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Sample records for french intermede study

  1. Ethnobotany in Intermedical Spaces: The Case of the Fulni-ô Indians (Northeastern Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Paulino de Albuquerque, Ulysses

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the Fulni-ô medical system and introduced its intermedical character based on secondary data published in the literature. Then we focused on the medicinal plants known to the ethnic group, describing the most important species, their therapeutic uses and the body systems attributed to them. We based this analysis on the field experience of the authors in the project Studies for the Environmental and Cultural Sustainability of the Fulni-ô Medical System: Office of Medicinal Plant Care. This traditional botanical knowledge was used to corroborate the hybrid nature of local practices for access to health. We show that intermedicality is a result not only of the meeting of the Fulni-ô medical system with Biomedicine but also of its meeting with other traditional systems. Finally, we discuss how traditional botanical knowledge may be directly related to the ethnogenesis process led by the Fulni-ô Indians in northeastern Brazil. PMID:21961025

  2. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  3. Social Studies in French Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Lee, William B.

    1978-01-01

    Examines current educational goals, curricula, and methodology of French social studies education. Investigates influences of the student riots of 1968, and considers what effect these reforms will have on the future of French education. (Author/JK)

  4. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  5. [Intermedicality and protagonism: the role of indigenous health agents on the Kwatá-Laranjal Indian Reservation in Amazonas State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Scopel, Daniel; Dias-Scopel, Raquel Paiva; Langdon, Esther Jean

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes the results of an ethnographic study on the role of indigenous health agents on the Kwata-Laranjal Indian Reservation in Borba, Amazonas State, Brazil. The study aims to contribute to understanding the role of indigenous health agents in the expansion of the hegemonic medical model in a context of medical pluralism. The analysis included data from participant observation and interviews conducted from 2009 to 2011. Semi-structured interviews were held to record narratives on their work routine, experiences, and difficulties. The authors conclude that work by indigenous health agents is essential to primary care, and that their role extends beyond technical activities. The Munduruku indigenous health agents hold a key position in the links between indigenous and biomedical knowledge in contexts of intermedicality, emerging as new political actors in interethnic contexts. PMID:26872232

  6. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  7. French-Algonquian Interaction in Canada: A Michif Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the language contact situation between Algonquian languages and French in Canada. Michif, a French-Plains Cree mixed language, is used as a case study for linguistic results of language contact. The paper describes the phonological, morphological, and syntactic conflict sites between the grammars of Plains Cree and French, as…

  8. French for Business: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brenda

    The paper discusses the development and evolution of the French for Business undergraduate language course at Oregon State University, focusing on: (1) instructor preparation; (2) course structure; (3) course content; (4) the business student as teacher and mentor; (5) cultural exchanges with French-speaking business students; (6) oral and written…

  9. An Empirical Study of Pronunciation Errors in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel

    1980-01-01

    Presents results of a study that sought to test the pronunciation problems of a large number of American students in a beginning college-level French course. Learner difficulties over a 15-week period were used to create a hierarchy of minimal contrasts representing major, secondary, and minor problems for the students in learning French sounds.…

  10. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  11. Disciplinary and Research Subjects in French Doctoral Dissertations in Press and Media Studies: A Bibliometric Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    2007-01-01

    For English-speaking researchers, French doctoral dissertations can represent a "terra incognita." For this reason, a retrospective bibliometric study of French dissertations in press and media studies offers a useful profile of available research to researchers concentrating in studies of the press and other media. The present study offers a…

  12. Gender Identity and Homophobia: The Impact on Adolescent Males Studying French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott; Wierzalis, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Foreign and second language (L2) educators in English-speaking countries are concerned that male students are losing interest in studying French. A large-scale study was conducted to investigate gender differences in L2 motivation and participation among Grade 9 core French students in Canada. A mixed methodology was employed to investigate gender…

  13. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…

  14. Factors Influencing Elective Language Choice: A Study of French Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGannon, Judith; Medeiros, Anna

    1995-01-01

    Investigates factors influencing the decision of secondary school students to continue or discontinue the study of French beyond the compulsory years in an Australian college. Results indicate that gender, perceived ability in French, encouragement from parents and teachers, peer group preference, and beliefs about the career relevance of French…

  15. Syntactic Comprehension in Reading and Listening: A Study with French Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Comprehension syntaxico-semantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level…

  16. CLIM-RUN: Tourism cas study over the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate information for societal use has becoming a major challenge for tourism management and adaptation in a context of strong climate variability and change. Within the CLIMRUN EU FP7, a case study on summer tourism in the French Alps has been identify. I will introduce the bottom-up approach use in the project where stakeholders and local users meet with climate experts. From those meetings, they thus identify the climate dependence and information which impact their summer activities over this region. All the activities are located in a mountainous region where outdoor leisure is the main economic driver of the region. It has emerged that the climate requirements are as well on past as on future climate information. On one side, the past climate parameters are found to be an invaluable information to evaluate the climate dependence of the different activities. A better knowledge as well as a growing interest in climate variability has been express to quantify the climate dependence on their activities. On the other side, the future climate information requested mainly on seasonal to decadal timescale. A particular interest has been express on the snow cover at the end of the winter season, evolution of heavy precipitations, heatwave, air temperatures and well as the water temperature of the mountainous lakes. Those climate variables are used to create comfort index under climate change. All those targeted climate information are based on on-going projects as well as future model development.

  17. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Pesenti, Carole; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Drouot, Xavier; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Beziat, Severine; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1) and 470 healthy subjects. Results Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years), a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30–3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26–3.30]), as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps). Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56–2.69]). Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment. PMID:26052938

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of Recent Studies on French Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Margaret Collins

    1979-01-01

    Presents works dealing with various aspects of French women, including their role in society, history, politics, employment, and education. Entries are grouped under the following categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) general works; (3) documents (anthologies, biographies, memoirs); (4) recent titles; (5) reviews; and (6) research. (AM)

  19. Checkpoint A-French. Course of Study in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The New York City schools' syllabus for the first year of high school French instruction outlines a communicative curriculum conforming to state standards of preparation for state language proficiency examinations. The syllabus begins with an introductory section that describes the objectives and approach used and provides suggestions for…

  20. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    According to a thesis based on the idea of an influence of cognitions in the structuring of internal reality, emotional awareness, ie the capacity of representing your own emotional experience and that of others, is a cognitive process that goes into maturation. Defining this concept, Lane and Schwartz present a cognitivo-developmental model in five stages of the processes of symbolization, accounting for the differences in levels of emotional awareness observed in individuals. The organization of these cognitive processes would thus be structured in well differentiated stages, in which the development of the emotions would be inseparable from the development of ego and of the relation to others. These authors focus on the capacity of representing in a conscious way the emotional experience and consider that verbal representations used to describe the contents of what is experience constitute a good reflection of the organization structural of the emotional awareness. Therefore, they worked out an instrument of evaluation: the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which measures the capacity to describe your own emotional experience and the one you allow to others, in an emotional situation. The system of quotation of this scale is based on the analysis of the verbal contents of the provided answers, in direct reference to the authors' theory of the levels of differentiation and integration of the emotional experience. It is therefore an empirical measurement which is centered specifically on the structural organization of the emotional experience. The various studies of validation of this instrument show that it presents solid metrological properties. This work presents the validation of the French version of Lane and Schwartz's LEAS. Validity and fidelity were studied in a group of 121 healthy subjects. This setting is part of a larger clinical evaluation, also including a collection of socio-demographic and clinical data, and other instruments of self

