Science.gov

Sample records for freeport lng development

  1. 76 FR 81925 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), filed an application pursuant to Section 3..., Fulbright & Jaworski L.L.P., 666 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10103. Telephone (212) 318-3009, fax...

  2. 77 FR 58118 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 31, 2012, Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, and FLNG Liquefaction 3,...

  3. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas on a Short-Term Basis AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of... of 24 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis for a two-year... Relating to Regulation of Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6684 (Feb. 22, 1984). Freeport LNG states that...

  4. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... directive.'' \\7\\ See 49 FR 6684, February 22, 1984. Freeport LNG states that in DOE/FE Order No. 2644, which... Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR... Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042,...

  5. 77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... water intake structure; Natural gas Pretreatment Facility, about 2.5 miles north of the Quintana Island... liquids, nitrogen) and utility lines (electric, fiber optic, water) that collectively form a route system... operation of the planned Project under these general headings: Geology and soils; Water resources,...

  6. 76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ..., Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the... scoping process is to focus the analysis in the EA on the important environmental issues. By this notice... special expertise with respect to environmental issues to formally cooperate with us in the preparation...

  7. Mack LNG vehicle development

    SciTech Connect

    Southwest Research Institute

    2000-01-05

    The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

  8. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Charles Exports, LLC, FE Docket No. 11-59-LNG, 76 FR 34212 (June 13, 2011); Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP, FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG, 76 FR 76698 (December 8, 2011); Carib Energy (USA) LLC, FE Docket No. 11-141-LNG, 76 FR 80913 (December 12, 2011); Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC,...

  9. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  10. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  11. 75 FR 8489 - Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport, TX in the Federal Register (33 FR 19923). We received... rule as it was proposed in the notice of proposed rulemaking (33 FR 19923). Regulatory Analyses We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport,...

  12. 75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Federal Register (33 FR 19926). We received no comments on the proposed rule. Background and Purpose..., subversive acts, accidents, or other actions of a similar nature. Entry into this zone is prohibited,...

  13. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    SciTech Connect

    Suharmoko, G.R. )

    1991-10-14

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field.

  14. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  15. 77 FR 66830 - LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period for the Oregon LNG Export and Washington Expansion Projects This notice announces the extension of the public scoping process and comment period for the Oregon...

  16. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR FURTHER... Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence... room, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. The docket room is open...

  17. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  18. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  19. Design and Development of the Simulation System for Marine LNG Fuel Reliquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyang; Zhang, Yunqiu; Liu, Yunxin; Li, Diyang

    This paper introduced the background of LNG powered ship reliquefaction plant and its working principle, established the calculation model of simulation system, taking the VLCC ship LNG powered ship as the mother ship, provided the thermodynamic calculation flow chart, developed the software for the operation simulation system and the developed the assessment system and the equipment management system. This software can simulate the operation process and carry out the numerical calculation. It is good for the purpose of training students and has great reference value for research.

  20. Development of an FBG-based low temperature measurement system for cargo containment of LNG tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. G.; Yoo, W.; Swinehart, P.; Jiang, B.; Haber, T.; Mendez, A.

    2007-09-01

    Given the growing demand for oil and natural gas to meet the world's energy needs, there is nowadays renewed interest in the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems. For LNG to remain in its liquid phase, the gas has to be kept at cryogenic temperatures (< 160°C). And, as part of the LNG supply process, it becomes necessary to transport it using massive carrier tankers with cargo hulls operating at low temperatures and using special insulating double-wall construction. The safe and reliable storage and transportation of LNG products calls for low temperature monitoring of said containers to detect the onset of any potential leaks and possible thermal insulation degradation. Because of the hazardous nature of this cargo, only intrinsically-safe, explosion proof devices can be used. Optical fiber sensors-- such as fiber Bragg gratings-- are ideal for this application given their dielectric nature and multi-point sensing telemetry capability. In this paper, we describe the development of an on-line, multi-point FBG-based low temperature monitoring system based on a network of specially packaged FBG temperature and strain sensors mounted at critical locations within the inner hull, cofferdam and secondary barriers of a LNG carrier tanker. Given the stringent cryogenic operating temperature conditions, pertinent FBG designs, coatings and packaging approaches were formulated along with adequate installation techniques and integration of the interrogating FBG electronics into the tanker's overall SCADA monitoring system. FBG temperature sensors were demonstrated to be stable and sensitive over the 80-480K range. Stability is +/- 0.25K or better with repeated calibrations, and long term stability at 480K is ~0.2mK/hour.

  1. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  2. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an application (Application) filed on February 22, 2013, by Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC (FME), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 24 million metric tons per year (mtpa), which FME states is......

  3. Development of a simple 5-15 litre per hour LNG refueling system

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Sarangi, S.; Hall, J.L.; Barclay, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A variable capacity, small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) refueling system has been designed, built, and tested at the Cryofuel Systems` Laboratory, University of Victoria, Canada. The system, designed to continuously liquefy between 5 and 15 litres of NG, utilizes liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) as its cold source and contains most of the components found in a typical commercial refueling system; i.e. purification system, liquefier, LNG storage, automatic control and monitoring system. This paper describes the design of the system as well as the results of a set of LNG production trials. The performance of the system exceeded expected LNG production rates, but at levels of efficiency somewhat less than predicted. Cryofuel Systems expects to use this system to implement an LNG vehicle demonstration program and to gain experience in the integration of LNG refueling systems which exploit advanced liquefaction technology such as magnetic refrigeration.

  4. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2006 to October 31, 2006. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and the identified questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is discussed in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is provided. All work planned for this project has been completed. Specifically: Task A--Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Conditions: This task has been completed, and a new version of FEM3A will be received by GTI. Task B--Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces With and Without Obstacles: This task has been completed, and a new version of FEM3A will be received by GTI. Task C--Adapting the FEM3A Model for More General Application This task was obviated when DOE redirected the contract near the project midpoint. Task D--Provide assistance and wind tunnel data to DOE for FLUENT development This task has been completed and data requested by DOE-NETL has been delivered. Researchers at the University of Arkansas are preparing the final report that will be received by GTI by November 30, 2006.

  5. Development of LM10-MIRA LOX/LNG expander cycle demonstrator engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnykh, Mikhail; Carapellese, Stefano; Liuzzi, Daniele; Arione, Luigi; Caggiano, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Paolo; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Rocco; Lobov, S. D.; Gurtovoy, A. A.; Rachuk, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of joint works by Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiki (KBKhA, Russia) and AVIO Company (Italy) on creation of the LM10-MIRA liquid-propellant rocket demonstrator engine for the third stage of the upgraded "Vega" launcher.Scientific and research activities conducted by KBKhA and AVIO in 2007-2014 in the frame of the LYRA Program, funded by the Italian Space Agency, with ELV as Prime contractor, and under dedicated ASI-Roscosmos inter-agencies agreement, were aimed at development and testing of a 7.5 t thrust expander cycle demonstrator engine propelled by oxygen and liquid natural gas (further referred to as LNG).

  6. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. 165.818 Section 165.818 Navigation and... Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. (a) Location. The following areas are security zones: All waters...

  7. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. 165.818 Section 165.818 Navigation and... Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. (a) Location. The following areas are security zones: All waters...

  8. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. 165.818 Section 165.818 Navigation and... Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. (a) Location. The following areas are security zones: All waters...

  9. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. 165.818 Section 165.818 Navigation and... Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. (a) Location. The following areas are security zones: All waters...

  10. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. 165.818 Section 165.818 Navigation and... Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas. (a) Location. The following areas are security zones: All waters...

  11. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  12. North American LNG Project Sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

  13. 33 CFR 80.845 - Galveston, TX to Freeport, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Galveston, TX to Freeport, TX. 80.845 Section 80.845 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.845 Galveston, TX to Freeport,...

  14. Strategic evaluation central to LNG project formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, D.; DiNapoli, R.N.; Yost, C.C.

    1995-07-03

    An efficient-scale, grassroots LNG facility of about 6 million metric tons/year capacity requires a prestart-up outlay of $5 billion or more for the supply facilities--production, feedgas pipeline, liquefaction, and shipping. The demand side of the LNG chain requires a similar outlay, counting the import-regasification terminal and a combination of 5 gigawatts or more of electric power generation or the equivalent in city gas and industrial gas-using facilities. There exist no well-developed commodity markets for free-on-board (fob) or delivered LNG. A new LNG supply project is dedicated to its buyers. Indeed, the buyers` revenue commitment is the project`s only bankable asset. For the buyer to make this commitment, the supply venture`s capability and commitment must be credible: to complete the project and to deliver the LNG reliably over the 20+ years required to recover capital committed on both sides. This requirement has technical, economic, and business dimensions. In this article the authors describe a LNG project evaluation system and show its application to typical tasks: project cost of service and participant shares; LNG project competition; alternative project structures; and market competition for LNG-supplied electric power generation.

  15. Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

  16. 3. Photocopied by Ray B. Lydston, Freeport, Maine, from stereo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied by Ray B. Lydston, Freeport, Maine, from stereo view by American Stereoscopic Views Company in Maine Historical Society - Mechanics' Hall, 159 Congress Street, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  17. Development of polymer concrete for dike insulation at LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) facilities. Final report, August 1983-July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.

    1984-11-01

    An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. Using hermetically sealed glass nodules or expanded perlite aggregates and unsaturated polyester resins, a new class of lightweight polymer concretes can be manufactured. Two application procedures have been identified and shown to be feasible in laboratory studies. Precast IPC composite panels 1-in thick can be bonded to concrete substrates using epoxy gel type adhesives or mortars. Cast-in-place IPC to concrete substrates have been shown to have good bonding and insulating characteristics. Modifications of the mix design to improve the workability and sagging of the IPC for installation on vertical or sloped surfaces is necessary.

  18. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  19. 75 FR 8491 - Security Zones; Brazos River, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ...; Brazos River, Freeport, TX in the Federal Register (74 FR 61305). We received no comments on the proposed... Turning Basin within 100' of the north shore and bounded on the east by the longitude line drawn through 28 56.58' N/095 18.64' W and on the west by the longitude line drawn through 28 56.64' N/ 095...

  20. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  1. Development of LNG-Powered Heavy-Duty Trucks in Commercial Hauling

    SciTech Connect

    Detroit Diesel Corporation; Trucking Research Institute

    1998-12-03

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's development, deployment, and evaluation of alternative fuels, NREL and the Trucking Research Institute contracted with Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) to develop and operate a liquid natural gas fueled tractor powered by a DDC Series 50 prototype natural gas engine. This is the final report on the project.

  2. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  3. Authigenic quartz in the Upper Freeport coalbed, west- central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.P.

    1985-05-01

    Cathodoluminescence petrography was used to examine quartz grains contained in facies of the Upper Freeport coalbed (Middle Pennsylvanian) of west-central Pennsylvania. Samples included ash concentrates, polished blocks of different lithotypes, and standard petrographic pellets of specific gravity separates of facies channel samples. More than 80% of the quartz in mineral and vitrain-rich bands in the polished blocks do not exhibit cathodoluminescence. In specific gravity separates, 100% of the quartz in the lightest gravity separates did not luminesce. In the heaviest gravity separates, which included shale-parting material, 60% of the quartz did not luminesce. In contrast, in a sample of shale directly overlying the coalbed, more than 90% of the quartz luminesced. On the basis of these data and of other published data, quartz in the Upper Freeport coalbed is interpreted to be authigenic in origin. The authigenic quartz grains are postulated to have been derived from phytoclasts.

  4. Development of polymer concrete for dike insulation at LNG facilities: Phase 4, Low cost materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier GRI-sponsored work at Brookhaven National Laboratory has resulted in the development and utilization of insulating polymer concrete composites (IPC) as a means of reducing the evaporation rate of liquified natural gas in the event of a spill into a containment dike, thereby improving the safety at these sites. Although all of the required properties can be attained with the IPC, it was estimated that a low-cost replacement for the expensive organic binder would be necessary before use of the material would be cost-effective. In the current program, several latex modified cement formulations were evaluated and the most promising one identified. A mixture of two carboxylated styrene-butadiene latexes was selected for use in detailed laboratory property characterizations and a subsequent field evaluation. When compared to the properties of IPC, the latex-modified insulating materials display somewhat higher thermal conductivities, greater permeability to water, and reduced strength. However, these properties still meet most of the performance criteria, and the unit cost of the material is less than one-fifth that of IPC made with epoxy binders. When installed as a 0.75-in. thick overlay, material costs are estimated to be $1.00/ft{sup 2}.

  5. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Randall Bay, Freeport, Long... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... and parallel to the west side of South Long Beach Avenue, said line extending northerly to a point...

  6. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.106 Freeport Grand Prix, Long... of Long Island to the south of Long Beach, New York. The regulated area is one and one quarter...

  7. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.106 Freeport Grand Prix, Long... of Long Island to the south of Long Beach, New York. The regulated area is one and one quarter...

  8. LNG risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, P.

    1980-12-01

    A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

  9. LNG annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  10. Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, J. J.

    1981-06-01

    The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

  11. Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

  12. Flare system for safe disposal of LNG from a disabled tanker

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The feasibility of a flare system for the rapid and safe incineration of the cargo of a disabled LNG tanker is evaluated. The project developed design parameters and proof-of-principle investigations of a system for off-loading and flaring LNG from a disabled LNG tanker. The system described offers enough promise to warrant additional investigation, if cargo burning is desired as a way of reducing other possible hazards.

  13. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  14. Structural implications on the deposition of the Upper Freeport coal bed in eastern Greene County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, B.N. )

    1993-08-01

    The orientation, geometry, thickness, and quality of the Upper Freeport coal bed suggests that syndepositional tectonic activity influenced the accumulation of peat and its laterally equivalent sediments. Both strike-parallel and strike-normal structures appear to influence the deposition of the Upper Freeport coal bed. Strike-parallel structures are faults that were active during the Carboniferous, but do not penetrate into the Carboniferous section. The Carboniferous rocks at the surface within the study area reflect deeper structures as a series of gentle synclines and anticlines. The Upper Freeport coal bed was deposited as a domed peat across the Belle Vernon anticline, which represents the upthrown side of a syndepositionally active deep fault. Laterally equivalent fluvial channel sediments were deposited on the downthrown side of the structure, represented at the surface by the Waynesburg syncline. The influence of syndepositionally active faults on the distribution, thickness, and quality of the Upper Freeport coal bed is similar to the previously reported influence of contemporaneous growth faults on the distribution and thickness of Carboniferous coal beds in Kentucky and Alabama. Strike-normal features also influence the position, geometry, and thickness of the Upper Freeport coal bed. The strike-normal features appear to be produced by deep strike-slip faulting. A major no-coal zone within the Upper Freeport coal bed lies within and parallel to the trend of a cross-strike discontinuity within the study area.

  15. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2007-04-11

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H2O and CO2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  16. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  17. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  18. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two

  19. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  20. Insulating polymer concrete for LNG impounding dikes. [Polymer concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.

    1986-03-01

    An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed under contract to the Gas Research Institute for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. In the advent of an LNG spill into the impounding dike area, the boiloff rate of the LNG can be substantially reduced if the surfaces of the dike are insulated. This increased safety at the LNG facility will tend to reduce the hazardous explosive mixture with atmospheric air in the surrounding region. The dike insulation material must have a low thermal conductivity and be unaffected by environmental conditions. The IPC composites developed consist of perlite or glass nodule aggregates bound together as a closed cell structure with a polyester resin. In addition to low thermal conductivity and porosity, these composites have correspondingly high strengths and, therefore, can carry transient loads of workmen and maintenance equipment. Prefabricated IPC panels have been installed experimentally and at least one utility is currently considering a complete installation at its LNG facility. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  2. Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

    1997-07-01

    Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

  3. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  4. LNG to CNG refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

  5. 76 FR 4885 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Regulation of Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6684 (Feb. 22, 1984). FLEX states that as a result of technological.... \\6\\ The Future of Natural Gas, Interim Report MIT Energy Initiative at 9 (2010), ``For this study, we.... consumption of 22.8 Tcf in 2009'' (MIT Report). FLEX asserts that as U.S. natural gas reserves and...

  6. 77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Regulation of Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6684 (Feb. 22, 1984). \\7\\ Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, DOE/FE.... MIT Energy Initiative Study on The Future of Natural Gas Massachusetts Institute of Technology Report (MIT REPORT), at 30 (2011). FLEX asserts that as U.S. natural gas reserves and production have risen,...

  7. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  8. Submarine LNG tanker concept for the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Veliotis, P.T.; Reitz, S.

    1981-01-01

    If LNG tankers could travel underwater, they could transport natural gas from Arctic regions year-round. General Dynamics has designed just such a tanker - a 140,000-m/sup 3/ submarine with a methane-fired steam-propulsion system that uses recirculated exhaust gas injected with oxygen to sustain combustion. (Nuclear power would be cheaper but might not be practical if new regulations are imposed.) Developed from parametric variations in cargo capacity, hull material, and ballasting, the design identifies such ship characteristics as length, beam, depth, cargo-system arrangement, speed, and ship control. An economic analysis indicates the concept's competitiveness with both pipelines and icebreaking tankers.

  9. 76 FR 4818 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old Brazos River, Freeport, Brazoria County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... operation of the Union Pacific Railroad Swing Span Bridge across the Old Brazos River, mile 4.4, at Freeport... February 10, 2011 until 7 a.m. on February 16, 2011. This deviation will allow the swing span of the bridge to remain in the closed-to-navigation position in order for the north end of the swing span to be...

  10. 76 FR 76298 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old Brazos River, Freeport, Brazoria County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... operation of the Union Pacific Railroad Swing Span Bridge across the Old Brazos River, mile 4.4, at Freeport... feet above mean sea level (MSL). This deviation will allow the lift span of the bridge to remain in the... (7a-09-8) dated September 14, 2010. The project involves the replacement of the old swing span...

