Sample records for freely dissolved concentration

  1. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F; Adams, Rachel G; Cargill, John G; Gan, Jay; Gouin, Todd; Gschwend, Philip M; Hawthorne, Steven B; Helm, Paul; Witt, Gesine; You, Jing; Escher, Beate I

    2014-01-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive uptake into benthic organisms and exchange with the overlying water column. Consequently, Cfree provides a more relevant dose metric than total sediment concentration. Recent developments in PSMs have significantly improved our ability to reliably measure even very low levels of Cfree. Application of PSMs in sediments is preferably conducted in the equilibrium regime, where freely dissolved concentrations in the sediment are well-linked to the measured concentration in the sampler via analyte-specific partition ratios. The equilibrium condition can then be assured by measuring a time series or a single time point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree allows a direct assessment of 1) contaminant exchange and equilibrium status between sediment and overlying water, 2) benthic bioaccumulation, and 3) potential toxicity to benthic organisms. Thus, the use of PSMs to measure Cfree provides an improved basis for the mechanistic understanding of fate and transport processes in sediments and has the potential to significantly improve risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:197–209. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:24288295

  2. Ion exchange membranes as novel passive sampling material for organic ions: application for the determination of freely dissolved concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oemisch, Luise; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-11-28

    Many studies in pharmacology, toxicology and environmental science require a method for determining the freely dissolved concentration of a target substance. A recently developed tool for this purpose is equilibrium passive sampling with polymeric materials. However, this method has rarely been applied to ionic organic substances, primarily due to limited availability of convenient sorption materials. This study introduces ion exchange membranes (IEMs) as a novel passive sampling material for organic ions. The partitioning of 4-ethylbenzene-1-sulfonate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and pentachlorophenol to one anion exchange membrane (FAS) and of difenzoquat, nicotine and verapamil to one cation exchange membrane (FKS) was investigated. All test substances exhibited a sufficiently high affinity for the respective IEM with logarithmic IEM-water partition coefficients >2.3. Sorption equilibrium was established quickly, within several hours for the FAS membrane and within 1-3 days for the FKS membrane. For permanently charged substances the partitioning to the IEMs was independent of pH, but was influenced by the salt composition of the test solution. For all test substances sorption to IEM was dependent on the substance concentration. Bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients determined by passive sampling with IEMs agree well with those determined by the conventional dialysis method. The results of this study indicate that IEMs exhibit the potential to measure freely dissolved concentrations of organic ions in a simple and time-saving manner. PMID:25454126

  3. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Procedures for the Determination of the Freely Dissolved Interstitial Water Concentrations of Nonionic Organics

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it account...

  4. Stabilization of sewage sludge by different biochars towards reducing freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Zieli?ska, Anna; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the effect of various biochars on the content of freely dissolved (Cfree) PAHs in sewage sludge. Apart from the evaluation of biochars obtained from various materials, the study also included the determination of the effects of biochar particle sizes and biochar production temperature on their ability to bind PAHs in sewage sludge. Increase in biochar dose caused a gradual reduction of Cfree PAHs content, but only up to the biochar dose of 5%. Depending on the kind of initial material from which the biochar was produced, the reduction of Cfree PAHs content in sewage sludge varied from 17.4% to 58.0%. Both the temperature and the particle size of biochar had an effect on PAH free concentration reduction. Biochars characterised by a low polarity index (O/C or (O+N)/C) reduced the level of Cfree PAHs better than biochars with a higher polarity index value. PMID:24495539

  5. Dissolved Gaseous Mercury Concentrations and Mercury

    E-print Network

    O'Driscoll, Nelson

    % of total annual mercury inputs to the system, and studies on the Great Lakes (Canada-United States) showDissolved Gaseous Mercury Concentrations and Mercury Volatilization in a Frozen Freshwater Fluvial to examine dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), mercury volatilization, and sediment interactions in a frozen

  6. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  7. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically acquiring ...

  8. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites.

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically, acquiring...

  9. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  10. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  11. The effect of membrane filtration on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The almost universally accepted operational definition for dissolved constituents is based on processing whole-water samples through a 0.45-??m membrane filter. Results from field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample), can produce substantial variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. These variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally- associated trace elements. Thus, 'dissolved' concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole-water through similar pore- sized membrane filters may not be equal/comparable. As such, simple filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane filter may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for dissolved chemical constituents. This conclusion may have important implications for environmental studies and regulatory agencies.

  12. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  13. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  14. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  15. Dissolved gas concentrations of the geothermal fluids in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ai-Ti; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan, a geologically active island, is located on the boundary of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. High heat flow and geothermal gradient generated by the complex collision and orogeny, warm up the meteoric water and/or the ground water. The heated water becomes geothermal fluids. In previous studies, researchers tried to categorize hot springs based on the appearance, chemical compositions and lithological areas. Because of the chemical inertness, the concentrations and isotopic composition of dissolved noble gases are good indicators of the mantle degassing, geothermal conditions, and so on. In this study, 55 hot springs were collected from different tectonic units. It is the first time to systematically study the hot springs in Taiwan in terms of dissolved gases. Hot spring water is sampled and stored in pre-evacuated glass bottles for analyzing gas compositions. The abundances of noble gases were determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer based on the isotope dilution technique. Samples with glass vials are introduced to RAD 7 and GC for dissolved Rn and major dissolved gases analyses. Furthermore, helium isotopic ratios and helium-neon ratios are measured on a conventional noble gas mass spectrometer. For hydrochemistry analysis, water samples are analyzed by IC, ICP-MS and titration. We can classify the hot springs samples into three major groups from main anion concentration data; and then, subdivide them into nine minor groups by cation concentration data. Moreover, according to major dissolved gases compositions, three major gas components: CH4, N2 and CO2, are identified. Dissolved noble gases provided more detailed clues about hot springs sources in Taiwan, such as the degree of mixing between meteoric water and deep-source water, which will be further discussed in this study.

  16. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    PubMed

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton. PMID:25531981

  17. Impact of high Saharan dust inputs on dissolved iron concentrations in the Mediterranean Sea

    E-print Network

    Guieu, Cécile

    Impact of high Saharan dust inputs on dissolved iron concentrations in the Mediterranean Sea C) in the Mediterranean Sea, dissolved iron concentrations in seawater and iron and aluminium concentrations in aerosols of Saharan origin on the iron cycle in the Mediterranean Sea. INDEX TERMS: 1065 Geochemistry: Trace elements

  18. An advanced passive diffusion sampler for the determination of dissolved gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, P.; Solomon, D. K.

    2009-06-01

    We have designed and tested a passive headspace sampler for the collection of noble gases that allows for the precise calculation of dissolved gas concentrations from measured gas mixing ratios. Gas permeable silicon tubing allows for gas exchange between the headspace in the sampler volume and the dissolved gases in the adjacent water. After reaching equilibrium, the aqueous-phase concentration is related to the headspace concentration by Henry's law. Gas exchange between the water and headspace can be shut off in situ, preserving the total dissolved gas pressure upon retrieval. Gas samples are then sealed in an all metal container, retaining even highly mobile helium. Dissolved noble gas concentrations measured in these diffusion samplers are in good agreement with traditional copper tube aqueous-phase samples. These significantly reduce the laboratory labor in extracting the gases from a water sample and provide a simple and robust method for collecting dissolved gas concentrations in a variety of aqueous environments.

  19. Elevated air carbon dioxide concentrations increase dissolved carbon leaching from a cropland soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Siemens; Andreas Pacholski; Katia Heiduk; Anette Giesemann; Ulrike Schulte; René Dechow; Martin Kaupenjohann; Hans-Joachim Weigel

    Increasing leaching losses of carbon from soils due to accelerated weathering and increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon\\u000a as a result of intensified soil respiration are suspected to provide a negative feedback on rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We tested this hypothesis by studying concentrations of dissolved carbon and groundwater recharge at the\\u000a Braunschweig free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment under

  20. Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations in Tempe Town Lake: biogDissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations in Tempe Town Lake: biogeochemical & hydrologic processeseochemical & hydrologic processes 1Department of Geological Sciences, 871404, Arizona State Un

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations in Tempe Town Lake: biogDissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations in Tempe Town Lake: biogeochemical & hydrologic processeseochemical & hydrologic processes 1Department of Geological Sciences, 871404, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 2 Department

  1. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, Ronald P.

    1982-01-01

    The general quality of the ground water in the Sacramento Valley , Calif., in terms of dissolved-solids concentration is considered good for irrigation, domestic, and most other uses. This map shows the distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations and is based on about 1,330 chemical analyses collected from about 900 wells between 1974 and 1978. On the west side of the valley some of the smaller streams contribute water of higher dissolved-solids concentrations to the ground water. The sources of these waters are thought to be the upper Cretaceous Chico Formation or marine deposits of Early Cretaceous age that are exposed in the Coast Ranges. (USGS)

  2. DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC) CONCENTRATIONS IN SMALL STREAMS OF THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) supports microbial activity and contributes to transport of N and P in streams. We have studied the impact of land uses on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in 17 Georgia Piedmont headwater streams since January 2001. We classified the w...

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF FINGERLING BROOK TROUT, SALVELINUS FONTINALIS (MITCHELL), IN DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A self-recording linear gradient tank and procedures are described in which individual brook trout fingerlings unstressed by recent transfer, unaccustomed surroundings or the presence of an observer could move freely in 16 oxygen concentration gradients within the limits of 1 and...

  4. COEUR D'ALENE LAKE, IDAHO. HYPOLIMNETIC CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN, NUTRIENTS, AND TRACE ELEMENTS, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reconnaissance study of Coeur dAlene Lake, Idaho (17010303) done from May through November 1987 assessed water quality throughout the lake. Particular emphasis was on hypolimnetic concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace elements. Study results enabled refinem...

  5. The measurement of dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zosel, J.; Oelßner, W.; Decker, M.; Gerlach, G.; Guth, U.

    2011-07-01

    In this review the basic principles of carbon dioxide sensors and their manifold applications in environmental control, biotechnology, biology, medicine and food industry are reported. Electrochemical CO2 sensors based on the Severinghaus principle and solid electrolyte sensors operating at high temperatures have been manufactured and widely applied already for a long time. Besides these, nowadays infrared, non-dispersive infrared and acoustic CO2 sensors, which use physical measuring methods, are being increasingly used in some fields of application. The advantages and drawbacks of the different sensor technologies are outlined. Electrochemical sensors for the CO2 measurement in aqueous media are pointed out in more detail because of their simple setup and the resulting low costs. A detailed knowledge of the basic detection principles and the windows for their applications is necessary to find an appropriate decision on the technology to be applied for measuring dissolved CO2. In particular the pH value and the composition of the analyte matrix exert important influence on the results of the measurements.

  6. Seasonality of diel cycles of dissolved trace-metal concentrations in a Rocky Mountain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Cleasby, T.E.; McCleskey, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Substantial diel (24-h) cycles in dissolved (0.1-??m filtration) metal concentrations were observed during summer low flow, winter low flow, and snowmelt runoff in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana. During seven diel sampling episodes lasting 34-61.5 h, dissolved Mn and Zn concentrations increased from afternoon minimum values to maximum values shortly after sunrise. Dissolved As concentrations exhibited the inverse timing. The magnitude of diel concentration increases varied in the range 17-152% for Mn and 70-500% for Zn. Diel increases of As concentrations (17-55%) were less variable. The timing of minimum and maximum values of diel streamflow cycles was inconsistent among sampling episodes and had little relation to the timing of metal concentration cycles, suggesting that geochemical rather than hydrological processes are the primary control of diel metal cycles. Diel cycles of dissolved metal concentrations should be assumed to occur at any time of year in any stream with dissolved metals and neutral to alkaline pH. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  7. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth of fingerling hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in production ponds is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis; HSB) f...

  8. INCREASED TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT 'SALMO GAIRDNERI' RESULTING FROM REDUCED CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The median lethal concentration (LC50) of aqueous ammonia at reduced dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations was tested in acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. Fifteen 96-h flow-through tests were conducted over the D.O. range 2.6-8.6 mg/L, the fo...

  9. The effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Colberg, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally-associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  10. Dissolved methane concentration profiles and air-sea fluxes from 41°S to 27°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Cheryl A.; Jeffrey, Wade H.

    2002-07-01

    Water column samples from a transect cruise from southern Chile through the Panama Canal to the Gulf of Mexico were used to determine dissolved methane depth profiles and air-sea methane fluxes. In the Gulf of Mexico, surface concentrations were approximately 40% supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere, whereas near the equator and in the Peru upwelling region, 10-20% supersaturation generally occurred. These saturation ratios translate into an average flux of methane from the sea surface to the atmosphere of 0.38 ?mol m-2 d-1. In addition, water column profiles of dissolved methane indicate that subsurface maxima in dissolved methane concentrations are a consistent feature of the open ocean, except near the equator. At the equator, the subsurface peak at the base of the mixed layer may be bowed down by the Equatorial Undercurrent. The highest methane concentration (12 nM) was observed in the Peru upwelling region.

  11. Production Responses of Channel Catfish to Minimum Daily Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Earthen Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene L. Torrans

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the effects of the minimum daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the production parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in earthen ponds. Fifteen 1-acre ponds (five ponds per treatment) were managed as high-oxygen (minimum DO concentrations averaging 4.37 ppm or 54% air saturation from June through September), medium-oxygen (minimum DO concentrations averaging 2.68 ppm or 33.2% air

  12. Problems associated with using filtration to define dissolved trace element concentrations in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample) can produce significant variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. The bulk of these variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally associated trace elements in the filtrate, although dilution and sorption/desorption from filters also may be factors. Thus, dissolved trace element concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole water through similar pore-sized filters may not be equal or comparable. As such, simple filtration of unspecified volumes of natural water through unspecified 0.45-??m membrane filters may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for a number of dissolved chemical constituents.

  13. Declines in Dissolved Silica Concentrations in Western Virginia Streams (1988- 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, A. E.; Scanlon, T. M.; Galloway, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p<0.0001) over the time period from 1988-2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term datasets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation lead to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  14. Comparison of oxygen consumption in freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from different habitats during declining dissolved oxygen concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Yen Chen; Alan G. Heath; Richard J. Neves

    2001-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption (OC) of 9 species of freshwater mussels was measured under declining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The effects of temperature for some species also was investigated. The pattern of the OC vs. DO curve for each species was used in a hyperbolic model to compare abilities to regulate OC under low oxygen conditions. At 24.5 °C,

  15. Prediction of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in tubular photobioreactors for microalgal culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Camacho Rubio; E. Molina Grima

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for prediction of axial concentration profiles of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in tubular photobioreactors used for culturing microalgae. Experimental data are used to verify the model for continuous outdoor culture of Porphyridium cruentum grown in a 200-L reactor with 100-m long tu- bular solar receiver. The culture was carried out at a di- lution rate

  16. Concentrations of Dissolved and Particulate Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Water from the Saginaw River, Michigan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Verbrugge; John P. Giesy; Miguel A. Mora; Lisa L. Williams; Ronald Rossmann; Russell A. Moll; Marc Tuchman

    1995-01-01

    The Saginaw River receives water from a major drainage basin in the east-central portion of the lower peninsula of Michigan. Historically the river has been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from several sources. The present study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PCBs in both the dissolved and particulate phases of water in the lower Saginaw River, as well

  17. ACUTE SENSITIVITY OF JUVENILE SHORTNOSE STURGEON TO LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campbell, Jed G. and Larry R. Goodman. 2004. Acute Sensitivity of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon to Low Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. EPA/600/J-04/175. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):772-776. (ERL,GB 1155). There is considerable concern that factors such as eutrophication, ...

  18. Sonoluminescence and phase diagrams of single bubbles at low dissolved air concentrations I. Csabai,2

    E-print Network

    Horváth, Ákos

    . INTRODUCTION Single bubble sonoluminescence SBSL is a phenom- enon where an acoustically levitated gas bubble the concentration of dissolved air in water. We also present a new technique to obtain the acoustic pressure (Pa in the acoustic cycle. Using this technique we give phase diagrams of the bubble in the (R0 ,Pa) and (Pa , gas

  19. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids Preferred or Avoided by Endangered Colorado River Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pimentel; R. V. Bulkley

    1983-01-01

    Juveniles (age 0–1) of three endangered Colorado River fishes were subjected to a gradient of total dissolved solids (TDS) to determine the concentrations that they preferred or avoided. Preferred and avoided TDS concentrations, respectively, for juveniles of each species were: Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius, 560–1,150 mg\\/liter and greater than 4,400 mg\\/liter; humpback chub Gila cypha, 1,000–2,500 mg\\/liter and greater than

  20. Exposure to low concentrations of dissolved ammonia promotes growth rate in walleye Sander vitreus.

    PubMed

    Madison, B N; Dhillon, R S; Tufts, B L; Wang, Y S

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether sublethal (moderate) levels of dissolved ammonia may be beneficial to growth in juvenile walleye Sander vitreus (recent evidence in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has shown significant increases in protein synthesis in the presence of moderately elevated concentrations of dissolved ammonia). Moderately elevated dissolved ammonia concentrations between 100 and 300 micromol l(-1) suppressed routine aerobic metabolic activity by 20% during acute trials (2 h), while promoting specific growth rate (>50%) and elevating whole body soluble protein content by 20% in the early stages (14-42 days) in chronic ammonia exposure experiments. Juvenile S. vitreus held at ammonia concentrations between 107.6 +/- 5.5 and 225.5 +/- 4.7 micromol l(-1) (mean +/-s.e.) grew significantly faster than control fish and significantly reduced plasma cortisol levels (<3 microg dl(-1)). Results from this study suggest that chronic exposure to moderate amounts of dissolved ammonia significantly increase growth rates in juvenile S. vitreus by increasing nitrogen accessible for supplementary protein deposition leading to somatic development. PMID:20735605

  1. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 ?g?L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 ?g?L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 ?m) of 2.7 ± 0.9 ?g?L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 ?g?L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)?s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons?year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  2. Fluoride, Nitrate, and Dissolved-Solids Concentrations in Ground Waters of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W. E., II; Turney, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    This study provides basic data on ground-water quality throughout the State. It is intended for uses in planning and management by agencies and individuals who have responsibility for or interest in, public health and welfare. It also provides a basis for directing future studies of ground-water quality toward areas where ground-water quality problems may already exist. The information presented is a compilation of existing data from numerous sources including: the Washington Departments of Ecology and Social and Health Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as many other local, county, state and federal agencies and private corporations. Only data on fluoride, nitrate, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water are presented, as these constituents are among those commonly used to determine the suitability of water for drinking or other purposes. They also reflect both natural and man-imposed effects on water quality and are the most readily available water-quality data for the State of Washington. The percentage of wells with fluoride, nitrate, or dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations were about 1, about 3, and about 3, respectively. Most high concentrations occurred in widely separated wells. Two exceptions were: high concentrations of nitrate and dissolved solids in wells on the Hanford Department of Energy Facility and high concentrations of nitrate in the lower Yakima River basin. (USGS)

  3. The dynamic response of optical oxygen sensors and voltammetric electrodes to temporal changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian T. Glazer; Adam G. Marsh; Kevin Stierhoff; George W. Luther

    2004-01-01

    Accurately measuring dissolved oxygen concentrations in fresh and salt water environments has long been an interdisciplinary priority. Many methodologies exist, including two very promising new ones, optical fluorescence quenching optrodes (or optodes) and solid-state voltammetric electrodes. In this study we compare the responsiveness of these two techniques to dynamic changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations, using traditional methods of polarographic oxygen

  4. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Robert M; Lohmann, Rainer; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P; Reitsma, Pamela; Perron, Monique M; Lefkovitz, Lisa; Cantwell, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is an effort under way to encourage remedial project managers at contaminated sites to use passive sampling to collect freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree ) of hydrophobic organic contaminants to improve site assessments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of passive sampling for measuring water column Cfree for several hydrophobic organic contaminants at 3 US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites. Sites investigated included New Bedford Harbor (New Bedford, MA, USA), Palos Verdes Shelf (Los Angeles, CA, USA), and Naval Station Newport (Newport, RI, USA); and the passive samplers evaluated were polyethylene, polydimethylsiloxane-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers, semipermeable membrane devices, and polyoxymethylene. In general, the different passive samplers demonstrated good agreement, with Cfree values varying by a factor of 2 to 3. Further, at New Bedford Harbor, where conventional water sample concentrations were also measured (i.e., grab samples), passive sampler-based Cfree values agreed within a factor of 2. These findings suggest that all of the samplers were experiencing and measuring similar Cfree during their respective deployments. Also, at New Bedford Harbor, a strong log-linear, correlative, and predictive relationship was found between polyethylene passive sampler accumulation and lipid-normalized blue mussel bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (r(2) ?=?0.92, p?

  5. Blue tilapia ( Oreochromis aureus) growth rate in relation to dissolved oxygen concentration under recirculated water conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofronios E. Papoutsoglou; Gar. Tziha

    1996-01-01

    The growth rate of Oreochromis aureus in relation to dissolved oxygen concentrations (2·63±0·12, 3·75±0·12, 6·51±0·13 ppm or 31·3, 44·6 and 77·5% saturation, respectively) was investigated. Three duplicated populations of 29 specimens (mean initial body weight ?27·3 g) were reared in 100-litre tanks for 200 days under recirculated water conditions. Fish were offered an artificial diet three times per day, 6

  6. Impact of localised dissolved iron concentrations on the biofouling of environmental wells.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, R M; McLaughlan, R G

    2004-01-01

    Iron biofouling of wells can significantly impact the performance of a groundwater extraction system. A subsurface drainage scheme (Wakool, Australia) designed to reduce waterlogging was used to identify some of the relationships between aquifer properties and well biofouling. Piezometers drilled radially one metre from two biofouled wells showed that during normal well operation the concentration of dissolved iron (Fe2+) entering the groundwater well was highly localised around the site and with depth. CCTV survey of the biofouling on the well screens supported these findings of localised iron concentrations. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measured during pumping and under non-pumping conditions (aquifer DO) showed that oxygen was not a limiting factor, whereas stalked bacteria (Gallionella sp.) were only found in the biofouled wells. The wellhead water therefore represents only a composite of all the waters entering the well and does not indicate the possibility of localised iron concentrations in a shallow aquifer. The degree of iron biofouling within a groundwater well is therefore related directly to the presence of dissolved iron in the groundwater, as well as various oxidative processes occurring as the groundwater enters the well screen and its subsequent extraction. The distribution of iron biofilms on the well screen reflects these processes; however, the presence of well biofouling cannot always be linked to a decrease in well screen performance, but can have an impact on the overall performance of the groundwater extraction system. PMID:14982170

  7. Photoproduction of dissolved inorganic carbon in temperate and tropical lakes – dependence on wavelength band and dissolved organic carbon concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Måns Lindell; Bias Marçal de Faria; Francisco de Assis Esteves

    1998-01-01

    We have evaluated photoeffects of UV-B, UV-A and PAR radiation on dissolved organic matter (DOM). Photochemical production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was measured in sterile lake water from Sweden and Brazil after 6 hours of sun exposure. Tubes were exposed to four solar radiation regimes: Full-radiation, Full-radiation minus UV-B, Full-radiation minus UV-B and UV-A (PAR) and darkness.

  8. Trends in nitrate and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, 1985-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of trends in nitrate and total dissolved-solids concentrations over time in Carson Valley, Nevada, indicates that 56 percent of 27 monitoring wells that have long-term records of nitrate concentrations show increasing trends, 11 percent show decreasing trends, and 33 percent have not changed. Total dissolved-solids concentrations have increased in 52 percent of these wells and are stable in 48 percent. None of these wells show decreasing trends in total dissolved-solids concentrations. The wells showing increasing trends in nitrate and total dissolved-solids concentrations were always in areas that use septic waste-disposal systems. Therefore, the primary cause of these increases is likely the increase in septic-tank usage over the past 40 years.

  9. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White rivers, Washington, August and September 2000 and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Puyallup Tribe of Indians conducted a study in August and September 2001 to assess factors affecting concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers, Washington. The study was initiated because observed concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River fell to levels ranging from less than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L) to about 6 mg/L on several occasions in September 2000. The water quality standard for the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Puyallup River is 8 mg/L.This study concluded that inundation of the sensors with sediment was the most likely cause of the low concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed in September 2000. The conclusion was based on (1) knowledge gained when a dissolved-oxygen sensor became covered with sediment in August 2001, (2) the fact that, with few exceptions, concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers did not fall below 8 mg/L in August and September 2001, and (3) an analysis of other mechanisms affecting concentrations of dissolved oxygen.The analysis of other mechanisms indicated that they are unlikely to cause steep declines in concentrations of dissolved oxygen like those observed in September 2000. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 0.22 to 1.78 mg/L (mean of 0.55 mg/L), and river water takes only about 24 hours to flow through the study reach. Photosynthesis and respiration cause concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River to fluctuate as much as about 1 mg/L over a 24-hour period in August and September. Release of water from Lake Tapps for the purpose of hydropower generation often lowered concentrations of dissolved oxygen downstream in the White River by about 1 mg/L. The effect was smaller farther downstream in the Puyallup River at river mile 5.8, but was still observable as a slight decrease in concentrations of dissolved oxygen caused by photosynthesis and respiration. The upper limit on oxygen demand caused by the scour of anoxic bed sediment and subsequent oxidation of reduced iron and manganese is less than 1 mg/L. The actual demand, if any, is probably negligible.In August and September 2001, concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River did not fall below the water-quality standard of 8 mg/L, except at high tide when the saline water from Commencement Bay reached the monitor at river mile 2.9. The minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen (7.6 mg/L) observed at river mile 2.9 coincided with the maximum value of specific conductance. Because the dissolved-oxygen standard for marine water is 6.0 mg/L, the standard was not violated at river mile 2.9. The concentration of dissolved oxygen at river mile 1.8 in the White River dropped below the water-quality standard on two occasions in August 2001. The minimum concentration of 7.8 mg/L occurred on August 23, and a concentration of 7.9 mg/L was recorded on August 13. Because there was some uncertainty in the monitoring record for those days, it cannot be stated with certainty that the actual concentration of dissolved oxygen in the river dropped below 8 mg/L. However, at other times when the quality of the monitoring record was good, concentrations as low as 8.2 mg/L were observed at river mile 1.8 in the White River.

  10. Influence of land use on total suspended solid and dissolved ion concentrations: Baton Rouge, Louisiana area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D.

    2015-03-01

    Past studies in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana area considered streamwater quality during storm events but ignored water quality during low flow periods. This study includes determination of streamwater quality during low flow time periods for none watersheds in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. These samples were collected during dry-low flow periods as indicated by water levels at USGS stream gauging sites for each stream. Chemical analysis for ions was completed using colorimeters and gravimetric analysis for total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS). Land use appears to impact concentrations of ions, TDS and TSS in a variety of ways during periods of low flow. The two most rural watersheds, which are mainly underdeveloped, have higher concentrations of Fe and Mn. By contrast the three most urban watersheds, that are mainly commercial, industrial or residential, have higher concentrations of Si, SO4 and TDS.

  11. Relationships between nutrients and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the Texas-Louisiana shelf during summer of 2004 

    E-print Network

    Lahiry, Sudeshna

    2009-06-02

    Hypoxia (dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 1.4 ml/l) is a recurrent seasonal phenomenon on the Louisiana Shelf, caused by the combined effects of nutrient loading by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River System (MARS), and density...

  12. Seasonal variations in concentration and lability of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay. On average, recalcitrant DOC (RDOC), as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation, accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. Bioavailable DOC (BDOC) concentrations, defined as DOC minus RDOC, were lower than RDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than in autumn and winter because of freshwater input and biological production. The relative concentration of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open-oceanic waters was estimated to be 8-10, 21-32, and 59-69%, respectively, based on multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33 and 74% at freshwater sites and 39 and 76% in Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of STP effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported mostly RDOC to the open ocean because of the remineralization of BDOC.

  13. Temporal Variability of Stemflow Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Concentrations and Quality from Morphologically Contrasting Deciduous Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Levia, D. F.; Inamdar, S. P.; Mitchell, M. J.; Mage, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs from canopy-derived hydrologic fluxes play a significant role in the terrestrial carbon budgets of forested ecosystems. However, no studies known to the authors have examined the variability of both DOC concentrations and quality for stemflow across time scales, nor has any study to date evaluated the effects of canopy structure on stemflow DOC characteristics. This investigation seeks to rectify this knowledge gap by examining the variability of stemflow DOC concentrations and quality across contrasting canopy morphologies and time scales (seasonal, storm and intrastorm). Bulk and intrastorm stemflow samples from a less dense, rough-barked, more plagiophile (Liriodendron tulipifera L. (tulip poplar)) and a denser, thin-barked, more erectophile (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech)) canopy were collected and analyzed for DOC quality using metrics derived from UV-vis spectroscopy (E2:E3 ratio, SUVA254, select spectral slope (S), and spectral slope ratios (SR)). Our results suggest that stemflow DOC concentrations and quality change as crown architectural traits enhance or diminish hydrologic retention time within the canopy. The architecture of L. tulipifera canopies likely retards the flow of intercepted water, increasing chemical exchange with bark and foliar surfaces. UV-vis metrics indicated that this increased chemical exchange, particularly with bark surfaces, generally enhanced aromatic hydrocarbon content and increased molecular weight. Because leaf presence influenced DOC quality, stemflow DOC characteristics also varied seasonally in response to canopy condition. At the inter- and intrastorm scale, stemflow DOC concentration and quality varied with meteorological and antecedent canopy conditions. Since recent studies have linked stemflow production to preferential subsurface transport of dissolved chemistries, trends in DOC speciation and fluxes described in this study may impact soil environments within wooded ecosystems.

  14. [Interpretation of spatial distribution pattern for dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration in coastal estuary using hyperspectral data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huan

    2010-06-01

    Choosing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) as one of the representative nutritional salt monitoring indexes, a hyperspectral remotely sensed inversion model was built and applied to quantitatively retrieve water quality parameters with its spatial distribution patterns in coastal estuary with high suspended sediment concentration (SSC). It was found that when SSC was larger than 0.1 kg/m3, DIN concentration had a notable inverse correlation with SSC and the correlation coefficient R2 reached 0.617. Based on this conclusion, firstly the in-situ observed water surface remote sensing reflectance was resampled according to the spectral response characters of Hyperion sensor. And then, statistical correlation analysis between reflectance and DIN concentration was carried out. The results showed that band reflectance of R804 and R630 representing the second and first reflectance peak of water spectrum curve were sensitive to the variation of DIN concentration. And then, a pseudo remotely sensed sand parameter index R804 x R630/(R804 - R630) was calculated for the construction of the nonlinear DIN quantitative reversion model. Correlation coefficient R2 between observed and simulated DIN concentrations for 29 calibrating samples and 10 validating samples were 0.746 and 0.67, while their mean absolute errors reached 109.07 and 147.58 microg/L, respectively. The model was then applied on Hyperion hyperspectral image to get the spatial distribution character of DIN concentration in Sheyanghe river estuary and the DIN concentration was between 52 to 513 microg/L. Results indicated that in coastal estuary which was dominated by suspended sediments, the diffusive trends of DIN concentration reversed by remote sensing techniques had an intimate relationship with motions of tidal current and transportation attributes of SSC. As the hydrodynamic conditions were unclear, hyperspectral remote sensing technique was an effective technical way for dynamic survey of DIN concentration. PMID:20698253

  15. Seasonal variations in concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay to evaluate the significance of DOC degradation for the carbon budget in coastal waters and carbon export to the open ocean. Recalcitrant DOC (RDOC) was differentiated from bioavailable DOC (BDOC) as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation. On average, RDOC accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. RDOC concentrations were higher than BDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than during autumn and winter. The relative abundance of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open oceanic waters was estimated to be 9%, 33%, and 58%, respectively, by multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33% and 74% at freshwater sites and 39% and 76% at Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of sewage treatment plant effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported DOC, mostly RDOC, to the open ocean because of remineralization of BDOC.

  16. Factors Controlling Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in the Hyporheic Zone Induced by Fish Egg Nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Kessler, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is currently limited research on the effects of bed depressions, such as those associated with fish nests, on hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry. A series of flume experiments are in progress, with the aim of understanding the effects of bed depressions on the hyporheic flow of oxygenated water. This study focuses on fish nests, also called redds, which represent a typical depression or scour feature. Previous research has shown that redd topography induces hyporheic circulation, but experiments regarding the oxygen concentration in and around the redds have not been conducted. We are determining the ways in which redds affect dissolved oxygen distribution and how this is controlled by hyporheic flow. The oxygen concentration across the cross-sectional plane of a fish nest is measured using a planar optode and microsensors. Hydraulic measurements include pressure measurements along the sediment-water interface and dye visualization. The redd design is based on a salmonid redd, which consists of a scour feature and a tailspin. The salmonid eggs are found in the tailspin. We hypothesize that the oxygen concentration will be greatest in close proximity to the gravel base of the redd and concentration will decrease with increasing depth and distance from the redd. Higher oxygen concentrations in the tailspin supports the placement of fish eggs within that area as opposed to a less oxygenated area of the streambed. Thus, fish nests are likely bio-engineered to optimize hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry to improve egg viability.

  17. High variability in dissolved iron concentrations in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéroué, F.; Sarthou, G.; Planquette, H. F.; Bucciarelli, E.; Chever, F.; van der Merwe, P.; Lannuzel, D.; Townsend, A. T.; Cheize, M.; Blain, S.; d'Ovidio, F.; Bowie, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    Dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations were measured in the upper 1300 m of the water column in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands as part of the second KErguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study (KEOPS2). Concentrations ranged from 0.06 nmol L-1 in offshore, Southern Ocean waters to 3.82 nmol L-1 within Hillsborough Bay, on the north-eastern coast of the Kerguelen Islands. Direct island runoff, glacial melting and resuspended sediments were identified as important inputs of dFe that could potentially fertilise the northern part of the plateau. A significant deep dFe enrichment was observed over the plateau with dFe concentrations increasing up to 1.30 nmol L-1 close to the seafloor, probably due to sediment resuspension and pore water release. Biological uptake was shown to induce a significant decrease in dFe concentrations between two visits (28 days apart) at a station above the plateau. Our work also considered other processes and sources, such as lateral advection of enriched seawater, remineralisation processes, and the influence of the polar front (PF) as a vector for Fe transport. Overall, heterogeneous sources of Fe over and off the Kerguelen Plateau, in addition to strong variability in Fe supply by vertical or horizontal transport, may explain the high variability in dFe concentrations observed during this study.

  18. High variability of dissolved iron concentrations in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéroué, F.; Sarthou, G.; Planquette, H. F.; Bucciarelli, E.; Chever, F.; van der Merwe, P.; Lannuzel, D.; Townsend, A. T.; Cheize, M.; Blain, S.; d'Ovidio, F.; Bowie, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations were measured in the upper 1300 m of the water column in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island as part of the second Kerguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study (KEOPS2). Concentrations ranged from 0.06 nmol L-1 in offshore, Southern Ocean waters, to 3.82 nmol L-1 within Hillsborough Bay, on the north-eastern coast of Kerguelen Island. Direct island runoff, glacial melting and resuspended sediments were identified as important inputs of dFe that could potentially fertilize the northern part of the plateau. A significant deep dFe enrichment was observed over the plateau with dFe concentrations increasing up to 1.30 nmol L-1 close to the seafloor, probably due to sediment resuspension and pore water release. Biological uptake was identified as a likely explanation for the decrease in dFe concentrations between two visits (28 days apart) at a station above the plateau. Our results allowed studying other processes and sources, such as atmospheric inputs, lateral advection of enriched seawater, remineralization processes and the influence of the Polar Front (PF) as a vector for Fe transport. Overall, heterogeneous sources of Fe over and off the Kerguelen Plateau, in addition to strong variability in Fe supply by vertical or horizontal transport, may explain the high variability in dFe concentrations observed during this study.

  19. Long term in situ monitoring of total dissolved iron concentrations on the MoMAR observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laes-Huon, Agathe; Legrand, Julien; Tanguy, Virginie; Cathalot, Cecile; Blandin, Jérôme; Rolin, Jean-Francois; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the scientific community wants relevant monitoring with an increase in spatial and temporal distribution of key chemicals. The hydrothermal ecosystems characterized by strong physico-chemical gradients are also of particular interest as they present an unique fauna, sustained by microbial chemosynthesis. The characterization of the chemical environment in the hydrothermal vent ecosystems implies the use of in situ instrumentation which is a serious challenge in the marine environment (Prien et al. 2007). The CHEMINI (CHEmical MINIaturised analyser), presented here, is a chemical in situ analyser specialized for deep sea uses (Vuillemin et al. 2007). It was first deployed on the autonomous deep sea observatory MoMAR (Monitoring of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, FIXO3, Fixed point Open Ocean Observatories) in 2010. The first part of the presentation will focus on the description of the CHEMINI, then on the results obtained on the MoMAR observatory during the last 4 years. CHEMINI, implemented on the TEMPO ecological module determined total dissolved iron concentrations associated with an optode and a temperature probe. Several months of total iron concentrations, of T°C and videos were recorded permitting the study of the temporal dynamics of faunal assemblages and their habitat on the Lucky strike vent (-1700m, Cuvelier et al. 2011). Long term in situ analysis of total dissolved iron (31st of August 2013 - 23rd of February 2014, [DFe] = 7.12 +- 2.11 µmol L-1, n = 519) at the Eiffel Tower edifice is presented in details. The daily analyzed in situ standard (25µmol.L-1) showed an excellent reproducibility (1.07%, n=522). CHEMINI was reliable, robust over time for in situ analysis. The averaged total dissolved iron concentrations for the 6 months period remain low but they correlated significantly with temperature showing a spectra frequency with a maximal contribution around 4-5 days for both variables. The analytical results will be commented and the future technical challenges will be discussed in this presentation. References: Cuvelier, D, Sarrazin,J, Colaco A. Copley J.T., Glover A.G. Paul, A. Tyler, Serrao Santos R., Desbruyères D. (2011), Community dynamics over 14 years at the Eiffel Tower hydrothermal edifice on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56(5), 1624-1640 Prien, R. (2007), The future of chemical in situ sensors, Mar. Chem., 107 (3), 422-432. Vuillemin, R., Le Roux, D., Dorval, P., Bucas, K., Sudreau, J.P., Hamon, M., Le Gall, C., Sarradin, P.M., 2009. CHEMINI: A new in situ CHEmical MINIaturized analyzer. Deep Sea Res. Part Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 56, 1391-1399.

  20. Measurement of dissolved organic carbon by wet chemical oxidation with persulfate: influence of chloride concentration and reagent volume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. McKenna; Peter H. Doering

    1995-01-01

    The influence of chloride content and reagent volume on the analysis of dissolved organic carbon by wet chemical oxidation with persulfate was evaluated. A strong hyperbolic relationship was found between measured DOC concentration and volume of persulfate added for oxidation in both marine and artificially chlorinated (NaCl) freshwater samples. Freshwater samples showed no such relationship. Precision of measured DOC concentrations

  1. Quantitative consideration of flow structures (bubble swarms and liquid motion) and dissolved CO2 concentration transportation, in a bubbly flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Daisuke; Saito, Takayuki

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to clarify the relationship between large scale flow structures (: bubble swarm and liquid motion) and dissolved CO2 concentration transportation, in a large-diameter bubble column. For this specific purpose, the time-series void fractions, dissolved CO2 concentration and liquid-phase-velocities were simultaneously measured by using a photoelectric optical fiber probe (POFP) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry. The POFP was newly developed in order to simultaneously measure bubble characteristics and dissolved CO2 concentration. We calculated the spatial scale of the bubble swarms and liquid motion based on the thinking of the integral length scale. The spatial scale of the bubble swarms and liquid motion was large in the bottom zone. Moreover, the size of this spatial scale changed with time; i.e. the flow structures changed with time in the bottom zone. The characteristics of the flow structures in the bottom zone faded out towards the upper zone of the column. The cross-correlation coefficients of dissolved CO2 concentration were calculated at several zones by height. As a result, the relationship between the flow structures and dissolved CO2 concentration transportation was found out.

  2. Toxicity of a dissolved pyrethroid mixture to Hyalella azteca at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Brander, Susanne M; Werner, Inge; White, J Wilson; Deanovic, Linda A

    2009-07-01

    Use of pyrethroid pesticides, which are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, has increased substantially over the past decade. In 2006, the pyrethroid pesticides cyfluthrin and permethrin were measured in Sacramento-San Joaquin (SSJ) Delta (CA, USA) water at 5 and 24 ng/L (pptr), respectively. To elucidate any interactions between the two pyrethroids, a 10-d laboratory exposure was performed with 7- to 14-d-old amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Cyfluthrin and permethrin were tested singly and in combination at detected levels and also at half and twice the detected levels, both with and without the addition of 25 ppb of piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Mortality in all treatments was significantly higher than in controls, with the median lethal concentration (LC50) for permethrin with PBO (13.9 ng/L) and the LC50s with and without PBO for cyfluthrin (5.7 and 2.9 ng/L, respectively) at or below levels measured in SSJ Delta water samples. The LC50 for permethrin alone was estimated to be 48.9 ng/L. To evaluate combined toxicity, logistic regression models containing terms for concentrations of cyfluthrin, permethrin, and PBO, as well as models containing all possible combinations of these terms and interactions, were run and compared using Akaike's information criterion. The most parsimonious set of models indicated slight antagonism between cyfluthrin and permethrin. Results indicate that a dissolved mixture of cyfluthrin and permethrin is toxic at environmentally relevant concentrations in the water column. PMID:19249876

  3. Diminished Stream Nitrate Concentrations Linked to Dissolved Organic Carbon Dynamics After Leaf Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Shanley, J. B.; Boyer, E. W.; Doctor, D. H.; Kendall, C.

    2004-05-01

    Thermodynamic coupling of the nitrogen and carbon cycles has broad implications for controls on catchment nutrient fluxes. In the northeast US, leaf fall occurs in early October and the availability of organic carbon increases as the leaves decompose. At the Sleepers River Research Watershed in northeastern Vermont (USA), we sampled stream chemistry from seven nested catchments to determine how stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate vary as a function of flow conditions, land-use, and basin size in response to leaf fall. Following leaf fall, nitrate concentration patterns were quantitatively different from other times of the year. Under baseflow conditions, stream and soil water DOC concentrations were higher than normal, whereas nitrate concentrations declined sharply at the five smallest catchments and more modestly at the two largest catchments. Under high flow conditions, flushing of nitrate was observed, as is typical for stormflow response at Sleepers River. Our field data suggest that in-stream processing of nitrate is likely thermodynamically and kinetically favorable under baseflow but not at higher flow conditions when expanding variable source areas make hydrological connections between nitrate source areas and streams. We are working to evaluate this hypothesis with isotopic and other monitoring data, and to model the coupled interactions of water, DOC, and nitrate fluxes in these nested catchments.

  4. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on iron efficiency: Removal of three chloroacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Mao, Yu-qin; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Hong-wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-04-15

    The monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acid (MCAA, DCAA and TCAA) removed by metallic iron under controlled dissolved oxygen conditions (0, 0.75, 1.52, 2.59, 3.47 or 7.09 mg/L DO) was investigated in well-mixed batch systems. The removal of CAAs increased first and then decreased with increasing DO concentration. Compared with anoxic condition, the reduction of MCAA and DCAA was substantially enhanced in the presence of O2, while TCAA reduction was significantly inhibited above 2.59 mg/L. The 1.52 mg/L DO was optimum for the formation of final product, acetic acid. Chlorine mass balances were 69-102%, and carbon mass balances were 92-105%. With sufficient mass transfer from bulk to the particle surface, the degradation of CAAs was limited by their reduction or migration rate within iron particles, which were dependent on the change of reducing agents and corrosion coatings. Under anoxic conditions, the reduction of CAAs was mainly inhibited by the available reducing agents in the conductive layer. Under low oxic conditions, the increasing reducing agents and thin lepidocrocite layer were favorable for CAA dechlorination. Under high oxic conditions, the redundant oxygen competing for reducing agents and significant lepidocrocite growth became the major restricting factors. Various CAA removal mechanisms could be potentially applied to explaining the effect of DO concentration on iron efficiency for contaminant reduction in water and wastewater treatment. PMID:25697696

  5. In Vivo Noninvasive Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Within an Implanted Tissue-Engineered Pancreatic Construct

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Fernie

    2011-01-01

    The function of an implanted tissue-engineered pancreatic construct is influenced by many in vivo factors; however, assessing its function is based primarily on end physiologic effects. As oxygen significantly affects cell function, we established a dual perfluorocarbon method that utilizes 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, with perfluorocarbons as oxygen concentration markers, to noninvasively monitor dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in ?TC-tet cell-containing alginate beads and at the implantation milieu. Beads were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Using this method, the feasibility of acquiring real-time in vivo DO measurements was demonstrated. Results showed that the mouse peritoneal environment is hypoxic and the DO is further reduced when ?TC-tet cell constructs were implanted. The DO within cell-containing beads decreased considerably over time and could be correlated with the relative changes in the number of viable encapsulated cells. The reduction of construct DO due to the metabolic activity of the ?TC-tet cells was also compatible with the implant therapeutic function, as observed in the reversal of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. The importance of these findings in assessing implant functionality and host animal physiology is discussed. PMID:21486202

  6. Influence of groundwater recharge and well characteristics on dissolved arsenic concentrations in southeastern Michigan groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meliker, J.R.; Slotnick, M.J.; Avruskin, G.A.; Haack, S.K.; Nriagu, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 ??g/l, the United States maximum contaminant level and the World Health Organization guideline value, are frequently reported in groundwater from bedrock and unconsolidated aquifers of southeastern Michigan. Although arsenic-bearing minerals (including arsenian pyrite and oxide/hydroxide phases) have been identified in Marshall Sandstone bedrock of the Mississippian aquifer system and in tills of the unconsolidated aquifer system, mechanisms responsible for arsenic mobilization and subsequent transport in groundwater are equivocal. Recent evidence has begun to suggest that groundwater recharge and characteristics of well construction may affect arsenic mobilization and transport. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between dissolved arsenic concentrations, reported groundwater recharge rates, well construction characteristics, and geology in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is more prevalent in bedrock wells that are cased in proximity to the bedrock-unconsolidated interface; no other factors were associated with arsenic contamination in water drawn from bedrock or unconsolidated aquifers. Conditions appropriate for arsenic mobilization may be found along the bedrock-unconsolidated interface, including changes in reduction/oxidation potential and enhanced biogeochemical activity because of differences between geologic strata. These results are valuable for understanding arsenic mobilization and guiding well construction practices in southeastern Michigan, and may also provide insights for other regions faced with groundwater arsenic contamination. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  7. Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988-2003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Amy E.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Galloway, James N.

    2007-03-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p < 0.0001) over the time period from 1988 to 2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term data sets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  8. GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF CHANNEL CATFISH AND YELLOW PERCH EXPOSED TO LOWERED CONSTANT AND DIURNALLY FLUCTUATING DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growth and survival were determined for duplicate lots of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exposed for 69 and 67 days, respectively, to nearly constant dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations at near air saturation (control), 6.5, 5....

  9. Stimulating hydrogenotrophic denitrification in simulated groundwater containing high dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Matthew R; Chaplin, Brian P; Semmens, Michael J; Novak, Paige J

    2007-05-01

    In agricultural areas, nitrate (NO3-) is a common groundwater pollutant as a result of extensive fertilizer application. At elevated concentrations, NO3- consumption causes methemoglobinemia in infants and has been linked to several cancers; therefore, its removal from groundwater is important. The addition of hydrogen gas (H2) via gas-permeable membranes has been shown to stimulate denitrification in a laboratory-scale reactor. This research, using large columns packed with aquifer material to which a simulated groundwater was fed, was conducted to further identify the conditions required for the use of membrane-delivered H2 in situ. In this study, we show that this novel technology was capable of treating highly contaminated (25 mg/L NO3- -N) and oxygenated (5.5mg/L dissolved oxygen) water, but that nutrient addition and gas pressure adjustment was required. Complete NO3- reduction was possible without the accumulation of either NO2- or N2O when the H2 lumen pressure was increased to 17 psi and phosphate was added to the groundwater. The total organic carbon content of the effluent, 110 cm downgradient of H2 addition, did not increase. The results from these experiments demonstrate that this technology can be optimized to provide effective NO3- removal in even challenging field applications. PMID:17363026

  10. Use of dissolved H2 concentrations to determine distribution of microbially catalyzed redox reactions in anoxic groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.; Woodward, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for using concentrations of dissolved H2 to determine the distribution of redox processes in anoxic groundwaters was evaluated. In pristine aquifers in which standard geochemical measurements indicated that Fe-(III) reduction, sulfate reduction, or methanogenesis was the terminal electron accepting process (TEAP), the H2 concentrations were similar to the H2 concentrations that have previously been reported for aquatic sediments with the same TEAPs. In two aquifers contaminated with petroleum products, it was impossible with standard geochemical analyses to determine which TEAPs predominated in specific locations. However, the TEAPs predicted from measurements of dissolved H2 were the same as those determined directly through measurements of microbial processes in incubated aquifer material. These results suggest that H2 concentrations may be a useful tool for analyzing the redox chemistry of nonequilibrium groundwaters.

  11. Dissolved oxygen concentration field measurement in micro-scale water flows using PtOEP\\/PS film sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Hun Song; Hyun Dong Kim; Kyung Chun Kim

    2012-01-01

    A planar optode system based on an oxygen quenchable luminophore platinum (II) octaethyporphrin (PtOEP) bound with thin polystyrene (PS) film and UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) was developed to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration field in micro-scale water flows. An intensity-based method adopting a pixel-to-pixel in situ calibration technique was used to visualize DO concentration fields around an impinging micro-nozzle.

  12. The significance of storms for the concentration and export of dissolved organic carbon from two Precambrian Shield catchments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Hinton; S. L. Schiff; M. C. English

    1997-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DOC export arestudied during storms to examine the relationship between DOCconcentration and stream discharge and to assess the importance of stormson DOC export. Storms were monitored in seven subcatchments within twosmall watersheds (Harp 4--21 and Harp 3A) on the Precambrian Shield inCentral Ontario, Canada. Stream DOC concentrations increase during stormsby as much as 100%

  13. Dissolved-solids concentrations and hydrochemical facies in water of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, P.W.; Ulery, R.L.; Rittmaster, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Much of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system contains freshwater, but sizable parts contain marginally fresh or slightly saline water. The predominant water type in the aquifer system is calcium bicarbonate; however, one of seven other hydrochemical facies characterizes the water in places. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Edwards aquifer in the Balcones fault zone is 297 mg/L (milligrams per liter); the interquartile range is 93 mg/L. In the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer updip of a freshwater/saline-water transition zone, the water is almost exclusively calcium bicarbonate. The median dissolved-solids concentration of water samples from the Trinity aquifer in the Hill Country is 537 mg/L and the interquartile range is 573 mg/L. Four bicarbonate and sulfate facies, spread vertically throughout the saturated section, characterize most of the Hill Country analyses; calcium bicarbonate predominates. The median concentration of dissolved solids in water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Edwards Plateau is 379 mg/L and the interquartile range is 547 mg/L. Freshwater is nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer, and mostly slightly saline water is in the northwestern part. The distribution of hydrochemical facies shows a similar pattern to dissolved-solids concentration, with bicarbonate water nearly everywhere in the southern and northeastern parts of the aquifer. Sulfate and chloride facies characterize the northwestern part of the Edwards Plateau. The median concentration of dissolved solids among water samples from the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Trans-Pecos is 929 mg/L and the interquartile range is 1,626 mg/L. Fresh, calcium bicarbonate water predominates in the southern part, and more saline mixed and sulfate waters are the most common in the northwestern part.

  14. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations (+57% upper limit) in response to increasing NO 3- in soil solution, but there was no significant change in DOC concentration. In contrast to these patterns, increasing soil solution NO3- in the SMBW soil resulted in significantly greater phenol oxidase activity (+700% upper limit) and a trend toward lower DOC production (-52% lower limit). Nitrate concentration had no effect on microbial respiration or ??-glucosidase or N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities. Fungal abundance and basidiomycete diversity tended to be highest in the BOWO soil and lowest in the SMBW, but neither displayed a consistent response to NO 3- additions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that oxidative enzyme production by microbial communities responds directly to NO3- deposition, controlling extracellular enzyme activity and DOC flux. The regulation of oxidative enzymes by different microbial communities in response to NO3- deposition highlights the fact that the composition and function of soil microbial communities directly control ecosystem-level responses to environmental change. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  15. Effect of exchangeable cation concentration on sorption and desorption of dissolved organic carbon in saline soils.