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Use of the First Language (L1) in French Foreign Language (FL) Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Erin; Storch, Neomy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated teachers' use of the first language (L1) in two French foreign language (FL) intermediate level classes at two Australian universities. A native French-speaking teacher (NS) and a non-native French-speaking teacher (NNS) were observed and audio-recorded approximately every two weeks over a 12- week semester.…

  2. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  3. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile. PMID:26603910

  4. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects. PMID:21940210

  5. Dislocations as a Developmental Marker in French Language: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillart, Christelle; Parisse, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study, Parisse suggested that subject dislocations in French language (e.g. "la fille "elle" dort") could be considered as a marker of morphosyntactic development in children with normal language development. The present study aimed to develop this proposition and to confirm it with experimental data, more specifically the fact that…

  6. Motivations and the Intent to Study Abroad among U.S., French, and Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Carol M.; Fornerino, Marianela; Zhang, Mengxia

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between students' motivations and their intention to participate in study abroad programs using a model based on expectancy theory. We surveyed U.S., Chinese and French business students who studied in their home countries. Results suggest that certain motivations are common among students from the three…

  7. Teaching Business French through Case Studies: Presentation of a Marketing Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Salvatore; Moore, Catherine

    The use of case studies as a means for teaching business French is discussed. The approach is advocated because of the realism of case studies, which are based on actual occurrences. Characteristics of a good case are noted: it tells a story, focuses on interest-arousing issues, is set in the past 10 years, permits empathy with the main…

  8. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  9. African Studies in French for the Elementary Grades: Phase II of a Twinned Classroom Approach to the Teaching of French in the Elementary Grades. Volume I, Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Sister Ruth

    This experiment examines a new psychological approach to foreign language study at the elementary school level. A principal objective is to determine the nature and importance of second language learning motivation in monolingual societies devoid of the daily living example of the target language and culture. A five-year French language sequence,…

  10. Blended Learning and Disciplinarity: Negotiating Connections in French Studies in Regional Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Neil; Rolls, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline the challenges facing French Studies in regional Australian universities resulting from an increasingly vocational curriculum and doubts about the cost-effectiveness of language learning in higher education. These pressures have resulted in a process of discipline restructuring and significant cuts in the numbers of…

  11. Motivation to Study Core French: Comparing Recent Immigrants and Canadian-Born Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie J.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of Allophone students attending public schools in Canada continues to increase (Statistics Canada, 2008), it is clear that a need exists in English-dominant areas to purposefully address the integration of these students into core French. I report the findings of a mixed-method study that was conducted to assess and compare the…

  12. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  13. Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language…

  14. The Acquisition of Pronouns by French Children: A Parallel Study of Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesiger, Pascal; Zesiger, Laurence Chillier; Arabatzi, Marina; Baranzini, Lara; Cronel-Ohayon, Stephany; Franck, Julie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Hamann, Cornelia; Rizzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines syntactic and morphological aspects of the production and comprehension of pronouns by 99 typically developing French-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 6 years, 5 months. A fine structural analysis of subject, object, and reflexive clitics suggests that whereas the object clitic chain crosses the subject chain, the…

  15. Chinese-French Case Study of English Language Learning via Wikispaces, Animoto and Skype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Laura M.; Zou, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the learning experience of Chinese and French students participating in a computer mediated communication (CMC) collaboration conducted in English and supported by Wikispaces, Animoto, and Skype. Several studies have investigated CMC contexts in which at least some participants were native speakers. Here, we address the…

  16. Upper Secondary French Students, Chemical Transformations and the "Register of Models": A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin; Dumon, Alain; Taber, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how upper secondary school French students (Grade 10-12) interpret chemical transformation with regards to the changes within molecules and atoms, and in terms of intramolecular and/or intermolecular bond breaking. In order to identify and describe the students' assimilated knowledge, four questions were…

  17. A Triple-Track Program in the Second-Year French Courses: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagiwara, M. P.

    This is a report of a pilot study conducted by the Department of Romance Languages of the University of Michigan to assess the feasibility of a multiple-track foreign language program for second-year language students. The multiple-track system was used during the winter semester of 1969. Three types of French classes were offered. One type was…

  18. A Comparative Study of French and Turkish Students' Ideas on Acid-Base Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this comparative study was to determine the knowledge that French and Turkish upper secondary-school students (grades 11 and 12) acquire on the concept of acid-base reactions. Following an examination of the relevant curricula and textbooks in the two countries, 528 students answered six written questions about the acid-base concept.…

  19. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure. PMID:16019841

  20. Quantification of metal loading in French Gulch, Summit County, Colorado, using a tracer-injection study, July 1996. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Gerner, L.J.

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this report is to present a description of the complex hydrology of the French Gulch site using the tracer-injection study and the synoptic sampling. In particular, the tracer injection allows for evaluation of the effect of the hydrology on the fate and transport of the metals in French Gulch.

  1. An ultrasound study of Canadian French rhotic vowels with polar smoothing spline comparisons.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    This is an acoustic and articulatory study of Canadian French rhotic vowels, i.e., mid front rounded vowels /ø œ̃ œ/ produced with a rhotic perceptual quality, much like English [ɚ] or [ɹ], leading heureux, commun, and docteur to sound like [ɚʁɚ], [kɔmɚ̃], and [dɔktaɹʁ]. Ultrasound, video, and acoustic data from 23 Canadian French speakers are analyzed using several measures of mid-sagittal tongue contours, showing that the low F3 of rhotic vowels is achieved using bunched and retroflex tongue postures and that the articulatory-acoustic mapping of F1 and F2 are rearranged in systems with rhotic vowels. A subset of speakers' French vowels are compared with their English [ɹ]/[ɚ], revealing that the French vowels are consistently less extreme in low F3 and its articulatory correlates, even for the most rhotic speakers. Polar coordinates are proposed as a replacement for Cartesian coordinates in calculating smoothing spline comparisons of mid-sagittal tongue shapes, because they enable comparisons to be roughly perpendicular to the tongue surface, which is critical for comparisons involving tongue root position but appropriate for all comparisons involving mid-sagittal tongue contours. PMID:25994713

  2. The Study of Chinese in a Provincial French Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrait, Noel

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of Chinese instruction in a Bordeaux lycee. Specific questions addressed are: enrollment; reasons for studying Chinese; the study of the written and spoken language; the need for an appropriate textbook; teaching culture; and the need to organize Chinese as a regular course in the curriculum. (AMH)

  3. Study of SGD along the French Mediterranean coastline using airborne TIR images and in situ analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, Pieter; Stieglitz, Thomas; Souhaut, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Although submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been investigated in many places of the world, very few studies were conducted along the French coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. Almost no information is available on the fluxes of water and chemical elements associated with these SGD and on their potential impact on the geochemical cycling and ecosystems of the coastal zones. In this work, we combined the use of airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images with in situ analyses of salinity, temperature, radon and radium isotopes to study SGD at various sites along the French Mediterranean coastline and in coastal lagoons. These analyses allowed us to detect SGD sites and to quantify SGD fluxes (that include both the fluxes of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater). In particular, we will show how the Ra isotopes determined in the La Palme lagoon were used to estimate i) the residence time of waters in the lagoon and ii) SGD fluxes.

