is to ferry crew members and equipment around the station. The primary design objectives were to provide a flexible, but uncomplicated robotic platform, one which caused minimal impact to the design of the Station's primary structure but could accept more advanced telerobotic technology as it evolves.

  15. Dynamics analysis of space robot manipulator with joint clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Bai, Zheng Feng

    2011-04-01

    A computational methodology for analysis of space robot manipulator systems, considering the effects of the clearances in the joint, is presented. The contact dynamics model in joint clearance is established using the nonlinear equivalent spring-damp model and the friction effect is considered using the Coulomb friction model. The space robot system dynamic equation of manipulator with clearance is established. Then the dynamics simulation is presented and the dynamics characteristics of robot manipulator with clearance are analyzed. This work provides a practical method to analyze the dynamics characteristics of space robot manipulator with joint clearance and improves the engineering application. The computational methodology can predict the effects of clearance on space robot manipulator preferably, which is the basis of space robot manipulator design, precision analysis and ground test.

  16. Computer vision for autonomous robotics in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andrew K. C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a computer vision system being developed at the Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI) Lab of the University of Waterloo and at the Vision, Intelligence and Robotics Technologies Corporation (VIRTEK) in support of the Canadian Space Autonomous Robotics Project. This system was originally developed for flexible manufacturing and guidance of autonomous roving vehicles. In the last few years, it has been engineered to support the operations of the Mobile Service System (MSS) (or its equivalence) for the Space Station Project. In the near term, this vision system will provide vision capability for the recognition, location and tracking of payloads as well as for relating the spatial information to the manipulator for capturing, manipulating and berthing payloads. In the long term, it will serve in the role of inspection, surveillance and servicing of the Station. Its technologies will be continually expanded and upgraded to meet the demand as the needs of the Space Station evolve and grow. Its spin-off technologies will benefit the industrial sectors as well.

  17. Autonomous Motion Learning for Intra-Vehicular Activity Space Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yutaka; Yairi, Takehisa; Machida, Kazuo

    Space robots will be needed in the future space missions. So far, many types of space robots have been developed, but in particular, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) space robots that support human activities should be developed to reduce human-risks in space. In this paper, we study the motion learning method of an IVA space robot with the multi-link mechanism. The advantage point is that this space robot moves using reaction force of the multi-link mechanism and contact forces from the wall as space walking of an astronaut, not to use a propulsion. The control approach is determined based on a reinforcement learning with the actor-critic algorithm. We demonstrate to clear effectiveness of this approach using a 5-link space robot model by simulation. First, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control including contact phase in two dimensional case. Next, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control changing base attitude in three dimensional case.

  18. Conceptual design studies for large free-flying solar-reflector spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.; Miller, R. K.; Knapp, K. P. W.

    1981-01-01

    The 1 km diameter reflecting film surface is supported by a lightweight structure which may be automatically deployed after launch in the Space Shuttle. A twin rotor, control moment gyroscope, with deployable rotors, is included as a primary control actuator. The vehicle has a total specific mass of less than 12 g/sq m including allowances for all required subsystems. The structural elements were sized to accommodate the loads of a typical SOLARES type mission where a swam of these free flying satellites is employed to concentrate sunlight on a number of energy conversion stations on the ground.

  19. Robotic vision technology and algorithms for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1988-01-01

    The vision data requirements for various automation and robotics applications for the Space Station are discussed. The advanced systems technology involved with robotic sensing for perception is reviewed, noting the unique requirements of vision systems in space. Three areas of algorithm development are discussed: shape extraction based on illumination, shape extraction by sensor fusion, and generalized image point correspondence. Possibilities for future developments in robotic vision technology are considered.

  20. Automation and robotics for the National Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The emphasis on automation and robotics in the augmentation of the human centered systems as it concerns the space station is discussed. How automation and robotics can amplify the capabilities of humans is detailed. A detailed developmental program for the space station is outlined.

  1. Heuristic search in robot configuration space using variable metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verwer, Ben J. H.

    1987-01-01

    A method to generate obstacle free trajectories for both mobile robots and linked robots is proposed. The approach generates the shortest paths in a configuration space. The metric in the configuration space can be adjusted to obtain a tradeoff between safety and velocity by imposing extra costs on paths near obstacles.

  2. Automation and robotics for the Space Station - An ATAC perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunamaker, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    The study of automation and robotics for the Space Station by the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee is surveyed. The formation of the committee and the methodology for the Space Station automation study are discussed. The committee's recommendations for automation and robotics research and development are listed.

  3. RoMPS concept review automatic control of space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Robot operated Material Processing in Space (RoMPS) experiment is being performed to explore the marriage of two emerging space commercialization technologies: materials processing in microgravity and robotics. This concept review presents engineering drawings and limited technical descriptions of the RoMPS programs' electrical and software systems.

  4. Automation and Robotics for Space-Based Systems, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L., II (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this in-house workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of automation and robotics for space operations from an LaRC perspective and to identify areas of opportunity for future research. Over half of the presentations came from the Automation Technology Branch, covering telerobotic control, extravehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, hand controllers for teleoperation, sensors, neural networks, and automated structural assembly, all applied to space missions. Other talks covered the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation, space crane work, modeling, simulation, and control of large, flexible space manipulators, and virtual passive controller designs for space robots.

  5. Robot path planning for space-truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muenger, Rolf; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1992-01-01

    Construction, repair, and maintenance of space-based structures will require extensive planning of operations in order to effectively carry out these tasks. The path planning algorithm described here is a general approach to generating paths that guarantee collision avoidance for a single chain nonredundant or redundant robot. The algorithm uses a graph search of feasible points in position space, followed by a local potential field method that guarantees collision avoidance among objects, structures, and the robot arm as well as conformance to joint limit constraints. This algorithm is novel in its computation of goal attractive potential fields in Cartesian space, and computation of obstacle repulsive fields in robot joint space. These effects are combined to generate robot motion. Computation is efficiently implemented through the computation of the robot arm Jacobian and not the full inverse arm kinematics. These planning algorithms have been implemented and evaluated using existing space-truss designs, and are being integrated into the RPI-CIRSSE Testbed environment.

  6. Integrated multi-sensory control of space robot hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Kan, E. P.; Killion, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation of a robot hand requires the use of multiple sensors integrated into the mechanical hand under distributed microcomputer control. Where space applications such as construction, assembly, servicing and repair tasks are desired of smart robot arms and robot hands, several critical drives influence the design, engineering and integration of such an electromechanical hand. This paper describes a smart robot hand developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for experimental use and evaluation with the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  7. Sensory substitution for space gloves and for space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach-Y-rita, P.; Webster, J. G.; Tompkins, W. J.; Crabb, T.

    1987-01-01

    Sensory substitution systems for space applications are described. Physical sensors replace missing human receptors and feed information to the interpretive centers of a different sense. The brain is plastic enough so that, with training, the subject localizes the input as if it were received through the missing receptors. Astronauts have difficulty feeling objects through space suit gloves because of their thickness and because of the 4.3 psi pressure difference. Miniature force sensors on the glove palm drive an electrotactile belt around the waist, thus augmenting the missing tactile sensation. A proposed teleoperator system with telepresence for a space robot would incorporate teleproprioception and a force sensor/electrotactile belt sensory substitution system for teletouch.

  8. Service Oriented Robotic Architecture for Space Robotics: Design, Testing, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fluckiger, Lorenzo Jean Marc E; Utz, Hans Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from six years of experiments with planetary rover prototypes running the Service Oriented Robotic Architecture (SORA) developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at the NASA Ames Research Center. SORA relies on proven software engineering methods and technologies applied to space robotics. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture and robust middleware, SORA encompasses on-board robot control and a full suite of software tools necessary for remotely operated exploration missions. SORA has been eld tested in numerous scenarios of robotic lunar and planetary exploration. The experiments conducted by IRG with SORA exercise a large set of the constraints encountered in space applications: remote robotic assets, ight relevant science instruments, distributed operations, high network latencies and unreliable or intermittent communication links. In this paper, we present the results of these eld tests in regard to the developed architecture, and discuss its bene ts and limitations.

  9. Dynamics and control of robot for capturing objects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Panfeng

    Space robots are expected to perform intricate tasks in future space services, such as satellite maintenance, refueling, and replacing the orbital replacement unit (ORU). To realize these missions, the capturing operation may not be avoided. Such operations will encounter some challenges because space robots have some unique characteristics unfound on ground-based robots, such as, dynamic singularities, dynamic coupling between manipulator and space base, limited energy supply and working without a fixed base, and so on. In addition, since contacts and impacts may not be avoided during capturing operation. Therefore, dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects are significant research topics if the robots are to be deployed for the space services. A typical servicing operation mainly includes three phases: capturing the object, berthing and docking the object, then repairing the target. Therefore, this thesis will focus on resolving some challenging problems during capturing the object, berthing and docking, and so on. In this thesis, I study and analyze the dynamics and control problems of space robot for capturing objects. This work has potential impact in space robotic applications. I first study the contact and impact dynamics of space robot and objects. I specifically focus on analyzing the impact dynamics and mapping the relationship of influence and speed. Then, I develop the fundamental theory for planning the minimum-collision based trajectory of space robot and designing the configuration of space robot at the moment of capture. To compensate for the attitude of the space base during the capturing approach operation, a new balance control concept which can effectively balance the attitude of the space base using the dynamic couplings is developed. The developed balance control concept helps to understand of the nature of space dynamic coupling, and can be readily applied to compensate or minimize the disturbance to the space base

  10. Robotics technology developments in the United States space telerobotics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, David

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000. As a result of redefining the development approach for space robotic systems, and capitalizing on opportunities associated with the assembly and maintenance of the space station, the space robotics community is preparing a whole new generation of operational robotic capabilities. Expanding on the capabilities of earlier manipulation systems such as the Viking and Surveyor soil scoops, the Russian Lunakhods, and the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS), these new space robots will augment astronaut on-orbit capabilities and extend virtual human presence to lunar and planetary surfaces.

  11. Forming Human-Robot Teams Across Time and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambuchen, Kimberly; Burridge, Robert R.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Bluethmann, William J.; Diftler, Myron A.; Radford, Nicolaus A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA pushes telerobotics to distances that span the Solar System. At this scale, time of flight for communication is limited by the speed of light, inducing long time delays, narrow bandwidth and the real risk of data disruption. NASA also supports missions where humans are in direct contact with robots during extravehicular activity (EVA), giving a range of zero to hundreds of millions of miles for NASA s definition of "tele". . Another temporal variable is mission phasing. NASA missions are now being considered that combine early robotic phases with later human arrival, then transition back to robot only operations. Robots can preposition, scout, sample or construct in advance of human teammates, transition to assistant roles when the crew are present, and then become care-takers when the crew returns to Earth. This paper will describe advances in robot safety and command interaction approaches developed to form effective human-robot teams, overcoming challenges of time delay and adapting as the team transitions from robot only to robots and crew. The work is predicated on the idea that when robots are alone in space, they are still part of a human-robot team acting as surrogates for people back on Earth or in other distant locations. Software, interaction modes and control methods will be described that can operate robots in all these conditions. A novel control mode for operating robots across time delay was developed using a graphical simulation on the human side of the communication, allowing a remote supervisor to drive and command a robot in simulation with no time delay, then monitor progress of the actual robot as data returns from the round trip to and from the robot. Since the robot must be responsible for safety out to at least the round trip time period, the authors developed a multi layer safety system able to detect and protect the robot and people in its workspace. This safety system is also running when humans are in direct contact with the robot

  12. The Astromag superconducting magnet facility configured for a free-flying satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Smoot, G. F.