    PubMed

    Setia, Raj; Rengasamy, Pichu; Marschner, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Sorption is a very important factor in stabilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils and thus C sequestration. Saline soils have significant potential for C sequestration but little is known about the effect of type and concentration of cations on sorption and release of DOC in salt-affected soils. To close this knowledge gap, three batch sorption and desorption experiments were conducted using soils treated with solutions either low or high in salinity. In Experiment 1, salinity was developed with either NaCl or CaCl2 to obtain an electrical conductivity (EC) in a 1:5 soil: water extract (EC1:5) of 2 and 4 dS m(-1). In Experiments 2 and 3, NaCl and CaCl2 were added in various proportions (between 25 and 100%) to obtain an EC1:5 of 0.5 and 4 dS m(-1), respectively. At EC1:5 of 4 dS m(-1), the sorption of DOC (derived from wheat straw) was high even at a low proportion of added Ca(2+) and did not change with proportion of Ca added, but at EC1:5 of 0.5 dS m(-1) increasing proportion of Ca(2+) added increased DOC sorption. This can be explained by the differences in exchangeable Ca(2+) at the two salinity levels. At EC1:5 of 4 dS m(-1), the exchangeable Ca(2+) concentration did not increase beyond a proportion of 25% Ca(2+), whereas it increased with increasing Ca(2+) proportion in the treatments at EC1:5 of 0.5 dS m(-1). The DOC sorption was lowest with a proportion of 100% as Na(+). When Ca(2+) was added, DOC sorption was highest, but least was desorbed (with deionised water), thus sorption and desorption of added DOC were inversely related. The results of this study suggest that DOC sorption in salt-affected soils is mainly controlled by the levels of exchangeable Ca(2+) irrespective of the Ca(2+) concentration in the soil solution which has implications on carbon stabilization in salt-affected soils. PMID:23374419

  16. Diatom stratigraphy and long-term dissolved silica concentrations in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olli, Kalle; Clarke, Annemarie; Danielsson, Åsa; Aigars, Juris; Conley, Daniel J.; Tamminen, Timo

    2008-10-01

    In many parts of the world coastal waters with anthropogenic eutrophication have experienced a gradual depletion of dissolved silica (DSi) stocks. This could put pressure on spring bloom diatom populations, e.g. by limiting the intensity of blooms or by causing shifts in species composition. In addition, eutrophication driven enhanced diatom growth is responsible for the redistribution of DSi from the water phase to the sediments, and changes in the growth conditions may be reflected in the sediment diatom stratigraphy. To test for changes in diatom communities we have analyzed four sediment cores from the Baltic Sea covering approximately the last 100 years. The sediment cores originate from the western Gulf of Finland, the Kattegat, the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Riga. Three out of the four cores reveal only minor changes in composition of diatom assemblages, while the Gulf of Riga core contains major changes, occurring after the second World War. This area is set apart from the other Baltic Sea basins by a high frequency of low after spring bloom DSi concentrations (< 2 µmol L - 1 ) during a relatively well defined time period from 1991-1998. In 1991 to 1993 a rapid decline of DSi spring concentrations and winter stocks (down to 5 µmol L - 1 ) in the Gulf was preceded by exceptionally intense diatom spring blooms dominated by the heavily silicified species Thalassiosira baltica (1991-1992; up to 5.5 mg ww L - 1 ). T. baltica has been the principal spring bloom diatom in the Gulf of Riga since records began in 1975. DSi consumption and biomass yield experiments with cultured T. baltica suggest that intense blooms can potentially exhaust the DSi stock of the water column and exceed the annual Si dissolution in the Gulf of Riga. The phytoplankton time series reveals another exceptional T. baltica bloom period in 1981-1983 (up to 8 mg L - 1 ), which, however, took place before the regular DSi measurements. These periods may be reflected in the conspicuous accumulation of T. baltica frustules in the sediment core corresponding to ca. 1975-1985.

  17. Concentrations of dissolved methane (CH sub 4 ) and nitrogen (N sub 2 ) in groundwaters from the Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Early, T.O.

    1986-03-14

    This document reports all available dissolved gas concentration data for groundwaters from the Hanford Site as of June 1985. Details of the computational procedures required to reduce data obtained from the field measurements made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project are provided in the appendix. Most measured values for methane concentration from reference repository boreholes are in the range of from 350 to 700 mg/L for the Cohassett flow top. Because of the uncertainties associated with these measurements, it is currently recommended that a conservative methane concentration of 1200 mg/L (methane saturated) in groundwater be considered the most reasonable upper-bounding value. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Understanding and modelling the variability in Dissolved Organic Carbon concentrations in catchment drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Martin; Waldron, Susan; Scott, Marian; Drew, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Our knowledge of dynamic natural habitats could be improved through the deployment of automated sensor technology. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations, [DOC], are of interest to water companies as purification removes this pool and currently in environmental science, due in part to rising DOC levels and also as respiration of this C pool can lead to an increased CO2 efflux. Manual sampling of catchment drainage systems has revealed seasonal patterns in DOC (Williams, P.J.L., 1995) and that hydrological events export most DOC(Raymond, P.A. and J.E. Saiers, 2010). However, manual sampling precludes detailed characterisation of the dynamic fluctuation of DOC over shorter but important time periods e.g. immediately prior to an event; the transition from base flow to a surface run-off dominated system as surface flow pathways defrost. Such insight is only gained through deployment of continuous-monitoring equipment. Since autumn 2010 we have deployed an S::CAN Spectrolyser (which from absorbance gives a measurement of [DOC]) in a 7.5 kilometre squared peaty catchment draining Europe's largest windfarm, Whitelee. Since autumn 2011, we have an almost complete time series of [DOC] every 30. Here [DOC] has ranged from 12.2 to 58.4 mg/l C and during event flow DOC had a maximum variation of 23.5 mg/l within a single day. Simultaneously with the Spectrolyser, we have logged stage height, pH and conductivity using an In-Situ Inc MD Troll 9000. Generally there is an inverse relationship between [DOC] and both pH and conductivity, but a positive relationship (albeit with seasonal differences) with [DOC] and stage height, from which we can infer hydrological changes in the source of the DOC. Here, in addition to presenting the time series of the data, and a more accurate export budget estimate, I will explore statistical methods for the handling of large datasets. Trends in the data of such large and dynamic data sets are challenging to model. Simple relationships with stage height or conductivity generally are not maintained over extended time periods and thus more complex statistical approaches are needed to understand trend and detail. For example wavelet analysis is being used to assess if periodicity in [DOC] occurs other than seasonally. Raymond, P.A. and J.E. Saiers (2010), Event controlled DOC export from forested watersheds. Biogeochemistry, 100,1-3, 197-209. Williams, P.J.L. (1995), Evidence for the seasonal accumulation of carbon-rich dissolved organic material, its scale in comparison with changes in particulate material and the consequential effect on net C/N assimilation ratios. Marine Chemistry, 51,1, 17-29.

  19. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  20. Effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on production of channel x blue hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to pond dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the production and water quality responses of the cha...

  1. Effects of inoculum type and bulk dissolved oxygen concentration on achieving partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors.

    PubMed

    Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-07-01

    An entrapment of nitrifiers into gel matrix is employed as a tool to fulfill partial nitrification under non-limiting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in bulk solutions. This study aims to clarify which of these two attributes, inoculum type and DO concentration in bulk solutions, is the decisive factor for partial nitrification in an entrapped-cell based system. Four polyvinyl alcohol entrapped inocula were prepared to have different proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and nitrite-oxidizing activity. At a DO concentration of 3 mg l(-1), the number of active NOB cells in an inoculum was the decisive factor for partial nitrification enhancement. However, when the DO concentration was reduced to 2 mg l(-1), all entrapped cell inocula showed similar degrees of partial nitrification. The results suggested that with the lower bulk DO concentration, the preparation of entrapped cell inocula is not useful as the DO level becomes the decisive factor for achieving partial nitrification. PMID:24862001

  2. A procedure for predicting concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate ion in streams draining areas strip mined for coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, H.E.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in increased coal production necessitate the development of techniques to appraise the environmental degradation resulting from strip mining. A procedure is introduced for the prediction of dissolved-solids and sulfate-ion concentrations in streams draining strip-mined areas. Concentrations are a function of the percentage of the drainage area that has been strip mined. These relationships are expressed by regression equations computed from data collected in streams draining strip-mined areas of Cherokee and Crawford Counties in southeast Kansas. High correlation coefficients indicate that the relationships may be useful in the evaluation of present or future strip-mining operations. (USGS)

  3. Dissolved hydrogen concentration as an on-line control parameter for the automated operation and optimization of anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Cord-Ruwisch, R.; Mercz, T.I.; Hoh, C.Y.; Strong, G.E. [Murdoch Univ., Perth (Australia). School of Biological and Environmental Sciences] [Murdoch Univ., Perth (Australia). School of Biological and Environmental Sciences

    1997-12-20

    The stability and efficiency of the industrial anaerobic digestion process relies upon the balance between the degradation of organic waste to hydrogen, formate, acetate, and C{sub 3} to C{sub 5} volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the conversion of these fermentation products to methane and carbon dioxide. The use of dissolved hydrogen as an early warning signal of digester failure and a control parameter to operate anaerobic digesters was investigated. A sensitive, on-line method was developed for measuring trace levels of dissolved hydrogen in a semi-permeable membrane, situated within the biomass of a 1 L laboratory anaerobic digester, using trace reduction gas analysis. At normal operating conditions, the dissolved hydrogen partial pressure (2 to 8 Pa) was found to be linearly correlated with the loading rate of the digester, and was a sensitive indicator of the effect of shockloads as well as gradual overloading. An increase in hydrogen partial pressure above a critical concentration of 6.5--7 Pa indicated the initial stage of digester overloading. A H{sub 2}-based computer control system, using a critical hydrogen partial pressure of 6.5 Pa as the setpoint, was found to be effective for the safe operation of a laboratory digester close to its maximum sustainable loading rate. The existence of a relationship between hydrogen level and organic loading rate was also confirmed on a 600 m{sup 3} industrial digester, with digester overloading occurring at hydrogen concentrations above 7 Pa.

  4. Correlation between dissolved oxygen concentration, microbial community and membrane permeability in a membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Chol Ma; Yu-Na Lee; Jong-Sang Park; Chung-Hak Lee; Sang-Ho Lee; In-Soung Chang; Tae-Seok Ahn

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) level on microfiltration performance and microbial physiology was investigated in membrane-coupled sequencing batch reactors (MSBR). Two bioreactors employing anoxic\\/oxic (A\\/O) and only oxic (–O–) phase, respectively were run in parallel to elucidate how DO level does affect membrane filterability and microbial characteristics of sludge. If TMP is considered as an important parameter for the

  5. Dissolved Concentrations of PAHs and PCBs Are Often Over-predicted Using Sediment Concentrations and Literature Koc Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing amount of chemical and biological evidence that using sediment concentrations and commonly applied Koc values frequently overpredicts interstitial water concentrations of HOCs, and thereby overestimates uptake and/or effects of those chemicals on exposed or...

  6. Relationship between the optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the southern Baltic Sea region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni M. Ferrari; Mark D. Dowell; Stefania Grossi; Cristina Targa

    1996-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were performed during three oceanographic surveys in 1994 in the southern Baltic Sea (Polish area of the Baltic Proper). DOC was measured both by high-temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO) and low-temperature oxidation (LTO) conventional persulphate methods. CDOM fluorescence was shown to be highly correlated with absorption,

  7. Dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations as proxies for emissions: First results from a survey of 43 Alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pighini, Sylvie; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Miglietta, Franco

    2015-04-01

    Up to very recently, freshwater ecosystems were neglected in assessments of the global carbon cycle and considered merely as passive 'pipes' which transport carbon from the land to the oceans. This view has been challenged by an increasing number of studies showing that freshwater ecosystems may negate a substantial fraction of the carbon sink through carbon dioxide (CO2) and in particular methane (CH4) emissions and thus rather should be viewed as 'reactors' which process a large fraction of the terrigenous carbon. Most of our knowledge on freshwater CO2 and CH4 emissions to date derives from studies in tropical and boreal regions, while temperate freshwater ecosystems are understudied. This study is focused on lakes from the Alpine area and their content in dissolved greenhouse gases, CH4 and CO2. We mostly aim to assess the content of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide from the Alpine lakes in order to understand whether Alpine lakes could be potential CH4 and CO2 emitters. We also would like to relate concentrations to lake characteristics and potential biotic and abiotic driving forces. A diverse set of 43 lakes, from Trentino, South Tirol (Italy) and North Tirol (Austria), was selected resulting in a gradient with respect to elevation (from 240 to 1700 m a.s.l.) and latitude (from 45.52° to 47.38°). Complementary to dissolved CH4 and CO2 surface water samples, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured. Only water surface samples were considered. Analyses were done with a gas chromatographer equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) for CH4 and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for CO2 determination. The first results show that all the sampled lakes were super-saturated in dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations, at least partly to a degree that in the literature has been shown to result in substantial emissions to the atmosphere. To estimate emissions, CO2 and CH4 fluxes will be quantified using the eddy covariance and floating chamber technique on a subset of the investigated lakes in a next step. Results will indicate which parameters lead to greenhouse gases emissions in the Alpine area.

  8. [Effect of the change in sulphate and dissolved oxygen mass concentration on metal release in old cast iron distribution pipes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-li; Shi, Bao-you; Sun, Hui-fang; Zhang, Zhi-huan; Gu, Jun-nong; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2013-09-01

    To understand the processes of corrosion by-product release and the consequent "red water" problems caused by the variation of water chemical composition in drinking water distribution system, the effect of sulphate and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on total iron release in corroded old iron pipe sections historically transporting groundwater was investigated in laboratory using small-scale pipe section reactors. The release behaviors of some low-level metals, such as Mn, As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni, in the process of iron release were also monitored. The results showed that the total iron and Mn release increased significantly with the increase of sulphate concentration, and apparent red water occurred when sulphate concentration was above 400 mg x L(-1). With the increase of sulfate concentration, the effluent concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni also increased obviously, however, the effluent concentrations of these metals were lower than the influent concentrations under most circumstances, which indicated that adsorption of these metals by pipe corrosion scales occurred. Increasing DO within a certain range could significantly inhibit the iron release. PMID:24288993

  9. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations and compositions, and trihalomethane formation potentials in waters from agricultural peat soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California; implications for drinking-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujii, Roger; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Aiken, George R.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    1998-01-01

    Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (Delta) is an important drinking-water source for more than 20 million people in California. At times, this water contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and bromide, and exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for trihalomethanes of 0.100 milligrams per liter if chlorinated for drinking water. About 20 to 50 percent of the trihalomethane precursors to Delta waters originates from drainage water from peat soils on Delta islands. This report elucidates some of the factors and processes controlling and affecting the concentration and quality of dissolved organic carbon released from peat soils and relates the propensity of dissolved organic carbon to form trihalomethanes to its chemical composition.Soil water was sampled from near-surface, oxidized, well-decomposed peat soil (upper soil zone) and deeper, reduced, fibrous peat soil (lower soil zone) from one agricultural field in the west central Delta over 1 year. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the upper soil zone were highly variable, with median concentrations ranging from 46.4 to 83.2 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in samples from the lower soil zone were much less variable and generally slightly higher than samples from the upper soil zone, with median concentrations ranging from 49.3 to 82.3 milligrams per liter. The dissolved organic carbon from the lower soil zone had significantly higher aromaticity (as measured by specific ultraviolet absorbance) and contained significantly greater amounts of aromatic humic substances (as measured by XAD resin fractionation and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of XAD isolates) than the dissolved organic carbon from the upper soil zone. These results support the conclusion that more aromatic forms of dissolved organic carbon are produced under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentration, trihalomethane formation potential, and ultraviolet absorbance were all highly correlated, showing that trihalomethane precursors increased with increasing dissolved organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance for whole water samples. Contrary to the generally accepted conceptual model for trihalomethane formation that assumes that aromatic forms of carbon are primary precursors to trihalomethanes, results from this study indicate that dissolved organic carbon aromaticity appears unrelated to trihalomethane formation on a carbon-normalized basis. Thus, dissolved organic carbon aromaticity alone cannot fully explain or predict trihalomethane precursor content, and further investigation of aromatic and nonaromatic forms of carbon will be needed to better identify trihalomethane precursors.

  10. Dissolved organic carbon concentration controls benthic primary production: results from in situ chambers in north-temperate lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godwin, Sean C.; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated several potential drivers of primary production by benthic algae (periphyton) in north-temperate lakes. We used continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from in situ benthic chambers to quantify primary production by periphyton at multiple depths across 11 lakes encompassing a broad range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations. Light-use efficiency (primary production per unit incident light) was inversely related to average light availability (% of surface light) in 7 of the 11 study lakes, indicating that benthic algal assemblages exhibit photoadaptation, likely through physiological or compositional changes. DOC alone explained 86% of the variability in log-transformed whole-lake benthic production rates. TP was not an important driver of benthic production via its effects on nutrient and light availability. This result is contrary to studies in other systems, but may be common in relatively pristine north-temperate lakes. Our simple empirical model may allow for the prediction of whole-lake benthic primary production from easily obtained measurements of DOC concentration.

  11. Modification of nitrifying biofilm into nitritating one by combination of increased free ammonia concentrations, lowered HRT and dissolved oxygen concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivar Zekker; Ergo Rikmann; Toomas Tenno; Anne Menert; Vallo Lemmiksoo; Alar Saluste; Taavo Tenno; Martin Tomingas

    2011-01-01

    Nitrifying biomass on ring-shaped carriers was modified to nitritating one in a relatively short period of time (37 days) by limiting the air supply, changing the aeration regime, shortening the hydraulic retention time and increasing free ammonia (FA) concentration in the moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most efficient strategy for the development and maintenance of nitritating biofilm was found to

  12. EFFECTS OF MINERAL ACID DEPOSITION ON CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC ACIDS IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data have accumulated in recent years from a variety of sources suggesting that concentrations of organic acids may have decreased in surface waters in response to increased mineral acidity. These include laboratory studies, paleoecological investigations, theoretical considerati...

  13. Dissolved oxygen concentration field measurement in micro-scale water flows using PtOEP/PS film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae Hun; Kim, Hyun Dong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2012-01-01

    A planar optode system based on an oxygen quenchable luminophore platinum (II) octaethyporphrin (PtOEP) bound with thin polystyrene (PS) film and UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) was developed to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration field in micro-scale water flows. An intensity-based method adopting a pixel-to-pixel in situ calibration technique was used to visualize DO concentration fields around an impinging micro-nozzle. The achievable spatial resolution of the acquired concentration map could be as high as 2.94 ?m. A micro-round water jet having 100% of DO was obliquely impinged on to a PtOEP/PS film coated plate placed in a 0% of DO water container. Velocity fields were obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and it is demonstrated that the high DO concentration region was coincided with the impingement area. The DO concentration gradient due to DO diffusion was affected by the Reynolds number.

  14. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations vary with season and land use - investigations from two fens in Northeastern Germany over two years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, M.; Zeitz, J.

    2014-05-01

    The rising export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peatlands during the last 20 years is of great environmental concern, as DOC harms drinking water quality and diminishes the carbon storage of peatlands. Lack of knowledge particularly exists for fens. The aim of our study was to determine DOC concentrations at an agriculturally used fen and a rewetted fen throughout the year. We measured DOC concentrations in ditch water of these fens in 2011 and 2012. Furthermore, discharge measurements were condcucted to detect DOC export. Overall DOC concentrations at our agriculturally used site and at our rewetted site were 35 mg L-1 and 26 mg L-1 (median), respectively. The maximum DOC concentration at our agriculturally used site was twice as high as at the rewetted site (134 mg L-1 vs. 61 mg L-1). Annual DOC export was calculated for the rewetted site, amounting to 200 kg C ha-1 on average. Our results suggest that rewetting of degraded fens reduces DOC export in the long-term, while agricultural use of fens leads to enhanced decomposition and thus, elevates DOC export.

  15. PHOTOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER: EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION AND ACIDITIES OF IONIZABLE SITES IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...

  16. Generalized regression neural network-based approach for modelling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration in the Upper Klamath River, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a comparison between generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models is given on the effectiveness of modelling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a river. The two models are developed using hourly experimental data collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS Station No: 421209121463000 [top]) station at the Klamath River at Railroad Bridge at Lake Ewauna. The input variables used for the two models are water, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and sensor depth. The performances of the models are evaluated using root mean square errors (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), Willmott's index of agreement (d), and correlation coefficient (CC) statistics. Of the two approaches employed, the best fit was obtained using the GRNN model with the four input variables used. PMID:24956755

  17. Effects of lowered dissolved oxygen concentration on the toxicity of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene to fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.R.

    1987-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration affects the toxicity of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, exposed during the embryonic-to-larval-juvenile development stage. This stage in the growth of the fathead minnow and several other species of fish has been found to be the most sensitive, or among the most sensitive, to chemical pollutants in life-cycle toxicity tests. The chemical 1,2,4-TCB has been identified as a priority pollutant by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a number of herbicides and insecticides and has been found as a contaminant in fish. It was selected as the chemical stressor in this study in order to provide information useful to the Agency in deriving water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life.

  18. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA-Interim provides climatological data to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes based on wind-speed parameterisations of the gas exchange coefficient. The second method exploits the high frequency of the measurements to determine the increment of oxygen over time during daylight hours to measure NCP. Together with the O2 concentration decrease during the night (due to community respiration), this method also allows us to derive gross oxygen production rates. The results of these two methods are compared.

  19. Evaluating Function of a Constructed Fen in Alberta's Oil Sands Region Using Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, M.; Khadka, B.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands, mainly fens, account for close to 65% of the landscape in the oil sands region near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Since mine closure plans require landscape reclamation, methods for fen construction are being investigated. As reclamation goals include the return of ecosystem function, criteria for evaluation must be developed. In this study we compare soil concentrations and spectrophometric properties of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from a constructed fen during its first growing season with that collected from three diverse, undisturbed reference fens in the region. The constructed fen had lower DOC concentration than all the reference fens. Based on E2/E3, E4/E6 and specific UV absorbance of the DOC, the constructed fen had DOC with significantly greater humic content, aromatic nature, and larger molecular size than the reference fens. Results from laboratory DOC production studies indicate that these patterns are likely due to the limited DOC contribution from the newly planted vegetation at the constructed fen, resulting in DOC largely derived from humified peat placed during construction. These preliminary results suggest that DOC concentration and chemistry provide information about the ecological development of the constructed system that could be useful for evaluating reclamation success through time.

  20. The effect of using different 0.45 ?m filter membranes on 'dissolved' element concentrations in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, G.E.M.; Bonham-Carter, G. F.; Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.; Lemieux, C.; Quemerais, B.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of 4 different 0.45 ??m pore size filter membrane systems on the 'dissolved' concentration of 28 elements in 5 natural water samples of varying matrix is reported. In 3 of the 5 waters, consistently higher concentrations of most elements (minor and trace) are obtained using Nucleopore 47 mm filter and the cellulose acetate/nitrate 47 mm filter than those measured using the 142 mm cellulose nitrate MFS filter or the Gelman capsule 47 mm filter. These distinct and coherent patterns in elemental behaviour disappear for the other 2 samples, an organic-rich peat water of high suspended load and a mineralised sample high in Si and Ca. Thus the nature and degree of filtration artifacts is matrix-dependent. These trends are evident in both data sets produced by 2 independent laboratories using different instrumentation, techniques and calibrating procedures. The average relative standard deviation in elemental concentration across the 4 filter types is in the range 9-21%. The presence of such filtration artifacts must be considered in projects where, for example, seasonal variability of water composition is under examination, data from various sources are being merged or hydrogeochemical surveys are being conducted.

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Profiles in the Hyporheic Zone Through the Use of a High-Density Fiber Optic Measurement Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, William Jeffrey; Quick, Annika; Farrell, Tiffany B.; Benner, Shawn G.; Feris, Kevin P.; Tonina, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The majority of chemical reactions in riverine systems occur within the hyporheic zone (HZ). Hyporheic exchange, flow into and out of the hyporheic zone, represents a primary control over those reactions because the flow rate will determine the residence time and amount of chemical constituents in the HZ. Hyporheic flow can be conceptualized as discreet streamlines that collectively represent a broad distribution of residence times. Within this context, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration becomes a primary indicator of the redox and biochemical state of the HZ including, for example, the fate of carbon, contaminant behavior, nutrient cycling, stream DO levels and nitrous oxide (N2O) production. River systems have been identified as a significant source of N2O emissions, contributing an estimated 10% of anthropogenically generated N2O. The primary biochemical transformations that lead to N2O production are nitrification (NH4+ to NO3-) and denitrification (NO3- to N2) reactions that are mediated by microbes living in the HZ. Current theory describes a process in which DO enters the stoss side of the HZ and is consumed by respiration and nitrification in the upstream, oxic portion of the streamlines leading to a progressive partitioning of the HZ from oxic to anoxic. This conceptualization, however, has not been well validated in a physical sense, due to inherent difficulties associated with measuring chemical concentrations in the HZ. To test current theory, we measured HZ DO concentrations, in a large-scale flume experiment, almost continuously for five months using a multiplexed optical network and a precision robotic surface probe system. We were able to measure DO at higher spatial and temporal resolution than has been previously demonstrated. These measurements, coupled with detailed numerical modeling of HZ flowlines, allowed us to map HZ DO concentrations spatially and over time. Our findings validate the models that describe the consumption of DO through microbial processes. Additionally, our results show that residence time is a strong predictor of DO concentration within the HZ.

  2. Impacts of dust deposition on dissolved trace metal concentrations (Mn, Al and Fe) during a mesocosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttig, K.; Wagener, T.; Bressac, M.; Dammshäuser, A.; Streu, P.; Guieu, C.; Croot, P. L.

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of atmospheric dust is the primary process supplying trace elements abundant in crustal rocks (e.g. Al, Mn and Fe) to the surface ocean. Upon deposition, the residence time in surface waters for each of these elements differs according to their chemical speciation and biological utilization. Presently, however, the chemical and physical processes occurring after atmospheric deposition are poorly constrained, principally because of the difficulty in following natural dust events in situ. In the present work we examined the temporal changes in the biogeochemistry of crustal metals (in particular Al, Mn and Fe) after an artificial dust deposition event. The experiment was contained inside trace metal clean mesocosms (0-12.5 m depths) deployed in the surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean, close to the coast of Corsica within the frame of the DUNE project (a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem). Two consecutive artificial dust deposition events, each mimicking a wet deposition of 10 g m-2 of dust, were performed during the course of this DUNE-2 experiment. The changes in dissolved manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) concentrations were followed immediately after the seeding with dust and over the following week. The Mn, Fe and Al inventories and loss or dissolution rates were determined. The evolution of the inventories after the two consecutive additions of dust showed distinct behaviors for dissolved Mn, Al and Fe. Even though the mixing conditions differed from one seeding to the other, Mn and Al showed clear increases directly after both seedings due to dissolution processes. Three days after the dust additions, Al concentrations decreased as a consequence of scavenging on sinking particles. Al appeared to be highly affected by the concentrations of biogenic particles, with an order of magnitude difference in its loss rates related to the increase of biomass after the addition of dust. In the case of dissolved Fe, it appears that the first dust addition resulted in a decrease as it was scavenged by sinking dust particles, whereas the second seeding induced dissolution of Fe from the dust particles due to the excess Fe binding ligand concentrations present at that time. This difference, which might be related to a change in Fe binding ligand concentration in the mesocosms, highlights the complex processes that control the solubility of Fe. Based on the inventories at the mesocosm scale, the estimations of the fractional solubility of metals from dust particles in seawater were 1.44 ± 0.19% and 0.91 ± 0.83% for Al and 41 ± 9% and 27 ± 19% for Mn for the first and the second dust addition. These values are in good agreement with laboratory-based estimates. For Fe no fractional solubility was obtained after the first seeding, but 0.12 ± 0.03% was estimated after the second seeding. Overall, the trace metal dataset presented here makes a significant contribution to enhancing our knowledge on the processes influencing trace metal release from Saharan dust and the subsequent processes of bio-uptake and scavenging in a low nutrient, low chlorophyll area.

  3. An Isotope Dilution Method for High-frequency Measurements of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon concentration in the Surface Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Bender, M. L.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Cassar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is one of the most important species in the ocean carbon system. An autonomous system using isotope dilution as its core method has been developed to obtain high-frequency measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in the surface ocean. This system accurately mixes a seawater sample and a 13C-labeled sodium bicarbonate solution (spike). The mixed solution is then acidified and sent through a gas permeable membrane contactor. CO2 derived from DIC in the mixture is extracted by a CO2-free gas stream, and is sent to a cavity ring-down spectrometer to analyze its 13C/12C ratio. [DIC] of the seawater can then be derived from the measured 13C/12C, the known mixing ratio and the [DI13C] of the spike. The method has been tested under a wide [DIC] range (1800-2800 ?mol/kg) in the laboratory. It has also been deployed on a cruise that surveyed ocean waters to the south of Florida. At a sampling resolution of 4 minutes (15 samples per hour), the relative standard deviation of DIC determined from the laboratory tests and the field deployment is ×0.07% and ×0.09%, respectively. The accuracy of the method is better than 0.1% except where [DIC] varies faster than 5 ?mol/kg per minute. Based on the laboratory and field evaluations, we conclude that this method can provide accurate underway [DIC] measurements at high resolution in most oceanic regions. Schematic illustration of the work flow.

  4. Modeling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) using two different adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of two adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS)-based neuro-fuzzy models applied for modeling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. The two models are developed using experimental data collected from the bottom (USGS station no: 420615121533601) and top (USGS station no: 420615121533600) stations at Klamath River at site KRS12a nr Rock Quarry, Oregon, USA. The input variables used for the ANFIS models are water pH, temperature, specific conductance, and sensor depth. Two ANFIS-based neuro-fuzzy systems are presented. The two neuro-fuzzy systems are: (1) grid partition-based fuzzy inference system, named ANFIS_GRID, and (2) subtractive-clustering-based fuzzy inference system, named ANFIS_SUB. In both models, 60 % of the data set was randomly assigned to the training set, 20 % to the validation set, and 20 % to the test set. The ANFIS results are compared with multiple linear regression models. The system proposed in this paper shows a novelty approach with regard to the usage of ANFIS models for DO concentration modeling. PMID:24057665

  5. Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentration on planktonic foraminifera: results from laboratory culture experiments and implications for oceanic anoxic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroyanagi, A.; da Rocha, R. E.; Bijma, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.; Eggins, S. M.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    During Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), substantial turnover of planktonic foraminiferal species occurred, however, the direct effects of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on planktonic foraminifera remain obscure. Althogh culture experiments conducted under controlled conditions can quantify the relationships between foraminiferal ecology and environmental parameters, experiments controlling DO have yet to be conducted because it is difficult to maintain a stable oxygen concentration. In this study, we cultured two subtropical-transitional planktonic foraminifer species (one symbiotic species, Orbulina universa, and one nonsymbiotic species, Globigerina bulloides) under six different DO conditions (between 10% and 100% saturation). In both species, the gametogenesis rate was more than 60% even at a DO of 10%, suggesting that at least 'dysoxic' conditions (~0.7 mg O2 L-1) could not have directly caused the extinction of planktonic foraminifera during OAEs. Planktonic foraminifera originated from benthic lineages, and this origin is one possible explanation for their high tolerance to extremely low DO levels. Although the number of days to gametogenesis did not differ significantly among treatments in either species, final shell weight increased with increasing DO, suggesting that fossil foraminiferal shell weight could vary with past DO conditions. Our results suggest that the extinction of many planktonic foraminiferal species during OAEs may have been due to anoxic or euxinic conditions in the euphotic zone. The occurrence of these conditions can be explained either by the oxygen minimum layer model or by the stagnant ocean model combined with elevated riverine P input.

  6. Influence of increasing dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations and decreasing pH on chemolithoautrophic bacteria from oxic-sulfidic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammitzsch, K.; Jost, G.; Jürgens, K.

    2012-12-01

    Increases in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration are expected to cause a decrease in the pH of ocean waters, a process known as ocean acidification. In oxygen-deficient zones this will add to already increased DIC and decreased pH values. It is not known how this might affect microbial communities and microbially mediated processes. In this study, the potential effects of ocean acidification on chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes of marine oxic-anoxic transition zones were investigated, using the chemoautotrophic denitrifying ?-proteobacterium "Sulfurimonas gotlandica" strain GD1 as a model organism. This and related taxa use reduced sulfur compounds, e.g. sulfide and thiosulfate, as electron donors and were previously shown to be responsible for nitrate removal and sulfide detoxification in redox zones of the Baltic Sea water column but occur also in other oxygen-deficient marine systems. Bacterial cell growth within a broad range of DIC concentrations and pH values was monitored and substrate utilization was determined. The results showed that the DIC saturation concentration for growth was already reached at 800 ?M, which is well below in situ DIC levels. The pH optimum was between 6.6 and 8.0. Within a pH range of 6.6-7.1 there was no significant difference in substrate utilization; however, at lower pH values cell growth decreased sharply and cell-specific substrate consumption increased. These findings suggest that a direct effect of ocean acidification, with the predicted changes in pH and DIC, on chemolithoautotrophic bacteria such as "S. gotlandica" str. GD1 is generally not very probable.

  7. Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in the hyporheic zone through the use of a high density fiber optic measurement network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, W. J.; Quick, A. M.; Farrell, T. B.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a potentially important source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O); stream processes may account for up to 10% of global anthropogenic N2O emissions. However, mechanistic understanding and predictive quantification of this gas flux is hampered by complex temporally and spatially variable interactions between flow dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Reactive inorganic nitrogen (Nr) is typically present at low concentrations in natural stream waters, but many rural and urban streams suffer from an excess of Nr, typically in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). These reactive species are either assimilated by living biomass or transformed by microbial processes. The two primary microbial transformations of Nr are nitrification (NH4+ to NO3-) and denitrification (NO3- to N2). Denitrification, which occurs almost exclusively in the anoxic zone of the HZ, permanently removes between 30-70% of all Nr entering streams, other mechanisms may retain nitrogen. The mass transport of reactive species (i.e. O2, NO3- and N2O) by hyporheic flow strongly influences reaction rates, residence times, and subsequent N2O flux. By extension, stream flow and channel morphology presumably control, and may be effective predictors of, N2O generation rates. By recreating the stream processes in the University of Idaho flume, we are able to control the bed morphology, fluxes and residence times through the HZ and concentrations of Nr from exogenous (stream water) and endogenous (organic material in the streambed) sources. For the present experiment, the flume was divided into three streams, each with different morphologies (3, 6 and 9cm dunes) and all using the same source water. Stream water for this first experimental phase had no significant loading of Nr. As such, all reaction products were the result of endogenous sources of Nr. To measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations we deployed 120 channels of a novel, fiber-optic optode system which was coupled with an advanced optical multiplexer that allowed us to cycle continuously through all 120 channels. Using this approach, we were able to accurately map the evolution and extent of the anoxic regions within the HZ and demonstrate that bed morphology exhibits significant control over residence times and the spatial temporal evolution of the anoxic region. In addition to the DO measurements, we deployed 240 Rhizon water samplers to extract pore water, which we used to measure Nr and N2O concentrations, and an ion Clark-type electrode sensor to measure N2O concentrations at the streambed surface (results discussed separately). Integrating these various results will allow us to refine the existing models for N2O emissions from urban and rural streams.

  8. Water quality in the Fort Cobb Watershed, USA: Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved P stream concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved phosphorus (P) has often been identified as the nutrient of concern in lakes, reservoirs and streams especially where there is evidence of eutrophication. The objective of this work is to identify spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved P [soluble reactive P (SRP) and bioavailable P (B...

  9. EXAMINATION OF DISSOLVED CONCENTRATIONS OF As, B, Cd, Hg, Se, AND Al IN WATER QUALITY FROM THE BACKFILL AQUIFER, EASTERN POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING, 20051

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Muller Ogle

    Water quality of the backfill aquifer associated with coal strip mining is a developing area of analysis where data are allowing regulators to move from depending on predictive techniques to reliance on data collected from the backfill aquifer. The chemical concentrations of dissolved arsenic, boron, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and aluminum in the backfill aquifer were examined. The data are from

  10. Distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations and temperature in ground water of the gulf coast aquifer systems, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Weiss, Jonathan S.; Williamson, Alex K.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations and temperature in waters of 10 of the aquifers comprising the gulf coast aquifer systems of the Gulf Mexico Coastal Plain are mapped at a scale of 1:3,500,000. Dissolved solids concentration in the aquifers of the Tertiary System ranges from less than 500 mg/L at the outcrop and subcrop areas to as much as 150,000 mg/L at the downdip extent of these aquifers. A distinct band of sharply increasing concentration of dissolved-solids occurs at about middip of each aquifer of the Tertiary System. Dissolved-solids concentration in younger aquifers ranges from less than 500 mg/L in outcrop and subcrop areas to about 70,000 mg/L at the downdip extent of these aquifers. Temperature of waters in permeable Tertiary deposits ranges from about 18 C at the outcrop and subcrop areas to 90 C at the downdip extent of these aquifers. Temperature of waters in younger deposits ranges from about 14 C at the outcrop and subcrop areas to 30 C at their downdip extent. (USGS)

  11. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA?Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  12. Dissolved Trace Metal Concentrations over the Peru Shelf and in the Subsurface Oxygen Minimum Zone Off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C.; Bruland, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Peru coast is the site of one of the largest fisheries in the world, and home to some of the highest f-ratios ever recorded. As a result of this highly productive surface water, an intense subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) persists. Despite the import of the effect of OMZs due to their predicted increase with global warming, there is very little trace metal data from this region. Here we present dissolved trace metal data from the U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect over the Peru shelf and through the OMZ. Results suggest a sink of Pb, Cd, Sc, Cu and Ga in the suboxic region of the shelf, and a shelf source of Co and Fe. Trace metal concentrations within the OMZ will also be discussed. As many of these metals have not been analyzed in this region previously, this work can serve as a baseline for future comparison and adds to the understanding of global trace metal distributions.

  13. Challenges of using polyethylene passive samplers to determine dissolved concentrations of parent and alkylated PAHs under cold and saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, Pamela J; Adelman, Dave; Lohmann, Rainer

    2013-09-17

    Passive samplers can be useful tools for determining truly dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water. Polyethylene (PE) samplers were validated for measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with a focus on alkylated PAHs that can dominate in an oil spill. Equilibrium partition coefficients between water and PE passive samplers (KPEw) were measured for 41 PAHs both at ambient conditions (20 °C, no salt) and down to -15 °C with up to 245 psu present in ice brine. For each additional alkylated carbon, log KPEw increased by an average of 0.40 (±0.20) log units, close to predictions. The increase per aromatic carbon was only 0.33 (±0.02) log units. Apparent PE-water distributions of pyrene and deuterated pyrene (performance reference compound) were within 0.1 log unit for all experiments at 20 and 2 °C but started to diverge by 0.8 log units at -4 °C (100 psu) and by 3.1 log units at -15 °C (245 psu). The delay in equilibrating PAHs in these experiments was dominated by increases in the water viscosity, which, in turn, affected both the aqueous diffusivities of the PAHs and the thickness of the water boundary layer. In a simulated marine oil spill in the laboratory, PE-based results were within a factor of 2 of conventional sampling results for the most abundant PAHs. PMID:23919389

  14. Application of high-resolution spectral absorbance measurements to determine dissolved organic carbon concentration in remote areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, Armine; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Kutzbach, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Accurate quantification of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface and soil pore waters is crucial for understanding changes in water resources under the influence of climate and land use changes. Sampling and laboratory analysis of DOC content at a sufficient temporal frequency are especially difficult to achieve for natural DOC sources like the extensive boreal and arctic mire landscapes due to their remoteness. Therefore, the goals of this paper are (1) to investigate the performance of a portable, high-resolution ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopic method for determining the DOC content of surface and soil pore water samples from a boreal mire complex and (2) to compare the spectroscopic method with other DOC measurement techniques, e.g., the wet heated persulfate oxidation method and a laboratory, expulsion-based spectrophotometric method and (3) to assess different multivariate models that relate absorbance measurements with DOC contents. The study indicates that high-resolution spectroscopic measurements provide a simple, robust and non-destructive method for measuring DOC content. These measurements are of short duration (<1 min) and the sample analysis is portable, rendering this method particularly advantageous for in situ investigations at remote field locations. The study also demonstrates that if absorbances at specific wavelengths are used as proxies for DOC concentration, it is recommended to create site-specific calibration models that include more than one wavelength to achieve the optimal accuracy of the proxy-based DOC quantification.

  15. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Ouf, Mohamed; Sharp, Jonathan O; Saikaly, Pascal; Drewes, Jörg E

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. PMID:23490107

  16. Effects of dissolved organic carbon and second substrates on the biodegradation of organic compounds at low concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.K.; Alexander, M.

    1985-04-01

    Pseudomonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas sp. strain ANL but not Salmonella typhimurium grew in an inorganic salts solution. The growth of P. acidovorans in this solution was not enhanced by the addition of 2.0 ..mu..g of phenol per liter, but the phenol was mineralized. Mineralization of 2.0 ..mu..g of phenol per liter by P. acidovorans was delayed 16 h by 70 ..mu..g of acetate per liter, and the delay was lengthened by increasing acetate concentrations, whereas phenol and acetate were utilized simultaneously at concentrations of 2.0 and 13 ..mu..g/liter, respectively. Growth of Pseudomonas sp. in the inorganic salts solution was not affected by the addition of 3.0 ..mu..g each of glucose and aniline per liter, nor was mineralization of the two compounds detected during the initial period of growth. However, mineralization of both substrates by this organism occurred simultaneously during the latter phases of growth and after growth had ended at the expense of the uncharacterized dissolved organic compounds in the salts solution. In contrast, when Pseudomonas sp. was grown in the salts solution supplemented with 300 ..mu..g each of glucose and aniline, the sugar was mineralized first, and aniline was mineralized only after much of the glucose carbon was converted to CO/sub 2/. S. typhimurium failed to multiply in the salts solution with 1.0 ..mu..g of glucose per liter. It grew slightly but mineralized little of the sugar at 5.0 ..mu..g/liter, but its population density rose at 10 ..mu..g of glucose per liter or higher. The hexose could be mineralized at 0.5 ..mu..g/liter, however, if the solution contained 5.0 mg of arabinose per liter.

  17. EFFECTS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND SECOND SUBSTRATES ON THE BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas sp. strain ANL but not Salmonella typhimurium grew in an inorganic salts solution. Results indicate that second substrates and uncharacterized dissolved organic carbon may play an important role in controlling the rate and extent of biodegr...

  18. Factors affecting dissolved phosphorus and nitrate concentrations in ground and surface water for a valley dairy farm in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Flores-López, Francisco; Easton, Zachary M; Geohring, Larry D; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2011-02-01

    Agriculture often is considered to be a contributor of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and nitrate-N (NO3- -N) to surface waters. This research analyzed SRP and NO3- -N concentrations in groundwater and in a creek fed by groundwater on a valley dairy farm in the Cannonsville basin of the New York City (NYC) watershed. A total of 37 groundwater piezometers were installed to depths of 0.3 to 1.5 m. Water-table depth and concentrations of SRP, NO3- -N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved oxygen were measured at regular intervals over a three-year period. A multivariate mixed model analysis of variance indicated that the SRP and NO3- -N concentrations were controlled primarily by three classes of variables: environmental variables, including precipitation and water table depth; source variables, including manure applied and crop type; and chemical variables, including DOC and dissolved oxygen concentrations in groundwater. The highest groundwater concentrations of N03- -N and SRP were found at the shallowest water-table depths, which has implications for agricultural nutrient management in areas with shallow groundwater. PMID:21449473

  19. Effects of Land Use on Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition and Concentration of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) in Southeastern US Piedmont Headwater Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable carbon isotopic composition (delta 13C) and concentrations of DOC and DIC were measured in stream water samples collected monthly in 15 headwater streams from an area with extensive poultry and cattle production and a rapidly growing human population. Linear regression te...

  20. Influence of in-stream diel concentration cycles of dissolved trace metals on acute toxicity to one-year-old cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Harper, D.D.; Farag, A.M.; Cleasby, T.E.; MacConnell, E.; Skaar, D.

    2007-01-01

    Extrapolating results of laboratory bioassays to streams is difficult, because conditions such as temperature and dissolved metal concentrations can change substantially on diel time scales. Field bioassays conducted for 96 h in two mining-affected streams compared the survival of hatchery-raised, metal-nai??ve westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) exposed to dissolved (0.1-??m filtration) metal concentrations that either exhibited the diel variation observed in streams or were controlled at a constant value. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in these streams increased each night by as much as 61 and 125%, respectively, and decreased a corresponding amount the next day, whereas Cu did not display a diel concentration cycle. In High Ore Creek (40 km south of Helena, MT, USA), survival (33%) after exposure to natural diel-fluctuating Zn concentrations (range, 214-634 ??g/L; mean, 428 ??g/L) was significantly (p = 0.008) higher than survival (14%) after exposure to a controlled, constant Zn concentration (422 ??g/L). Similarly, in Dry Fork Belt Creek (70 km southeast of Great Falls, MT, USA), survival (75%) after exposure to diel-fluctuating Zn concentrations (range, 266-522 ??g/L; mean, 399 ??g/L) was significantly (p = 0.022) higher than survival (50%) in the constant-concentration treatment (392 ??g/L). Survival likely was greater in these diel treatments, both because the periods of lower metal concentrations provided some relief for the fish and because toxicity during periods of higher metal concentrations was lessened by the simultaneous occurrence each night of lower water temperatures, which reduce the rate of metal uptake. Based on the present study, current water-quality criteria appear to be protective for streams with diel concentration cycles of Zn (and, perhaps, Cd) for the hydrologie conditions tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  1. Production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to compare the production and water quality responses of the channel x...

  2. Labview Based Dissolved Oxygen Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fenghong Chu; Junjie Yang

    2009-01-01

    A dissolved oxygen sensor based on data acquisition card and Labview was studied in this paper. The stimulated light and fluorescence light signal was fed to the data acquisition card of the computer, and by Labview software we calculated the fluorescence lifetime, based on the relationship between fluorescence lifetime and dissolved oxygen concentration we got the dissolved oxygen concentration.

  3. Mercury dynamics in relation to dissolved organic carbon concentration and quality during high flow events in three northeastern U.S. streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittman, Jason A.; Shanley, James B.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Aiken, George R.; Chalmers, Ann T.; Towse, Janet E.; Selvendiran, Pranesh

    2010-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is widespread in remote areas of the northeastern United States. Forested uplands have accumulated a large reservoir of Hg in soil from decades of elevated anthropogenic deposition that can be released episodically to stream water during high flows. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in stream water Hg species and organic matter fractions over a range of hydrologic conditions in three forested upland watersheds (United States). Mercury and organic matter concentrations increased with discharge at all three sites; however, the partitioning of Hg fractions (dissolved versus particulate) differed among sites and seasons. Associated with increased discharge, flow paths shifted from mineral soil under base flow to upper soil horizons. As flow paths shifted, greater concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) richer in aromatic substances were flushed from upper soil horizons to stream water. The hydrophobic organic matter associated with humic material from upper soils appears to have had a greater capacity to bind Hg. Because of the strong correlation between Hg and DOC, we hypothesize that there was a concurrent shift in the source of Hg with DOC from lower mineral soil to upper soil horizons. Our study suggests that stream discharge is an effective predictor of dissolved total Hg flux.

  4. Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic December 2011 Accepted 3 February 2012 Available online 12 February 2012 Keywords: Biochar Activated carbon was to determine the influence of biochar and activated carbon (AC) on the freely dissolved concentration

  5. Seasonal changes in concentrations of dissolved pesticides and organic carbon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta, California, 1994-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) of California is an ecologically rich and hydrologically complex region that receives runoff from nearly one-quarter of the state. Water-quality studies of surface water in the region have found dissolved pesticides in winter storm runoff at concentrations toxic to some aquatic invertebrates. However, scientists have little information on pesticide concentrations in the Delta on a seasonal timescale or the importance of pesticide contributions from within-Delta sources. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study from 1994 to 1996 during which water samples were collected seasonally from 31 sites located within the Delta and on major tributaries to the Delta. Water samples were analyzed for 20 current-use pesticides and dissolved organic carbon. During the study, 11 current-use pesticides were detected; maximum concentrations ranging from 17 ng/L (for trifluralin) to 1,160 ng/L (for metolachlor). The highest concentrations of five pesticides (carbaryl, carbofuran, metolachlor, molinate, and simazine) were greater than 900 ng/L. The greatest number of pesticides was detected in the summer of 1994, whereas the least number were detected in the winter of 1994. The herbicides metolachlor and simazine were the most frequently detected pesticides and were detected in five of the six sampling seasons. The herbicides molinate and EPTC were detected only during the three summer sampling seasons. A comparison of pesticides detected during the spring and summer of 1995 showed some seasonal variability. Comparison of the three summer seasons sampled showed that a larger number of pesticides were detected, and with generally higher maximum concentrations, in 1994 than in 1995 or 1996. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged, over the course of the study, from 1.4 mg/L to 10.4 mg/L, and had a median concentration of 3.8 mg/L. On a seasonal basis, the lowest maximum DOC concentrations occurred during the summer and winter of 1994. The highest median DOC concentration on a seasonal basis occurred in the spring of 1995. This previously unreported data is being published now to provide historical information on pesticide concentrations in the Delta to water managers and the scientific community.

  6. Development of a continuous process for adjusting nitrate, zirconium, and free hydrofluoric acid concentrations in zirconium fuel dissolver product

    SciTech Connect

    Cresap, D.A.; Halverson, D.S.

    1993-04-01

    In the Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) upgrade, excess hydrofluoric acid in the dissolver product must be complexed with aluminum nitrate (ANN) to eliminate corrosion concerns, adjusted with nitrate to facilitate extraction, and diluted with water to ensure solution stability. This is currently accomplished via batch processing in large vessels. However, to accommodate increases in projected throughput and reduce water production in a cost-effective manner, a semi-continuous system (In-line Complexing (ILC)) has been developed. The major conclusions drawn from tests demonstrating the feasibility of this concept are given in this report.

  7. Recovering/concentrating of hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft based hardwood dissolving pulp process.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Laboni; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of recovering and concentrating sugars and acetic acid (HAc) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp process prior to fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars, by the combination of activated carbon adsorption, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. To reduce the fouling PHL was subjected to adsorption on activated carbon, then the treated PHL (TPHL) passed through a nanofiltration (NF DK) membrane to retain the sugars, and the permeate of acetic acid rich solution was passed through a reverse osmosis membrane (RO SG). It was found that for NF process sugars were concentrated from 48 to 227g/L at a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5 while 80 to 90% of acetic acid was permeated. For the reverse osmosis process, 68% of acetic acid retention was achieved at pH 4.3 and 500 psi pressure and the HAc concentration increased from 10 to 50g/L. PMID:24434701

  8. An empirical method for estimating instream pre-mining pH and dissolved Cu concentration in catchments with acidic drainage and ferricrete

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Gurrieri, J.T.; Furniss, G.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for assessing natural background water quality of streams affected by historical mining are vigorously debated. An empirical method is proposed in which stream-specific estimation equations are generated from relationships between either pH or dissolved Cu concentration in stream water and the Fe/Cu concentration ratio in Fe-precipitates presently forming in the stream. The equations and Fe/Cu ratios for pre-mining deposits of alluvial ferricrete then were used to reconstruct estimated pre-mining longitudinal profiles for pH and dissolved Cu in three acidic streams in Montana, USA. Primary assumptions underlying the proposed method are that alluvial ferricretes and modern Fe-precipitates share a common origin, that the Cu content of Fe-precipitates remains constant during and after conversion to ferricrete, and that geochemical factors other than pH and dissolved Cu concentration play a lesser role in determining Fe/Cu ratios in Fe-precipitates. The method was evaluated by applying it in a fourth, naturally acidic stream unaffected by mining, where estimated pre-mining pH and Cu concentrations were similar to present-day values, and by demonstrating that inflows, particularly from unmined areas, had consistent effects on both the pre-mining and measured profiles of pH and Cu concentration. Using this method, it was estimated that mining has affected about 480 m of Daisy Creek, 1.8 km of Fisher Creek, and at least 1 km of Swift Gulch. Mean values of pH decreased by about 0.6 pH units to about 3.2 in Daisy Creek and by 1-1.5 pH units to about 3.5 in Fisher Creek. In Swift Gulch, mining appears to have decreased pH from about 5.5 to as low as 3.6. Dissolved Cu concentrations increased due to mining almost 40% in Daisy Creek to a mean of 11.7 mg/L and as much as 230% in Fisher Creek to 0.690 mg/L. Uncertainty in the fate of Cu during the conversion of Fe-precipitates to ferricrete translates to potential errors in pre-mining estimates of as much as 0.25 units for pH and 22% for dissolved Cu concentration. The method warrants further testing in other mined and unmined watersheds. Comparison of pre-mining water-quality estimates derived from the ferricrete and other methods in single watersheds would be particularly valuable. The method has potential for use in monitoring remedial efforts at mine sites with ferricrete deposits. A reasonable remediation objective might be realized when the downstream pattern of Fe/Cu ratios in modern streambed Fe-precipitates corresponds to the pattern in pre-mining alluvial ferricrete deposits along a stream valley.