  4. [French Guiana "papillonite" (lepidopterism). Clinical and epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Ducombs, G; Lamy, M; Michel, M; Pradinaud, R; Jamet, P; Vincendeau, P; Maleville, J; Texier, L

    1983-01-01

    Clinical studies by Dr R. Pradinaud (Cayenne) has given prominence to the symptoms of "papillonite": its primary and secondary cutaneous lesions, their localisation and evolution as well as its accompanying symptoms such as respiratory pathology. Epidemiologic survey shows a parallelism between the occurrence of papillonite and the presence of the moth Hylesia urticans. The urticant apparatus of this moth was studied with the scanning electron microscope. "Arrow" (fléchettes) were found and they more or less resemble the urticant apparatus of Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff caterpillar. The mechanism of action has been studied in the animal and in humans. Extracts prepared from the "arrows" have been rested in vivo guinea-pigs (bleu Evans, Liacopoulos et al.). The findings seem to incriminate an histamino-liberation. PMID:6666924

  5. Le vocabulaire disponible du francais, Tome 1. Le vocabulaire concret usuel des enfants francais et acadiens: Etude temoin (The Working French Vocabulary, Volume 1. Common Generic Terms Used by French and Acadian Children: A Field Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William F.; And Others

    The first of a two-volume study of the relative accessibility of French vocabulary in French-speaking Canada presents statistical data concerning the frequency, distribution, valence, and accessibility of vocabulary related to 16 fundamental centers of interest found in normal conversation. The scope, procedures, and results of the study are…

  6. Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French family dinners.

    PubMed

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Morgenstern, Aliyah; Peters, Chloe; Beaupoil, Pauline; Caët, Stéphanie; Debras, Camille; le Mené, Marine

    2015-06-01

    The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner--what, when and how food is served--and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs. PMID:25616214

  7. Confirmed Beliefs or False Assumptions? A Study of Home Stay Experiences in the French Study Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diao, Wenhao; Freed, Barbara; Smith, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed enormous growth in a diverse array of studies which explore the linguistic impact of study abroad (SA) experiences. During this period a multitude of research projects have investigated SLA/L2 learning in SA, in a number of different languages (Russian, Japanese, French, Spanish, English), utilizing diverse…

  8. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (http://projet-sigma.com/index.html, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  9. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. PMID:25080287

  10. Prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in healthy French adults: the VARIETE study.

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Massart, Catherine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cavalier, Etienne; Chanson, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Institute of Medicine considers that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration >20 ng/mL corresponds to optimal vitamin D status in the general population. Old studies of vitamin D status in the French general population have demonstrated high prevalence of insufficiency. We measured serum 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D, PTH, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine levels in 892 French Caucasian healthy subjects (463 men, 429 women) aged from 18 to 89 years. The 25OHD concentration was similar in men (24.1 ± 8.2 ng/mL) and women (23.4 ± 8.0 ng/mL). 25OHD concentrations of <10, <12, <20, and <30 ng/mL were found in respectively 6.3, 9.9, 34.6, and 80.3 % of subjects. Residence in northern France (odds ratio [OR] 1.91), blood sampling between January and March (OR 7.74), BMI ≥24 kg/m(2) (OR 1.81), and age 60 years or more (OR 1.99) were significant determinants of hypovitaminosis D (25OHD <20 ng/mL). The serum 25OHD level correlated positively with 1,25(OH)2D and negatively with PTH. 25OHD values below 20 ng/mL were associated with lower 1,25(OH)2D levels, and 25OHD values below 27 ng/mL were associated with higher PTH levels. Many French healthy adults have a 25OHD concentration <20 ng/mL, especially during winter months. Actions to improve the vitamin D status of the French general population are urgently needed. PMID:27106800

  11. Teaching French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Fernand

    This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…

  12. Foreign Language Study and the Voice Major: A Model Course in French for Singers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the usefulness of French courses designed for voice majors. Basic areas of instruction, including phonetics, prosody, and French literature, are discussed, and a model course is described. (CLK)

  13. French Immersion Studies: From Second-Language Acquisition (SLA) to Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    French immersion in Canada was instituted by parents in Quebec who wished their children to learn French in order to have social, political, and economic advantages. Several learning theories and research methods, especially those related to second-language acquisition (SLA), have been used in the field of French immersion. More recently,…

  14. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  15. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet. PMID:27189191

  16. Development of monoclonal gammopathy under biotherapy in psoriasis: a French multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Liegeon, Anne-Laure; Mahe, Emmanuel; Begon, Edouard; Poreaux, Claire; Barbaud, Annick; Esteve, Eric; Quiles-Tsimaratos, Nathalie; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Schoeffler, Amélie; Mery-Bossard, Laure; Pauwels, Christine; Girard, Céline; Maillard, Hervé; Barthelme, Dominique; Bernier, Claire; Chaby, Guillaume; Reguiai, Ziad; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Maccari, François; Schmutz, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-01

    Biotherapies or targeted therapies are fairly new treatments indicated for moderate to severe psoriasis. The side effects appear to be mainly infectious or cancerous. The role of biotherapies in the development of a pre-cancerous condition, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), has recently been debated in the literature. To evaluate the incidence of MGUS in psoriasis patients treated with biotherapy. This study was a French multicenter retrospective study carried out through the French multicenter study group RESOPSO. Data on the results of serum protein electrophoreses performed before and within at least six months after the start of the biotherapy were collected. Demographic data, medical history, and psoriasis treatment history were specified. Four hundred and forty three patients were eligible for inclusion. Of these, three presented with monoclonal gammopathy for which the assessment was in favor of MGUS. The average treatment period was 19.7 months. Six patients presented with MGUS prior to the treatment. These patients' immunoglobulin levels remained stable, with an average remission of 24 months. Only psoriatic rheumatism appeared to be statistically linked to MGUS. The incidence and frequency of MGUS in psoriasis patients treated with biotherapy do not appear to increase relative to the general population. PMID:26878712