    1992-01-01

    The magnet parameters of a free-flying version of Astromag and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet are presented. Consideration is given to the free-flyer version of the Astromag magnet. The diameter of the magnet, its cryostat, the satellite and the two instruments is limited by the 4.27-m shroud diameter of the Atlas IIa. The magnet coil must use a stable reliable superconductor which can carry the full magnet current at 4.2 K at a peak induction in the coil of 7.5 T. The magnet must operate in the persistent mode. The changes in the overall design and operating requirements for the free-flying-design Astromag suggest that the coils, the cryogenic system, and the charging system can be simplified without a loss of required magnet function. Attention is given to switches, trim coils, and plumbing in the low field region between the coils; the magnet charging system and the quench protection system; and cooled helium supply to the magnet gas-cooled electrical leads.

  13. A Modular Robotic System with Applications to Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancher, Matthew D.; Hornby, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Modular robotic systems offer potential advantages as versatile, fault-tolerant, cost-effective platforms for space exploration, but a sufficiently mature system is not yet available. We describe the possible applications of such a system, and present prototype hardware intended as a step in the right direction. We also present elements of an automated design and optimization framework aimed at making modular robots easier to design and use, and discuss the results of applying the system to a gait optimization problem. Finally, we discuss the potential near-term applications of modular robotics to terrestrial robotics research.

  14. Control strategy for a dual-arm maneuverable space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1987-01-01

    A simple strategy for the attitude control and arm coordination of a maneuverable space robot with dual arms is proposed. The basic task for the robot consists of the placement of marked rigid solid objects with specified pairs of gripping points and a specified direction of approach for gripping. The strategy consists of three phases each of which involves only elementary rotational and translational collision-free maneuvers of the robot body. Control laws for these elementary maneuvers are derived by using a body-referenced dynamic model of the dual-arm robot.

  15. Transformers: Shape-Changing Space Systems Built with Robotic Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric (ro-fabric); or robotic textile (ro-textile). Second, the ro-textile layer is foldable to small volume and self-unfolding to adapt shape and function to mission phases.

  16. The dynamic effects of internal robots on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeffrey H.; Lawrence, Charles; Rohn, Douglas A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the planned experiments of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) will require acceleration levels to be no greater than microgravity (10 exp -6 g) levels for long periods of time. Studies have demonstrated that without adequate control, routine operations may cause disturbances which are large enough to affect on-board experiments. One way to both minimize disturbances and make the SSF more autonomous is to utilize robots instead of astronauts for some operations. The present study addresses the feasibility of using robots for microgravity manipulation. Two methods for minimizing the dynamic disturbances resulting from the robot motions are evaluated. The first method is to use a robot with kinematic redundancy (redundant links). The second method involves the use of a vibration isolation device between the robot and the SSF laboratory module. The results from these methods are presented along with simulations of robots without disturbance control.

  17. Robot flow, clogging and jamming in confined spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    We hypothesized that when a collection of robots operate in confined space, maximization of individual effort could negatively affect the collective performance by impeding the mobility of the individuals. To test our hypothesis, we built and programmed groups of 1-4 autonomous robotic diggers to construct a tunnel in a model cohesive soil. The robots' mobility, defined in terms of the residence time (T) required for a robot to move one body-length within the tunnel, was compared between groups of maximally active robots (mode 1), groups with different levels of activity between individuals (mode 2), and maximally active robots with a ``giving up'' behavior (mode 3), in which the robot ceased the attempt to excavate in a crowded tunnel. In small groups of two robots, T was ~3 sec and did not depend on the mode of operation. However, an increase in the number of robots caused an increase in T which depended upon mode. The residence time in groups of four robots in mode 1 (~9 sec) significantly exceeded the residence time in mode 2 and 3 (~4 sec), indicating that crowding was causing slower movement of individuals, particularly under maximum effort (mode 1). We will use our robophysical studies to discover principles of collective construction in subterranean social animals.

  18. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  19. The ASTROMAG superconducting magnet facility configured for a free flying satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Smoot, G.F.

    1991-06-01

    ASTROMAG is a particle astrophysics facility that was originally configured for the Space Station. The heart of the ASTROMAG facility is a large superconducting magnet which is cooled using superfluid helium. The task of resizing the facility so that it will fly in a satellite in a high angle of inclination orbit is driven by the launch weight capability of the launch rocket and the desire to be able to do nearly the same physics as the Space Station version of ASTROMAG. In order to reduce the launch weight, the magnet and its cryogenic system had to be downsized, yet the integrated field generated by the magnet in the particle detectors has to match the Space Station version of the magnet. The use of aluminum matrix superconductor and oriented composite materials in the magnet insulation permits one to achieve this goal. The net magnetic dipole moment from the ASTROMAG magnet must be small to minimize the torque due to interaction with the earth's magnetic field. The ASTROMAG magnet consists of identical two coils 1.67 meters apart. The two coils are connected in series in persistent mode. Each coil is designed to carry 2.34 million ampere turns. Both coils are mounted on the same magnetic axis and they operate at opposite polarity. This reduces the dipole moment by a factor of more than 1000. This is tolerable for the Space Station version of the magnet. A magnet operating on a free flying satellite requires additional compensation. This report presents the magnet parameters of a free flying version of ASTROMAG and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  20. The Astromag Superconducting Magnet Facility Configured for a FreeFlying Satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Smoot, George F.

    1991-06-01

    ASTROMAG is a particle astrophysics facility that was originally configured for the Space Station. The heart of the ASTROMAG facility is a large superconducting magnet which is cooled using superfluid helium. The task of resizing the facility so that it will fly in a satellite in. a high angle of inclination orbit is driven by the launch weight capability of the launch rocket and the desire to be able to do nearly the same physics as the Space Station version of ASTROMAG. In order to reduce the launch weight, the magnet and its cryogenic system had to be downsized, yet the integrated field generated by the magnet in the particle detectors has to match the Space Station version of the magnet. The use of aluminum matrix superconductor and oriented composite materials in the magnet insulation permits one to achieve this goal. The net magnetic dipole moment from the ASTROMAG magnet must be small to minimize the torque due to interaction with the earth's magnetic field. The ASTROMAG magnet consists of identical two coils 1.67 meters apart. The two coils are connected in series in persistent mode. Each coil is designed to carry 2.34 million ampere turns. Both coils are mounted on the same magnetic axis and they operate at opposite polarity. This reduces the dipole moment by a factor of more than 1000. This is tolerable for the Space Station version of the magnet. A magnet operating on a free flying satellite requires additional compensation. This report presents the magnet parameters of a free flying version of ASTROMAG and the parameters of the space cryogenic system for the magnet.

  1. The Role of Robots and Automation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced space transportation systems based on the shuttle and interim upper stage will open the way to the use of large-scale industrial and commercial systems in space. The role of robot and automation technology in the cost-effective implementation and operation of such systems in the next two decades is discussed. Planning studies initiated by NASA are described as applied to space exploration, global services, and space industrialization, and a forecast of potential missions in each category is presented. The appendix lists highlights of space robot technology from 1967 to the present.

  2. Advanced technology for space communications, tracking, and robotic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Technological advancements in tracking, communications, and robotic vision sensors are reviewed. The development of communications systems for multiple access, broadband, high data rate, and efficient operation is discussed. Consideration is given to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite systems, GPS, and communications and tracking systems for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station. The use of television, laser, and microwave sensors for robotics and technology for autonomous rendezvous and docking operations are examined.

  3. Using conceptual spaces to fuse knowledge from heterogeneous robot platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Zsolt

    2010-04-01

    As robots become more common, it becomes increasingly useful for many applications to use them in teams that sense the world in a distributed manner. In such situations, the robots or a central control center must communicate and fuse information received from multiple sources. A key challenge for this problem is perceptual heterogeneity, where the sensors, perceptual representations, and training instances used by the robots differ dramatically. In this paper, we use Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, a geometric representation with strong roots in cognitive science and psychology, in order to represent the appearance of objects and show how the problem of heterogeneity can be intuitively explored by looking at the situation where multiple robots differ in their conceptual spaces at different levels. To bridge low-level sensory differences, we abstract raw sensory data into properties (such as color or texture categories), represented as Gaussian Mixture Models, and demonstrate that this facilitates both individual learning and the fusion of concepts between robots. Concepts (e.g. objects) are represented as a fuzzy mixture of these properties. We then treat the problem where the conceptual spaces of two robots differ and they only share a subset of these properties. In this case, we use joint interaction and statistical metrics to determine which properties are shared. Finally, we show how conceptual spaces can handle the combination of such missing properties when fusing concepts received from different robots. We demonstrate the fusion of information in real-robot experiments with a Mobile Robots Amigobot and Pioneer 2DX with significantly different cameras and (on one robot) a SICK lidar.ÿÿÿÿ

  4. Upgrading the free flying rendezvous and docking simulator and the orbital servicer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendations are made for upgrading two teleoperator/robotics test and simulation systems based upon a review of latest technology advances in the involved disciplines. A second generation Free Flying Mobility Unit is recommended which adds a sixth degree of freedom and incorporates other improvements which greatly expand the center's capability to perform evaluation tests and demonstrations of advanced systems concepts for rendezvous and docking in support of the Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) Program. The Orbital Servicer System provides the capability for testing and demonstrating concepts for on orbit servicing of compatibly designed satellites/payloads. The TMS is to be the transporting vehicle for the servicer. The manipulator arm of the Orbital service System is presently computer controlled in the trajectory portion of the module transfer operation. The ultimate objective is to fully automte its operation requiring additional capabilities in sensors, artificial intelligence, image analysis, communications, computer programming, pattern recognition, kinematics, and manipulator design. It is recommended that the Electronics and Control Laboratory move to acquire the basic competencies in robotics necessary to achieve full automation.

  5. Teleoperated inspection robots for space and Earth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Klaus; Roth, Hubert

    1998-08-01

    For planetary surface operations, the European Space Agency initiated a development for teleoperated mini-rovers. Remote control functions related to autonomous reaction capabilities and sensor data processing on-board the vehicle exhibit interesting transfer potential to industrial and educational teleoperation tasks. Similar requirements to the space application arise in particular, when low cost communication links are used for teleservicing. This paper reviews the operational concept for the Mars rover and its operations test environment. The technology transfer to terrestrial teleservicing applications is analyzed, regarding remotely controlled equipment or robots. This is illustrated at the example of pipe inspection robots, industrial transport robots and virtual laboratories for educational purposes.