  9. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  10. Using the critical body residue approach to determine the acute toxicity of cadmium at varying levels of water hardness and dissolved organic carbon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Penttinen, S; Malk, V; Väisänen, A; Penttinen, O-P

    2011-07-01

    The linkage between acute adverse effects of cadmium and internal cadmium levels were investigated for the oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus in water at varying degrees of hardness and two different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The LC??s for the effect of cadmium on the survival of the worms greatly differed depending on water hardness and DOC. We found less variability in internal metal toxicity metrics (lethal residue; LR??s) than in external toxicity metrics (lethal concentration; LC??s): LC??s varied from 2.4 to 66.1 ?mol/L, while LR??s varied only from 226 to 413 ?mol/kg wet weight. The cadmium body burden appeared to be independent of exposure conditions. From our experimental data, a critical cadmium body residue (324 ± 78 ?mol/kg wet weight) associated with 50% lethality was derived. The protective role of DOC and water hardness against cadmium toxicity was evident. PMID:21481932

  11. Kinks in experimental diffusion profiles of a dissolving semi-crystalline polymer explained by a concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Helen E; Sitta, Christoph E; Schillinger, Burkhard; Löwen, Hartmut; Egelhaaf, Stefan U

    2015-06-28

    The dissolution of polyethylene oxide (PEO) tablets in water has been followed in situ by neutron radiography. When in contact with water, the crystalline phase of semi-crystalline PEO melts once a certain water content is attained. Polymer concentration profiles obtained from the neutron transmission images exhibited a pronounced kink which corresponds to a sharp front in the images and which is related to the melting transition. Sharp diffusion fronts and phase transitions are often linked to non-Fickian behaviour. However, by considering the time evolution of the complete concentration profiles in detail it is shown that the dissolution process can be explained using Fickian diffusion equations with a concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. PMID:26018995

  12. Changes in the Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations of Stream and Soil Water in Response to a Watershed-Scale Calcium Addition and Recovery from Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, C. B.; Driscoll, C. T.; Ard, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Positive trends in surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have been observed in recent decades across many, but not all, surface water monitoring sites in eastern North America and northern Europe. The drivers of these trends are not necessarily clear, although declining acidic deposition is often cited as a likely cause for increased DOC mobilization. Here we used long-term records (16-31 years) of monthly streamwater and soil solution chemistry data from two headwater catchments at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (NH, USA) to evaluate DOC trends in response to the recovery from acidification. We compared the concentrations and trends of DOC in Hubbard Brook's Watershed 6 (W6) and Watershed 1 (W1). W6 is the biogeochemical reference watershed and W1 underwent a treatment with calcium silicate in 1999 to mitigate the effects of long-term acid deposition. Streamwater DOC in W6 initially decreased through the 1980s and 1990s, but has leveled over the past 10-15 years, coincident with a period of modest pH increase. In contrast, W1 streamwater DOC concentrations have significantly increased since the calcium treatment which has led to more marked increases in pH. Greater mobilization of DOC in soil solution in W1 appears to be driving the higher streamwater DOC concentrations. We are analyzing these trends spatially within the watersheds and in conjunction with major solute chemistry to further explain the observed changes in DOC.

  13. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Grizzly Bay, California, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; McWayne, Megan; Sanders, Corey; Hladik, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Surface-water samples were collected from sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Grizzly Bay, California, during the spring in 2011 and 2012, and they were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for a suite of 99 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates. Samples were collected and analyzed as part of a collaborative project studying the occurrence and characteristics of phytoplankton in the San Francisco Estuary. Samples were analyzed by two separate laboratory methods employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Method detection limits ranged from 0.9 to 10.5 nanograms per liter (ng/L). Eighteen pesticides were detected in samples collected during 2011, and the most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides clomazone, diuron, hexazinone and metolachlor, and the diuron degradates 3,4-dichloroaniline and N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N’-methylurea (DCPMU). Concentrations for all compounds were less than 75 ng/L, except for the rice herbicide clomazone and the fungicide tetraconazole, which had maximum concentrations of 535 and 511 ng/L, respectively. In samples collected in 2012, a total of 16 pesticides were detected. The most frequently detected compounds were the fungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid and the herbicides diuron, hexazinone, metolachlor, and simazine. Maximum concentrations for all compounds detected in 2012 were less than 75 ng/L, except for the fungicide azoxystrobin and the herbicides hexazinone and simazine, which were detected at up to 188, 134, and 140 ng/L, respectively.

  14. Nitritating-anammox biomass tolerant to high dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio in treatment of yeast factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Seiman, Andrus; Loorits, Liis; Kroon, Kristel; Tomingas, Martin; Vabamäe, Priit; Tenno, Taavo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining stability of low concentration (< 1 g L(-1)) floccular biomass in the nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for the treatment of high COD (> 15,000 mg O2 L(-1)) to N (1680 mg N L(-1)) ratio real wastewater streams coming from the food industry is challenging. The anammox process was suitable for the treatment of yeast factory wastewater containing relatively high and abruptly increased organic C/N ratio and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. Maximum specific total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) loading and removal rates applied were 600 and 280 mg N g(-1) VSS d(-1), respectively. Average TIN removal efficiency over the operation period of 270 days was 70%. Prior to simultaneous reduction of high organics (total organic carbon > 600mg L(-1)) and N concentrations > 400 mg L(-1), hydraulic retention time of 15 h and DO concentrations of 3.18 (+/- 1.73) mg O2 L(-1) were applied. Surprisingly, higher DO concentrations did not inhibit the anammox process efficiency demonstrating a wider application of cultivated anammox biomass. The SBR was fed rapidly over 5% of the cycle time at 50% volumetric exchange ratio. It maintained high free ammonia concentration, suppressing growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Partial least squares and response surface modelling revealed two periods of SBR operation and the SBR performances change at different periods with different total nitrogen (TN) loadings. Anammox activity tests showed yeast factory-specific organic N compound-betaine and inorganic N simultaneous biodegradation. Among other microorganisms determined by pyrosequencing, anammox microorganism (uncultured Planctomycetales bacterium clone P4) was determined by polymerase chain reaction also after applying high TN loading rates. PMID:24701957

  15. Photosynthetic fractionation of 13C and concentrations of dissolved CO2 in the central equatorial Pacific during the last 255,000 years.

    PubMed

    Jasper, J P; Hayes, J M; Mix, A C; Prahl, F G

    1994-12-01

    Carbon isotopically based estimates of CO2 levels have been generated from a record of the photosynthetic fractionation of 13C [is equivalent to epsilon(p)] in a central equatorial Pacific sediment core that spans the last approximately 255 ka. Contents of 13C in phytoplanktonic biomass were determined by analysis of C37 alkadienones. These compounds are exclusive products of Prymnesiophyte algae which at present grow most abundantly at depths of 70-90 m in the central equatorial Pacific. A record of the isotopic composition of dissolved CO2 was constructed from isotopic analyses of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, which calcifies at 70-90 m in the same region. Values of epsilon(p), derived by comparison of the organic and inorganic delta values, were transformed to yield concentrations of dissolved CO2 [is equivalent to c(e)] based on a new, site-specific calibration of the relationship between epsilon(p) and c(e). The calibration was based on reassessment of existing epsilon(p) versus c(e) data, which support a physiologically based model in which epsilon(p) is inversely related to c(e). Values of PCO2, the partial pressure of CO2 that would be in equilibrium with the estimated concentrations of dissolved CO2, were calculated using Henry's law and the temperature determined from the alkenone-unsaturation index U(K/37). Uncertainties in these values arise mainly from uncertainties about the appropriateness (particularly over time) of the site-specific relationship between epsilon(p) and 1/c(e). These are discussed in detail and it is concluded that the observed record of epsilon(p) most probably reflects significant variations in delta pCO2, the ocean-atmosphere disequilibrium, which appears to have ranged from approximately 110 microatmospheres during glacial intervals (ocean > atmosphere) to approximately 60 microatmospheres during interglacials. Fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere would thus have been significantly larger during glacial intervals. If this were characteristic of large areas of the equatorial Pacific, then greater glacial sinks for the equatorially evaded CO2 must have existed elsewhere. Statistical analysis of air-sea pCO2 differences and other parameters revealed significant (p<0.01) inverse correlations of delta pCO2 with sea surface temperature and with the mass accumulation rate of opal. The former suggests response to the strength of upwelling, the latter may indicate either drawdown of CO2 by siliceous phytoplankton or variation of [CO2]/[Si(OH)4] ratios in upwelling waters. PMID:11539420

  16. Computed solid phases limiting the concentration of dissolved constituents in basalt aquifers of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington. Geochemical modeling and nuclide/rock/groundwater interaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, W.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Krupka, K.M.

    1982-08-01

    A speciation-solubility geochemical model, WATEQ2, was used to analyze geographically-diverse, ground-water samples from the aquifers of the Columbia Plateau basalts in eastern Washington. The ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with calcite, which provides both a solubility control for dissolved calcium and a pH buffer. Amorphic ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), is at saturation or modestly oversaturated in the few water samples with measured redox potentials. Most of the ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with amorphic silica (glass) and wairakite, a zeolite, and are saturated to oversaturated with respect to allophane, an amorphic aluminosilicate. The water samples are saturated to undersaturated with halloysite, a clay, and are variably oversaturated with regard to other secondary clay minerals. Equilibrium between the ground water and amorphic silica presumably results from the dissolution of the glassy matrix of the basalt. The oversaturation of the clay minerals other than halloysite indicates that their rate of formation lags the dissolution rate of the basaltic glass. The modeling results indicate that metastable amorphic solids limit the concentration of dissolved silicon and suggest the same possibility for aluminum and iron, and that the processes of dissolution of basaltic glass and formation of metastable secondary minerals are continuing even though the basalts are of Miocene age. The computed solubility relations are found to agree with the known assemblages of alteration minerals in the basalt fractures and vesicles. Because the chemical reactivity of the bedrock will influence the transport of solutes in ground water, the observed solubility equilibria are important factors with regard to chemical-retention processes associated with the possible migration of nuclear waste stored in the earth's crust.

  17. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants. PMID:23863442

  18. Dissolved pesticide concentrations detected in storm-water runoff at selected sites in the San Joaquin River basin, California, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Whitehead, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    As part of a collaborative study involving the United States Geological Survey Toxics Substances Hydrology Project (Toxics Project) and the University of California, Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory (BML), water samples were collected at three sites within the San Joaquin River Basin of California and analyzed for dissolved pesticides. Samples were collected during, and immediately after, the first significant rainfall (greater than 0.5 inch per day) following the local application of dormant spray, organophosphate insecticides during the winters of 2000 and 2001. All samples were collected in conjunction with fish-caging experiments conducted by BML researchers. Sites included two locations potentially affected by runoff of agricultural chemicals (San Joaquin River near Vernalis, California, and Orestimba Creek at River Road near Crows Landing, California, and one control site located upstream of pesticide input (Orestimba Creek at Orestimba Creek Road near Newman, California). During these experiments, fish were placed in cages and exposed to storm runoff for up to ten days. Following exposure, the fish were examined for acetylcholinesterase concentrations and overall genetic damage. Water samples were collected throughout the rising limb of the stream hydrograph at each site for later pesticide analysis. Concentrations of selected pesticides were measured in filtered water samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at the U.S. Geological Survey organic chemistry laboratory in Sacramento, California. Results of these analyses are presented.

  19. Impact of dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations and pH on growth of the chemolithoautotrophic epsilonproteobacterium Sulfurimonas gotlandica GD1T

    PubMed Central

    Mammitzsch, Kerstin; Jost, Günter; Jürgens, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Epsilonproteobacteria have been found globally distributed in marine anoxic/sulfidic areas mediating relevant transformations within the sulfur and nitrogen cycles. In the Baltic Sea redox zones, chemoautotrophic epsilonproteobacteria mainly belong to the Sulfurimonas gotlandica GD17 cluster for which recently a representative strain, S. gotlandica GD1T, could be established as a model organism. In this study, the potential effects of changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH on S. gotlandica GD1T were examined. Bacterial cell abundance within a broad range of DIC concentrations and pH values were monitored and substrate utilization was determined. The results showed that the DIC saturation concentration for achieving maximal cell numbers was already reached at 800??mol?L?1, which is well below in situ DIC levels. The pH optimum was between 6.6 and 8.0. Within a pH range of 6.6–7.1 there was no significant difference in substrate utilization; however, at lower pH values maximum cell abundance decreased sharply and cell-specific substrate consumption increased. PMID:24376054

  20. Dissolved and labile concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho: Comparisons among chemical equilibrium models and implications for biotic ligand models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Blank, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate thermodynamic speciation calculations inherent in biotic ligand models, the speciation of dissolved Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in aquatic systems influenced by historical mining activities is examined using equilibrium computer models and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Several metal/organic-matter complexation models, including WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, and Stockholm Humic model (SHM), are used in combination with inorganic speciation models to calculate the thermodynamic speciation of dissolved metals and concentrations of metal associated with biotic ligands (e.g., fish gills). Maximum dynamic metal concentrations, determined from total dissolved metal concentrations and thermodynamic speciation calculations, are compared with labile metal concentrations measured by DGT to assess which metal/organic-matter complexation model best describes metal speciation and, thereby, biotic ligand speciation, in the studied systems. Results indicate that the choice of model that defines metal/organic-matter interactions does not affect calculated concentrations of Cd and Zn associated with biotic ligands for geochemical conditions in the study area, whereas concentrations of Cu and Pb associated with biotic ligands depend on whether the speciation calculations use WHAM VI, NICA-Donnan, or SHM. Agreement between labile metal concentrations and dynamic metal concentrations occurs when WHAM VI is used to calculate Cu speciation and SHM is used to calculate Pb speciation. Additional work in systems that contain wide ranges in concentrations of multiple metals should incorporate analytical speciation methods, such as DGT, to constrain the speciation component of biotic ligand models. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Characterizing dissolved organic carbon concentrations and export in a boreal forest-peatland landscape under the influence of rapidly degrading discontinuous permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, J.; Connon, R.; Templeton, M.; Quinton, W. L.; Olefeldt, D.; Moore, T. R.; Roulet, N. T.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Our current understanding of peatland energy, water and carbon (C) cycles implies that northern peatlands are vulnerable to projected climate change, and that the perturbation of these cycles might cause a strong positive or negative net feedback to the climate system. About one third of Canada's northern peatlands contain contain perennialy frozen ground (permafrost). Boreal forest-peatland ecosystems in the discontinuous permafrost zone (50-90% of frozen ground) are especially vulnerable to rising temperatures as permafrost is ice-rich, relatively warm and thin, and thus susceptible to complete disappearance causing ground surface subsidence and a decline in forest cover in response to water-logging. Several recent studies have substantially improved our understanding of northern peatland's role in the climate system by quantifying their net ecosystem C balance which includes atmospheric and aqueous C fluxes generally dominated by the export of dissolved organic C (DOC). We characterize seasonal and diurnal variations in DOC export from five catchments (0.02-0.05 km2) at Scotty Creek, a 152 km2-watershed under the influence of rapidly degrading and disappearing discontinuous permafrost near Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada. The five catchments are characterized by different fractions of forested peat plateaus with permafrost (38-73%) and permafrost-free collapse bogs (27-62%). Dissolved organic carbon concentrations at Scotty Creek appear to be higher in catchments where the percentage of peat plateaus is higher compared to bogs, independent of catchment size. Average DOC concentration for catchments with a lower percentage of peat plateaus is lower (~43 mg/l) than for those with a higher percentage of plateaus (~60 mg/l). These preliminary results suggest that lateral C losses from this rapidly changing landscape are at least partly controlled by the peat plateau-bog ratio. Over the year, DOC export from the five catchments is limited to around a week due to the relatively dry conditions at Scotty Creek over the hot summer months: only one of the catchments produces continuous measurable surface runoff. However, as indicated through water level recordings, additional unaccounted DOC export may occur through diffuse subsurface flow.

  2. Evaluation of high-frequency mean streamwater transit-time estimates using groundwater age and dissolved silica concentrations in a small forested watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Norman E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2014-01-01

    Many previous investigations of mean streamwater transit times (MTT) have been limited by an inability to quantify the MTT dynamics. Here, we draw on (1) a linear relation (r 2 = 0.97) between groundwater 3H/3He ages and dissolved silica (Si) concentrations, combined with (2) predicted streamwater Si concentrations from a multiple-regression relation (R 2 = 0.87) to estimate MTT at 5-min intervals for a 23-year time series of streamflow [water year (WY) 1986 through 2008] at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia. The time-based average MTT derived from the 5-min data was ~8.4 ± 2.9 years and the volume-weighted (VW) MTT was ~4.7 years for the study period, reflecting the importance of younger runoff water during high flow. The 5-min MTTs are normally distributed and ranged from 0 to 15 years. Monthly VW MTTs averaged 7.0 ± 3.3 years and ranged from 4 to 6 years during winter and 8–10 years during summer. The annual VW MTTs averaged 5.6 ± 2.0 years and ranged from ~5 years during wet years (2003 and 2005) to >10 years during dry years (2002 and 2008). Stormflows are composed of much younger water than baseflows, and although stormflow only occurs ~17 % of the time, this runoff fraction contributed 39 % of the runoff during the 23-year study period. Combining the 23-year VW MTT (including stormflow) with the annual average baseflow for the period (~212 mm) indicates that active groundwater storage is ~1,000 mm. However, the groundwater storage ranged from 1,040 to 1,950 mm using WY baseflow and WY VW MTT. The approach described herein may be applicable to other watersheds underlain by granitoid bedrock, where weathering is the dominant control on Si concentrations in soils, groundwater, and streamwater.

  3. Temporal and spatial changes in dissolved organic carbon concentration and fluorescence intensity of fulvic acid like materials in mountainous headwater catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terajima, Tomomi; Moriizumi, Mihoko

    2013-02-01

    SummaryDissolved organic carbon (DOC) such as humic substances are key to understanding the aquatic environment in catchments, because they, containing a large number of phenolic and carboxylic acid groups, adsorb many kinds of inorganic materials and also affect nutrition and carbon transport in catchments. To understand the detailed DOC dynamics, we conducted hydrological observations at mountainous headwater catchments dominated by different vegetation types (planted evergreen coniferous forest of 1.29 ha and natural deciduous broadleaf forest of 1.28 ha). The relationship between DOC concentrations and fluorescence intensity of fulvic acid-like materials (F-FAM) were positively correlated in both catchments but different between soil extracts, baseflow, and near surface flow represented by biomat flow. The ratios of change in F-FAM to that in DOC concentration (F-FAM/DOC) were higher in the baseflow (about 6 in both catchments) and lower in the soil extracts (about 4.5 in both catchments, respectively). However, the relationship in stormflow was distributed between the trends of baseflow and soil extracts. The higher F-FAM/DOC in baseflow may thus indicate that DOC (and FAM) in groundwater discharge mainly contributed to the stream flow, and the stormflow mainly reflect subsurface flow through soil during most rainstorms. In contrast, a high F-FAM/DOC ratio (>6) appeared in the stormflow of both catchments especially during large storms of short duration and high intensity following a dry antecedent period. The F-FAM/DOC in biomat flow developing distinctly in the coniferous catchment was high (about 6.5). Thus, rapid shallow subsurface flow through the biomat or near-surface of slopes might explain the unique transport dynamics of DOC and FAM in stormflows with the high F-FAM/DOC ratio. These results imply that the DOC and FAM relationship responds variably depending on both the distribution of soil organic matter and rainwater flow paths in steep slopes as well as on storm size and characteristics.

  4. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (p<0.001) positive relationship between the experimentally determined specific potential methylation rate constant (Km, day-1) and % MeHg (concentrations of MeHg normalized to total Hg) in the sediment. This indicates that MeHg production overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of brackish waters (p<0.001, n=23), southern, high-productivity freshwaters (p<0.001, n=20) as well as northern, low-productivity freshwater (p=0.048, n=6), the sum of neutral Hg-sulfides [Hg(SH)20 (aq)] and [HgS0 (aq)] in the sediment pore water was significantly, positively correlated with both the potential methylation rate constant (Km) and total MeHg concentrations (2). This indicates that methylating sulphate reducing bacteria passively take up neutral Hg-sulfides, which are transformed to MeHg. Differences in slopes of the relationships were explained by differences in primary productivity and availability of energy-rich organic matter to methylating bacteria. High primary productivity at southern freshwater sites, reflected by a low C/N ratio (large contribution from free living algae and bacteria) in the sediment and a high annual temperature sum, resulted in high methylation rates. In conclusion, concentrations of neutral Hg-sulfides and availability of energy rich organic matter, but also total Hg concentrations in sediments are important factors behind net production and accumulation of MeHg . References: (1) Drott et. al. submitted, (2) Drott, A.; Lambertsson, L.; Björn, E.; Skyllberg, U. Importance of dissolved neutral mercury sulfides for methyl mercury production in contaminated sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 2007, 41, 2270-2276.

  5. Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Barbeau

    2007-04-10

    Recent mesoscale iron fertilization studies in the Southern Ocean (e.g. SOIREE, EisenEx, SOFeX) have demonstrated the importance of iron as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in these high nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Results of these experiments have demonstrated that factors which influence the biological availability of the iron supplied to phytoplankton are crucial in bloom development, longevity, and generation of carbon export flux. These findings have important implications for the future development of iron fertilization protocols to enhance carbon sequestration in high-latitude oceans. In particular, processes which lead to the mobilization and retention of iron in dissolved form in the upper ocean are important in promoting continued biological availability of iron. Such processes can include photochemical redox cycling, which leads to the formation of soluble reduced iron, Fe(II), within iron-enriched waters. Creation of effective fertilization schemes will thus require more information about Fe(II) photoproduction in Southern Ocean waters as a means to retain new iron within the euphotic zone. To contribute to our knowledge base in this area, this project was funded by DOE with a goal of characterizing the production and retention of dissolved Fe as Fe(II) in an area of the southern Drake Passage near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge, a region with a strong recurrent chlorophyll gradient which is believed to be a site of natural iron enrichment in the Southern Ocean. This area was the focus of a multidisciplinary NSF/OPP-funded investigation in February 2004 (OPP02-30443, lead PI Greg Mitchell, SIO/UCSD) to determine the influence of mesoscale circulation and iron transport with regard to the observed patterns in sea surface chlorophyll in the region near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge. A number of parameters were assessed across this gradient in order to reveal interactions between plankton community structure and iron distributions. As a co-PI in the NSF/OPP-funded project, I was responsible for iron addition incubation and radiotracer experiments, and analysis of iron chemistry, including iron-organic speciation. This final technical report describes the results of my DOE funded project to analyse reduced iron species using an FeLume flow injection analysis chemiluminescence system as an extension of my work on the NSF/OPP project. On the cruise in 2004, spatial and temporal gradients in Fe(II) were determined, and on-board incubations were conducted to study Fe(II) lifetime and production. Following the cruise a further series of experiments was conducted in my laboratory to study Fe(II) lifetimes and photoproduction under conditions typical of high latitude waters. The findings of this study suggest that, in contrast to results observed during mesoscale iron addition experiments, steady-state levels of Fe(II) are likely to remain low (below detection) even within a significant gradient in dissolved Fe concentrations produced as a result of natural iron enrichment processes. Fe(II) is likely to be produced, however, as a reactive intermediate associated with photochemical reactions in surface waters. While Fe(II) lifetimes measured in the field in this study were commensurate with those determined in previously published Southern Ocean work, Fe(II) lifetimes reflective of realistic Southern Ocean environmental conditions have proven difficult to determine in a laboratory setting, due to contamination by trace levels of H2O2. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that direct ligand-to-metal charge transfer reactions of strong Fe(III)-organic complexes do appear to be a viable source of available Fe(II) in Antarctic waters, and further studies are needed to characterize the temperature dependence of this phenomenon.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Low Flow Augmentation by Discharge from a Wastewater Treatment Plant on Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Matlock, Dr. Marty D.; Hann, Dr. Roy W. Jr.; Gholkar, Tejal A.

    2000-01-01

    to evaluate base flow augmentation scenarios to remedy dissolved oxygen problems during dry, low-flow periods. The effects were demonstrated by increasing base flow in a stream by discharging recycled water from Leon Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant during a...

  7. Modeling the effects of low flow augmentation by discharge from a wastewater treatment plant on dissolved oxygen concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Gholkar, Tejal A

    2000-01-01

    to evaluate base flow augmentation scenarios to remedy dissolved oxygen problems during dry, low-flow periods. The effects were demonstrated by increasing base flow in a stream by discharging recycled water from Leon Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant during a...

  8. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Morales, Karel; Macías-Zamora, J. Vinicio; Canino-Herrera, S. Raúl; Burke, Roger A.

    2014-05-01

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA-Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later. High spatial variability in surface mixed layer (ML) [CH4] was observed, ranging from 2.2 nmol L-1 to 17.8 nmol L-1. ML-[CH4] was supersaturated at all BA stations during both cruises. The highest [CH4] was 72.4 nmol L-1 (2819 % supersaturated) measured at 10 m depth during S2, about 3 km southwest of the discharge point of the South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO). Our results show an apparent connection between wastewater treatment discharges and [CH4]. Application of a sewer CH4 production model suggests that the SBOO may be a large source of CH4 to the BA and points to the need to consider point sources in developing coastal marine CH4 budgets for highly populated areas. Based on our data, the SCBMex appears to be a relatively strong source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other Pacific Basin areas. The average BA sea-to-air CH4 flux (F) during S1 was (15.5 ± 8.6) × 10-2 nmol m-2 s-1, about 1.5 times higher than F during S2, which had a flux of (9.5 ± 6.9) × 10-2 nmol m-2 s-1 mainly due to the higher wind speed during S1.

  9. Methods for evaluating temporal groundwater quality data and results of decadal-scale changes in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States, 1988-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal-scale changes in groundwater quality were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Samples of groundwater collected from wells during 1988-2000 - a first sampling event representing the decade ending the 20th century - were compared on a pair-wise basis to samples from the same wells collected during 2001-2010 - a second sampling event representing the decade beginning the 21st century. The data set consists of samples from 1,236 wells in 56 well networks, representing major aquifers and urban and agricultural land-use areas, with analytical results for chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate. Statistical analysis was done on a network basis rather than by individual wells. Although spanning slightly more or less than a 10-year period, the two-sample comparison between the first and second sampling events is referred to as an analysis of decadal-scale change based on a step-trend analysis. The 22 principal aquifers represented by these 56 networks account for nearly 80 percent of the estimated withdrawals of groundwater used for drinking-water supply in the Nation. Well networks where decadal-scale changes in concentrations were statistically significant were identified using the Wilcoxon-Pratt signed-rank test. For the statistical analysis of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations at the network level, more than half revealed no statistically significant change over the decadal period. However, for networks that had statistically significant changes, increased concentrations outnumbered decreased concentrations by a large margin. Statistically significant increases of chloride concentrations were identified for 43 percent of 56 networks. Dissolved solids concentrations increased significantly in 41 percent of the 54 networks with dissolved solids data, and nitrate concentrations increased significantly in 23 percent of 56 networks. At least one of the three - chloride, dissolved solids, or nitrate - had a statistically significant increase in concentration in 66 percent of the networks. Statistically significant decreases in concentrations were identified in 4 percent of the networks for chloride, 2 percent of the networks for dissolved solids, and 9 percent of the networks for nitrate. A larger percentage of urban land-use networks had statistically significant increases in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations than agricultural land-use networks. In order to assess the magnitude of statistically significant changes, the median of the differences between constituent concentrations from the first full-network sampling event and those from the second full-network sampling event was calculated using the Turnbull method. The largest median decadal increases in chloride concentrations were in networks in the Upper Illinois River Basin (67 mg/L) and in the New England Coastal Basins (34 mg/L), whereas the largest median decadal decrease in chloride concentrations was in the Upper Snake River Basin (1 mg/L). The largest median decadal increases in dissolved solids concentrations were in networks in the Rio Grande Valley (260 mg/L) and the Upper Illinois River Basin (160 mg/L). The largest median decadal decrease in dissolved solids concentrations was in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (6.0 mg/L). The largest median decadal increases in nitrate as nitrogen (N) concentrations were in networks in the South Platte River Basin (2.0 mg/L as N) and the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins (1.0 mg/L as N). The largest median decadal decrease in nitrate concentrations was in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages (0.63 mg/L). The magnitude of change in networks with statistically significant increases typically was much larger than the magnitude of change in networks with statistically significant decreases. The magnitude of change was greatest for chloride in the urban land-use networks and greatest for dissolved solids and nitrate in the agricultural land-use networks. Analysis of data from all networks combined indicated statistic

  10. Use of a long endurance solar powered autonomous underwater vehicle (SAUV II) to measure dissolved oxygen concentrations in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Crimmins; C. Deacutis; E. Hinchey; M. Chintala; G. Cicchetti; Dick Blidberg

    2005-01-01

    As hypoxic water masses increase worldwide in duration and extent due to coastal eutrophication, advanced technology water quality monitoring by autonomous vehicles can increase our capability to document and respond to these environmental perturbations. We evaluated the use of a long endurance autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to map dissolved oxygen levels to determine the extent of hypoxia in a small

  11. Online dissolved methane and total dissolved sulfide measurement in sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Fluggen, Markus; O'Halloran, Kelly; Murthy, Sudhir; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using short-term manual sampling of sewage followed by off-line laboratory gas chromatography (GC) measurement have shown that a substantial amount of dissolved methane is produced in sewer systems. However, only limited data has been acquired to date due to the low frequency and short span of this method, which cannot capture the dynamic variations of in-sewer dissolved methane concentrations. In this study, a newly developed online measuring device was used to monitor dissolved methane concentrations at the end of a rising main sewer network, over two periods of three weeks each, in summer and early winter, respectively. This device uses an online gas-phase methane sensor to measure methane under equilibrium conditions after being stripped from the sewage. The data are then converted to liquid-phase methane concentrations according to Henry's Law. The detection limit and range are suitable for sewer application and can be adjusted by varying the ratio of liquid-to-gas phase volume settings. The measurement presented good linearity (R² > 0.95) during field application, when compared to off-line measurements. The overall data set showed a wide variation in dissolved methane concentration of 5-15 mg/L in summer and 3.5-12 mg/L in winter, resulting in a significant average daily production of 24.6 and 19.0 kg-CH?/d, respectively, from the network with a daily average sewage flow of 2840 m³/day. The dissolved methane concentration demonstrated a clear diurnal pattern coinciding with flow and sulfide fluctuation, implying a relationship with the wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT). The total dissolved sulfide (TDS) concentration in sewers can be determined simultaneously with the same principle. PMID:25462721

  12. Predicting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in resident aquatic organisms using passive samplers and partial least-squares calibration.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Norman D; Smith, Brian W; Sower, Greg J; Anderson, Kim A

    2014-06-01

    The current work sought to develop predictive models between time-weighted average polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the freely dissolved phase and those present in resident aquatic organisms. We deployed semipermeable membrane passive sampling devices (SPMDs) and collected resident crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) at nine locations within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Mega-site in Portland, OR. Study results show that crayfish and aqueous phase samples collected within the Mega-site had PAH profiles enriched in high molecular weight PAHs and that freely dissolved PAH profiles tended to be more populated by low molecular weight PAHs compared to crayfish tissues. Results also show that of several modeling approaches, a two-factor partial least-squares (PLS) calibration model using detection limit substitution provided the best predictive power for estimating PAH concentrations in crayfish, where the model explained ?72% of the variation in the data set and provided predictions within ?3× of measured values. Importantly, PLS calibration provided a means to estimate PAH concentrations in tissues when concentrations were below detection in the freely dissolved phase. The impact of measurements below detection limits is discussed. PMID:24800862

  13. Documentation of hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved-solids concentrations for the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina supplement to Professional paper 1404-L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold; Knobel, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrochemical-facies data and ranges of dissolved- solids concentrations used to construct hydrochemical-facies maps and sections for U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1404-L have not been previously published. In this report, the data are contained on a 3-1/2 high-density diskette in a file presented in American International Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII) format. The file requires about 0.2 megabyte of disk space on an IBM-compatible microcomputer using the MS-DOS operating system.

  14. Supersaturated dissolved oxygen measured by the phosphorescence decay rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxia Zhang; Duane Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Unsaturated dissolved oxygen (DO) can be measured easily using oxygen probes based on electrochemistry. However, large concentrations of supersaturated dissolved oxygen are difficult to measure by traditional methods. We will introduce a new technique to measure supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations using the phosphorescence decay rate of a caged lumophore. The results are in good agreement with the Stern–Volmer equation, where

  15. Variability of the dissolved nutrient (N, P, Si) concentrations in the Bay of Annaba in relation to the inputs of the Seybouse and Mafragh estuaries.

    PubMed

    Ounissi, Makhlouf; Ziouch, Omar-Ramzi; Aounallah, Ouafia

    2014-03-15

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate (PO?) and silicic acid (Si(OH)?) loads from the Seybouse and the Mafragh estuaries into the Bay of Annaba, Algeria, were assessed at three stations of the Bay over three years. The Seybouse inputs had high levels of DIN and PO?, in contrast to the Mafragh estuary's near-pristine inputs; Si(OH)? levels were low in both estuaries. The DIN:PO? molar ratios were over 30 in most samples and the Si(OH)4:DIN ratio was less than 0.5 in the Seybouse waters, but nearly balanced in the Mafragh. The specific fluxes of Si-Si(OH)? (400-540 kg Si km?² yr?¹) were comparable in the two catchments, but those of DIN were several-fold higher in the Seybouse (373 kg N km?² yr?¹). The inner Bay affected by the Seybouse inputs had high levels of all nutrients, while the Mafragh plume and the outer marine station were less enriched. PMID:24486043

  16. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Drott; U. Skyllberg

    2007-01-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input\\/output processes. In this study, the

  17. Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies on the Interactions of Dissolved Humic Substances with Hydrophobic Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, A.; MacKenzie, K.; Schierz, A.; Kopinke, F.-D.

    2003-04-01

    For studying the sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on dissolved humic substances (DHS) we applied two methods, solid phase microextraction (SPME) and the fluorescence quenching technique (FQT). Usually, the carbon-normalized sorption coefficient KDOC is defined in terms of concentration ratios, and does not make a distinction between type or strength of the interaction. Comparing KDOC values for the same solute/DHS system determined by FQT and SPME we obtained significantly different results. KDOC values determined by FQT were higher by upto a factor of 4 compared to the results of SPME measurements. Obviously, experimental methods for the determination of KDOC values have to be critically evaluated in terms of how the "sorbed state" as well as the sorption coefficient are defined. SPME measures the activity of the solute in solution, whereas the FQT signal is proportional to the concentration of the freely dissolved solute fraction. Therefore, KDOC values can be activity or concentration based, according to the method applied for their determination. The question arises which kind of sorption coefficient is the more relevant for understanding environmental processes. For studying the kinetics of sorption processes on dissolved humic substances, very fast methods are necessary. By applying the fluorescence quenching technique as well as a fast SPME method using isotopically labelled tracers, we observed a biphasic kinetics for sorption of PAHs with DHS, consisting of a fast (k?1/s) and a relatively slow component (k? 10-3/s). This finding is interpreted by two steps of sorption. The first step is the formation of a loosely bound complex which is instantaneously in equilibrium with the freely-dissolved fraction. In the second step this complex undergoes a rearrangement, whereby the sorbed PAH molecules occupy more favourable (hydrophobic) sites inside the humic polymers. In contrast to particulate organic matter, even this slow step is sufficiently fast to justify the view that sorption-desorption equilibria with DHS are completely established in most environmental scenarios. Using a gas-purge method the desorption kinetics of toluene and chlorobenzene from DHS was investigated. Over the studied range of 4 orders of magnitude in sorbate concentration, the desorption rate of the sorbates was higher than the purge rate (k? 10-4/s). No indication of a non-labile sorbate fraction (slow desorption) was obtained.

  18. Acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant C12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Geurts, Marc; Sjollema, Sascha B; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2014-03-01

    Using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of C12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of Daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) sediment; 3) photosystem II inhibition of green algae Chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viability of in vitro rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) in the presence or absence of serum proteins. Furthermore, the loss from chemical adsorption to the different test vessels used in these tests was also determined. The C12-benzalkonium sorption isotherms to the different sorbent phases were established as well. Our results show that the freely dissolved concentration is a better indicator of the actual exposure concentration than the nominal or total concentration in most test assays. Daphnia was the most sensitive species to C12-benzalkonium. The acute Daphnia and Lumbriculus tests both showed no enhanced toxicity from possible ingestion of sorbed C12-benzalkonium in comparison with water-only exposure, which is in accordance with the equilibrium partitioning theory. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that commonly used sorbent phases can strongly affect bioavailability and observed effect concentrations for C12-benzalkonium. Even stronger effects of decreased actual exposure concentrations resulting from sorption to test vessels, cells, and sorbent phases can be expected for more hydrophobic cationic surfactants. PMID:24273010

  19. Correlation Between Surface Area and Dissolving Properties of Lead - A Step in the Investigation of Higher than Standard Lead Concentration in Drinking Water in Washington, D.C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hua; L. Garduno; J. D. Mondragon; K. E. Cuff

    2004-01-01

    Several recently published articles by the Washington Post exposing the alarming concentration of lead in drinking water from schools and homes in the Washington D.C. area sparked our interest in the correlation between lead-containing materials used in plumbing and rate of lead solubility. Elementary children who attend schools in various regions of the District were contacted by San Francisco Bay

  20. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  1. Evaluations of combined zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo and marine phytoplankton (Diacronema lutheri) toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in the Ythan catchment, Scotland, UK.

    PubMed

    Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Pollard, Pat; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Heger, Sebastian; Hollert, Henner; Bresnan, Eileen; Best, Jennifer; Moffat, Colin F

    2014-04-01

    A wide variety of organic contaminants including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have previously been detected in surface waters in the river Ythan catchment, North East Scotland UK. While the concentrations detected were below Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards (WFD-EQSs) environmental exposures to the diverse mixtures of contaminants, known and unknown, may pose chronic and/or sublethal effects to non target organisms. The present study assessed the embryo and algal toxicity potential of freely dissolved organic contaminants from the Ythan catchment using silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) and miniaturised bioassay techniques. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and marine phytoplankton species (Diacronema lutheri) were exposed to extracts from SR-PSDs deployed at different locations along the river Ythan and an undeployed procedural blank. Statistically significant developmental and algal toxicities were measured in all tests of extracts from deployed samples compared with the procedural blanks. This indicates environmental exposure to, and the combined toxicity potential of, freely dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. The present and previous studies in the Ythan catchment, coupling SR-PSDs and bioassay techniques, have both helped to understand the interactions and combined effects of dissolved organic contaminants in the catchment. They have further revealed the need for improvement in the techniques currently used to assess environmental impact. PMID:24407789

  2. Dissolved aluminum in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Myre, Peggy Lynne

    1990-01-01

    concentration 37 11) Di. ssolved aluminum profiles from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico 12) Dissolved aluminum from the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean INTRODUCTION The processes which control the concentration... s input Dissolved al uminum wa s measured at seven stations in the Northwest Gulf of Mexico in water depths ranging from 0 t o 1 1 8 3 meters above the continental slope . Samples were chosen in waters above the continental slope t o distinguish...

  3. Automated microextraction sample preparation coupled on-line to FT-ICR-MS: application to desalting and concentration of river and marine dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cid, Gabriel; Gebefugi, Istvan; Kanawati, Basem; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Sample preparation procedures are in most cases sample- and time-consuming and commonly require the use of a large amount of solvents. Automation in this regard can optimize the minimal-needed injection volume and the solvent consumption will be efficiently reduced. A new fully automated sample desalting and pre-concentration technique employing microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) cartridges is implemented and coupled to an ion cyclotron resonance Fourier-transform mass spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS). The performance of non-target mass spectrometric analysis is compared for the automated versus off-line sample preparation for several samples of aqueous natural organic matter. This approach can be generalized for any metabolite profiling or metabolome analysis of biological materials but was optimized herein using a well characterized but highly complex organic mixture: a surface water and its well-characterized natural organic matter and a marine sample having a highly salt charge and enabling to validate the presented automatic system for salty samples. The analysis of Suwannee River water showed selective C18-MEPS enrichment of chemical signatures with average H/C and O/C elemental ratios and loss of both highly polar and highly aromatic structures from the original sample. Automated on-line application to marine samples showed desalting and different chemical signatures from surface to bottom water. Relative comparison of structural footprints with the C18-concentration/desalting procedure however enabled to demonstrate that the surface water film was more concentrated in surface-active components of natural (fatty acids) and anthropogenic origin (sulfur-containing surfactants). Overall, the relative standard deviation distribution in terms of peak intensity was improved by automating the proposed on-line method. PMID:19685041

  4. Pore water dating by 129I: What do 36Cl/Cl ratio, dissolved 4He concentration, ?37Cl and 129I/127I ratio suggest in the Mobara Gas field, Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahara, Y.; Ohta, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2010-12-01

    Total 24-brine samples were collected from hot springs and the Mobara gas wells in the Southern Kanto Gas field, where is not only the major production area for dissolved natural gas in Japan but for iodine in the world. Isotopic ratios of 129I/127I and 36Cl/Cl, and noble gases concentration dissolved into pore water were measured for estimating residence time of brine. Iodine concentration in brines increases from 10 mg/L in the northern Kanto plain to more than 100 mg/L in the south edge of the gas field, and finally reaches 170 mg/L. In contrast, the isotopic ratio of 129I/127I decreases 5×10-13 in north to 1.7×10-13 in south. Both distributions were presumably controlled by the thickness of the Kazusa group as natural gas reservoirs. The average 129I/127I ratio was estimated to be 2.33 ± 0.11×10-13 at the Mobara area. Average ages of brines are estimated to be 42 Ma by using the initial 129I/127I ratio (1.5×10-12), if the origin of 129I were cosmogenic. On the other hand, we deduced 0.2 - 0.9 Ma as the residence time of brine from comparison with the secular equilibrium 36Cl/Cl ratio (6.46 ± 2.24×10-15) for the reservoir formation of Pleistocene. The concentration of 4He dissolved in pore water in the bored rock core suggests that residence time of brines vertically ranges 0.12 - 1.05 Ma and it is also harmonized with the formation age (of 0.45 - 2.5 Ma). Furthermore, ?37Cl (- 0.14±0.13 ~ + 0.45±0.07 ‰) in pore water were measured under the chloride concentration increasing 5000 mg/L to 17000 mg/L at the depth from 642 m to 1902 m below the ground surface. The simulating analyses of ?37Cl was conducted under the boundary conditions of washing out by freshwater at the depth of 600 m below the ground surface, chloride concentration gradient of 17000/500 (mg/L/m) and diffusion alone without advection flow during the past 0.12 Ma. The fractionation factor for 35Cl and 37Cl was 1.0012 (Desauliniers et al., 1986). The analyses indicated that the variation of ?37Cl was significantly happened by diffusion alone. This suggested that pore water was such stagnant that 35Cl atoms were slightly separated from 37Cl atoms by diffusion. The origin of brines at Mobara was estimated to be connate seawater left in pore of sediments thickly depositing on the deep sea floor. Consequently, iodine in brine at Mobara was not transported from long distant other places or deep stratum, but was released into pore water from the deposited sediments that iodine was retained with a high concentration under a strong reducing condition. In conclusion, we cannot simply date pore water by using 129I/127I ratio, without deeply considering the origin of iodine and enrichment process. Reference D. E. Desaulniers, R. S. Kaufmann, J. A. Cherry and H. W. Bentley (1986) 37Cl-35Cl variations in a diffusion-controlled groundwater system.

  5. Concentration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-15

    This NCTM iOS app of the familiar online Illuminations game, "Concentration" (cataloged separately) challenges a user to match whole numbers, shapes, fractions, or multiplication facts to equivalent representations. This game can be played by one or two players taking turns and can be played in clear pane mode, or for added challenge, with the windows closed.

  6. Methods to Identify Changes in Background Water-Quality Conditions Using Dissolved-Solids Concentrations and Loads as Indicators, Arkansas River and Fountain Creek, in the Vicinity of Pueblo, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2004-01-01

    Effective management of existing water-storage capacity in the Arkansas River Basin is anticipated to help satisfy the need for water in southeastern Colorado. A strategy to meet these needs has been developed, but implementation could affect the water quality of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek in the vicinity of Pueblo, Colorado. Because no known methods are available to determine what effects future changes in operations will have on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Activity Enterprise, began a study in 2002 to develop methods that could identify if future water-quality conditions have changed significantly from background (preexisting) water-quality conditions. A method was developed to identify when significant departures from background (preexisting) water-quality conditions occur in the lower Arkansas River and Fountain Creek in the vicinity of Pueblo, Colorado. Additionally, the methods described in this report provide information that can be used by various water-resource agencies for an internet-based decision-support tool. Estimated dissolved-solids concentrations at five sites in the study area were evaluated to designate historical background conditions and to calculate tolerance limits used to identify statistical departures from background conditions. This method provided a tool that could be applied with defined statistical probabilities associated with specific tolerance limits. Drought data from 2002 were used to test the method. Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the tolerance limits at all four sites on the Arkansas River at some point during 2002. The number of exceedances was particularly evident when streamflow from Pueblo Reservoir was reduced, and return flows and ground-water influences to the river were more prevalent. No exceedances were observed at the site on Fountain Creek. These comparisons illustrated the need to adjust the concentration data to account for varying streamflow. As such, similar comparisons between flow-adjusted data were done. At the site Arkansas River near Avondale, nearly all the 2002 flow-adjusted concentration data were less than the flow-adjusted tolerance limit which illustrated the effects of using flow-adjusted concentrations. Numerous exceedances of the flow-adjusted tolerance limits, however, were observed at the sites Arkansas River above Pueblo and Arkansas River at Pueblo. These results indicated that the method was able to identify a change in the ratio of source waters under drought conditions. Additionally, tolerance limits were calculated for daily dissolved-solids load and evaluated in a similar manner. Several other mass-load approaches were presented to help identify long-term changes in water quality. These included comparisons of cumulative mass load at selected sites and comparisons of mass load contributed at the Arkansas River near Avondale site by measured and unmeasured sources.

  7. Dissolved pesticide concentrations entering the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, California, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; McWayne, Megan; Sanders, Corey; Hladik, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water samples were collected from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers where they enter the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for a suite of 99 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates. Samples were collected twice per month from May 2012 through July 2013 and from May 2012 through April 2013 at the Sacramento River at Freeport, and the San Joaquin River near Vernalis, respectively. Samples were analyzed by two separate laboratory methods by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Method detection limits ranged from 0.9 to 10.5 nanograms per liter (ng/L). A total of 37 pesticides and degradates were detected in water samples collected during the study (18 herbicides, 11 fungicides, 7 insecticides, and 1 synergist). The most frequently detected pesticides overall were the herbicide hexazinone (detected in 100 percent of the samples); 3,4-dichloroaniline (97 percent), which is a degradate of the herbicides diuron and propanil; the fungicide azoxystrobin (83 percent); and the herbicides diuron (72 percent), simazine (66 percent), and metolachlor (64 percent). Insecticides were rarely detected during the study. Pesticide concentrations varied from below the method detection limits to 984 ng/L (hexazinone). Twenty seven pesticides and (or) degradates were detected in Sacramento River samples, and the average number of pesticides per sample was six. The most frequently detected compounds in these samples were hexazinone (detected in 100 percent of samples), 3,4-dichloroaniline (97 percent), azoxystrobin (88 percent), diuron (56 percent), and simazine (50 percent). Pesticides with the highest detected maximum concentrations in Sacramento River samples included the herbicide clomazone (670 ng/L), azoxystrobin (368 ng/L), 3,4-dichloroaniline (364 ng/L), hexazinone (130 ng/L), and propanil (110 ng/L), and all but hexazinone are primarily associated with rice agriculture. In addition to the twice monthly sampling, surface-water samples were collected from the Sacramento River on 5 consecutive days following a rainfall event in the Sacramento urban area. Samples collected following this event contained an average of 11 pesticides. The insecticides carbaryl, fipronil, and imidacloprid; the herbicide DCPA; and the fungicide imazalil were only detected in the Sacramento River during this storm-runoff event, and two detections of fipronil during this period exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Aquatic Life Benchmark (11 ng/L) for chronic toxicity to invertebrates in freshwater. In San Joaquin River samples, 26 pesticides and (or) degradates were detected, and the average number detected per sample was 9. The most frequently detected compounds in these samples were hexazinone and metolachlor (detected in 100 percent of samples); diuron (96 percent); the fungicide boscalid (96 percent); the degradates 3,4-dicloroaniline (92 percent) and NN-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-N’-methylurea (DCPMU; 83 percent); simazine (83 percent); and azoxystrobin (75 percent). The pesticides with the highest detected maximum concentrations were hexazinone (984 ng/L), diuron (695 ng/L), simazine (524 ng/L), the herbicide prometryn (155 ng/L), metolachlor (127 ng/L), boscalid (112 ng/L), DCPMU (111 ng/L), and the herbicide pendimethalin (108 ng/L).

  8. Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 1990–2000 and 2000–2010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski Rivers that largely were offset by increases in the Missisquoi and Saranac Rivers in the second decade (between 2000 and 2010). The number of tributaries that had increases in dissolved phosphorus concentrations stayed constant at 13 or 14 during the period of analysis. Total nitrogen concentration and flux for most of the monitored tributaries in the Lake Champlain Basin have decreased since 1990. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized total nitrogen flux decreased by 386 t/yr, which reflects an increase of 440 t/yr between 1990 and 2000 and a decrease of 826 t/yr between 2000 and 2010. All individual tributaries except the Winooski River had decreases in total nitrogen concentration and flux between 2000 and 2010. The decrease in total nitrogen flux over the period of record could be related to the decrease in nitrogen from atmospheric deposition observed in Vermont or to concurrent benefits realized from the implementation of agricultural best-management practices in the Lake Champlain Basin that were designed primarily to reduce phosphorus runoff. For chloride, large increases in flow-normalized concentrations and flux between 1990 and 2000 for 17 of the 18 tributaries diminished to small increases or decreases between 2000 and 2010. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized flux increased by 32,225 t/yr, 78 percent of which (25,163 t) was realized during the first decade, from 1990 through 2000. The five tributaries that had decreasing concentration and flux of chloride between 2000 and 2010 were all on the eastern side of Lake Champlain, possibly related to reductions since 1999 in winter road salt application in Vermont. Positive correlations of phosphorus flux and changes in phosphorus concentration and flux in tributaries with phosphorus inputs to basins from point sources, suggest that point sources have an effect on stream phosphorus chemistry. Several measures of changes in agricultural statistics, such as agricultural land use, acres of land in farms, acres of cropland, and acres of corn for grain or seed, are positively correlated with changes in phosp

  9. Testing the sensitivity of boreal headwaters using a forest clear-cutting experiment: The impact of changing flow-pathways and soil warming on dissolved organic carbon concentrations in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelker, J.; Grabs, T.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.

    2014-12-01

    Forest disturbance such as clear-cutting has been identified as an important factor for increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in boreal streams. We used a long-term dataset of soil temperature, soil moisture, shallow ground water (GW) levels and stream DOC concentrations from three boreal first-order streams to investigate mechanisms causing these increases. Clear-cutting was found to alter soil conditions with warmer and wetter soils during summer. The application of a riparian flow concentration integration model (RIM) explained a major part of variation in stream [DOC] arising from changing flow-pathways in riparian soils during the pre-treatment period (r2= 0.4-0.7), but less well after the harvest. Model residuals were highly sensitive to changes in soil temperature. The linear regression models for the temperature dependence of [DOC] in soils were not different in the disturbed and undisturbed catchments, whereas a non-linear response to soil moisture was found. Overall these results suggest that the increased DOC mobilization after forest disturbance is caused by (i) increased GW levels leading to increased water fluxes in shallow flow-path in riparian soils and (ii) increased soil temperature increasing the DOC availability in soils during summer. These relationships indicate that the mechanisms of DOC mobilization after forest disturbance are not different to those of undisturbed catchments, but that catchment soils respond to the higher hydro-climatic variation observed after clear-cutting. This highlights the sensitivity of boreal streams to changes in the energy and water balance, which may be altered as a result of both land management and climate change.

  10. Use of Passive Samplers to Measure Dissolved Organic Contaminants in a Temperate Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants can be challenging given their low solubilities and high particle association. However, to perform accurate risk assessments of these chemicals, knowing the dissolved concentration is critical since it is considered to b...