  17. Separation between HIV-positive women and their children: the French prospective study, 1986 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Blanche, S; Mayaux, M J; Veber, F; Landreau, A; Courpotin, C; Vilmer, E; Ciraru-Vigneron, N; Flock, C; Tricoire, J; Noseda, G; Retbi, J M; Rouzioux, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We studied the risk and circumstances of separation (due to either maternal death or drug use) between women infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and their children. METHODS. This analysis was based on the French Prospective Study of Infants Born to HIV-seropositive Women (1986 through 1993). Data recorded at each follow-up visit included the mother's effective presence with the child and the child's care after separation. RESULTS. A child's cumulative risk of long-term or permanent separation from his or her mother was 37% at 60 months. Maternal drug use was associated with an added risk during the child's first years (adjusted relative risk [RR]=3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3, 5.0). The risk among drug users was even higher when the mother used injection drugs during pregnancy (adjusted RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.9, 4.3). Risk of early separation related to drug use tended to diminish since survey initiation. After separation, 57% of the children were placed through child welfare services and 43% were cared for by relatives. CONCLUSIONS. In the French Prospective Study, 2% to 3% of HIV-infected children were separated each year from their mothers as a result of the mothers death from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Separations related to drug use have decreased over the years, and the family is becoming the most frequent carer after separation. PMID:8604763

  18. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  19. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment in the second French total diet study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Fremy, Jean-Marc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2013-02-01

    Mycotoxins are produced in plants by micro-fungi species, and naturally contaminated the food chain. In the second French total diet study (TDS), mycotoxins were analyzed in 577 food samples collected in mainland France to be representative of the population diet and prepared ((as consumed)). Highest mean concentrations were found in wheat and cereal-based products (bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, pastries, pizzas and savoury pastries…). Exposure of adult and child populations was assessed by combining national consumption data with analytical results, using lowerbound (LB) and upperbound (UB) assumptions for left-censorship management. Individual exposures were compared with available health-based guidance values (HBGV). Only the exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives was found to significantly exceed the HBGV in LB in adults (0.5% [0.1; 0.8]) and children (5% [4; 6]). HBGV was exceeded in UB only for T-2 and HT-2 toxins by, respectively, 0.2% [0.02; 0.05] and 4% [3; 5] of adults, and 11% [9; 12] and 35% [32; 37] of children. Although the exposures assessed were generally lower than the previous French TDS, the results indicated a health concern for trichothecenes and a need to reduce dietary exposure as well as analytical limits. PMID:23137957

  20. The Study of the Phenomenon of Hesitation as a Cognitive Process in Iranian French Learners' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Mehrabi, Marzieh; Safa, Parivash; Golfam, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    Hesitation, when speaking a foreign language, is studied through its components: beginnings, pauses, and repetitions. This paper aims to identify, through the study of this phenomenon, vulnerable zones among Iranian learners when they speak French. A case study of 30 adult learners shows that hesitation is not random and at different levels (A1 to…

  1. [The influence of culture in the oral expression of pain: comparative study between French and Syrian cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lebreuilly, Romain; Sakkour, Sam; Lebreuilly, Joëlle

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the role of culture in the perception and the verbal expression of pain among syrian and french blood-related cancer patients. The level of intensity (AVS scale) and the different aspects (Saint-Antoine Pain Questionnaire [SAPQ]) of their pain were studied. The sensory and emotional descriptors chosen by the Syrian possessed a stronger semantic content in comparison to those used by the French. The patient's cultural background, which affect the perception and verbal expression of pain should be a new indicator in the optimization of global medical management. PMID:23548892

  2. Continuing French in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching French to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This teacher's guide for use in a fourth-grade French course concentrates on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Twelve lessons, each containing an exposition, dialogue, teaching procedures, and dialogue adaptation, emphasize the use of French during classroom instruction. Lessons include: (1) a review unit, (2) "La chemise neuve," (3)…

  3. Le Francais parle. Etudes sociolinguistiques (Spoken French. Sociolinguistic Studies). Current Inquiry into Languages and Linguistics 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette

    This volume contains twelve articles dealing with the French language as spoken in Quebec. The following topics are addressed: (1) language change and variation; (2) coordinating expressions in the French spoken in Montreal; (3) expressive language as source of language change; (4) the role of correction in conversation; (5) social change and…

  4. English and French Journal Abstracts in the Language Sciences: Three Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bonn, Sarah; Swales, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares French and English academic article abstracts from the language sciences in an attempt to understand how and why language choice might affect this part-genre--both in actual use and according to authors' linguistic and rhetorical perceptions. Two corpora are used: Corpus A consists of abstracts from a French linguistics…

  5. Partitivity, Atomization, and Noun-Drop: A Longitudinal Study of French Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Daniel; Royle, Phaedra

    2009-01-01

    This article examines noun-drop constructions in French-speaking children. French being intermediate between English (which rarely allows noun-drop) and Spanish (which freely allows it) with respect to the richness of their respective morphological systems, it provides a fertile testing ground for various agreement-based analyses of noun-drop. We…

  6. From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.

    2003-01-01

    In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

  7. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    PubMed

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees. PMID:24827474

  8. The status of 'canonical SVO sentences' in French: a developmental study of the on-line processing of dislocated sentences.

    PubMed

    Charvillat, A; Kail, M

    1991-10-01

    This on-line study investigates the processing of word order by 30 French children (6;6, 8;6, 10;6) and 10 adults. Its main objective is to show that the privileged status granted to 'canonical SVO sentences' is inadequate to account for the on-line processing of pronominal utterances in spoken French. Using a word monitoring task, we showed that word order (NVN vs NNV): (1) is a significant factor in sentences containing no clitic pronoun; (2) stops being significant when sentences contain either one or two clitic pronouns. These results suggest that processing complexity depends upon co-reference ('linear', 'crossed' or 'embedding') assignment constraints rather than upon word order per se. We conclude that, in French, word-order processing always interacts with acceptability considerations provided by cliticization. PMID:1761615

  9. A French multicentric study and review of pulmonary Nocardia spp. in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Nava, Verónica; Durupt, Stéphane; Chyderiotis, Sandra; Freydière, Anne-Marie; Karsenty, Judith; de Montclos, Michèle; Reix, Philippe; Durieu, Isabelle; Nove-Josserand, Raphaele; Chiron, Raphael; Bremont, François; Têtu, Laurent; Murris, Marlène; Terru, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain; Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Freney, Jean; Boiron, Patrick; Vandenesch, François; Marchandin, Hélène; Segonds, Christine; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Some bacterial species recovered from the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are indisputably associated with lung infections, whereas the clinical relevance of others, such as Nocardia spp., remains unclear. Sixteen French CF cases of colonization/infection with Nocardia spp. were reviewed in order to evaluate the epidemiology, the clinical impact and the potential treatment of these bacteria, and results were compared to those of the literature. Five Nocardia species were identified, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica being the major species (50 % of cases). At first isolation, Nocardia was the sole pathogen recovered in six patients. Seven patients presented pulmonary exacerbation. For 12 patients, antimicrobial treatment against Nocardia was started immediately, mainly based on cotrimoxazole (6 of the 12 cases). In this study, we highlight the heterogeneity of the clinical management of Nocardia spp. in CF. Guidelines for the clinical management of Nocardia infections in CF patients are proposed. PMID:25344657

  10. The Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Recognition of French Words: A Study in Skilled and Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Mathey, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of syllable activation during visual recognition of French words. In addition, it was investigated whether word orthographic information underlies syllable effects. To do so, words were selected according to the frequency of their first syllable (high versus low) and the frequency of the orthographic…