  11. 75 FR 12726 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 149; Port Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... comment has been given in the Federal Register (73 FR 78289, 12/22/2008 and 74 FR 42050, 8/20/2009) and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 149; Port Freeport, TX...

  12. White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues, revision 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles; Lucher, Dan; Moyer, Carl; Browning, Lou

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of liquified natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel, to determine market inches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed.

  13. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  14. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  17. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  18. 76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011. On February 2, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects staff... Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG Truck Loading Project. We scheduled this meeting to...

  19. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  20. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  1. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  2. LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

  3. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  4. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  5. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  6. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  7. Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.

    PubMed

    Woodward, John L

    2007-02-20

    Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating. PMID:17184912

  8. Design advanced for large-scale, economic, floating LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Naklie, M.M.

    1997-06-30

    A floating LNG plant design has been developed which is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. This technology will allow monetization of small marginal fields and improve the economics of large fields. Mobil`s world-scale plant design has a capacity of 6 million tons/year of LNG and up to 55,000 b/d condensate produced from 1 bcfd of feed gas. The plant would be located on a large, secure, concrete barge with a central moonpool. LNG storage is provided for 250,000 cu m and condensate storage for 650,000 bbl. And both products are off-loaded from the barge. Model tests have verified the stability of the barge structure: barge motions are low enough to permit the plant to continue operation in a 100-year storm in the Pacific Rim. Moreover, the barge is spread-moored, eliminating the need for a turret and swivel. Because the design is generic, the plant can process a wide variety of feed gases and operate in different environments, should the plant be relocated. This capability potentially gives the plant investment a much longer project life because its use is not limited to the life of only one producing area.

  9. Process simulation for a new conceptual design of LNG terminal coupling NGL recovery and LNG re-gasification for maximum energy savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqeet, Mohammed A.

    With the high demands of shale gas and promising development of LNG terminals, a lot of research has focused towards the process development for effective recovery of C2+ hydrocarbons (NGL). Shale gas requires a large amount of cold energy to cool down and recover the NGL; and the LNG re-gasification process requires a lot of heat energy to evaporate for NGL recovery. Thus, coupling the shale gas NGL recovery process and LNG re-gasification process, for utilizing the cold energy from LNG re-gasification process to assist NGL recovery from shale gas has significant economic benefits on both energy saving and high value product recovery. Wang et al. developed new conceptual design of such coupled process in 2013 and later Wang and Xu developed an optimal design considering uncertainties in 2014. This work deals with process simulation of both these designs and the feasibility of the process is verified. A steady state model is developed based on the plant design proposed by Wang et al. using Aspen plusRTM and then a dynamic model of the process is developed using Aspen dynamicsRTM. An effective control strategy is developed and the flexibility of the dynamic model is examined by giving disturbances in the shale gas feed. A comparison is made between the two proposed design and the prospects of the design for real plant scenario is discussed.

  10. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  11. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A; Ochoa, Sara A; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  12. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  13. Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.

    PubMed

    Hissong, D W

    2007-02-20

    Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from

  14. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana... terminal to liquefy BOG and return such gas in the form of LNG to its storage tanks. Cameron states...

  15. Results of the evaluation and preliminary validation of a primary LNG mass flow standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Mijndert; Lucas, Peter; Kerkhof, Oswin; Mirzaei, Maria; Blom, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    LNG custody transfer measurements at large terminals have been based on ship tank level gauging for more than 50 years. Flow meter application has mainly been limited to process control in spite of the promise of simplified operations, potentially smaller uncertainties and better control over the measurements for buyers. The reason for this has been the lack of LNG flow calibration standards as well as written standards. In the framework of the EMRP1 ‘Metrology for LNG’ project, Van Swinden Laboratory (VSL) has developed a primary LNG mass flow standard. This standard is so far the only one in the world except for a liquid nitrogen flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The VSL standard is based on weighing and holds a Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of 0.12% to 0.15%. This paper discusses the measurement principle, results of the uncertainty validation with LNG and the differences between water and LNG calibration results of four Coriolis mass flow meters. Most of the calibrated meters do not comply with their respective accuracy claims. Recommendations for further improvement of the measurement uncertainty will also be discussed.

  16. A thrust-ridge paleodepositional model for the Upper Freeport coal bed and associated clastic facies, Upper Potomac coal field, Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belt, E.S.; Lyons, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    A blind-thrust-ridge model is proposed to explain the lack of coarse clastic material in the vast minable Upper Freeport coal bed (UF). This coal bed contains only fine elastic partings and is overlain by regionally extensive, closely spaced channel-belt deposits in the Upper Potomac coal field of the Appalachian basin. A blind-thrust ridge may have formed a sediment trap and prevented c coarse fluvial sediments from entering the swamp during a period (Westphalian D) when the thick Upper Freeport peat accumulated. Anticlinal thrust ridges and associated depressions may have existed uninterrupted for about 40 km parallel to the Appalachian orogen. Sediment shed from the breached anticlinal ridges accumulated in the sediment trap and was carried out of the ends of the trap by streams that occupied the shear zone at the ends of the blind-thrust ridge. The extent, parallel to the orogen, of thick, areally extensive UF is related to the length of the blind-thrust ridge that, in turn, controlled the spacing of the river-derived coarse clastic sediments that entered the main basin from the east. The thrust plane eventually emerged to the surface of the blind-thrust ridge and peat accumulation was terminated when the ridge became eroded and the sediment trapped behind it was released. The peat was buried by abundant coarse clastic sediment, which formed closely spaced channel belts and intervening flood basins. This model has implications for widespread peat deposits (now coal) that developed in tropical regions a few hundred kilometers from the sea in a tectonically active foreland basin. ?? 1989.

  17. 78 FR 41047 - UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 17, 2013, UGI LNG, Inc. (UGI... Ontelaunee Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. As more fully described in the application, the new.... Questions regarding this application may be directed to Frank H. Markle, Counsel for UGI LNG, by calling...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  19. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  20. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  1. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  2. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  3. 75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application May 5, 2010. On April 22, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under... this application may be directed to William D. Rapp, Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC,...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  9. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and

  10. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  11. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE ORIGIN OF MINERAL MATTER IN COAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Dulong, F.T.; Ruppert, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    This study attempts to quantify some of the various origins of mineral matter. Data developed for the Upper Freeport coal bed indicates that mineral matter other than pyrite and calcite is primarily derived from the vegetal matter that ultimately became coal. Cathodoluminesence was used to verify that the quartz in the Upper Freeport coal is dominantly authigenic and not detrital in origin. Sulfur variability in coal beds of the central Appalachian Basin was investigated stratagraphically.

  12. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  13. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  14. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events. PMID:27441290

  15. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  16. Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-07

    Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

  17. 78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... PROLIANCE ENERGY, LLC) 11-110-NG FREEPORT LNG DEVELOPMENT, LP) 13-51-LNG AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the... orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at...

  18. Helium-volume dynamics of Upper Freeport coal powder and lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V.N.; Soong, Yee

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to 7 MPa of helium at room temperature alters the texture of Upper Freeport coal in a lump form. The differences in texture and porosity between coal powder and lumps may affect the transport and interaction of fluids and coal. In this work, the information about the coal texture and micro- and meso-porosity was obtained via the BET, BJH, and Dubinin–Astakhov analyses. We further investigated the free-fluid-phase volume (free-volume) effects due to helium interaction with the powder and the lumps. During the manometric experiment, helium penetration into the dry coal matrix resulted in slow relaxation of pressure. After exposure of coal to helium, there have been no significant changes of the macroscopic dimensions observed and the relaxation process can be attributed to microscopic ‘free-volume’ effects. Evolution of the sorption–desorption rates indicates that exposure to helium may change the texture and apparent (helium) density of dry coal.

  19. Installation of two main fans at P.T. Freeport Indonesia's underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Calizaya, F.; Mulyadi, A.

    1999-07-01

    This study summarizes the technical aspects related to the installation of two main fans at P.T. Freeport Indonesia: one centrifugal and one axial. The fans were installed to increase the exhaust capacity of two vent systems. The 450 kW fan has been installed on the surface to support an underground mine expansion project. The installation included the construction of a transition chamber, a retention wall, and the fan installation and commissioning. The 250 kW fan has been installed in an incline to increase the exhaust capacity of an ore pass ventilation system. The study presents the installation details from ground excavation and civil constructions to the fan installation and commissioning. It also includes the results of fan tests.

  20. Helium-volume dynamics of Upper Freeport coal powder and lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav; Soong, Yee

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to 7 MPa of helium at room temperature alters the texture of Upper Freeport coal in a lump form. The differences in texture and porosity between coal powder and lumps may affect the transport and interaction of fluids and coal. In this work, the information about the coal texture and micro- and meso-porosity was obtained via the BET, BJH, and Dubinin-Astakhov analyses. We further investigated the free-fluid-phase volume (free-volume) effects due to helium interaction with the powder and the lumps. During the manometric experiment, helium penetration into the dry coal matrix resulted in slow relaxation of pressure. After exposure of coal to helium, there have been no significant changes of the macroscopic dimensions observed and the relaxation process can be attributed to microscopic 'freevolume' effects. Evolution of the sorption-desorption rates indicates that exposure to helium may change the texture and apparent (helium) density of dry coal.

  1. MICROCHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC- AND SELENIUM-BEARING PYRITE IN UPPER FREEPORT COAL, INDIANA COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Chao, E.C.T.; Ruppert, L.F.; Blank, H.; Cecil, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and scanning electron microscope as well as electron and proton microprobe techniques have been used in a detailed investigation of the modes of occurrence of arsenic and selenium in pyrite in Upper Freeport coal from the Homer City area, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Polished blocks were prepared from columnar samples of the coal bed to represent particular zones continuously from top to bottom. Initial selection of zones to be studied was based on chemical analysis of bench-channel samples. Microprobe data indicate that the highest concentrations of arsenic (as great as 1. 5 wt. %) are apparently in solid solution in pyrite within a limited stratigraphic interval of the coal bed. Smaller amounts of arsenic and selenium (concentrations up to approximately 0. 1 and 0. 2 wt. % respectively) were detected at isolated points within pyrite grains in various strata of the coal bed.

  2. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  3. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... system that meets § 154.702; (b) A waste heat or catalytic furnace that burns boil-off gas, and:...

  4. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane...

  5. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  6. An unusual occurrence of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed, West-Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Minkin, J.A.; McGee, J.J.; Cecil, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify a rare type of As-bearing pyrite in selected specific gravity separates from the Pennsylvanian age Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania. Arsenic was detected mainly in cell-wall replacement pyrite where concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 1.9 wt %. Although the majority of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed is concentrated in massive and late diagenetic pyrite morphologies, the rarer As-bearing cell-replacement pyrite was observed in both light and heavy gravity separates from the three coal facies examined. Arsenic was occasionally detected in cell-filling replacement pyrite, but this As appears to be an artifact produced by signals from underlying and/or adjacent As-bearing cell-wall replacement pyrite. It is postulated that some plants of the Upper Freeport paleoswamp may have biomethylated As, which later could have been converted to dimethylarsine or other volatile organoarsenic compounds by either biologically or chemically driven processes. Once liberated, the arsenic may have been incorporated into pyrite during pyritization of the cell walls. The As incorporation occurred early, before significant compaction of the peat, because the pyritized cell walls are not compacted.

  7. U.S. LNG Imports - The Next Wave

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    U.S. LNG imports - The Next Wave, is now available as a special supplement to the January 2007 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports still account for less than 3% of total U.S. natural gas supplies, the global market is growing and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) foresees another wave of U.S. LNG import growth over the next two years. The supplement focuses on recent trends in global and U.S. LNG trade, and presents factors expected to influence LNG imports through 2008. EIA expects year-over-year increases in LNG imports of 34.5% and 38.5% in 2007 and 2008, respectively.

  8. Beauty of Simplicity: Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Liquefaction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andress, D. L.; Watkins, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    Paper describes how use of single component refrigerants yields an LNG liquefaction process that is safe, simple to operate, easy to understand, and robust in reliability. The 34-year operating history of Kenai LNG has proven the inherent advantages of the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Process. The paper is written from an operational point of view, and describes basic design parameters and operation of the processes.

  9. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  10. Structural health monitoring for insulation panels of LNG carriers using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung Hyun; Son, Young Joo; Kang, Sung Won; Lee, Jae Myung; Na, Sung Soo

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate dynamic failure initiation and failure modes of insulation panels of LNG carriers. Insulation panels of LNG cargo tanks may include mechanical failures such as cracks as well as delaminations within the layers due to impact sloshing loads and fatigue loadings, and these failures cause a significant decrease of structural integrity. In this study, a structural health monitoring system, employing fiber optic sensors is developed for monitoring various failures that can occur in LNG insulation panels. Fiber optic sensors have the advantage of being embedded inside of insulation panels. The signal of embedded fiber optic sensors is used to calculate the strain of insulation panels and is processed by digital filtering to identify damage initiations. It has been observed that the presence of defects and delaminations produce noticeable changes in the strain measurement in a predictable manner. In addition, fiber optic sensors are used to measure static and dynamic strain variations of insulation panels with and without damage. It is expected that this study will be used as a fundamental study for the safety assessment of the LNG insulation panels.

  11. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  12. High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Charles W.

    2006-04-18

    A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

  13. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  14. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  15. Long-Term CO2 Sorption on Upper Freeport Coal Powder and Lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y

    2008-03-01

    Powder and lumps of the Argonne Premium Upper Freeport coal were compared in a 9-month-long CO2 sorption-desorption study. On the basis of the slope analysis, CO2 induced the lumps swelling by 7%. The powder swelled by 8% and then rapidly shrank by 3% on desorption. This was verified by a "single point" injection of helium and the pressure-and-density technique, which was sufficiently sensitive. Low-pressure Langmuir-fit parameters suggest that the microporous textures of the powder and lumps are similar. The samples demonstrated greatly increased sticking coefficients and a slightly larger number of the "sorption ready" sites, after the CO2-induced swelling and structural rearrangement resulted in variable degrees of the matrix shrinkage. No permanent changes in the void volume and dry mass were detected after complete desorption. The observed hysteresis in sorption-desorption behavior of both samples upon the approach to the CO2 density fluctuation ridge is interpreted as a contribution of condensation and coalescence of CO2 clusters in mesopores. The differences between the two samples in the magnitude of the enhanced capillary condensation, with or without dissolution, demonstrate the importance of changes in mesoporous texture caused by grinding of coal lumps into powder.

  16. Long-Term CO2 Sorption on Upper Freeport Coal Powder and Lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav; Soong, Yee

    2008-03-01

    Powder and lumps of the Argonne Premium Upper Freeport coal were compared in a 9-month-long CO2 sorption-desorption study. On the basis of the slope analysis, CO2 induced the lumps swelling by 7%. The powder swelled by 8% and then rapidly shrank by 3% on desorption. This was verified by a “single point” injection of helium and the pressure-and-density technique, which was sufficiently sensitive. Low-pressure Langmuir-fit parameters suggest that the microporous textures of the powder and lumps are similar. The samples demonstrated greatly increased sticking coefficients and a slightly larger number of the “sorption ready” sites, after the CO2-induced swelling and structural rearrangement resulted in variable degrees of the matrix shrinkage. No permanent changes in the void volume and dry mass were detected after complete desorption. The observed hysteresis in sorption-desorption behavior of both samples upon the approach to the CO2 density fluctuation ridge is interpreted as a contribution of condensation and coalescence of CO2 clusters in mesopores. The differences between the two samples in the magnitude of the enhanced capillary condensation, with or without dissolution, demonstrate the importance of changes in mesoporous texture caused by grinding of coal lumps into powder.

  17. Long-term CO{sub 2} sorption on Upper Freeport coal powder and lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Vyacheslav Romanov; Yee Soong

    2008-03-15

    Powder and lumps of the Argonne Premium Upper Freeport coal were compared in a 9-month-long CO{sub 2} sorption-desorption study. On the basis of the slope analysis, CO{sub 2} induced the lumps swelling by 7%. The powder swelled by 8% and then rapidly shrank by 3% on desorption. This was verified by a 'single point' injection of helium and the pressure-and-density technique, which was sufficiently sensitive. Low-pressure Langmuir-fit parameters suggest that the microporous textures of the powder and lumps are similar. The samples demonstrated greatly increased sticking coefficients and a slightly larger number of the 'sorption ready' sites, after the CO{sub 2}-induced swelling and structural rearrangement resulted in variable degrees of the matrix shrinkage. No permanent changes in the void volume and dry mass were detected after complete desorption. The observed hysteresis in sorption-desorption behavior of both samples upon the approach to the CO{sub 2} density fluctuation ridge is interpreted as a contribution of condensation and coalescence of CO{sub 2} clusters in mesopores. The differences between the two samples in the magnitude of the enhanced capillary condensation, with or without dissolution, demonstrate the importance of changes in mesoporous texture caused by grinding of coal lumps into powder. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Development of polymer concrete for dike insulation at LNG facilities: Phase 4, Low cost materials. Final report, September 1, 1987--April 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier GRI-sponsored work at Brookhaven National Laboratory has resulted in the development and utilization of insulating polymer concrete composites (IPC) as a means of reducing the evaporation rate of liquified natural gas in the event of a spill into a containment dike, thereby improving the safety at these sites. Although all of the required properties can be attained with the IPC, it was estimated that a low-cost replacement for the expensive organic binder would be necessary before use of the material would be cost-effective. In the current program, several latex modified cement formulations were evaluated and the most promising one identified. A mixture of two carboxylated styrene-butadiene latexes was selected for use in detailed laboratory property characterizations and a subsequent field evaluation. When compared to the properties of IPC, the latex-modified insulating materials display somewhat higher thermal conductivities, greater permeability to water, and reduced strength. However, these properties still meet most of the performance criteria, and the unit cost of the material is less than one-fifth that of IPC made with epoxy binders. When installed as a 0.75-in. thick overlay, material costs are estimated to be $1.00/ft{sup 2}.

  19. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... Regulatory, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209 at...