  11. Gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars

    E-print Network

    D. I. Jones; N. Andersson

    2001-06-29

    In this paper we model the gravitational wave emission of a freely precessing neutron star. The aim is to estimate likely source strengths, as a guide for gravitational wave astronomers searching for such signals. We model the star as a partly elastic, partly fluid body with quadrupolar deformations of its moment of inertia tensor. The angular amplitude of the free precession is limited by the finite breaking strain of the star's crust. The effect of internal dissipation on the star is important, with the precession angle being rapidly damped in the case of a star with an oblate deformation. We then go on to study detailed scenarios where free precession is created and/or maintained by some astrophysical mechanism. We consider the effects of accretion torques, electromagnetic torques, glitches and stellar encounters. We find that the mechanisms considered are either too weak to lead to a signal detectable by an Advanced LIGO interferometer, or occur too infrequently to give a reasonable event rate. We therefore conclude that, using our stellar model at least, free precession is not a good candidate for detection by the forthcoming laser interferometers.

  12. Statistical physics of the freely jointed chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazars, Martial

    1996-06-01

    Using the method of constraints proposed by S. F. Edwards and A. G. Goodyear [J. Phys. A 5, 965 (1972); 5, 1188 (1972)], we do a complete calculation of the canonical partition function of a freely jointed chain (FJC) from its classical Hamiltonian. We show how the constraints reduce the phase space of an ideal gas of monomers to the phase space of a FJC, and how they permit one to find the canonical partition function. By using this function, it is possible to study thermodynamical properties of FJC's and to build other thermodynamical ensembles via Laplace transforms. Thus we define a grand canonical ensemble where the monomer number of the FJC can fluctuate; in this ensemble, the FJC of infinite length is the asymptotic state at low and high temperatures. The critical exponents ? and ? for FJC's are calculated and found to be equal to the Gaussian polymer exponents. Connections between the properties of FJC's and random walks on regular lattices are also discussed.

  13. Photobleaching of humic rich dissolved organic matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Brinkmann; Daniel Sartorius; Fritz H. Frimmel

    2003-01-01

    Humic rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a bog lake in the Northern Black Forest was treated with simulated solar UV-light. The effects of irradiation time, initial pH values, and dissolved iron and copper on photobleaching were investigated. The DOC concentration and the UV\\/VIS absorption decreased with increasing amounts of absorbed light energy. The wavelengths of the maximum bleaching effect

  14. Concurrent reflectance imaging and microdialysis in the freely behaving cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Poe; D. A. Nitz; D. M. Rector; M. P. Kristensen; R. M. Harper

    1996-01-01

    We present a method to perform simultaneous microdialysis with light reflectance imaging of neural activity in a discrete brain region of the freely behaving animal. We applied this method to the dorsal hippocampus of freely behaving cats to (1) measure extracellular glutamate and reflectance variations across a sleep-waking cycle, (2) assess spatially coherent neural activity changes accompanying local perfusion of

  15. Rehydration of high-protein-containing dairy powder: Slow-and fast-dissolving components

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    as molecules larger than water (whey proteins and lactose) were freely released out of the powder structureNote Rehydration of high-protein-containing dairy powder: Slow- and fast-dissolving components ­ As dissolution of powdered milk proteins is necessary for the expression of their functional properties

  16. Pill Dissolving Demo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In a class demonstration, the teacher places different pill types ("chalk" pill, gel pill, and gel tablet) into separate glass beakers of vinegar, representing human stomach acid. After 20-30 minutes, the pills dissolve. Students observe which dissolve the fastest, and discuss the remnants of the various pills. What they learn contributes to their ongoing objective to answer the challenge question presented in lesson 1 of this unit.

  17. ADDING REALISM TO NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLVING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-15

    Two new criticality modeling approaches have greatly increased the efficiency of dissolver operations in H-Canyon. The first new approach takes credit for the linear, physical distribution of the mass throughout the entire length of the fuel assembly. This distribution of mass is referred to as the linear density. Crediting the linear density of the fuel bundles results in using lower fissile concentrations, which allows higher masses to be charged to the dissolver. Also, this approach takes credit for the fact that only part of the fissile mass is wetted at a time. There are multiple assemblies stacked on top of each other in a bundle. On average, only 50-75% of the mass (the bottom two or three assemblies) is wetted at a time. This means that only 50-75% (depending on operating level) of the mass is moderated and is contributing to the reactivity of the system. The second new approach takes credit for the progression of the dissolving process. Previously, dissolving analysis looked at a snapshot in time where the same fissile material existed both in the wells and in the bulk solution at the same time. The second new approach models multiple consecutive phases that simulate the fissile material moving from a high concentration in the wells to a low concentration in the bulk solution. This approach is more realistic and allows higher fissile masses to be charged to the dissolver.

  18. Reduced dissolved oxygen and jet fuel deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.S.; Heneghan, S.P.; Williams, T.F.; Hanchak, M.A. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fundamental understanding of the effect of low dissolved oxygen concentrations on thermal stability (thermal stability refers to the deposit forming tendency of the fuel) is incomplete but is essential for aircraft fuel system design. At high altitudes, the ambient pressure and temperature are reduced significantly, resulting in the diminished solubility of dissolved oxygen. In addition as a fire preventative measure, an on-board inert gas generating system (OBIGGS) may be used to reduce the oxygen level in the liquid fuel. Since these features lessen the dissolved oxygen concentration of the fuel, it is imperative to understand the effect of reduced oxygen levels on the formation of jet fuel deposits. For this purpose, the authors have conducted experiments using a flowing system in which the dissolved oxygen level at the entrance of the apparatus is varied. One of the most intriguing results found is the increase in deposits in heated sections for decreased oxygen consumption. This observation is seemingly contrary to nearly all previous observations concerning the relation between deposit formation and oxygen consumption. For a given system, there appears to be an unfavorable dissolved oxygen concentration which produces the maximum amount of deposits. In addition, it was found that the deposition mechanisms in heated locations were quite different from those in cooled regions.

  19. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. PMID:25545177

  20. Predicting pore water EPA-34 PAH concentrations and toxicity in pyrogenic-impacted sediments using pyrene content.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Cornelissen, Gerard; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2011-06-15

    Sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of 34 alkyl and parent PAHs (EPA-34) were measured in 335 sediment samples from 19 different sites impacted by manufactured gas plants, aluminum smelters and other pyrogenic sources. The total EPA-34 freely dissolved pore water concentration, C(pw,EPA-34), expressed as toxic units (TU) is currently considered one of the most accurate measures to assess risk at such sites; however, it is very seldom measured. With this data set, we address how accurately C(pw,EPA-34) can be estimated using limited 16 parent PAH data (EPA-16) commonly available for such sites. An exhaustive statistical analysis of the obtained data validated earlier observations that PAHs with more than 3 rings are present in similar relative abundances and their partitioning behavior typically follows Raoult's law and models developed for coal tar. As a result, sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of pyrene and other 3- and 4-ring PAHs exhibit good log-log correlations (r² > 0.8) to most individual EPA-34 PAHs and also to C(pw,EPA-34). Correlations improve further by including the ratio of high to low molecular weight PAHs, as 2-ring PAHs exhibit the most variability in terms of their relative abundance. The most practical result of the current work is that log C(pw,EPA-34) estimated by the recommended pyrene-based estimation techniques was similarly well correlated to % survival of the benthic amphipods Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosus as directly measured log C(pw,EPA-34) values (n = 211). Incorporation of the presented C(pw,EPA-34) estimation techniques could substantially improve risk assessments and guidelines for sediments impacted by pyrogenic residues, especially when limited data are available, without requiring any extra data or measurement costs. PMID:21595462

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring and Control System based on the CDMA platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuhua Ma; Jinkuan Wang; Yiding Zhao

    2010-01-01

    In aquiculture, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water has great influence on the growth and development of fish. It is quite necessary to monitor the dissolved oxygen concentration in the fish pond. In this paper Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring and Control System is designed, which we present the system structure chart, circuit for communication, and the list of some program

  2. EFFECT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC SUBSTANCES ON OYSTERS

    E-print Network

    and detailed studies of the effects of industrial wastes on oysters, Grassostrea virginica (Gmelin), continuousEF·FECT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC SUBSTANCES· ON OYSTERS BY ALBERT COLLIER, S. M. RAY, A. W. MAGNITZKY gapes ~f !ileveral oysters recorded simultaneously indicated a parallel reaction to the concentration

  3. Developing Standards for Dissolved Iron in Seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Johnson; Edward Boyle; Kenneth Bruland; Kenneth Coale; Chris Measures; James Moffett; Ana Aguilar-Islas; Katherine Barbeau; Bridget Bergquist; Andrew Bowie; Kristen Buck; Yihua Cai; Zanna Chase; Jay Cullen; Takashi Doi; Virginia Elrod; Steve Fitzwater; Michael Gordon; Andrew King; Patrick Laan; Luis Laglera-Baquer; William Landing; Maeve Lohan; Jeffrey Mendez; Angela Milne; Hajime Obata; Lia Ossiander; Joshua Plant; Geraldine Sarthou; Peter Sedwick; Geoffrey J. Smith; Bettina Sohst; Sara Tanner; Stan Van den Berg; Jingfeng Wu

    2007-01-01

    In nearly a dozen open-ocean fertilization experiments conducted by more than 100 researchers from nearly 20 countries, adding iron at the sea surface has led to distinct increases in photosynthesis rates and biomass. These experiments confirmed the hypothesis proposed by the late John Martin that dissolved iron concentration is a key variable that controls phytoplankton processes in ocean surface waters.

  4. On the contribution of natural and restored wetlands to changes in the concentration and composition of dissolved organic material in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Estuary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, B.; Stepanauskas, R.; Fram, M.; Hollibaugh, J.; Fujii, R.

    2002-12-01

    The amount and quality of wetland-derived dissolved organic material (DOM) entering delta and estuary environments remains poorly characterized even though DOM has two roles of societal significance: 1) it supports estuarine foodwebs, commonly habitat for endangered species, and 2) it presents problems when it occurs in drinking water supplies, forming carcinogenic byproducts on treatment. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a source of drinking water for over 20 million people and contributes 80% of the DOM entering the San Francisco Estuary, nearly doubling the concentration of DOM in the influent river water. The majority of the Delta is composed of below-sea level peat islands maintained in agricultural production by continuous pumping of DOM-rich drain water into Delta channels. Previous studies have shown that changes in the composition of the DOM in water that passes through the Delta are not consistent with addition of peat island drain water, and are more consistent with addition of wetland-derived material, suggesting that wetlands may contribute substantially to DOM export to the Estuary. Although wetlands currently contribute only 14% of the Delta, restoration is planned that would more than double this area, potentially altering DOM quality and content in the Delta and Estuary waters. Over the past several years we have examined the seasonal variation in the quality of DOM added by a variety of wetland types and island drains within the Delta and Estuary. In the current study, thirteen sites were each sampled five times. To date, we have analyzed the samples to determine the content of hydrophobic DOM, characterize the UV absorbance and fluorescence properties, and quantify the susceptibility to biodegradation both before and after photo-exposure. Samples were humic-rich, averaging over 75% hydrophobic content and varying from 74 to 86% with the variation in hydrophobic content between samples corresponding to changes in the optical properties. Samples typically were refractory with respect to biodegradation, with an average of 11% of the DOM susceptible to biodegradation prior to photoexposure, but the range was from 1% to 48%. Following photoexposure, samples were generally more refractory rather than more labile. Wetland DOM was found to react to form more drinking water disinfection byproducts than influent waters, but some wetland types appeared to contribute fewer precursors. Seasonal variation in biodegradation and chemical parameters was much greater than variation among wetland types, and the peak of biodegradeability was not related to the seasonal peak in DOM. This suggests addition of DOM through the Delta is controlled by changes in the nature of the source material rather than changes in efficiency or extent of remineralization.

  5. The Contribution of Natural and Restored Wetlands to Changes in the Concentration and Composition of Dissolved Organic Material in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, B. A.; Stepanauskas, R.; Fram, M.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Fujii, R.

    2002-12-01

    The quantity and quality of wetland-derived dissolved organic material (DOM) entering delta and estuary environments remains poorly characterized, even though DOM has two roles of societal significance: 1) it supports estuarine foodwebs, which commonly are a habitat for endangered species, and 2) it presents problems when it occurs in drinking water supplies, because it forms carcinogenic byproducts when treated. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a source of drinking water for more than 20 million people and contributes 80% of the DOM entering the San Francisco estuary, nearly doubling the concentration of DOM in the influent river water. The majority of the Delta is composed of below-sea-level peat islands that are maintained in agricultural production by continuous pumping of DOM-rich drain water into Delta channels. Previous studies indicate that changes in DOM composition in water passing through the Delta are not consistent with the addition of peat island drain water, and are more consistent with the addition of wetland-derived material. Therefore, wetlands may contribute substantially to DOM export to the estuary. Although wetlands currently constitute only 14% of the Delta, restoration is planned that would more than double this wetland area, potentially altering DOM quality and content in the Delta and estuary waters. During the past several years, the seasonal variation in the quality of DOM added by a variety of wetland types and island drains within the Delta and estuary has been examined. In this study, 13 sites were sampled 5 times. As of September 2002, the samples have been analyzed to determine the content of hydrophobic DOM, characterize the ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence properties, and quantify the susceptibility to biodegradation before and after photoexposure. Samples were humic-rich, averaging more than 75% hydrophobic content and varying from 74 to 86%, with the variation in hydrophobic content between samples corresponding to changes in the optical properties. Samples typically were refractory with respect to biodegradation, having an average of 11% of the DOM being susceptible to biodegradation prior to photoexposure, but the range was from 1% to 48%. Following photoexposure, samples generally were more refractory rather than more labile. Wetland DOM reacted to form more drinking water disinfection byproducts than influent waters, but some wetland types seemed to contribute fewer precursors. Seasonal variation in biodegradation and chemical parameters was much greater than variation among wetland types, and the peak of biodegradability was not related to the seasonal peak in DOM. Therefore, the addition of DOM through the Delta is controlled by changes in the nature of the source material rather than changes in efficiency or extent of remineralization.

  6. Dissolved P in streams in dry years and wet years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved phosphorus (P) has often been identified as the nutrient of concern in lakes, reservoirs, and streams especially where there is evidence of eutrophication. We analyzed contiguous-spatial and temporal variability of dissolved P [soluble reactive P (SRP)] stream concentrations during times ...

  7. Production of freely-migrating defects during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1986-09-01

    During irradiation at elevated temperatures, vacancy and interstitial defects that escape can produce several different types of microstructural changes. Hence the production rate of freely-migrating defects must be known as a function of irradiating particle species and energy before quantitative correlations can be made between microstructural changes. Our fundamental knowledge of freely-migrating defect production has increased substantially in recent years. Critical experimental findings that led to the improved understanding are reviewed in this paper. A strong similarity is found for the dependence of freely-migrating defect production on primary recoil energy as measured in a variety of metals and alloys by different authors. The efficiency for producing freely-migrating defects decreases much more strongly with increasing primary recoil energy than does the efficiency for creating stable defects at liquid helium temperatures. The stronger decrease can be understood in terms of additional intracascade recombination that results from the nonrandom distribution of defects existing in the primary damage state for high primary recoil energies. Although the existing data base is limited to fcc materials, the strong similarity in the reported investigations suggests that the same dependence of freely-migrating defect production on primary recoil energy may be characteristic of a wide variety of other alloy systems as well. 52 refs., 4 figs.

  8. On the contribution of natural and restored wetlands to changes in the concentration and composition of dissolved organic material in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bergamaschi; R. Stepanauskas; M. Fram; J. Hollibaugh; R. Fujii

    2002-01-01

    The amount and quality of wetland-derived dissolved organic material (DOM) entering delta and estuary environments remains poorly characterized even though DOM has two roles of societal significance: 1) it supports estuarine foodwebs, commonly habitat for endangered species, and 2) it presents problems when it occurs in drinking water supplies, forming carcinogenic byproducts on treatment. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a

  9. The marine biogeochemistry of dissolved and colloidal iron

    E-print Network

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a redox active trace metal micronutrient essential for primary production and nitrogen acquisition in the open ocean. Dissolved iron (dFe) has extremely low concentrations in marine waters that can drive phytoplankton ...

  10. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATION ON CRITICAL STREAM DISSOLVED OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The classical assumption that the lowest dissolved oxygen (DO) occurs at the highest temperature may not always hold. The DO saturation concentration decreases monotonically with increasing temperature, lowering the DO, but the reaeration coefficient increases monotonically with ...

  11. Saccadic head and thorax movements in freely walking blowflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Blaj; J. H. van Hateren

    2004-01-01

    Visual information processing is adapted to the statistics of natural visual stimuli, and these statistics depend to a large extent on the movements of an animal itself. To investigate such movements in freely walking blowflies, we measured the orientation and position of their head and thorax, with high spatial and temporal accuracy. Experiments were performed on Calliphora vicina, Lucilia cuprina

  12. Learning That Food Is Inedible in Freely Behaving Aplysia californica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillel J. Chiel; Abraham J. Susswein

    1993-01-01

    Freely behaving Aplysia californica can learn that food is inedible. Animals were given access to seaweed tied into canvas and attached to a force transducer. Animals repeatedly found the stimulus, attempted to ingest it, and failed. The force transducer provided an objective record of the number of attempts made by the animal to ingest the stimulus, the length of each

  13. Metastability of freely suspended liquid-crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Y.; Somoza, A. M.; Mederos, L.; Sullivan, D. E.

    1996-03-01

    We investigate the conditions required for the existence of smectic-A liquid-crystal films freely suspended in vapor. This work is based on a molecular density-functional theory developed in earlier studies of wetting and layering transitions of smectic-A films at liquid-solid and liquid-vapor interfaces. It is emphasized that all freely suspended films are metastable with respect to either the absence of the film or the formation of the bulk smectic phase, depending on the relative stability of the bulk vapor and smectic phases. Films containing different numbers of layers correspond to local minima of the grand canonical potential, and are ``stabilized'' relative to each other by the presence of sufficiently large meta- stability barriers. The disappearance of these barriers corresponds physically to the ``rupturing'' of the films. It is demonstrated that surface enhancement of smectic ordering does not play an essential role in the existence of freely suspended films, but may influence the order of disappearance of the layer-layer metastability barriers on changing temperature. We relate these findings to the results of a recent experimental study of ``layer thinning transitions'' in freely suspended films.

  14. Chapter A6. Section 6.2. Dissolved Oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revised by Lewis, Michael Edward

    2006-01-01

    Accurate data for the concentration of dissolved oxygen in surface and ground waters are essential for documenting changes in environmental water resources that result from natural phenomena and human activities. Dissolved oxygen is necessary in aquatic systems for the survival and growth of many aquatic organisms and is used as an indicator of the health of surface-water bodies. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) includes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for four methods to determine dissolved-oxygen concentrations: the amperometric, luminescent-sensor, spectrophotometric, and iodometric (Winkler) methods.

  15. pH change induces shifts in the size and light absorption of dissolved organic matter

    E-print Network

    Pace, Michael L.

    pH change induces shifts in the size and light absorption of dissolved organic matter Michael L of photobleaching, molar absorp- tion (i.e. light absorbance at 440 nm/dissolved organic carbon concentration) wouldH and chemical composition of inland waters. Keywords Dissolved organic matter Á Light absorption Á pH Á Lakes Á

  16. Version 3.0 SOP 7 --Dissolved organic carbon October 12, 2007 Determination of dissolved organic

    E-print Network

    .1% by volume of the concentrated acid is added to each sample prior to analysis to lower the pH of the sample to pH pH and with sparging, all inorganic carbon species are converted to CO2 and removed should be evaluated for suitability. 2. Definition The dissolved organic carbon content of sea water

  17. Microfabricated solid-state dissolved oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen W. McLaughlin; Katie Braden; Benjamin Franc; Gregory T. A. Kovacs

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of a microfabricated oxygen concentration sensor consisting of a microfabricated thin-film electrode matrix overlaid with a solid-state proton conductive matrix (PCM) and encapsulated in a bio-inert polytetrafluoroethelene (PTFE) film. Through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and voltage step (VS) measurements, the device was shown to have a linear response with respect to dissolved oxygen

  18. Determination of free copper concentrations in natural waters by using supported liquid membrane extraction under equilibrium conditions.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2005-04-01

    A method is described for measurement of freely dissolved copper concentrations in natural water samples using supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction under equilibrium conditions, a technique denoted "equilibrium sampling through membranes" (ESTM). For this purpose, 1,10-dibenzyl-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 as neutral carrier and oleic acid were used in the membrane phase. The main variables optimised were the carrier used to form the metal complexes, the organic solvent used in the membrane, the countercation, pH, the ligand used in the acceptor phase, the extraction time, and the flow rate of the donor phase. After the optimisation process an enrichment factor of 18.5 was obtained. Equilibrium conditions were reached after extraction for 60 min if a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) or greater was used. When different ligands such as humic acids, phthalic acid, and EDTA were added to the sample solution, and sample pH ranged from 6 to 8, the results obtained for freely dissolved copper concentrations were in a good agreement with results from speciation calculations performed with Visual Minteq V 2.30, Cheaqs V L20.1, and WinHumic V. The developed technique was applied to analysis of stream and leachate water. PMID:15759138

  19. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    E-print Network

    Nikolay Kuznetsov; Oleg Motygin

    2014-10-22

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of $N \\geq 2$ bodies; every structure has the following properties: (i) a time-harmonic wave mode is trapped by it; (ii) some of its bodies (may be none) are motionless, whereas the rest of the bodies (may be none) are heaving at the same frequency as water. The construction of these structures is based on a generalization of the semi-inverse procedure applied earlier for obtaining trapping bodies that are motionless although float freely.

  20. Magnetic tracking of eye position in freely behaving chickens

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jason S.; Sridharan, Devarajan; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the visual system of non-primates, such as birds and rodents, is increasing. Evidence that neural responses can differ dramatically between head-immobilized and freely behaving animals underlines the importance of studying visual processing in ethologically relevant contexts. In order to systematically study visual responses in freely behaving animals, an unobtrusive system for monitoring eye-in-orbit position in real time is essential. We describe a novel system for monitoring eye position that utilizes a head-mounted magnetic displacement sensor coupled with an eye-implanted magnet. This system is small, lightweight, and offers high temporal and spatial resolution in real time. We use the system to demonstrate the stability of the eye and the stereotypy of eye position during two different behavioral tasks in chickens. This approach offers a viable alternative to search coil and optical eye tracking techniques for high resolution tracking of eye-in-orbit position in behaving animals. PMID:24312023

  1. Chemical characterization of dissolvable tobacco products promoted to reduce harm.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Christina L; Conder, Paige A; Goodpaster, John V

    2011-03-23

    In 2009, the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. released a line of dissolvable tobacco products that are marketed as an alternative to smoking in places where smoking is prohibited. These products are currently available in Indianapolis, IN, Columbus, OH, and Portland, OR. This paper describes the chemical characterization of four such products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dissolvable tobacco products were extracted and prepared by ultrasonic extraction using acetone, trimethylsilyl derivatization, and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME). The following compounds were identified in the dissolvables using either ultrasonic extractions or trimethylsilyl derivatization: nicotine, ethyl citrate, palmitic acid, stearic acid, sorbitol, glycerol, and xylitol. The following compounds were identified in the dissolvables using headspace SPME: nicotine, ethyl citrate, cinnamaldehyde, coumarin, vanillin, and carvone. With the exception of nicotine, the compounds identified thus far in the dissolvables are either flavoring compounds or binders. The concentration of free nicotine in the dissolvables was determined from the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and by measuring the pH and nicotine concentration by GC-MS. The results presented here are the first to reveal the complexity of dissolvable tobacco products and may be used to assess potential oral health effects. PMID:21332188

  2. How to Measure Dissolved Oxygen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Washington State University Department of Ecology

    This web page, hosted by the Washington State Department of Ecology, offers a general overview of dissolved oxygen and how it is measured. It includes protocols for measuring dissolved oxygen in turbulent waters as well as using the Winkler titration method. The site also features links to measuring other water quality parameters such as pH, nutrients, and turbidity.

  3. Trapped modes in the water-wave problem for a freely-floating structure

    E-print Network

    Trapped modes in the water-wave problem for a freely-floating structure P. McIver and M. Mc structures when held fixed. This paper investigates the problem of a freely- floating structure that is able exist in this problem. For a freely-floating structure a trapped mode is a coupled oscillation

  4. The solubility control of rare earth elements in natural terrestrial waters and the significance of PO 4 3? and CO 3 2? in limiting dissolved rare earth concentrations: A review of recent information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin H. Johannesson; W. Berry Lyons; Klaus J. Stetzenbach; Robert H. Byrne

    1995-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations in alkaline lakes, circumneutral pH groundwaters, and an acidic freshwater lake were determined along with the free carbonate, free phosphate, and free sulfate ion concentrations. These parameters were used to evaluate the saturation state of these waters with respect to REE phosphate and carbonate precipitates. Our activity product estimates indicate that the alkaline lake waters

  5. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%–30.91%, 83.29%–90.51%, and 61.54–68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff. PMID:23935444

  6. Characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%-30.91%, 83.29%-90.51%, and 61.54-68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff. PMID:23935444

  7. Effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol on dissolved oxygen in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Johnson, D.A.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on dissolved oxygen and other water- quality characteristics were evaluated in a series of test chambers under selected combinations of water, sediment, TFM, and exposure to sunlight. Concentrations of TFM gradually decreased over time, especially in the presence of sediment and sunlight. The lampricide did not directly cause a reduction in dissolved oxygen concentration, but appeared to inhibit photosynthetic production of oxygen during daylight. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were significantly reduced by the presence of TFM in chambers exposed to sunlight. Concentrations of total ammonia were significantly higher in chambers with sediment than in those without sediment. In chambers that contained river water and were exposed to sunlight, ammonia concentrations were low because of either oxidation by the elevated dissolved oxygen concentrations or the assimilation of nutrients by algae. The observed changes in dissolved oxygen and ammonia because of the presence of TFM were subtle, but statistically significant.

  8. Single-molecule-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer in freely-diffusing attoliter droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanseresht, Sheema; Milas, Peker; Ramos, Kieran P.; Gamari, Ben D.; Goldner, Lori S.

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from individual, dye-labeled RNA molecules confined in freely-diffusing attoliter-volume aqueous droplets is carefully compared to FRET from unconfined RNA in solution. The use of freely-diffusing droplets is a remarkably simple and high-throughput technique that facilitates a substantial increase in signal-to-noise for single-molecular-pair FRET measurements. We show that there can be dramatic differences between FRET in solution and in droplets, which we attribute primarily to an altered pH in the confining environment. We also demonstrate that a sufficient concentration of a non-ionic surfactant mitigates this effect and restores FRET to its neutral-pH solution value. At low surfactant levels, even accounting for pH, we observe differences between the distribution of FRET values in solution and in droplets which remain unexplained. Our results will facilitate the use of nanoemulsion droplets as attoliter volume reactors for use in biophysical and biochemical assays, and also in applications such as protein crystallization or nanoparticle synthesis, where careful attention to the pH of the confined phase is required.

  9. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN: A COMPARISON OF METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to confidently measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) in ground water is a key aspect of remedial selection and assessment. Presented here is a comparison of the commonly practiced methods for determining D.O. concentrations in ground water, including c...

  10. Distribution of dissolved silver in marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriada, J. L.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tappin, A.; Truscott, J.

    2003-04-01

    Silver is one of the most toxic heavy metals, surpassed only by mercury [1-3]. Monitoring of dissolved silver concentrations in natural waters is therefore of great importance. The determination of dissolved silver in waters is not without challenges, because of its low (picomolar) concentrations. Consequently, there are only a few reported studies in marine waters, which have been performed in USA [4-6] and Japan [7]. The analytical techniques used in the reported studies for the determination of silver in seawater were Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS) after solvent extraction [2,4,5], and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after solvent extraction or solid phase extraction [7,8]. In this contribution, we will present an optimised Magnetic Sector (MS) ICP-MS technique for the determination of dissolved silver in marine waters. The MS-ICP-MS method used anion exchange column to preconcentrate silver from saline waters, and to remove the saline matrix. The ICP-MS method has been used successfully to determine total dissolved silver in estuarine and oceanic samples. Bibliography 1. H. T. Ratte, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999, 18: p. 89-108. 2. R. T. Herrin, A. W. Andren and D. E. Armstrong, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001, 35: 1953-1958. 3. D. E. Schildkraut, P. T. Dao, J. P. Twist, A. T. Davis and K. A. Robillard, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1998, 17: 642-649. 4. E. Breuer, S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy and R. C. Aller, Estuaries. 1999, 22:603-615. 5. A. R. Flegal, S. A. Sanudowilhelmy and G. M. Scelfo, Mar. Chem. 1995, 49: 315-320. 6. S. N. Luoma, Y. B. Ho and G. W. Bryan, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1995, 31: 44-54. 7. Y. Zhang, H. Amakawa and Y. Nozaki, Mar. Chem. 2001, 75: 151-163. 8. L. Yang and R. E. Sturgeon, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2002, 17: 88-93.

  11. Perfusion imaging with a freely diffusible hyperpolarized contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Grant, Aaron K; Vinogradov, Elena; Wang, Xiaoen; Lenkinski, Robert E; Alsop, David C

    2011-09-01

    Contrast agents that can diffuse freely into or within tissue have numerous attractive features for perfusion imaging. Here we present preliminary data illustrating the suitability of hyperpolarized (13)C labeled 2-methylpropan-2-ol (also known as dimethylethanol, tertiary butyl alcohol and tert-butanol) as a freely diffusible contrast agent for magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. Dynamic (13)C images acquired in rat brain with a balanced steady-state free precession sequence following administration of hyperpolarized 2-methylpropan-2-ol show that this agent can be imaged with 2-4 s temporal resolution, 2 mm slice thickness, and 700 ?m in-plane resolution while retaining adequate signal-to-noise ratio. (13)C relaxation measurements on 2-methylpropan-2-ol in blood at 9.4 T yield T(1) = 46 ± 4s and T(2) = 0.55 ± 0.03 s. In the rat brain at 4.7 T, analysis of the temporal dynamics of the balanced steady-state free precession image intensity in tissue and venous blood indicate that 2-methylpropan-2-ol has a T(2) of roughly 2-4s and a T(1) of 43 ± 24 s. In addition, the images indicate that 2-methylpropan-2-ol is freely diffusible in brain and hence has a long residence time in tissue; this in turn makes it possible to image the agent continuously for tens of seconds. These characteristics show that 2-methylpropan-2-ol is a promising agent for robust and quantitative perfusion imaging in the brain and body. PMID:21432901

  12. Magnetotransport measurements on freely suspended two-dimensional electron gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blick, R. H.; Monzon, F. G.; Wegscheider, W.; Bichler, M.; Stern, F.; Roukes, M. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present magnetotransport measurements on freely suspended two-dimensional electron gases from AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures. The technique to realize such devices relies on a specially molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs-heterostructure, including a sacrificial layer. We fabricated simple mini-Hall-bars as well as quantum cavities and quantum dot systems. We find well-pronounced Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and observe commensurability resonances, allowing characterization of the electron gas in these 100-nm thin membranes.

  13. Cellular partitioning of nanoparticulate versus dissolved metals in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Jarvis, Tayler A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Miller, Robert J

    2014-11-18

    Discharges of metal oxide nanoparticles into aquatic environments are increasing with their use in society, thereby increasing exposure risk for aquatic organisms. Separating the impacts of nanoparticle from dissolved metal pollution is critical for assessing the environmental risks of the rapidly growing nanomaterial industry, especially in terms of ecosystem effects. Metal oxides negatively affect several species of marine phytoplankton, which are responsible for most marine primary production. Whether such toxicity is generally due to nanoparticles or exposure to dissolved metals liberated from particles is uncertain. The type and severity of toxicity depends in part on whether phytoplankton cells take up and accumulate primarily nanoparticles or dissolved metal ions. We compared the responses of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii, exposed to ZnO, AgO, and CuO nanoparticles with the responses of T. weissflogii cells exposed to the dissolved metals ZnCl2, AgNO3, and CuCl2 for 7 d. Cellular metal accumulation, metal distribution, and algal population growth were measured to elucidate differences in exposure to the different forms of metal. Concentration-dependent metal accumulation and reduced population growth were observed in T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides, as well as dissolved metals. Significant effects on population growth were observed at the lowest concentrations tested for all metals, with similar toxicity for both dissolved and nanoparticulate metals. Cellular metal distribution, however, markedly differed between T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides versus those exposed to dissolved metals. Metal concentrations were highest in the algal cell wall when cells were exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles, whereas algae exposed to dissolved metals had higher proportions of metal in the organelle and endoplasmic reticulum fractions. These results have implications for marine plankton communities as well as higher trophic levels, since metal may be transferred from phytoplankton through food webs vis à vis grazing by zooplankton or other pathways. PMID:25337629

  14. Mesenteric blood pressure profile of conscious, freely moving rats.

    PubMed Central

    Fenger-Gron, J; Mulvany, M J; Christensen, K L

    1995-01-01

    1. Blood pressure has been measured in the aorta and at four points in the mesenteric circulation of conscious, freely moving rats under physiological, resting conditions. 2. Using small polythene catheters, blood pressure was measured simultaneously in the aorta and either distally in the superior mesenteric artery (group A), at the base of a mesenteric arterial arcade (vessel diameter ca 100 microns) (group B), at the base of a mesenteric venous arcade (group C) or distally in the superior mesenteric vein (group D). Local blood flow distribution proximal and distal to the measurement point was restored after the cannulations through appropriate ligations. 3. In conscious animals 5-17 h after surgery, systemic mean blood pressure was 121 +/- 2 mmHg. Local pressures at the four locations (as a percentage of systemic pressure) were: 95 +/- 1% in group A, 64 +/- 2% in group B, 13 +/- 1% in group C and 7 +/- 1% in group D. Thus, large arteries dissipated 5% of the total pressure drop, arcade small arteries 31%, the intramural circulation 51%, arcade veins 6% and the remaining veins plus the hepatic circulation 7%. 4. Immediately after surgery, the corresponding pressure drops were 4, 16, 66, 5 and 9%, respectively, thus emphasizing that the pressure profile can be profoundly affected by surgery and anaesthesia. 5. The data indicate that under resting conditions in conscious, freely moving rats, half the mesenteric vascular resistance resides outside the intramural circulation, primarily in the arcade small arteries. PMID:8576864

  15. Wireless Neural Stimulation in Freely Behaving Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Arfin, Scott K.; Long, Michael A.; Fee, Michale S.; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel wireless, low-power neural stimulation system for use in freely behaving animals. The system consists of an external transmitter and a miniature, implantable wireless receiver–stimulator. The implant uses a custom integrated chip to deliver biphasic current pulses to four addressable bipolar electrodes at 32 selectable current levels (10 ?A to 1 mA). To achieve maximal battery life, the chip enters a sleep mode when not needed and can be awakened remotely when required. To test our device, we implanted bipolar stimulating electrodes into the songbird motor nucleus HVC (formerly called the high vocal center) of zebra finches. Single-neuron recordings revealed that wireless stimulation of HVC led to a strong increase of spiking activity in its downstream target, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium. When we used this device to deliver biphasic pulses of current randomly during singing, singing activity was prematurely terminated in all birds tested. Thus our device is highly effective for remotely modulating a neural circuit and its corresponding behavior in an untethered, freely behaving animal. PMID:19386759

  16. Structure and Dynamics of Freely Suspended Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Noel A.

    2004-01-01

    Smectic liquid crystals are phases of rod shaped molecules organized into one dimensionally (1 D) periodic arrays of layers, each layer being between one and two molecular lengths thick. In the least ordered smectic phases, the smectics A and C, each layer is a two dimensional (2D) liquid. Additionally there are a variety of more ordered smectic phases having hexatic short range translational order or 2D crystalline or quasi long range translational order within the layers. The inherent fluid-layer structure and low vapor pressure of smectic liquid crystals enables the long term stabilization of freely suspended, single component, layered fluid films as thin as 30A, a single molecular layer. The layering forces the films to be an integral number of smectic layers thick, quantizing their thickness in layer units and forcing a film of a particular number of layers to be physically homogeneous with respect to its layer structure over its entire area. Optical reflectivity enables the precise determination of the number of layers. These ultrathin freely suspended liquid crystal films are structures of fundamental interest in condensed matter and fluid physics. They are the thinnest known stable fluid structures and have the largest surface-to-volume ratio of any stable fluid preparation, making them ideal for the study of the effects of reduced dimensionality on phase behavior and on fluctuation and interface phenomena. Their low vapor pressure and quantized thickness enable the effective use of microgravity to extend the study of basic capillary phenomena to ultrathin fluid films. Freely suspended films have been a wellspring of new LC physics. They have been used to provide unique experimental conditions for the study of condensed phase transitions in two dimensions. They are the only system in which the hexatic has been unambiguously identified as a phase of matter, and the only physical system in which fluctuations of a 2D XY system and Kosterlitz Thouless phase transition has been observed and 2D XY quasi long range order verified. Smectic films have enabled the precise determination of smectic layer electron density and positional fluctuation profiles and have been used to show that the interlayer interactions in antiferroelectric tilted smectics do not extend significantly beyond nearest neighbors. Freely suspended films played a pivotal role in the recent discovery of macroscopic chiral-polar ordering in fluids of achiral molecules. The interactions which are operative in liquid crystals are generally weak in comparison to those in crystalline phases, leading to the facile manipulation of the order in liquid crystals by external agents such as applied fields and surfaces. Effects arising from weak ordering are significantly enhanced in ultrathin free films and filaments, in which the intermolecular coupling is effectively further reduced by loss of neighbors. Over the past four years this research, which we now detail, has produced a host of exciting new discoveries and unexpected results, maintaining the study of freely suspended liquid crystal structures as one of most exciting and fruitful areas of complex fluid physics. In addition, a class of experiments on the behavior of 1D interfaces in 2D films have been pursued with results that point to potentially quite interesting effects in microgravity.

  17. On the losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume

    2010-08-11

    Pouring champagne into a glass is far from being consequenceless with regard to its dissolved CO(2) concentration. Measurements of losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving were done from a bottled Champagne wine initially holding 11.4 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2). Measurements were done at three champagne temperatures (i.e., 4, 12, and 18 degrees C) and for two different ways of serving (i.e., a champagne-like and a beer-like way of serving). The beer-like way of serving champagne was found to impact its concentration of dissolved CO(2) significantly less. Moreover, the higher the champagne temperature is, the higher its loss of dissolved CO(2) during the pouring process, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that low temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence during the pouring process. The diffusion coefficient of CO(2) molecules in champagne and champagne viscosity (both strongly temperature-dependent) are suspected to be the two main parameters responsible for such differences. Besides, a recently developed dynamic-tracking technique using IR thermography was also used in order to visualize the cloud of gaseous CO(2) which flows down from champagne during the pouring process, thus visually confirming the strong influence of champagne temperature on its loss of dissolved CO(2). PMID:20681665

  18. New potentiomentric dissolved oxygen sensors in thick film technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Mart??nez-Máñez; Juan Soto; Josefa Lizondo-Sabater; Eduardo Garc??a-Breijo; Luis Gil; Javier Ibáñez; Isabel Alcaina; Silvia Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    New designed dissolved oxygen potentiometric sensors in thick film technology based in the use of RuO2 as active material and TiO2 or polyisoftalamide diphenylsulphone (PIDS) as membranes have been developed. TiO2-coated RuO2 electrodes showed a linear response as a function of the logarithm of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the 0.5–8ppm range (log[O2], ?4.82 to ?3.60; concentration of O2 in

  19. Stimulated release of lactate in freely moving rats is dependent on the uptake of glutamate.

    PubMed Central

    Demestre, M; Boutelle, M; Fillenz, M

    1997-01-01

    1. Physiological stimulation of neuronal activity induces an increase in extracellular lactate. Experiments were designed to determine the role of the reuptake of neuronally released glutamate in lactate delivery to the extracellular compartment. 2. In vivo microdialysis was used in freely moving rats. The lactate concentration in striatal dialysate was assayed using an enzyme-based on-line assay at 1 min intervals. Drugs were given locally through the dialysis probe. 3. The extracellular concentration of lactate, determined using the zero net flux method, was 346 +/- 21 microM. 4. Induced grooming caused a maximal increase in lactate concentration in striatal dialysate of 58 +/- 10%. 5. Administration of 100 microM glutamate caused a transient increase in dialysate lactate concentration of 72 +/- 17%. 6. A 20 min infusion of the glutamate uptake blockers beta-D,L-threohydroxyaspartate (THA) or pirrolidine-2-4-dicarboxylate (PDC) produced an increase in basal lactate, which was sustained in response to THA and transient in response to PDC. 7. Grooming induced during the infusion of PDC produced no significant increase in lactate. 8. Grooming induced after the infusion of the glutamate uptake blockers gave rise to a reduced increase in lactate. 9. These results support the hypothesis that stimulated release of lactate is dependent on the uptake of glutamate. PMID:9130175

  20. INFLUENCE OF PH, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, SUSPENDED SOLIDS OR DISSOLVED SOLIDS UPON VENTILATORY AND COUGH FREQUENCIES IN THE BLUEGILL 'LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS' AND BROOK TROUT 'SALVELINUS FONTINALIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservative no-effect concentration ranges were estimated for ventilatory and coughing responses of bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis exposed to altered pH, or to changes in dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids, or dissolved solids con...

  1. Evolution of Magnetic Fields in Freely Decaying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Leonardo Campanelli

    2007-05-16

    We study the evolution of magnetic fields in freely decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. By quasi-linearizing the Navier-Stokes equation, we solve analytically the induction equation in quasi-normal approximation. We find that, if the magnetic field is not helical, the magnetic energy and correlation length evolve in time respectively as E_B \\propto t^{-2(1+p)/(3+p)} and \\xi_B \\propto t^{2/(3+p)}, where p is the index of initial power-law spectrum. In the helical case, the magnetic helicity is an almost conserved quantity and forces the magnetic energy and correlation length to scale as E_B \\propto (log t)^{1/3} t^{-2/3} and \\xi_B \\propto (log t)^{-1/3} t^{2/3}.

  2. Structure, Hydrodynamics, and Phase Transition of Freely Suspended Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Noel A.

    2000-01-01

    Smectic liquid crystals are phases of rod shaped molecules organized into one dimensionally (1D) periodic arrays of layers, each layer being between one and two molecular lengths thick. In the least ordered smectic phases, the smectics A and C, each layer is a two dimensional (2D) liquid. Additionally there are a variety of more ordered smectic phases having hexatic short range translational order or 2D crystalline quasi long range translational order within the layers. The inherent fluid-layer structure and low vapor pressure of smectic liquid crystals enable the long term stabilization of freely suspended, single component, layered fluid films as thin as 30A, a single molecular layer. The layering forces the films to be an integral number of smectic layers thick, quantizing their thickness in layer units and forcing a film of a particular number of layers to be physically homogeneous with respect to its layer structure over its entire area. Optical reflectivity enables the precise determination of the number of layers. These ultrathin freely suspended liquid crystal films are structures of fundamental interest in condensed matter and fluid physics. They are the thinnest known stable condensed phase fluid structures and have the largest surface-to-volume ratio of any stable fluid preparation, making them ideal for the study of the effects of reduced dimensionality on phase behavior and on fluctuation and interface phenomena. Their low vapor pressure and quantized thickness enable the effective use of microgravity to extend the study of basic capillary phenomena to ultrathin fluid films. Freely suspended films have been a wellspring of new liquid crystal physics. They have been used to provide unique experimental conditions for the study of condensed phase transitions in two dimensions. They are the only system in which the hexatic has been unambiguously identified as a phase of matter, and the only physical system in which fluctuations of a 2D XY system and Kosterlitz Thouless phase transition has been observed and 2D XY quasi long range order verified. Smectic films have enabled the precise determination of smectic layer electron density and positional fluctuation profile and have been used to show that the interlayer interactions in anti-ferroelectric tilted smectics do not extend significantly beyond nearest neighbors. The interactions which are operative in liquid crystals are generally weak in comparison to those in crystalline phases, leading to the facile manipulation of the order in liquid crystals by external agents such as applied fields and surfaces. Effects arising from weak ordering are significantly enhanced in ultrathin free films and filaments wherein the intermolecular coupling is effectively reduced by loss of neighbors. Over the past four years this research, which we now detail, has produced a host of exciting new discoveries and unexpected results, maintaining the position of the study of freely suspended liquid crystal structures as one of most exciting and fruitful areas of complex fluid physics. In addition, several potentially interesting microgravity free film experiments have been identified.

  3. Evaporation rates of freely falling liquid nitrogen droplets in air

    SciTech Connect

    Awonorin, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The rates of heat transfer to individual droplets of liquid nitrogen falling freely in air were measured under different air temperatures similar to the conditions in a cryogenic freezing system. High-speed cinephotography was used to measure drop size and velocity. Experimental results of heat transfer rates to individual droplets were analyzed and the data were compared to those obtainable using other types of dimensionless correlations. Droplets of initial size range investigated (2.5-0.72 mm diameter) attained terminal velocities at distances of 4-6 cm freefall away from the drop generator tip. The velocity values used in the correlation of heat transfer data were averaged over the time traveled by individual droplet.

  4. Chronic detachable headphones for acoustic stimulation in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Nodal, Fernando R; Keating, Peter; King, Andrew J

    2010-05-30

    A growing number of studies of auditory processing are being carried out in awake, behaving animals, creating a need for precisely controlled sound delivery without restricting head movements. We have designed a system for closed-field stimulus presentation in freely moving ferrets, which comprises lightweight, adjustable headphones that can be consistently positioned over the ears via a small, skull-mounted implant. The invasiveness of the implant was minimized by simplifying its construction and using dental adhesive only for attaching it to the skull, thereby reducing the surgery required and avoiding the use of screws or other anchoring devices. Attaching the headphones to a chronic implant also reduced the amount of contact they had with the head and ears, increasing the willingness of the animals to wear them. We validated sound stimulation via the headphones in ferrets trained previously in a free-field task to localize stimuli presented from one of two loudspeakers. Noise bursts were delivered binaurally over the headphones and interaural level differences (ILDs) were introduced to allow the sound to be lateralized. Animals rapidly transferred from the free-field task to indicate the perceived location of the stimulus presented over headphones. They showed near perfect lateralization with a 5 dB ILD, matching the scores achieved in the free-field task. As expected, the ferrets' performance declined when the ILD was reduced in value. This closed-field system can easily be adapted for use in other species, and provides a reliable means of presenting closed-field stimuli whilst monitoring behavioral responses in freely moving animals. PMID:20346981

  5. Neural circuit activity in freely behaving zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Fadi A.; O'Brien, Georgeann; Kettunen, Petronella; Sagasti, Alvaro; Glanzman, David L.; Papazian, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Examining neuronal network activity in freely behaving animals is advantageous for probing the function of the vertebrate central nervous system. Here, we describe a simple, robust technique for monitoring the activity of neural circuits in unfettered, freely behaving zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish respond to unexpected tactile stimuli with short- or long-latency escape behaviors, which are mediated by distinct neural circuits. Using dipole electrodes immersed in the aquarium, we measured electric field potentials generated in muscle during short- and long-latency escapes. We found that activation of the underlying neural circuits produced unique field potential signatures that are easily recognized and can be repeatedly monitored. In conjunction with behavioral analysis, we used this technique to track changes in the pattern of circuit activation during the first week of development in animals whose trigeminal sensory neurons were unilaterally ablated. One day post-ablation, the frequency of short- and long-latency responses was significantly lower on the ablated side than on the intact side. Three days post-ablation, a significant fraction of escapes evoked by stimuli on the ablated side was improperly executed, with the animal turning towards rather than away from the stimulus. However, the overall response rate remained low. Seven days post-ablation, the frequency of escapes increased dramatically and the percentage of improperly executed escapes declined. Our results demonstrate that trigeminal ablation results in rapid reconfiguration of the escape circuitry, with reinnervation by new sensory neurons and adaptive changes in behavior. This technique is valuable for probing the activity, development, plasticity and regeneration of neural circuits under natural conditions. PMID:21346131

  6. Chronic detachable headphones for acoustic stimulation in freely moving animals

    PubMed Central

    Nodal, Fernando R.; Keating, Peter; King, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of studies of auditory processing are being carried out in awake, behaving animals, creating a need for precisely controlled sound delivery without restricting head movements. We have designed a system for closed-field stimulus presentation in freely moving ferrets, which comprises lightweight, adjustable headphones that can be consistently positioned over the ears via a small, skull-mounted implant. The invasiveness of the implant was minimized by simplifying its construction and using dental adhesive only for attaching it to the skull, thereby reducing the surgery required and avoiding the use of screws or other anchoring devices. Attaching the headphones to a chronic implant also reduced the amount of contact they had with the head and ears, increasing the willingness of the animals to wear them. We validated sound stimulation via the headphones in ferrets trained previously in a free-field task to localize stimuli presented from one of two loudspeakers. Noise bursts were delivered binaurally over the headphones and interaural level differences (ILDs) were introduced to allow the sound to be lateralized. Animals rapidly transferred from the free-field task to indicate the perceived location of the stimulus presented over headphones. They showed near perfect lateralization with a 5 dB ILD, matching the scores achieved in the free-field task. As expected, the ferrets’ performance declined when the ILD was reduced in value. This closed-field system can easily be adapted for use in other species, and provides a reliable means of presenting closed-field stimuli whilst monitoring behavioral responses in freely moving animals. PMID:20346981

  7. Dissolved-Solids Transport in Surface Water of the Muddy Creek Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Muddy Creek is located in the southeastern part of central Utah and is a tributary of the Dirty Devil River, which, in turn, is a tributary of the Colorado River. Dissolved solids transported from the Muddy Creek Basin may be stored in the lower Dirty Devil River Basin, but are eventually discharged to the Colorado River and impact downstream water users. This study used selected dissolved-solids measurements made by various local, State, and Federal agencies from the 1970s through 2006, and additional dissolved-solids data that were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during April 2004 through November 2006, to compute dissolved-solids loads, determine the distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations, and identify trends in dissolved-solids concentration in surface water of the Muddy Creek Basin. The dissolved-solids concentration values measured in water samples collected from Muddy Creek during April 2004 through October 2006 ranged from 385 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 5,950 mg/L. The highest dissolved-solids concentration values measured in the study area were in water samples collected at sites in South Salt Wash (27,000 mg/L) and Salt Wash (4,940 to 6,780 mg/L). The mean annual dissolved-solids load in Muddy Creek for the periods October 1976 to September 1980 and October 2005 to September 2006 was smallest at a site near the headwaters (9,670 tons per year [tons/yr]) and largest at a site at the mouth (68,700 tons/yr). For this period, the mean annual yield of dissolved solids from the Muddy Creek Basin was 44 tons per square mile. During October 2005 to September 2006, direct runoff transported as much as 45 percent of the annual dissolved-solids load at the mouth of Muddy Creek. A storm that occurred during October 5?7, 2006 resulted in a peak streamflow at the mouth of Muddy Creek of 7,150 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and the transport of an estimated 35,000 tons of dissolved solids, which is about 51 percent of the average annual dissolved-solids load at the mouth of Muddy Creek. A significant downward trend in dissolved-solids concentrations from 1973 to 2006 was determined for Muddy Creek at a site just downstream of that portion of the basin containing agricultural land. Dissolved-solids concentrations decreased about 2.1 percent per year; however, the rate of change was a decrease of 1.8 percent per year when dissolved-solids concentrations were adjusted for flow.

  8. Interactions Among Dissolved Nitrogen, Phosphate, and Dissolved Oxygen at Several Sites in Chesapeake Bay in 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charlie Hunter (Southwestern College; )

    2006-06-18

    We looked at the correlation between dissolved oxygen and two water quality variables: dissolved nitrogen and dissolved phosphorus. We thought that, if dissolved oxygen were highly correlated with dissolved nitrogen (for example), then that would imply that dissolved nitrogen was limiting or otherwise important at that site. Likewise for dissolved phosphorus. We found that different sites in the bay had different levels of correlation, but there was no spatial pattern to the data.

  9. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  10. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  11. Cruise summary for P-1-02-SC: acoustic imaging of natural oil and gas seeps and measurement of dissolved methane concentration in coastal waters near Pt. Conception, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, Thomas D.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Ussler, William, III; Paull, Charles K.

    2003-01-01

    Water-column acoustic anomalies and methane concentrations were documented in coastal waters surrounding Pt. Conception, California, in March 2002. The purpose of this survey, supported by the Minerals Management Service, was to locate active oil and gas seeps in the area as a background for further studies to determine hydrocarbon flux, mainly oil, into the environment. Objectives in reaching this goal are to (1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seeps within the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin; (2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential sources, both onshore and offshore, in this region; (3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; (4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; (5) attempt to predict transport pathways of oil from seep sources to the coastline and; (6) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. This survey, addressing objective 1, focused on the area from offshore Surf Beach to the north and Gaviota to the south in water depths ranging from 20 to 500m. In addition, nine stations were sampled outside this area to provide a regional context. Water-column methane concentrations were measured in water samples collected from the R/V Point Sur with Niskin bottles from various depths. A total of 724 water samples from 94 stations were collected.