  6. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  7. Ground Robotic Hand Applications for the Space Program study (GRASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, William A.; Rafla, Nader I. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document reports on a NASA-STDP effort to address research interests of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) through a study entitled, Ground Robotic-Hand Applications for the Space Program (GRASP). The primary objective of the GRASP study was to identify beneficial applications of specialized end-effectors and robotic hand devices for automating any ground operations which are performed at the Kennedy Space Center. Thus, operations for expendable vehicles, the Space Shuttle and its components, and all payloads were included in the study. Typical benefits of automating operations, or augmenting human operators performing physical tasks, include: reduced costs; enhanced safety and reliability; and reduced processing turnaround time.

  8. The Design, Planning and Control of Robotic Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven

    1996-01-01

    In the future, robotic systems will be expected to perform important tasks in space, in orbit and in planetary exploration. In orbit, current technology requires that tasks such as the repair, construction and maintenance of space stations and satellites be performed by astronaut Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Eliminating the need for astronaut EVA through the use of space manipulators would greatly reduce both mission costs and hazards to astronauts. In planetary exploration, cost and logistical considerations clearly make the use of autonomous and telerobotic systems also very attractive, even in cases where an astronaut explorer might be in the area. However, such applications introduce a number of technical problems not found in conventional earth-bound industrial robots. To design useful and practical systems to meet the needs of future space missions, substantial technical development is required, including in the areas of the design, control and planning. The objectives of this research program were to develop such design paradigms and control and planning algorithms to enable future space robotic systems to meet their proposed mission objectives. The underlying intellectual focus of the program is to construct a set of integrated design, planning and control techniques based on an understanding of the fundamental mechanics of space robotic systems. This work was to build upon the results obtained in our previous research in this area supported by NASA Langley Research Center in which we have made important contributions to the area of space robotics.

  9. Development of a Tether Based Space Walking Robot to Be Tested on ISS/KIBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Mitsushige; Yoshii, Masahiro; Kato, Hiroki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Ueno, Taihei

    A unique space robot is proposed to support astronauts in space. The robot moves around the surface of a space facility, e.g. a space station using its handrails and tethers that the robot has. This unique mechanism of the proposed robot makes it possible to realize the robot in a small volume while the robot can move around the wide area. In order to demonstrate usefulness of this unique robot, an onboard experiment on the exposed facility of the International Space Station Japanese Experiment Module, “KIBO” will be conducted in the year 2012. Development of the experiment system is progressing now.

  10. NASA Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's program for the civilian exploration of space is a challenge to scientists and engineers to help maintain and further develop the United States' position of leadership in a focused sphere of space activity. Such an ambitious plan requires the contribution and further development of many scientific and technological fields. One research area essential for the success of these space exploration programs is Intelligent Robotic Systems. These systems represent a class of autonomous and semi-autonomous machines that can perform human-like functions with or without human interaction. They are fundamental for activities too hazardous for humans or too distant or complex for remote telemanipulation. To meet this challenge, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) has established an Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE). The Center was created with a five year $5.5 million grant from NASA submitted by a team of the Robotics and Automation Laboratories. The Robotics and Automation Laboratories of RPI are the result of the merger of the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering (ECSE) and the Research Laboratory for Kinematics and Robotic Mechanisms of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, and Mechanics (ME,AE,&M), in 1987. This report is an examination of the activities that are centered at CIRSSE.

  11. Application of dexterous space robotics technology to myoelectric prostheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Clifford; Li, Larry C. H.; Farry, Kristin A.; Walker, Ian D.

    1994-01-01

    Future space missions will require robots equipped with highly dexterous robotic hands to perform a variety of tasks. A major technical challenge in making this possible is an improvement in the way these dexterous robotic hands are remotely controlled or teleoperated. NASA is currently investigating the feasibility of using myoelectric signals to teleoperate a dexterous robotic hand. In theory, myoelectric control of robotic hands will require little or no mechanical parts and will greatly reduce the bulk and weight usually found in dexterous robotic hand control devices. An improvement in myoelectric control of multifinger hands will also benefit prosthetics users. Therefore, as an effort to transfer dexterous space robotics technology to prosthetics applications and to benefit from existing myoelectric technology, NASA is collaborating with the Limbs of Love Foundation, the Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, and Rice University in developing improved myoelectric control multifinger hands and prostheses. In this paper, we will address the objectives and approaches of this collaborative effort and discuss the technical issues associated with myoelectric control of multifinger hands. We will also report our current progress and discuss plans for future work.

  12. Application of dexterous space robotics technology to myoelectric prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Clifford; Li, Larry C. H.; Farry, Kristin A.; Walker, Ian D.

    1994-02-01

    Future space missions will require robots equipped with highly dexterous robotic hands to perform a variety of tasks. A major technical challenge in making this possible is an improvement in the way these dexterous robotic hands are remotely controlled or teleoperated. NASA is currently investigating the feasibility of using myoelectric signals to teleoperate a dexterous robotic hand. In theory, myoelectric control of robotic hands will require little or no mechanical parts and will greatly reduce the bulk and weight usually found in dexterous robotic hand control devices. An improvement in myoelectric control of multifinger hands will also benefit prosthetics users. Therefore, as an effort to transfer dexterous space robotics technology to prosthetics applications and to benefit from existing myoelectric technology, NASA is collaborating with the Limbs of Love Foundation, the Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, and Rice University in developing improved myoelectric control multifinger hands and prostheses. In this paper, we will address the objectives and approaches of this collaborative effort and discuss the technical issues associated with myoelectric control of multifinger hands. We will also report our current progress and discuss plans for future work.

  13. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  14. Human-like robots for space and hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogley, Allen; Gustafson, David; White, Warren; Dyer, Ruth; Hampton, Tom (Editor); Freise, Jon (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The three year goal for this NASA Senior Design team is to design and build a walking autonomous robotic rover. The rover should be capable of rough terrain crossing, traversing human made obstacles (such as stairs and doors), and moving through human and robot occupied spaces without collision. The rover is also to evidence considerable decision making ability, navigation and path planning skills. These goals came from the concept that the robot should have the abilities of both a planetary rover and a hazardous waste site scout.

  15. Human-like robots for space and hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The three year goal for the Kansas State USRA/NASA Senior Design team is to design and build a walking autonomous robotic rover. The rover should be capable of crossing rough terrain, traversing human made obstacles (such as stairs and doors), and moving through human and robot occupied spaces without collision. The rover is also to evidence considerable decision making ability, navigation, and path planning skills.

  16. Interaction Challenges in Human-Robot Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, NASA established a new, long-term exploration program to fulfill the President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration. The primary goal of this program is to establish a sustained human presence in space, beginning with robotic missions to the Moon in 2008, followed by extended human expeditions to the Moon as early as 2015. In addition, the program places significant emphasis on the development of joint human-robot systems. A key difference from previous exploration efforts is that future space exploration activities must be sustainable over the long-term. Experience with the space station has shown that cost pressures will keep astronaut teams small. Consequently, care must be taken to extend the effectiveness of these astronauts well beyond their individual human capacity. Thus, in order to reduce human workload, costs, and fatigue-driven error and risk, intelligent robots will have to be an integral part of mission design.

  17. Robonaut: a robot designed to work with humans in space.

    PubMed

    Bluethmann, William; Ambrose, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Askew, Scott; Huber, Eric; Goza, Michael; Rehnmark, Fredrik; Lovchik, Chris; Magruder, Darby

    2003-01-01

    The Robotics Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing robotic systems to assist astronauts in space. One such system, Robonaut, is a humanoid robot with the dexterity approaching that of a suited astronaut. Robonaut currently has two dexterous arms and hands, a three degree-of-freedom articulating waist, and a two degree-of-freedom neck used as a camera and sensor platform. In contrast to other space manipulator systems, Robonaut is designed to work within existing corridors and use the same tools as space walking astronauts. Robonaut is envisioned as working with astronauts, both autonomously and by teleoperation, performing a variety of tasks including, routine maintenance, setting up and breaking down worksites, assisting crew members while outside of spacecraft, and serving in a rapid response capacity. PMID:12703513

  18. Robonaut: a robot designed to work with humans in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluethmann, William; Ambrose, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Askew, Scott; Huber, Eric; Goza, Michael; Rehnmark, Fredrik; Lovchik, Chris; Magruder, Darby

    2003-01-01

    The Robotics Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing robotic systems to assist astronauts in space. One such system, Robonaut, is a humanoid robot with the dexterity approaching that of a suited astronaut. Robonaut currently has two dexterous arms and hands, a three degree-of-freedom articulating waist, and a two degree-of-freedom neck used as a camera and sensor platform. In contrast to other space manipulator systems, Robonaut is designed to work within existing corridors and use the same tools as space walking astronauts. Robonaut is envisioned as working with astronauts, both autonomously and by teleoperation, performing a variety of tasks including, routine maintenance, setting up and breaking down worksites, assisting crew members while outside of spacecraft, and serving in a rapid response capacity.

  19. Advanced communications, tracking, robotic vision technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1987-01-01

    Recent advancements in the areas of tracking, communications, and robotics vision sensors being pursued within NASA, as applicable to space programs, are presented. Optical and laser-based communications and tracking systems and applications to space programs are discussed. Communication systems for multiple access, broadband, high data rate, and efficient operations are given. Current efforts at 20/30 GHz and millimeter wave bands are summarized. The use of optical data processing in control system applications for rendezvous and docking is presented. Robotics vision, based on television, laser, and microwave sensors for space applications, is discussed. The fusion of these technologies for remote control, station keeping, tracking, inspection, and satellite repair is detailed.

  20. A robot in space as a large space structures control experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gran, R.

    1983-01-01

    The control systems design issues for large space structures can be addressed by a robotics experiment which defines a teleoperator or a robot or uses the RMS. The robotics control demonstration brings the large space structures control technology to an effective state of readiness and provides a useful robot when the experiment is finished. Three major options in such an experiment are the RMS, a flexible arm that is going to be put on the Shuttle for other reasons, or a dexetrous manipulator or teleoperator.

  1. A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    1991-01-01

    Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

  2. Extended Task Space Control for Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Long, Mark K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a method of operating a robot in successive sampling intervals to perform a task, the robot having joints and joint actuators with actuator control loops, by decomposing the task into behavior forces, accelerations, velocities and positions of plural behaviors to be exhibited by the robot simultaneously, computing actuator accelerations of the joint actuators for the current sampling interval from both behavior forces, accelerations velocities and positions of the current sampling interval and actuator velocities and positions of the previous sampling interval, computing actuator velocities and positions of the joint actuators for the current sampling interval from the actuator velocities and positions of the previous sampling interval, and, finally, controlling the actuators in accordance with the actuator accelerations, velocities and positions of the current sampling interval. The actuator accelerations, velocities and positions of the current sampling interval are stored for use during the next sampling interval.