  20. 78 FR 20312 - Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Downeast LNG Project The staff of the... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Downeast LNG Project, proposed by Downeast LNG, Inc. and Downeast...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  3. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  4. LNGFIRE: A thermal-radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, October 25, 1988-June 29, 1990. documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.

    1990-06-29

    The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed, and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. The model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending on whether the fuel impoundment area is circular or rectangular in shape. It allows for flame drag and tilt in the presence of wind.

  5. The use of long acting subcutaneous levonorgestrel (LNG) gel depot as an effective contraceptive option for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Wheaton, C J; Savage, A; Shukla, A; Neiffer, D; Qu, W; Sun, Y; Lasley, B L

    2011-01-01

    Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) are a critically endangered species that have been bred successfully in captivity for many years. For two decades, the Cotton-top Tamarin SSP(©) has been challenged with a high rate of reproduction combined with a history of contraceptive failures and nonrecommended births using the current Depo Provera(®) (medroxyprogesterone acetate) injection followed by MGA (melengestrol acetate) implant contraception combination. To address these issues we have developed and tested the use of levonorgestrel (LNG) as an effective contraception option for cotton-top tamarins. LNG was delivered in an injectable, gel matrix consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid, triethyl citrate and N-methylpyrrolidone. This gel matrix forms a biodegradable depot at the subcutaneous injection site providing slow release of the active ingredient. Gel matrix composition and LNG concentration were adjusted in four gel formulations to maximize the duration of contraceptive efficacy while minimizing immediate post-injection increases in fecal LNG concentration. LNG treatment (68.44 ± 8.61 mg/kg) successfully eliminated ovarian cycles (fecal pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1) C)) for 198.8 ± 70.3 days (formulation four; range 19-50 weeks). It was demonstrated that subcutaneous LNG depot injection was an effective, reversible contraceptive option for the management of cotton-top tamarins in captivity. PMID:20938969

  6. Distribution and isotopic composition of sulfur in the Upper Freeport Coal of western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, J.F.; Cecil, C.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Stanton, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Upper Freeport Coal (UFC) of west-central Pennsylvania is separated into upper, middle, and lower facies on the basis of distinctive mineral and maceral assemblages. Microscopic examination of these facies revealed two distinct types of pyrite occurrence: (1) finely disseminated framboids and well-formed crystals; and (2) coarser, irregularly shaped pyrite (with minor marcasite) that in part replaces the coal macerals. Both pyrite concentration (wt.%) and pyrite /delta//sup 34/S values are strongly correlated with pyrite morphology. The lower facies of the UFC contains /approx/1.9% pyrite of type 1 that has /delta//sup 34/S values of /approx/1 /per thousand/. The upper facies contains /approx/4.3% pyrite (+marcasite) of type 2 that has /delta//sup 34/S values of /approx/10 /per thousand/. Both pyrite types were deposited prior to significant compaction, from H/sub 2/S produced during bacterial sulfate reduction. The difference in the /delta//sup 34/S values of the two pyrite types reflects either different sulfate sources or reduction of a greater proportion of the sulfate available during formation of the coarser pyrite. The depositional and diagenetic setting of the UFC is entirely nonmarine, yet the high pyrite content of the upper facies is equivalent to that of many high-sulfur coals that were influenced by marine waters during early diagenesis. However, marine-influenced coals that were the site of extensive bacterial sulfate reduction have organic sulfur contents of several percent, compared to uniformly low organic sulfur contents of /approx/0.6% in the UFC. The low organic sulfur content of the UFC most likely reflects the different chemistry of the fresh water diagenetic conditions.

  7. Get accurate LNG densities with COSTALD

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, R.W.; Coker, T.A.; Thomson, G.H.

    1982-04-01

    A fine-tuned version of the COSTALD correlation predicts the densities for 40 LNG-type mixtures at an average absolute error of 0.078%. When tested against 285 points of low-temperature data collected by the US National Bureau of Standards, the average error was 0.199%, compared with a 0.227% error obtained with the NBS's McCarty-Klosek-McKinley technique. The COSTALD correlation relates the saturated molar volume of a liquid to a characteristic volume, the reduced temperature, and, a modified acentric factor for each stream component. The fine-tuning involved adding several interaction parameters dervied from binary density data.

  8. Particle- and Gaseous Emissions from an LNG Powered Ship.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Fridell, Erik

    2015-10-20

    Measurements of particle number and mass concentrations and number size distribution of particles from a ship running on liquefied natural gas (LNG) were made on-board a ship with dual-fuel engines installed. Today there is a large interest in LNG as a marine fuel, as a means to comply with sulfur and NOX regulations. Particles were studied in a wide size range together with measurements of other exhaust gases under different engine loads and different mixtures of LNG and marine gas oil. Results from these measurements show that emissions of particles, NOX, and CO2 are considerably lower for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils. Emitted particles were mainly of volatile character and mainly had diameters below 50 nm. Number size distribution for LNG showed a distinct peak at 9-10 nm and a part of a peak at diameter 6 nm and below. Emissions of total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are higher for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils, which points to the importance of considering the methane slip from combustion of LNG. PMID:26422536

  9. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Juan A; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-02-15

    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire. PMID:23305750

  10. Thermoelectric Power Conversion System Combined with LNG Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Morita, Ryo; Omoto, Kazuyuki; Koji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Noishiki, Koji

    A conceptual design of the thermoelectric power conversion system combined with open rack type LNG (liquefied natural gas) vaporizer to make use of cold heat of LNG is presented. The system performance analysis has been made based on the thermoelectric module performance data obtained at the cryogenic thermoelectric (CTE) test rig which could realize temperature and fluid dynamic condition of the open rack type LNG vaporizer. Conventional bismuth-telluride thermoelectric modules were tested, however, each module is encapsulated in the stainless steel container to achieve water proof. Electricity production cost evaluation of the system is also discussed.

  11. LNGFIRE: A thermal radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, June 29, 1990. Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.

    1990-06-29

    The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from LNG fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. This model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending on whether the fuel impoundment area is circular or rectangular in shape. It allows for flame drag and tilt in the presence of wind. Based on experimental data, the maximum surface emissive power and the flame attenuation coefficient were estimated at 190 kw/sq m (60,267 Btu/hr sq ft) and 0.3/m (0.09/ft), respectively.

  12. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  13. Effects of detrital influx in the Pennsylvanian Upper Freeport peat swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Stanton, R.W.; Blaine, Cecil C.; Eble, C.F.; Dulong, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Quartz cathodoluminescence properties and mineralogy of three sets of samples and vegetal and/ or miospore data from two sets of samples from the Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania, show that detrital influence from a penecontemporaneous channel is limited to an area less than three km from the channel. The sets of samples examined include localities of the coal bed where (1) the coal is thin, split by partings, and near a penecontemporaneous fluvial channel, (2) the coal is relatively thick and located approximately three km from the channel, and (3) the coal is thick and located approximately 12 km from the channel. Samples from locality 1 (nearest the channel) have relatively high-ash yields (low-temperature ash average = 27.3% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis) and high proportions of quartz and clay minerals. The quartz is primarily detrital, as determined by cathodoluminescent properties, and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is low. In addition, most of the plant remains and miospores indicate peat-forming plants that required low nutrient levels for growth. In contrast, samples from localities 2 and 3, from the more interior parts of the bed, contained predominantly authigenic quartz grains nd yielded low-temperature ash values of less than 14% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis. The low-temperature ash contains low concentrations of quartz and clay minerals and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is relatively high. Although intact core was not available for paleobotanical analyses, another core collected within 1 km from locality 3 contained plant types interpreted to have required high nutrient levels for growth. These data indicate that mineral formation is dominated by authigenic processes in interior parts of the coal body. Some of the authigenic quartz may have been derived from herbaceous ferns as indicated by patterns in the palynological and paleobotanical data. In contrast, detrital processes appeared to be limited to in areas

  14. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  15. Hydrodynamic optimization of twin-skeg LNG ships by CFD and model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keunjae; Tillig, Fabian; Bathfield, Nicolas; Liljenberg, Hans

    2014-06-01

    SSPA experiences a growing interest in twin skeg ships as one attractive green ship solution. The twin skeg concept is well proven with obvious advantages for the design of ships with full hull forms, restricted draft or highly loaded propellers. SSPA has conducted extensive hull optimizations studies of LNG ships of different size based on an extensive hull data base with over 7,000 models tested, including over 400 twin skeg hull forms. Main hull dimensions and different hull concepts such as twin skeg and single screw were of main interest in the studies. In the present paper, one twin skeg and one single screw 170 K LNG ship were designed for optimally selected main dimension parameters. The twin skeg hull was further optimized and evaluated using SHIPFLOW FRIENDSHIP design package by performing parameter variation in order to modify the shape and positions of the skegs. The finally optimized models were then built and tested in order to confirm the lower power demand of twin skeg designed compaed with the signle screw design. This paper is a full description of one of the design developments of a LNG twin skeg hull, from early dimensional parameter study, through design optimization phase towards the confirmation by model tests.

  16. The northern and central Appalachian basin coal region -- The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal bed assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Freeman, P.; Tully, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal beds are two of six coal beds being assessed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region. The coal resource assessments were designed to provide up-to-date, concise data on the location, quantity, and quality of US coals for Federal agencies, the public, industry and academia. Assessment products are fully digital and include original and remaining resource estimates; maps depicting areal extent, mined areas, geologic structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness, ash yield, sulfur content, calorific value, and selected trace-element contents; and public domain geochemical and stratigraphic databases. The assessment methodology and a few results are presented.

  17. 75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November 22, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston... directed to Patricia Outtrim, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston, Texas 77002,...

  18. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference August 25, 2010..., Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a tariff sheet to revise its tariff with respect to...

  19. 77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 15, 2011, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (SLNG), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham... should be directed to Glenn A. Sheffield, Director, Rates & Regulatory Affairs, Southern LNG Company,...

  20. 75 FR 2126 - Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 18, 2009, Calais LNG Project Company, LLC (Calais LNG) and Calais Pipeline Company, LLC (Calais Pipeline) 142 ] Main Street, P.O. Box 133, Calais,...

  1. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  2. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  3. 75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... final rule entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (75 FR 29420... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 127 RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General... (WSA) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities....

  4. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... General Conformity Determination for Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC... quality impacts from the construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas...

  8. The theoretical analysis of the Fog removal in the LNG Ambient Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    The fog removal process is one of the important process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. In this study we carried out theoretical study of the fog removal process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. The LNG Ambient Vaporizer in Incheon area was used in our study. The fog temperature and the required energy produced from air fan to remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer were calculated using average temperature of Incheon area in 2012 by Psychometruc Chart method. As a result we can be remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer using Enthalpy[kW] energy in summer season and Enthalpy[kW] in winter season respectively.

  9. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    SciTech Connect

    Breazeale, K.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  10. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO )

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  11. Analysis of LNG peakshaving-facility release-prevention systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Powers, T.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Hobbs, J.M.; Daling, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of release prevention systems for a reference LNG peakshaving facility. An overview assessment of the reference peakshaving facility, which preceeded this effort, identified 14 release scenarios which are typical of the potential hazards involved in the operation of LNG peakshaving facilities. These scenarios formed the basis for this more detailed study. Failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis were used to estimate the expected frequency of each release scenario for the reference peakshaving facility. In addition, the effectiveness of release prevention, release detection, and release control systems were evaluated.

  12. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  13. An LNG release, transport, and fate model system for marine spills.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Malcolm L; Swanson, J Craig; Jayko, Kathy; Whittier, Nicole

    2007-02-20

    LNGMAP, a fully integrated, geographic information based modular system, has been developed to predict the fate and transport of marine spills of LNG. The model is organized as a discrete set of linked algorithms that represent the processes (time dependent release rate, spreading, transport on the water surface, evaporation from the water surface, transport and dispersion in the atmosphere, and, if ignited, burning and associated radiated heat fields) affecting LNG once it is released into the environment. A particle-based approach is employed in which discrete masses of LNG released from the source are modeled as individual masses of LNG or spillets. The model is designed to predict the gas mass balance as a function of time and to display the spatial and temporal evolution of the gas (and radiated energy field). LNGMAP has been validated by comparisons to predictions of models developed by ABS Consulting and Sandia for time dependent point releases from a draining tank, with and without burning. Simulations were in excellent agreement with those performed by ABS Consulting and consistent with Sandia's steady state results. To illustrate the model predictive capability for realistic emergency scenarios, simulations were performed for a tanker entering Block Island Sound. Three hypothetical cases were studied: the first assumes the vessel continues on course after the spill starts, the second that the vessel stops as soon as practical after the release begins (3 min), and the third that the vessel grounds at the closest site practical. The model shows that the areas of the surface pool and the incident thermal radiation field (with burning) are minimized and dispersed vapor cloud area (without burning) maximized if the vessel continues on course. For this case the surface pool area, with burning, is substantially smaller than for the without burning case because of the higher mass loss rate from the surface pool due to burning. Since the vessel speed substantially

  14. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  15. 76 FR 53425 - Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 8, 2011... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid... largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid... largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid... largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  19. Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.

    PubMed

    Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

    2008-10-30

    Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements. PMID:18372107

  20. Field experiments on high expansion (HEX) foam application for controlling LNG pool fire.

    PubMed

    Suardin, Jaffee A; Wang, Yanjun; Willson, Mike; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-06-15

    Previous research suggests that high expansion foam with an expansion ratio of 500 to 1 is one of the best options for controlling liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire on land. However, its effectiveness heavily depends on the foam application rate, foam generator location, and the design of LNG spill containment dike. Examination of these factors is necessary to achieve the maximum benefit for applying HEX on LNG pool fires. While theoretical study of the effects of foam on LNG fires is important, the complicated phenomena involved in LNG pool fire and foam application increase the need for LNG field experimentation. Therefore, five LNG experiments were conducted at Texas A&M University's Brayton Fire Training Field. ANGUS FIRE provided Expandol solution to form 500 to 1 high expansion foam (HEX) and its latest LNG Turbex Fixed High Expansion Foam Generators. In this paper, data collected during five experiments are presented and analyzed. The effectiveness of high expansion foam for controlling LNG pool fires with various application rates at two different types of containment pits is discussed. LNG fire behaviors and the effects of dike wall height are also presented and discussed. PMID:19056175

  1. Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E G

    1982-04-01

    The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

  2. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  3. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  4. Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or residential areas surroungind LNG storage facilities. Studies by the natural gas industry indicate that the hazards associated with accidental spills of LNG from storage tanks can be makedly reduced by insulating the diked areas surrounding these tanks. In this manner, the heat transfer from the dike surface to the LNG is reduced. The insulating composite is used to construct a thermal barrier between the walls and floor of the dike an the spilled LNG. The thermal conductivity, porosity, and compression strength of a concrete, polymer composite insulating material is discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tbs.

  5. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  6. Service experience with 125,000-m/sup 3/ LNG vessels of spherical-tank design

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, J.J.; Gilmore, G.A.; Tornay, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    Serving the Indonesia-Japan LNG project - the largest now in operation - are eight spherical-tank-design vessels (seven dedicated) with capacities of 125,000 m/sup 3/ carrying over 8 million tons of LNG annually. Details are presented on the project's development and start-up, the vessels' construction and design, the preparations involved in placing the ships in service (including extensive crew training and proper outfitting), the gas-trials procedures used, the voyage characteristics, and the improvements made to the vessels based on their service experience (including the relocation of the discharge-line check valves, extension of the tank fill lines, modification of the pump motor insulations, and several other changes made to the cargo and ballast system components, the main reduction-gear lube-oil spray system, and the boilers' internal components). The cargo control-system design and the reliability of the electronic control systems have proved to be the most critical factors affecting the LNG tankers' performance.

  7. LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

    1998-02-25

    Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

  8. Leak response gelling of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Final report Jan-Oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, W.B. Jr; Twesme, E.N.; Zatko, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Techniques for thixotropic gelling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in response to leak or rupture in an LNG container were examined, and the hazard-reducing potential of the technique was demonstrated by limiting mobility and reducing evaporation and burning rate. Of 30 candidate gelants for liquefied methane evaluated, gels of highest yield stress and lowest evaporation rate were obtained with carbon blacks and pyrogenic silica, and means were investigated for reducing the volume requirements of these low bulk-density materials; these included the addition of a surfactant, gelant concentration in a liquid carrier at least partially soluble in methane, and pelletization. All of these techniques showed promise, and pelletization of the low-density gelants reduced required gelant volume to 11 percent of the undensified volume. High-shear mixing of the densified gelants as well as of high-density gelants such as bentonite clay into a methane homolog at room temperature improved the speed of gelation. Other dispersion techniques were investigated. It is recommended that future research optimize gelling and dispersion techniques for industry use and develop hardware designs for long-term gelant storage and rapid introduction in the event of spillage.

  9. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  10. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  11. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  12. LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

    1993-01-06

    The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

  13. 78 FR 42587 - Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Maritime Administration Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary Suspension of Operations at the Neptune LNG Deepwater Port AGENCY: Maritime Administration... Administration (MarAd) provides public notice of its decision to approve the request of Neptune LNG LLC...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  15. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their inbound... Natural Gas tankers while they are moored at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N and 151°24′10″ W....

  20. 75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project March 1, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory... operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows... LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility, with two berths,...

  1. 75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Terminal and Pipeline Project December 29, 2009. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid... operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility,...

  2. 75 FR 29420 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... proposed rulemaking entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (74 FR... easily be obtained from the facility-design specifications'' (60 FR ] 39788). Every LOI provided by an... Regulatory Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter...

  3. 77 FR 10732 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an application (Application), filed on December 21, 2011, by Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 12 million metric tons per annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) (equivalent to approximately 620 billion cubic feet......

  4. 76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant to section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed...