  11. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  12. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  13. Ambivalence about Communicating in a Second Language: A Qualitative Study of French Immersion Students' Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Burns, Carolyn; Jessome, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of immersion language learning is the omnipresent pressure to communicate in the second language (L2), even as incipient skills are being acquired. This study uses the focused essay technique to investigate ambivalence about communicating among adolescent French immersion students (12-14 years of age). Students described…

  14. Evaluating the Risks of School Dropout amongst Children in the Care of the French Child Protection System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…

  15. Acquisition of Derivational Lexical Rules: A Case Study of the Acquisition of French Agent Noun Forms by L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redouane, Rabia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates L2 learners' use of French derivational processes and their strategies as they form agent nouns. It also attempts to find out which of the acquisitional principles (conventionality, semantic transparency, formal simplicity, and productivity) advanced by Clark (1993, 2003) for various L1s acquisition of word formation…

  16. Intentional Control and Operational Constraints in Prosodic Phrasing: A Study of Picture-Elicited Narrations by French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the determinants of prosodic phrasing in French schoolchildren's narratives. Children (aged 7 to 11) told picture stories to a silent same-age peer. The establishment of temporal and/or causal relations between the events was more or less guided by the drawings (ordered vs. arbitrary sequences). The comprehension of the…

  17. The Impact of New Work Technologies on Training. Five Case Studies in French Industry. Discussion Paper No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista

    Case studies of five French firms illustrate the impact of new work technologies on training. Liquid Corporation has embarked on changes in production technology in response to market needs. Four aspects of the change process are as follows: creating the climate for change, selecting operators, defining new training requirements, and training for…

  18. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  19. A Diachronic Study of Initial Stress and Other Prosodic Features in the French News Announcer Style: Corpus-Based Measurements and Perceptual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mareuil, Philippe Boula; Rilliard, Albert; Allauzen, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on prosodic evolution in the French news announcer style, based on acoustic and perceptual analysis of French audiovisual archives. A 10-hour corpus covering six decades of broadcast news is investigated automatically. Two prosodic features, which may give an impression of emphatic style, are explored: word-initial stress and…

  20. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases among French Uranium Miners: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Drubay, Damien; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laroche, Pierre; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    A significant association has been observed between radon exposure and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) mortality among French uranium miners, but risk factors for circulatory system diseases (CSD) have not been previously considered. We conducted new analyses in the recently updated (through 2007) French cohort of uranium miners (n = 5,086), which included 442 deaths from CSD, 167 of them from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 105 from CeVD. A nested case-control study was then set up to collect and investigate the influence of these risk factors on the relationships between mortality from CSD and occupational external gamma ray and internal ionizing radiation exposure (radon and long-lived radionuclides) in this updated cohort. The nested case-control study included miners first employed after 1955, still employed in 1976 and followed up through 2007. Individual information about CSD risk factors was collected from medical files for the 76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from IHD and 16 from CeVD) and 237 miners who had not died of CSD by the end of follow-up. The exposure-risk relationships were assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model weighted by the inverse sampling probability. A significant increase in all CSD and CeVD mortality risks associated with radon exposure was observed in the total cohort [hazard ratios: HRCSD/100 working level months (WLM) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (1.01; 1.22) and HRCeVD/100 WLM = 1.25 (1.09; 1.43), respectively]. A nonsignificant exposure-risk relationship was observed for every type of cumulative ionizing radiation exposure and every end point [e.g., HRCSD/100WLM = 1.43 (0.71; 2.87)]. The adjustment for each CSD risk factor did not substantially change the exposure-risk relationships. When the model was adjusted for overweight, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking status, the HR/100WLM for CSD, for example, was equal to 1.21 (0.54; 2.75); and when it was adjusted for risk factors selected with the

  1. The influence of conceptual model structure on model performance: a comparative study for 237 French catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Esse, W. R.; Perrin, C.; Booij, M. J.; Augustijn, D. C. M.; Fenicia, F.; Lobligeois, F.

    2013-04-01

    In hydrological studies models with a fixed structure are commonly used. For various reasons, these models do not always perform well. As an alternative, a flexible modelling approach could be followed, where the identification of the model structure is part of the model set-up procedure. In this study, the performance of twelve different conceptual model structures from the SUPERFLEX framework with varying complexity and the fixed model structure of GR4H were compared on a large set of 237 French catchments. The results showed that in general the flexible approach performs better than the fixed approach. However, the flexible approach has a higher chance of inconsistent results when implemented on two different periods. The same holds for more complex model structures. When for practical reasons a fixed model structure is preferred, this study shows that models with parallel reservoirs and a power function to describe the reservoir outflow perform best. In general, conceptual hydrological models perform better on large or wet catchments than on small or dry catchments. The model structures performed poorly when there was a climatic difference between the calibration and validation period, for catchments with flashy flows or disturbances in low flow measurements.

  2. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development. PMID:22453358

  3. The effects of inventory on vowel perception in French and Spanish: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Hacquard, Valentine; Walter, Mary Ann; Marantz, Alec

    2007-03-01

    Production studies have shown that speakers of languages with larger phoneme inventories expand their acoustic space relative to languages with smaller inventories [Bradlow, A. (1995). A comparative acoustic study of English and Spanish vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(3), 1916-1924; Jongman, A., Fourakis, M., & Sereno, J. (1989). The acoustic vowel space of Modern Greek and German. Language Speech, 32, 221-248]. In this study, we investigated whether this acoustic expansion in production has a perceptual correlate, that is, whether the perceived distance between pairs of sounds separated by equal acoustic distances varies as a function of inventory size or organization. We used magnetoencephalography, specifically the mismatch field response (MMF), and compared two language groups, French and Spanish, whose vowel inventories differ in size and organization. Our results show that the MMF is sensitive to inventory size but not organization, suggesting that speakers of languages with larger inventories perceive the same sounds as less similar than speakers with smaller inventories. PMID:17097137

  4. The influence of conceptual model structure on model performance: a comparative study for 237 French catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Esse, W. R.; Perrin, C.; Booij, M. J.; Augustijn, D. C. M.; Fenicia, F.; Kavetski, D.; Lobligeois, F.

    2013-10-01

    Models with a fixed structure are widely used in hydrological studies and operational applications. For various reasons, these models do not always perform well. As an alternative, flexible modelling approaches allow the identification and refinement of the model structure as part of the modelling process. In this study, twelve different conceptual model structures from the SUPERFLEX framework are compared with the fixed model structure GR4H, using a large set of 237 French catchments and discharge-based performance metrics. The results show that, in general, the flexible approach performs better than the fixed approach. However, the flexible approach has a higher chance of inconsistent results when calibrated on two different periods. When analysing the subset of 116 catchments where the two approaches produce consistent performance over multiple time periods, their average performance relative to each other is almost equivalent. From the point of view of developing a well-performing fixed model structure, the findings favour models with parallel reservoirs and a power function to describe the reservoir outflow. In general, conceptual hydrological models perform better on larger and/or wetter catchments than on smaller and/or drier catchments. The model structures performed poorly when there were large climatic differences between the calibration and validation periods, in catchments with flashy flows, and in catchments with unexplained variations in low flow measurements.