  12. An On-Line Monitoring System for Gases Dissolved in Transformer Oil Using Wireless Data Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuezeng Zhao; Yangliu Li

    2009-01-01

    Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is a certain method to diagnose incipient fault of transformers through the correlation between the content of gases dissolved in transformer oil and a particular malfunction. This paper developed an on-line monitoring system to detect the concentrations of H2 and CO dissolved in transformer oil. The system mounts polyperfluoro ethylene-propylene membrane, electrochemical gas sensors, a wireless

  13. Dissolving Polymers in Ionic Liquids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, David; Harner, John

    2009-03-01

    Dissolution and phase behavior of polymers in ionic liquids have been assessed by solution characterization techniques such as intrinsic viscosity and light scattering (static and dynamic). Elevated viscosity proved the greatest obstacle. As yet, whether principles standard to conventional polymer solutions apply to ionic liquid solutions is uncertain, especially for polymers such as polyelectrolytes and hydrophilic block copolymers that may specifically interact with ionic liquid anions or cations. For flexible polyelectrolytes (polymers releasing counterions into high dielectric solvents), characterization in ionic liquids suggests behaviors more typical of neutral polymer. Coil sizes and conformations are approximately the same as in aqueous buffer. Further, several globular proteins dissolve in a hydrophilic ionic liquid with conformations analogous to those in buffer. General principles of solubility, however, remain unclear, making predictions of which polymer dissolves in which ionic liquid difficult; several otherwise intractable polymers (e.g., cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol) dissolve and can be efficiently functionalized in ionic liquids.

  14. Development of mediator-type biosensor to wirelessly monitor whole cholesterol concentration in fish.

    PubMed

    Takase, Mai; Murata, Masataka; Hibi, Kyoko; Huifeng, Ren; Endo, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    We developed a wireless monitoring system to monitor fish condition by tracking the change in whole cholesterol concentration. The whole cholesterol concentration of fish is a source of steroid hormones or indicator of immunity level, which makes its detection important for tracking physiological condition of fish. Wireless monitoring system comprises of mediator-type biosensor and wireless transmission device. Biosensor is implantable to fish body, and transmission device is so light, in that fish is allowed to swim freely during monitoring. Cholesterol esterase and oxidase were fixated on to the detection site of biosensor and used to detect the whole cholesterol concentration. However, cholesterol oxidase incorporates oxidation-reduction reaction of oxygen for detection, which concentration fluctuates easily due to change in environmental condition. Meanwhile, mediator-type biosensor enables monitoring of whole cholesterol concentration by using mediator to substitute that oxidation-reduction reaction of oxygen. Characteristic of fabricated mediator-type biosensor was tested. The sensor output current of mediator-type biosensor remained stable compared to output current of non-mediator-type biosensor under fluctuating oxygen concentration of 0-8 ppm, which implied that this sensor is less affected by change in dissolved oxygen concentration. That biosensor was then implanted into fish for wireless monitoring. As a result, approximately 48 h of real-time monitoring was successful. PMID:24037271

  15. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-06-11

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  16. SIMULATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROFILES IN A TRANSPARENT, DIMICTIC LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thrush Lake is a small, highly transparent lake in northeastern Minnesota. rom 1986 to 1991, vertical profiles of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a concentration, underwater light irradiance, and Secchi depths were measured at monthly intervals during the ice-fre...

  17. RESPONSE OF LEAD SOLUBILITY TO DISSOLVED CARBONATE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model is presented showing the detailed response of the theoretical solubility curves for lead to changes in dissolved inorganic carbonate concentration (TIC) and pH at 25 C. Aqueous Pb(II) ion, lead carbonate complexes, lead hydroxide monomers and polymers, and the solids lead...

  18. U-shaped plastic optical fiber dissolved oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiwen Cai; Fenghong Chu; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang

    2008-01-01

    A dissolved oxygen sensor based on U-shape plastic optical fiber (POF) was described. Analyte-sensitive fluorophore are entrapped into ormosil film by using Sol-gel method. Phase modulation technique is used to measure fluorescence lifetime. The influence of oxygen indictor concentration, annealing time and U-shaped POF curve radius on the systems sensitivity is studied.

  19. Nature and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in

    E-print Network

    not contributed by internal loading. Introduction Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a major role influence on transformations that occur during treatment, (ii) the climate factors have a secondary effect a function of chemical concentrations, envi- ronmental factors, and hydraulic retention time (HRT

  20. TOTAL DISSOLVED AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT LAKE TEXOMA MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved metals in water and total metals in sediments have been measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during June 1999 to October 2001, and October 2001, respectively. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in marina water were Na and Ca, followed by Mg an...

  1. Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon from California continental margin sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID J. BURDIGE; W ILLIAM M. BERELSON; KENNETH H. COALE; James McManus; KENNETH S. JOHNSON

    1999-01-01

    Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from marine sediments represent a poorly constrained component of the oceanic carbon cycle that may affect the concentration and composition of DOC in the ocean. Here we report the first in situ measurements of DOC fluxes from continental margin sediments (water depths ranging from 95 to 3,700 m), and compare these fluxes with measured

  2. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING DISSOLVED OXYGEN TMDLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents an extended abstract of a research paper describing four commonly used dissolved oxygen (DO) simulation models. The concentration of DO in surface waters is one of the most commonly used indicators of river and stream health. Regulators and other professionals are increasingly r...

  3. Freely Falling Finite Frames Near a Black Hole

    E-print Network

    Biswas, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that the Riemann curvature tensor has no discontinuity at the black hole horizon. It is also well-known that a freely falling observer takes finite time to reach the horizon from an outside point. However, the usual assumption is that such an observer resides in a frame of reference (spaceship) of infinitesimal size. This assumption is justified as long as the coordinates are continuous enough to assume that the observer's frame is small compared to the variations of the metric from a local flat metric. Such an assumption may be invalid when the coordinate system has not only a discontinuity but a singularity like the one at the horizon. Hence, here, the characteristics of a finite frame (a spaceship) near a black hole horizon is discussed. It is shown that clocks placed at the front and rear ends have different time scales even in the limit when they reach the horizon at the same time. This renders such a frame physically meaningless. It is also argued that the forces that are expected to ke...

  4. Microdroplets Impinging on Freely Suspended Smectic Films: Three Impact Regimes.

    PubMed

    Dölle, Sarah; Stannarius, Ralf

    2015-06-16

    We employ high-speed video imaging to study microdroplets of a few picoliters volume impacting freely suspended smectic liquid-crystal films. Depending on the impact parameters, in particular, droplet velocity and mass, three different regimes are observed such as trapping, rebounding, and tunneling. Fast droplets penetrate the films completely. After they have passed the film, they are coated with a layer of film material while the original smectic film remains intact. Droplets in a certain intermediate velocity range bounce back from the film. After impact, the film deforms and hurls the droplet back, depleting a substantial share of the initial kinetic energy. Slow droplets are caught and embedded in the film. During impact and tunneling, an appreciable amount of kinetic energy is lost. The energy is partially dissipated during droplet impact and during subsequent mechanical vibrations and oscillations of the film and the droplet. The tunneling process of high-speed droplets can be exploited to prepare smectic shells of well-defined sizes that enclose picoliters of an immiscible liquid. PMID:26010557

  5. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-15

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations. PMID:25609786

  6. 4D functional imaging in the freely moving rat.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Matthew; Schmitz, Christoph; Pei, Yaling; Graber, Harry; Abdul, Rehman-Ansari; Barry, Jeremy; Muller, Robert; Barbour, Randall

    2006-01-01

    We describe a two-frequency diffuse optical tomographic (DOT) imaging and EEG recording system suitable for the study of real-time hemodynamic and neural activities in freely moving rats. The system uses a bundle of 16 optical fibers that both deliver light and capture its reemission. This bundle runs in parallel with a cable carrying EEG signals from 16 microelectrodes. Both data collection arrays terminate in a precision-machined cap that is surgically attached to the skull. Free movement is enabled by suspending the cables with an elastic cord. Rats are also tracked with a video system so their behavior can be compared to hemodynamic and neural activity. Optical measurements are done with 760 and 830 nm laser diodes using a time-multiplexed, frequency-encoded illumination scheme at a source-switching speed of 68 Hz. EEG, optical and video data are all timestamped with the same clock, ensuring information synchrony. Automated optical system set-up and control is done with a LabVIEW interface that allows on-the-fly adjustment of gain, data integrity checks and system calibration, among other functionalities. EEG recording is done with a Neuralynx (Tucson, AZ) recording system. Collected optical data are converted to volumetric images either in real-time or offline. The integrated system includes comprehensive image formation, display and time-series analysis software suitable for processing data independently or in combination. PMID:17945970

  7. Continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barron

    1965-01-01

    Modification of portable oxygen meters allows continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen in waterflood systems, instead of using spot checks which permit only partial oxygen removal. This is made possible by the addition of an automatic, continuous readout instrument to the common oxygen sensor in use today. The oxygen sensor consists of an electrolytic cell made of a cathode, an anode,

  8. Phase fluorometric dissolved oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. McDonagh; C. Kolle; A. K. McEvoy; D. L. Dowling; A. A. Cafolla; S. J. Cullen; B. D. MacCraith

    2001-01-01

    The design and performance of a ruggedised dissolved oxygen (DO) probe, which is based on phase fluorometric detection of the quenched fluorescence of an oxygen-sensitive ruthenium complex, is reported. The complex is entrapped in a porous hydrophobic sol–gel matrix that has been optimised for this application. The LED excitation and photodiode detection are employed in a dipstick probe configuration, with

  9. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of ?-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% ?-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

  10. Influence of dissolved organic materials on turbid water optical properties and remote-sensing reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Harriss, R. C.; Usry, J. W.; Poole, L. R.; Houghton, W. M.; Morris, W. D.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of dissolved organic materials on turbid-water optical properties are assessed, by means of field measurements and laboratory simulations in which upwelled reflectance, attenuation, absorption, and backscatter spectral properties at wavelengths from 450 to 800 nm are examined in relation to water chemistry. The data show that dissolved organic materials decrease upwelled reflectance from turbid waters, and that the decrease in reflectance is a nonlinear function of concentration with the largest gradients at low carbon concentrations, depending on wavelength. Upwelled reflectance is found to be highly correlated with two backscatter-absorption parameters used in some optical models, which are nonlinear with dissolved organic material concentration change.

  11. Dissolved Solids in Streams of the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anning, D. W.; Flynn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that excessive dissolved-solids concentrations in water can have adverse effects on the environment and on agricultural, municipal, and industrial water users. Such effects motivated the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program to develop a SPAtially-Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model to improve the understanding of dissolved solids in streams of the United States. Using the SPARROW model, annual dissolved-solids loads from 2,560 water-quality monitoring stations were statistically related to several spatial datasets serving as surrogates for dissolved-solids sources and transport processes. Sources investigated in the model included geologic materials, road de-icers, urban lands, cultivated lands, and pasture lands. Factors affecting transport from these sources to streams in the model included climate, soil, vegetation, terrain, population, irrigation, and artificial-drainage characteristics. The SPARROW model was used to predict long-term mean annual conditions for dissolved-solids sources, loads, yields, and concentrations in about 66,000 stream reaches and corresponding incremental catchments nationwide. The estimated total amount of dissolved solids delivered to the Nation's streams is 272 million metric tons (Mt) annually, of which 194 million Mt (71%) are from geologic sources, 38 million Mt (14%) are from road de-icers, 18 million Mt (7%) are from pasture lands, 14 million Mt (5 %) are from urban lands, and 8 million Mt (3%) are from cultivated lands. The median incremental-catchment yield delivered to local streams is 26 metric tons per year per square kilometer [(Mt/yr)/km2]. Ten percent of the incremental catchments yield less than 4 (Mt/yr)/km2, and 10 percent yield more than 90 (Mt/yr)/km2. In 13% of the reaches, predicted flow-weighted concentrations exceed 500 mg/L—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary non-enforceable drinking-water standard.

  12. Dissolved oxygen stratification in two micro-tidal partially-mixed estuaries

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    Dissolved oxygen stratification in two micro-tidal partially-mixed estuaries Jing Lin a,*, Lian Xie online 21 August 2006 Abstract The controlling physical factors for vertical oxygen stratification that vertical stratification of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration can be explained by the extended Hansen

  13. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL POND CIRCULATION ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES IN CHANNEL CATFISH PONDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplankton are the primary producers and consumers of dissolved oxygen in earthen channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds. In a pond with a dense plankton bloom, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration can become supersaturated during daylight hours and fall to 10% of saturation or les...

  14. A screen-printed amperometric dissolved oxygen sensor utilising an immobilised electrolyte gel and membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Glasspool; John Atkinson

    1998-01-01

    An amperometric dissolved oxygen sensor based on potentiostatic operation has been designed and fabricated using thick film technology. Calibration of the sensor has shown a strong linear relationship with dissolved oxygen concentration. The devices have been bulk tested for long-term stability and good device to device repeatability has been observed within the batch. Results indicate that a repeatable response to

  15. Miniature dissolved oxygen and turbulence optical sensor for river and coastal environmental applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward M. Carapezza; Gabrial Lombardi; Jerry Butman; Ivar Babb

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative miniature optical sensor for predicting dissolved oxygen concentrations and measuring turbulence in river and littoral water columns. The dissolved oxygen and turbulence sensor consists of a single-frequency laser transmitter and a photodetector on which the scattered light from the turbulent water at the base of a dam or spillway is coherently mixed with a sample

  16. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING RISKS POSED BY BRINES CONTAINING DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic disposal of supercritical carbon dioxide in saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas fields will cause large volumes of brine to become saturated with dissolved CO2 at concentrations of 50 g/l or more.  As CO2 dissolves in brine, the brine de...

  17. Spatial and temporal characterisations of the degradation of dissolved humic substances in freshwater lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Mazzuoli; Silvia Focardi; Luca Bracchini; Margherita Falcucci; Steven A. Loiselle; Claudio Rossi

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a key component in freshwater ecosystems, strongly influencing the optical, chemical and biological environment. The influence of the organic material on lake water depends on the molecular characteristics of the compounds. In the present study, the spatial distribution of dissolved organic matter and humic concentrations was determined together with the indices for optical colour (a440)

  18. EFFECTS OF LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN ON SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION OF DAPHNIA, HYALELLA, AND GAMMARUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Hyalella azteca, and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the laboratory. Acute and chronic exposures were conducted to develop data for use in the EPA Water Quality Criteria document for dissolved oxygen. . magna...

  19. Precipitation of dissolved sulphide in pulp and paper mill wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Vepsäläinen; Jukka Selin; Pekka Rantala; Martti Pulliainen; Heikki Särkkä; Kaisa Kuhmonen; Amit Bhatnagar; Mika Sillanpää

    2011-01-01

    The precipitation of dissolved sulphide ions by electrocoagulation was studied at laboratory scale using pulp and paper mill wastewaters. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and phosphorus were analysed before and after the electrocoagulation process to examine the suitability of the process for treatment of sulphide odour from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The electrochemical cell used in this study was

  20. Characterization of six phosphate-dissolving bacteria isolated from rhizospheric soils in Mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rhizospheric soils in Mali were analyzed for concentrations of microorganisms capable of dissolving phosphate rock and producing plant growth substances. Six bacteria were isolated and found to have the capacity to dissolve /solubilize the Tilemsi phosphate rock (TPR) available in Mali by prod...

  1. A Predictive Model of Bacterial Foraging by Means of Freely Released Extracellular Enzymes

    E-print Network

    Jumars, Pete

    A Predictive Model of Bacterial Foraging by Means of Freely Released Extracellular Enzymes Y T Extracellular enzymes are important agents for microbial foraging and material cycling in diverse natural immobile microbe, of freely releasing extracellular enzymes into a fluid- bathed, stable matrix of both

  2. Thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiepel, E. W.; Gubbins, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method based on perturbation theory for mixtures is applied to the prediction of thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions. The theory is compared with experimental data for the dependence of the solute activity coefficient on concentration, temperature, and pressure; calculations are included for partial molal enthalpy and volume of the dissolved gas. The theory is also compared with previous theories for salt effects and found to be superior. The calculations are best for salting-out systems. The qualitative feature of salting-in is predicted by the theory, but quantitative predictions are not satisfactory for such systems; this is attributed to approximations made in evaluating the perturbation terms.

  3. Terrigenous dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean and its transport to surface and deep waters of the North Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Benner; Patrick Louchouarn; Rainer M. W. Amon

    2005-01-01

    Surface waters of the Arctic Ocean have the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM) of all ocean basins. Concentrations of dissolved lignin phenols in polar surface waters are 7-fold to 16-fold higher than those in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and stable carbon isotopic compositions of DOM are depleted in 13C by 1-20\\/00

  4. Terrigenous dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean and its transport to surface and deep waters of the North Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Benner; Patrick Louchouarn; Rainer M. W. Amon

    2005-01-01

    Surface waters of the Arctic Ocean have the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM) of all ocean basins. Concentrations of dissolved lignin phenols in polar surface waters are 7-fold to 16-fold higher than those in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and stable carbon isotopic compositions of DOM are depleted in 13C by 1–2‰

  5. Dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoikkala, L.; Kortelainen, P.; Soinne, H.; Kuosa, H.

    2015-02-01

    Several factors highlight the importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea: 1) DOM is the main energy source for heterotrophic bacteria in surface waters, thus contributing to the productivity and trophic state of bodies of water. 2) DOM functions as a nutrient source: in the Baltic Sea, more than one-fourth of the bioavailable nutrients can occur in the dissolved organic form in riverine inputs and in surface water during summer. Thus, DOM also supports primary production, both directly (osmotrophy) and indirectly (via remineralization). 3) Flocculation and subsequent deposition of terrestrial DOM within river estuaries may contribute to production and oxygen consumption in coastal sediments. 4) Chromophoric DOM, which is one of the major absorbers of light entering the Baltic Sea, contributes highly to water color, thus affecting the photosynthetic depth as well as recreational value of the Baltic Sea. Despite its large-scale importance to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, DOM has been of minor interest compared with inorganic nutrient loadings. Information on the concentrations and dynamics of DOM in the Baltic Sea has accumulated since the late 1990s, but it is still sporadic. This review provides a coherent view of the current understanding of DOM dynamics in the Baltic Sea.

  6. Resonance spectra of a paramagnetic probe dissolved in a viscous medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, J. I.; Gelerinter, E.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAAC) dissolved in either a liquid crystal or isotropic solvent is calculated with the aid of a presented model. Density matrix formulation is employed in the rotating reference frame. The molecules occupy several discrete angles with respect to the magnetic field and can relax to neighboring positions in a characteristic time. The form of this characteristic time is found from a diffusion approach, and the magnitude of this time is a measure of how freely the VAAC probe tumbles in the solvent. Spectra are predicted for time values ranging from 10 picoseconds to 10 microseconds.

  7. Planet-disc interaction on a freely moving mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, D. J.; Kratter, K.; Springel, V.; Hernquist, L.

    2014-12-01

    General-purpose, moving-mesh schemes for hydrodynamics have opened the possibility of combining the accuracy of grid-based numerical methods with the flexibility and automatic resolution adaptivity of particle-based methods. Due to their supersonic nature, Keplerian accretion discs are in principle a very attractive system for applying such freely moving-mesh techniques. However, the high degree of symmetry of simple accretion disc models can be difficult to capture accurately by these methods, due to the generation of geometric grid noise and associated numerical diffusion, which is absent in polar grids. To explore these and other issues, in this work we study the idealized problem of two-dimensional planet-disc interaction with the moving-mesh code AREPO. We explore the hydrodynamic evolution of discs with planets through a series of numerical experiments that vary the planet mass, the disc viscosity and the mesh resolution, and compare the resulting surface density, vortensity field and tidal torque with results from the literature. We find that the performance of the moving-mesh code in this problem is in accordance with published results, showing good consistency with grid codes written in polar coordinates. We also conclude that grid noise and mesh distortions do not introduce excessive numerical diffusion. Finally, we show how the moving-mesh approach can help in resolving an outstanding challenge for polar-coordinate grid codes, namely the successful implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in regions of high density around planets and planetary wakes, while retaining the background flow at low resolution.

  8. Satellite Meteorology Education Resources Freely Available from COMET°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.

    2011-12-01

    The COMET° Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS, EUMETSAT, and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training efforts in satellite meteorology. These partnerships enable COMET to create educational materials of global interest on the application of products from geostationary and polar-orbiting remote sensing platforms. Recently, COMET's satellite education programs have focused on both current and next generation satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, MSC, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater utilization of satellite data and products. COMET also continues to broaden the scope of its training to include materials on the EUMETSAT Polar-orbiting System (EPS) and Meteosat geostationary satellites. EPS represents an important contribution to the Initial Joint Polar System between NOAA and EUMETSAT, while Meteosat Second Generation imaging capabilities provide an authentic proving ground for the next-generation GOES-R imager. This presentation provides an overview of COMET's recent satellite education efforts including courses and publications that focus on topics like multispectral RGB products, detecting atmospheric dust, and climate monitoring from satellites. Over 50 satellite-focused self-paced online materials are freely available via the Satellite Topic area of the MetEd Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/topics/modules/satellite) and COMET's Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC)(www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc). The ESRC, another important resource developed for use by the geosciences and education communities, is a searchable, database driven Web site that provides easy access to a wide range of useful information and training materials on Earth-observing satellites. Simple free online registration is required to access all training materials and the ESRC.

  9. Three-dimensional spatial representation in freely swimming fish.

    PubMed

    Burt de Perera, Theresa; Holbrook, Robert I

    2012-08-01

    Research on spatial cognition has focused on how animals encode the horizontal component of space. However, most animals travel vertically within their environments, particularly those that fly or swim. Pelagic fish move with six degrees of freedom and must integrate these components to navigate accurately--how do they do this? Using an assay based on associative learning of the vertical and horizontal components of space within a rotating Y-maze, we found that fish (Astyanax fasciatus) learned and remembered information from both horizontal and vertical axes when they were presented either separately or as an integrated three-dimensional unit. When information from the two components conflicted, the fish used the previously learned vertical information in preference to the horizontal. This not only demonstrates that the horizontal and vertical components are stored separately in the fishes' representation of space (simplifying the problem of 3D navigation), but also suggests that the vertical axis contains particularly salient spatial cues--presumably including hydrostatic pressure. To explore this latter possibility, we developed a physical theoretical model that shows how fish could determine their absolute depth using pressure. We next considered full volumetric spatial cognition. Astyanax were trained to swim towards a reward in a Y-maze that could be rotated, before the arms were removed during probe trials. The subjects were tracked in three dimensions as they swam freely through the surrounding cubic tank. The results revealed that fish are able to accurately encode metric information in a volume, and that the error accrued in the horizontal and vertical axes whilst swimming in probe trials was similar. Together, these experiments demonstrate that unlike in surface-bound rats, the vertical component of the representation of space is vitally important to fishes. We hypothesise that the representation of space in the brain of vertebrates could ultimately be shaped by the number of the degrees of freedom of movement that binds the navigating animal. PMID:22915259

  10. Distribution of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved fulvic acid in mesotrophic Lake Biwa, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko Sugiyama; Aya Anegawa; Hiroo Inokuchi; Tetsu Kumagai

    2005-01-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in mesotrophic Lake Biwa were determined by a total organic carbon (TOC)\\u000a analyzer, and DOC molecular size distributions were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a fluorescence\\u000a detector at excitation\\/emission (Ex\\/Em) levels of 300\\/425?nm with the eluent at pH 9.7. The fluorescence wavelengths for detection\\u000a were chosen from the result of excitation–emission matrix

  11. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  12. DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS AND EXPORT IN GEORGIA PIEDMONT HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The South Fork Broad River (SFBR) drains about 550 km2 of the Georgia Piedmont. The SFBR watershed is primarily rural and undeveloped although the human population increased by about 25% between 1990 and 2000. Forestry and agriculture are the main land uses. Agriculture consis...

  13. PII S0016-7037(99)00084-8 Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore waters

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    PII S0016-7037(99)00084-8 Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore) Abstract--Dissolved sulfide concentrations in the water column and in sediment pore waters were measured in February 1995, November­December 1995, and April 1997. In the water column, sulfide concentrations measured

  14. Epilithic microalgal species discriminate low and high levels of dissolved phosphate in rivers of Northern Mindanao, Southern Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Sinco; E. B. Metillo

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions influence communities of riverine epilithic microalgae. In order to test the hypothesis that certain species can discriminate high and low dissolved phosphate concentrations, epilithic microalgae were collected and dissolved orthophosphate concentration concurrently determined at 63 rivers of Northern Mindanao. Microalgae were identified to the lowest taxon, and density of each species was estimated following standard methods for epilithic

  15. Quantification of a Mixture of Insoluble Submicrometer Particles and Dissolved Solids in Water using Membrane Filtration and Aerosolization Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Yeon Park; Sungil Lim; Seunghee Han

    2011-01-01

    Microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filtration and separation of insoluble particles and dissolved solid in water, aerosolization, and subsequent sizing and counting of airborne particles were used to determine the number concentration of insoluble particles (#\\/ml) and mass concentration of dissolved solids (ppm) in water. By using a variety of solutions and their mixtures, we determined the penetration of

  16. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  17. Mechanisms controlling dissolved iron distribution in the North Pacific: A model study

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    in deter- mining surface water distributions of Al and Fe inthe distribution of Fe and Al in the surface waters of theDistribution [ 20 ] The simulated dissolved iron concentrations in the surface water

  18. Spatial variability of total dissolved copper and copper speciation in the inshore waters of Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Oldham, V E; Swenson, M M; Buck, K N

    2014-02-15

    Total dissolved copper (Cu) and Cu speciation were examined from inshore waters of Bermuda, in October 2009 and July-August 2010, to determine the relationship between total dissolved Cu, Cu-binding ligands and bioavailable, free, hydrated Cu(2+) concentrations. Speciation was performed using competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV). Mean total dissolved Cu concentrations ranged from 1.4 nM to 19.2 nM, with lowest concentrations at sites further from shore, consistent with previous measurements in the Sargasso Sea, and localized Cu enrichment inshore in enclosed harbors. Ligand concentrations exceeded dissolved [Cu] at most sites, and [Cu(2+)] were correspondingly low at those sites, typically <10(-13) M. One site, Hamilton Harbour, was found to have [Cu] in excess of ligands, resulting in [Cu(2+)] of 10(-10.7) M, and indicating that Cu may be toxic to phytoplankton here. PMID:24461699

  19. DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON TRENDS RESULTING FROM CHANGES IN ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain recent, widespread increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface waters of glaciated landscapes across eastern North America and northern and central Europe. Some invoke anthropogenic forcing through ...

  20. Interaction of temperature, dissolved oxygen and feed energy on ecophysiological performance of juvenile red drum 

    E-print Network

    Fontaine, Lance Pierre

    2008-10-10

    . I performed indoor-tank and outdoor-pond experiments, in conjunction with automa ted respirometry and ecophysiological modeling, to assess interacting effects of temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration (DO) and feed energy density on survival...

  1. Measurement of Relative Dissolved Gas Concentrations Using Underwater Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Bell; S. Toler; F. H. van Amerom; P. Wenner; M. Hall; J. Edkins; S. Gassig; R. Short; R. Byrne

    2004-01-01

    The deployment of underwater mass spectrometer (UMS) systems in marine and lacustrine environments has provided chemical data of exceptional temporal and spatial resolution. UMS instruments operate moored, tethered, remotely, or autonomously, allowing users to customize deployments to suit a wide variety of situations. The ability to collect and analyze real-time data enables prompt, intelligent sampling decisions based on observed analyte

  2. Determination of dissolved aluminum in water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afifi, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique has been modified for determination of a wide range of concentrations of dissolved aluminum (Al) in water and has been tested. In this technique, aluminum is complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline at pH 8.3 to minimize interferences, then extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The extract is analyzed colorimetrically at 395 nm. This technique is used to analyze two forms of monomeric Al, nonlabile (organic complexes) and labile (free, Al, Al sulfate, fluoride and hydroxide complexes). A detection limit 2 ug/L is possible with 25-ml samples and 10-ml extracts. The detection limit can be decreased by increasing the volume of the sample and (or) decreasing the volume of the methyl isobutyl ketone extract. The analytical uncertainty of this method is approximately + or - 5 percent. The standard addition technique provides a recovery test for this technique and ensures precision in samples of low Al concentrations. The average percentage recovery of the added Al plus the amount originally present was 99 percent. Data obtained from analyses of filtered standard solutions indicated that Al is adsorbed on various types of filters. However, the relationship between Al concentrations and adsorption remains linear. A test on standard solutions also indicated that Al is not adsorbed on nitric acid-washed polyethylene and polypropylene bottle wells. (USGS)

  3. A study of trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria at NASQAN stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Most stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network show no significant trend in either dissolved oxygen concentration or fecal coliform bacteria population for the period October 1974. through October 1981. Of the stations which do show trends, however, most show improved water quality: thirty-one of a total of 276 stations show rising dissolved oxygen concentrations, while only 17 show decreasing concentrations. Decreases in fecal coliform populations have occurred at 21 stations while increases have occurred at only 12 stations. Approximately half of the stations showing improving trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria are in the Missouri-Mississippi-Ohio River system. Decreases in dissolved oxygen have occurred at scattered locations in the Western and South-Central States. Rising bacterial populations occur most frequently in the Eastern and Central States Trends in dissolved oxygen concentration resulting from temperature changes occurring during the study period can be separated from trends caused by chemical or biological processes by analyzing computed values of dissolved oxygen deficit. About half of the observed trends in dissolved oxygen appear to be the result of changes in water temperature.

  4. View of a stone age adze cutting tool floating freely in the flight deck.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View of a stone age adze cutting tool floating freely in the forward flight deck and framed by the forward and side windows. On the Earth below, the big island of Hawaii can be seen through the window.

  5. available freely to all at bigbangonline.org! new online suite of cosmology codes!

    E-print Network

    available freely to all at bigbangonline.org! new online suite of cosmology codes! Michael Smith in cosmology to explore the details of big bang element synthesis for themselves Community Building - file

  6. Biologist (2002) 49 (6) 1 Imagine yourself swimming freely near the seabed, explor-

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    2002-01-01

    Biologist (2002) 49 (6) 1 Imagine yourself swimming freely near the seabed, explor- ing the coral the octopus has completely lost. The octopus is a solitary predator that usually dwells near the seabed

  7. Effect of rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/microfibrillated cellulose blend suspensions on film forming.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Eve; Rissanen, Marja; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-03-30

    Enzymatically treated cellulose was dissolved in a NaOH/ZnO solvent system and mixed together with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in order to find the threshold in which MFC fibers form a percolation network within the dissolved cellulose solution and in order to improve the properties of regenerated cellulose films. In the aqueous state, correlations between the rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions and MFC fiber concentrations were investigated and rationalized. In addition, rheological properties of diluted MFC suspensions were characterized and a correlation with NaOH concentration was found, thus partly explaining the flow properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions. Finally, based on results from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), MFC addition had strengthening/plasticizing effect on regenerated cellulose films if low concentrations of MFC, below the percolation threshold (5.5-6 wt%, corresponding to 0.16-0.18 wt% of MFC in the blend suspensions), were used. PMID:25563945

  8. Azomethine H colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.R.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An automated colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water is described. The boron is complexed with azomethine H, which is readily available as the condensation product of H acid (8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid) and salicylaldehyde. The absorbance of the yellow complex formed is then measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. Interference effects from other dissolved species are minimized by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); however, iron, zinc, and bicarbonate interfere at concentrations above 400 ??g/L, 2000 ??g/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. The bicarbonate interference can be eliminated by careful acidification of the sample with concentrated HCl to a pH between 5 and 6. Thirty samples per hour can be routinely analyzed over the range of from 10 to 400 ??g/L, boron.

  9. Freely-migrating defects: Their production and interaction with cascade remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Wiedersich, H.

    1991-05-01

    Many microstructural changes that occur during irradiation are driven primarily by freely-migrating defects, i.e. those defects which escape from nascent cascades to migrate over distances that are large relative to typical cascade dimensions. Several measurements during irradiation at elevated temperatures have shown that the survival rate of freely-migrating defects decreases much more strongly with increasing primary recoil energy than does the survival rate for defects generated at liquid helium temperatures. For typical fission or fusion recoil spectra, and for heavy-ion bombardment, the fraction of defects that migrate long-distances is apparently only {approximately}1% of the calculated dpa. This small surviving fraction of freely-migrating defects results at least partially from additional intracascade recombination at elevated temperatures. However, cascade remnants, e.g., vacancy and interstitial clusters, also contribute by enhancing intercascade defect annihilation. A recently developed rate-theory approach is used to discuss the relative importance of intra- and intercascade recombination to the survival rate of freely-migrating defects. Within the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, the additional sink density provided by defect clusters produced directly within individual cascades can explain the difference between a defect survival rate of about 30% for low dose, low temperature irradiations with heavy ions, and a survival rate of only {approximately}1% for freely-migrating defects at elevated temperatures. The status of our current understanding of freely-migrating defects, including remaining unanswered questions, is also discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  10. The measurement of dissolved organic and particulate carbon in seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID W. MENZEL; RALPH F. VACCARO

    1964-01-01

    A method is dcscribcd for the rapid dctcrmination of dissolved organic carbon in seawater in concentrations bctwcen 0.1 and 20 mg\\/liter. The oxidation is carried out in sealed glass ampoules using K&Lox as an oxidizing agent after the sample has been freed of inorganic carbon. The resulting CO2 is passed through a nondispcrsive infrared analyzer using nitro- gen as a

  11. The behavior of dissolved inorganic selenium in the Bohai Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Zheng Yao; Jing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Two cruises of “R\\/V Dong Fang Hong 2” were carried out in September 1998 and May 1999, respectively, to understand the behavior of selenium in the Bohai Sea. Selenium species (dissolved inorganic selenium, selenite) are determined by HG-AFS for 30 grid stations. Selenium concentrations display short-term variability and seasonal change in the Bohai Sea, with higher levels in shallow coastal

  12. Benthic bacterial biomass supported by streamwater dissolved organic matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Bott; Louis A. Kaplan; Frank T. Kuserk

    1984-01-01

    Bacterial biomass in surface sediments of a headwater stream was measured as a function of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux and temperature. Bacterial biomass was estimated using epifluorescence microscopic counts (EMC) and ATP determinations during exposure to streamwater containing 1,788?g DOC\\/liter and after transfer to groundwater containing 693?g DOC\\/liter. Numbers of bacteria and ATP concentrations averaged 1.36×109 cells and 1,064

  13. Seasonal variability of total dissolved fluxes and origin of major dissolved elements within a large tropical river: The Orinoco, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, Alain; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Alkattan, Rana; Steiger, Johannes; Mora, Abrahan; Adèle, Georges; Castellanos, Bartolo; Lagane, Christèle; Lopez, José Luis; Perez, Jesus; Rodriguez, Militza; Rosales, Judith

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal variations of total dissolved fluxes of the lower Orinoco River were calculated taking into account four complete hydrological cycles during a five-year period (2005-2010). The modern concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Orinoco surface waters were compared with data collected during the second half of the last century published in the literature. This comparison leads to the conclusion that chemical composition did not evolve significantly at least over the last thirty to forty years. Surface waters of the Orinoco at Ciudad Bolivar are between bicarbonated calcic and bicarbonated mixed. In comparison to mean values of concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of world river surface waters (89.2 mg l-1), the Orinoco River at Ciudad Bolivar presents mainly low mineralized surface waters (2005-10: TDS 30 mg l-1). The TDS fluxes passing at this station in direction to the Atlantic Ocean between 2005 and 2010 were estimated at 30 × 106 t yr-1, i.e. 36 t km-2 yr-1. It was observed that the seasonal variations (dry season vs wet season) of total dissolved fluxes (TDS and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) are mainly controlled by discharge variations. Two groups of elements have been defined from dilution curves and molar ratio diagrams. Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl- and Na+ mainly come from the same geographic and lithologic area, the Andes. K+ and SiO2 essentially come from the Llanos and the Guayana Shield. These findings are important for understanding fundamental geochemical processes within the Orinoco River basin, but also as a baseline study in the perspective of the development of numerous mining activities related with aluminum and steel industries; and the plans of the Venezuelan government to construct new fluvial ports on the lower Orinoco for the transport of hydrocarbons.

  14. Dependence of riverine nitrous oxide emissions on dissolved oxygen levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosamond, Madeline S.; Thuss, Simon J.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2012-10-01

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas, and it destroys stratospheric ozone. Seventeen per cent of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions come from the production of nitrous oxide in streams, rivers and estuaries, in turn a result of inorganic nitrogen input through leaching, runoff and sewage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and global nitrous oxide budgets assume that riverine nitrous oxide emissions increase linearly with dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, but data are sparse and conflicting. Here we report measurements over two years of nitrous oxide emissions in the Grand River, Canada, a seventh-order temperate river that is affected by agricultural runoff and outflow from a waste-water treatment plant. Emissions were disproportionately high in urban areas and during nocturnal summer periods. Moreover, annual emission estimates that are based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads overestimated the measured emissions in a wet year and underestimated them in a dry year. We found no correlations of nitrous oxide emissions with nitrate or dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but detected negative correlations with dissolved oxygen, suggesting that nitrate concentrations did not limit emissions. We conclude that future increases in nitrate export to rivers will not necessarily lead to higher nitrous oxide emissions, but more widespread hypoxia most likely will.

  15. Instrumentation for fast-scan cyclic voltammetry combined with electrophysiology for behavioral experiments in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takmakov, Pavel; McKinney, Collin J.; Carelli, Regina M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2011-07-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry is a unique technique for sampling dopamine concentration in the brain of rodents in vivo in real time. The combination of in vivo voltammetry with single-unit electrophysiological recording from the same microelectrode has proved to be useful in studying the relationship between animal behavior, dopamine release and unit activity. The instrumentation for these experiments described here has two unique features. First, a 2-electrode arrangement implemented for voltammetric measurements with the grounded reference electrode allows compatibility with electrophysiological measurements, iontophoresis, and multielectrode measurements. Second, we use miniaturized electronic components in the design of a small headstage that can be fixed on the rat's head and used in freely moving animals.

  16. Greenhouse gases dissolved in soil solution - often ignored, but important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymann, Daniel; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Puetz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Flux measurements of climate-relevant trace gases from soils are frequently undertaken in contemporary ecosystem studies and substantially contribute to our understanding of greenhouse gas balances of the biosphere. While the great majority of such investigations builds on closed chamber and eddy covariance measurements, where upward gas fluxes to the atmosphere are measured, fewest concurrently consider greenhouse gas dissolution in the seepage and leaching of dissolved gases via the vadose zone to the groundwater. Here we present annual leaching losses of dissolved N2O and CO2 from arable, grassland, and forest lysimeter soils from three sites differing in altitude and climate. We aim to assess their importance in comparison to direct N2O emission, soil respiration, and further leaching parameters of the C- and N cycle. The lysimeters are part of the Germany-wide lysimeter network initiative TERENO-SoilCan, which investigates feedbacks of climate change to the pedosphere on a long-term scale. Soil water samples were collected weekly from different depths of the profiles by means of suction cups. A laboratory pre-experiment proved that no degassing occurred under those sampling conditions. We applied the headspace equilibration technique to determine dissolved gas concentrations by gas chromatography. The seepage water of all lysimeters was consistently supersaturated with N2O and CO2 compared to water equilibrated ambient air. In terms of N2O, leaching losses increased in the ascending order forest, grassland, and arable soils, respectively. In case of the latter soils, we observed a strong variability of N2O, with dissolved concentrations up to 23 ?g N L-1. However, since seepage discharge of the arable lysimeters was comparatively small and mostly limited to the hydrological winter season, leached N2O appeared to be less important than direct N2O emissions. In terms of dissolved CO2,our measurements revealed considerable leaching losses from the mountainous forest and grassland soils, based on concentrations up to 24 mg C L-1 and high seepage discharge. Such losses turned out to be similarly important like soil respiration, particularly during winter when temperature-dependent soil respiration declined. In conclusion, the results of the first year of our measurements provide evidence that dissolved greenhouse gases should be considered in studies which aim to assess full greenhouse gas balances, particularly in ecosystems where hydrological conditions favour microbial activity and high leaching losses.

  17. Toxicity of dissolved ozone to fish eggs and larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Asbury, C.; Coler, R.

    1980-07-01

    To find levels of dissolved residual ozone lethal to fish eggs and larvae during brief exposures, continuous-flow toxicity tests were performed with eggs and larvae of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), eggs of white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), and larvae of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The 50 and 99% lethal concentrations with confidence limits were calculated. Eggs of the species tested were more tolerant than larvae, which were destroyed by very brief exposures (less than 2 minutes) to residuals less than 0.1 mg/1. Because of the sensitivity of the larvae, residual ozone concentrations in natural waters should remain well below 50 ..mu..g/1.

  18. A Wearable Multi-Channel fNIRS System for Brain Imaging in Freely Moving Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Krueger, Arne; Koch, Stefan P.; Mehnert, Jan; Habermehl, Christina; Steinbrink, Jens; Obrig, Hellmuth; Schmitz, Christoph H.

    2013-01-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a versatile neuroimaging tool with an increasing acceptance in the neuroimaging community. While often lauded for its portability, most of the fNIRS setups employed in neuroscientific research still impose usage in a laboratory environment. We present a wearable, multi-channel fNIRS imaging system for functional brain imaging in unrestrained settings. The system operates without optical fiber bundles, using eight dual wavelength light emitting diodes and eight electro-optical sensors, which can be placed freely on the subject's head for direct illumination and detection. Its performance is tested on N = 8 subjects in a motor execution paradigm performed under three different exercising conditions: (i) during outdoor bicycle riding, (ii) while pedaling on a stationary training bicycle, and (iii) sitting still on the training bicycle. Following left hand gripping, we observe a significant decrease in the deoxyhemoglobin concentration over the contralateral motor cortex in all three conditions. A significant task-related ?HbO2 increase was seen for the non-pedaling condition. Although the gross movements involved in pedaling and steering a bike induced more motion artifacts than carrying out the same task while sitting still, we found no significant differences in the shape or amplitude of the HbR time courses for outdoor or indoor cycling and sitting still. We demonstrate the general feasibility of using wearable multi-channel NIRS during strenuous exercise in natural, unrestrained settings and discuss the origins and effects of data artifacts. We provide quantitative guidelines for taking condition-dependent signal quality into account to allow the comparison of data across various levels of physical exercise. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of functional NIRS brain imaging during an outdoor activity in a real life situation in humans. PMID:23810973

  19. Seasonal and interannual variability of dissolved oxygen around the Balearic Islands from hydrographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbín, R.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Aparicio-González, A.; Serra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Oceanographic data obtained between 2001 and 2011 by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO, Spain) have been used to characterise the spatial distribution and the temporal variability of the dissolved oxygen around the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea). The study area includes most of the Western Mediterranean Sea, from the Alboran Sea to Cape Creus, at the border between France and Spain. Dissolved oxygen (DO) at the water surface is found to be in a state of equilibrium exchange with the atmosphere. In the spring and summer a subsurface oxygen supersaturation is observed due to the biological activity, above the subsurface fluorescence maximum. Minimum observed values of dissolved oxygen are related to the Levantine Intermediate Waters (LIW). An unusual minimum of dissolved oxygen concentrations was also recorded in the Alboran Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone. The Western Mediterranean Deep Waters (WMDW) and the Western Intermediate Waters (WIW) show higher values of dissolved oxygen than the Levantine Intermediate Waters due to their more recent formation. Using these dissolved oxygen concentrations it is possible to show that the Western Intermediate Waters move southwards across the Ibiza Channel and the deep water circulates around the Balearic Islands. It has also been possible to characterise the seasonal evolution of the different water masses and their dissolved oxygen content in a station in the Algerian sub-basin.

  20. Evaluation of sampling strategies to characterize dissolved oxygen conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Engle, V.D.

    1993-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen was continuously monitored in eight sites of northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries in August, 1990. Monte Carlo analyses on subsamples of the data were used to evaluate several commonly used monitoring strategies. Monitoring strategies which involve single point sampling of dissolved oxygen may often misclassify an estuary as having good water quality. In the case of shallow, often well-mixed estuaries that experience diurnal cycles, such monitoring often does not occur at night, during the time of lowest dissolved oxygen concentration. The authors' objective was to determine the minimum sampling effort required to correctly classify a site in terms of the observed frequency of hypoxia. Tests concluded that the most successful classification strategy used the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration from a continuously sampled 24-hour period. (Copyright (c) 199e Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  1. Characterization of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of Agricultural Lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 90 to 289 tons per day with a mean of 142 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 51,900 tons. Of this 51,900 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley. The variation of 87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the 87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the 87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos Shale. The boron concentration and 11B value for the water sample from Antelope Wash, being distinctly different from water samples from other sites, is evidence that water in Antelope Wash may contain a substantial component of regional ground-water flow.

  2. Colloidal and dissolved phosphorus in sandy soils as affected by phosphorus saturation.

    PubMed

    Ilg, Katrin; Siemens, Jan; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Fertilization exceeding crop requirements causes an accumulation of phosphorus (P) in soils, which might increase concentrations of dissolved and colloidal P in drainage. We sampled soils classified as Typic Haplorthods from four fertilization experiments to test (i) whether increasing degrees of phosphorus saturation (DPS) increase concentrations of dissolved and colloidal P, and (ii) if critical DPS levels can be defined for P release from these soils. Oxalate-extractable concentrations of P, iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al) were quantified to characterize DPS. Turbidity, zeta potential, dissolved P, and colloidal P, Fe, Al, and carbon (C) concentrations were determined in water and KCl extracts. While concentrations of dissolved P decreased with increasing depth, concentrations of water-extractable colloidal P remained constant. In topsoils 28 +/- 17% and in subsoils 94 +/- 8% of water-extractable P was bound to colloids. Concentrations of dissolved P increased sharply for DPS > 0.1. Colloidal P concentrations increased with increasing DPS because of an additional mobilization of colloids and due to an increase of the colloids P contents. In addition to DPS, ionic strength and Ca(2+) affected the release of colloidal P. Hence, using KCl for extraction improved the relationship between DPS and colloidal P compared with water extraction. Accumulation of P in soils increases not only concentrations of dissolved P but also the risk of colloidal P mobilization. Leaching of colloidal P is potentially important for inputs of P into water bodies because colloidal P as the dominant water-extractable P fraction in subsoils was released from soils with relatively low DPS. PMID:15843656

  3. The Development Of A New Mininature Thin Film Dissolved Oxygen And Ionic Conductivity Sensor And Measurement System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Guang; Chen Yuquan; Wu Xianping; Lu Weixue

    1991-01-01

    The electrochemical dissolved oxygen sensor has been a powerful tool in medical, biological, environmental and clinic settings [1][2]. Obviously, only the sensor is properly designed can it be expected to have a good performance. In addition, the solution of oxygen in water decreases with increasing salt concentration at a constant temperature at the salting-out effect [3]. For accurate dissolved oxygen

  4. Spatiotemporal drivers of dissolved organic matter in high alpine lakes: Role of Saharan dust inputs and bacterial activity

    E-print Network

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    Spatiotemporal drivers of dissolved organic matter in high alpine lakes: Role of Saharan dust drivers of dissolved organic matter in high alpine lakes: Role of Saharan dust inputs and bacterial concentrations in alpine lakes were highly correlated with proportion of wetlands in the catchment, followed

  5. Characterizing Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) Isolated From Specific Allochthonous and Autochthonous Sources in a North-Temperate Stream Ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Wong; D. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Detrital energy in temperate headwater streams is mainly derived from the annual input of leaf litter from the surrounding landscape. Presumably, its decomposition and other sources of autochthonous organic matter will change dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality. To investigate this, DOM was leached from two allochthonous sources: white birch (Betula papyrifera) and white cedar

  6. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

  7. Dissolved Oxygen Data for Coos Estuary (Oregon)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is the transmittal of dissolved oxygen data collected in the Coos Estuary, Oregon to Ms. Molly O'Neill (University of Oregon), for use in her studies on the factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved oxygen in this estuary. These d...

  8. Potentiometric dissolved oxygen sensors with reference electrode integrated in thick film technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Martinez-Manez; J. Soto Camino; E. Garcia-Breijo; L. Gil Sanchez; J. Ibanez Civera; E. Gadea Morant

    2005-01-01

    New designed dissolved oxygen potentiometric sensors in thick film technology based in the use of RuO 2 as active material and TiO 2 or polyisoftalamide diphenylsulphone (PIDS) as membranes have been developed. TiO 2-coated RuO 2 electrodes showed a linear response as a function of the logarithm of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the 0.5-8 ppm range. The electrode displays

  9. Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Loloee; Per A. Askeland; Ruby N. Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration is considered the most important water quality variable in fish culture. Reliable and continuous (24\\/7) oxygen monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the 1-11 mg\\/L range would be of great benefit to the aquaculture industry. We briefly review selected DO sensors from both the Clark and optical sensor categories as well a comparing their differences, both advantages

  10. Influence of bio-attapulgite on dissolved organic matters (DOM) removal in dynamic membrane reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wensong Duan; Dafang Fu; Xiaoguang Xu; Cheng Li; Yawen Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) fouling is influenced not only by the concentration of dissolved organic matters (DOM) but by their characteristics. This paper examined the effect of bio-attapulgite on DOM removal mechanisms in a dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR). Results indicated the dissolved organic matters (DOM) in the attapulgite-added DMBR system decomposed obviously faster than in the DMBR system. Hence, the attapulgite-added

  11. Diel flux of dissolved carbohydrate in a salt marsh and a simulated estuarine ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Burney; K. M. Johnson; J. Mc N. Sieburth

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved carbohydrate (TCHO), monosaccharide (MCHO) and polysaccharide (PCHO) were followed over a total of ten diel cycles in a salt marsh and a 13 m3 seawater tank simulating an estuarine ecosystem. Their patterns are compared to those for total dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SCO2, pH, O2, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments and solar radiation. During 5 of the

  12. Dissolved and particulate-adsorbed hydrocarbons in the waters of shatt al-Arab River, Iraq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan M. Bedair; Hamid T. Al-Saad

    1992-01-01

    N-alkanes were measured both in dissolved and particulate-adsorbed phases of water samples collected from five stations located along Shatt al-Arab River in Iraq. The aim of this study was to provide a background information on the presence, origin, and distribution of n-alkanes in the waters of Shatt al-Arab River. Total concentrations of n-alkanes were lower in the dissolved phase (29.37

  13. Determination of Dissolved Total Sulfur in Aqueous Extracts and Seepage Water of Forest Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Prietzel; H. Cronauer; C. Strehl

    1996-01-01

    Four methods for determining the concentration of dissolved total sulfur (DTS) in aqueous extracts and seepage water of forest soils characterized by elevated amounts of dissolved organic matter are compared using various standards and aqueous extracts: (i) oxidation with NaBrO followed by HI reduction and methylene blue reaction, (ii) direct determination by ICP-OES, analysis by (iii) ICP-OES or (iv) ion

  14. Summary of Tests to Determine Effectiveness of Gelatin Strike on SS{ampersand}C Dissolver Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Karraker, D.G.

    1998-05-01

    The solutions from the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS&C) material are sufficiently different from previous solutions processed via the F-Canyon Purex process that the effectiveness of individual process steps needed to be ascertained. In this study, the effectiveness of gelatin strike was tested under a variety of conditions. Specifically, several concentrations of silica, fluoride, nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) were studied. The disengagement times of surrogate and plant SS&C dissolver solutions from plant solvent also were measured. The results of the tests indicate that gelatin strike does not coagulate the silica at the low concentration of silica ({tilde 30} ppm) expected in the SS&C dissolver solutions because the silicon is complexed with fluoride ions (e.g., SiF{sub 6}{sup -2}). The silicon fluoride complex is expected to remain with the aqueous phase during solvent extraction. The disengagement times of the dissolver solutions from the plant solvent were not affected by the presence of low concentrations of silica and no third phase formation was observed in the disengagement phase with the low silica concentrations. Tests of surrogate SS&C dissolver solutions with higher concentration of silica (less than 150 ppm) did show that gelatin strike followed by centrifugation resulted in good phase disengagement of the surrogate SS{ampersand}C dissolver solution from the plant dissolver solution. At the higher silica concentrations, there is not sufficient fluoride to complex with the silica, and the silica must be entrained by the gelatin and removed from the dissolver solution prior to solvent extraction.

  15. Biocidal Efficacy of Dissolved Ozone, Formaldehyde and Sodium Hypochlorite Against Total Planktonic Microorganisms in Produced Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puyate, Y. T.; Rim-Rukeh, A.