  3. Overview of NASA's In Space Robotic Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.

    2015-01-01

    The panel discussion will start with a presentation of the work of the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO), a team responsible for the overall management, coordination, and implementation of satellite servicing technologies and capabilities for NASA. Born from the team that executed the five Hubble servicing missions, SSCO is now maturing a core set of technologies that support both servicing goals and NASA's exploration and science objectives, including: autonomous rendezvous and docking systems; dexterous robotics; high-speed, fault-tolerant computing; advanced robotic tools, and propellant transfer systems. SSCOs proposed Restore-L mission, under development since 2009, is rapidly advancing the core capabilities the fledgling satellite-servicing industry needs to jumpstart a new national industry. Restore-L is also providing key technologies and core expertise to the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), with SSCO serving as the capture module lead for the ARRM effort. Reed will present a brief overview of SSCOs history, capabilities and technologies.

  4. CSI related dynamics and control issues in space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Eric; Ramey, Madison

    1993-01-01

    The research addressed includes: (1) CSI issues in space robotics; (2) control of elastic payloads, which includes 1-DOF example, and 3-DOF harmonic drive arm with elastic beam; and (3) control of large space arms with elastic links, which includes testbed description, modeling, and experimental implementation of colocated PD and end-point tip position controllers.

  5. Technology demonstration of space intravehicular automation and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Barker, L. Keith

    1994-01-01

    Automation and robotic technologies are being developed and capabilities demonstrated which would increase the productivity of microgravity science and materials processing in the space station laboratory module, especially when the crew is not present. The Automation Technology Branch at NASA Langley has been working in the area of intravehicular automation and robotics (IVAR) to provide a user-friendly development facility, to determine customer requirements for automated laboratory systems, and to improve the quality and efficiency of commercial production and scientific experimentation in space. This paper will describe the IVAR facility and present the results of a demonstration using a simulated protein crystal growth experiment inside a full-scale mockup of the space station laboratory module using a unique seven-degree-of-freedom robot.

  6. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  7. Deformable wing kinematics in free-flying hoverflies

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Simon M.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.; Taylor, Graham K.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the deforming wing kinematics of free-flying hoverflies (Eristalis tenax, Linnaeus) during hovering flight. We used four high-speed digital video cameras to reconstruct the motion of approximately 22 points on each wing using photogrammetric techniques. While the root-flapping motion of the wing is similar in both the downstroke and upstroke, and is well modelled as a simple harmonic motion, other wing kinematic parameters show substantial variation between the downstroke and upstroke. Whereas the magnitude of the angle of incidence varies considerably within and between different hoverflies, the twist distribution along the wing is highly stereotyped. The angle of incidence and camber both show a recoil effect as they change abruptly at stroke reversal. Pronation occurs consistently after stroke reversal, which is perhaps surprising, because this has been found to reduce lift production in modelling studies. We find that the alula, a hinged flap near the base of the wing, operates in two discrete states: either in plane with the wing, or flipped approximately normal to it. We hypothesize that the alula may be acting as a flow-control device. PMID:19447818

  8. Enabling Interoperable Space Robots With the Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Dubowsky, Steven; Quinn, Roger; Marzwell, Neville

    2005-01-01

    Robots that operate independently of one another will not be adequate to accomplish the future exploration tasks of long-distance autonomous navigation, habitat construction, resource discovery, and material handling. Such activities will require that systems widely share information, plan and divide complex tasks, share common resources, and physically cooperate to manipulate objects. Recognizing the need for interoperable robots to accomplish the new exploration initiative, NASA s Office of Exploration Systems Research & Technology recently funded the development of the Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS). JTARS charter is to identify the interface standards necessary to achieve interoperability among space robots. A JTARS working group (JTARS-WG) has been established comprising recognized leaders in the field of space robotics including representatives from seven NASA centers along with academia and private industry. The working group s early accomplishments include addressing key issues required for interoperability, defining which systems are within the project s scope, and framing the JTARS manuals around classes of robotic systems.

  9. Using automatic robot programming for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, E.; Jones, J.; Lanusse, A.; Lozano-Perez, T.; Odonnell, P.; Tournassoud, P.

    1987-01-01

    The interpreter of a task level robot programming system called Handey is described. Handey is a system that can recognize, manipulate and assemble polyhedral parts when given only a specification of the goal. To perform an assembly, Handey makes use of a recognition module, a gross motion planner, a grasp planner, a local approach planner and is capable of planning part re-orientation. The possibility of including these modules in a telerobotics work-station is discussed.

  10. Robot-friendly connector. [space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F. (Inventor); Vandeberghe, Mark H. (Inventor); Ruiz, Steve C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Robot friendly connectors, which, in one aspect, are truss joints with two parts, a receptacle and a joint, are presented. The joints have a head which is loosely inserted into the receptacle and is then tightened and aligned. In one aspect, the head is a rounded hammerhead which initially is enclosed in the receptacle with sloppy fit provided by the shape, size, and configuration of surfaces on the head and on the receptacle.

  11. Blending Velocities In Task Space In Computing Robot Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Blending of linear and angular velocities between sequential specified points in task space constitutes theoretical basis of improved method of computing trajectories followed by robotic manipulators. In method, generalized velocity-vector-blending technique provides relatively simple, common conceptual framework for blending linear, angular, and other parametric velocities. Velocity vectors originate from straight-line segments connecting specified task-space points, called "via frames" and represent specified robot poses. Linear-velocity-blending functions chosen from among first-order, third-order-polynomial, and cycloidal options. Angular velocities blended by use of first-order approximation of previous orientation-matrix-blending formulation. Angular-velocity approximation yields small residual error, quantified and corrected. Method offers both relative simplicity and speed needed for generation of robot-manipulator trajectories in real time.

  12. Station Robotics Testing at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfer orbital repla...

  13. Artificial intelligence planning applications for space exploration and space robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokey, Mark; Grenander, Sven

    1986-01-01

    Mission sequencing involves the plan for actuation of the experiments to be conducted aboard a spacecraft; automation is under study by NASA as a means to reduce time and manpower costs in mission planning and in robotic implementation. The development of a mission sequence is conditioned by the limited duration of advantageous spacecraft encounters with objects of study, more research requests than can be satisfied, and requested changes in objectives. Autonomous robot development is hampered by the absence of task-level programming languages, the existence of anomalies in real-world interactions, and a lack of required capabilities in current sensor technology.

  14. Control of robot manipulators for handling and assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Long-range NASA planning includes construction and erection of large systems in space requiring automatic handling equipment, teleoperators, or robots under supervisory control. This paper investigates and explores some of the requirements for the control of teleoperated and autonomous space manipulators. The critical technology development areas are identified and discussed in the context of the developments at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and other places.

  15. Distribution of Cost Growth in Robotic Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Cost growth characterization is a critical factor for effective cost risk analysis and project planning. This study analyzed low level budget changes in Jet Propulsion Laboratory-managed space science missions, which occurred during the development of the project. The data was then curve fit, according to cost distribution categories, to provide a reference set of distribution parameters with sufficient granularity to effectively model cost growth in robotic space science missions.

  16. Proceedings of the Goddard Space Flight Center Workshop on Robotics for Commercial Microelectronic Processes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Potential applications of robots for cost effective commercial microelectronic processes in space were studied and the associated robotic requirements were defined. Potential space application areas include advanced materials processing, bulk crystal growth, and epitaxial thin film growth and related processes. All possible automation of these processes was considered, along with energy and environmental requirements. Aspects of robot capabilities considered include system intelligence, ROM requirements, kinematic and dynamic specifications, sensor design and configuration, flexibility and maintainability. Support elements discussed included facilities, logistics, ground support, launch and recovery, and management systems.

  17. Intelligent systems and robotics for an evolutionary Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station will be a multipurpose space facility to acquire and exploit unique knowledge with a planned lifetime of greater than 20 years. It will include laboratories for science and manufacturing, provide a platform for earth and interplanetary observations, conduct satellite servicing, and serve as a transportation node for potential manned geosynchronous, lunar, and Mars missions. Environmental safety considerations and limited manpower resources require the extensive use of intelligent systems and flexible robotics on the Space Station. Design accommodations must be planned in advance to allow incorporation of these advancing technologies on the evolutionary Space Station.

  18. The Design, Planning and Control of Robotic Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven

    1996-01-01

    In the future, robotic systems will be expected to perform important tasks in space, in orbit and in planetary exploration. In orbit, current technology requires that tasks such as the repair, construction and maintenance of space stations and satellites be performed by astronaut Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Eliminating, the need for astronaut EVA through the use of space manipulators would greatly reduce both mission costs and hazards to astronauts. In planetary exploration, cost and logistical considerations clearly make the use of autonomous and telerobotic systems also very attractive, even in cases where an astronaut explorer might be in the area. However, such applications introduce a number of technical problems not found in conventional earth-bound industrial robots. To design useful and practical systems to meet the needs of future space missions, substantial technical development is required, including in the areas of the design, control and planning. The objectives of this research program were to develop such design paradigms and control and planning algorithms to enable future space robotic systems to meet their proposed mission objectives. The underlying intellectual focus of the program is to construct a set of integrated design, planning and control techniques based on an understanding of the fundamental mechanics of space robotic systems. This work was to build upon the results obtained in our previous research in this area supported by NASA Langley Research Center in which we have made important contributions to the area of space robotics. This program was proposed and accepted as a three year research program, a period of time necessary to make the type of fundamental developments to make a significant contributions to space robotics. Unfortunately, less than a year into the program it became clear that the NASA Langley Research Center would be forced by budgetary constraints to essentially leave this area of research. As a result, the total

  19. A magneto-sensitive skin for robots in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, D. S.; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a robot arm proximity sensing skin that can sense intruding objects is described. The purpose of the sensor would be to prevent the robot from colliding with objects in space including human beings. Eventually a tri-mode system in envisioned including proximity, tactile, and thermal. To date the primary emphasis was on the proximity sensor which evolved from one based on magneto-inductive principles to the current design which is based on a capacitive-reflector system. The capacitive sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect field lines away from the grounded robot toward the intruding object. This results in an increased sensing range of up to 12 in. with the reflector on compared with only 1 in. with it off. It is believed that this design advances the state-of-the-art in capacitive sensor performance.

  20. Space missions for automation and robotics technologies (SMART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciffone, D. L.; Lum, H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The motivations, features and expected benefits and applications of the NASA SMART program are summarized. SMART is intended to push the state of the art in automation and robotics, a goal that Public Law 98-371 mandated be an inherent part of the Space Station program. The effort would first require tests of sensors, manipulators, computers and other subsystems as seeds for the evolution of flight-qualified subsystems. Consideration is currently being given to robotics systems as add-ons to the RMS, MMU and OMV and a self-contained automation and robotics module which would be tended by astronaut visits. Probable experimentation and development paths that would be pursued with the equipment are discussed, along with the management structure and procedures for the program. The first hardware flight is projected for 1989.