  5. The potential for LNG as a railroad fuel in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Freight railroad operations in the US represent a substantial opportunity for liquefied natural gas (LNG) to displace diesel fuel. With the promise of achieving an overwhelming economic advantage over diesel fuel, this paper presents some discussion to the question, ``Why is the application of LNG for railroad use in the US moving so slowly?'' A brief overview of the freight railroad operations in the US is given, along with a summary of several railroad LNG demonstration projects. US Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board exhaust emission regulations may cause the railroad industry to move from small-scale LNG demonstration projects to using LNG as a primary freight railroad transportation fuel in selected regions or route-specific applications.

  6. Feasibility study on Thailand LNG project. Final report. Volume 2. Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Bechtel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report specifically addresses an LNG terminal and associated gas pipeline, the crude oil pipeline component of the Southern Seaboard project, in addition to a power plant which uses a portion of the gas. Volume II contains the Appendix and is divided into the following sections: (1.0) PTT Data; (2.0) Design Criteria; (3.0) Khao Bo Ya Soils Data; (4.0) Khao Bo Ya Oceanographic Data; (5.0) Thailand Seismic Data; (6.0) Risk Assessment; (7.0) Equipment Lists; (8.0) Equipment Data Sheets; (9.0) Drawings; (10.0) Cost Data; (11.0) Calculations; (12.0) Terms of Reference.

  7. Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water.

    PubMed

    Lehr, William; Simecek-Beatty, Debra

    2004-02-27

    Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates are made of the spread rate and maximum slick size, burn rate, and duration; effective thermal radiation; and subsequent soot generation. PMID:15036638

  8. Cryogenic flexible pipes for offshore LNG-LPG production

    SciTech Connect

    Dumay, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Available in long, flexible pieces (up to several miles), the high-performance Coflexip pipe comprises four basic layers: (1) an interlocked, spiraled-steel carcass to resist crushing and prevent deformation, (2) an inner thermoplastic sheath to render the line internally leakproof, (3) two cross-laid steel-wire armors to oppose the stresses induced by internal pressure, and (4) an external thermoplastic sheath to ensure water-tightness and resist corrosion. Coflexip pipe is particularly suitable for transporting cryogenic liquids such as LNG from, for example, an offshore liquefaction plant.

  9. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.

    2014-11-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.

  10. The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

  11. Isotopic evidence for the source of sulfur in the Upper Freeport coal bed (west-central Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Pierce, B.S.; Bates, A.L.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic variations were used to determine the sources of sulfur in a medium-sulfur coal (???2 wt%S) that lacked marine influence, which is often cited as a major source of sulfur in coal. Variations in the amount and isotopic composition of the organic and pyritic sulfur among the coal-bed facies of the Upper Freeport coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian) are attributed to differential incorporation of syngenetic and epigenetic sulfur. These variations reflect varying environmental conditions during paleopeat formation, porosity and permeability, and the availability of sulfate and iron. A large increase in the abundance and sulfur isotopic value of pyritic sulfur in the upper facies of the coal bed, in proximity to the overlying lacustrine shale, corresponds to an increase in massive and irregular forms of pyrite. This relationship is attributed to at least two stages of epigenetic pyrite incorporation. An early stage of epigenetic pyrite, moderately enriched in 34S, apparently formed during the fluvial-lacustrine period immediately following peat accumulation. A late stage of epigenetic pyrite, highly enriched in 34S, formed after compaction of the original peat as cleat- and fracture-filling pyrite; this sulfur was probably derived from bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate in groundwater. Isotopic mass-balance calculations indicate that this late-stage epigenetic pyrite may account for up to ???50% of the pyritic sulfur in some upper facies of the coal bed. These results suggest that most of the pyritic sulfur in the Upper Freeport coal bed may be epigenetic, incorporated either soon after peat accumulation or later during coalification. ?? 1994.

  12. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  13. Vapor burn analysis for the Coyote series LNG spill experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rodean, H.C.; Hogan, W.J.; Urtiew, P.A.; Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; McRae, T.G.; Morgan, D.L. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    A major purpose of the Coyote series of field experiments at China Lake, California, in 1981 was to study the burning of vapor clouds from spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water. Extensive arrays of instrumentation were deployed to obtain micrometeorological, gas concentration, and fire-related data. The instrumentation included in situ sensors of various types, high-speed motion picture cameras, and infrared (IR) imagers. Five of the total of ten Coyote spill experiments investigated vapor burns. The first vapor-burn experiment, Coyote 2, was done with a small spill of LNG to assess instrument capability and survivability in vapor cloud fires. The emphasis in this report is on the other four vapor-burn experiments: Coyotes 3, 5, 6, and 7. The data are analyzed to determine fire spread, flame propagation, and heat flux - quantities that are related to the determination of the damage zone for vapor burns. The results of the analyses are given here. 20 references, 57 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Steady-state and dynamic simulation study on boil-off gas minimization and recovery strategies at LNG exporting terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurle, Yogesh

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming one of the prominent clean energy sources with its abundance, high calorific value, low emission, and price. Vapors generated from LNG due to heat leak are called boil-off gas (BOG). As world-wide LNG productions are increasing fast, BOG generation and handling problems are becoming more critical. Also, due to stringent environmental regulations, flaring of BOG is not a viable option. In this study, typical Propane-and-Mixed-Refrigerant (C3-MR) process, storage facilities, and loading facilities are modeled and simulated to study BOG generation at LNG exporting terminals, including LNG processing, storage, and berth loading areas. Factors causing BOG are presented, and quantities of BOG generated due to each factor at each location are calculated under different LNG temperatures. Various strategies to minimize, recover, and reuse BOG are also studied for their feasibility and energy requirements. Rate of BOG generation during LNG loading---Jetty BOG (JBOG)---changes significantly with loading time. In this study, LNG vessel loading is simulated using dynamic process simulation software to obtain JBOG generation profile and to study JBOG recovery strategies. Also, fuel requirements for LNG plant to run steam-turbine driven compressors and gas-turbine driven compressors are calculated. Handling of JBOG generated from multiple loadings is also considered. The study would help proper handling of BOG problems in terms of minimizing flaring at LNG exporting terminals, and thus reducing waste, saving energy, and protecting surrounding environments.

  15. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-05-01

    Work continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been completed successfully for the FEM3A model utilizing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) turbulence closure model. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have solved the problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions with FEM3A using the PBL model, and are continuing our program to verify the operation of the model using an updated, verified, version of the k-epsilon turbulence closure model which has been modified to handle dense gas dispersion effects. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and the identified questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is discussed in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached.

  16. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2005-10-01

    Work has continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been satisfied. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have all indications that the important problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions have been resolved. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2005 to September 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  17. LNG Safety Research FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-02-02

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  18. 77 FR 38790 - Noble Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that during May 2012, it... are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at...

  19. Petrobras eyes LNG project in Amazon region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil`s oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil`s energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets.

  20. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  1. Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Douglas S.

    2003-01-10

    Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

  2. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  4. 77 FR 48145 - Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Project in the first quarter of 2015 and complete construction during the second quarter of 2016. The... for commissioning of the initial liquefaction train at the LNG terminal in the fourth quarter of 2016... quarter of 2016. Operations would commence after the commissioning of the first LNG liquefaction...

  5. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  6. 75 FR 61475 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Cameron LNG Export Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues September... important environmental issues. By this notice, the Commission requests public comments on the scope of...

  7. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To... Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite... authorizations granted on April 16, 2012 in Docket No. CP11-72-000 (Liquefaction Project) in order to...

  8. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street... authorizations granted on April 16, 2012 in Docket No. CP11-72-000 (Liquefaction Project), as amended in...

  9. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... the Commission's Regulations, to site, construct, and operate liquefaction and export...

  10. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  11. [The preparation, characterization and ultraviolet photodegradation of LNG-HP-beta-CD].

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-wei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao-hui

    2011-03-01

    The characteristics of levonorgestrel (LNG), low solubility and the quick degradation under ultraviolet, limited its study and application in rodent contraception. The inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) with LNG was investigated in present study. The inclusion complex was prepared by solution method and characterized by ultraviolet absorption spectrum and infrared spectrum spectra. And the stability was evaluated by being exposed to ultraviolet. The authors' results showed that the accurate and simple method of quantitative determination for LNG was established by ultraviolet spectrum, the molar ratio of the complex was 1:1 calculated from the phase solubility diagram, the stability constant was 187.3 L x mol(-1) at 25 degrees C, and the formation of the inclusion complex was validated by UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the degradation rate of the inclusion complex was less than 5%, which was slower than the LNG monomer. The present study indicated that HP-beta-CD could be formed inclusion complexes with LNG and the solubility, and stability were obviously enhanced. PMID:21595245

  12. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around -8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater. PMID:27371931

  13. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  14. 78 FR 18970 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... properties.\\5\\ We will define the project-specific Area of Potential Effects (APE) in consultation with the SHPOs as the project develops. On natural gas facility projects, the APE at a minimum encompasses...

  15. FEM3A simulations of selected LNG vapor barrier verification field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1990-10-01

    In order to evaluate and eventually predict the possible mitigating effects of vapor fences on the dispersion of the vapor cloud resulting from an accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill in storage areas, a research program was initiated to evaluate methods for predicting LNG dispersion distances for realistic facility configurations. As part of the program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a series of large-scale field experiments called the LNG Vapor Barrier Verification Field Trials (also referred to as the Falcon Series) at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF), Nevada. Objectives were (1) to provide a data base on LNG vapor dispersion from spill involving complex field obstacles to assist in validation of wind tunnel and mathematical models, and (2) to assess the effectiveness of vapor fences for mitigating LNG vapor dispersion hazards in the events of an accidental spill. Five spill experiments were conducted on water in order to generate vapor at rates equivalent to the liquid spill rates. In this study, the FEM3A model was applied to simulate four of the Falcon experiments. The objectives of this study were, through numerical modeling and a detailed model-data comparison: (1) to improve our understanding of LNG vapor dispersion involving vapor barriers, (2) to assess FEM3A in modeling such complex vapor dispersion scenarios, and (3) to complement the results of field and wind tunnel tests, such as providing plausible explanations for unexpected results and filling in data gaps due to instrument failure or limited array size. Toward these goals, the relevant field measurements were analyzed and several series of 2-D and 3-D simulations were carried out. 11 refs., 93 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Effect of oxidation on the removal CU{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Mn (VII) from dilute aqueous solutions by Upper Freeport bituminous coal. Quarterly report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bodine, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Upper Freeport bituminous coal was able to remove Mn (VII) from dilute aqueous solution by concurrent adsorption and reduction of the manganese to lower valence, less toxic states. This type of reaction indicated the potential of using coal to remove oxidizing contaminants from effluents. Since oxidizing anions can degrade ion exchange resins and membranes, coal may be a viable alternative for detoxification. On analysis of the kinetics of copper and cadmium uptake from dilute aqueous solution, adsorption equilibria and functional groups analyses, it was apparent that the different oxidative pre-treatments affected both the surfaces and pore structure of Upper Freeport coal. The large amount of carboxyl and phenolic functional groups remaining after contact with copper and cadmium solutions, as determined by functional groups analyses, indicated the low affinity of the surface acid groups for these cations. Furthermore, there was almost no metal ion removal at low solution pH`s, which precludes the use of Upper Freeport for treating acidic wastes and effluents such as acid mine drainage. The coal surface functional groups are indeed able to exchange with cations, since the amount of these groups are measured by ion exchange with Na{sup +} and Ba{sup 2+}, however, it may be more difficult to displace the waters of hydration around Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}, to allow their uptake on the coal surface functional groups. Improved metal ion removal might be obtained using a lower rank coal, such as a subbituminous coal, which would be more susceptible to oxidation.

  17. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  18. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications. Final subcontract report, June 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  19. 78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ..., unloading facilities, and associated piping and appurtenances); (ii) a liquefaction facility consisting of two liquefaction trains of 4.5 million metric tons per annum each, for an overall nominal...

  20. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over nickel catalysts supported on cationic surfactant-templated mesoporous aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Pil; Chung, Jin Suk; Song, In Kyu

    Two types of mesoporous γ-aluminas (denoted as A-A and A-S) are prepared by a hydrothermal method under different basic conditions using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as a templating agent. A-A and A-S are synthesized in a medium of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S) are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of a mesoporous γ-Al 2O 3 support on the catalytic performance of Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 is investigated. The identity of basic solution strongly affects the physical properties of the A-A and A-S supports. The high surface-area of the mesoporous γ-aluminas and the strong metal-support interaction of supported catalysts greatly enhance the dispersion of nickel species on the catalyst surface. The well-developed mesopores of the Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts prohibit the polymerization of carbon species on the catalyst surface during the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, both Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts give better catalytic performance than the nickel catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al 2O 3 (Ni/A-C). In addition, the Ni/A-A catalyst is superior to the Ni/A-S catalyst. The relatively strong metal-support interaction of Ni/A-A catalyst effectively suppresses the sintering of metallic nickel and the carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG. The large pores of the Ni/A-A catalyst also play an important role in enhancing internal mass transfer during the reaction.

  1. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  2. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  3. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  4. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  5. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  6. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  7. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  8. Fundamental Study on Sulfur Attack and Coking of LNG Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashino, Kazuyuki; Sugioka, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Takao; Sakai, Masahiro; Minato, Ryojiro; Sasayama, Yousuke; Otsuka, Masaya; Okita, Koichi; Aoki, Kenji; Kawashima, Hideto; Azuma, Nobuyuki

    Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is one of the most promising propellant for near future space transportation rocket engine because of its low cost and fewer handling concerns. However, for LNG propellant, erosion of engine material by sulfur (sulfur attack) and coking by LNG pyrolysis are significant problems in a regenerative cooling passage. In this study, the effects of sulfur attack and coking are experimentally evaluated for material candidates such as Inconel600, SUS316, Hastelloy-X, and some copper alloys. In the sulfur attack tests, EPMA and Raman analysis indicate that metallic sulfide can be observed only on the surface and XRD analysis indicates that sulfur attack are hardly recognized for all of material in the test conditions. In coking tests, it is clear that coking of methane with 5% propane can proceed more than those of pure methane. The thermal decomposition temperature is significantly decreased by catalytic effects of Ni in engine material. The results of coking tests will be included in the design criteria of combustion chamber, nozzle of the LNG rocket engines.

  9. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG supplies. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 717b. \\2\\ See 49 FR 6684, February 22, 1984. Sempra states that in DOE/FE... Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW... Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-9478; (202)...

  10. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... referenced 49 FR 6684, February 22, 1984. Sempra LNG Marketing states that in its existing authorization to... and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000... Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20585, (202)...

  11. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect. PMID:25194555

  12. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section 191.22 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  13. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section 195.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  14. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an...

  15. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... Deepwater Port License Application. The application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port... appeared in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), see PRIVACY ACT. You may view...

  16. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... the transportation, storage, and further handling of oil or natural gas for transportation to...

  17. 76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG... changed that process in a rule updating the letter of intent and LOR regulations (75 FR 29420, Revision...

  18. 77 FR 70886 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... information about the safety and security of the waterway (76 FR 78190). In our NPRM we provided notice and... Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter of Intent LOR... the Federal Register (76 FR ] 78188). We received two letters commenting on the proposed rule....

  19. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout...

  20. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout...

  1. 78 FR 933 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ..., California 92101, filed in Docket No. CP13-25-000 an application, pursuant to section 3 of the Natural Gas... 1.7 billion cubic feet per day (Bcfd) of domestic natural gas. Cameron Interstate requests... Bcfd of domestic natural gas supply to Cameron LNG's liquefaction facilities. Cameron...

  2. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  3. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  4. 75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed a petition to amend the authorizations issued... Cameron's proposal in this petition to William D. Rapp, Counsel for Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street,...

  5. Physical and mental development of children after levonorgestrel emergency contraception exposure: a follow-up prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ye, Weiping; Yu, Wen; Cheng, Linan; Shen, Lixiao; Yang, Zujing

    2014-07-01

    Levonorgestrel (LNG), a dedicated emergency contraception (EC) product, has been available over-the-counter in China for more than 14 yr. Although LNG-EC is considered to have no effects on the developing fetus if the contraceptive fails and pregnancy occurs, there have been a few studies specifically examining this issue. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical and mental development of children born after LNG-EC failure with that of a cohort of children born to mothers with no history of exposure to LNG or any teratogenic substances. A group of 195 children who were exposed to LNG-EC during their mothers' conception cycle (study group) were matched to a group of 214 children without exposure to LNG (control group). The physical and mental development of the children were evaluated and compared over a 2-yr period. There were four congenital malformations in the study group and three in the control group (2.1% vs. 1.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Over the 2-yr follow-up period, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to children's weight, height, head circumference, and intelligence scores, and the values of all parameters of both groups were similar to those of the national standards. In summary, LNG-EC has no effect on the physical growth, mental development, or occurrence of birth defects in children born from pregnancies in which EC failed. PMID:24899575

  6. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst. PMID:27483798

  7. Evaluation of sloshing resistance performance for LNG carrier insulation system based on fluid-structure interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Seung; Cho, Jin-Rae; Kim, Wha-Soo; Noh, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, the sloshing resistance performance of a huge-size LNG carrier's insulation system is evaluated by the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. To do this, the global-local analysis which is based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is adopted to accurately calculate the structural behavior induced by internal LNG sloshing of a KC-1 type LNG carrier insulation system. During the global analysis, the sloshing flow and hydrodynamic pressure of internal LNG are analyzed by postulating the flexible insulation system as a rigid body. In addition, during the local analysis, the local hydroelastic response of the LNG carrier insulation system is computed by solving the local hydroelastic model where the entire and flexible insulation system is adopted and the numerical analysis results of the global analysis such as initial and boundary conditions are implemented into the local finite element model. The proposed novel analysis techniques can potentially be used to evaluate the structural integrity of LNG carrier insulation systems.