  5. Psychological Barriers and Facilitators of Colorectal Cancer Screening: A French Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridou, Morgiane; Aguerre, Colette; Gimenes, Guillaume; Kubiszewski, Violaine; Le Gall, Armel; Potard, Catherine; Sorel, Olivier; Reveillere, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants. PMID:26973907

  6. Benefits of cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure patients according to etiology: INCARD French study.

    PubMed

    Koukoui, François; Desmoulin, Franck; Lairy, Gérard; Bleinc, Dominique; Boursiquot, Ludovic; Galinier, Michel; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the impact of heart failure (HF) etiology on the outcome of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) assessed by functional and clinical parameters. Treatment of chronic HF requires multidisciplinary approaches with a recognized role for CR. INCARD is a French study aimed at evaluating the benefits of sustainable CR in coronary (C) and noncoronary patients (NC) treated and educated during a 24-month period of follow-up. Prospective, monocentric patients with HF underwent inpatient physical training followed by a home-based program. Evaluations were performed at inclusion, discharge, 3 months after discharge, and subsequently every 6 months over the 24 months of outpatient rehabilitation.A total of 147 HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40 were admitted to the CR center, 63 accepted to join INCARD (29 C and 34 NC). Although the C participants C having both an echocardiographic LVEF and an initially lower peak VO2, inpatient rehabilitation improved all functional parameters. Only NC showed an improved LVEF during the first 3 months of outpatient-follow-up. The main outcome of the outpatient rehabilitation was a trend toward stabilization of clinical and laboratory parameters with no significant difference between C and NC. This study confirms the benefits of initial HF inpatient rehabilitation and encourages prolonged outpatient monitoring. The results on functional parameters suggest exercise training should be conducted regardless of the HF etiology. PMID:25700319

  7. Cohort Profile: The French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study For Leukaemia (LEA Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Pascal; Demeocq, François; Kanold, Justyna; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Ducassou, Stéphane; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the Leucémies de l’Enfant et l’Adolescent (LEA) project (Childhood and Adolescent Leukaemia) is to study the determinants (medical, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental) of medium- and long-term outcomes of patients treated for childhood acute leukaemia (AL). The LEA study began in 2004 and is based on a French multicentric prospective cohort. Included are children treated for AL since January 1980 (incident and prevalent cases), surviving at month 24 for myeloblastic AL and lymphoblastic AL grafted in first complete remission or at month 48 for lymphoblastic AL not grafted in first complete remission. Information is collected during specific medical visits and notably includes the following data: socioeconomic data, AL history, physical late effects (such as fertility, cardiac function and metabolic syndrome) and quality of life. Data are collected every 2 years until the patient is 20 years old and has had a 10-year follow-up duration from diagnosis or last relapse. Thereafter, assessments are planned every 4 years. In active centres in 2013, eligible patients number more than 3000. The cohort has already included 2385 survivors, with rate of exhaustiveness of almost 80%. Data access can be requested from principal coordinators and must be approved by the steering committee. PMID:24639445

  8. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. PMID:26826550

  9. [BIOETHICS LAWS AND REALITY ON THE GROUND DURING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES IN FRENCH GUINEA AND CAMEROON].

    PubMed

    Tortevoye, Patricia; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the difficulties encountered, during the twenty last years, to obey the laws of bioethics in force during epidemiological investigations, carried out in French Guiana and in Cameroon. These research tasks aim to better understanding the transmission of two viruses: the human T lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 and the human herpes virus 8. These investigations, carried out in highly endemic villages, for one or two of these viruses, also aim at searching susceptibility genetic factors for infection in children by these viruses. They are scientific researches carried out in populations on low level of education and strong socio-economic constraints. These studies performed in general population are without benefit for the people. They require a collection of the family data, to build genealogic pedigrees, and a blood sampling. Using concrete examples, collected during field-investigations, we illustrate the problems encountered to apply, practically, the laws of bioethics. We will introduce and discuss thus the legislative framework in force, the studied populations, the concepts of preliminary information and informed consent, the adaptation necessary to take into account the local social organization and the importance of the family hierarchy. Lastly, the question of returned results of this kind of investigation will be discussed like that of the possible compensatory measures. This inventory reveals the limits of the current regulation, which is often poorly adapted to research in epidemiology in this kind of population and the ethical choices that has thus to be decided by the investigator. PMID:26911084

  10. The Chinese-French SVOM mission for gamma-ray burst studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jacques; Wei, Jianyan; Basa, Stéphane; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2011-04-01

    We present the SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) mission that the Chinese National Space Agency and the French Space Agency have decided to jointly implement. SVOM has been designed to detect all known types of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), to provide fast and reliable GRB positions, to measure the broadband spectral shape and temporal properties of the GRB prompt emission, and to quickly identify the optical/near-infrared afterglows of detected GRBs, including high-redshift ones. Scheduled to be in orbit in the second half of the present decade, the SVOM satellite will carry a very innovative scientific payload combining for the first time a wide field X- and gamma-ray coded mask imager for GRB real-time localizations to few arcmin, a non-imaging gamma-ray monitor, and two narrow-field instruments for the study of the GRB early afterglow emission in the X-ray and visible bands. The SVOM payload is complemented by ground-based instruments including a wide-field camera to catch the GRB prompt emission in the visible band and two robotic telescopes to measure the photometric properties of the early afterglow. A particular attention is paid to the GRB follow-up in facilitating the observation of the SVOM detected GRB by the largest ground based telescopes.

  11. The Sino-french SVOM Mission For Gamma-ray Burst Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basa, Stéphane; Wei, J.; Paul, J.; Zhang, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the SVOM mission that the Chinese National Space Agency and the French Space Agency have decided to jointly implement. SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) has been designed to detect all known types of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), to provide fast and reliable GRB positions, to measure the broadband spectral shape and temporal properties of the GRB prompt emission, and to quickly identify the optical afterglows of detected GRBs, including high-redshift ones. In orbit in the second half of the present decade, the SVOM satellite will carry a very innovative scientific payload combining for the first time a wide field X- and gamma-ray coded mask imager for GRB real-time localizations to few arcmin, a non-imaging gamma-ray monitor, and two narrow-field instruments for the study of the GRB early afterglow emission in the X-ray and visible bands. The SVOM payload is complemented by ground-based instruments including a wide- field camera to catch the GRB prompt emission in the visible band and two robotic telescopes to measure the photometric properties of the early afterglow. A particular attention is paid to the GRB follow-up in facilitating the observation of the SVOM detected GRB by the largest ground based telescopes.

  12. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  13. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  14. Fusobacterium invasive infections in children: a retrospective study in two French tertiary care centres.