  1. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1990-01-01

    A research program and strategy are described which include fundamental teleoperation issues and autonomous-control issues of sensing and navigation for satellite robots. The program consists of developing interfaces for visual operation and studying the consequences of interface designs as well as developing navigation and control technologies based on visual interaction. A space-robot-vehicle simulator is under development for use in virtual-environment teleoperation experiments and neutral-buoyancy investigations. These technologies can be utilized in a study of visual interfaces to address tradeoffs between head-tracking and manual remote cameras, panel-mounted and helmet-mounted displays, and stereoscopic and monoscopic display systems. The present program can provide significant data for the development of control experiments for autonomously controlled satellite robots.

  2. Multi Robot Flocking Using Cooperative Control for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Priya

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims at achieving flocking behavior of multi robot systems for space explorations. Cooperative control of unmanned vehicles is used in the survey of unknown environments. Distributed control of multiple vehicles achieves the objective of exploration of wide areas while avoiding obstacles on their path. Gradient based algorithm is used to obtain necessary attractive/repulsive force to maintain flock. Similar force is used to avoid obstacles, which may be present in the environment. Velocity consensus algorithm helps in maintaining the necessary geometry of the flock. A target agent specifies the group behavior for the flock. Two wheel differential robot model with second order dynamics is considered here. Robot motion is assumed to be on plane terrain.

  3. The flight telerobotic servicer: NASA's first operational space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuechsel, Charles F.

    1989-01-01

    Alternatives to the exploration of Mars by direct human presence are under consideration by both the United States and the Soviet Union. In these concepts, autonomous surface vehicles would navigate the planet performing a variety of detailed exploratory functions such as mapping, seismic measurements, sample collection and analysis. Both of these approaches to the exploration of Mars depend to a high degree on the ability of robotic machinery to perform complex functions without real time human direction. Closer to home and in time, robotics will begin to play a role in space operations in the construction and maintenance of Space Station Freedom. The Flight Telerobotic Servicer Project is introduced as an element of the Space Station Freedom, and its objectives and some special challenges it faces are discussed.

  4. Station-Keeping Requirements for Astronomical Imaging with Constellations of Free-Flying Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements on station-keeping for constellations of free-flying collectors coupled as (future) imaging arrays in space for astrophysics applications are discussed. The typical knowledge precision required in the plane of the array depends on the angular size of the targets of interest; it is generally at a level of tens of centimeters for typical stellar targets, becoming of order centimeters only for the widest attainable fields of view. In the "piston" direction, perpendicular to the array, the typical knowledge precision required depends on the bandwidth of the signal, and is at a level of tens of wavelengths for narrow approx. 1% signal bands, becoming of order one wavelength only for the broadest bandwidths expected to be useful. The significance of this result is that, at this level of precision, it may be possible to provide the necessary knowledge of array geometry without the use of signal photons, thereby allowing observations of faint targets. "Closure-phase" imaging is a technique which has been very successfully applied to surmount instabilities owing to equipment and to the atmosphere, and which appears to be directly applicable to space imaging arrays where station-keeping drifts play the same role as (slow) atmospheric and equipment instabilities.

  5. Free-floating dual-arm robots for space assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Sunil Kumar; Chen, M. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Freely moving systems in space conserve linear and angular momentum. As moving systems collide, the velocities get altered due to transfer of momentum. The development of strategies for assembly in a free-floating work environment requires a good understanding of primitives such as self motion of the robot, propulsion of the robot due to onboard thrusters, docking of the robot, retrieval of an object from a collection of objects, and release of an object in an object pool. The analytics of such assemblies involve not only kinematics and rigid body dynamics but also collision and impact dynamics of multibody systems. In an effort to understand such assemblies in zero gravity space environment, we are currently developing at Ohio University a free-floating assembly facility with a dual-arm planar robot equipped with thrusters, a free-floating material table, and a free-floating assembly table. The objective is to pick up workpieces from the material table and combine them into prespecified assemblies. This paper presents analytical models of assembly primitives and strategies for overall assembly. A computer simulation of an assembly is developed using the analytical models. The experiment facility will be used to verify the theoretical predictions.

  6. SpRoUTS (Space Robot Universal Truss System): Reversible Robotic Assembly of Deployable Truss Structures of Reconfigurable Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel; Cheung, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Automatic deployment of structures has been a focus of much academic and industrial work on infrastructure applications and robotics in general. This paper presents a robotic truss assembler designed for space applications - the Space Robot Universal Truss System (SpRoUTS) - that reversibly assembles a truss from a feedstock of hinged andflat-packed components, by folding the sides of each component up and locking onto the assembled structure. We describe the design and implementation of the robot and show that the assembled truss compares favorably with prior truss deployment systems.

  7. The dynamic control of robotic manipulators in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    Described briefly is the work done during the first half year of a three-year study on dynamic control of robotic manipulators in space. The research focused on issues for advanced control of space manipulators including practical issues and new applications for the Virtual Manipulator. In addition, the development of simulations and graphics software for space manipulators, begun during the first NASA proposal in the area, has continued. The fabrication of the Vehicle Emulator System (VES) is completed and control algorithms are in process of development.

  8. Quantifying Astronaut Tasks: Robotic Technology and Future Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava

    2003-01-01

    The primary aim of this research effort was to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited EVA by developing models of the constitutive and compatibility relations of a space suit, based on experimental data gained from human test subjects as well as a 12 degree-of-freedom human-sized robot, and utilizing these fundamental relations to estimate a human factors performance metric for space suited EVA work. The three specific objectives are to: 1) Compile a detailed database of torques required to bend the joints of a space suit, using realistic, multi- joint human motions. 2) Develop a mathematical model of the constitutive relations between space suit joint torques and joint angular positions, based on experimental data and compare other investigators' physics-based models to experimental data. 3) Estimate the work envelope of a space suited astronaut, using the constitutive and compatibility relations of the space suit. The body of work that makes up this report includes experimentation, empirical and physics-based modeling, and model applications. A detailed space suit joint torque-angle database was compiled with a novel experimental approach that used space-suited human test subjects to generate realistic, multi-joint motions and an instrumented robot to measure the torques required to accomplish these motions in a space suit. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model is developed to predict joint torque from the joint angle history. Two physics-based models of pressurized fabric cylinder bending are compared to experimental data, yielding design insights. The mathematical model is applied to EVA operations in an inverse kinematic analysis coupled to the space suit model to calculate the volume in which space-suited astronauts can work with their hands, demonstrating that operational human factors metrics can be predicted from fundamental space suit information.

  9. Detection of free spaces for mobile robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzizi, Norelhouda; Zaatri, Abdelouahab; Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2014-10-01

    This work is situated within the framework of the semi-autonomous and autonomous navigation of mobile robots in unknown environments with obstacles occurrence. It is based on the implementation of a vision-based system using an embedded monocular CCD camera. The vision system is designed to dynamically determine the free space in which the robot can move without obstacle collisions. This system is composed of a sequel of image processing operations: contour detection by Canny's filter, connection of neighborhood pixels, elimination of small contours which are considered as noise. The free space is determined by analyzing the perceived area and checking the presence of obstacles. Finally, obstacle borders are delimited enabling to prevent obstacles. Some experimental results are presented to illustrate the effective possibility of use of our system.

  10. Development of Advanced Robotic Hand System for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machida, Kazuo; Akita, Kenzo; Mikami, Tatsuo; Komada, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Robotic Hand System (ARH) is a precise telerobotics system with a semi dexterous hand for future space application. The ARH will be tested in space as one of the missions of the Engineering Tests Satellite 7 (ETS-7) which will be launched in 1997. The objectives of the ARH development are to evaluate the capability of a possible robot hand for precise and delicate tasks and to validate the related technologies implemented in the system. The ARH is designed to be controlled both from ground as a teleoperation and by locally autonomous control. This paper presents the overall system design and the functional capabilities of the ARH as well as its mission outline as the preliminary design has been completed.

  11. Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service and Space (CIRFFSS 1994), Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The AIAA/NASA Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service, and Space (CIRFFSS '94) was originally proposed because of the strong belief that America's problems of global economic competitiveness and job creation and preservations can partly be solved by the use of intelligent robotics, which are also required for human space exploration missions. Individual sessions addressed the following topics: (1) vision systems integration and architecture; (2) selective perception and human robot interaction; (3) robotic systems technology; (4) military and other field applications; (5) dual-use precommercial robotic technology; (6) building operations; (7) planetary exploration applications; (8) planning; (9) new directions in robotics; and (10) commercialization.

  12. Vision science and technology for supervised intelligent space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1990-01-01

    The focus of recent work in robotic vision for application in intelligent space robots such as the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever is in visual function, that is, how information about the space world is derived and then conveyed to cognition. The goal of this work in visual function is first to understand how the relevant structure of the surrounding world is evidenced by regularities among the pixels of images, then to understand how these regularities are mapped on the premises that form the primitive elements of cognition, and then to apply these understandings with the elements of visual processing (algorithms) and visual mechanism (machine organization) to intelligent space robot simulations and test beds. Since visual perception is the process of recognizing regularities in images that are known on the basis of a model of the world to be reliable related to causal structure in the environment (because perception attaches meaning to the link between a conception of the environment and the objective environment), the work involves understanding generic, generally applicable models of world structure (not merely objects) and how that structure evidences itself in images.

  13. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that

  14. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  15. An integrated dexterous robotic testbed for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Larry C.; Nguyen, Hai; Sauer, Edward

    1992-01-01

    An integrated dexterous robotic system was developed as a testbed to evaluate various robotics technologies for advanced space applications. The system configuration consisted of a Utah/MIT Dexterous Hand, a PUMA 562 arm, a stereo vision system, and a multiprocessing computer control system. In addition to these major subsystems, a proximity sensing system was integrated with the Utah/MIT Hand to provide capability for non-contact sensing of a nearby object. A high-speed fiber-optic link was used to transmit digitized proximity sensor signals back to the multiprocessing control system. The hardware system was designed to satisfy the requirements for both teleoperated and autonomous operations. The software system was designed to exploit parallel processing capability, pursue functional modularity, incorporate artificial intelligence for robot control, allow high-level symbolic robot commands, maximize reusable code, minimize compilation requirements, and provide an interactive application development and debugging environment for the end users. An overview is presented of the system hardware and software configurations, and implementation is discussed of subsystem functions.

  16. Task Learning of an Arm Robot in Real Space by Using a Learning System in Virtual Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubone, Tadashi; Kurimoto, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Koichi; Wada, Yasuhiro

    Reinforced learning by which a robot acquires control rules through trial and error has gotten a lot of attention. However, it is quite difficult for robots to acquire control rules by reinforcement learning in real space because many learning trials are needed to achieve the control rules; the robot itself may lose control, or there may be safety problems with the control objects. In this paper, we propose a method in which a robot in real space learns a virtual task; then the task is transferred from virtual to real space. The robot eventually acquires the task in a real environment. We show that a real robot can acquire a task in virtual space with an input device by an example of an inverted pendulum. Next, we verify availability that the acquired task in virtual space can be applied to a real world task. We emphasize the utilization of virtual space to effectively obtain the real world task.