  8. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. PMID:22682269

  9. DETERMINATION OF MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE UPPER FREEPORT COAL BED USING SIZE AND DENSITY SEPARATION PROCEDURES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using low temperature ashing, followed by size and sink-float separation of the ash, X-ray diffraction analysis, and instrumental neutron activation analysis to give both qualitative and quantitative information for major, minor and trace minerals and their associated trace elements in coal.

  10. Survey of fire-protection systems at LNG facilities. Topical report, July-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Borows, K.A.

    1991-04-05

    The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze data relating to the types, costs, and operational problems of gas leak and fire detection devices and of fire prevention and suppression systems used at LNG facilities operating in the United States. Data from 39 LNG facilities, which accounted for 45% of the total U.S. storage capacity, were collected. The report provides information relating to equipment manufacturers, site applications, operational problems, initial installation costs, annual operational costs, and equipment lifetime. Equipment of interest included fixed gas leak, fire and cryogenic detection systems, water deluge and barrier systems, thermal radiation walls and protective coatings, and fixed high expansion foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide and halon fire suppression systems. In addition, internal fire fighting capabilities were reviewed.

  11. Second Stage Intercooling Using LNG for Turbocharged Heavy Duty Road Vehicles Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-21

    It is well documented in engine performance literature that reduced engine inlet air temperature increases power output and reduces NO, emissions for both diesel and spark ignited (SI) engines. In addition, reduced inlet temperature increases the knock resistance of SI engines. In that most HD natural gas engines are SI derivatives of diesel engines it is appropriate to evaluate the benefits of reduced engine air temperature through LNG fuel. This project investigated the ''real world'' possibilities of a patented process for utilizing the ''cold'' in LNG to chill engine inlet air. The results support the conclusion that doing so is a practical means to increase engine power and reduce engine-out NO{sub x}.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production cycle in APCI process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhad, Shahrooz Abbasi; Shabani, Bezhan; Soleimani, Majid

    2012-12-01

    The appropriate production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) with least consuming energy and maximum efficiency is quite important. In this paper, LNG production cycle by means of APCI Process has been studied. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment in the APCI cycle were established. The equipments are described using rigorous thermodynamics and no significant simplification is assumed. Taken some operating parameters as key parameters, influences of these parameters on coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency of the cascading cycle were analyzed. The results indicate that COP and exergy efficiency will be improved with the increasing of the inlet pressure of MR (mixed refrigerant) compressors, the decreasing of the NG and MR after precooling process, outlet pressure of turbine, inlet temperature of MR compressor and NG temperature after cooling in main cryogenic heat exchanger (MCHE). The COP and exergy efficiency of the APCI cycle will be above 2% and 40%, respectively, after optimizing the key parameters.

  13. Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wendong; Duan, Jiao; Mao, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is proposed in this paper, which is based on high-efficiency heat exchanger network and chemical packing separation technology. The operating temperature range of LNG cold energy is widened from 133K-203K to 113K-283K by high-efficiency heat exchanger network and air separation pressure is declined from 0.5MPa to about 0.35MPa due to packing separation technology, thereby greatly improve the energy efficiency. Both the traditional and novel air separation processes are simulated with air handling capacity of 20t·h-1. Comparing with the traditional process, the LNG consumption is reduced by 44.2%, power consumption decrease is 211.5 kWh per hour, which means the annual benefit will be up to 1.218 million CNY. And the exergy efficiency is also improved by 42.5%.

  14. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  15. CFD Investigation of Pollutant Emission in Can-Type Combustor Firing Natural Gas, LNG and Syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasini, H.; Fadhil, SSA; Mat Zian, N.; Om, NI

    2016-03-01

    CFD investigation of flow, combustion process and pollutant emission using natural gas, liquefied natural gas and syngas of different composition is carried out. The combustor is a can-type combustor commonly used in thermal power plant gas turbine. The investigation emphasis on the comparison of pollutant emission such in particular CO2, and NOx between different fuels. The numerical calculation for basic flow and combustion process is done using the framework of ANSYS Fluent with appropriate model assumptions. Prediction of pollutant species concentration at combustor exit shows significant reduction of CO2 and NOx for syngas combustion compared to conventional natural gas and LNG combustion.

  16. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on... Commission an application under section 3(a) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for authorization to site...) filed, in the same application, a request under section 7(c) of the NGA, for authorization to...

  17. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of Fossil... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  18. 78 FR 47691 - UGI, Inc.; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Temple LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Proposed Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the... EA on the important environmental issues. By this notice, the Commission requests public comments on... jurisdiction by law and/or special expertise with respect to the environmental issues of this project...

  19. 77 FR 277 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  20. 78 FR 1851 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... facility; condensate storage, metering and send-out facilities; four gas pipeline meter stations... HRU, condensate storage, and metering facilities would be located within the existing Sabine Pass LNG... wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Air quality and noise; Endangered and...

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-6 Table W-6 of Subpart W—Default Methane... Connector 0.34 Other 1 1.77 Population Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Compressor, Gas Service Vapor...

  2. 78 FR 25432 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project Modification The... assessment (EA) for the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project Modification (Modification Project), proposed...

  3. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  4. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 33 CFR 127.007, and a Preliminary Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) with the U.S. Coast Guard... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...

  5. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 33 CFR 127.007, and a Preliminary Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) with the U.S. Coast Guard... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...

  6. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  7. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 33 CFR 127.007, and a Preliminary Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) with the U.S. Coast Guard... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF...

  8. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues,...

  9. Optimized simulation of vortex jet mill in waste rubber grinding technology by LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuemei

    2015-07-01

    Frozen rubber powder has excellent qualities and application value, and it can be achieved from waste rubber after being crushed at low temperature used liquefied natural gas (LNG) as cryogen. Vortex jet mill was the key equipment to further crush the rubber particles which the pressure-air was jet into in the basic LNG technological process. After confirming the structure and size of the jet nozzle, the Height (H) between the nozzle and the bottom of the mill, the incident angle α and the initial size of the rubber particles were changed then the continuous phase and the track of single particle were optimized in order to gain more excellent crushing effect. The results showed: the jetting gas were spiral rising in the mill and the speed of it was reduced, so the particle was graded by the gas. The impact and collision could reduce the particle diameter and crush them but the result was influenced by the initial size of the particle. The size of the original rubber particles must not be more than 110μm. The simulation was helpful and leading for the experiment.

  10. U.S. LNG Markets and Uses 2003

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the different aspects of liquefied natural gas markets and uses, paying particular attention to marine terminal operations, peak-shaving storage facilities, and developing niche markets.

  11. Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-10-01

    An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.

  12. LNG combined cycle power plant for stable power supply for Kiheung semiconductor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Koo; Park, Hyo Jeong; Kim, In Chool

    1995-12-31

    Reserve margins of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was 12% in 1993, however it was reduced to less than 3% in the summer of 1994 due to increase of electric power consumption caused by life style change based on economic growth. Therefore stable supply of electric power to industrial plant was threatened during last summer`s peak. The process of semiconductor manufacturing is very precious and full processing time reaches several months. Furthermore interruption of power supply to the process causes abortion of every product in the process. Therefore, power failure of less than one (1) second, may result in enormous loss of capital. In order to protect disaster caused by power shortage during summer peaks. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd (SEC) planned to construct LNG combined cycle power plant for the Klheung semiconductor plant which is the world`s leading maker of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips.

  13. Pressure Build-Up in LNG and LH2 Vehicular Cryogenic Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, J. A.; Rowe, A. M.; Barclay, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    The use of LNG and LH2 as fuels in heavy duty vehicles is increasing steadily because cryogenic liquids provides superior volumetric and gravimetric energy densities compared to other means of on-board storage. Although several sizes and types of tanks exist, a typical vehicular storage tank has a volume of ˜400 liters (˜100 gallons). The pressure in the ullage space of a tank freshly filled is usually ˜0.25 MPa but may vary during use from ˜0.25 MPa (˜20 psig) to ˜0.92 MPa (˜120 psig). Cryogenic vehicular tanks are typically dual-walled, stainless steel vessels with vacuum and superinsulation isolation between the inner and outer vessel walls. The heat leaks into such tanks are measured as a percentage boil-off per day. For a storage tank of vehicular size range, the boil-off may be ˜ 1 % day, depending upon the cryogen and the quality of the tank. The corresponding heat leak into the cryogenic liquid vaporizes a certain amount of liquid that in turn increases the pressure in the tank which in turn significantly influences the properties of the cryogens. We have used a novel approach to calculate the increase in pressure of LNG and LH2 in a closed cryogenic vessel with a fixed heat leak as a function of time using real equations of state for the properties of the cryogens. The method and results for the time it takes for a freshly filled tank to increase in pressure from the filling pressure of ˜0.25 MPa to a venting pressure of ˜1.73 MPa are presented.

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  15. Adapting British gas LNG facilities to varying gas compositions: The SELEXOL {reg_sign} process and cryogenic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Dewing, R.A.; Waring, S.; Burns, D.

    1996-12-31

    The original design of the UK National Transmission System (NTS) included five peak shave LNG storage sites strategically located around the country. They now form part of the Storage business that offers gas services to gas transportation companies-these include non British Gas companies as well as other parts of British Gas itself. At these sites, natural gas can be taken from the NTS at the request of the gas transportation companies, treated to cryogenic specifications, and liquefied for storage. LNG can then be re-vaporized and re-injected into the NTS or local mains as required. In this way the whole NTS does not have to be sized for peak rates and increases in demand can be met very quickly. Each peak-shave site was originally designed to handle natural gas with CO{sub 2} levels of up to 1 mol% and with ethane and higher hydrocarbon (C{sub 2}+) levels that needed only limited reduction. However, as different natural gas reservoirs came on stream in the early 1990`s the level of CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2}+ in the NTS network began to rise, and significant modifications were required at four of the five LNG sites. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. In-situ measurements of the oxidation of AISI 316L(NG) and its constituents (Fe,Cr, Ni) in ultra-supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Betova, Iva; Bojinov, Martin; Kinnunen, Petri; Lehtovuori, Viivi; Peltonen, Seppo; Penttila, Sami; Saario, Timo

    2006-07-01

    Several new nuclear reactor designs utilizing supercritical water as coolant are currently being developed. In the European concept the design pressure is 25 MPa and reactor inlet/outlet temperatures 290 deg C/520 deg C. While benefits include better coolant thermal conductivity, increase in efficiency and simpler overall design, many material related questions need to be solved such as oxidation and radiation resistance with simultaneous need to maintain creep strength. This calls for the development of in-situ monitoring methods for the material/environment combination in question. In the present paper, in-situ electrical and electrochemical measurements during oxidation of AISI 316L(NG) and its pure metal constituents (Fe,Cr and Ni) in ultra-supercritical water (500-700 deg C, 30 MPa) have been reproducibly obtained. The oxidation kinetics was followed using the contact electric resistance (CER) and contact electric impedance (CEI) techniques. First attempts have been made to correlate properties of the resulting oxides with the corresponding weight gain data. In addition, impedance spectra of the Ni-Ni contact during oxidation have been reproducibly measured at 500 and 600 deg C. They could be quantitatively interpreted using general considerations of the corrosion process and the Mixed-Conduction Model for oxide films. Preliminary estimates of the diffusion coefficients of principal ionic and electronic current carriers have been obtained and their relevance with respect to available data on Ni oxidation is discussed. (authors)

  17. 355-nm high spectral resolution airborne lidar LNG: system description and first results.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, D; Pelon, J; Blouzon, F; Spatazza, J; Genau, P; Buchholtz, G; Amarouche, N; Abchiche, A; Aouji, O

    2015-10-10

    A high spectral resolution (HSR) measurement capability in the ultraviolet has been added to the 3-wavelength-2-polarization-backscatter lidar LNG (lidar aerosols nouvelle génération) and tested during several flights. The system includes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a spectral discriminator and does not require any frequency locking between the emitter and the interferometer. Results obtained during test flights show that the backscatter and extinction coefficients at 355 nm can be measured with a relative precision of 10% for 60 m and 240 m vertical resolution, respectively, in aerosol layers of 10-6  m-1 sr-1 backscatter coefficient with a 30-km horizontal resolution. The same relative precision is obtained in cirrus clouds of a 2×10-5  m-1 sr-1 backscatter coefficient for the same vertical resolution and a horizontal resolution reduced to 5 km. The capacity of the system to perform wind velocity measurements is also demonstrated with precisions in the range of 1 to 2  ms-1. Particle-to-total backscatter ratio and line-of-sight speed measurements have been performed on ground echoes; averaged data show biases less than 1% and 0.15  ms-1, respectively. PMID:26479818

  18. Meals, quarters for 8,200 needed at peak in LNG project

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1998-04-27

    It has everything a real town has except women, children, schools, bars, and old people. It is the huge camp built at Ras Laffan, Qatar, on the shores of the Persian Gulf to lodge and feed over 5,000 workers as they build the first plant in the emirate for liquefying millions of tons of natural gas yearly. Japan`s Chiyoda Corp. is the top contractor for the Qatar Liquefied Gas Co. (QatarGas) project, which is owned by a Qatari, French, American, and Japanese consortium. As part of the plant construction contract, Chiyoda built the camp, which Teyseer Services Co., the Qatar affiliate of the French company, Sodexho Alliance, now runs and maintains. Sodexho is the world`s largest catering/remote site management organization. It has had all its expertise in those fields put to the test for nearly 4 years supporting this world-scale LNG project which will be completed this summer. This project is described.

  19. Numerical simulation of the mitigating effects of an LNG vapor fence

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1990-05-01

    FEM3A, a fully three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the atmospheric dispersion of heavy gases involving complex geometry, has been used to investigate the mitigating effects of a vapor fence for LNG storage areas. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical model used to perform such calculations is given, the problem being simulated is described, and an intercomparison among the results from numerical simulations (with and without the vapor fence) and field data (with vapor fence) is made. The numerical results indicate that, with the present fence configuration, the maximum concentration on the cloud centerline was reduced by a factor of two or more within 250 m behind the fence, and the downwind distance to the 2.5% concentration was reduced from 365 m to 230 m. However, a vapor fence could also cause the vapor cloud to linger considerably longer in the source area, thus increasing the potential for ignition and combustion within the vapor fence and the area nearby over time. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  20. LNG (liquefied natural gas) as a fuel and refrigerant for diesel powered shrimp boats

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, G. Jr.; Brett, C.E.; Schaetzle, W.J.; Song, Y.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 3406-B Caterpillar and a 4.236 Perkins have been converted from their standard diesel configuration to dual-fuel engines. These engines operate using an aspirated charge of natural gas and a pilot charge of diesel fuel. The pilot is injected for combustion initiation, performing the same task as a spark plug in a spark ignition engine. Natural gas supplies 80% of the total heat addition at full load for both engines. The diesel fuel provides ignition, performs the function of idling the engine, and acts as a coolant for the injector tips. The diesel pilot setting remains constant throughout the operating range and provides a regular repeatable idle for the engine during no-load operation. A shrimp boat is being used to evaluate the dual-fuel system. The vessel normally carries 16000 1 of diesel fuel giving it a trip length of 14-21 days. To operate on natural gas with similar trip length requires liquification and cryogenic storage at -163/sup 0/C. This type of storage provides the necessary energy density needed for on board fuel storage. A 22 m shrimp boat will carry approximately 17000 1 of LNG in insulated tanks. Urethane insulation is used as both an insulator against heat leak and as a partial tank support structure.

  1. 78 FR 53750 - EcoEléctrica, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... for the Proposed LNG Supply Pipeline Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The... the scoping process is to focus the analysis in the EA on the important environmental issues. By this... environmental issues of this project to formally cooperate with us in the preparation of the EA.\\3\\...

  2. Comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) used by transit agencies in Texas. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lede, N.W.

    1997-09-01

    This study is a detailed comparative analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG). The study provides data on two alternative fuels used by transit agencies in Texas. First, we examine the `state-of-the- art` in alternative fuels to established a framework for the study. Efforts were made to examine selected characteristics of two types of natural gas demonstrations in terms of the following properties: energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, operations, maintenance, reliability, safety costs, and fuel availability. Where feasible, two alternative fuels were compared with conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Environmental considerations relative to fuel distribution and use are analyzed, with a focus on examining flammability an other safety-related issues. The objectives of the study included: (1) assess the state-of-the-art and document relevant findings pertaining to alternative fuels; (2) analyze and synthesize existing databases on two natural gas alternatives: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG): and (3) compare two alterative fuels used by transit properties in Texas, and address selected aspects of alternative fuels such as energy source characteristics, vehicle performance and emissions, safety, costs, maintenance and operations, environmental and related issues.

  3. Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG during saturated flow boiling in a horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-12-01

    Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG (liquefied natural gas) have been measured in a horizontal smooth tube with an inner diameter of 8 mm. The experiments were conducted at inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa with a heat flux of 8-36 kW m-2, and mass flux of 49.2-201.8 kg m-2 s-1. The effect of vapor quality, inlet pressure, heat flux and mass flux on the heat transfer characteristic are discussed. The comparisons of the experimental data with the predicted value by existing correlations are analyzed. Zou et al. (2010) correlation shows the best accuracy with 24.1% RMS deviation among them. Moreover four frictional pressure drop methods are also chosen to compare with the experimental database.