    The performance of three biocides (dissolved ozone, formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite) in eliminating the bacteria and fungi in produced water is investigated experimentally. The analysis involves monitoring the microbial population in nine conical flasks each containing the same volume of a mixture of produced water, culture medium that sustains the growth of microorganisms and a known concentration of biocide. The concentrations of each biocide used in the study are 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. It is shown that dissolved ozone exhibits the best biocidal characteristics and a concentration of 0.5 ppm eliminated all the microorganisms in the produced water after 150 min contact time.

  16. Dissolved air flotation and me.

    PubMed

    Edzwald, James K

    2010-04-01

    This paper is mainly a critical review of the literature and an assessment of what we know about dissolved air flotation (DAF). A few remarks are made at the outset about the author's personal journey in DAF research, his start and its progression. DAF has been used for several decades in drinking water treatment as an alternative clarification method to sedimentation. DAF is particularly effective in treating reservoir water supplies; those supplies containing algae, natural color or natural organic matter; and those with low mineral turbidity. It is more efficient than sedimentation in removing turbidity and particles for these type supplies. Furthermore, it is more efficient in removing Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. In the last 20 years, fundamental models were developed that provide a basis for understanding the process, optimizing it, and integrating it into water treatment plants. The theories were tested through laboratory and pilot-plant studies. Consequently, there have been trends in which DAF pretreatment has been optimized resulting in better coagulation and a decrease in the size of flocculation tanks. In addition, the hydraulic loading rates have increased reducing the size of DAF processes. While DAF has been used mainly in conventional type water plants, there is now interest in the technology as a pretreatment step in ultrafiltration membrane plants and in desalination reverse osmosis plants. PMID:20096437

  17. Pathways and transformations of dissolved methane and dissolved inorganic carbon in Arctic tundra soils: Evidence from analysis of stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Perkins, G.; Muss, J. D.; Smith, L. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Torn, M. S.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic soils contain a large pool of terrestrial C and are of great interest because of their potential for releasing significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Few attempts have been made, however, to derive quantitative budgets of CO2 and CH4 budgets for high-latitude ecosystems. Therefore, this study used naturally occurring geochemical and isotopic tracers to estimate production pathways and transformations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC = ? (total) dissolved CO2) and dissolved CH4 in soil pore waters from 17 locations (drainages) in Barrow, Alaska (USA) in July and September, 2013; and to approximate a complete balance of belowground C cycling at our sampling locations. Results suggest that CH4 was primarily derived from biogenic acetate fermentation, with a shift at 4 locations from July to September towards CO2 reduction as the dominant methanogenic pathway. A large majority of CH4 produced at the frost table methane was transferred directly to the atmosphere via plant roots and ebullition (94.0 ± 1.4% and 96.6 ± 5.0% in July and September). A considerable fraction of the remaining CH4 was oxidized to CO2 during upward diffusion in July and September, respectively. Methane oxidization produced <1% of CO2 relative to alternative production mechanisms in deep subsurface pore waters. The majority of subsurface CO2 was produced from anaerobic respiration, likely due to reduction of Fe oxides and humics (52 ± 6 to 100 ± 13%, on average) while CO2 produced from methanogenesis accounted for the remainder (0 ± 13% to 47 ± 6%, on average) for July and September, respectively. Dissolved CH4 and dissolved CO2 concentrations correlated with thaw depth, suggesting that Arctic ecosystems will likely produce and release a greater amount of greenhouse gasses under projected warming and deepening of active layer thaw depth under future climate change scenarios.

  18. Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

    2014-04-01

    The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other tropical and major world rivers, the effect of organic complexation on metal variability is negligible in the Nethravati River water. PMID:24374620

  19. UV-SENSITIVE COMPLEX PHOSPHORUS: ASSOCIATION WITH DISSOLVED HUMIC MATERIALS AND IRON IN A BOG LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of UV-sensitive complex phosphorus compounds in water from an acid bog lake was linearly related to the concentration of dissolved high molecular weight humic material (DHM) both seasonally and diurnally. The first-order rate of photoreduction (Fe(+3) to Fe(+2) ...

  20. Dissolved organic carbon trends resulting from changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald T. Monteith; John L. Stoddard; Christopher D. Evans; Heleen A. de Wit; Martin Forsius; Tore Høgåsen; Anders Wilander; Brit Lisa Skjelkvåle; Dean S. Jeffries; Jussi Vuorenmaa; Bill Keller; Jiri Kopácek; Josef Vesely

    2007-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain recent, widespread increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the surface waters of glaciated landscapes across eastern North America and northern and central Europe. Some invoke anthropogenic forcing through mechanisms related to climate change, nitrogen deposition or changes in land use, and by implication suggest that current concentrations and fluxes are

  1. Photochemical alkene formation in seawater from dissolved organic carbon: Results from laboratory experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ratte; O. Bujok; A. Spitzy; J. Rudolph

    1998-01-01

    The production mechanism of light alkenes, alkanes, and isoprene was investigated in laboratory experiments by measuring their concentrations in natural seawater as a function of spectral range, exposure time and origin, and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The production mechanism of alkanes and of isoprene could not be clarified. Ethene and propene are produced photochemically from DOC. The relevant

  2. Influence of dissolved oxygen on the nitrification kinetics in a circulating bed biofilm reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nogueira; V. Lazarova; J. Manem; L. F. Melo

    1998-01-01

    The influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the nitrification kinetics was studied in the circulating bed reactor (CBR). The study was partly performed at laboratory scale with synthetic water, and partly at pilot scale with secondary effluent as feed water. The nitrification kinetics of the laboratory CBR as a function of the oxygen concentration can be described according to the

  3. Total dissolved nitrogen analysis: comparisons between the persulfate, UV and high temperature oxidation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Bronk; Michael W. Lomas; Patricia M. Glibert; Karyn J. Schukert; Marta P. Sanderson

    2000-01-01

    We compared the persulfate (PO), ultraviolet (UV), and high temperature oxidation (HTO) methods used to analyze total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentrations in aquatic samples to determine whether the three methods differed in terms of standard parameters (blanks, limits of detection and linearity, and precision) or in oxidation efficiency of standard compounds and field samples of varying salinity. The TDN concentrations

  4. Laser speckle contrast imaging of cerebral blood flow in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Miao, Peng; Lu, Hongyang; Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-09-01

    We designed a miniature laser speckle imager that weighs ?20 g and is 3.1-cm high for full-field high-resolution imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in freely moving animals. Coherent laser light illuminates the cortex through a multimode optical fiber bundle fixed onto the supporting frame of the imager. The reflected lights are then collected by a miniature macrolens system and imaged by a high-resolution CMOS camera at a high frame rate (50 fps). Using this miniature imager, we achieve high spatiotemporal resolution laser speckle contrast imaging of CBF in freely moving animals in real time. PMID:21950906

  5. Laser speckle contrast imaging of cerebral blood flow in freely moving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Peng; Lu, Hongyang; Liu, Qi; Li, Yao; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-09-01

    We designed a miniature laser speckle imager that weighs ~20 g and is 3.1-cm high for full-field high-resolution imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in freely moving animals. Coherent laser light illuminates the cortex through a multimode optical fiber bundle fixed onto the supporting frame of the imager. The reflected lights are then collected by a miniature macrolens system and imaged by a high-resolution CMOS camera at a high frame rate (50 fps). Using this miniature imager, we achieve high spatiotemporal resolution laser speckle contrast imaging of CBF in freely moving animals in real time.

  6. Variability in dissolved oxygen off Eastern Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Diego-McGlone, M.; Escobar, M.; Jacinto, G.; Villanoy, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern coast and shelf of Luzon is a unique area encompassed by the bifurcation of the western boundary North Equatorial Current (NEC) into the Kuroshio and Mindanao Currents. This region is also productive and has become a rich fishing ground. Of interest is how biogeochemistry in this area is influenced by variability in the bifurcation driven by ENSO events, as well as by production and remineralization processes. Results from 2011 and 2012 oceanographic cruises show changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) off Eastern Luzon in both spatial and temporal scales. Between 2011 and 2012, there was a southern shift of the bifurcation latitude. Water masses from the NEC and the Kuroshio Recirculation Gyre (KRG) east of Luzon have inherent low and higher DO concentrations, respectively. A subsurface oxygen minimum layer was seen at 150-200m. Waters with this low dissolved oxygen signature comes from a 400m-deep sill basin (Lamon Deep) off Eastern Luzon. Apart from low ventilation rates, organic matter decomposition contributes to depletion of DO. Proximity of the basin to the coast is evident in the high particulate organic carbon concentration that is delivered from land through run-off and the nearby river. The low DO water is advected offshore and contributes to the spatial variability of DO in the area. Linear regression of particulate organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nutrients with AOU strongly correlate organic matter remineralization to the change in DO with depth. The variability in DO off Eastern Luzon is analyzed with the large-scale variability offshore of source waters to determine the relative influence of biogeochemical cycling in the area.

  7. Chemical and Isotopic Characterization of Rainwater Dissolved Organic Carbon and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, G. B.; Kieber, R. J.; Willey, J. D.; Seaton, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a ubiquitous, integral component of atmospheric waters which comprises a significant fraction of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in the condensed phase. The presence of significant quantities of highly chromophoric DOM in atmospheric waters has profound ramifications with respect to a wide variety of fundamental processes in atmospheric chemistry because of its impact on solar radiative transfer and its involvement in the oxidizing and acid generating capacity of the troposphere. Initial isotopic characterization (13C, 14C, 15N) of CDOM will be presented which provides information on origin as well as transport and cycling of CDOM though the atmosphere. We have determined 4-24 percent of DOC is of fossil fuel origin and that rain DOC can be terrestrial, marine or a combination of the two depending on air mass back trajectory. The C:N ratio as well as nuclear magnetic resonance 1H-NMR spectra of extracted CDOM from terrestrial and marine origin indicate a relatively continuous and broad distribution of signals, suggesting the presence of complex mixtures of compounds. The DOC concentration of rainwater has decreased approximately 50 percent since 1995. 13C and 14C signatures of rain DOC indicates that in 1997-1998 up to 24 percent of Wilmington rainwater DOC was from fossil fuel origin. Comparison of fossil fuel contributions of CDOM and DOC will help determine what fraction of the loss of rainwater DOC results from changing fossil fuel inputs and what role if any CDOM plays in these changes.

  8. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22/sup 0/C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90/sup 0/C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22/sup 0/C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  9. The activity pattern of limb muscles in freely moving normal and deafferented newts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gy. Székely; G. Czéh; Gy. Vöeös

    1969-01-01

    Bipolar silver electrodes were implanted into eight forelimb muscles of normal and deafferented newts. In freely moving animals muscle potentials were recorded with the aid of a Hellige EEG apparatus combined with a set of transistorized preamplifiers of high input impedance. The steps, as the animals lifted up and put down the limb, were electrically signalled. The myograms revealed a

  10. Freely Available Large-scale Video Quality Assessment Database in Full-HD Resolution with

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Freely Available Large-scale Video Quality Assessment Database in Full-HD Resolution with H.264 quality, video coding impairments I. INTRODUCTION Video databases often focus on a particular use case degradations [2], [3]. There are also other video quality assessment databases, like the EPFL-PoliMI [4], [5

  11. Wireless Neural\\/EMG Telemetry Systems for Small Freely Moving Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reid R. Harrison; Haleh Fotowat; Raymond Chan; Ryan J. Kier; Robert Olberg; Anthony Leonardo; Fabrizio Gabbiani

    2011-01-01

    We have developed miniature telemetry systems that capture neural, EMG, and acceleration signals from a freely moving insect or other small animal and transmit the data wire- lessly to a remote digital receiver. The systems are based on custom low-power integrated circuits (ICs) that amplify, filter, and digitize four biopotential signals using low-noise circuits. One of the chips also digitizes

  12. Light Scattering and Statistical Shape of Streaming Freely Flexible Linear Macromolecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Peterlin; Wilfried Heller; Masayuki Nakagaki

    1958-01-01

    The angular distribution of the light scattered from an unpolarized beam by a solution of random coils subjected to shear is calculated. The molecular model considered is a freely draining coil and the light scattering is treated according to Debye. The theory shows that the probability distribution of the segments at finite shear has the symmetry of an ellipsoid whose

  13. Visual motion sensing onboard a 50-g helicopter flying freely under complex VICON-lighting conditions

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Visual motion sensing onboard a 50-g helicopter flying freely under complex VICON was mounted on a free-flying 50-gram helicopter called TwinCoax. This small helicopter model equipped with 3 flow measured onboard matched the ground-truth optic flow generated by the free-flying helicopter

  14. Does single cortical spreading depression elicit pain behaviour in freely moving rats?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didem Akcali; Aslihan Sayin; Yildirim Sara; Hayrunnisa Bolay

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioural animal studies are critical, particularly to translate results to human beings. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the effects of CSD on the behaviour of freely moving rats, since available CSD models do not include awake animals.Materials and methods: We developed a new model to induce single CSD by applying

  15. Chronic, Wireless Recordings of Large Scale Brain Activity in Freely Moving Rhesus

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Chronic, Wireless Recordings of Large Scale Brain Activity in Freely Moving Rhesus Monkeys David A integration of signals (LFP, waveform, EMG) recorded from either Plexon or spikes from our wireless system Methods: doi:10.1038/nmeth.2936 #12;Supplementary Figure 7 | Wireless block diagram Each panel shows

  16. Molecular weight dependence of reductions in the glass transition temperature of thin, freely standing polymer films

    E-print Network

    Dutcher, John

    , and thin films 10 . The first systematic studies of the glass transition in confined geometries involvedMolecular weight dependence of reductions in the glass transition temperature of thin, freely standing polymer films K. Dalnoki-Veress,1,2 J. A. Forrest,3 C. Murray,1 C. Gigault,1 and J. R. Dutcher1 1

  17. Three-dimensional fluorescence as a tool for investigating the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Lake Biwa watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khan M. G. Mostofa; Takahito Yoshioka; Eiichi Konohira; Eiichiro Tanoue; Kazuhide Hayakawa; Mikio Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative characterizations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were carried out at the watershed level in central Japan by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and the three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix (3-D EEM). DOC concentration was low (mean 37 ± 19?µM?C) in the upstream waters, whereas, in general, it increased toward the downstream areas (mean 92 ± 47?µM?C). Significant variations

  18. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: a mathematical model for liquid flow transients in a rotary dissolver

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B. E.; Weber, F. E.

    1980-10-01

    A model describing the liquid outlet response to perturbations in the flow to a compartmented rotary dissolver has been developed. The model incorporates stagewise differential material balances coupled with the general equation for flow over a weir to calculate acid concentrations and liquid volumes in each stage. Data were taken from step-change flow experiments conducted on a 0.5-t/d rotary dissolver. The predicted response of the model was in good agreement with the data from the dissolver experiments. All constants in the model were obtained by independent tests. The model appears to be applicable over a wide range of dissolver operating conditions; however, temperature fluctuations and the presence of solids were not addressed.

  19. Abiotic effects on effluent dissolved organic nitrogen along an estuarine transect.

    PubMed

    Funkey, Carolina P; Latour, Robert J; Bronk, Deborah A

    2015-03-01

    Biological nutrient removal is a process commonly used in water resource recovery facilities to reduce dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations in effluent; this process is less effective at removing all of the effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (EDON). The goal of this study was to investigate the fate of EDON after it undergoes the disinfection process and enters receiving waters. The authors quantified the abiotic effects of effluent exposure to sunlight, increased salinity, and a combination of the two factors. Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen showed significant breakdown during the disinfection process (UV and chlorine) and when exposed to sunlight and increasing salinity. Approximately 7% of the EDON was transformed to DIN and dissolved primary amines after exposure to 9 hours of sunlight and a salinity increase from 0 to 33. The production of DIN and primary amines should be taken into account when considering sources of labile nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25842537

  20. A simple headspace equilibration method for measuring dissolved methane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magen, C; Lapham, L.L.; Pohlman, John W.; Marshall, Kristin N.; Bosman, S.; Casso, Michael; Chanton, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved methane concentrations in the ocean are close to equilibrium with the atmosphere. Because methane is only sparingly soluble in seawater, measuring it without contamination is challenging for samples collected and processed in the presence of air. Several methods for analyzing dissolved methane are described in the literature, yet none has conducted a thorough assessment of the method yield, contamination issues during collection, transport and storage, and the effect of temperature changes and preservative. Previous extraction methods transfer methane from water to gas by either a "sparge and trap" or a "headspace equilibration" technique. The gas is then analyzed for methane by gas chromatography. Here, we revisit the headspace equilibration technique and describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to measure methane in fresh and seawater, regardless of concentration. Within the range of concentrations typically found in surface seawaters (2-1000 nmol L-1), the yield of the method nears 100% of what is expected from solubility calculation following the addition of known amount of methane. In addition to being sensitive (detection limit of 0.1 ppmv, or 0.74 nmol L-1), this method requires less than 10 min per sample, and does not use highly toxic chemicals. It can be conducted with minimum materials and does not require the use of a gas chromatograph at the collection site. It can therefore be used in various remote working environments and conditions.

  1. Measuring Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Dissolved Oxygen in Streambed Sediments Using Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, K. T.; Salus, A.; Xie, M.; Roche, K. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure sensitive paints (PSP) have been largely used in aerodynamic applications to measure pressure distributions on complex bodies such as aircraft. One common family of PSPs employ fluorescent pigments that are quenched in the presence of oxygen, yielding an inverse relationship between fluorescence intensity and oxygen concentration that is used to measure pressure in aerodynamic applications through the partial pressure of oxygen. These PSPs offer unexplored potential for visualizing dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration distributions on surfaces underwater. PSP was used to measure dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed sediments in a laboratory flume. Two PSP-coated 2.5 cm diameter spheres were emplaced in a bed of similar material, and imaged under varying DO concentrations. Calibration curves relating fluorescence intensity to dissolved oxygen concentration were developed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, enabling spatial patterns of oxygen to be resolved in the sediment bed. This method of measuring dissolved oxygen concentration is advantageous because of its fast response time and ability to measure heterogeneous oxygen distributions in sediments. Future work will explore the combined effects of stream flow and biofilm growth on oxygen distributions in streambed sediments.

  2. Glass Transition Reductions in Thin Freely-standing Polymer Films: a Scaling Analysis of Chain Confinement Effects

    E-print Network

    Dutcher, John

    Glass Transition Reductions in Thin Freely-standing Polymer Films: a Scaling Analysis of Chain interest is thin polymer films [1]. Of particular interest is how the glass transition and related dynamics effects in glass forming systems. Measurements of the Tg value for freely-standing films revealed Tg

  3. Pharmacokinetics and dopamine/acetylcholine releasing effects of ginsenoside Re in hippocampus and mPFC of freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Wen-jie; Li, Ke-xin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and dopamine/acetylcholine-releasing effects of ginsenoside Re (Re) in brain regions related to learning and memory, and to clarify the neurochemical mechanisms underlying its anti-dementia activity. Methods: Microdialysis was conducted on awake, freely moving adult male SD rats with dialysis probes implanted into the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or the third ventricle. The concentrations of Re, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) in dialysates were determined using LC-MS/MS. Results: Subcutaneous administration of a single dose of Re (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) rapidly distributed to the cerebrospinal fluid and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics. The peak concentration (Cmax) occurred at 60 min for all doses. Re was not detectable after 240 min in the dialysates for the low dose of 12.5 mg/kg. At the same time, Re dose-dependently increased extracellular levels of DA and ACh in the hippocampus and mPFC, and more prominent effects were observed in the hippocampus. Conclusion: The combined study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Re demonstrate that increase of extracellular levels of DA and ACh, particularly in the hippocampus, may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-dementia activity of Re. PMID:23202798

  4. Characterization of a cold-gelling whey protein concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Elofsson; Petr Dejmek; Marie Paulsson; Hans Burling

    1997-01-01

    Cold-gelling whey protein concentrates, produced by heat pre-treatment during manufacture, gelled without heating when dissolved at sufficient protein concentration and under suitable conditions of pH and ionic strength. A cold-gelling whey protein concentrate was dissolved at low concentrations in water or NaCl solutions of varying ionic strength, pH and with the addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT) for studies

  5. An investigation of the challenges in reconstructing PET images of a freely moving animal.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mahmood; Kyme, Andre; Zhou, Victor; Fulton, Roger; Meikle, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Imaging the brain of a freely moving small animal using positron emission tomography (PET) while simultaneously observing its behaviour is an important goal for neuroscience. While we have successfully demonstrated the use of line-of-response (LOR) rebinning to correct the head motion of confined animals, a large proportion of events may need to be discarded because they either 'miss' the detector array after transformation or fall out of the acceptance range of a sinogram. The proportion of events that would have been measured had motion not occurred, so-called 'lost events', is expected to be even larger for freely moving animals. Moreover, the data acquisition in the case of a freely moving animal is further complicated by a complex attenuation field. The aims of this study were (a) to characterise the severity of the 'lostevents' problem for the freely moving animal scenario, and(b) to investigate the relative impact of attenuation correction errors on quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. A phantom study was performed to simulate the uncorrelated motion of a target and non-target sourcevolume. A small animal PET scanner was used to acquirelist-mode data for different sets of phantom positions. The list-mode data were processed using the standard LOR rebinning approach, and multiple frame variants of this designed to reduce discarded events. We found that LOR rebinning caused up to 86 % 'lost events', and artifacts that we attribute to incomplete projections, when applied to a freely moving target. This fraction was reduced by up to 18 % using the variant approaches, resulting in slightly reduced image artifacts. The effect of the non-target compartment on attenuation correction of the target volume was surprisingly small. However, for certain poses where the target and non-target volumes are aligned transaxially in the field-of-view, the attenuation problem becomes more complex and sophisticated correction methods will be required. We conclude that there are limitations with the LOR rebinning approach and simplified attenuation correction for freely moving animals requiring the development and validation of more sophisticated approaches. PMID:24122172

  6. Calibration of a dissolved-solids model for the Yampa River basin between Steamboat Springs and Maybell, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Litke, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The cumulative effects of changes in dissolved solids from a number of coal mines are needed to evaluate effects on downstream water use. A model for determining cumulative effects of streamflow, dissolved-solids concentration, and dissolved-solids load was calibrated for the Yampa River and its tributaries in northwestern Colorado. The model uses accounting principles. It establishes nodes on the stream system and sums water quantity and quality from node to node in the downstream direction. The model operates on a monthly time step for the study period that includes water years 1976 through 1981. Output is monthly mean streamflow, dissolved-solids concentration, and dissolved-solids load. Streamflow and dissolved-solids data from streamflow-gaging stations and other data-collection sites were used to define input data sets to initiate and to calibrate the model. The model was calibrated at four nodes and generally was within 10 percent of the observed values. The calibrated model can compute changes in dissolved-solids concentration or load resulting from the cumulative effects of new coal mines or the expansion of old coal mines in the Yampa River basin. (USGS)

  7. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Southwestern Greenland Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, C. L.; Giles, M. E.; Underwood, G. J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important property of Arctic lake ecosystems, originating from allochthonous inputs from catchments and autochthonous production by plankton in the water column. Little is known about the quality of DOM in Arctic lakes that lack substantial inputs from catchments and such lakes are abundant in southwestern Greenland. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the fraction that absorbs ultraviolet (UV) and visible light, is the controlling factor for the optical properties of many surface waters and as well informs on the quality of DOM. We examined the quality of CDOM in 21 lakes in southwestern Greenland, from the ice sheet to the coast, as part of a larger study examining the role of DOM in regulating microbial communities in these lakes. DOM was size fractioned and absorbance and fluorescence was measured on each size fraction, as well as on bulk DOM. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm (SUVA254), computed by normalizing absorption (a254) to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, provided an estimate of the aromatic carbon content of DOM. SUVA values were generally <2, indicating low aromatic content. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of CDOM fluorescence was used to determine the relative abundance of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM in all size fractions. Younger lakes near the ice sheet and lakes near the coast had lower amounts of CDOM and appeared more microbial in quality. However, lakes centrally located between the ice sheet and the coast had the highest CDOM concentrations and exhibited strong humic fluorescence. Overall distinct differences in CDOM quality were observed between lake locations and among DOM size fractions.

  8. Freely Chosen Index Finger Tapping Frequency Is Increased in Repeated Bouts of Tapping.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Ebbesen, Brian Duborg; Dalsgaard, Ane; Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Rasmussen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Healthy individuals (n = 40) performed index finger tapping at freely chosen frequency during repeated bouts and before and after near-maximal muscle action consisting of 3 intense flexions of the index finger metacarpal phalangeal joint. One experiment showed, unexpectedly, that a bout of tapping increased the tapping frequency in the subsequent bout. Thus, a cumulating increase of 8.2 ± 5.4% (p < .001) occurred across 4 bouts, which were all separated by 10 min rest periods. Follow-up experiments revealed that tapping frequency was still increased in consecutive bouts when rest periods were extended to 20 min. Besides, near-maximal muscle activation, followed by 5 min rest, did not affect the tapping frequency. In conclusion, freely chosen tapping frequency was increased in repeated bouts of tapping, which were separated by 10-20 min rest periods. The observed phenomenon is suggested to be termed repeated bout rate enhancement. PMID:25811421

  9. Multiple leading edge vortices of unexpected strength in freely flying hawkmoth

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Kelber, Almut; Heerenbrink, Marco Klein; Hedenström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) is a universal mechanism enhancing lift in flying organisms. LEVs, generally illustrated as a single vortex attached to the wing throughout the downstroke, have not been studied quantitatively in freely flying insects. Previous findings are either qualitative or from flappers and tethered insects. We measure the flow above the wing of freely flying hawkmoths and find multiple simultaneous LEVs of varying strength and structure along the wingspan. At the inner wing there is a single, attached LEV, while at mid wing there are multiple LEVs, and towards the wingtip flow separates. At mid wing the LEV circulation is ~40% higher than in the wake, implying that the circulation unrelated to the LEV may reduce lift. The strong and complex LEV suggests relatively high flight power in hawmoths. The variable LEV structure may result in variable force production, influencing flight control in the animals. PMID:24253180

  10. Optogenetic control of freely behaving adult Drosophila using a red-shifted channelrhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Hidehiko K.; Jung, Yonil; Hoopfer, Eric D.; Wong, Allan M.; Mishra, Neeli; Lin, John Y.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetics allows the manipulation of neural activity in freely moving animals with millisecond precision, but its application in Drosophila has been limited. Here we show that a recently described Red activatable Channelrhodopsin (ReaChR) permits control of complex behavior in freely moving adult flies, at wavelengths that are not thought to interfere with normal visual function. This tool affords the opportunity to control neural activity over a broad dynamic range of stimulation intensities. Using time-resolved activation, we show that the neural control of male courtship song can be separated into probabilistic, persistent and deterministic, command-like components. The former, but not the latter, neurons are subject to functional modulation by social experience, supporting the idea that they constitute a locus of state-dependent influence. This separation is not evident using thermogenetic tools, underscoring the importance of temporally precise control of neuronal activation in the functional dissection of neural circuits in Drosophila. PMID:24363022

  11. Feasibility study of plutonium and uranium measurements in input dissolver solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kitagawa, O.; Kuno, Y.; Kurosawa, A. [Power Reactor & Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    We are studying the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique for the simultaneous measurements of concentrations and isotopic compositions for both plutonium and uranium in spent-fuel dissolver solutions at a reprocessing plant. Previous experiments have demonstrated that the IDGS technique can determine the elemental concentrations and isotopic compositions of plutonium in dissolver solutions. The chemical separation and recovery methods for just plutonium were ion-exchange techniques using anion exchange resin beads and filter papers. To keep both plutonium and uranium in the sample for simultaneous measurements, a new sample preparation method is being studied and developed: extraction chromatography. The technique uses U/TEVA{center_dot}Spec resin to separate fission products and recover both uranium and plutonium in the resin from dissolver solutions for measurements by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

  12. Aerial and aquatic oxygen uptake by freely-diving snapping turtles ( Chelydra serpentina )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Gatten

    1980-01-01

    Aerial oxygen consumption of unrestrained, freely-diving warm-and cold-acclimated snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina, was measured at 10, 20, and 30°C. Also, simultaneous determinations of aerial and aquatic oxygen uptake by voluntarilydiving animals were made at 4 and 20°C. The standard rates of aerial oxygen consumption are equivalent in cold-and warm-acclimated animals in water and in cold-acclimated ones in air; these rates

  13. Experimental measurement of the flow field around a freely swimming microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polin, Marco; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond; Michel, Nicolas; Tuval, Idan

    2010-03-01

    Despite their small size, the fluid flows produced by billions of microscopic swimmers in nature can have dramatic macroscopic effects (e.g. biogenic mixing in the ocean). Understanding the flow structure of a single swimming microorganism is essential to explain and model these macroscopic phenomena. Here we report the first detailed measurement of the flow field around an isolated, freely swimming microorganism, the spherical alga Volvox, and discuss the implications of this measurement for other species.

  14. URINE RELEASE IN FREELY MOVING CATHETERISED LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) WITH REFERENCE TO FEEDING AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS BREITHAUPT; DANIEL P. LINDSTROM; JELLE ATEMA

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that urine-borne pheromones play an important role in lobster agonistic and sexual behaviour. This paper investigates the pattern of urine release in catheterised, but otherwise freely moving, adult lobsters with respect to feeding, social and non-social activities. Lobsters on average released 4.1 ml (1 % of body mass) of urine over a 12 h period; this more

  15. Brillouin light scattering studies of the mechanical properties of thin freely standing polystyrene films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Forrest; K. Dalnoki-Veress; J. R. Dutcher

    1998-01-01

    We have used Brillouin light scattering (BLS) to measure the room-temperature, high-frequency mechanical properties of thin freely standing polystyrene (PS) films. We have investigated the effects of chain confinement and the free surface on the mechanical properties by measuring the velocity of film-guided acoustic phonons in films with thicknesses ranging from less than to greater than the average end-to-end distance

  16. Hydrogen entry into pipeline steel under freely corroding conditions in two corroding media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dey; A. K. Mandhyan; S. K. Sondhi; I. Chattoraj

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen permeation through API 5L X65 pipeline steel was studied under freely corroding conditions in NACE solution (simulated seawater) and poisoned 1N H2SO4. A steady state condition with regards to permeation flux is not obtained due to the presence of corrosion product, changing sample dimension and a possible change in hydrogen availability on the corroding surface. A unique way of

  17. Layer-thinning transitions in freely suspended smectic-A films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoza, A. M.; Martínez-Ratón, Y.; Mederos, L.; Sullivan, D. E.

    1996-11-01

    We outline the elements of a mean-field density functional theory of inhomogeneous liquid crystals which is able to account for surface-enhanced smectic ordering (SESO) at a free surface. The theory generates SESO without requiring an external anchoring potential, and depending only on the properties (i.e., strengths and ranges) of the anisotropic intermolecular forces. Application of the theory to explaining recent experimental findings of layer-thinning transitions in freely suspended smectic-A films is briefly summarized.

  18. Single-molecule force spectroscopy of membrane proteins from membranes freely spanning across nanoscopic pores.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Rafayel; Bippes, Christian A; Walheim, Stefan; Harder, Daniel; Fotiadis, Dimitrios; Schimmel, Thomas; Alsteens, David; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-05-13

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) provides detailed insight into the mechanical (un)folding pathways and structural stability of membrane proteins. So far, SMFS could only be applied to membrane proteins embedded in native or synthetic membranes adsorbed to solid supports. This adsorption causes experimental limitations and raises the question to what extent the support influences the results obtained by SMFS. Therefore, we introduce here SMFS from native purple membrane freely spanning across nanopores. We show that correct analysis of the SMFS data requires extending the worm-like chain model, which describes the mechanical stretching of a polypeptide, by the cubic extension model, which describes the bending of a purple membrane exposed to mechanical stress. This new experimental and theoretical approach allows to characterize the stepwise (un)folding of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin and to assign the stability of single and grouped secondary structures. The (un)folding and stability of bacteriorhodopsin shows no significant difference between freely spanning and directly supported purple membranes. Importantly, the novel experimental SMFS setup opens an avenue to characterize any protein from freely spanning cellular or synthetic membranes. PMID:25879249

  19. Extendable, miniaturized multi-modal optical imaging system: cortical hemodynamic observation in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Qin; Li, Bing; Yin, Cui; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jia; Lu, Jinling; Luo, Qingmin; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-28

    Observation of brain activities in freely moving animals has become an important approach for neuroscientists to understand the correlation between brain function and behavior. We describe an extendable fiber-optic-based multi-modal imaging system that can concurrently carry out laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) of blood flow and optical intrinsic signal (OIS) imaging in freely moving animals, and it could be extended to fluorescence imaging. Our imaging system consists of a multi-source illuminator, a fiber multi-channel optical imaging unit, and a head-mounted microscope. The imaging fiber bundle delivers optical images from the head-mounted microscope to the multi-channel optical imaging unit. Illuminating multi-mode fiber bundles transmit light to the head-mounted microscope which has a mass of less than 1.5 g and includes a gradient index lens, giving the animal maximum movement capability. The internal optical components are adjustable, allowing for a change in magnification and field of view. We test the system by observing hemodynamic changes during cortical spreading depression (CSD) in freely moving and anesthetized animals by simultaneous LSCI and dual-wavelength OIS imaging. Hemodynamic parameters were calculated. Significant differences in CSD propagation durations between the two states were observed. Furthermore, it is capable of performing fluorescence imaging to explore animal behavior and the underlying brain functional activity further. PMID:23389174

  20. Optetrode: a multichannel readout for optogenetic control in freely moving mice

    PubMed Central

    Anikeeva, Polina; Andalman, Aaron S; Witten, Ilana; Warden, Melissa; Goshen, Inbal; Grosenick, Logan; Gunaydin, Lisa A; Frank, Loren M; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in optogenetics have improved the precision with which defined circuit elements can be controlled optically in freely moving mammals; in particular, recombinase-dependent opsin viruses, used with a growing pool of transgenic mice expressing recombinases, allow manipulation of specific cell types. However, although optogenetic control has allowed neural circuits to be manipulated in increasingly powerful ways, combining optogenetic stimulation with simultaneous multichannel electrophysiological readout of isolated units in freely moving mice remains a challenge. We designed and validated the optetrode, a device that allows for colocalized multi-tetrode electrophysiological recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice. Optetrode manufacture employs a unique optical fiber-centric coaxial design approach that yields a lightweight (2 g), compact and robust device that is suitable for behaving mice. This low-cost device is easy to construct (2.5 h to build without specialized equipment). We found that the drive design produced stable high-quality recordings and continued to do so for at least 6 weeks following implantation. We validated the optetrode by quantifying, for the first time, the response of cells in the medial prefrontal cortex to local optical excitation and inhibition, probing multiple different genetically defined classes of cells in the mouse during open field exploration. PMID:22138641

  1. Temporal variations in dissolved selenium in Lake Kinneret (Israel)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishri, A.; Brenner, I.B.; Hall, G.E.M.; Taylor, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for the growth of the dinoflagellate Peridinium gatunense that dominates the spring algal bloom in Lake Kinneret (LK). The relationship between the levels of dissolved selenium species and the occurance of algal blooms in this lake was studied. During algal blooms of P. gatunense in spring and of the blue-green Aphanizomenon ovalisporum in fall (in 1994) the concentration of epilimnetic dissolved organic Se (Se(org)) increased whereas that of selenite (SeIV) decreased, to levels below the limit of detection: 5 ng/l. The disappearance of SeIV during these blooms is attributed to algal uptake and it is suggested that the growth of both algae may have depended on Se(org) regeneration. A budget performed for selenate (SeVI) suggests that this species is also consumed by algae but to a lesser extent than SeIV (in 1994 ~40% of the epilimnetic load). During the stratification period the hypolimnion of Lake Kinneret becomes anoxic, with high levels of dissolved sulfide. The affects of this environment on the distribution of Se oxy-anions, selenite (SeIV) and selenate(SeVI), were also studied. At the onset of thermal stratification (March) about 35% of the lake inventory of both Se oxidized species are entrapped in the hypolimnion. During stages of oxygen depletion and H2S accumulation, SeIV is completely and SeVI partially removed from this layer. The removal is attributed to reduction followed by formation of particulate reduced products, such as elemental selenium Se(o). The ratio between SeVI to total dissolved selenium (SE(T)) in water sources to the lake is ~0.84, about twice the corresponding ratio in the lake (~0.44, during holomixis). In the lake about 75% of annual SeVI inflow from external sources undergoes reduction to selenide (Se-II) and Se(o) through epilimnetic algal assimilation and hypolimnetic anoxic reduction, respectively. It is suggested that the latter oxidation of the dissolved organic selenide released from biogenic particles and of Se(o) only to the tetravalent species is the cause for the lower ratio of SeVI/Se(T) in the lake.

  2. Effects of herbicide application on carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, pH, and RpH in paddy-field ponded water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Usui; Tatsuaki Kasubuchi

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide application may affect dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), pH, and RpH in ponded water, and RpH of the water which is the water pH aerated with the atmosphere. In the present study, DO concentration did not reach supersaturated state after herbicide application, and variation in DO decreased. The herbicide application reduced the diurnal variation in dissolved CO2

  3. Tracing river chemistry in space and time: Dissolved inorganic constituents of the Fraser River, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Britta M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Fiske, Gregory; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Hoering, Katherine A.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; LeCroy, Chase; Pal, Sharmila; Marsh, Steven; Gillies, Sharon L.; Janmaat, Alida; Bennett, Michelle; Downey, Bryce; Fanslau, Jenna; Fraser, Helena; Macklam-Harron, Garrett; Martinec, Michelle; Wiebe, Brayden

    2014-01-01

    The Fraser River basin in southwestern Canada bears unique geologic and climatic features which make it an ideal setting for investigating the origins, transformations and delivery to the coast of dissolved riverine loads under relatively pristine conditions. We present results from sampling campaigns over three years which demonstrate the lithologic and hydrologic controls on fluxes and isotope compositions of major dissolved inorganic runoff constituents (dissolved nutrients, major and trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr, ?D). A time series record near the Fraser mouth allows us to generate new estimates of discharge-weighted concentrations and fluxes, and an overall chemical weathering rate of 32 t km-2 y-1. The seasonal variations in dissolved inorganic species are driven by changes in hydrology, which vary in timing across the basin. The time series record of dissolved 87Sr/86Sr is of particular interest, as a consistent shift between higher (“more radiogenic”) values during spring and summer and less radiogenic values in fall and winter demonstrates the seasonal variability in source contributions throughout the basin. This seasonal shift is also quite large (0.709-0.714), with a discharge-weighted annual average of 0.7120 (2 s.d. = 0.0003). We present a mixing model which predicts the seasonal evolution of dissolved 87Sr/86Sr based on tributary compositions and water discharge. This model highlights the importance of chemical weathering fluxes from the old sedimentary bedrock of headwater drainage regions, despite their relatively small contribution to the total water flux.

  4. Differences in dissolved cadmium and zinc uptake among stream insects: mechanistic explanations.

    PubMed

    Buchwalter, David B; Luoma, Samuel N

    2005-01-15

    This study examined the extent to which dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rates vary in several aquatic insect taxa commonly used as indicators of ecological health. We further attempted to explain the mechanisms underlying observed differences. By comparing dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rates in several aquatic insect species, we demonstrated that species vary widely in these processes. Dissolved uptake rates were not related to gross morphological features such as body size or gill size--features that influence water permeability and therefore have ionoregulatory importance. However, finer morphological features, specifically, the relative numbers of ionoregulatory cells (chloride cells), appeared to be related to dissolved metal uptake rates. This observation was supported by Michaelis-Menten type kinetics experiments, which showed that dissolved Cd uptake rates were driven by the numbers of Cd transporters and not by the affinities of those transporters to Cd. Calcium concentrations in exposure media similarly affected Cd and Zn uptake rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche californica. Dissolved Cd and Zn uptake rates strongly co-varied among species, suggesting that these metals are transported by similar mechanisms. PMID:15707049

  5. Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Lake Chabot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Pica, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen levels are crucial in every aquatic ecosystem; it allows for the fish to breathe and it is the best indicator of water quality. Lake Chabot is the main backup water source for Castro Valley, making it crucial that the lake stays in good health. Last year, research determined that the water in Lake Chabot was of good quality and not eutrophic. This year, an experiment was conducted using Lake Chabot's dissolved oxygen levels to ensure the quality of the water and to support the findings of the previous team. After testing three specifically chosen sites at the lake using a dissolved oxygen meter, results showed that the oxygen levels in the lake were within the healthy range. It was then determined that Lake Chabot is a suitable backup water source and it continues to remain a healthy habitat.

  6. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  7. Dissolved solids, hardness, and orthophosphate of surface-water runoff in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Historical water-quality data collected from January 1965 to September 1970 were used to prepare maps showing the generalized distribution of dissolved solids, hardness, and orthophosphate in streams and lakes in the Northwest Florida Water Management District. The regional concentration patterns shown on the maps are generalized and local variations may be expected. The dissolved-solids concentrations generally range from 10 to 150 milligrams per liter. Higher concentrations are found in the coastal area on tide affected streams. The concentrations of hardness as CaCO3 generally range from 5 to 140 milligrams per liter. The concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate generally range from 0 to 0.75 milligrams per liter. These maps provide information to those concerned with water resources management and establish a basis for comparing future water-quality data. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Dissolved solids, hardness, and orthophosphate of surface-water runoff in the Suwannee River Water Management District, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Historical water-quality data collected from January 1965 to September 1970 were used to prepare maps showing the generalized distribution of dissolved solids, hardness, and orthophosphate in streams and lakes in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The regional concentration patterns shown on the maps are generalized and local variations may be expected. The dissolved-solids concentrations generally range from 15 to 300 milligrams per liter. Higher concentrations are found in the coastal area on tide affected streams. The concentrations of hardness as CaCO3 generally range from 10 to 200 milligrams per liter. The concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate generally range from 0 to 3 milligrams per liter. These maps provide information to those concerned with water resources management and establish a basis for comparing future quality data. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Adsorptive fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Engel, Maya; Chefetz, Benny

    2015-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbon nanotubes are introduced into aquatic environments. Thus, it is important to elucidate whether their interaction affects DOM amount and composition. In this study, the composition of DOM, before and after interactions with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), was measured and the adsorption affinity of the individual structural fractions of DOM to SWCNTs was investigated. Adsorption of DOM to SWCNTs was dominated by the hydrophobic acid fraction, resulting in relative enhancement of the hydrophilic character of non-adsorbed DOM. The preferential adsorption of the HoA fraction was concentration-dependent, increasing with increasing concentration. Adsorption affinities of bulk DOM calculated as the normalized sum of affinities of the individual structural fractions were similar to the measured affinities, suggesting that the structural fractions of DOM act as independent adsorbates. The altered DOM composition may affect the nature and reactivity of DOM in aquatic environments polluted with carbon nanotubes. PMID:25480440

  10. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  11. Dissolved aluminum in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    Myre, Peggy Lynne

    1990-01-01

    DISSOLVED ALUMINUM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by PEGGY LYNNE MYRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Majo...~ Subject: Oceanography DISSOLVED ALUMINUM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by PEGGY LYNNE MYRE Approved as to style and content by: David R. Schink (Chair of Committee) Jack G. Ba dauf (Member) Wilford D. Gardner (Member) John W. M rse (Member...

  12. Dissolved Oxygen and Sulfide Define the Boundaries of Thermophilic Microbial Iron Mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial iron cycling can be found in hot springs throughout Yellowstone National Park, where the process is often visibly apparent as red iron oxyhydroxide staining. We measured rates of microbial and abiotic iron oxidation and reduction in systems ranging from pH 2 to 6 and 40° to 90°C. Measurements of numerous solutes, including oxygen, sulfide, and iron, were also made on outflow channels of springs containing apparent iron metabolism. In all cases, > 16 ?M dissolved oxygen was required for visible iron oxidation products to occur. Oxygen concentrations below this level do not necessarily preclude microbial iron oxidation coupled to oxygen, only the accumulation of oxidation products. Kinetics experiments conducted at these iron mats suggest that the rate of microbial iron oxidation falls below the rate of microbial reduction when dissolved oxygen falls below this concentration. In outflow channels, this is often visibly apparent as a sharp boundary between the presence and lack of red iron oxidation products. Locations with changing temperature, pH, flow rate and other factors experience changing oxygen concentrations, which causes the boundary to shift from year to year. The boundaries of iron mats are also influenced in several locations by the concentration of total dissolved sulfide. Experiments with enrichment cultures and field observations show that sulfide is not toxic to iron oxidizers, but rather inhibits the accumulation of dissolved oxygen. Microbial and abiotic sulfide oxidation, leading to visible sulfur precipitation, together with degassing of hydrogen sulfide, contribute to keeping oxygen levels low. Typically, only where sulfide concentrations fall below 20 ?M are iron mats able to form. Enrichment cultures of iron oxidizers, however, grow easily at levels exceeding 100 ?M sulfide. Only a handful of field locations appear to have simultaneous sulfur and iron precipitation zones. Formation of iron oxidation mats occurs at highly consistent concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfide in Yellowstone hot springs, and can even serve as visible indicators of the abundance of these geochemical constituents.

  13. Benthic flux of dissolved nickel into the water column of south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, B.R.; Kuwabara, J.S.; Parchaso, Francis; Hager, S.W.; Arnsberg, A.J.; Murphy, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted between April, 1998 and May, 1999 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) nickel between the bottom sediment and water column at three sites in the southern component of San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California. Dissolved nickel and predominant ligands (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest, although a variety of ancillary measurements were also performed to provide a framework for interpretation. Results described herein integrate information needs identified by the State Water Resources Control Board and local stakeholders with fundamental research associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Dissolved-Ni concentrations in the bottom water over the three sampling dates ranged from 34 to 43 nanomoles per liter. Dissolved-macronutrient concentrations in the bottom water were consistently higher (frequently by orders of magnitude) than surface-water determinations reported for similar times and locations (Regional Monitoring Program, 2001). This is consistent with measured positive benthic fluxes for the macronutrients. Benthic-flux estimates for dissolved nickel from core-incubations, when areally averaged over the South Bay, were significant (that is, of equivalent or greater order of magnitude) relative to previously reported freshwater point and non-point sources. This observation is consistent with previous determinations for other metals, and with the potential remobilization of sediment-associated metals that have been ubiquitously distributed in the South Bay. Similar to dissolved-nickel results, benthic flux of macronutrients was also consistently significant relative to surface-water inputs. These results add to a growing body of knowledge that strongly suggests a need to consider contaminant transport across the sediment-water interface when establishing future management strategies for the watershed.

  14. A unit for collection of dissolved oxygen and water column temperature at multiple depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2004 field study conducted during actual channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus harvests, and a small-scale research study conducted in 2005, required continuous collection of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature at two depths in the water column. The on-farm study required data collection...

  15. Seasonal variation in water quality and dissolved methane of Barren River Lake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a method for water collection that we recently developed, we monitored water quality and dissolved methane in Barren River Lake for eleven months in 2009. During the spring and winter months nitrate concentrations were essentially equal throughout the water column at eight to six mg L/L. Du...

  16. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay

    E-print Network

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  17. Multivariate Curve Resolution Methods Illustrated Using Infrared Spectra of an Alcohol Dissolved in Carbon Tetrachloride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grung, Bjorn; Nodland, Egil; Forland, Geir Martin

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the infrared spectra of an alcohol dissolved in carbon tetrachloride gives a better understanding of the various multivariate curve resolution methods. The resulting concentration profile is found to be very useful for calculating the degree of association and equilibrium constants of different compounds.

  18. Strontium, dissolved and particulate loads in fresh and brackish waters: the Baltic Sea and Mississippi Delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per S. Andersson; G. J. Wasserburg; Johan Ingri; Mary C. Stordal

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted of the isotopic composition and concentration of Sr and of major elements in dissolved and suspended loads of fresh and brackish waters. The purpose was to establish the contributions of different parent rocks and minerals to Sr during weathering and transport and to identify the role of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides in the redistribution of Sr in the

  19. ELEVATED DISSOLVED SULFIDES IN SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS OF YAQUINA BAY ESTUARY, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved sulfide concentrations were measured in porewater of surficial sediments collected from two exposed intertidal sites in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Idaho Pt. (IP) is an area where drift green macroalgae is known to accumulate, and the odor of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) on th...

  20. Rising surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Winn; Yuan-Hui Li; Fred T. Mackenzie; David M. Karl

    1998-01-01

    Surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and titration alkalinity have been measured for 7 years as a part of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program. The time-series data set displays an interannual increase in the inventory of surface ocean DIC which we interpret as a response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. The rate of increase in surface ocean DIC

  1. Bioaccumulation of Dissolved Arsenic in the Oyster Crassostrea virginica: A Radiotracer Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Gómez-Batista; Marc Metian; Jean-Louis Teyssie; Carlos Alonso-Hernández; Michel Warnau

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of a program focusing on marine resource protection and management in the Caribbean, the objective of this work was to characterize As bioaccumulation in the common edible oyster Crassostrea virginica. Dissolved As (stable As? + ?As as a tracer) was taken up according to saturation kinetics for all tested exposure concentrations (2–10 ?g l), and steady-state was

  2. Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) impacts photosynthetic oxygen production and electron transport in coontail Ceratophyllum demersum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pflugmacher; C. Pietsch; W. Rieger; C. E. W. Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) is dead organic matter exceeding, in freshwater systems, the concentration of organic carbon in all living organisms by far. 80–90% (w\\/w) of the NOM is made up of humic substances (HS). Although NOM possesses several functional groups, a potential effect on aquatic organisms has not been studied. In this study, direct effects of NOM from

  3. Design of a Dissolved Oxygen Optical Sensing Device for Cell Growth and Metabolism Monitoring in Bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raelyn K Rosa

    2012-01-01

    An electro-optical sensor module was designed to monitor the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) using the method of frequency domain ?uoroscopy. Frequency domain ?uoroscopy is an optical method that detects the concentration of an analyte by indirectly monitoring the ?uorescent lifetime decay. A planar ?lm containing oxygen sensitive ?uorophores interacts with a liquid solution, where the percent DO dictates the

  4. PII S0016-7037(99)00277-X The speciation of dissolved water in rhyolitic melt

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Youxue

    PII S0016-7037(99)00277-X The speciation of dissolved water in rhyolitic melt PHILLIP D. IHINGER) Abstract--Concentrations of water molecules and hydroxyl groups have been measured in rhyolitic glasses be used as a rough approximation for modeling the solution of water in rhyolitic melts with less than 2

  5. New calibration of infrared measurement of dissolved water in rhyolitic glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youxue Zhang; R. Belcher; P. D. Ihinger; Liping Wang; Zhengjiu Xu; S. Newman

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new calibration for infrared analyses of dissolved water and its species concentrations in rhyolitic glasses. The new calibration combines infrared\\/manometry measurements and infrared study of hydrous rhyolitic glasses heated at different temperatures. The heating experiments show that the ratio of the molar absorptivity of the 5230 cm?1 band to that of the 4520 cm?1 band varies

  6. RESEARCH AT THE GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION ON THE EFFECTS OF LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN ON ESTUARINE ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about hypoxia and its effects on saltwater organisms are increasing as environmental conditions in the inshore and nearshore marine environments are better understood. Along the Gulf of Mexico coast, periods of very low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations have been re...

  7. Distributions and characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter in the Western Arctic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline Guéguen; Laodong Guo; Noriyuki Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    Terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM) is continuously discharged by rivers into the ocean, yet its distribution and reactivity within ocean basins remain poorly defined. With high concentrations of terrestrial DOM in arctic rivers and a disproportionate share of global riverine discharge on a volume basis to the Arctic Ocean, the influence of terrigenous DOM on marine carbon budgets and the

  8. Primary Research Paper Beneficial and detrimental interactive effects of dissolved organic matter

    E-print Network

    Johnsen, Sönke

    ; published online 5 May 2006 Key words: UV radiation, DOM, freshwater zooplankton, acid tolerance Abstract and ultraviolet radiation on zooplankton in a transparent lake Sandra L. Cooke1, *, Craig E. Williamson1,2 , Bruce While changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations are expected to affect zooplankton

  9. EFFECTS OF LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF DAPHNIA, HYALELLA, AND GAMMARUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Hyalella azteca, and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the laboratory. cute and chronic exposures were conducted to develop data for use in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) water quality crite...

  10. In situ activation of cathodes during alkaline water electrolysis by dissolved iron and molybdenum species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Brossard; J.-Y. Huot

    1991-01-01

    In situ activation on polished pure Co, Fe, Ni and Pt cathodes by the dissolution of molybdenum in 30 wt % KOH at 70°C was investigated at 100 mA cm-2. The effect of adding molybdate to the electrolyte to reactivate hydrogen discharge depends on the concentration of dissolved iron. The deposition of Mo on the substrate takes place only in

  11. CHEMISTRY OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN TWO STREAMS DRAINING FORESTED WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration, major fractions, and contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) to stream chemistry were examined in two paired streams draining upland catchments in eastern Maine. oncentrations of DOC in East and West Bear Brooks were 183 +/- 73 and 169 +/- 70 umol CL-1 (...