    PubMed

    Bailhache, M; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Lehours, P; Sarlangue, J; Pillet, P; Bingen, E; Faye, A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the clinical and biological characteristics and evolution of invasive Fusobacterium infections in children admitted to two French paediatric tertiary care centres. Children who were admitted from 1998 to 2009 to two tertiary care centres for invasive Fusobacterium infection were included in a retrospective study. Thirty-one children with a median age of 5.7 years (interquartile range, IQR [2.3; 9.3]) were included. Nine children had an underlying condition, most commonly sickle cell disease (n = 3) or immunodeficiency (n = 3). Two children had skin effraction prior to the infection. The major sites of infection were the head and neck (n = 14) and abdomen (n = 10). Three children suffered from atypical Lemierre's syndrome. More than half of the children had a bacterial co-infection (58 %). Six children were hospitalised in an intensive care unit, and 67 % of them had a chronic underlying disease. None of the children died. Six children with negative cultures had Fusobacterium identified through 16S RNA-PCR. Fusobacterium is responsible for severe infection in children. Microbiological diagnosis might be improved by the wider use of molecular detection. PMID:23471481

  15. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  16. Clostridium difficile infection in a French university hospital: Eight years of prospective surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Khanafer, Nagham; Oltra, Luc; Hulin, Monique; Dauwalder, Olivier; Vandenesch, Francois; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed with an increase in incidence and severity. Prospective surveillance was therefore implemented in a French university hospital to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk and to recognize local trends. Between 2007 and 2014, all hospitalized patients (≥18 years) with CDI were included. During the survey, the mean incidence rate of CDI was 2.9 per 10,000 hospital-days. In all, 590 patients were included. Most of the episodes were healthcare-associated (76.1%). The remaining cases were community-acquired (18.1%) and unknown (5.9%). The comparison with healthcare-associated cases showed that the community-acquired group had a lower rate of antimicrobial exposure (P < 0.001), proton pump inhibitor (P < 0.001), and immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.02). Over the study period, death occurred in 61 patients (10.3%), with 18 (29.5%) being related to CDI according to the physician in charge of the patient. Active surveillance of CDI is required to obtain an accurate picture of the real dimensions of CDI. PMID:27281101

  17. The psychiatric report as moral tool: a case study in a French district court.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Fabrice; Lézé, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Mental health evaluation within a legal setting is widely seen as a power to judge. The aim of this paper is to challenge this current thesis, which was popularised by Michel Foucault, who encapsulated the notion in a brief sentence: "The sordid business of punishing is thus converted into the fine profession of curing" (Foucault, 2003: 23). On the basis of an ethnography of a French district court (between September 2008 and May 2009, n = 60 trials) including interviews with judges (n = 10) and psychiatrists (n = 10), we study the everyday penal treatment of sexual offenders using psychiatric reports. Our findings show how (i.) the expectations of the judges select the psychiatrists' skills (based on the following criteria for their reports: accessibility of knowledge, singularization and individualization of content) and (ii.) reframe the psychiatric report as a moral tool. The clinical reasoning of forensic psychiatrists in their reports offer moral affordances due to their clinical caution regarding the risk of recidivism (therapeutic and criminological reversal, moral prevention). Both the judges' evaluation and the psychiatrists' clinical authority are shaped by a moral economy of dangerousness, which eclipses the idea of lack of criminal responsibility. In conclusion, we show that these unintended effects are necessarily of interest to most clinical practitioners engaged in work as expert witnesses. PMID:24973573

  18. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  19. Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.

    PubMed

    Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

    2012-11-30

    The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries. PMID:22981215

  20. Drug-induced Depression: a Case/Non Case Study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database.

    PubMed

    Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Chavant, François; Favrelière, Sylvie; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a complex disorder with heterogeneous clinical anomalies whose neurobiological understanding still remains unclear. Medications have been implicated as potential causes of depression but for many of them, data are controversial. The present study aims to investigate association bet ween drugs and reports of depression. We used the case/non case method in the French pharmacovigilance database (FPVD) to identify drugs associated with depression. Cases were reports of depression in the FPVD between January 2007 and December 2011. Non cases were all other reports during the same period. Data were expressed as reporting odds ratio (ROR) with their 95% confidence interval. Of the 114,692 reports recorded in the FPVD during the studied period, we identified 474 cases of depression. For the majority of the patients, they were considered as "non serious" (56%) and evolution was favorable (64%). Significant RORs were found for antiepileptics (topiramate, levetiracetam), anti-infective and especially anti-retroviral drugs (efavirenz, emtricitabine, tenofovir, etravirine, raltegravir), interferons and other agents including isotretinoin, methylphenidate, sodium oxybate, varenicline, montelukast, flunarizine, adalimumab, anastrozole. Taking into account the limits of the methodology, the present study described associations with mainly expected drugs belonging to various therapeutic classes but it also found a signal with some anti-retrovirals. On the contrary, we did not find some assumed associations like cardiovascular medications, antimalarial. For most of the drugs, one or more mechanisms were found to explain these depressogenic effects on the basis of animal and human literature. Even if such associations need to be confirmed by further prospective studies, cautions are necessary for many drugs to early detect depressive symptoms. PMID:26056040

  1. Is patient education helpful in providing care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A qualitative study involving French nurses.

    PubMed

    Fall, Estelle; Chakroun, Nadia; Dalle, Nathalie; Izaute, Marie

    2013-09-01

    This French study explored nurses' involvement in patient education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study design was qualitative. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital nurses. Data analysis was performed according to Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method, and supported by specific qualitative analysis software (Sphinx). The results showed the important role of hospital nurses in rheumatoid arthritis care. Patient education is a core part of nurses' work, allowing them to give patients information and emotional support. The interviewees displayed skills in helping patients learn to care for themselves. However, patient education mostly concerned patients who are already committed to their health care. Non-adherent patients warrant special attention; their acceptance of their disease, perceptions about disease and treatment, motivation, and autonomy should be specifically addressed. French nurses could benefit from more training, and could be aided by psychologists. Ambulatory services could also be developed for patient education in France, based on examples from other countries. PMID:23480278

  2. RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIVIDUAL RADIATION DOSES FOR A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF THYROID CANCER IN FRENCH POLYNESIA

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André; Doyon, Françoise; Brindel, Pauline; Cardis, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (plus five safety tests) were conducted in French Polynesia between 1966 and 1974. To evaluate the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing on a high incidence of thyroid cancer observed since 1985 in French Polynesia, a population-based case-control study was performed. The study included 602 subjects, either cases or controls, all aged less than 40 y at the end of nuclear weapons testing in 1974. Radiation doses to the thyroids of the study subjects were assessed based on the available historical results of radiation measurements. These were mainly found in the annual reports on the radiological situation in French Polynesia that had been sent to the UNSCEAR Secretariat. For each atmospheric nuclear weapons test that contributed substantially to the local deposition of radionuclides, the radiation dose to the thyroid from 131I intake was estimated. In addition, thyroid doses from the intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I) and 132Te, external exposure from gamma-emitted radionuclides deposited on the ground, and ingestion of long-lived 137Cs were reconstructed. The mean thyroid dose among the study subjects was found to be around 3 mGy while the highest dose was estimated to be around 40 mGy. Doses from short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes ranged up to 10 mGy. Thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 3 mGy, while those from internal exposure due to cesium ingestion did not exceed 1 mGy. The dose estimates that have been obtained are based on a rather limited number of radiation measurements performed on a limited number of islands and are highly uncertain. A thorough compilation of the results of all radiation monitoring that was performed in French Polynesia in 1966–1974 would be likely to greatly improve the reliability and the precision of the dose estimates. PMID:18403963