  4. Markets slow to develop for Niger delta gas reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-11-27

    Nigeria produces a very high quality, light, sweet crude oil but with a large percentage of associated gas derived from a high gas-to-oil ratio. Official proved gas reserves, both associated and nonassociated, are 120 tcf. Proved and probable reserves are estimated as high as 300 tcf. The internal market for gas has only begun to develop since the 1980s, and as a result approximately 77% of associated gas production is flared. Domestic gas consumption is currently approximately 700 MMcfd and is projected to have a medium term potential of 1.450 bcfd. The article discusses resource development, gas markets, gas flaring, gas use programs, the Bonny LNG scheme, the gas reserve base, LNG project status, competition, and energy opportunities.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  6. Safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the contraceptive and non-contraceptive uses of the LNG-IUS

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Paula H; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide highly effective, long-term, safe, reversible contraception, and are the most widely used reversible contraceptive method worldwide. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a T-shaped IUD with a steroid reservoir containing 52 mg of levonorgestrel that is released at an initial rate of 20 μg daily. It is highly effective, with a typical-use first year pregnancy rate of 0.1% – similar to surgical tubal occlusion. It is approved for 5 years of contraceptive use, and there is evidence that it can be effective for up to 7 years of continuous use. After removal, there is rapid return to fertility, with 1-year life-table pregnancy rates of 89 per 100 for women less than 30 years of age. Most users experience a dramatic reduction in menstrual bleeding, and about 15% to 20% of women become amenorrheic 1 year after insertion. The device’s strong local effects on the endometrium benefit women with various benign gynecological conditions such as menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, leiomyomata, adenomyosis, and endometriosis. There is also evidence to support its role in endometrial protection during postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:21072274

  7. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ..., Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... in the Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities docket room, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence...

  8. Development of a Liquid to Compressed Natural Gas (LCNG) Fueling Station. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. A.

    1999-06-30

    The program objective was the development of equipment and processes to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) from liquified natural gas (LNG) for heavy duty vehicular applications. The interest for this technology is a result of the increased use of alternative fuels for the reduction of emissions and dependency of foreign energy. Technology of the type developed under this program is critical for establishing natural gas as an economical alternative fuel.

  9. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  10. LNG: Clean affordable energy for power and town gas in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.F.; Grant, C.W.; King, N.

    1998-02-01

    Some Asian countries such as Myanmar, Vietnam, and Indonesia are still at very low electricity consumption rates per capita, while others, such as Malaysia and Taiwan, are at much higher rates. What all Asian countries have in common is rapid growth in the demand for electricity. If the rising demand for additional electricity is not met, economic growth will be curtailed. However, all Asian countries face a major challenge in funding and constructing the required additional generating capacity fast enough to meet demand. Finding this amount of new capital is not going to be easy, and there will be much competition for scarce funds. The environmental challenge may be even greater than the financing hurdle. To date, most generation capacity in Asia has been coal based, and a significant amount of that is low technology and without flue gas desulfurization. The effect on the environment is already apparent. One argument has been that developing countries cannot afford the same standards of environmental performance as developed countries. With the levels of pollution that exist today, the question should be, can they afford not to? It has been estimated that pollution in China costs US$100 billion/a and that US$20 billion has to be spent over the next decade just to prevent worsening of pollution.

  11. Development of a Phenomenological Model for Coal Surry Atomization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1997-10-30

    Task I - Extensional Viscometer A contracting flow extensional viscometer was re-designed after serious problems were encountered with the extensional measurements of viscoelastic samples with extensive testing. Task 2 - TesUM Testing using the improved design of the extensional viscometer was performed using simulated fluids, i.e. corn syrup/ water, corn syrup/ water + 0.5% xanthan gum, and corn syrup/ water + 1% xanthan gum. Testing has begun using Upper Freeport coal. Analysis of the Upper Freeport coal is provided in Table 1. Testing should be completed over the next month.

  12. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  13. Optimization of UA of heat exchangers and BOG compressor exit pressure of LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2015-12-01

    Boil-off gas (BOG) generation and its handling are important issues in Liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain because of economic, environment and safety reasons. Several variants of reliquefaction systems of BOG have been proposed by researchers. Thermodynamic analyses help to configure them and size their components for improving performance. In this paper, exergy analysis of reliquefaction system based on nitrogen-driven reverse Brayton cycle is carried out through simulation using Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a process simulator and the effects of heat exchanger size with and without related pressure drop and BOG compressor exit pressure are evaluated. Nondimensionalization of parameters with respect to the BOG load allows one to scale up or down the design. The process heat exchanger (PHX) requires much higher surface area than that of BOG condenser and it helps to reduce the quantity of methane vented out to atmosphere. As pressure drop destroys exergy, optimum UA of PHX decreases for highest system performance if pressure drop is taken into account. Again, for fixed sizes of heat exchangers, as there is a range of discharge pressures of BOG compressor at which the loss of methane in vent minimizes, the designer should consider choosing the pressure at lower value.

  14. Gas in developing countries: Volume 1, Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-17

    When gas is discovered in a developing country, and there is either insufficient to justify an Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) export project, or a surplus over-and-above LNG requirements, what are the problems that hinder its development for the internal market in that country. Are there positive steps that can be taken to facilitate such development. The major focus of this study is therefore on the problems that arise in negotiating and implementing agreements between companies and governments. The asymmetries and differences between the behavior and perceptions of the two groups impinge on the conduct of negotiations and the nature of agreements reached between the parties. Objectives are examined for each group as well as the procedures they follow and the constraints under which they operate. The effect of differences on exploration contracts, on pricing and on fiscal regimes are examined and practical ways in which the different objectives of governments and companies can be reconciled to their mutual advantage are suggested. The report is divided into two parts. This Volume, Part One of the report, contains a synthesis of our views on the issues raised by research, and the main conclusions.

  15. Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.; Raver, Sharon A.; Michalek, Anne M. P.; Wilson, Corinne L.

    2013-01-01

    All eligible infants and toddlers who receive early intervention services under Part C of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are entitled to service coordination. To examine the effectiveness of one state's service coordination training and its impact on knowledge and skill development, a pretest--posttest design with follow-up…

  16. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  17. 75 FR 57269 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... properties.\\3\\ We will define the project-specific Area of Potential Effects (APE) in consultation with the SHPO as the project is further developed. On natural gas facility projects, the APE at a...

  18. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  19. Several synthetic progestins disrupt the glial cell specific-brain aromatase expression in developing zebra fish.

    PubMed

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Garoche, Clémentine; Hinfray, Nathalie; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Boujrad, Noureddine; Pakdel, Farzad; Kah, Olivier; Brion, François

    2016-08-15

    The effects of some progestins on fish reproduction have been recently reported revealing the hazard of this class of steroidal pharmaceuticals. However, their effects at the central nervous system level have been poorly studied until now. Notwithstanding, progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. Herein, we investigated the effects of a large set of synthetic ligands of the nuclear progesterone receptor on the glial-specific expression of the zebrafish brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) using zebrafish mechanism-based assays. Progesterone and 24 progestins were first screened on transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryos. We showed that progesterone, dydrogesterone, drospirenone and all the progesterone-derived progestins had no effect on GFP expression. Conversely, all progestins derived from 19-nortesterone induced GFP in a concentration-dependent manner with EC50 ranging from the low nM range to hundreds nM. The 19-nortestosterone derived progestins levonorgestrel (LNG) and norethindrone (NET) were further tested in a radial glial cell context using U251-MG cells co-transfected with zebrafish ER subtypes (zfERα, zfERβ1 or zfERβ2) and cyp19a1b promoter linked to luciferase. Progesterone had no effect on luciferase activity while NET and LNG induced luciferase activity that was blocked by ICI 182,780. Zebrafish-ERs competition assays showed that NET and LNG were unable to bind to ERs, suggesting that the effects of these compounds on cyp19a1b require metabolic activation prior to elicit estrogenic activity. Overall, we demonstrate that 19-nortestosterone derived progestins elicit estrogenic activity by inducing cyp19a1b expression in radial glial cells. Given the crucial role of radial glial cells and neuro-estrogens in early development of brain, the consequences of exposure of fish to these compounds require further investigation. PMID:27245768

  20. Coyote series data report LLNL/NWC 1981 LNG spill tests dispersion, vapor burn, and rapid-phase-transition. Volume 1. [7 experiments with liquefied natural gas, 2 with liquid methane, and one with liquid nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Rodean, H.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Kansa, E.J.; Koopman, R.P.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morris, L.K.; Kamppinen, L.; Kiefer, R.D.

    1983-10-01

    The Coyote series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments was performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, during the summer and fall of 1981. These tests were a joint effort of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NWC and were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute. There were ten Coyote experiments, five primarily for the study of vapor dispersion and burning vapor clouds, and five for investigating the occurrence of rapid-phase-transition (RPT) explosions. Each of the last four of the five RPT tests consisted of a series of three spills. Seven experiments were with LNG, two were with liquid methane (LCH/sub 4/), and one was with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/). Three arrays of instrumentation were deployed. An array of RPT diagnostic instruments was concentrated at the spill pond and was operated during all of the tests, vapor burn as well as RPT. The wind-field array was operated during the last nine experiments to define the wind direction and speed in the area upwind and downwind of the spill pond. The gas-dispersion array was deployed mostly downwind of the spill pond to measure gas concentration, humidity, temperature, ground heat flux, infrared (IR) radiation, and flame-front passage during three of the vapor dispersion and burn experiments (Coyotes 3, 5, and 6). High-speed color motion pictures were taken during every test, and IR imagery (side and overhead) was obtained during some vapor-burn experiments. Data was obtained by radiometers during Coyotes 3, 6, and 7. This report presents a comprehensive selection of the data obtained. It does not include any data analysis except that required to determine the test conditions and the reliability of the data. Data analysis is to be reported in other publications. 19 references, 76 figures, 13 tables.

  1. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

  2. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 18, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This task is the actual demonstration of the advanced froth flotation technology. All previous work has led to this task. ICF KE technicians and process engineers from the team will operate the plant over a 10 month period to demonstrate the capability of the technology to remove 85% of the pyritic sulfur from three different test coals while recovering at least 85% of the as-mined coal`s energy content. Six major subtasks have been included to better define the overall work scope for this task. The ICF KE team will test the Pittsburgh No. 8 seam, the Illinois No. 6 seam and the Upper Freeport seam; the team will operate the circuit in a continuous run; the team will analyze all samples generated in those runs and will develop a plan to store and dispose of the coal and refuse products. All laboratory data generated will be accessible to all team members and the DOE. The test program for the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal began during March 1, 1993. An arrangement has been made between ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICF KE) and American Electric Power (AEP), who is the host for the DOE POC facility. The arrangement calls for AEP to purchase the raw coal and use the clean coal generated by the DOE POC facility. This arrangement permits the processing of raw coal at a very minimal cost of purchasing the raw coal.

  4. Integrated management of multiple reservoir field developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, S.L.; Chan, H.M.; Harper, J.L.; Boyett, B.A.; Dowson, P.R.; Bette, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper consists of two sections. The authors first describe the coupling of a pipeline network model to a reservoir simulator and then the application of this new simulator to optimize the production strategy of two Mobil field developments. Mobil`s PEGASUS simulator is an integrated all purpose reservoir simulator that handles black-oil, compositional, faulted and naturally fractured reservoirs. The authors have extended the simulator to simultaneously model multiple reservoirs coupled with surface pipeline networks and processes. This allows them to account for the effects of geology, well placement, and surface production facilities on well deliverability in a fully integrated fashion. They have also developed a gas contract allocation system that takes the user-specified constraints, target rates and swing factors and automatically assigns rates to the individual wells of each reservoir. This algorithm calculates the overall deliverability and automatically reduces the user-specified target rates to meet the deliverability constraints. The algorithm and solution technique are described. This enhanced simulator has been applied to model a Mobil field development in the Southern Gas Basin, offshore United Kingdom, which consists of three separate gas reservoirs connected via a pipeline network. The simulator allowed the authors to accurately determine the impact on individual reservoir and total field performance by varying the development timing of these reservoirs. Several development scenarios are shown to illustrate the capabilities of PEGASUS. Another application of this technology is in the field developments in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Here the objective is to economically optimize the development of multiple fields to feed the PT Arun LNG facility. Consideration of a range of gas compositions, well productivity`s, and facilities constraints in an integrated fashion results in improved management of these assets. Model specifics are discussed.

  5. 77 FR 54891 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 149 Under Alternative Site Framework Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Board adopted the alternative site framework (ASF) (74 FR 1170-1173, 01/12/2009; correction 74 FR 3987, 01/22/2009; 75 FR 71069-71070, 11/22/2010) as an option for the establishment or reorganization of..., notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (77 FR 21081-21082, 04/09/2012) and...

  6. FREEPORT PUBLIC SCHOOLS EXPERIMENT ON EARLY READING USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, JOHN H.

    OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE WHETHER A TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICE COULD TEACH 5-YEAR-OLDS TO READ, OVER WHAT INTELLIGENCE RANGES THE INSTRUMENT WOULD BE EFFECTIVE, WHETHER NEGRO CHILDREN FROM A RECENTLY CLOSED SEGREGATED SCHOOL WOULD RESPOND, AND WHETHER THE DEVICE COULD TEACH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN. SUBJECTS WERE 22 KINDERGARTEN PUPILS FROM ONE…

  7. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Avenue, said line extending southerly to a point 233 feet north of the prolonged north side of Clinton... prolonged south side of Clinton Street and 210 feet east of the east side of Prospect Street; eastward of a... north of and parallel to the prolonged north side of Suffolk Street; westward of a line 210 feet west...

  8. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Avenue, said line extending southerly to a point 233 feet north of the prolonged north side of Clinton... prolonged south side of Clinton Street and 210 feet east of the east side of Prospect Street; eastward of a... north of and parallel to the prolonged north side of Suffolk Street; westward of a line 210 feet west...

  9. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Avenue, said line extending southerly to a point 233 feet north of the prolonged north side of Clinton... prolonged south side of Clinton Street and 210 feet east of the east side of Prospect Street; eastward of a... north of and parallel to the prolonged north side of Suffolk Street; westward of a line 210 feet west...

  10. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Avenue, said line extending southerly to a point 233 feet north of the prolonged north side of Clinton... prolonged south side of Clinton Street and 210 feet east of the east side of Prospect Street; eastward of a... north of and parallel to the prolonged north side of Suffolk Street; westward of a line 210 feet west...

  11. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Dow Chemical USA SB (styrene butadiene) Latex Facility, Freeport, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fajen, J.M.; Krishnan, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the SB latex production process and assess the potential for occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene at the SB latex facility. The information will be used in determining the suitability of including the plant in an in-depth survey.

  12. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  13. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... between sunset and sunrise. Note: Vessel transfer requirements are published in 46 CFR part 154. ... discontinued— (i) Before electrical storms or uncontrolled fires are adjacent to the marine transfer area...

  14. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... between sunset and sunrise. Note: Vessel transfer requirements are published in 46 CFR Part 154. ... discontinued— (i) Before electrical storms or uncontrolled fires are adjacent to the marine transfer area...

  15. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... between sunset and sunrise. Note: Vessel transfer requirements are published in 46 CFR Part 154. ... discontinued— (i) Before electrical storms or uncontrolled fires are adjacent to the marine transfer area...

  16. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... between sunset and sunrise. Note: Vessel transfer requirements are published in 46 CFR Part 154. ... discontinued— (i) Before electrical storms or uncontrolled fires are adjacent to the marine transfer area...

  17. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  18. Petroleum Development Oman gas exploration unlocks major new reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Mozetic, A.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1985, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has been exploring for gas on behalf of the Government of Oman under a ten-year agreement signed in June 1984. The aim of the one-rig programme was to find additional non-associated gas reserves (3 TCF) to meet domestic energy requirements for a minimum of 40 years, for which the available reserves at that time (5.6 TCF) were insufficient. Initial results of the campaign, which principally targeted the Permian Khuff Formation, were disappointing, analogues to the major accumulations of the Arabian Gulf failing to materialise. During the second half of the programme, therefore, the strategy was revised to address the prospectivity of higher risk/higher reward plays recognised at greater depths. Well Saih Nihayda-24, drilled in 1989, found gas/condensate-bearing reservoirs in Cambro/Ordovician sandstones of the Andam Formation below 4000 metres. This discovery, in a seismically poorly defined anticline, sparked an intensive effort of 2D, and later 3D, long cable seismic acquisition. This led in 1991 to additional major gas/condensate finds in Saih Rawl and Barik, and a dedicated two-year two-rig appraisal campaign has since proven up sufficient reserves to support an LNG gas export scheme. The ten-year programme has more than tripled Oman`s non-associated gas expectation reserves to some 22 TCF, exceeding-the target more than five-fold. Significant potential for further gas discoveries identified in both North and South Oman provides encouragement for continued successful gas exploration in the future.

  19. Sandburg Environmental Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeport School District 145, IL.

    Learning activities, teaching materials, and lesson plans are contained in this guide, developed by six teachers at the Carl Sandburg Middle School in Freeport, Illinois; it suggests ways to integrate environmental study into the existing curriculum for art, science, English, mathematics, and social studies. Activities for classroom learning and…

  20. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  1. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L. ); Khwaja, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. 77 FR 21081 - Foreign-Trade Zone 149-Freeport, TX, Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... alternative site framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (74 FR 1170-1173, 01/12/09 (correction 74 FR 3987, 01/22/09); 75 FR 71069-71070, 11/22/10). The ASF is an option for grantees for the establishment or... the Board on June 28, 1988 (Board Order 385, 53 FR 26096, 7/11/88), and expanded on August 7,...

  3. Development of a dry low-NOx gas turbine combustor for a natural-gas fueled 2MW co-generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Masaaki; Sato, Hiroshi

    1998-07-01

    A dry low-NOx gas turbine combustor has been developed for natural-gas fueled co-generation systems in the power range of 1--4MW. The combustor. called the Double Swirler Combustor, uses the lean premixed combustion to reduce NOx emission. The combustor is characterized by two staged lean premixed combustion with two coaxial annular burners and a simple fuel control system without the complex variable geometry. Substantially low NOx level has been achieved to meet the strict NOx regulation to co-generation systems in Japan. High combustion efficiency has been obtained for a wide operating range. In 1994, Tokyo Gas and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries initiated a collaborative program to develop a natural-gas fueled low NOx gas turbine engine for new 2MW class co-generation system, named IM270. The Double Swirler Combustor, originally developed by Tokyo Gas, was introduced into the natural gas fueled version of the IM270. Engine test of the first production unit was successfully conducted to confirm substantially low NOx level of less than 15 ppm (O{sub 2} = 16%) with the output power of more than 2MW. Test for the durability and the reliability of the system is being conducted at Tokyo Gas Negishi LNG Terminal in Kanagawa, Japan and successful results have been so far obtained.