  17. ASI's space automation and robotics programs: The second step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipippo, Simonetta

    1994-01-01

    The strategic decisions taken by ASI in the last few years in building up the overall A&R program, represent the technological drivers for other applications (i.e., internal automation of the Columbus Orbital Facility in the ESA Manned Space program, applications to mobile robots both in space and non-space environments, etc...). In this context, the main area of application now emerging is the scientific missions domain. Due to the broad range of applications of the developed technologies, both in the in-orbit servicing and maintenance of space structures and scientific missions, ASI foresaw the need to have a common technological development path, mainly focusing on: (1) control; (2) manipulation; (3) on-board computing; (4) sensors; and (5) teleoperation. Before entering into new applications in the scientific missions field, a brief overview of the status of the SPIDER related projects is given, underlining also the possible new applications for the LEO/GEO space structures.

  18. ASI's space automation and robotics programs: The second step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, Simonetta

    1994-10-01

    The strategic decisions taken by ASI in the last few years in building up the overall A&R program, represent the technological drivers for other applications (i.e., internal automation of the Columbus Orbital Facility in the ESA Manned Space program, applications to mobile robots both in space and non-space environments, etc...). In this context, the main area of application now emerging is the scientific missions domain. Due to the broad range of applications of the developed technologies, both in the in-orbit servicing and maintenance of space structures and scientific missions, ASI foresaw the need to have a common technological development path, mainly focusing on: (1) control; (2) manipulation; (3) on-board computing; (4) sensors; and (5) teleoperation. Before entering into new applications in the scientific missions field, a brief overview of the status of the SPIDER related projects is given, underlining also the possible new applications for the LEO/GEO space structures.

  19. Automation and robotics - Key to productivity. [in industry and space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    The automated and robotic systems requirements of the NASA Space Station are prompted by maintenance, repair, servicing and assembly requirements. Trend analyses, fault diagnoses, and subsystem status assessments for the Station's electrical power, guidance, navigation, control, data management and environmental control subsystems will be undertaken by cybernetic expert systems; this will reduce or eliminate on-board or ground facility activities that would otherwise be essential, enhancing system productivity. Additional capabilities may also be obtained through the incorporation of even a limited amount of artificial intelligence in the controllers of the various Space Station systems.

  20. Robotic influence in the conceptual design of mechanical systems in space and vice versa - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, George F.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of methods using robotic devices to construct structural elements in space is presented. Two approaches to robotic construction are considered: one in which the structural elements are designed using conventional aerospace techniques which tend to constrain the function aspects of robotics and one in which the structural elements are designed from the conceptual stage with built-in robotic features. Examples are presented of structural building concepts using robotics, including the construction of the SP-100 nuclear reactor power system, a multimirror large aperture IR space telescope concept, retrieval and repair in space, and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer.

  1. Robotic vision/sensing for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar; Graham, Olin; De Figueiredo, Rui J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of efforts currently in progress at the NASA/Johnson Space Center and Rice University, the accomplishments to date, and some of the anticipated future developments. Both systems and algorithms are discussed. The evolution of future vision/sensing is projected to included the fusion of multisensors ranging from microwave to optical with multimode capability to include position, attitude, recognition, and motion parameters. The algorithms for information extraction are expected to incorporate aspects of intelligence and knowledge for the interpolation and extrapolation of the needed data. The key features of the overall system design will be small size and weight, fast signal processing, robust algorithms, and accurate parameter determination. These aspects of vision/sensing are also discussed.

  2. Vision technology/algorithms for space robotics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar; Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The thrust of automation and robotics for space applications has been proposed for increased productivity, improved reliability, increased flexibility, higher safety, and for the performance of automating time-consuming tasks, increasing productivity/performance of crew-accomplished tasks, and performing tasks beyond the capability of the crew. This paper provides a review of efforts currently in progress in the area of robotic vision. Both systems and algorithms are discussed. The evolution of future vision/sensing is projected to include the fusion of multisensors ranging from microwave to optical with multimode capability to include position, attitude, recognition, and motion parameters. The key feature of the overall system design will be small size and weight, fast signal processing, robust algorithms, and accurate parameter determination. These aspects of vision/sensing are also discussed.

  3. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  4. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work. PMID:21095654

  5. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  6. A matrix safety frame approach to robot safety for space applications. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, T. D.; Lauderbaugh, L. Ken

    1988-01-01

    The planned use of autonomous robots in space applications has generated many new safety problems. This thesis assesses safety of autonomous robot systems through the structure of a proposed three-dimensional matrix safety frame. By identifying the common points of accidents and fatalities involving terrestrial robots, reviewing terrestrial robot safety standards, and modifying and extending these results to space applications, hazards are identified and their associated risks assessed. Three components of the safeguarding dimension of the matrix safety frame, safeguarding through design and operation for intrinsic safety, and incorporation of add-on safety systems are explained through examples for both terrestrial and space robots. A space robot hazard identification checklist, a qualitative tool for robot systems designers, is developed using the structure imparted by the matrix safety frame. The development of an expert system from the contents of the checklist is discussed.

  7. A Flexible Path for Human and Robotic Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David J.; Landis, Robert; Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Falck, Robert D.; Adams, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    During the summer of 2009, a flexible path scenario for human and robotic space exploration was developed that enables frequent, measured, and publicly notable human exploration of space beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The formulation of this scenario was in support of the Exploration Beyond LEO subcommittee of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee that was commissioned by President Obama. Exploration mission sequences that allow humans to visit a wide number of inner solar system destinations were investigated. The scope of destinations included the Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun Lagrange points, near-Earth objects (NEOs), the Moon, and Mars and its moons. The missions examined assumed the use of Constellation Program elements along with existing launch vehicles and proposed augmentations. Additionally, robotic missions were envisioned as complements to human exploration through precursor missions, as crew emplaced scientific investigations, and as sample gathering assistants to the human crews. The focus of the flexible path approach was to gain ever-increasing operational experience through human exploration missions ranging from a few weeks to several years in duration, beginning in deep space beyond LEO and evolving to landings on the Moon and eventually Mars.

  8. Automation and robotics for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, D.; Criswell, D.; Heer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 52 submissions were received in the Automation and Robotics (A&R) area during Project Outreach. About half of the submissions (24) contained concepts that were judged to have high utility for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and were analyzed further by the robotics panel. These 24 submissions are analyzed here. Three types of robots were proposed in the high scoring submissions: structured task robots (STRs), teleoperated robots (TORs), and surface exploration robots. Several advanced TOR control interface technologies were proposed in the submissions. Many A&R concepts or potential standards were presented or alluded to by the submitters, but few specific technologies or systems were suggested.

  9. RoMPS concept review automatic control of space robot, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Topics related to robot operated materials processing in space (RoMPS) are presented in view graph form and include: (1) system concept; (2) Hitchhiker Interface Requirements; (3) robot axis control concepts; (4) Autonomous Experiment Management System; (5) Zymate Robot Controller; (6) Southwest SC-4 Computer; (7) oven control housekeeping data; and (8) power distribution.

  10. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berka, Reginald B.; Spanos, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper explores typical robot design issues related to the multisegment robot concept developed by Spanos and Berka (1993) for space-based construction operations. Attention is given to the design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype multisegment robot. Experimental results of motion tests are presented and compared with analytical predictions, showing good agreement.

  11. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Technical Report, Volume 2, provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics; applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to U.S. industry and for space commercialization.

  12. The climbing crawling robot (a unique cable robot for space and Earth)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Some of the greatest concerns in robotic designs have been the high center of gravity of the robot, the irregular or flat surface that the robot has to work on, the weight of the robot that has to handle heavy weights or use heavy forces, and the ability of the robot to climb straight up in the air. This climbing crawling robot handles these problems well with magnets, suction cups, or actuators. The cables give body to the robot and it performs very similar to a caterpillar. The computer program is simple and inexpensive as is the robot. One of the important features of this system is that the robot can work in pairs or triplets to handle jobs that would be extremely difficult for single robots. The light weight of the robot allows it to handle quite heavy weights. The number of feet give the robot many roots where a simple set of feet would give it trouble.

  13. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  14. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an objective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  15. Peer-to-Peer Human-Robot Interaction for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Nourbakhsh, Illah

    2004-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a long-term program to develop human-robot systems for sustained, affordable space exploration. To support this mission, we are working to improve human-robot interaction and performance on planetary surfaces. Rather than building robots that function as glorified tools, our focus is to enable humans and robots to work as partners and peers. In this paper. we describe our approach, which includes contextual dialogue, cognitive modeling, and metrics-based field testing.

  16. Command and Telemetry Latency Effects on Operator Performance during International Space Station Robotics Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Nancy J.; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) operations will require the on-board crew to perform numerous robotic-assisted assembly, maintenance, and inspection activities. Current estimates for some robotically performed maintenance timelines are disproportionate and potentially exceed crew availability and duty times. Ground-based control of the ISS robotic manipulators, specifically the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), is being examined as one potential solution to alleviate the excessive amounts of crew time required for extravehicular robotic maintenance and inspection tasks.

  17. Advancing Robotic Control for Space Exploration Using Robonaut 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia; Diftler, Myron; Hart, Stephen; Joyce, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Robonaut 2, or R2, arrived on the International Space Station (ISS) in February 2011 and is currently being tested in preparation for its role initially as an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) tool and eventually as a robot that performs Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Robonaut 2, is a state of the art dexterous anthropomorphic robotic torso designed for assisting astronauts. R2 features increased force sensing, greater range of motion, higher bandwidth, and improved dexterity over its predecessor. Robonaut 2 is unique in its ability to safely allow humans in its workspace and to perform significant tasks in a workspace designed for humans. The current operational paradigm involves either the crew or the ground control team running semi-autonomous scripts on the robot as both the astronaut and the ground team monitor R2 and the data it produces. While this is appropriate for the check-out phase of operations, the future plans for R2 will stress the current operational framework. The approach described here will outline a suite of operational modes that will be developed for Robonaut 2. These operational modes include teleoperation, shared control, directed autonomy, and supervised autonomy, and they cover a spectrum of human involvement in controlling R2.

  18. Conference on Space and Military Applications of Automation and Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: robotics; deployment strategies; artificial intelligence; expert systems; sensors and image processing; robotic systems; guidance, navigation, and control; aerospace and missile system manufacturing; and telerobotics.

  19. Design reuse experience of space and hazardous operations robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, P. Graham

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of design drivers for space and hazardous nuclear waste operating robots details similarities and differences in operations, performance and environmental parameters for these critical environments. The similarities are exploited to provide low risk system components based on reuse principles and design knowledge. Risk reduction techniques are used for bridging areas of significant differences. As an example, risk reduction of a new sensor design for nuclear environment operations is employed to provide upgradeable replacement units in a reusable architecture for significantly higher levels of radiation.

  20. Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) operations and safety view - Automation and robotics for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The automation and robotics requirements for the Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) are discussed. The amount of tasks to be performed by an eight-person crew, the need for an automated or directed fault analysis capability, and ground support requirements are considered. Issues important in determining the role of automation for the IOC are listed.