  12. EVALUATION OF QUICK TESTS FOR DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS DETERMINATION IN DAIRY MANURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a hand-held reflectometer, hydrometers, and measurements of electrical conductivity (EC) and manure total solids (TS) concentrations for determining dissolved phosphorus (DP) in dairy manure suspensions, and to compare the estimated DP c...

  13. A remote automated system for a case study of dissolved oxygen monitoring and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiung-Cheng Lin; Liang-Tsung Huang; Lien-Fu Lai; Yin-Fan Chi

    2009-01-01

    The dissolved oxygen is one of important factors to evaluate the quality of water. Currently, various aeration and oxygenation devices have been developed for increasing its oxygen concentrations in water. However, the operations of those devices usually depend on the human operation with experience. In this study, we have developed a PC-based virtual instrument (VI) system using LabVIEW, which can

  14. The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in Environmental Mercury Methylation by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Moreau; E. E. Roden; C. Gerbig; C. S. Kim; G. R. Aiken; J. F. Dewild; D. P. Krabbenhoft

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) production in the environment is controlled by many factors, including biogeochemical controls on mercury bioavailability. Strong focus has been placed on the role of sulfide concentration in determining mercury speciation and cellular uptake. However, in natural waters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and important in influencing mercury speciation and bioavailability. We revisit this issue with experimental

  15. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay 

    E-print Network

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  16. Environmental photoinactivation of extracellular phosphatases and the effects of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Elisabeth M L; McNeill, Kristopher

    2015-01-20

    Alkaline phosphatases are ubiquitous extracellular enzymes in aquatic systems and play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus. Yet, the photochemical stability of phosphatase and effects of natural organic matter (DOM) are not completely understood. We demonstrate that phosphatase activity in natural biofilm samples decreased during sunlight exposure similar to well-defined bacterial phosphatase solutions. Direct photoinactivation was slowed by more than 50% in the presence of redox-active dissolved organic matter (DOM, 10 mgC L(–1)) or a model antioxidant (esculetin, 50 ?M), even after light screening effects had been accounted for. Thus, DOM can not only inhibit enzymes (in the dark) or sensitize photodegradation by producing photochemically produced reactive intermediates but can also significantly quench direct photoinactivation of phosphatase. Our data further suggest that direct photooxidation of tryptophan residues within the protein structure are significantly involved in the photoinactivation of phosphatase because a loss of tryptophan-like fluorescence paralleled photoinactivation kinetics and because DOM acted as an antioxidant toward photoinactivation, a phenomenon recently established for the photooxidation of freely dissolved tryptophan. Thus, photoinactivation of phosphatase can be significantly slowed in the presence of naturally occurring antioxidants like DOM. The mechanistic link between tryptophan photooxidation and inactivation of phosphatase may have applicability to other extracellular enzymes but remains to be established. PMID:25495644

  17. Changes in dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen fluxes across subtropical forest ecosystems at different successional stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Wang, Wantong; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhou, Guoyi

    2015-05-01

    Lateral transports of carbon and nitrogen are important processes linking terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems. Most previous studies made in temperate forests found that fluxes of carbon and nitrogen by runoff water varied in different forests, but few studies have been made in subtropical forests. This study was to investigate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes at the catchment scale along a subtropical forest succession gradient from pine forest (pioneer) to coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) to broadleaved forest (mature). Our results showed that DOC concentration significantly decreased (p<0.001) while TDN concentration significantly increased (p<0.001) in runoff water from pioneer to mature forests, which in turn resulted in a decrease in DOC flux and an increase in TDN flux, as mean annual runoff did not vary significantly among three succession forest catchments. The mean (±standard deviation) annual DOC flux was 118.1±43.6, 88.3±16.7 and 77.2±11.7 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively; and the mean annual TDN flux was 9.9 ±2.7, 18.2±3.0 and 21.2 ±4.5 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively. The mature forest reduced DOC flux by increased soil chemical adsorption and physical protection. An increase in TDN flux from pioneer to mature forests was consistent with the previous finding that mature forest was nitrogen saturated while pioneer forest was nitrogen limited. Therefore large-scale conversion of pioneer forests to transitional or mature forests in subtropical China will reduce DOC concentration and increase TDN concentration in the down-stream water, which may have significant impact on its water quality and aquatic biological activities.

  18. Oceanography June 200450 Colored Dissolved Organic

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    blue sea" can typically be seen only hundreds of miles offshore. The areas of the ocean that most, red, blue, or green. The color of the ocean, when measured in full spectral detail, tells scientistsOceanography June 200450 Colored Dissolved Organic in the Coastal Ocean A N O P T I C A L TO O L F

  19. Dissolved major elements exported by the Congo and the Ubangi rivers during the period 1987 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Jean-Luc; NKounkou, Renard-Roger; Krempp, Gérard; Bricquet, Jean-Pierre; Thiébaux, Jean-Pierre; Olivry, Jean-Claude

    1992-07-01

    On the basis of monthly sampling during the period 1987-1989, the geochemistry of the Congo and the Ubangi (second largest tributary of the Congo) rivers was studied in order (1) to understand the seasonal variations of the physico-chemical parameters of the waters and (2) to estimate the annual dissolved fluxes exported by the two rivers. The results presented here correspond to the first three years of measurements carried out for a scientific programme (Interdisciplinary Research Programme on Geodynamics of Peri-Atlantic Intertropical Environments, Operation 'Large River Basins' (PIRAT-GBF) undertaken jointly by Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU) and Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM) planned to run for at least ten years. The Congo River is more diluted than the Ubangi (34 mgl -1 vs. 42 mgl -1). For both rivers, the inorganic dissolved load is composed mainly of HCO 3- and SiO 2. The chemical composition of the water does not change with time. In the Ubangi River, because of the presence of Precambrian carbonate rocks in its catchment, the proportions of HCO 3- and Ca 2+ are higher. On a seasonal scale, the concentration of dissolved cations and anions varies inversely with discharge, except silica. The comparison of the discharge-concentration relationship with a theoretical 'zero dilution' shows that the evolution of the concentration of dissolved substances is a simple dilution by the surface waters, with, in the case of the Ubangi, a small supply of dissolved substances by the surface waters. Using three different methods of calculation, the estimated annual inorganic dissolved flux of the Congo ranges from 39 × 10 6 to 44 × 10 6 tons (according to the year), with about 10% of this coming from the Ubangi drainage basin.

  20. Optical Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in Maine Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. P.; Roesler, C. S.; Bourakovsky, A.; Drapeau, S.; Huntington, T. G.; Billmire, M.; Camill, P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine are significantly impacted by the input of fresh water from a distributed river system. In this study, we focus on the four largest watersheds (Androscoggin, Kennebec, Penobscot and St. John) that contribute to the freshwater inputs. In particular, we investigated the input of dissolved organic carbon via PARAFAC analysis of excitation/emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Monthly sampling of over 65 stations for three years has yielded a wealth of information about tributary characteristics. Specifically, we investigated the role of water quality properties and landscape coverage in the mobilization and flux of different components of DOC and how those properties vary spatially across the landscape and temporally over seasons and between years. Across all rivers, humic-like materials were the most prevalent components at the river mouths; accumulating along the rivers due to sequential tributary inputs. The concentration of humic-like materials increased latitudinally from the Androscoggin to St John, a geographic progression in source material also correlated to climate variations, land coverage or bedrock acidity. Dissolved proteins displayed positive relationships with climatological Chlorophyll a and total Nitrogen values. In all rivers, peak fluorescence of dissolved proteins was observed during summer months, with the maximum intensity observed in the Androscoggin River. The magnitude and pattern of seasonal flux of fluorescent materials into the Gulf of Maine was very similar between the Penobscot and the Kennebec rivers. The flux of all DOM components was highest during the spring freshet, with a secondary peak during fall precipitation maxima and lowest during August, likely due to both low mobilization and photo degradation of river borne materials.

  1. Sources of dissolved salts in the central Murray Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Hanor, J.S.; Evans, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Large areas of the Australian continent contain scattered saline lakes underlain by shallow saline groundwaters of regional extent and debated origin. The normative salt composition of subsurface pore fluids extracted by squeezing cores collected during deep drilling at Piangil West 2 in the central Murray Basin in southeastern Australia, and of surface and shallow subsurface brines produced by subaerial evaporation in the nearby Lake Tyrrell systems, helps constrain interpretation of the origin of dissolved solutes in the groundwaters of this part of the continent. Although regional sedimentation in the Murray Basin has been dominantly continental except for a marine transgression in Oligocene-Pliocene time, most of the solutes in saline surface and subsurface waters in the central Murray Basin have a distinctly marine character. Some of the Tyrrell waters, to the southwest of Piangil West 2, show the increase in NaCl and decrease in sulfate salts expected with evaporative concentration and gypsum precipitation in an ephemeral saline lake or playa environment. The salt norms for most of the subsurface saline waters at Piangil West 2 are compatible with the dilution of variably fractionated marine bitterns slightly depleted in sodium salts, similar to the more evolved brines at Lake Tyrrell, which have recharged downward after evaporation at the surface and then dissolved a variable amount of gypsum at depth. Apparently over the last 0.5 Ma significant quantities of marine salt have been blown into the Murray Basin as aerosols which have subsequently been leached into shallow regional groundwater systems basin-wide, and have been transported laterally into areas of large evaporative loss in the central part of the basin. This origin for the solutes helps explain why the isotopic compositions of most of the subsurface saline waters at Piangil West 2 have a strong meteoric signature, whereas the dissolved salts in these waters appear similar to a marine assemblage. ?? 1994.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-04-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as "melt in mouth tablet." Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes. PMID:22171305

  3. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as “melt in mouth tablet.” Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes. PMID:22171305

  4. Controls on the release of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from a deciduous forest floor investigated by manipulations of aboveground litter inputs and water flux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Hyung Park; Egbert Matzner

    2003-01-01

    Although dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from the forest floor plays a crucial role in transporting carbon and major nutrients through the soil profile, its formation and responses to changing litter inputs are only partially understood. To gain insights into the controlling mechanisms of DOM release from the forest floor, we investigated responses of the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved

  5. Dissolved iodine in rainfall,cloud,stream and groundwater in the Plynlimon area of mid-Wales Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 283293, 2007

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dissolved iodine in rainfall,cloud,stream and groundwater in the Plynlimon area of mid-Wales 283. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Dissolved iodine in rainfall, cloud, stream, OX10 8BB, UK Email for corresponding author: cn@ceh.ac.uk Abstract Iodine concentrations in rainfall

  6. The use of PARAFAC modeling to trace terrestrial dissolved organic matter and fingerprint water masses in coastal Canadian Arctic surface waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally A. Walker; Rainer M. W. Amon; Colin Stedmon; Shuiwang Duan; Patrick Louchouarn

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were investigated in the Canadian Archipelago and coastal Beaufort Sea surface waters using fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Environmental dynamics of individual components were evaluated and compared to salinity, in situ fluorescence, absorption at 312 nm (a312), dissolved organic carbon, and lignin phenol concentrations. A positive linear relationship

  7. The use of Nafion-coated thin mercury film electrodes for the determination of the dissolved copper speciation in estuarine water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew P. Hurst; Kenneth W. Bruland

    2005-01-01

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) using a Nafion-coated thin mercury film electrode (NCTMFE) was implemented to determine the dissolved copper speciation in saline estuarine waters containing high concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The study used model ligands and estuarine water from San Francisco Bay, California, USA to demonstrate that the NCTMFE is more effective at distinguishing between electrochemically

  8. Seasonal Changes in Arctic Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Schimel, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is a landscape in flux. Temperatures are shifting upward and plant communities are transitioning from tussock to shrub tundra in some regions. Decomposition processes sensitive to temperature, moisture, and plant inputs are controls on the source/sink dynamics of the Arctic C pool. The response of decomposition to warming will, in part, determine if the Arctic C pool feeds back positively or negatively to climate change. The portion of the C pool immediately available to decomposers is dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this is study is to examine the molecular composition of DOM to determine which components vary seasonally in soil pore water among three vegetation types at Toolik Field Station in Alaska. Vegetation types include wet sedge (Carex aquatilis and Eriophorum angustifolium), moist acidic tussock (E. vaginatum) and shrub tundra (Betula nana and Salix sp.). These sites were sampled during winter/summer transitions in 2010 in order to capture both growing season and winter dynamics. We expected the chemical composition of DOM in pore water to be distinct among plant communities due to differences in root exudates, litter chemistry and microbial community; and vary seasonally due to shifting temperature and water availability and their impacts on decomposition of DOM. Soil pore water was isolated through centrifugation and is being characterized with ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in line with a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS) as well as with specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA), and excitation emission matrices (EEMs) generated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The DOM concentrations across vegetation types show consistent seasonal patterns, spiking at thaw, and declining through late summer. As soils freeze these patterns diverge-in tussock soils DOM concentration decreases slightly, while in shrub and wet sedge sites it increases. SUVA values (indicator of aromaticity) were consistent among vegetation types across seasons; starting low in late winter and at thaw, increasing over the course of the summer and decreasing at the summer to winter transition. Metabolite profiles generated with UPLC-MS were evaluated using principle component analysis. Sampling date explained the most variation in this dataset, with metabolite profiles of the DOM most different in the summer to winter transition. Over 6000 mass features were detected in the metabolite profiles and at least 1500 of these features were significantly different between late summer and early winter. Fluorescence EEMs have been collected for the complete dataset and analysis is underway. Overall, these data suggest the composition of DOM varies more due to season than vegetation type, with changes in quantity, aromaticity, and shifts in the metabolite profiles occurring at seasonal transitions. Efforts are continuing to identify some of the most variable components with MS and EEMs data. By understanding which chemical components of DOM shift seasonally, we can anticipate what portions of the DOM are most subject to change in a warming arctic; and how the gain/loss of those components will play into the sink/source C dynamics under future climate scenarios.

  9. UV-sensitive complex phosphorus: association with dissolved humic material and iron in a bog lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. FRANCKO; ROBERT T. HEATH

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of UV-sensitive complex phosphorus compounds in water from an acid bog lake was linearly related to the concentration of dissolved high molecular weight humic material (DHM) both seasonally and diurnally. The first-order rate of photoreduction (Fe\\/sup 3 +\\/ to Fe\\/sup 2 +\\/) of DHM iron equaled the rate of release of orthophosphate (SRP) from these compounds. The rate

  10. Dissolved organic carbon affects soil microbial activity and nitrogen dynamics in a Mexican tropical deciduous forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noé Manuel Montaño; Felipe García-Oliva; Víctor J. Jaramillo

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation of dissolved organic C (DOC) and its effects on microbial activity and N dynamics were studied during two\\u000a consecutive years in soils with different organic C concentrations (hilltop and hillslope) in a tropical deciduous forest\\u000a of Mexico. We found that DOC concentrations were higher at the hilltop than at the hillslope soils, and in both soils generally\\u000a decreased

  11. Dissolved zirconium and hafnium distributions across a shelf break in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Godfrey; W. M. White; V. J. M. Salters

    1996-01-01

    Dissolved Zr and Hf distributions have been determined for five stations located across the shelf break in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean on the Celtic Approaches. For stations in deep water, the range in Zr concentrations has been found to be 70–180 pmol\\/kg, and the range in hafnium concentrations 0.4–1.1 pmol\\/kg. The distributions with depth are indicative of a nutrient-like scavenging-regeneration

  12. Humic substances—part 7: the biogeochemistry of dissolved organic carbon and its interactions with climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Porcal; Jean-François Koprivnjak; Lewis A. Molot; Peter J. Dillon

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Dissolved organic matter, measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), is an important component of aquatic ecosystems and\\u000a of the global carbon cycle. It is known that changes in DOC quality and quantity are likely to have ecological repercussions.\\u000a This review has four goals: (1) to discuss potential mechanisms responsible for recent changes in aquatic DOC concentrations;\\u000a (2)

  13. Estimating nitrate, dissolved organic carbon and DOC fractions in forest floor leachates using ultraviolet absorbance spectra and multivariate analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Simonsson; Klaus Kaiser; Rolf Danielsson; Francis Andreux; Jacques Ranger

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate regressions on ultraviolet (UV) absorbance (210–300 nm) data were tested as a potential tool to estimate concentrations of total dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DOC in the XAD-8-adsorbable (hydrophobic) fraction (HoDOC), and dissolved nitrate (NO3-N) in forest floor leachates. Partial least square (PLS) regressions were established for 20 zero-tension lysimeter solutions sampled in plots of coniferous and deciduous forest stands

  14. Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdige, D. J.; Skoog, A.; Gardner, K.

    2000-03-01

    Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) represented ˜5-9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared to be a similar fraction of total sediment carbon oxidation (or C ox). When these results are compared with results from other coastal sediments and a pelagic turbidite, PCHO remineralization (as a percentage of C ox) did not vary by more than a factor of ˜2-3 over a 3-4 order of magnitude range in C ox values. The causes of this are not well understood, but may be related to specific effects associated with the remineralization of highly altered organic matter mixtures under aerobic conditions. Dissolved carbohydrates (DCHOs) in these sediment pore waters ranged from ˜30 to 400 ?M, increased with depth in a manner similar to total DOC, and represented ˜10 to 55% of pore water DOC. In Chesapeake Bay sediments this percentage decreased with sediment depth, while in these continental margin sediments it was constant (upper 30 cm). Of the DCHOs in these pore waters ˜30 to 50% could be identified as individual aldoses (monomeric neutral sugars), and total aldose yields (individual aldoses as a percentage of total DOC) were higher in these continental margin sediment pore waters (>9%) than they were in the estuarine sediment pore waters (<5%). A comparison of DCHO and PCHO concentrations in these sediments indicates that their concentrations are uncoupled, and that pore water DCHO concentrations are primarily controlled by sediment remineralization processes. Pore water DCHOs appeared to be preferentially found in the high molecular weight (HMW) DOC pool, and likely occur as some of the initial HMW intermediates produced and consumed during sediment POC remineralization. These results also support past suggestions about the differing controls on carbon remineralization processes in continental margin versus estuarine sediments.

  15. Influence of a supplementary carbon source on biodegradation of pyridine by freely suspended and immobilized Pimelobacter sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-K. Rhee; G. M. Lee; S.-T. Lee

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the presence of supplementary glucose or acetate on the growth and pyridine-degrading activity of freely suspended and calcium-alginate-immobilized Pimelobacter sp. was investigated. Although the supplementary carbon sources could be degraded simultaneously with pyridine, Pimelobacter sp. exhibited a preference for pyridine over supplementary carbon sources. Thus, the pyridine-degrading activity of the freely suspended cells was not decreased significantly

  16. Dissolved and Particulate 230Th - 232Th systematics in the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, G. I.; Marcantonio, F.

    2013-12-01

    To complement our work in the eastern Equatorial Pacific, we have measured total and dissolved 230Th and 232Th in the central Equatorial Pacific at two sites, one at 8°N and the other at the equator (ML1208-03CTD; 00° 13.166' S, 155° 57.668' W and ML1208-12CTD; 8° 19.989' N, 159° 18.000' W). The two seawater casts were collected in May 2012 during an NSF-funded "Line Islands" cruise to test for the extent of advection or diffusion of dissolved 230Th from the oligotrophic North Pacific gyre (low particle flux) to the more productive equatorial region (high particle flux). Our thorium results are similar to previous data published for the western and central North Pacific Ocean. Dissolved 230Th concentrations range from 1.1 fg/kg at 100 m to 30.8 fg/kg at 4400 m, while dissolved 232Th concentrations span from 8.1 pg/kg at 900 m to 19.7 pg/kg at 4400 m. The pattern of the dissolved 230Th profile at 8°N is essentially linear from the surface to 2000 m. From 2000 m to 3000 m, the dissolved 230Th concentrations are constant, and then from 3000 m to the bottom, the profile is linear again. At the same site, the particulate fraction of the total seawater 230Th increases exponentially from about 0% at the surface to 38% at 4400 m. From 0 to 3000 m at 8°N, dissolved 232Th concentrations display a relatively constant pattern (variability of about 20%). From 3000 m to 4400 m, dissolved 232Th contents are more variable, but generally increase toward greater depths. The proportion of 232Th in the particulate fraction of the total seawater sample increases exponentially with depth to a value of 58% in the bottommost sample. We will present additional data from the equator and assess the particulate dynamics that control the distribution of thorium isotopes in central equatorial Pacific seawater.

  17. Tracing origins of sewage and organic matter using dissolved sterols in Masan and Haengam Bay, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Soon Mo; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-06-01

    Masan and Haengam Bays in Korea are highly polluted and semi-enclosed. Domestic and industrial effluents are directly or indirectly discharged into the bays through sewage treatment plants (STP) and creeks. In this study, 15 dissolved sterol compounds were determined in order to understand their sources and relative contribution. Freshwater samples were taken from 13 creeks and at two STP sites on a monthly basis. Total dissolved sterol concentrations ranged from 993 to 4158 ng/L. The concentrations of sterols in winter were higher than in summer. Among the sterols analyzed, cholesterol, ?-sitosterol, coprostanol and cholestanone were major compounds in creek water. Seawater samples were concurrently collected at 21 stations in Masan Bay. Total sterol concentrations ranged 118-6,956 ng/L. Inner bay showed high concentrations of sterols in summer, while outer bay showed high sterol concentrations in winter. Among the sterols, cholesterol, ?-sitosterol and brassicasterol were major compounds in seawater. In order to examine the contribution of urban sewage, the concentration of coprostanol and fecal sterol ratios were calculated. Most of the creek water, inner bay and near STP outlet samples were affected by sewage. Terrestrial organic matters accounted for a high proportion of dissolved organic matter origin. Fecal origins were relatively high in the inner bay areas and in the STP outlet, while sterols of marine origin were high in the outer bay areas.

  18. Decoding of intentional actions from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in freely-behaving infants.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Zachery R; Cruz-Garza, Jesus; Tse, Teresa; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) in humans is thought to enable an individual's understanding of the meaning of actions performed by others and the potential imitation and learning of those actions. In humans, electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in sensorimotor a-band at central electrodes, which desynchronizes both during execution and observation of goal-directed actions (i.e., ? suppression), have been considered an analog to MNS function. However, methodological and developmental issues, as well as the nature of generalized ? suppression to imagined, observed, and performed actions, have yet to provide a mechanistic relationship between EEG ?-rhythm and MNS function, and the extent to which EEG can be used to infer intent during MNS tasks remains unknown. In this study we present a novel methodology using active EEG and inertial sensors to record brain activity and behavioral actions from freely-behaving infants during exploration, imitation, attentive rest, pointing, reaching and grasping, and interaction with an actor. We used 5-band (1-4Hz) EEG as input to a dimensionality reduction algorithm (locality-preserving Fisher's discriminant analysis, LFDA) followed by a neural classifier (Gaussian mixture models, GMMs) to decode the each MNS task performed by freely-behaving 6-24 month old infants during interaction with an adult actor. Here, we present results from a 20-month male infant to illustrate our approach and show the feasibility of EEG-based classification of freely occurring MNS behaviors displayed by an infant. These results, which provide an alternative to the ?-rhythm theory of MNS function, indicate the informative nature of EEG in relation to intentionality (goal) for MNS tasks which may support action-understanding and thus bear implications for advancing the understanding of MNS function. PMID:25570402

  19. Long-term behavioral tracking of freely swimming weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Long-term behavioral tracking can capture and quantify natural animal behaviors, including those occurring infrequently. Behaviors such as exploration and social interactions can be best studied by observing unrestrained, freely behaving animals. Weakly electric fish (WEF) display readily observable exploratory and social behaviors by emitting electric organ discharge (EOD). Here, we describe three effective techniques to synchronously measure the EOD, body position, and posture of a free-swimming WEF for an extended period of time. First, we describe the construction of an experimental tank inside of an isolation chamber designed to block external sources of sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and vibration. The aquarium was partitioned to accommodate four test specimens, and automated gates remotely control the animals' access to the central arena. Second, we describe a precise and reliable real-time EOD timing measurement method from freely swimming WEF. Signal distortions caused by the animal's body movements are corrected by spatial averaging and temporal processing stages. Third, we describe an underwater near-infrared imaging setup to observe unperturbed nocturnal animal behaviors. Infrared light pulses were used to synchronize the timing between the video and the physiological signal over a long recording duration. Our automated tracking software measures the animal's body position and posture reliably in an aquatic scene. In combination, these techniques enable long term observation of spontaneous behavior of freely swimming weakly electric fish in a reliable and precise manner. We believe our method can be similarly applied to the study of other aquatic animals by relating their physiological signals with exploratory or social behaviors. PMID:24637642

  20. Dynamics of dissolved organic matter in fjord ecosystems: Contributions of terrestrial dissolved organic matter in the deep layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Youhei; McCallister, S. Leigh; Koch, Boris P.; Gonsior, Michael; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2015-06-01

    Annually, rivers and inland water systems deliver a significant amount of terrestrial organic matter (OM) to the adjacent coastal ocean in both particulate and dissolved forms; however, the metabolic and biogeochemical transformations of OM during its seaward transport remains one of the least understood components of the global carbon cycle. This transfer of terrestrial carbon to marine ecosystems is crucial in maintaining trophic dynamics in coastal areas and critical in global carbon cycling. Although coastal regions have been proposed as important sinks for exported terrestrial materials, most of the global carbon cycling data, have not included fjords in their budgets. Here we present distributional patterns on the quantity and quality of dissolved OM in Fiordland National Park, New Zealand. Specifically, we describe carbon dynamics under diverse environmental settings based on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) depth profiles, oxygen concentrations, optical properties (fluorescence) and stable carbon isotopes. We illustrate a distinct change in the character of DOC in deep waters compared to surface and mid-depth waters. Our results suggest that, both, microbial reworking of terrestrially derived plant detritus and subsequent desorption of DOC from its particulate counterpart (as verified in a desorption experiment) are the main sources of the humic-like enriched DOC in the deep basins of the studied fjords. While it has been suggested that short transit times and protection of OM by mineral sorption may ultimately result in significant terrestrial carbon burial and preservation in fjords, our data suggests the existence of an additional source of terrestrial OM in the form of DOC generated in deep, fjord water.

  1. Effect of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons on the growth of marine bacteria in batch culture.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, J A; Lader, J H

    1976-01-01

    Dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons were found to decrease growth rate and maximum cell density of marine bacteria in batch cultures. The magnitude of the decrement was observed to be a function of concentration of the hydrocarbon and inherent toxicity. The inherent toxicity was observed to increase inversely with solubility such that naphthalene at 100 muM concentration demonstrated a toxic effect similar to benzopyrene at 0.02 muM. A partial oxidation product of naphthalene was found to be more effective in decreasing growth parameters than naphthalene at equivalent concentrations and to cause complete cessation of growth at the higher concentrations permitted by its polar structure. PMID:970939

  2. Electron Scattering from Freely Moveable spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ fermion in Strong Laser Field

    E-print Network

    Liu, Ai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We study the electron scatter from the freely movable spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ particle in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field in the first Born approximation. The dressed state of electrons is described by a time-dependent wave function derived from a perturbation treatment (of the laser field). With the aid of numerical results we explore the dependencies of the differential cross section on the laser field properties such as the strength, the frequency, as well as on the electron-impact energy, etc. Due to the targets are movable, the DCS of this process reduced comparing to the Mott scattering, especially in small scattering angles.

  3. Sensing dielectric media on the nanoscale with freely oriented gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wackenhut, Frank; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Meixner, Alfred J

    2013-04-21

    In this work we demonstrate that freely oriented individual gold nanorods (GNRs) can be used for sensing variations of the refractive index at the interface between two dielectric media. Both the elastic scattering and the luminescence signal of individual GNRs have been used to characterize the dielectric medium surrounding the particles. The scattering signal depends strongly on the distance from the focusing interface and the refractive index mismatch at the focusing interface, while the luminescence signal is only influenced by the last parameter. We used radially and azimuthally polarized light as an excitation source to directly determine the orientation of individual gold nanorods embedded within a dielectric medium. PMID:23420177

  4. Trapped modes around freely floating bodies in a two-layer fluid channel.

    PubMed

    Cal, Filipe S; Dias, Gonçalo A S; Videman, Juha H

    2014-10-01

    Unlike the trapping of time-harmonic water waves by fixed obstacles, the oscillation of freely floating structures gives rise to a complex nonlinear spectral problem. Still, through a convenient elimination scheme the system simplifies to a linear spectral problem for a self-adjoint operator in a Hilbert space. Under symmetry assumptions on the geometry of the fluid domain, we present conditions guaranteeing the existence of trapped modes in a two-layer fluid channel. Numerous examples of floating bodies supporting trapped modes are given. PMID:25294970

  5. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces: Simulations and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hygum, M. A.; Popok, V. N.

    2014-07-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time evolution of relative humidity based on statistical rate theory and computational fluid dynamics is developed. In our approach we use short-term steady-state steps to simulate the slowly evolving evaporation in the system. Experiments demonstrate considerably good agreement with the computer modeling and allow one to distinguish the most important parameters for the model.

  6. Surface-enhanced ordering and layer-thinning transitions in freely suspended smectic-A films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ratón, Y.; Somoza, A. M.; Mederos, L.; Sullivan, D. E.

    1997-02-01

    We propose a physical mechanism which leads to surface-enhanced smectic-A ordering (SESO) at the free surface of a model liquid crystal. We also provide an explanation, based on a density-functional theory, for recent experimental results for the melting behavior of freely suspended smectic (FSS) films. It is shown that stepwise layer-thinning transitions do not usually occur during melting of FSS films, despite the presence of SESO. We find that thinning transitions similar to those observed experimentally occur under conditions such that the film interior melts to a nematic rather than isotropic liquid phase.

  7. Precipitates in landfill leachate mediated by dissolved organic matters.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenze; Xue, Qiang; Liu, Lei; Li, Jiangshan

    2015-04-28

    Clogging of landfill leachate collection system is so ubiquitous that it causes problems to landfills. Although precipitations of calcite and other minerals have been widely observed, the mechanism of precipitation remains obscure. We examined the clog composition, dissolved organic matters, leachate chemical compositions and the correlation of these variables in view of the precipitation process. It is shown that Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) inhibits precipitation of landfill leachate. Using the advanced NICA-Donnan model, the analysis of aqueous chemical reactions between Mg-Ca-DOC-CO2 suggests a good agreement with experimental observations. Calcite and dolomite are both found to be oversaturated in most of the landfill leachate samples. DOC is found to preferentially bind with Mg than Ca, leading to more likely precipitation of Calcite than dolomite from landfill leachate. The NICA-Donnan model gives a reasonable estimation of dolomite saturation index in a wide range of DOC. Modeling confirms the major precipitation mechanism in terms of alkaline earth metal carbonate. Uncertainties in model parameters are discussed with particular focus on DOC composition, functional group types and density concentration and the influential factors. PMID:25661175

  8. Reduced water density at hydrophobic surfaces: Effect of dissolved gases

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Dhaval A.; Watkins, Erik B.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2005-01-01

    Here, direct noninvasive neutron reflectivity measurements reveal the presence of a reduced (deuterated) water density region, with a sigmoidal density profile at the hydrophobic silane–water interface that depends on the type and concentration of dissolved gases in the water. Removal of dissolved gases decreases the width of the reduced water density region, and their reintroduction leads to its increase. When compared with recent computer simulations, a locally fluctuating density profile is proposed, whereas preexisting nanobubbles are excluded. The presence of a fluctuating reduced water density region between two hydrophobic surfaces and the attractive “depletion force” to which it leads may help explain the hydrophobic force and its reported diminution in deaerated water. Our results are also quantitatively consistent with recent dynamic surface force apparatus results that drastically revise previous estimates of the slip length of water flowing past hydrophobic surfaces from microns to ?20 nm. Our observations, therefore, go a long way toward reconciling three quite different types of experiments and phenomena: water depletion at hydrophobic surfaces, water slip at hydrophobic surfaces, and the hydrophobic interaction. PMID:15976022

  9. Cracking of duplex stainless steel due to dissolved hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.H. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Altstetter, C.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-05-01

    Ferallium 255 duplex stainless steel was cathodically precharged with hydrogen at 265 C in a molten salt electrolyte. Sustained load tests were carried out in air at 0 C, 25 C and 50 C with average hydrogen contents from 3 to 15 wt ppm. The DC potential drop method was calibrated with optical measurements to continuously monitor the crack position and allow calculation of crack velocity and stress intensity. The crack velocity vs stress intensity (K) curves generally rose gradually over a large range in K and had definite thresholds for subcritical crack growth. Second and third stages were not always clearly delineated. Threshold stress intensities decreased as hydrogen content increased. An identifiable stage 2 occurred most often for alloys containing about 10 wt ppm dissolved hydrogen. The crack growth velocities generally increased with increasing temperature or hydrogen content. As the dissolved hydrogen increased, the fracture mode changed from microvoid coalescence (MVC) to microcrack coalescence (MCC) with some tearing ridges. At high hydrogen content, both ferrite and austenite phases showed brittle morphology, which was identical to the fracture surface of the uncharged specimens tested in hydrogen gas at 108 kPa pressure. Comparing the embrittling effect of internal hydrogen with that of external hydrogen it is found that the threshold stress intensity in hydrogen gas at 1 atm is lower than that at the highest internal hydrogen concentration (15 wt ppm).

  10. Dissolved organic nitrogen in precipitation: Collection, analysis and atmospheric flux

    SciTech Connect

    Scudlark, J.R.; Church, T.M. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States). Graduate Coll. of Marine Studies; Russell, K.M. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States). Graduate Coll. of Marine Studies; Montag, J.A.; Maben, J.R.; Keene, W.C.; Galloway, J.N. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies have documented the importance of atmosphere inorganic nitrogen deposition to coastal waters. However, due to the limited number of field measurements and concerns about the reliability of measurement techniques, the aeolian flux of organic N is very uncertain. Coordinated studies have been initiated at Lewes, DE and Charlottesville, VA to evaluate collection and analysis techniques for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in precipitation and to provide preliminary estimate of DON wet fluxes. Sampling was conducted both manually and employing an automated wet-only collector (ACM) on a daily basis. A total of 37 events were analyzed from October 1993 through December 1994. Side-by-side comparisons of standard white HDPE buckets and stainless steel and glass collection vessels indicate sampling artifacts associate with plastic buckets. DON in precipitation appears to be highly labile, with significant losses observed in some samples within 12 hours. Analytical methods evaluated include persulfate wet chemical oxidation, UV photo-oxidation and a modified high temperature instrumental (ANTEK 7000) technique. Based on preliminary results, the volume-weighted average concentration of DON in precipitation at the mid-Atlantic coast is 9.1 {micro}moles/1. On an annual basis, DON compromises 23% of the total dissolved nitrogen in precipitation, varying from 0--64% on an event basis. From an ecological perspective, DON wet flux represents a quantitatively important exogenous source of N to coastal waters such as Chesapeake Bay.

  11. A novel method for the measurement of dissolved adenosine and guanosine triphosphate in aquatic habitats: applications to marine microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Björkman, K M; Karl, D M

    2001-11-01

    A novel method for the measurement of dissolved adenosine-5'-triphosphate and guanosine-5'-triphosphate (D-ATP and D-GTP, respectively) in marine and freshwater habitats was developed and applied to samples collected from the oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean. Both D-ATP and D-GTP are co-precipitated by authigenically formed Mg(OH)(2) and can be concentrated by factors greater than 200-fold, for subsequent measurement by the firefly luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence reaction. The detection limit for this method was 2-3 pmol ml(-1) of concentrated sample (equivalent to an in situ concentration of 10 pM) with a 5% precision at concentrations of 10 pmol ml(-1) or above.A significant positive correlation (P<0.001) was observed between particulate ATP (P-ATP) and D-ATP in water samples collected from Station ALOHA (22.75 degrees N, 158 degrees W; depth profiles 0-1000 m). The highest concentrations of dissolved nucleotides were found in the euphotic zone (0-175 m) below which the concentrations were low and relatively invariant. The dissolved nucleotide pools generally exceeded their corresponding particulate pools.Using radioisotopic tracer techniques and the new concentration method, turnover times for both particulate and dissolved nucleotides can be determined. The ability to measure concentrations and follow nucleotide tracers accurately in a very dilute environment provides a unique opportunity to address questions on microbial community metabolism, nutrient dynamics and energy flux. PMID:11576680

  12. Dynamics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in a saline and semiarid stream of southeast Spain (Chicamo stream)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Vidal-Abarca; M. L. Suárez; C. Guerrero; J. Velasco; J. L. Moreno; A. Millán; A. Perán

    2001-01-01

    Annual variations in the concentration of dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (CPOC = Coarse; FPOC = Fine; UPOC = Ultrafine) were studied in a 100 m-reach of the Chicamo stream, an intermittent saline stream in southeast Spain. DOC represented the most important fraction of organic carbon flowing in the Chicamo stream (>98%), with concentrations of about 1.7 mgC l-1

  13. The distribution of dissolved and total dissolvable aluminum in the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin region of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, Timothy; Sim, Nari; Orians, Kristin J.; Cullen, Jay T.

    2013-12-01

    Vertical profiles of the concentrations of dissolved Al [D-Al] and total dissolvable Al [T-Al] are reported from a transect extending from the continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea into the Canada Basin in the Arctic Ocean. Sampling was performed in late summer and early autumn 2007, a year of historically extensive sea-ice melt. Vertical profiles of [D-Al] displayed surface maxima (1-3 nmol kg-1), subsurface minima (<1 nmol kg-1) in the upper halocline layer (Upper HL; 50-200 m), and a general increase in concentration with depth to values of ˜5-10 nmol kg-1. Near surface maxima at this time were associated with relatively fresh surface waters (26-30) resulting from sea-ice melt in the region. This observation supports sea ice with entrained sediments and surface deposition of aerosols as important mechanisms for the delivery of Al to surface waters of the Canada Basin. No correlation between D-Al and silicic acid was observed and low D-Al:Si ratios in waters >300 m depth suggest that Al is likely lost through particle scavenging in the interior of the Canada Basin. Concentrations of T-Al show that particulate Al (>0.2 µm) is the dominant form of Al in the water column except at greater depths at the most offshore stations. Lateral transport of D-Al and T-Al off the shelf likely results from the offshore progression of cyclonic eddies spawned inshore, oscillating upwelling and downwelling favorable winds, and brine rejection during sea-ice formation that can drive currents sufficiently energetic to resuspend shelf sediments.

  14. Statistical summary of daily values data and trend analysis of dissolved-solids data at National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, F.C.; Schertz, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    A statistical summary is provided of the available continuous and once-daily discharge, specific-conductance, dissolved oxygen , water temperature, and pH data collected at NASQAN stations during the 1973-81 water years and documents the period of record on which the statistical calculations were based. In addition, dissolved-solids data are examined by regression analyses to determine the relation between dissolved solids and specific conductance and to determine if long-term trends can be detected in dissolved-solids concentrations. Statistical summaries, regression equations expressing the relation between dissolved solids and specific conductance, and graphical presentations of trend analyses of dissolved solids are presented for 515 NASQAN stations in the United States, Canada, Guam, and Puerto Rico. (USGS)

  15. Export of young terrigenous dissolved organic carbon from rivers to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Ronald; Benitez-Nelson, Bryan; Kaiser, Karl; Amon, Rainer M. W.

    2004-03-01

    Soils in the drainage basins of Arctic rivers are a major global reservoir of aged organic carbon. The fate of this old carbon is of growing concern as the effects of climate change become more evident in the Arctic. We report natural abundance 14C data indicating that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from several Eurasian and North American rivers is predominantly young and largely derived from recently-fixed C in plant litter and upper soil horizons. Concentrations of dissolved lignin phenols, unique organic tracers of terrestrial plant material, and 14C content in DOC were strongly correlated throughout the Arctic Ocean, indicating terrigenous DOC is mostly young and widely distributed in polar surface waters. These young ages of terrigenous DOC in rivers and the ocean indicate little of the old carbon stored in Arctic soils is currently being mobilized in the dissolved component of continental runoff.

  16. The separation of waste printed circuit board by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J

    2013-02-01

    Separation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been a bottleneck in WPCBs resource processing. In this study, the separation of WPCBs was performed using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Various parameters, which included solid to liquid ratio, temperature, WPCB sizes, and time, were studied to understand the separation of WPCBs by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using DMSO. Experimental results showed that the concentration of dissolving the bromine epoxy resin increased with increasing various parameters. The optimum condition of complete separation of WPCBs was solid to liquid ratio of 1:7 and WPCB sizes of 16 mm(2) at 145°C for 60 min. The used DMSO was vapored under the decompression, which obtained the regenerated DMSO and dissolved bromine epoxy resin. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to separate valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of waste printed circuit boards effectively. PMID:23177567

  17. PREDICTION OF DISSOLVER LIFETIMES THROUGH NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND LABORATORY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Woodsmall, T.; Hinz, W.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-03

    Non-destructive evaluation was used as the primary method of monitoring the corrosion degradation of nuclear material dissolvers and assessing the remaining lifetimes. Materials were typically processed in nitric acid based (4-14M) solutions containing fluoride concentrations less than 0.2 M. The primary corrosion issue for the stainless steel dissolvers is the occurrence of localized corrosion near the tank bottom and the heat affected zones of the welds. Laboratory data for a range of operational conditions, including solution chemistry and temperature, was used to assess the impact of processing changes on the dissolver corrosion rate. Experimental and NDE-based general corrosion rates were found to be in reasonable agreement for standard dissolution chemistries consisting of nitric acid with fluorides and at temperatures less than 95 C. Greater differences were observed when chloride was present as an impurity and temperatures exceeded 100 C.

  18. Dissolved sulfide-catalyzed precipitation of disordered dolomite: Implications for the formation mechanism of sedimentary dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangfu; Xu, Huifang; Konishi, Hiromi; Kemp, Joshua M.; Roden, Eric E.; Shen, Zhizhang

    2012-11-01

    Dolomite is a common mineral in the rock record. However, the rarity of modern dolomite and the notorious difficulty in synthesizing dolomite abiotically under normal Earth-surface conditions result in the long-standing “dolomite problem” in sedimentary geology. Some modern dolomites are associated with sediments where microbial sulfate reduction is active; however, the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in dolomite formation is still under debate. In this study, we tested the effect of dissolved sulfide on the precipitation of Ca-Mg carbonates, which has been never explored before although dissolved sulfide is one of the major products of microbial sulfate reduction. Our results demonstrated that dissolved sulfide with a concentration of as low as several millimoles can enhance the Mg2+ incorporation into the calcitic structure, and promote the crystallization of high magnesian calcite and disordered dolomite. We also conducted seeded precipitation in experimental solutions containing dissolved sulfide, which showed that calcite seeds can inhibit the precipitation of aragonite and monohydrocalcite (CaCO3·H2O), and induce more Mg2+ incorporation. We propose that accumulated dissolved sulfide in pore waters in organic-rich sediments may trigger the precipitation of disordered dolomite which can be considered as a precursor of some sedimentary dolomite. Our adsorption experiments revealed a strong adsorption of dissolved sulfide onto calcite faces. We suggest that adsorbed dissolved sulfide can lower the energy barrier to the dehydration of Mg2+-water complexes on the growing carbonate surfaces. This study sheds new light on understanding the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in dolomite formation and the formation mechanism of sedimentary dolomite.

  19. Export of Dissolved Lignin from Coastal Wetlands to the Louisiana Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, T. S.; Dimarco, S. F.; Smith, R. W.; Schreiner, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report on spatial and temporal changes in the concentration and composition of dissolved lignin- phenols in surface and bottom waters off the Louisiana coast (USA). Samples were collected at 7 stations on 2 cruises (April, and July, 2008) along a transect that spanned from inside Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana (12 m water depth) to the outer-most station on the inner Louisiana shelf (21 m water depth). The highest average concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved lignin, during both cruises, occurred at the interface between Terrebonne Bay and the inner shelf. Average DOC and dissolved lignin concentrations were significantly higher in April than in July across most stations. Based on hydrologic data, these higher concentrations clearly reflect a combined mixing of DOM from plume waters to the west and local marsh inputs. The cinnamyl/vanillyl (C/V) and syringyl/vanillyl (S/V) ratios indicated that the predominant source of lignin was from non-woody angiosperms - likely the dominant species of wetland plants Spartina alterniflora and S. patens (Spartina spp.) that border the entire bay. The high vanillic acid to vanillin (Ad/Al)v ratios for all stations were typical of that found near estuarine boundaries, where biologically- and photochemically-mediated lignin decay processes are important. This preliminary data indicates that wetlands provide another source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the Louisiana shelf that likely contributes to microbial food resources and hence hypoxia, especially in the context of the instability and extensive erosion of these marshes over the past ca. 50 years. This has important implications for the current management plan to reduce hypoxia in the GOM, particularly in those regions that extend west of the nutrient-rich highly productive near-field zones of Atchafalaya-Mississippi river plumes.

  20. Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands near the Kerguelen Archipelago in the Southern Ocean (Indian sector)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerringa, L. J. A.; Blain, S.; Laan, P.; Sarthou, G.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; Viollier, E.; Timmermans, K. R.

    2008-03-01

    During the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS; January-February 2005) cruise, the area southeast of the Kerguelen Archipelago in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated to identify the mechanisms of natural iron fertilization of the Kerguelen Plateau. In this study, the organic speciation of Fe is described. Samples were determined immediately on board using competing ligand-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CL-AdCSV). The dissolved organic ligands were always in excess of the dissolved Fe concentration, increasing the residence time in the water column and the potential availability for phytoplankton. The concentration of the dissolved organic ligands ranged from 0.44 to 1.61 nEq of M Fe (=complexation site for Fe), with an average concentration of 0.91 nEq of M Fe (S.D.=0.28, n=113) and a mean logarithm of conditional stability constant (log K') of 21.7 (S.D.=0.28, n=113). A second weaker dissolved organic ligand group was detected in 32% of the samples, with Fe-binding characteristics at the edge of the detection window of the applied method. The occurrence of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic ligands in the wind-mixed surface layer and near the sediment at the bottom of the water column indicated that both phytoplankton and the sediment act as sources. Both sources are in concert with the general conclusions from the KEOPS research on the sources of Fe, where Fe was regenerated, organic Fe-binding ligands were formed in the upper layers, and both Fe and ligands were supplied by the sediment.

  1. Removal of actinides from dissolved ORNL MVST sludge using the TRUEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.; Egan, B.Z.; Chase, C.W.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the transuranium extraction process for partitioning actinides from actual dissolved high-level radioactive waste sludge. All tests were performed at ambient temperature. Time and budget constraints permitted only two experimental campaigns. Samples of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25 were rinsed with mild caustic (0.2 M NaOH) to reduce the concentrations of nitrates and fission products associated with the interstitial liquid. In one campaign, the rinsed sludge was dissolved in nitric acid to produce a solution containing total metal concentrations of ca. 1.8 M with a nitric acid concentration of ca. 2.9 M. About 50% of the dry mass of the sludge was dissolved. In the other campaign, the sludge was neutralized with nitric acid to destroy the carbonates, then leached with ca. 2.6 M NaOH for ca. 6 h before rinsing with the mild caustic. The sludge was then dissolved in nitric acid to produce a solution containing total metal concentrations of ca. 0.6 M with a nitric acid concentration of ca. 1.7 M. About 80% of the sludge dissolved. The dissolved sludge solution form the first campaign began gelling immediately, and a visible gel layer was observed after 8 days. In the second campaign, the solution became hazy after ca. 8 days, indicating gel formation, but did not display separated gel layers after aging for 20 days. Batch liquid-liquid equilibrium tests of both the extraction and stripping operations were conducted. Chemical analyses of both phases were used to evaluate the process. Evaluation was based on two metrics: the fraction of TRU elements removed from the dissolved sludge and comparison of the results with predictions made with the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM). The fractions of Eu, Pu, Cm, Th, and U species removed from aqueous solution in only one extraction stage were > 95% and were close to the values predicted by the GTM. Mercury was also found to be strongly extracted, with a one-stage removal of > 92%.

  2. SUSPENDED AND DISSOLVED SOLIDS EFFECTS ON FRESHWATER BIOTA: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely recognized that suspended and dissolved solids in lakes, rivers, streams, and reservoirs affect water quality. In this report the research needs appropriate to setting freshwater quality criteria or standards for suspended solids (not including bedload) and dissolved...

  3. Investigating neural correlates of behavior in freely behaving rodents using inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Subramaniam; Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M; Carmena, Jose M

    2010-07-01

    Simultaneous behavior and multielectrode neural recordings in freely behaving rodents holds great promise to study the neural bases of behavior and disease models in combination with genetic manipulations. Here, we introduce the use of three-axis accelerometers to characterize the behavior of rats and mice during chronic neural recordings. These sensors were small and light enough to be worn by rodents and were used to record three-axis acceleration during freely moving behavior. A two-layer neural network-based pattern recognition algorithm was developed to extract the natural behavior of mice from the acceleration data. Successful recognition of resting, eating, grooming, and rearing are shown using this approach. The inertial sensors were combined with continuous 24-h recordings of neural data from the striatum of mice to characterize variations in neural activity with circadian cycles and to study the neural correlates of spontaneous action initiation. Finally, accelerometers were used to study the performance of rodents in traditional operant conditioning, where they were used to extract the reaction time of rodents. Thus the addition of accelerometer recordings of rodents to chronic multielectrode neural recordings provides great value for a number of neuroscience applications. PMID:20427622

  4. Manipulating freely diffusing single 20-nm particles in an Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic Trap (ABELtrap)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabi, Nawid; Clausen, Caterina; Düser, Monika G.; Börsch, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Conformational changes of individual fluorescently labeled proteins can be followed in solution using a confocal microscope. Two fluorophores attached to selected domains of the protein report fluctuating conformations. Based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between these fluorophores on a single protein, sequential distance changes between the dyes provide the real time trajectories of protein conformations. However, observation times are limited for freely diffusing biomolecules by Brownian motion through the confocal detection volume. A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner have invented and built microfluidic devices with 4 electrodes for an Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic Trap (ABELtrap). Here we present an ABELtrap based on a laser focus pattern generated by a pair of acousto-optical beam deflectors and controlled by a programmable FPGA chip. Fluorescent 20-nm beads in solution were used to mimic freely diffusing large proteins like solubilized FoF1-ATP synthase. The ABELtrap could hold these nanobeads for about 10 seconds at the given position. Thereby, observation times of a single particle were increased by a factor of 1000.

  5. Virally mediated optogenetic excitation and inhibition of pain in freely moving non-transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shrivats Mohan; Montgomery, Kate L.; Towne, Chris; Lee, Soo Yeun; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Delp, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Primary nociceptors are the first neurons involved in the complex processing system that regulates normal and pathological pain1. Our ability to excite and inhibit these neurons has been limited by pharmacological and electrical stimulation constraints; non-invasive excitation and inhibition of these neurons in freely moving non-transgenic animals has not been possible. Here we use an optogenetic2 strategy to bidirectionally control nociceptors of non-transgenic mice. Intra-sciatic nerve injection of adeno-associated viruses encoding an excitatory opsin enabled light-inducible stimulation of acute pain, place aversion, and optogenetically mediated reductions in withdrawal thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In contrast, viral delivery of an inhibitory opsin enabled light-inducible inhibition of acute pain perception, and reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain. Light was delivered transdermally enabling these behaviors to be induced in freely moving animals. This approach may have utility in basic and translational pain research, and enable rapid drug screening and testing of newly engineered opsins. PMID:24531797

  6. Measuring Whole-Brain Neural Dynamics and Behavior of Freely-Moving C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Frederick; Nguyen, Jeffrey; Plummer, George; Shaevitz, Joshua; Leifer, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Bridging the gap between an organism's neural dynamics and its ultimate behavior is the fundamental goal of neuroscience. Previously, to probe neural dynamics, we have been limited to measuring from a limited number of neurons, whether by electrode or optogenetic measurements. Here we present an instrument to simultaneously monitor neural activity from every neuron in a freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans' head, while recording behavior at the same time. Previously, whole-brain imaging has been demonstrated in C. elegans, but only in restrained and anesthetized animals (1). For studying neural coding of behavior it is crucial to study neural activity in freely behaving animals. Neural activity is recorded optically from cells expressing a calcium indicator, GCaMP6. Real time computer vision tracks the worm's position in x-y, while a piezo stage sweeps through the brain in z, yielding five brain-volumes per second. Behavior is recorded under infrared, dark-field imaging. This tool will allow us to directly correlate neural activity with behavior and we will present progress toward this goal. Thank you to the Simons Foundation and Princeton University for supporting this research.