  4. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  5. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  6. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  7. Consumerism & Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockenden, Sandy

    1991-01-01

    This material asks social studies students in Canada to recognize the implications of the lifestyles of citizens in developed countries, and the power that consumers have to create change for a better world, to be agents of positive development. Development is seen as a four faceted process. This model implies that development is an approach to…

  8. Fetal development

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002398.htm Fetal development To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Fetal growth and development. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et ...

  9. Toddler Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... developmental milestones. It is exciting to watch your toddler learn new skills. The normal development of children ... playing with others, taking turns, doing fantasy play Toddlers do not develop at the same rate. There ...

  10. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  11. Toddler development

    MedlinePlus

    Toddlers are children ages 1 - 3. CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Cognitive (thought) development skills typical for toddlers include: Early use of instruments or tools Following visual (then later, invisible) displacement (moving ...

  12. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of " ...

  13. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  14. Developer Network

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  15. Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Eight conference papers on language teacher development are presented, including: "Mosaics of Teacher Development and Socialization" (Andrew Barfield, Paul A. Beaufait, Sean Conley, Tim Murphey, Katsura Haruko), a panel presentation on aspects of and experiments in teacher development; "Questions About Teaching? Answers from Teachers!" (David…

  16. Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on career development moderated by David Bjorkquist at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "A Mentoring Model for Career Development" (Mary Finnegan) describes a study that created a model based on the assumption that mentoring is an essential…

  17. Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Bob, Ed.; McFerrin, Karen, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on faculty development and technology: "Involving Faculty in Faculty Development" (Kristine Blair and Dan Madigan); "Technology Use in Higher Education: A Faculty Development Model" (Jessica Kahn); "A Faculty of Education as a Community of Learners: Growing to Meet the Demands of Instruction and…

  18. Neurovascular development

    PubMed Central

    James, Jennifer M

    2009-01-01

    Neurovascular development in the central nervous system has a rich history and compelling significance. The developing central nervous system (CNS) does not produce vascular progenitor cells, and so ingression of blood vessels is required for continued CNS development and function. Classic studies provide elegant descriptions of formation of the vascular plexus that surrounds the embryonic brain and spinal cord, and the subsequent ingression of blood vessels into the neural tissue. Recent work has focused on the molecular pathways responsible for neurovascular cross-talk and development of the blood-brain barrier. Here we review neurovascular development in the central nervous system, with emphasis on the spinal cord. We discuss the historical work, the current status of our knowledge and unanswered questions. The importance of neurovascular development to diseases of the cerebral vasculature and the neural stem cell niche are discussed. PMID:19363295

  19. Program Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  20. KENO developments

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Modifications and developments to the series of KENO multigroup, criticality safety transport codes are very briefly summarized. Three areas are addressed: (1) modifications to KENO-V.a, (2) development of KENO-VI, (3) modifications to the CSAS4 sequence of the SCALE package, and (4) future work on KENO related programs. Minor changes have been made to KENO-V.a, primarily for maintenance. KENO-VI has been developed and will be released soon. A new search type is being developed in SCALE to allow CSAS4 to do a concentration search on a mixture component.

  1. Developable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, it has become the conventional wisdom that all developable conventional hydropower resources have been exhausted. Studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies find differently. The root of disagreement may lie in the definition of what is developable. Environmental special interest groups now define developable hydropower sites as those having zero effect on the environment. As a result they conclude there are no additional developable hydropower sites. By contrast, the definition used by DOE and others is broader as it balances economic, technical, and environmental factors in accordance with the Federal Power Act.

  2. Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  3. Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management development. "LMX (Leader-Member Exchange) Theory, Personality Type, and Management Development" (Janet Z. Burns) reports the results of a study on the similarities and differences in personality type (as outlined in the theories of Carl Jung and Isabel Myers) and its relationship…

  4. Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…

  5. Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reusswig, James, Ed.; Ponzio, Richard, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Eight essays are presented which reflect current problems, issues, and practices related to the development of teacher and administrator expertise. The authors are school district and public school administrators, faculty of schools of education, and a director of staff development in a state department of education. The topics treated are: (1)…

  6. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This serial issue contains 12 articles on the theme of "Professional Development," specifically about how teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network (BLRTN) are fostering their own and each other's development as teachers. The BLRTN consists of approximately 260 rural teachers in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New…

  7. [Toddler Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme newsletter issue presents seven articles describing toddler behavior and development, services for toddlers, and toddlers with special needs. The first article, "Toddlers: Themes and Variations" (Lois Barclay Murphy and Colleen Small) focuses on variations in toddler development, noting emerging skills, language, and the caregiver role.…

  8. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  9. Technology development.

    PubMed

    Gomory, R E

    1983-05-01

    In technology development significant advances are as often the result of a series of evolutionary steps as they are of breakthroughs. This is illustrated by the examples of the steam engine and the computer. Breakthroughs, such as the transistor, are relatively rare, and are often the result of the introduction of new knowledge coming from a quite different area. Technology development is often difficult to predict because of its complexity; practical considerations may far outweigh apparent scientific advantages, and cultural factors enter in at many levels. In a large technological organization problems exist in bringing scientific knowledge to bear on development, but much can be done to obviate these difficulties. PMID:17749515

  10. Sustainable developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Hundreds of diplomats, along with industry, finance, environment, and labor leaders from around the world met from April 20 to May 1 for the sixth session of the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD), an annual follow-up conference to track the Agenda 21 program of action adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit.During the session, which focused on freshwater management concerns and the role of industry in sustainable development, the participants discussed a number of issues about development and parity among northern and southern hemisphere countries.

  11. 77 FR 58373 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The... impact statement (EIS) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Lake Charles Liquefaction... scheduled as follows: FERC Public Scoping Meeting, Lake Charles Liquefaction Project, October 3, 2012,...

  12. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  13. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  14. Toddler Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... is exciting to watch your toddler learn new skills. The normal development of children aged 1-3 can be broken down into the following areas: Gross motor - walking, running, climbing Fine motor - feeding themselves, drawing Sensory - seeing, hearing, tasting, ...

  15. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... new neural connections every second. This growing brain development is influenced by many factors, including a child’s relationships, experiences and environment. Learn more about the crucial role you play ...

  16. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  17. Speech Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... W View More… Donate Donor Spotlight Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Speech Development skip to submenu ... Lip and Palate . Bzoch (1997). Cleft Palate Speech Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach . Shprintzen, Bardach (1995). Cleft Palate: ...

  18. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  19. Teen Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12 and 16 for boys. As your body changes, you may have questions about sexual health. During this time, you start to develop your own unique personality and opinions. Some changes that you might notice include Increased independence from ...

  20. Development risks

    SciTech Connect

    Riedy, M.; Desai, S.

    1996-04-01

    Risks associated with hydropower production development in India are discussed in this article. A project prospectus for the development of India`s estimated 84,044 MW(e) hydropower potential is given which accounts for environmental and regulatory concerns. Regulations issued by the Government of Industry regarding private investment in hydropower are outlined, and additional policies which are expected to be instituted are discussed.

  1. Sustainable development is healthy development.

    PubMed

    Litsios, S

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth has brought with it substantial environmental damage. Nature has been abused and little consideration has been given to the consequences, among them the adverse effects on health. Healthy people are vital for local development that is both economically and ecologically sound. The health sector should be actively involved in the movement for sustainable development. What this would require in practice is considered below, with particular reference to the quality of life in regions of tropical forest. PMID:8018295

  2. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  3. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  4. Defining "Development".

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Laplane, Lucie; Prévot, Karine; Hoquet, Thierry; Reynaud, Valentine; Fusco, Giuseppe; Minelli, Alessandro; Orgogozo, Virginie; Vervoort, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what "development" means and to determine the scope of the field called "developmental biology"? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of "developmental biology" in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a combined biological, philosophical, and historical approach, we ask whether it is possible and useful to define biological development, and, if such a definition is indeed possible and useful, which definition(s) can be considered as the most satisfactory. PMID:26969977

  5. Algorithm development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Lomax, Harvard

    1987-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable activity in algorithm development for the Navier-Stokes equations. This has resulted in a wide variety of useful new techniques. Some examples for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented, divided into two parts. One is devoted to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and the other to the compressible form.

  6. Interorganizational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Interorganizational development is the application of social science knowledge to the creation of planned, systematic and mutually beneficial cooperative relationships between otherwise autonomous organizations. This paper introduces the concept as a means of focusing attention on key action and research issues associated with interorganizational…

  7. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  8. Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on work force development. "Effects of Two Different Learning Paths on School-to-Work Transition" (Esther Van Der Schoot) discusses a Dutch study documenting that the following items make a difference in the school-to-work transition: learning path, curriculum characteristics, individual…

  9. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  10. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  11. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  12. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlsson, Ed.; Rabusicova, Milada; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The development of early childhood education (ECE) in Europe and beyond is inextricably linked with women's roles and power in society. Towards the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century in a context of urbanisation and industrialisation the need for some sort of public childcare became apparent in many countries. Whereas…

  13. Trends Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier Service, 1981

    1981-01-01

    This issue contains extracts from twenty-one country reports and case studies presented to the Unesco Regional Seminar on Adult Education and Development in Bangkok, November 24-December 4, 1980. The excerpts have an emphasis on innovations in adult education in the region. Countries and programs discussed include (1) community…

  14. CAREER DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Baltimore Summit Project on Career Development/PERFORMS Enhancement/360 Evaluations for All has made some progress. We have identified the fact that we cannot change the current Pass/Fail PERFORMS system to a tiered system. The current pass/fail system does not have a mechani...

  15. Envisioning Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on an important innovative development in new generation corporate university management. It addresses the thematic area of visual learning that is captured in the term "The Art of Minds-eye Management". It reflects upon experiences with groups of managers in enhancing perceptive competencies using visual awareness learning…

  16. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  17. Fetal development

    MedlinePlus

    Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Fetal growth and development. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; ... and fetal physiology. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, ...

  18. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  19. New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Maelis Karlson; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Pirard, Florence; Peeters, Jan; Alvestad, Marit

    2009-01-01

    New developments and challenges regarding early childhood education (ECE) policy and practice in Norway and in the Flemish and French communities in Belgium are presented in this issue. There are clear differences between the countries when comparing systems they have chosen for ECE. In Belgium, supervision and responsibilities for education,…

  20. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inouye, Patricia C.; And Others

    A Liaison Committee at the University of California-Davis' library studied the concept of professional development, including the individual librarian's responsibility and the General Library's role in assisting its librarians. This document enumerates the committee's recommendations and outlines (1) the factors which influence the extent of a…

  1. Oh, Develop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2003-01-01

    In a mature view of the subject, career development is not simply four years of college or a week at training, culminating in a diploma or a certificate to hang on an office wall. That's why we wanted to take a broad look at career development in this issue of ASK. Take for example, Dr. Gerald Mulenburg s contribution, Fly on the Wall. When Mulenburg and other members of a knowledge-sharing group at Ames were invited to observe an upcoming project review, Mulenburg thought it would be interesting to learn how another project does its reviews. Note that Mulenburg is no fresh out who's never attended a NASA project review. Not only has he been through a fair share of them as the reviewed, he has also been on the other side of the table as a reviewer. This experienced project manager recognizes that at any stage of a career there is room to grow and develop one's repertoire. Too often people associate career development with textbooks and role classroom training, far removed from project life. But classroom training need not be like this, as you'll find in our Special Feature, The Enterprise Project by Wendy Dolci, which sprung out of an APPL Advanced Project Management class in July 2003 at Ames Research Center. In addition to Dolci, some of her classmates contribute to the story. Mike Sander of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, project manager for the Mars Science Laboratory mission, who provided the assignment on which the story is based, also has a cameo in the story. We think Dolci's story is an inspiring example of what classroom training can be if it's approached imaginatively and made to serve a practical purpose. Another story from Ames, by Frank Larsen, takes a different twist on career development. At the annual Experimental Aircraft Association Fly-in in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, Larsen represented Ames at a NASA booth. While there, Larsen met a colleague from Glenn Research Center. Months later on a project with a quick turnaround, he remembered his colleague from

  2. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  3. Polarization developments

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.

  4. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number_sign}2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  5. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  6. Illuminating Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through the support of the NASA SBIR program, Control Vision, Inc. developed novel video techniques for clear, high resolution, real-time imaging of high temperature, high-energy industrial processes, such as welding, plasma arc spraying (coating), arc furnaces, metal casting and refractories (ceramics) melting. The Control Vision systems use reflected laser or strobe illumination, combined with ultra-short exposure times to create video, including the allowance of particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) of fast moving powder particles buried within a plasma stream.

  7. Yardang Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image illustrates different amounts of yardang development on the large deposit found on the floor of Nicholson Crater. Note the formation of the ridge/trough shape at the bottom part of the main deposit.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 0.2, Longitude 195.3 East (164.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for

  8. Professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  9. Nozzle development

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, F.T.; Dodge, L.G.; Johnson, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this program has been the development of experimental techniques and data processing procedures to allow for the characterization of multi-phase fuel nozzles using laboratory tests. Test results were to be used to produce a single value coefficient-of-performance that would predict the performance of the fuel nozzles independent of system application. Several different types of fuel nozzles capable of handling multi-phase fuels have been characterized for: (a) fuel flow rate versus delivery pressure, (b) fuel-air ratio throughout the fuel spray or plume and the effective cone angle of the injector, and (c) fuel drop- or particle-size distribution as a function of fluid properties. Fuel nozzles which have been characterized on both single-phase liquids and multi-phase liquid-solid slurries include a variable-film-thickness nozzle, a commercial coal-water slurry (CWS) nozzle, and four diesel injectors of different geometries (tested on single-phase fluids only). Multi-phase mixtures includes CWS with various coal loadings, surfactant concentrations, and stabilizer concentrations, as well as glass-bead water slurries with stabilizing additives. Single-phase fluids included glycerol-water mixtures to vary the viscosity over a range of 1 to 1500 cP, and alcohol-water mixtures to vary the surface tension from about 22 to 73 dyne/cm. In addition, tests were performed to characterize straight-tube gas-solid nozzles using two differences size distributions of glass beads in air. Standardized procedures have been developed for processing measurements of spray drop-size characteristics and the overall cross-section average drop or particle size. 43 refs., 60 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  11. Effects of a Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on the Expression of Steroid Receptor Coregulators in Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Jeon, Young Eun; Seo, Seok Kyo; Park, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Sun Och; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathophysiology of adenomyosis has not been clarified, it is thought to be related to ectopic endometrium, which depends on hormonal regulation. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective for the medical treatment of adenomyosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which LNG-IUS ameliorates adenomyosis pathology remain unclear. This study was designed to compare the expression levels of steroid receptor coregulators in human endometrium of control and participants with adenomyosis and to determine whether LNG-IUS modulated their expression. Immunohistochemistry with H-scores was performed. Steroid receptor coactivators were shown to have significantly decreased expressions at the secretory phase in the LNG-IUS group when compared to the other groups. Expression of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 was lower in the LNG-IUS group than in both the control group (P = .015) and the untreated adenomyosis group (P = .019) during the secretory phase. Amplified in breast cancer 1 expression was higher in the stromal cells of the untreated adenomyosis group than in those of the controls (P = .017) during the secretory phase; however, levels were lower in the LNG-IUS group (P = .005). Nuclear receptor corepressor expression increased during the proliferative phase and decreased during the secretory phase in untreated adenomyosis; this pattern was reversed in the control and LNG-IUS groups. Thus, an altered expression of steroid receptor coregulators may play a role in adenomyosis development and treatment. PMID:26040939

  12. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  13. Cultural resources survey and assessment of the proposed Department of Energy Freeport to Texas City pipeline, Brazoria and Galveston Counties, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Castille, G.J.; Whelan, J.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An intensive survey and testing program of selected segments of a proposed Department of Energy pipeline were conducted by Coastal Environments, Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana, during December 1985 and January 1986. The proposed pipeline runs from Texas City, Galveston County to Bryan Mound, Brazoria County. The pedestrian survey was preceded by historical records survey to locate possible historic sites within the DOE righ-of-way. Four prehistoric sites within the ROW (41BO159, 160, 161, 162) and one outside the ROW (41BO163) were located. All are Rangia cuneata middens. The survey results are discussed with particular reference to the environmental settings of the sites and the effectiveness of the survey procedure. Two of the sites located within the ROW were subjected to additional testing. The results of the backhoe testing program are included in the site descriptions, and the scientific value of the sites are presented. 52 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  15. VAP Development: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Collis, Fast, J; Flynn, C; Mather, J; McFarlane, S; Monroe, J; Sivaraman, C; Xie, S

    2011-02-23

    This white paper provides a plan to formalize the evaluation of newly developed VAPs and a framework for the development of value-added products through four different stages: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release.