  1. A Test of Transitive Inferences in Free-Flying Honeybees: Unsuccessful Performance Due to Memory Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benard, Julie; Giurfa, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We asked whether honeybees, "Apis mellifera," could solve a transitive inference problem. Individual free-flying bees were conditioned with four overlapping premise pairs of five visual patterns in a multiple discrimination task (A+ vs. B-, B+ vs. C-, C+ vs. D-, D+ vs. E-, where + and - indicate sucrose reward or absence of it, respectively). They…

  2. Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

  3. Next Generation Simulation Framework for Robotic and Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Balaram, J.; Jain, Abhinandan; Kuo, Calvin; Lim, Christopher; Myint, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Dartslab team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has a long history of developing physics-based simulations based on the Darts/Dshell simulation framework that have been used to simulate many planetary robotic missions, such as the Cassini spacecraft and the rovers that are currently driving on Mars. Recent collaboration efforts between the Dartslab team at JPL and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have led to significant enhancements to the Dartslab DSENDS (Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing) software framework. The new version of DSENDS is now being used for new planetary mission simulations at JPL. JSC is using DSENDS as the foundation for a suite of software known as COMPASS (Core Operations, Mission Planning, and Analysis Spacecraft Simulation) that is the basis for their new human space mission simulations and analysis. In this paper, we will describe the collaborative process with the JPL Dartslab and the JSC MOD team that resulted in the redesign and enhancement of the DSENDS software. We will outline the improvements in DSENDS that simplify creation of new high-fidelity robotic/spacecraft simulations. We will illustrate how DSENDS simulations are assembled and show results from several mission simulations.

  4. Space Missions for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliffone, D. L.; Lum, H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is currently considering the establishment of a Space Mission for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program to define, develop, integrate, test, and operate a spaceborne national research facility for the validation of advanced automation and robotics technologies. Initially, the concept is envisioned to be implemented through a series of shuttle based flight experiments which will utilize telepresence technologies and real time operation concepts. However, eventually the facility will be capable of a more autonomous role and will be supported by either the shuttle or the space station. To ensure incorporation of leading edge technology in the facility, performance capability will periodically and systematically be upgraded by the solicitation of recommendations from a user advisory group. The facility will be managed by NASA, but will be available to all potential investigators. Experiments for each flight will be selected by a peer review group. Detailed definition and design is proposed to take place during FY 86, with the first SMART flight projected for FY 89.

  5. Robonaut 2 - The First Humanoid Robot in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Radford, N. A.; Mehling, J. S.; Abdallah, M. E.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Sanders, A. M.; Askew, R. S.; Linn, D. M.; Yamokoski, J. D.; Permenter, F. A.; Hargrave, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and General Motors have developed the second generation Robonaut, Robonaut 2 or R2, and it is scheduled to arrive on the International Space Station in late 2010 and undergo initial testing in early 2011. This state of the art, dexterous, anthropomorphic robotic torso has significant technical improvements over its predecessor making it a far more valuable tool for astronauts. Upgrades include: increased force sensing, greater range of motion, higher bandwidth and improved dexterity. R2 s integrated mechatronics design results in a more compact and robust distributed control system with a faction of the wiring of the original Robonaut. Modularity is prevalent throughout the hardware and software along with innovative and layered approaches for sensing and control. The most important aspects of the Robonaut philosophy are clearly present in this latest model s ability to allow comfortable human interaction and in its design to perform significant work using the same hardware and interfaces used by people. The following describes the mechanisms, integrated electronics, control strategies and user interface that make R2 a promising addition to the Space Station and other environments where humanoid robots can assist people.

  6. Mini AERCam Inspection Robot for Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Duran, Steve; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2004-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate of NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spacecraft. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam free flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35 pound, 14 inch AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations including automatic stationkeeping and point-to-point maneuvering. Mini AERCam is designed to fulfill the unique requirements and constraints associated with using a free flyer to perform external inspections and remote viewing of human spacecraft operations. This paper describes the application of Mini AERCam for stand-alone spacecraft inspection, as well as for roles on teams of humans and robots conducting future space exploration missions.

  7. Robotic Materials Handling in Space: Mechanical Design of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System HitchHiker Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George

    1997-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS) that flew aboard STS-64 in September, 1994. The ROMPS robot transported pallets containing wafers of different materials from their storage racks to a furnace for thermal processing. A system of tapered guides and compliant springs was designed to deal with the potential misalignments. The robot and all the sample pallets were locked down for launch and landing. The design of the passive lockdown system, and the interplay between it and the alignment system are presented.

  8. Free-flying teleoperator requirements and conceptual design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onega, G. T.; Clingman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    A teleoperator, as defined by NASA, is a remotely controlled cybernetic man-machine system designed to augment and extend man's sensory, manipulative, and cognitive capabilities. Teleoperator systems can fulfill an important function in the Space Shuttle program. They can retrieve automated satellites for refurbishment and reuse. Cargo can be transferred over short or large distances and orbital operations can be supported. A requirements analysis is discussed, giving attention to the teleoperator spacecraft, docking and stowage systems, display and controls, propulsion, guidance, navigation, control, the manipulators, the video system, the electrical power, and aspects of communication and data management. Questions of concept definition and evaluation are also examined.

  9. A three-finger multisensory hand for dexterous space robotic tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murase, Yuichi; Komada, Satoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Machida, Kazuo; Akita, Kenzo

    1994-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan will launch ETS-7 in 1997, as a test bed for next generation space technology of RV&D and space robot. MITI has been developing a three-finger multisensory hand for complex space robotic tasks. The hand can be operated under remote control or autonomously. This paper describes the design and development of the hand and the performance of a breadboard model.

  10. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Retrostyloid Parapharyngeal Space Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Ansarin, Mohssen; Tagliabue, Marta; Chu, Francesco; Zorzi, Stefano; Proh, Michele; Preda, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are very rare, representing about 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. An external surgical approach is mainly used. Several recent papers show how transoral robotic surgery (TORS) excision could be a prospective tool to remove mainly benign lesions in PPS; no cases of neurogenic tumors from the retrostyloid space treated with TORS have been reported. We present two cases which underwent TORS for schwannomas from the retrostyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space. Clinical diagnosis of schwannoma was performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the first case a 6 cm neurogenic tumor arose from the vagus nerve and in the second case a 5 cm mass from the sympathetic chain was observed. Both cases were treated successfully by the TORS approach using a new “J”-shaped incision through the mucosa and superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Left vocal cord palsy and the Claude Bernard Horner syndrome, respectively, were observed as expected postsurgical sequelae. In case 1 the first bite syndrome developed after three months, while no complications were observed in case 2. Both patients regained a normal swallowing function. TORS seems to be a feasible mini-invasive procedure for benign PPS masses including masses in the poststyloid space. PMID:25202464

  11. Control of Human-Following Robot Based on Cooperative Positioning with an Intelligent Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Kazuyuki; Oinaga, Yudai; Nakamura, Yuichi

    This paper proposes the localization method based on interactive communication between a mobile robot and a networked laser range scanner installed in an intelligent space and achieves human-following control of a mobile robot with the method. Generally, human tracking with cameras or laser range scanners on board the robots has been utilized for control of mobile robots to follow human walking. In addition to human tracking, mobile robots have to perform position estimation simultaneously. There is constraints in measurement for landmark detection or SLAM, because target human walks close to the robot while human following. Then, proposed system consiers to utilize an intelligent environment where sensors are distributed. The proposed system exchanges position and heading information estimated in the mobile robot and the networked laser range scanner with each other. The networked laser range scanner searches and detects target human and the robot based on the position information sent from the robot. The robot receives the detection results from the networked laser range scanner. Then, the estimate position is updated and reference velocities for human-following control are calculated with them. Estimation errors with odometry in the robot and unstable tracking of target in the networked laser range scanner are compensated with this system. In this paper, communication timing between the robot and the networked laser range scanners while human-following is discussed. Human-following experiments are performed and the results are shown.

  12. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  13. Development of a large space robot - A multi-segment approach. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, P. D.; Berka, Reginald B.

    1993-01-01

    A concept of multisegment robot (of a class of large space cranes) is developed for use in space-based construction operations. The robot consists of a collection of segments, which are pinned together to form a snakelike configuration, with a single degree of freedom representing rotation being retained at each pinned connection and with reaction flywheels suspended within each segment for the control necessary to position each body segment. Algorithms are developed for positioning this serpentine robot to a prescribed location and orientation. A multibody dynamics simulation is used to investigate the behavior and interactions of the robot, demonstrating its viability.

  14. Robotic experiment with a force reflecting handcontroller onboard MIR space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delpech, M.; Matzakis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    During the French CASSIOPEE mission that will fly onboard MIR space station in 1996, ergonomic evaluations of a force reflecting handcontroller will be performed on a simulated robotic task. This handcontroller is a part of the COGNILAB payload that will be used also for experiments in neurophysiology. The purpose of the robotic experiment is the validation of a new control and design concept that would enhance the task performances for telemanipulating space robots. Besides the handcontroller and its control unit, the experimental system includes a simulator of the slave robot dynamics for both free and constrained motions, a flat display screen and a seat with special fixtures for holding the astronaut.

  15. Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service, and Space (CIRFFSS 1994), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The AIAA/NASA Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service, and Space (CIRFFSS '94) was originally proposed because of the strong belief that America's problems of global economic competitiveness and job creation and preservation can partly be solved by the use of intelligent robotics, which are also required for human space exploration missions. Individual sessions addressed nuclear industry, agile manufacturing, security/building monitoring, on-orbit applications, vision and sensing technologies, situated control and low-level control, robotic systems architecture, environmental restoration and waste management, robotic remanufacturing, and healthcare applications.

  16. Self-Sustaining Robotic Ecologies and Space Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the folowing: rom "one shot" explorations to infrastructure building. Challenges to infrastructure building. Modularity and self-sustaining robotic ecologies. A pathway to human presence. Robotic " archntecture". The "robosphere" concept.

  17. Special requirements for electronics to be used in robots in space

    SciTech Connect

    Sias, F.R.

    1994-12-31

    Robots have been developed for use in hazardous environments and space certainly falls in the category of a hazardous environment. Microcomputers and electronics used to control robotic systems to be employed in space face greater threats than earth-bound robots used around radioactive materials. It is well known that nuclear radiation damages semiconductor devices by causing charges to build up in silicon dioxide insulating layers when the devices are exposed to ionizing radiation. Electronics suffer from doses of radiation when used around radioactive materials; however, additional sources of damage are present when the robots are used in space. This paper is a review of the problems that must be considered when developing electronics for robots to be used in space and some of the available solutions.