  7. Optogenetic control of selective neural activity in multiple freely moving Drosophila adults

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Chin; Chu, Li-An; Hsiao, Po-Yen; Lin, Yen-Yin; Chi, Chen-Chieh; Liu, Tsung-Ho; Fu, Chien-Chung; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2014-01-01

    We present an automated laser tracking and optogenetic manipulation system (ALTOMS) for studying social memory in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). ALTOMS comprises an intelligent central control module for high-speed fly behavior analysis and feedback laser scanning (?40 frames per second) for targeting two lasers (a 473-nm blue laser and a 593.5-nm yellow laser) independently on any specified body parts of two freely moving Drosophila adults. By using ALTOMS to monitor and compute the locations, orientations, wing postures, and relative distance between two flies in real time and using high-intensity laser irradiation as an aversive stimulus, this laser tracking system can be used for an operant conditioning assay in which a courting male quickly learns and forms a long-lasting memory to stay away from a freely moving virgin female. With the equipped lasers, channelrhodopsin-2 and/or halorhodopsin expressed in selected neurons can be triggered on the basis of interactive behaviors between two flies. Given its capacity for optogenetic manipulation to transiently and independently activate/inactivate selective neurons, ALTOMS offers opportunities to systematically map brain circuits that orchestrate specific Drosophila behaviors. PMID:24706830

  8. Force estimation and turbulence in the wake of a freely flying European Starling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gida, Hadar; Kirchhefer, Adam; Kopp, Gregory; Gurka, Roi

    2011-11-01

    Flapping wings are one of the most complex yet widespread propulsion method found in nature. Although aeronautical technology has advanced rapidly over the past 100 years, natural flyers, which have evolved over millions of years, still feature higher efficiency and represent one of nature's finest locomotion methods. One of the key questions is the role of the unsteady motion in the flow due to the wing flapping and its contribution to the forces acting on a bird during downstroke and upstroke. The wake of a freely flying European Starling is investigated as a case study of unsteady wing aerodynamics. Measurements of the near wake have been taken using long duration high-speed PIV in the wake behind a freely flying bird in a specially designed avian wind tunnel. The wake has been characterized by means of velocity and vorticity fields. The measured flow field is decomposed based on the wing position phases. Drag and lift have been estimated using the mean velocity deficit and the circulation at the wake region. In addition, kinematic analysis of the wing motion and the body has been performed using additional high-speed cameras that recorded the bird movement simultaneously with the PIV. Correlations between the wing kinematics and the flow field characteristics are presented as well as the time evolution of the velocity, vorticity and additional turbulence parameters.

  9. Calcium imaging of multiple neurons in freely-behaving C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Maohua; Cao, Pengxiu; Yang, Jiong; Shawn Xu, X. Z.; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2012-01-01

    C. elegans is a popular model organism to study how neural circuits and genes regulate behavior. To reliably correlate circuit function with behavior, it is important to record neuronal activity in freely-behaving worms. As neural circuits are composed of multiple neurons that cooperate to process information, it is highly desirable to simultaneously record the activity of multiple neurons in the circuitry. However, such a system has not been available in C. elegans. Here, we report the CARIBN II (Calcium Ratiometric Imaging of Behaving Nematodes version II) system. This system provides smoother data collection and more importantly permits simultaneous imaging of calcium transients from multiple neurons in freely-behaving worms. Using this system, we imaged the activity of AVA and RIM, two key neurons in the locomotion circuitry that regulate backward movement (reversal) in locomotion behavior. We found that AVA activity increases while RIM activity decreases during the same reversal events in spontaneous locomotion, consistent with the recent report that the AVA and RIM are involved in promoting the initiation of reversals. The CARIBN II system provides a valuable tool for dissecting the neural basis of behavior in C. elegans. PMID:22260981

  10. Dynamics of freely moving plates connected by a shallow liquid bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Amir; Navaz, Homayun; Gharib, Morteza

    2011-11-01

    We study the dynamics of freely moving solid bodies connected by a shallow liquid bridge via analytic and experimental methods. The gap between the solid bodies is used as a small parameter within a lubrication approximation, reducing the problem to an Abel equation of the second kind. Analysis of the governing differential equation yields two novel physical phenomena: (1) An impulse-like peak in the force applied by the liquid bridge on the solid bodies, obtained from a uniform asymptotic solution for small Capillary numbers. (2) Both linear and non-linear oscillations of the system for the case of surfaces with low wettability, obtained from small perturbations of the system around the equilibrium point. An experimental setup examining the motion of freely moving solid bodies was constructed, yielding experimental data which compared favorably with the analytic results and specifically displayed the predicted oscillations and impulse-like peak of the applied force. The application of the current analysis to the micro-manipulation of solid bodies and possible future research directions are discussed. This project was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Award Number: 330233-A.

  11. Dynamics of freely moving plates connected by a shallow liquid bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Amir; Navaz, Homayun; Gharib, Morteza

    2011-09-01

    We study the dynamics of freely moving plates connected by a shallow liquid bridge via analytic and experimental methods. The gap between the plates is used as a small parameter within a lubrication approximation, reducing the problem to an Abel equation of the second kind. Analysis of the governing differential equation yields two novel physical phenomena: (1) An impulse-like peak in the force applied by the liquid bridge on the plates, obtained from a uniform asymptotic solution for small capillary numbers. (2) Both linear and non-linear oscillations of the system for the case of surfaces with low wettability, obtained from small perturbations of the system around the equilibrium point. An experimental setup examining the motion of freely moving plates was constructed, yielding experimental data which compared favorably with the analytic results and specifically displayed the predicted oscillations and impulse-like peak of the applied force. The application of the current analysis to the manipulation of solid bodies and possible future research directions are discussed.

  12. Leaching of Particulate and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Compost Applied to Bioretention Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Hamid; Flury, Markus; Mullane, Jessica; Baig, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Compost is used in bioretention systems to improve soil quality, to promote plant growth, and to remove metal contaminants from stormwater. However, compost itself, particularly when applied freshly, can be a source of contamination of the stormwater. To test the potential contamination caused by compost when applied to bioretention systems, we continuously leached a compost column with water under unsaturated conditions and characterized dissolved and particulate organic matter in the leachate. Freshly applied, mature compost leached up to 400 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon and 2,000 mg/L of suspended particulate organic carbon. It required a cumulative water flux of 4,000 mm until concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon declined to levels typical for surface waters. Although, dissolved and particulate organic carbon are not contaminants per se, they can facilitate the movement of metals, thereby enhancing the mobility of toxic metals present in stormwater. Therefore, we recommended that compost is washed before it is applied to bioretention systems. Keywords compost; leachate; alkali extract; dissolved organic carbon; flux

  13. Dissolved oxygen control of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer county wastewater treatment plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtenberger, F.J.; Biski, W.K.; Guagno, J.A.

    1994-02-01

    The report describes the results of testing dissolved oxygen analyzers to control operation of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant and reduce the amount of energy uses while maintaining or enhancing biological treatment. Current electricity costs are more than $300,000 annually for aeration in the activated sludge process. Motors for the aerators are manually controlled between high and low speed. It is expected that energy consumption will be reduced by using automatic controllers that change the speed of the aerators in response to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the aeration basins. The project had three objectives; to test several manufacturers` dissolved oxygen analyzers at various locations within the aeration basins at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant for accuracy, reliability, response time, and maintenance requirements; to install one manufacturer`s equipment in the aeration basins and operate the aerators either automatically or manually in response to dissolved oxygen readings; and to record plant operating and energy use data to determine whether the dissolved oxygen analyzers and controls were cost-effective and saved energy.

  14. Measurement of dissolved carbon dioxide using colorimetric polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Andrew; Wild, Lorraine

    1995-01-01

    The hydrophobic bases tetradodecylammonium hydroxide (TDAOH) and tetrakisdecylammonium hydroxide (TKAOH) are to be used to solubilize the anionic form of m-cresol purple in ethyl cellulose to create a dry colorimetric thin polymer film sensor for CO2 in the gas phase or dissolved in solution. When used in aqueous solution, both TDAOH and TKAOH appear significantly more resistant to interference by protons or other ions at high concentration when compared with tetraoctylammonium hydroxide (TOAOH), the hydrophobic base which has been used for such work in previous studies. The TDAOH films are used as carbon dioxide sensors in aqueous solution at high ionic strength (e.g. 1 mol dm-3) and still appear blue at pH 1 after 1 h.

  15. Methods of sample handling and analysis for dissolved and particulate amino acids and carbohydrates in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrichs, Susan M.

    Achieving low and consistent levels of contamination in sampling and analysis is crucial because of the low concentrations of amino acids and carbohydrates in marine samples. In seawater, concentrations range from less than 5 nM to 1 ?M for dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), 0.1 to 10 ?M for dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA), and 0.05 to 1 ?M for suspended particulate combined amino acids (PCAA) [e.g., Lee and Bada, 1977; Mopper and Lindroth, 1982; Lee and Cronin, 1984; Henrichs and Williams, 1985; Coffin, 1989]. Concentrations in sediment-trap collected particles generally range from 10 to 30% of carbon [Lee and Cronin 1982, 1984]. Since often less than 10 mg of carbon is available for analysis, only 1 mg, or 10 ?M, of combined amino acids are analyzed. Dissolved and particulate carbohydrate concentrations have been studied less, but the reported concentration ranges are similar to those for amino acids [Burney et al., 1979; Mopper et al., 1980; Cowie and Hedges, 1984a; Henrichs and Williams, 1985].

  16. Preliminary study on the dissolved and colloidal organic carbon in the Zhujiang River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Min-Han; Martin, Jean-Marie; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Zu-Lin

    2000-09-01

    This paper reports data on the dissolved and colloidal organic carbon in the Zhujiang (Pearl) River estuary. DOC concentration was 142 to 239 ?mol/L in the freshwater taken in March 1997 from the four Zhujiang River tributaries flowing into the Lingdingyang estuary. High concentration was observed in the Humen tributary located near Guangzhou. The rapidly increased DOC concentration at low salinities (˜5) may be attributed to the exchange between macroparticulate and dissolved organic matter during the early stage of estuarine mixing. DOC concentration overall followed the mixing line until salinity 25, where the Deep Bay is located and where DOC was elevated. This elevated DOC may suggest a local organic matter source from Shenzhen. Using a cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFF) system equipped with a Millipore Prep-scale CFF 1 kD regenerated cellulose membrane, we also separated the colloidal organic matter from the truly dissolved fraction (<1 kD). CFF membranes were carefully evaluated for their applicability (retention characteristics, blank level and mass balance) to separate colloidal organic matter. COC in the study area ranged from 5 to 85 ?mol/L, representing 3% 32% of DOC. The highest COC percentage was found at low salinities (<5) in both winter and summer. Evidence suggests in-situ production of colloidal material at this salinity range. Beyond this point, a very modest removal was observable until high salinities. Again, an increase in COC concentration was shown in the samples taken from the Deep Bay.

  17. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution. PMID:20667424

  18. Assessment of water quality and factors affecting dissolved oxygen in the Sangamon River, Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, summer 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, A.R.; Stamer, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality and processes that affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in a 45.9 mile reach of the Sangamon River from Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, were determined from data collected during low-flow periods in the summer of 1982. Relations among dissolved oxygen, water discharge, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations, and photosynthetic-oxygen production were simulated using a one-dimensional, steady-state computer model. Average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.0 milligrams per liter at the upstream end of the study reach at Decatur to 5.2 milligrams per liter 12.2 miles downstream. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 45 milligrams per liter at the mouth of Stevens Creek (2.6 miles downstream from Decatur) to 0.03 milligram per liter at the downstream end of the study reach. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations exceeded the maximum concentration specified in the State water quality standard (0.04 milligram per liter) throughout most of the study reach. Model simulations indicated that oxidation of ammonia to form nitrite plus nitrate was the most significant process leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river. (USGS)

  19. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Arctic ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Opel, T.; Tanski, G.; Herzschuh, U.; Meyer, H.; Eulenburg, A.; Lantuit, H.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal permafrost degradation and coastal erosion in the Arctic remobilize substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) and nutrients which have accumulated in late Pleistocene and Holocene unconsolidated deposits. Permafrost vulnerability to thaw subsidence, collapsing coastlines and irreversible landscape change are largely due to the presence of large amounts of massive ground ice such as ice wedges. However, ground ice has not, until now, been considered to be a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other elements which are important for ecosystems and carbon cycling. Here we show, using biogeochemical data from a large number of different ice bodies throughout the Arctic, that ice wedges have the greatest potential for DOC storage, with a maximum of 28.6 mg L-1 (mean: 9.6 mg L-1). Variation in DOC concentration is positively correlated with and explained by the concentrations and relative amounts of typically terrestrial cations such as Mg2+ and K+. DOC sequestration into ground ice was more effective during the late Pleistocene than during the Holocene, which can be explained by rapid sediment and OC accumulation, the prevalence of more easily degradable vegetation and immediate incorporation into permafrost. We assume that pristine snowmelt is able to leach considerable amounts of well-preserved and highly bioavailable DOC as well as other elements from surface sediments, which are rapidly frozen and stored in ground ice, especially in ice wedges, even before further degradation. We found that ice wedges in the Yedoma region represent a significant DOC (45.2 Tg) and DIC (33.6 Tg) pool in permafrost areas and a freshwater reservoir of 4200 km2. This study underlines the need to discriminate between particulate OC and DOC to assess the availability and vulnerability of the permafrost carbon pool for ecosystems and climate feedback upon mobilization.

  20. Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapra, S.C.; Runkel, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.

  1. Experimental simulation of solids distribution in coal liquefaction dissolvers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sivasubramanian; D. H. S. Ying; E. N. Givens

    1981-01-01

    A major element of the coal dissolution section of any liquefaction plant is the dissolver. The design of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant Dissolver planned for Western Kentucky based on data generated from the Wilsonville and Ft. Lewis dissolvers is discussed. Two different columns of 127 mm (5 inch) and 305 mm (12 inch) diameters were used to investigate the effect

  2. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries 

    E-print Network

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2008-10-10

    ................................ 51 xi FIGURE Page 17 Depth profiles of DGM, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen for the July 2005 and November 2005 studies ....................................................... 54 18 Depth profiles of DGM, salinity..., temperature, and dissolved oxygen for the January 2006 and February 2006 studies.......................................................... 55 19 Depth profiles of DGM, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen for the April 2006 and June 2006...

  3. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries 

    E-print Network

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2009-05-15

    ................................ 51 xi FIGURE Page 17 Depth profiles of DGM, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen for the July 2005 and November 2005 studies ....................................................... 54 18 Depth profiles of DGM, salinity..., temperature, and dissolved oxygen for the January 2006 and February 2006 studies.......................................................... 55 19 Depth profiles of DGM, salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen for the April 2006 and June 2006...

  4. Distribution and mobilization of dissolved selenium in ground water of the irrigated grand and Uncompahgre Valleys, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.; Butler, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water of the irrigated Grand and Uncompahgre Valleys is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground-water system composed of alluvium and shale residuum. Selenium concentrations are as high as 1,300 micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous Age, and the lowest concentrations were in water from wells completed in terrace deposits on the western side of the Uncompahgre Valley and in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Factors controlling the mobilization of dissolved selenium in the Grand and Uncompahgre Valleys could include oxidation/reduction, adsorption/desorption, and(or) ion exchange. Infiltration of irrigation water provides oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and transport to streams and irrigation drains tributary to the Uncompahgre, Gunnison and Colorado Rivers.

  5. Seawater RO treatment of RO concentrate to extreme silica concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Y. Ning; Anthony J. Tarquin; John E. Balliew

    2010-01-01

    Severe restrictions exist in the disposal of the concentrate from the 15 mgd (2370 m\\/h) reverse osmosis (RO) plant in El Paso, Texas (i.e., 15 mgd blended to 27.5 mgd). The current permit for the disposal by deep well injection limits the total dissolved solids in the brine to 10,000 mg\\/l. This limits water recovery in the plant and drives

  6. Freely chosen stride frequencies during walking and running are not correlated with freely chosen pedalling frequency and are insensitive to strength training.

    PubMed

    Sardroodian, Mahta; Madeleine, Pascal; Voigt, Michael; Hansen, Ernst A

    2015-06-01

    Despite biomechanical differences between walking, running, and cycling, these types of movement are supposedly generated by shared neural networks. According to this hypothesis, we investigated relationships between movement frequencies in these tasks as well as effects of strength training on locomotion behaviour. The movement frequencies during walking, running, and cycling were 58.1±2.6stridesmin(-1), 81.3±4.4stridesmin(-1), and 77.2±11.5revolutionsmin(-1), respectively (n=27). Stride frequencies in walking and running correlated positively (r=0.72, p<0.001) while no significant correlations were found between stride frequencies during walking and running, respectively, and pedalling frequency (r=0.16, p=0.219 and r=0.04, p=0.424). Potential changes in the freely chosen stride frequencies and stride phase characteristics were also investigated during walking and running through 4 weeks of (i) hip extension strength training (n=9), (ii) hip flexion strength training (n=9), and (iii) no intervention (n=9). Results showed that stride characteristics were unaffected by strength training. That is in contrast to previous observations of decreased pedalling frequency following strength training. In total, these results are proposed to indicate that walking and running movements are robustly generated due to an evolutionary consolidation of the interaction between the musculoskeletal system and neural networks. Further, based on the present results, and the fact that cycling is a postnatally developed task that likely results in a different pattern of descending and afferent input to rhythm generating neural networks than walking and running, we propose pedalling to be generated by neural networks mainly consolidated for locomotion. PMID:25943407

  7. HB-Line Dissolver Dilution Flows and Dissolution Capability with Dissolver Charge Chute Cover Off

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, D.F.

    2003-01-15

    A flow test was performed in Scrap Recovery of HB-Line to document the flow available for hydrogen dilution in the dissolvers when the charge chute covers are removed. Air flow through the dissolver charge chutes, with the covers off, was measured. A conservative estimate of experimental uncertainty was subtracted from the results. After subtraction, the test showed that there is 20 cubic feet per minute (cfm) air flow through the dissolvers during dissolution with a glovebox exhaust fan operating, even with the scrubber not operating. This test also showed there is 6.6 cfm air flow through the dissolvers, after subtraction of experimental uncertainty if the scrubber and the glovebox exhaust fans are not operating. Three H-Canyon exhaust fans provide sufficient motive force to give this 6.6 cfm flow. Material charged to the dissolver will be limited to chemical hydrogen generation rates that will be greater than or equal to 25 percent of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) during normal operations. The H-Canyon fans will maintain hydrogen below LFL if electrical power is lost. No modifications are needed in HB-Line Scrap Recovery to ensure hydrogen is maintained less that LFL if the scrubber and glovebox exhaust fans are not operating.

  8. Numerical simulation of dissolved silica in the San Fancisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.H.; Festa, J.F.; Conomos, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    A two-dimensional (vertical) steady-state numerical model that simulates water circulation and dissolved-silica distributions is applied to northern San Francisco Bay. The model (1) describes the strong influence of river inflow on estuarine circulation and, in turn, on the biologically modulated silica concentration, and (2) shows how rates of silica uptake relate to silica supply and mixing rates in modifying a conservative behavior. Longitudinal silica distributions influenced by biological uptake (assuming both vertically uniform and vertically decreasing uptake situations) show that uptake rates of 1 to 10 ??g-at. l-1 day-1 are sufficient to depress silica concentrations at river inflows of 100-400 m3 s-1, respectively, and that the higher rates appear ineffective at inflows above 400 m3 s-1. The simulations further indicate that higher silica utilization in the null zone is not essential to depress silica concentrations strongly there. Advective water-replacement times at river inflows of 400, 200 and 100 m3 s-1 are computed to be less than 25, 45 and 75 days, respectively, for a 120-km estuary-river system. ?? 1978.

  9. Field observation of diurnal dissolved oxygen fluctuations in shallow groundwater.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Keith E; Jacobson, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations influence many biogeochemical processes in groundwater systems but studies of temporal variability in DO are lacking. In this study, we used an optical DO probe to measure rapid changes in concentration due to plant-groundwater interaction at an alluvial aquifer field site in Iowa. Diurnal DO concentrations were observed during mid- to late-summer when soil conditions were dry, fluctuating approximately 0.2 to 0.3 mg/L on a daily basis. DO fluctuations in groundwater were out-of-phase with diurnal water table fluctuations, increasing during the day and decreasing at night. DO consumption at night is likely due to increased soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration linked with patterns of carbon supply derived from daytime photosynthetic activity, and consistent with available literature on diurnal soil respiration patterns. Although more work is needed to quantify specific processes, our results indicate the potential usefulness of the new optical DO technology to reveal insights regarding many ecohydrological processes. PMID:24841899

  10. Strontium, dissolved and particulate loads in fresh and brackish waters: The Baltic Sea and Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Per S.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ingri, Johan; Stordal, Mary C.

    1994-06-01

    A study was conducted of the isotopic composition and concentration of Sr and of major elements in dissolved and suspended loads of fresh and brackish waters. The purpose was to establish the contributions of different parent rocks and minerals to Sr during weathering and transport and to identify the role of Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxides in the redistribution of Sr in the water column during the sedimentary cycle. Studies were conducted on a profile across an oxic-anoxic boundary in the Baltic and on rivers covering behavior over an annual cycle. In general, the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios differ between particulate and dissolved loads, with more radiogenic Sr in the particulate loads. These differences are attributed to differential weathering of minerals, where high Rb/Sr minerals dominate the particulate load and low Rb/Sr the dissolved load. There is broad correlation of 87Sr/ 86Sr with K/Al in the suspended load. The differences in 87Sr/ 86Sr between suspended and dissolved load are highly variable and are related to the Fe or Mn concentration on the particulates. In samples with high Fe/Al, the difference becomes small. A good correlation was found between Sr/Al and Fe/Al or Mn/Al in the particulates both in brackish and fresh waters. Sr is removed from solution both in rivers and in the Baltic Sea whenever there is formation of Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxide particulates. This precipitation greatly diminishes the difference in isotopic composition of the dissolved and suspended loads. As the particles containing Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxides settle, they dissolve in anoxic zones and release Sr. This provides a mechanism for Sr redistribution in the water column. Sr is thus only quasi-conservative in environments where Fe sbnd Mn oxyhydroxides form or dissolve. From consideration of the isotopic differences in Sr between dissolved and suspended loads, it follows that the net Sr input depends upon weathering characteristics of the contributing mineral phases. Changes in weathering mechanisms due to climate change may cause Sr isotopic shifts in the marine environment.

  11. Dissolved rare earth elements in the South China Sea: Geochemical characterization of the water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibo, Dia Sotto; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-12-01

    We have measured the vertical profiles of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) and yttrium in the South China Sea together with conductivity-temperature-depth and hydrographic measurements to compare with those in the western North Pacific and the SuIu Sea. Although the South China Sea is rapidly flushed by the Pacific through the Luzon Strait with a sill depth of ˜2500 m [Broecker et al., 1986], a unique REE pattern is developed within the sea. The most striking difference exists in the dissolved Ce profiles. Dissolved Ce generally decreases from high values (6-9 pmol/kg) at the surface to a minimum of ˜3 pmol/kg at around 300-500 m where the North Pacific Intermediate Water penetrates. In deepwaters of the North Pacific and the Sulu Sea it remains at a relatively low and nearly constant concentration level of ˜5 pmol/kg throughout the water column, whereas in the South China Sea, it gradually increases with depth to a maximum of 12.9 pmol/kg at ˜2500 m, resembling the "nutrient-like" profiles of other strictly trivalent REEs, and then sharply drops to a constant value of ˜6 pmol/kg in the bottom water below 2900 m. Some lighter REEs like Pr, Nd, and Gd, though to a much lesser extent, also show similar concentration breaks at the sill depth, but the other hydrographic properties like dissolved oxygen, nutrients, pH, and alkalinity do not. Therefore dissolved REEs may best be utilized to characterize the water masses. Two major sources for dissolved REEs in the South China Sea are fluvial and coastal input to the surface ocean and a bottom release into the deep water during the passage over the Luzon Strait. Redox chemistry including reduction of Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in the pore water of hemipelagic sediments and subsequent release of dissolved Ce(III) to the overlying deep water may be involved in the latter. The middle REE-enriched patterns with a significant Gd depression relative to that of the North Pacific Deep Water are characteristic of the South China Sea and prevail throughout the water column by physical circulation. Since the bottom water of the basin is also fed by the North Pacific, the dissolved Ce(III) must be oxidized through bacterial mediation and removed from the bottom water presumably by scavenging near/at the sediment-water interface along the slopes of the basin.

  12. Determination of dissolved methane in natural waters using headspace analysis with cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hannah M; Shiller, Alan M

    2015-01-26

    Methane (CH4) is the third most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) but is vastly understudied in comparison to carbon dioxide. Sources and sinks to the atmosphere vary considerably in estimation, including sources such as fresh and marine water systems. A new method to determine dissolved methane concentrations in discrete water samples has been evaluated. By analyzing an equilibrated headspace using laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), low nanomolar dissolved methane concentrations can be determined with high reproducibility (i.e., 0.13 nM detection limit and typical 4% RSD). While CRDS instruments cost roughly twice that of gas chromatographs (GC) usually used for methane determination, the process presented herein is substantially simpler, faster, and requires fewer materials than GC methods. Typically, 70-mL water samples are equilibrated with an equivalent amount of zero air in plastic syringes. The equilibrated headspace is transferred to a clean, dry syringe and then drawn into a Picarro G2301 CRDS analyzer via the instrument's pump. We demonstrate that this instrument holds a linear calibration into the sub-ppmv methane concentration range and holds a stable calibration for at least two years. Application of the method to shipboard dissolved methane determination in the northern Gulf of Mexico as well as river water is shown. Concentrations spanning nearly six orders of magnitude have been determined with this method. PMID:25542359

  13. Autoclave leaching kinetics of a leucoxene concentrate with alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskaya, Yu. V.; Sadykhov, G. B.; Gocharenko, T. V.

    2015-01-01

    The autoclave leaching kinetics of a leucoxene concentrate from the Yaregskoe deposit (Komi Republic, Russia) with NaOH and Na2SiO3 solutions is studied. The changes in the activation energy and reaction order are determined as a function of the degree of desiliconization of a leucoxene concentrate. A steplike character of quartz leaching is shown: "internal" quartz dissolves at the first stage and then free quartz dissolves.

  14. Characteristics and trends of streamflow and dissolved solids in the upper Colorado River Basin, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebermann, Timothy D.; Mueller, David K.; Kircher, James E.; Choquette, Anne F.

    1989-01-01

    Annual and monthly concentrations and loads of dissolved solids and major constituents were estimated for 70 streamflow-gaging stations in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Trends in streamflow, dissolved-solids concentrations, and dissolved-solids loads were identified. Nonparametric trend-analysis techniques were used to determine step trends resulting from human activities upstream and long-term monotonic trends. Results were compared with physical characteristics of the basin and historical water-resource development in the basin to determine source areas of dissolved solids and possible cause of trends. Mean annual dissolved-solids concentration increases from less than 100 milligrams per liter in the headwater streams to more than 500 milligrams per liter in the outflow from the Upper Colorado River Basin. All the major tributaries that have high concentrations of dissolved solids are downstream from extensive areas of irrigated agriculture. However, irrigation predated the period of record for most sites and was not a factor in many identified trends. Significant annual trends were identified for 30 sites. Most of these trends were related to transbasin exports, changes in land use, salinity-control practices, or reservoir development. The primary factor affecting streamflow and dissolved-solids concentration and load has been the construction of large reservoirs. Reservoirs have decreased the seasonal and annual variability of streamflow and dissolved solids in streams that drain the Gunnison and San Juan River basins. Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge Reservoirs have increased the dissolved-solids load in the Green River because of dissolution of mineral salts from the bank material. The largest trends occurred downstream from Lake Powell. However, the period of record since the completion of filling was too short to estimate the long-term effects of that reservoir.

  15. Freely designable optical frequency conversion in Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are governed by the relative-phase relationships among the relevant electromagnetic fields in these processes. In this Report, we describe the physics of arbitrary manipulation of Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process by artificial control of relative phases. As a typical example, we show freely designable optical-frequency conversions to extreme spectral regions, mid-infrared and vacuum-ultraviolet, with near-unity quantum efficiencies. Furthermore, we show that such optical-frequency conversions can be realized by using a surprisingly simple technology where transparent plates are placed in a nonlinear optical medium and their positions and thicknesses are adjusted precisely. In a numerical simulation assuming practically applicable parameters in detail, we demonstrate a single-frequency tunable laser that covers the whole vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range of 120 to 200?nm. PMID:25748023

  16. Wireless Stimulation of Antennal Muscles in Freely Flying Hawkmoths Leads to Flight Path Changes

    PubMed Central

    Hinterwirth, Armin J.; Medina, Billie; Lockey, Jacob; Otten, David; Voldman, Joel; Lang, Jeffrey H.; Hildebrand, John G.; Daniel, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Insect antennae are sensory organs involved in a variety of behaviors, sensing many different stimulus modalities. As mechanosensors, they are crucial for flight control in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. One of their roles is to mediate compensatory reflexes of the abdomen in response to rotations of the body in the pitch axis. Abdominal motions, in turn, are a component of the steering mechanism for flying insects. Using a radio controlled, programmable, miniature stimulator, we show that ultra-low-current electrical stimulation of antennal muscles in freely-flying hawkmoths leads to repeatable, transient changes in the animals' pitch angle, as well as less predictable changes in flight speed and flight altitude. We postulate that by deflecting the antennae we indirectly stimulate mechanoreceptors at the base, which drive compensatory reflexes leading to changes in pitch attitude. PMID:23300751

  17. High lick rate is maintained throughout spontaneous liquid meals in freely feeding rats.

    PubMed

    Rushing, P A; Houpt, T A; Henderson, R P; Gibbs, J

    1997-11-01

    To investigate the microstructure of spontaneous meals in freely feeding rats, 16 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were housed individually in custom-designed lickometer cages and maintained on a milk diet. Licks were recorded over 23 h at millisecond accuracy via a computer-controlled lickometer. Analysis of lick data revealed an average of about 12 discrete meals/day occurring mainly during the dark phase. The most striking feature of both dark and light meals was the maintenance of a high initial rate of licking until an abrupt decline at the end of the meal. This pattern of licking is very different from the exponential decay of lick rate reported in scheduled test meals of palatable solutions. Thus, the microstructure of licking for meals is affected in an apparently fundamental way by whether a meal is scheduled or spontaneous, suggesting a basic difference in the underlying physiologic controls. PMID:9333217

  18. Freely designable optical frequency conversion in Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes are governed by the relative-phase relationships among the relevant electromagnetic fields in these processes. In this Report, we describe the physics of arbitrary manipulation of Raman-resonant four-wave-mixing process by artificial control of relative phases. As a typical example, we show freely designable optical-frequency conversions to extreme spectral regions, mid-infrared and vacuum-ultraviolet, with near-unity quantum efficiencies. Furthermore, we show that such optical-frequency conversions can be realized by using a surprisingly simple technology where transparent plates are placed in a nonlinear optical medium and their positions and thicknesses are adjusted precisely. In a numerical simulation assuming practically applicable parameters in detail, we demonstrate a single-frequency tunable laser that covers the whole vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range of 120 to 200?nm. PMID:25748023

  19. Geodesic synchrotron radiation. [emission by freely falling particles in gravitational field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, R. A.; Chrzanowksi, P. L.; Hughes, H. G., III; Misner, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the results and methods of computing the high-frequency radiation emitted by freely falling particles moving in circular geodesic orbits in a spherically symmetric gravitational field. The high-frequency radiation, to which the methods of this paper apply, is the principal part of radiated energy only in the case of a particle moving in a highly relativistic, and therefore unstable, circular geodesic. The geodesic synchrotron radiation emitted in this case shows excitation of high-frequency harmonics and a narrow angular distribution. A Green's-function solution of the scalar wave equation is obtained using WKB methods. For application to relativistic circular orbits, a parabolic WKB approximation is required and yields solutions in terms of parabolic cylinder functions.

  20. Quantitative wake analysis of a freely swimming fish using 3D synthetic aperture PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic aperture PIV (SAPIV) is used to quantitatively analyze the wake behind a giant danio ( Danio aequipinnatus) swimming freely in a seeded quiescent tank. The experiment is designed with minimal constraints on animal behavior to ensure that natural swimming occurs. The fish exhibits forward swimming and turning behaviors at speeds between 0.9 and 1.5 body lengths/second. Results show clearly isolated and linked vortex rings in the wake structure, as well as the thrust jet coming off of a visual hull reconstruction of the fish body. As a benchmark for quantitative analysis of volumetric PIV data, the vortex circulation and impulse are computed using methods consistent with those applied to planar PIV data. Volumetric momentum analysis frameworks are discussed for linked and asymmetric vortex structures, laying a foundation for further volumetric studies of swimming hydrodynamics with SAPIV. Additionally, a novel weighted refocusing method is presented as an improvement to SAPIV reconstruction.

  1. Controlled variations in stimulus similarity during learning determine visual discrimination capacity in freely moving mice

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario; Oviedo, Tatiana; Jendritza, Patrick; Li, Shi-Bin; Köhr, Georg; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2013-01-01

    The mouse is receiving growing interest as a model organism for studying visual perception. However, little is known about how discrimination and learning interact to produce visual conditioned responses. Here, we adapted a two-alternative forced-choice visual discrimination task for mice and examined how training with equiprobable stimuli of varying similarity influenced conditioned response and discrimination performance as a function of learning. Our results indicate that the slope of the gradients in similarity during training determined the learning rate, the maximum performance and the threshold for successful discrimination. Moreover, the learning process obeyed an inverse relationship between discrimination performance and discriminative resolution, implying that sensitivity within a similarity range cannot be improved without sacrificing performance in another. Our study demonstrates how the interplay between discrimination and learning controls visual discrimination capacity and introduces a new training protocol with quantitative measures to study perceptual learning and visually-guided behavior in freely moving mice. PMID:23308341

  2. Studies of Islands on Freely Suspended Bubbles of Smectic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattanaporkratana, A.; Mavel, B.; Park, C. S.; Maclennan, J. E.; Clark, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    We have constructed an optical system for observing the internal structure of freely suspended smectic liquid crystal bubbles using a reflected light microscope. Liquid crystal bubbles can have thicker circular regions (islands) which can easily be generated by shrinking the bubble diameter. The diameter of these islands is approximately 10 microns and they are typically up to five times thicker than the surrounding liquid crystal film (500 angstroms). In the Laboratory, the location of the islands is strongly influenced by gravity, which causes the majority of islands to migrate to the bottom half of the bubble. We will describe the size and thickness distributions of islands and their time evolution, and also discuss two-dimensional hydrodynamics and turbulence of smectic bubbles, the shapes of islands and holes affected by bubble vibrations, and the interactions between islands, which we have probed using optical tweezers.

  3. Three dimensional simulations of pattern formation during high-pressure, freely localized microwave breakdown in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtzanidis, K.; Boeuf, J. P.; Rogier, F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a freely localized 100 GHz microwave discharge can propagate towards the microwave source with high speed, forming a complex pattern of self-organized filaments. We present three-dimensional simulations of the formation and propagation of such patterns that reveal more information on their nature and interaction with the electromagnetic waves. The developed three-dimensional Maxwell-plasma solver permits the study of different forms of incident field polarization. Results for linear and circular polarization of the wave are presented and comparisons with recent experiments show a good overall agreement. The three dimensional simulations provide a quantitative analysis of the parameters controlling the time and length scales of the strongly non-linear plasma dynamics and could be useful for potential microwave plasma applications such as aerodynamic flow and combustion control.

  4. Wireless multi-channel single unit recording in freely moving and vocalizing primates

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sabyasachi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    The ability to record well-isolated action potentials from individual neurons in naturally behaving animals is crucial for understanding neural mechanisms underlying natural behaviors. Traditional neurophysiology techniques, however, require the animal to be restrained which often restricts natural behavior. An example is the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate species, used in our laboratory to study the neural correlates of vocal production and sensory feedback. When restrained by traditional neurophysiological techniques marmoset vocal behavior is severely inhibited. Tethered recording systems, while proven effective in rodents pose limitations in arboreal animals such as the marmoset that typically roam in a three-dimensional environment. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed a wireless neural recording technique that is capable of collecting single-unit data from chronically implanted multi-electrodes in freely moving marmosets. A lightweight, low power and low noise wireless transmitter (headstage) is attached to a multi-electrode array placed in the premotor cortex of the marmoset. The wireless headstage is capable of transmitting 15 channels of neural data with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparable to a tethered system. To minimize radio-frequency (RF) and electro-magnetic interference (EMI), the experiments were conducted within a custom designed RF/EMI and acoustically shielded chamber. The individual electrodes of the multi-electrode array were periodically advanced to densely sample the cortical layers. We recorded single-unit data over a period of several months from the frontal cortex of two marmosets. These recordings demonstrate the feasibility of using our wireless recording method to study single neuron activity in freely roaming primates. PMID:21933683

  5. Energetically optimal cadence vs. freely-chosen cadence during cycling: effect of exercise duration.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, J; Hausswirth, C; Smith, D; Vercruyssen, F; Vallier, J M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cadence and oxygen consumption with exercise duration. Ten triathletes who trained regularly were examined. The first test was always a maximal test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The other sessions were composed of six submaximal tests representing 80% of the maximal power reached with VO2max (Pmax). During these tests submaximal rides with a duration of 30 min were performed. Each test represented, in a randomised order, one of the following pedal rates: 50, 65, 80, 95, 110 rpm and a freely-chosen rate. VO2, respiratory parameters, and heart rate were monitored continuously. Two periods, between the 3rd and the 6th minute and between the 25th and the 28th minute, were analysed. Results showed that when VO2 and heart rate were plotted against cadence, each curve could be best described by a parabolic function, whatever the period. Furthermore, a significant effect of period was found on energetically optimal cadence (70 +/- 4.5 vs. 86 +/- 6.2 rpm, P < 0.05). Only during the second period was no significant difference found between freely-chosen cadence (83 +/- 6.9 rpm) and energetically optimal cadence (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that during prolonged exercise triathletes choose a cadence that is close to the energetically optimal cadence. A change of muscle fibre recruitment pattern with exercise duration and cadence would explain the shift in energetically optimal rate towards a higher pedal rate observed at the end of exercise. PMID:10683101

  6. Rodent Scope: A User-Configurable Digital Wireless Telemetry System for Freely Behaving Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David; Kliese, Russell; Windels, Francois; Nolan, Christopher; Stratton, Peter; Sah, Pankaj; Wiles, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz–3 kHz) and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz–3 kHz). Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m. PMID:24587144

  7. Biogeochemical controls on seasonal variations of the stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon in Castle Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. M.; Poulson, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to perform a seasonal dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) stable isotope (?18O, ?13C) study to assess the fluctuations in biogeochemical processes with depth in a lake. DO and DIC concentrations and stable isotope compositions (?18O-DO, ?13C-DIC) have been used as a technique to study the systematics of diurnal freshwater biogeochemical processes, primarily photosynthesis, respiration, and gas-exchange (e.g. Quay et al. 1995, Trojanowska et al. 2008). For example, photosynthesis produces DO isotopically identical to the host water, typically light relative to atmospheric oxygen (+23.5‰), while respiration preferentially consumes isotopically light DO. Diel ?18O-DO and ?13C-DIC studies in rivers (e.g. Parker et al. 2005, Parker et al. 2010, Poulson & Sullivan 2010) have been used to determine the rates of biogeochemical processes over a 24h time scale. However, similar studies in lakes are rare, for either diel or seasonal time scales. The focus of this project is Castle Lake, 12km southwest of Mt. Shasta, CA, at an elevation of 1660m. Castle Lake is an alpine, meso-oligotrophic lake with a 19ha surface area and a maximum depth of up to 35m. This project consists of sampling profiles, 2-3 weeks apart, throughout the 2010 field season for monitoring seasonal depth trends, with measurements of DO concentration, temperature, pH, alkalinity, specific conductivity, PAR, chlorophyll concentration, ?18O-DO, ?13C-DIC, ?18O-H2O, and ?D-H2O. Diel measurements of DO concentration, temperature, pH, specific conductivity, PAR, and chlorophyll concentration have also been performed at various depths. To date, the profile data collected at Castle Lake show various seasonal changes, starting after ice-out (late June 2010) through mid-August 2010. DO profiles display a positive heterograde trend with a maximum of 11.33mg/L at 12m in mid-August and minima of ?0.12mg/L near the lake bottom. DIC concentrations increase with depth and with time up to 2mmol/L at 30m by mid-August. pH ranges from 5.9-7.5 and consistently increases in the metalimnion (5-15m) with the season. ?18O-DO profiles show inverse trends relative to DO concentration, and range from +15.8 to +27.8‰ after ice-out and from +10.2 to +30.9‰ in mid-August. ?13C-DIC profiles also show inverse trends relative to DIC concentration, reach a maximum of -12 to -10‰, generally in the metalimnion, and a minimum of down to -18‰ near the bottom of the hypolimnion (28-30m sampling depth). DO concentration, ?18O-DO, DIC concentration, and ?13C-DIC data all suggest that: photosynthesis is the principal process affecting DO in the metalimnion; that respiration is the dominant process affecting DIC in the hypolimnion; and that both processes increase in magnitude over the course of the season. To date, no significant diel variations of DO or pH have been observed. The ?18O-DO and ?13C-DIC results thus far are consistent with systematic variations of photosynthesis and respiration rates during the course of a season, suggesting the analyses in this study provide a reliable means for the quantitative study of biogeochemical processes in lakes on a seasonal time scale.

  8. The effects of total dissolved solids on egg fertilization and water hardening in two salmonids—Arctic Grayling ( Thymallus arcticus) and Dolly Varden ( Salvelinus malma)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin V. Brix; Robert Gerdes; Nathan Curry; Amanda Kasper; Martin Grosell

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that salmonid fertilization success may be very sensitive to elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) with effects at concentrations as low as 250mgl?1 being reported. However, interpretation of these studies is complicated by poor control performance and variable concentration response relationships. To address this, a series of experiments were performed to evaluate TDS effects on

  9. Net methylation of mercury in estuarine sediment microcosms amended with dissolved, nanoparticulate, and microparticulate mercuric sulfides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Kim, Bojeong; Deshusses, Marc A; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2014-08-19

    The production of methylmercury (MeHg) by anaerobic microorganisms depends in part on the speciation and bioavailability of inorganic mercury to these organisms. Our previous work with pure cultures of methylating bacteria has demonstrated that the methylation potential of mercury decreased during the aging of mercuric sulfides (from dissolved to nanoparticulate and microcrystalline HgS). The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between mercury sulfide speciation and methylation potential in experiments that more closely simulate the complexity of sediment settings. The study involved sediment slurry microcosms that represented a spectrum of salinities in an estuary and were each amended with different forms of mercuric sulfides: dissolved Hg and sulfide, nanoparticulate HgS (3-4 nm in diameter), and microparticulate HgS (>500 nm). The results indicated that net MeHg production was influenced by both the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (roughly represented by the rate of sulfate loss) and the bioavailability of mercury. In the presence of abundant sulfate and carbon sources (supporting relatively high microbial activity), net MeHg production in the slurries amended with dissolved Hg was greater than in slurries amended with nano-HgS, similar to previous experiments with pure bacterial cultures. In microcosms with minimal microbial activity (indicated by low rates of sulfate loss), the addition of either dissolved Hg or nano-HgS resulted in similar amounts of net MeHg production. For all slurries receiving micro-HgS, MeHg production did not exceed abiotic controls. In slurries amended with dissolved and nano-HgS, mercury was mainly partitioned to bulk-scale mineral particles and colloids, indicating that Hg bioavailability was not simply related to dissolved Hg concentration or speciation. Overall, the results suggest that models for mercury methylation potential in the environment will need to balance the relative contributions of mercury speciation and activity of methylating microorganisms. PMID:25007388

  10. Automated long-term tracking of freely moving animal and functional brain imaging based on fiber optic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Kang, Jin U.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate an automated data acquisition/analysis platform for both long-term motion tracking and functional brain imaging in freely moving mice. Our system utilizes a fiber-bundle based fluorescence microscope for 24 hours imaging of cellular activities within the brain while also monitoring corresponding animal behaviors using a NIR camera. Synchronized software and automation of analysis allow quantification of all animal behaviors and their brain activities over extended periods of time. Our platform can be used for interrogation of the brain activities in different behavioral states and is also well-suited for longitudinal studies of cellular activities in freely moving animals.

  11. Priming the Dissolved Organic Matter Breakdown in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, T.; Cronan, C. S.; Ohno, T.; Simon, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Land use and land cover change in the Anthropocene have altered the source, composition, and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems around the world. In particular, urbanization increases the abundance of bioavailable DOM in streams. This bioavailable DOM may increase the utilization of less bioavailable pools of DOM via the "priming effect." The priming effect is a phenomenon whereby the addition of a small amount of labile DOM can increase or decrease the breakdown rate of less bioavailable DOM - positive and negative priming respectively. Our research tests priming as one potential mechanism altering DOM composition and increasing its bioavailability in urban streams. We measured DOM degradation during 30-day incubations in samples from a small urban stream and two microbial DOM sources mixed with DOM from a small stream dominated by less microbial allochthonous sources. We assessed priming by looking at observed percent biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) vs. endmember predicted BDOC. We also investigated the molecular dynamics of priming using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS). Using bulk DOC concentration we found evidence that adding small amounts of DOM from an urban stream could increase BDOC by a factor of two to three. At the molecular level, FT-ICR/MS showed that addition of labile DOM may increase the bioavailability of a variety of compound classes including proteins, lipids, and "black carbon." Furthermore, we observed that what is frequently reported as positive or negative priming may be more accurately understood as the net balance of simultaneous positive and negative priming operating on different DOM pools. Our results highlight an important global mechanism by which human activities may alter the composition and reactivity of DOM in fresh waters. Priming the degradation of allochthonous DOM with autochthonous or novel anthropogenic DOM may alter the organic energy available for microbially driven ecosystem functions regulating water quality.

  12. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM): a critical review.

    PubMed

    Nebbioso, Antonio; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Advances in water chemistry in the last decade have improved our knowledge about the genesis, composition, and structure of dissolved organic matter, and its effect on the environment. Improvements in analytical technology, for example Fourier-transform ion cyclotron (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS), homo and hetero-correlated multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and excitation emission matrix fluorimetry (EEMF) with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis for UV-fluorescence spectroscopy have resulted in these advances. Improved purification methods, for example ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, have enabled facile desalting and concentration of freshly collected DOM samples, thereby complementing the analytical process. Although its molecular weight (MW) remains undefined, DOM is described as a complex mixture of low-MW substances and larger-MW biomolecules, for example proteins, polysaccharides, and exocellular macromolecules. There is a general consensus that marine DOM originates from terrestrial and marine sources. A combination of diagenetic and microbial processes contributes to its origin, resulting in refractory organic matter which acts as carbon sink in the ocean. Ocean DOM is derived partially from humified products of plants decay dissolved in fresh water and transported to the ocean, and partially from proteinaceous and polysaccharide material from phytoplankton metabolism, which undergoes in-situ microbial processes, becoming refractory. Some of the DOM interacts with radiation and is, therefore, defined as chromophoric DOM (CDOM). CDOM is classified as terrestrial, marine, anthropogenic, or mixed, depending on its origin. Terrestrial CDOM reaches the oceans via estuaries, whereas autochthonous CDOM is formed in sea water by microbial activity; anthropogenic CDOM is a result of human activity. CDOM also affects the quality of water, by shielding it from solar radiation, and constitutes a carbon sink pool. Evidence in support of the hypothesis that part of marine DOM is of terrestrial origin, being the result of a long-term carbon sedimentation, has been obtained from several studies discussed herein. PMID:22965531

  13. Ocean metabolism and dissolved organic matter: How do small dissolved molecules persist in the ocean?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Benner

    2010-01-01

    The ocean reservoir of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is among the largest global reservoirs (~700 Pg C) of reactive organic carbon. Marine primary production (~50 Pg C\\/yr) by photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria is the major source of organic matter to the ocean and the principal substrate supporting marine food webs. The direct release of DOM from phytoplankton and other organisms

  14. Aquatic nitrogen transformations at low oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, M T

    1988-01-01

    Nitrite and nitrous oxide made up 40% of the hypolimnetic dissolved inorganic nitrogen in mesotrophic Lake Rotoiti, New Zealand, prior to hypolimnetic anoxia. Up to 120 mg of N m-3 as nitrite and 20 mg of N m-3 as nitrous oxide accumulated, whereas dissolved-oxygen concentrations remained between 1.0 and 0.2 g m-3 and were totally consumed when the hypolimnion became completely anoxic. Assays of water column nitrification potentials, together with measurements of the relative rates of nitrate and nitrite reduction, suggested that at low dissolved-oxygen concentrations both nitrite and nitrous oxide were produced mainly by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, with nitrous oxide being a product of nitrifier denitrification. PMID:3345077

  15. Vertical distribution and temporal variation of dissolved organic carbon in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Copinmontegut; BERNARD AVRIL

    1993-01-01

    During 1991 and 1992, detailed vertical profiles of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content were obtained monthly, in the North-Western Mediterranean at the DYFAMED-1 site (43°25'N, 07°52'E). DOC was measured using a high temperature catalytic oxidation method. In the 150-2000 m layer, DOC distribution was quite uniform, with a content of about 0.6--0.7 mg C 1-1. In surface waters, DOC concentration

  16. Dissolved oxygen sensing using organometallic dyes deposited within a microfluidic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. L. Chen; H. P. Ho; L. Jin; B. W.-K. Chu; M. J. Li; V. W.-W. Yam

    2008-01-01

    This work primarily aims to integrate dissolved oxygen sensing capability with a microfluidic platform containing arrays of micro bio-reactors or bio-activity indicators. The measurement of oxygen concentration is of significance for a variety of bio-related applications such as cell culture and gene expression. Optical oxygen sensors based on luminescence quenching are gaining much interest in light of their low power

  17. Response surface optimization of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen sources for the biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Wen Lin; Chia-Hsien Yen; Hung-Chun Lin; Dang-Thuan Tran

    2010-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design was applied to obtain the optimal dissolved oxygen (DO)\\u000a and nitrogen (N) concentrations for biodegrading MTBE (Methyl tert-butyl ether) and BTEX (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, p-xylene). Moreover, the effects of DO, N, and their interaction on the degradation process were evaluated. It was found that\\u000a N, N2, DO and DO2 have significant effects

  18. Dissolved lead in the deep Southeast Pacific Ocean: results of the 2013 US GEOTRACES cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. A.; Lee, J. M.; Zhang, J.; Echegoyen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Lead (Pb) in the modern ocean is dominated by anthropogenic Pb, which has been evidenced by highly elevated seawater Pb concentrations and Pb stable isotope ratios (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) altered from pre-anthropogenic values. A number of studies have shown the human impact on oceanic Pb in many parts of the world ocean, but little Pb data has been available for the Southeast Pacific Ocean. In this presentation, we will show the dissolved Pb (<0.2µm) results from the US GEOTRACES cruise in October - December 2013, which sailed from Manta, Ecuador, to Tahiti along around 12 degrees south. Dissolved Pb concentrations from all 36 surface stations and deep (>1000m) Pb profiles from 18 stations will be presented, and the results will be also compared to our unpublished data from the BiG RAPA cruise in 2010, whose cruise track from Arica, Peru, to Easter Island is slightly south of the US GEOTRACES cruise. The BiG RAPA data showed that dissolved Pb concentrations of the southeast Pacific Ocean are relatively low, varying in the range of 8-20 pmol/kg at the surface with a slight maximum (14-22 pmol/kg) at around 400m depth, and 2-10 pmol/kg in deep waters below 1000m depth. The Pb concentrations were found to be higher at a marginal station off Peru, reaching 45 pmol/kg at the surface and 65 pmol/kg in the subsurface maximum at 150m depth, and varying between 17 and 23 pmol/kg in deep waters. Our dataset, along with the results from the BiG RAPA cruise, will provide the first overview on the dissolved Pb distribution of the southeast Pacific Ocean, which will further our understanding on the human impact on the global ocean.

  19. Daily variability of dissolved inorganic radiocarbon in Sargasso Sea surface water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelsey McDuffee; Ellen R. M. Druffel

    2007-01-01

    Surface water samples were collected daily in June 2000 at a site in the Sargasso Sea to observe variability of ?14C values in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Temperature, salinity, DIC concentration, alkalinity, and ?13C and ?14C values of DIC were measured in the samples. Ten ?14C measurements averaged 81±8‰ and had a range of 24‰ over the sixteen-day cruise. ?14C

  20. Effect of low dissolved oxygen on aquatic life stages of the caddisfly Clistoronia magnifica (Limnephilidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Nebeker; S. T. Onjukka; D. G. Stevens; G. A. Chapman

    1996-01-01

    Embryos, larval stages (instars I–V), pupal stages, and pharate adults of the caddisfly Clistoronia magnifica (Limnephilidae) were exposed to a range of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (0.9–8.3 mg\\/L) for 4–88 days in the laboratory. Some embryos suspended growth at low DO, resuming growth and hatch when DO was increased. Embryos and larvae all had 96-h EC50 values (50% mortality at