  16. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  17. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  18. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  19. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  20. The progestin levonorgestrel affects sex differentiation in zebrafish at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic progestins have become widespread environmental contaminants and may cause adverse effects on fish. In the present study, we investigated the effects of levonorgestrel (LNG) on sex differentiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Embryos were exposed to LNG at environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 1, 10, 33, and 100ng/L) and allowed to develop until sexual maturity. Histological examination at 63 days post fertilization (dpf) caused complete sex reversal and 100% males were observed in the 10, 33 and 100ng/L treatments; gross morphological and histological examination of gonads at 142dpf further confirmed 100% males at these exposure concentrations. The results indicate androgenic activity of LNG, and masculinization during zebrafish gonadal differentiation. The mRNA expression levels of genes involved in fish sex differentiation and gonadal development were examined at 28 and 42dpf. Down-regulation of the mRNA expression of aromatase (e.g., cyp19a1a, cyp19a1b), the forkhead transcription factor gene L2 (foxl2) and the Fushi tarazu factor-1d (nr5a1b) were observed. In contrast, transcription of the doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) gene was up-regulated. Androgen receptor (ar) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated at 28 and 42dpf. Co-exposure to flutamide (an androgen antagonist) and LNG, led to a decrease in the sex inversion potency of LNG. Our study has demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of LNG could alter sex differentiation and gonadal development in zebrafish. Our results also suggest a potentially high ecological risk of LNG to fish populations in LNG-contaminated aquatic environments. PMID:26163149

  1. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  2. Clastic diversion by fold salients and blind thrust ridges in coal-swamp development

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.U. ); Belt, E.S. ); Lyons, P.C. )

    1991-05-01

    Abrupt shifts from single widespread coal swamps to coarse siliciclastic alluvial channel deposits occur in at least five coal beds and zones within the Pennsylvania Allegheny Formation. One of these, the Upper Freeport coal zone, was deposited over and area at least 200 {times} 200 km with a spacing of alluvial channels one-half to possibly one-fifth that of the immediately overlying coarse clastics. All these shifts occured next to the rising Appalachian orogen, far from the eustatic effects of a marine shoreline. Recent models relating coal-swamp formation to isostatic warping of orogenic forelands by tectonic loads surely apply to this environment, but they seem to need an additional, more delicate mechanism to produce such abrupt but widespread switches in grain size and drainage spacing. The authors propose that irregularities in the advancing front folds and blind thrusts caused temporary geomorphic diversions into the recessed areas and allowed a widespread coal swamp to form in the sedimentary shadow of the salients, a shadowing process that is occurring today in the central Zagros Mountains of Iraq and Iran.

  3. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  4. What Is Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astle, Alec

    1989-01-01

    Reviews inequalities in development, a topic in the New Zealand Form Six Geography Syllabus. Explains the different perspectives from which to approach development: academic, ideological, political, or personal. Considers the various meanings of development to less developed countries. (GG)

  5. Drug Development Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... public. More Information More in The Drug Development Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical ...

  6. Developing New Academic Developers: Doing before Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Brailsford, Ian; Gossman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A small group of new academic developers reflected on their induction into the profession and wondered if things could have been done differently. The researchers decided to question the directors of three tertiary academic development units about how they recruited new developers, what skills and competences they looked for and how they inducted…

  7. Nothing gets done by doing nothing: in a state of setback, the liquefied natural gas industry seeks revolutionary concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    Basically, LNG is a unique energy product that provides a unique service to users. Unfortunately, the development of cryogenic technology for the production and transportation of LNG has not overcome the drastic changes in the market attitude towards energy pricing and distribution. Furthermore, regulatory authorities have, through attitude and policy, discouraged innovation and inhibited the advancement of cryogenic technology. LNG, as a trade, has become a victim of not only international political and economic manipulation, resulting in unreasonable pricing attitudes by suppliers but it has also become the victim of the never-ending economic and political instability within Third World countries that could potentially be major world suppliers of LNG. The author notes, however, that the future of LNG as an important energy source is not as bleak as one might believe, even after reviewing the events directly responsible for the dismal state of the industry today. He cites and discusses opportunities available in the market place that will support LNG application and make it a viable energy supply source within the next 10 years.

  8. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  9. Cooperation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Bow, Amadou-Mahtar

    1976-01-01

    International economic relations are discussed in terms of cultural, educational, and communications development globally. It is emphasized that global cooperation and development are necessary for development of people and societies. (ND)

  10. SIRU development. Volume 1: System development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. P.; Cooper, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A complete description of the development and initial evaluation of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) system is reported. System development documents the system mechanization with the analytic formulation for fault detection and isolation processing structure; the hardware redundancy design and the individual modularity features; the computational structure and facilities; and the initial subsystem evaluation results.

  11. Developing Teachers: Improving Professional Development for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Robert; Aloisi, Cesare; Higgins, Steve; Major, Lee Elliot

    2015-01-01

    This document is a summary of the report "What Makes Great Teaching". It argues that improved teacher ­development will positively impact on pupil attainment, particular those from disadvantaged backgrounds. "Developing Teachers" presents five policy recommendations which have been signed by 17 of Britain's leading headteachers…

  12. Curriculum Development: Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    In order for curriculum development to be effective and schools to be successful, teachers must be involved in the development process. An effective curriculum should reflect the philosophy, goals, objectives, learning experiences, instructional resources, and assessments that comprise a specific educational program ("Guide to curriculum…

  13. Child Development Associate. Body Skills Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is intended to provide the intern with the knowledge and skills necessary for helping children develop their body skills. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics…

  14. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  15. Ceramic brush seals development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: ceramic brush seals, research and development, manufacturing, brazed assembly development, controlling braze flow, fiber selection, and braze results.

  16. Education and Development: A Developing Theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2002-03-01

    The following article is based on an analysis of selected examples from the approximately 2500 main articles that have been published in the International Review of Education ( IRE) since its inception in 1931 until the fall of 2001. The scope of the topic is education within developing countries and the promotion of such education by industrialised countries and development agencies. After an introduction on the growth of the concern over education and development over seven decades of the journal, three themes are looked at in some more detail: (1) The discussion on nationalism versus internationalism in education, a theme that bears clear relevance to the field "Education and Development" and has been with the journal from its inception but on which one finds more emphasis in the earlier volumes. (2) The language of instruction in developing countries. This theme has also been with the journal from its inception and it is still much debated. (3) The effects of external aid on the education sector in developing countries. Though massive economic aid in the form of grants or loans to the education sector in developing countries is of more recent nature external influence on the education sector has been there since colonial times.

  17. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  18. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  19. Antenna development at DARPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corey, Larry; Jaska, Esko

    2004-09-01

    This paper reviews recent and ongoing antenna technology and systems development in the Special Projects Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA/SPO). These programs fall into two categories: development and application of antenna component technologies and development of transportable phased-array radar antennas. These development programs are presented in a chronological order.

  20. Energy Sources and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

  1. Leadership Development. Symposium 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Three presentations are provided from the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) 2000 Conference Proceedings. "Leadership Development: A Review of the Theory and Literature" (Susan A. Lynham) has four parts that analyze the leadership development process: the present state of the available body of knowledge on leadership development; core…

  2. LGBT Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I would like to open a conversation with my HRD colleagues about the issues related to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) career development. This paper provides some insights about LGBT career development, analyzing the factors that distinguish LGBT career development from heterosexual career development.

  3. Directions in Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela, Ed.

    This collection of readings is intended to provide a source book on best practices in staff development in higher education within a British context. The 13 papers are grouped into three parts: part 1 presents the educational development tradition which has focused on development of staff as teachers; part 2 considers development of staff in…

  4. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  5. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  6. Developing behavioral objectives for perioperative staff development.

    PubMed

    Beitz, J M

    1996-07-01

    Behavioral objectives (i.e., clear statements that describe intended instructional outcomes) are a crucial component of educational planning for perioperative staff development. Properly written objectives promote positive learning outcomes such as increased motivation, better retention of information, and improved instructional accountability. This article describes the advantages of using behavioral objectives, gives a historical perspective of their development, presents a practical "how-to" approach to formulating them, and delineates their link to the selection of appropriate evaluation methods. PMID:8827333

  7. Chemical probe development versus drug development.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases as a class of proteins have recently attracted significant attention from the pharmaceutical industry. As our knowledge of this diverse family of proteins has grown, the relationship between phosphatases and human disease has clearly been established, with model systems proving much validation for the potential of some members of this family to be candidate drug targets. This, coupled with the fact that there have been a flood of successful drug development efforts over the past 10 years targeting protein kinases, has led some to propose that phosphatases as a class of enzymes might be equally as rich a source of drug targets as kinases. However to date there remain relatively few molecules targeting protein phosphatases in clinical development. This is less a reflection of their importance in key processes associated with disease, but rather seems to reflect inherent issues with developing drugs for many members of this family. This seems especially so for intracellular phosphatases where the development of selective, potent cell penetrant molecules with good drug-like properties has proven a formidable challenge. This chapter provides a brief outline of the two major processes that have resulted in the existing armament of chemical modulators of protein phosphatases, namely, chemical probe development and drug development. These two processes initially seem to be rather similar and while they do overlap, the stated goals of the two approaches at project initiation are distinct. PMID:23860644

  8. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. ); Yancey, E.F. )

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  10. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  11. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  12. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  13. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  14. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  15. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  16. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  17. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-11-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  19. The Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Carla J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses neural activity and stimulation crucial in fetal brain development and the formation of the mind. Focuses on activity-dependent remodeling related to development of the visual system and retinal activity. (MCO)

  20. Developing the plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic sequence in the planning development process is discussed. Alternative ways of satisfying estimated needs, and the selection of an alternative are described along with the development of a plan to implement the selected alternative.

  1. Normal growth and development

    MedlinePlus

    ... DIET Poor nutrition can cause problems with a child's intellectual development. A child with a poor diet may be ... care provider if you have concerns about your child's growth and development. Related topics include: Developmental milestones record - 4 months ...

  2. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  3. Coalbed gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties.

  4. Gammasphere software development

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  5. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  6. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  7. Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleymeyer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

  8. Teachers as Course Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kathleen, Ed.

    The collection of essays on teachers as course developers is designed to help teachers understand how to develop courses or modify existing ones using their own experience and the experiences and theories of others. It attempts to capture this process through the stories of six teachers who have developed courses. Each narrative focuses on a…

  9. Science and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger, Pierre

    1973-01-01

    The relation between science and socioeconomic development in both developed and developing countries is discussed. The interdependence of pure and applied science, technology and finance, knowledge and tradition, and national, regional, and world-wide efforts in behalf of progress are characterized. (BL)

  10. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  11. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  12. PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM DEVELOPER

    DOEpatents

    Berry, F.G.

    1958-06-24

    S>An improved photographic developer is presented having very high energy development fine grain characteristics and a long shelf life. These characteristics are obtained by the use of aminoacetic acid in the developer, the other constituents of which are: sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, sodiunn borate, boric acid and potassium bromide, 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone.

  13. Moral Development in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  14. Bilingualism and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraballo, Jose N.

    Research on the effects of bilingualism on cognitive development is reviewed, and two complementary models of bilingualism are developed to account for research results. It is suggested that research since 1960 shows a positive relationship between bilingualism and cognitive development, at least for some types of bilingualism. The advantage or…

  15. Developing Workplace Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for project directors, coordinators, and other professional staff involved in developing/delivering workplace education programs, explains the process of developing a functional context workplace education curriculum. Discussed first are the following: the types of information needed to develop a functional context…

  16. CRITICAL READING DEVELOPS EARLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, DORRIS; AND OTHERS

    THIS ISSUE OF THE READING AIDS SERIES PRESENTS A DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CRITICAL READING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN AND HOW IT CAN BE DEVELOPED. IT OFFERS SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF INQUIRY AND EVALUATION. SOME OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE -- (1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTS, CONCEPTS, AND COMMON…

  17. Development Communication Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Andrea, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" focus on the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people about various social issues as well as the field of development communication itself. Agricultural communication is the theme of the first issue which contains the following…

  18. Software development in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Katz, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    Ada will soon become a part of systems developed for the US Department of Defense. NASA must determine whether it will become part of its environment and particularly whether it will become a part fo the space station development. However, there are several issues about Ada which should be considered before this decision is made. One means of considering these issues is the examination of other developments in Ada. Unfortunately, few full scale developments have been completed or made publicly available for observation. Therefore, it will probably be necessary to study an Ada development in a NASA environment. Another means related to the first is the development of Ada metrics which can be used to characterize and evaluate Ada developments. These metrics need not be confined to full scale developments and could be used to evaluate on going projects as well. An early development in Ada, some observations from that development, metrics which were developed for use with Ada, and future directions for research into the use of Ada in software development in general and in the NASA Goddard environment in particular are described.

  19. Molecular biology of development

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, E.H.; Firtel, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at a symposium on the molecular biology of development. Topics discussed include: cytoplasmic localizations and pattern formations, gene expression during oogenesis and early development, developmental expression of gene families molecular aspects of plant development and transformation in whole organisms and cells.

  20. World Development Report 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report, seventh in a series of annual publications, examines the relationship between population change and development, showing why continuing rapid population growth in developing countries is likely to mean a lower quality of life for millions of people. The first part of the report concludes that the economies of developing countries can…

  1. Curriculum Development in Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the context of present curriculum development in geomorphology and the way in which it has developed in recent years. Discusses the content of the geomorphology curriculum in higher education and the consequences of curriculum development together with a consideration of future trends and their implications. (GEA)

  2. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  3. Prodder's Development Annual, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kooy, R. J. W., Ed.

    This collection of reports examines the current state of development in southern Africa, in general, and in South Africa, in particular. The introduction, "A Development Perspective of Southern Africa" (R. J. W. van der Kooy), briefly reviews the history of southern African development, and discusses purposes, approaches, and progress. Sixteen…

  4. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  5. Redefining Professional Development. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The research on effective professional development is consistent across many studies. Researchers Willis Hawley and Linda Valli (Westchester Institute for Human Services Research, n.d.), in their synthesis of the professional development literature, find that high-quality teacher development is as follows: (1) Informed by research on teaching and…

  6. Beyond Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Richard R.

    The methodology of research and the technology of development in education have advanced beyond "curriculum development," as activities associated with that rubric are popularly practiced. These advances provide the experiential basis for five actionable conclusions: (1) Programmatic development of integrated resources for use by students,…

  7. Site Development Planning Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The Handbook provides facility managers and site planners at DOE organizations responsible for planning site developments and facilities utilization a step-by-step planning checklist to ensure that planners at each site are focusing on Department-wide goals and objectives. It begins with a brief discussion of a site development-by-objectives program design to promote, recognize, and implement opportunities for improvements in site utilization through planning. Additional information is included on: assembling existing data, plans, programs, and procedures; establishing realistic objectives; identifying site problems, opportunities; and development needs; determining priorities among development needs; developing short and long-range plans; choosing the right development solutions and meeting minimum legal site restrictions; presenting the plan; implementing elements of the plan; monitoring and reporting plan status; and modifying development program plans. (MCW)

  8. Geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, E.W.; Pick, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This book studies the impact of geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California. An integrated assessment model for public policy is presented. Geothermal energy resources in Imperial County are identified. Population and employment studies project the impact of geothermal on demography and population movement in the county. A public opinion, and a leadership opinion survey indicate support for well-regulated geothermal development. Actual development events are updated. Finally, research conclusions and policy recommendations are presented.

  9. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  10. Composite Tank Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on composite tank development. There is a need for oxidizer tanks and reliable, lightweight fuel. The need for cost-effective and scalable manufacturing is also evident. In order to achieve these goals, tooling methods for tank development must be applied, methods for producing easily adaptable and scalable vessel liners must be developed, insulation layer or protective barriers for containers must be manufactured, and an appropriate fiber/resin system for composite overwrap structures must be identified.

  11. Climate and development

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The authors review the existing knowledge on the inter-relationships between climate and patterns of development; the impact variables on water and agricultural development; and the effects of climate on human health. A case study is also given of the effect of climatic fluctuations on human population in Mesopotamia. Contents: Climate and Development; Climate and Agriculture; Climate and Water Management; Climate and Health; Effects of Climate Fluctation on Human Populations; Study of Mesopotamian Society.

  12. Renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  13. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  14. Intelligence as Developing Expertise.

    PubMed

    Sternberg

    1999-10-01

    This essay describes how intelligence can be viewed as developing expertise. The general conception of intelligence as developing expertise is described. Then research examples are given that, in conjunction, seem odd under traditional interpretations of abilities but that make sense as a whole in the context of the developing-expertise model. It is concluded that this new model offers potential for better understanding intelligence-related phenomena. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10508532

  15. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  16. [Apoptosis during embryo development].

    PubMed

    Jezek, Davor; Kozina, Viviana

    2009-10-01

    The development of human embryo includes two essential processes, i.e., rapid mitotic activity of cells and gradual differentiation of tissues and organs. The latter process is very often characterized by extensive migration of cells from their site of origin to the site of definitive location, inductive action of the neighboring germ layers and programmed cell death (apoptosis). This paper describes examples of proliferative and apoptotic processes during the development of human embryo. The development of trilaminar germ disk, skin, gonads, central and peripheral nerve system as well as limbs provides instructive examples of how apoptosis regulates the development and differentiation of cells. PMID:19999545

  17. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  18. Halbach Magnetic Rotor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has a wealth of experience in Halbach array technology through the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The goals of the program include improving aircraft efficiency, reliability, and safety. The concept of a Halbach magnetically levitated electric aircraft motor will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels, increase efficiency and reliability, reduce maintenance and decrease operating noise levels. Experimental hardware systems were developed in the GRC Engineering Development Division to validate the basic principles described herein and the theoretical work that was performed. A number of Halbach Magnetic rotors have been developed and tested under this program. A separate test hardware setup was developed to characterize each of the rotors. A second hardware setup was developed to test the levitation characteristics of the rotors. Each system focused around a unique Halbach array rotor. Each rotor required original design and fabrication techniques. A 4 in. diameter rotor was developed to test the radial levitation effects for use as a magnetic bearing. To show scalability from the 4 in. rotor, a 1 in. rotor was developed to also test radial levitation effects. The next rotor to be developed was 20 in. in diameter again to show scalability from the 4 in. rotor. An axial rotor was developed to determine the force that could be generated to position the rotor axially while it is rotating. With both radial and axial magnetic bearings, the rotor would be completely suspended magnetically. The purpose of this report is to document the development of a series of Halbach magnetic rotors to be used in testing. The design, fabrication and assembly of the rotors will be discussed as well as the hardware developed to test the rotors.

  19. Population, environment and development.

    PubMed

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994. PMID

  20. Guidelines for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Literacy and Continuing Education Branch.

    This guide, which is intended to assist developers of community-based adult literacy programs in Manitoba, explains the following components of good programming and presents suggestions for integrating them into literacy provision: community outreach, program development, learner involvement, provision of appropriate staffing, use of volunteers,…