  18. Preliminary results on noncollocated torque control of space robot actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilley, Scott W.; Francis, Colin M.; Emerick, Ken; Hollars, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    In the Space Station era, more operations will be performed robotically in space in the areas of servicing, assembly, and experiment tending among others. These robots may have various sets of requirements for accuracy, speed, and force generation, but there will be design constraints such as size, mass, and power dissipation limits. For actuation, a leading motor candidate is a dc brushless type, and there are numerous potential drive trains each with its own advantages and disadvantages. This experiment uses a harmonic drive and addresses some inherent limitations, namely its backdriveability and low frequency structural resonances. These effects are controlled and diminished by instrumenting the actuator system with a torque transducer on the output shaft. This noncollocated loop is closed to ensure that the commanded torque is accurately delivered to the manipulator link. The actuator system is modelled and its essential parameters identified. The nonlinear model for simulations will include inertias, gearing, stiction, flexibility, and the effects of output load variations. A linear model is extracted and used for designing the noncollocated torque and position feedback loops. These loops are simulated with the structural frequency encountered in the testbed system. Simulation results are given for various commands in position. The use of torque feedback is demonstrated to yield superior performance in settling time and positioning accuracy. An experimental setup being finished consists of a bench mounted motor and harmonic drive actuator system. A torque transducer and two position encoders, each with sufficient resolution and bandwidth, will provide sensory information. Parameters of the physical system are being identified and matched to analytical predictions. Initial feedback control laws will be incorporated in the bench test equipment and various experiments run to validate the designs. The status of these experiments is given.

  19. Mathematical model for adaptive control system of ASEA robot at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zia, Omar

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic properties and the mathematical model for the adaptive control of the robotic system presently under investigation at Robotic Application and Development Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center are discussed. NASA is currently investigating the use of robotic manipulators for mating and demating of fuel lines to the Space Shuttle Vehicle prior to launch. The Robotic system used as a testbed for this purpose is an ASEA IRB-90 industrial robot with adaptive control capabilities. The system was tested and it's performance with respect to stability was improved by using an analogue force controller. The objective of this research project is to determine the mathematical model of the system operating under force feedback control with varying dynamic internal perturbation in order to provide continuous stable operation under variable load conditions. A series of lumped parameter models are developed. The models include some effects of robot structural dynamics, sensor compliance, and workpiece dynamics.

  20. The impact of an IVA robot on the Space Station microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Phillip E.; Rohn, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to maintain a microgravity environment during Space Station operations, it will be necessary to minimize reaction forces. These mechanical forces will typically occur during reboost, docking, equipment operation, intravehicular activities (IVA) robot operation, or crew activity. This paper focuses on those disturbances created by an IVA robot and its impact on the Space Station microgravity environment. The robot dynamic analysis that was used to generate the forcing function as the input into a finite element model of the U.S. Laboratory will be shown. Acceleration levels were determined through analysis and have shown that a robotic system can sustain reaction forces into the station below 0.0001 g. A comparison between IVA robot effects and crew motion effects on the low-g environment is also described. It is concluded that robot trajectory shaping and motor accelerations feedback can minimize reaction forces.

  1. Robonaut 2 - Building a Robot on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Badger, Julia; Joyce, Charles; Potter, Elliott; Pike, Leah

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Robonaut Project embarked on a multi-phase mission to perform technology demonstrations on-board the International Space Station (ISS), showcasing state of the art robotics technologies through the use of Robonaut 2 (R2). This phased approach implements a strategy that allows for the use of ISS as a test bed during early development to both demonstrate capability and test technology while still making advancements in the earth based laboratories for future testing and operations in space. While R2 was performing experimental trials onboard the ISS during the first phase, engineers were actively designing for Phase 2, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) Mobility, that utilizes a set of zero-g climbing legs outfitted with grippers to grasp handrails and seat tracks. In addition to affixing the new climbing legs to the existing R2 torso, it became clear that upgrades to the torso to both physically accommodate the climbing legs and to expand processing power and capabilities of the robot were required. In addition to these upgrades, a new safety architecture was also implemented in order to account for the expanded capabilities of the robot. The IVA climbing legs not only needed to attach structurally to the R2 torso on ISS, but also required power and data connections that did not exist in the upper body. The climbing legs were outfitted with a blind mate adapter and coarse alignment guides for easy installation, but the upper body required extensive rewiring to accommodate the power and data connections. This was achieved by mounting a custom adapter plate to the torso and routing the additional wiring through the waist joint to connect to the new set of processors. In addition to the power and data channels, the integrated unit also required updated electronics boards, additional sensors and updated processors to accommodate a new operating system, software platform, and custom control system. In order to perform the unprecedented task of building a robot

  2. Status of robotic mission studies for the Space Exploration Initiative - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.; Dias, William C.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Pivirotto, Donna L.; Sturms, Francis M.; Hubbard, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Results of studies of robotic missions to the moon and Mars planned under the U.S. Space Exploration Initiative are summarized. First, an overall strategy for small robotic missions to accomplish the information gathering required by human missions is reviewed, and the principal robotic mission requirements are discussed. The discussion covers the following studies: the Lunar Observer, the Mars Environmental Survey mission, Mars Sample Return missions using microtechnology, and payloads.

  3. Development of automation and robotics for space via computer graphic simulation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Ken

    1988-01-01

    A robot simulation system, has been developed to perform automation and robotics system design studies. The system uses a procedure-oriented solid modeling language to produce a model of the robotic mechanism. The simulator generates the kinematics, inverse kinematics, dynamics, control, and real-time graphic simulations needed to evaluate the performance of the model. Simulation examples are presented, including simulation of the Space Station and the design of telerobotics for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle.

  4. Exhaustive geographic search with mobile robots along space-filling curves

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, S.V.; Goldsmith, S.Y.

    1998-03-01

    Swarms of mobile robots can be tasked with searching a geographic region for targets of interest, such as buried land mines. The authors assume that the individual robots are equipped with sensors tuned to the targets of interest, that these sensors have limited range, and that the robots can communicate with one another to enable cooperation. How can a swarm of cooperating sensate robots efficiently search a given geographic region for targets in the absence of a priori information about the target`s locations? Many of the obvious approaches are inefficient or lack robustness. One efficient approach is to have the robots traverse a space-filling curve. For many geographic search applications, this method is energy-frugal, highly robust, and provides guaranteed coverage in a finite time that decreases as the reciprocal of the number of robots sharing the search task. Furthermore, it minimizes the amount of robot-to-robot communication needed for the robots to organize their movements. This report presents some preliminary results from applying the Hilbert space-filling curve to geographic search by mobile robots.

  5. Robotic Drilling Technology and Applications to Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, J. L.; Reiter, J. W.; Rumann, A.; Wu, D.; Wang, G. Y.; Meyers, M.; Craig, J.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.

    2006-12-01

    Introduction: Robotic drilling has great potential to become a vital, enabling technology in the context of future human and robotic exploration of the Solar System. Specific needs for human exploration relate to the ability for remote missions to scout potential locations for habitability and/or resource recovery. We will describe relevant challenges to robotic drilling and development pertaining to operations within hostile planetary environments. From the perspective of a system concept for mission architectures and exploration approaches, the ability to drill into extra-terrestrial planetary bodies and recover samples for analysis and/or utilization can provide vital references, resources, and opportunities for mission enrichment. The technology for supporting and planning such missions presents a feed-forward advantage for a human presence in such environments. Future space missions for drilling in the shallow and mid-to-deep subsurface face issues unfamiliar to terrestrial analogues, including limited power, very low or very high pressures, and widely varying thermal environments. We will discuss the means and approaches for establishing drilling operations, managing drilling sites, and mitigating environmental effects. Early robotic phases will leverage system-of-systems collaborations among humans and machines on and above the surface of planetary bodies. Such "precursor missions" will be charged with the task of mapping subsurface geology, understanding soil/rock particle distributions, obtaining geologic history, and determining local resource profiles. An example of the need for this kind of information is given to good effect by one of the lessons learned by NASA's Apollo program: the effects of lunar dust on humans, drilling mechanisms, and mission expectations were far greater than initially expected, and are still being critically considered. Future missions to Solar System bodies, including the Moon and Mars, will need to have advance information

  6. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station Freedom and for the US economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The progress made by levels 1, 2, and 3 of the Office of Space Station in developing and applying advanced automation and robotics technology is described. Emphasis is placed upon the Space Station Freedom Program responses to specific recommendations made in the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) progress report 10, the flight telerobotic servicer, and the Advanced Development Program. Assessments are presented for these and other areas as they apply to the advancement of automation and robotics technology for the Space Station Freedom.

  7. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  8. Robots Explore the Farthest Reaches of Earth and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "We were the first that ever burst/Into that silent sea," the title character recounts in Samuel Taylor Coleridge s opus Rime of the Ancient Mariner. This famous couplet is equally applicable to undersea exploration today as surface voyages then, and has recently been applied to space travel in the title of a chronicle of the early years of human space flight ("Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965"), companion to the +n the Shadow of the Moon book and movie. The parallel is certainly fitting, considering both fields explore unknown, harsh, and tantalizingly inhospitable environments. For starters, exploring the Briny Deep and the Final Frontier requires special vehicles, and the most economical and safest means for each employ remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ROVs have proven the tool of choice for exploring remote locations, allowing scientists to explore the deepest part of the sea and the furthest reaches of the solar system with the least weight penalty, the most flexibility and specialization of design, and without the need to provide for sustaining human life, or the risk of jeopardizing that life. Most NASA probes, including the historic Voyager I and II spacecraft and especially the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, feature remote operation, but new missions and new planetary environments will demand new capabilities from the robotic explorers of the future. NASA has an acute interest in the development of specialized ROVs, as new lessons learned on Earth can be applied to new environments and increasingly complex missions in the future of space exploration.

  9. Requirements and applications for robotic servicing of military space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledford, Otto C., Jr.; Bennett, Rodney G.

    1992-01-01

    The utility of on-orbit servicing of spacecraft has been demonstrated by NASA several times using shuttle-based astronaut EVA. There has been interest in utilizing on-orbit servicing for military space systems as well. This interest has been driven by the increasing reliance of all branches of the military upon space-based assets, the growing numbers, complexity, and cost of those assets, and a desire to normalize support policies for space-based operations. Many military satellites are placed in orbits which are unduly hostile for astronaut operations and/or cannot be reached by the shuttle. In addition, some of the projected tasks may involve hazardous operations. This has led to a focus on robotic systems, instead of astronauts, for the basis of projected servicing systems. This paper describes studies and activities which will hopefully lead to on-orbit servicing being one of the tools available to military space systems designers and operators. The utility of various forms of servicing has been evaluated for present and projected systems, critical technologies have been identified, and strategies for the development and insertion of this technology into operational systems have been developed. Many of the projected plans have been adversely affected by budgetary restrictions and evolving architectures, but the fundamental benefits and requirements are well understood. A method of introducing servicing capabilities in a manner which has a low impact on the system designer and does not require the prior development of an expensive infrastructure is discussed. This can potentially lead to an evolutionary implementation of the full technology.

  10. Automation and robotics for the Space Station - The influence of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunamaker, Robert R.; Willshire, Kelli F.

    1988-01-01

    The reports of a committee established by Congress to identify specific systems of the Space Station which would advance automation and robotics technologies are reviewed. The history of the committee, its relation to NASA, and the reports which it has released are discussed. The committee's reports recommend the widespread use of automation and robotics for the Space Station, a program for technology development and transfer between industries and research and development communities, and the planned use of robots to service and repair satellites and their payloads which are accessible from the Space Station.