  3. The multinational second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs study: results of the French survey

    PubMed Central

    Reach, Gérard; Consoli, Silla M; Halimi, Serge; Colas, Claude; Duclos, Martine; Fontaine, Pierre; Martineau, Caroline; Avril, Carole; Tourette-Turgis, Catherine; Pucheu, Sylvie; Brunet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Aim The second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2™) multinational cross-sectional study was aimed at generating insights to facilitate innovative efforts by people with diabetes (PWD), family members (FMs), and health care professionals (HCPs) to improve self-management and psychosocial support in diabetes. Here, the French data from the DAWN2™ study are described. Methods In France, 500 PWD (80 with type 1 diabetes [T1] and 420 with type 2 diabetes [T2]), 120 FMs, and 288 HCPs were recruited. The questionnaires assessed the impact of diabetes on quality of life and mood, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, and care/support. Results Diabetes negatively impacted the emotional well-being of 59% of people with T1 versus 45% of people with T2 (P<0.05) and about half of FMs. A high level of distress was felt by about half of PWD and FMs. About half of HCPs reported assessing depression in their patients. Sixty-two percent of FMs considered managing diabetes to be a burden. Hypoglycemia was a source of concern for 64% of people with T1 and 73% of FMs of insulin users. About two-thirds of non-insulin-medicated people with T2 agreed to start insulin if prescribed, while half of HCPs preferred to delay insulin initiation. A discrepancy between HCPs’ perceptions of their interactions with their patients and PWD’s recollection of these interactions with regard to patients’ personal needs and distress was also observed. Conclusion While distress remains under-assessed by HCPs, the negative impact of diabetes on the lives of PWD and FMs clearly induces distress on both groups. These findings provide new understanding of barriers precluding optimal management of diabetes. Developing strategies to overcome these barriers is now warranted. PMID:25709415

  4. The epidemiology of septic shock in French intensive care units: the prospective multicenter cohort EPISS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To provide up-to-date information on the prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in a cohort of septic shock patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in ICUs from 14 French general (non-academic) and university teaching hospitals. All consecutive patients with septic shock admitted between November 2009 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. We prospectively recorded data regarding patient characteristics, infection, severity of illness, life support therapy, and discharge. Results Among 10,941 patients admitted to participating ICUs between October 2009 and September 2011, 1,495 (13.7%) patients presented inclusion criteria for septic shock and were included. Invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 83.9% (n = 1248), inotropes in 27.7% (n = 412), continuous renal replacement therapy in 32.5% (n = 484), and hemodialysis in 19.6% (n = 291). Mortality at 28 days was 42% (n = 625). Variables associated with time to mortality, right-censored at day 28: age (for each additional 10 years) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.38), immunosuppression (HR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.37-1.96), Knaus class C/D score versus class A/B score (HR = 1.36; 95%CI:1.14-1.62) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (HR = 1.24 for each additional point; 95%CI: 1.21-1.27). Patients with septic shock and renal/urinary tract infection had a significantly longer time to mortality (HR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.42-0.75). Conclusion Our observational data of consecutive patients from real-life practice confirm that septic shock is common and carries high mortality in general ICU populations. Our results are in contrast with the clinical trial setting, and could be useful for healthcare planning and clinical study design. PMID:23561510

  5. Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013–2015: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cauchemez, Simon; Besnard, Marianne; Bompard, Priscillia; Dub, Timothée; Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Salje, Henrik; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Abadie, Véronique; Garel, Catherine; Fontanet, Arnaud; Mallet, Henri-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has coincided with an increase in the report of birth of infants with microcephaly. On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the suspected link between ZIKV and microcephaly a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, to date, precise quantification of this association is lacking. Methods We retrospectively analysed data from a ZIKV outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2013–April 2014, which was the largest ever documented prior to the outbreak in the Americas. Serological and surveillance data were used to estimate the probability of ZIKV infection for each week of the epidemic. We also conducted an exhaustive search of medical records to identify all microcephaly cases from September 2013–July 2015. Simple models were developed to determine the period during pregnancy when ZIKV infection may increase the risk of microcephaly and estimate the associated risk. Findings Sixty-six percent (95% CI: 62, 70) of Polynesians were infected by ZIKV. Of the eight microcephaly cases identified during the 23-month study period, seven (88%) occurred in the four-month period following the ZIKV outbreak. This pattern was best explained by a model that assumed ZIKV infection in the first trimester of pregnancy increased the risk of microcephaly. In this model, the risk of microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection was 95 (95 CI: 34, 191) per 10,000 women infected in the first trimester of pregnancy while the prevalence of microcephaly was 2 (95% CI: 0, 8) per 10,000 neonates. Models where the risk of microcephaly also increased if infection occurred in trimesters 2 and 3 were not significantly worse fitting than this model. Interpretation This study provides the first quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in a foetus/neonate whose mother was infected by ZIKV. Funding Labex-IBEID, NIH-MIDAS, AXA Research fund and EU-PREDEMICS. PMID:26993883

  6. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake. PMID:26434272

  7. Entrepreneurs and Enterprises: The Making of a Course Unit in Business French--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Gilles

    A unit in college-level business French is designed to call on students' imagination and desire to become entrepreneurs, while providing information on the structure and environment of a company. The core of the unit is the creation of a fictitious company whose operation lends itself to a variety of exercises tailored to the needs of students at…

  8. Applying Hofstede's Cross-Cultural Theory of Organizations to School Governance: A French Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    This paper applies Geert Hofstede's cross-cultural theory of organizational structure and behavior to school administration, examining the governance structure of the French public school system to determine how accurately it predicts the form of that educational organization. The first section of the paper presents Hofstede's theory and his…

  9. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corain Lopes, P.; Guenther, A. B.; Turnipseed, A.; Burban, B.; Bonal, D.; Serca, D.; Emmons, L. K.; Bustillos, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study of isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Paracou Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Cayenne, French Guiana, during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at 30 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively with a slight increase in middle April which is a period of transition between wet and dry and a higher concentration later in mid-June which corresponds to the transition from wet to dry season (Figure 1). The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3 during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were

  10. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corain Lopes, Paula Regina; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Bonal, Damien; Serça, Dominique; Burban, Benôit; Siebicke, Lukas; Emmons, Louisa; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variations in isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Paracou French Guiana (5o16´54´´N, 52o54´44´´W), during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at approximately 20 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively followed by a slight increase in middle April (still wet season) and a higher concentration later in mid-June. The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were deposited by wet or dry

  11. Effect of Retirement on Alcohol Consumption: Longitudinal Evidence from the French Gazel Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zins, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Leclerc, Annette; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Ferrie, Jane E.; Goldberg, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effect of retirement on alcohol consumption. The objectives were to examine changes in alcohol consumption following retirement, and whether these patterns differ by gender and socioeconomic status. Methods and Findings We assessed alcohol consumption annually from 5 years before to 5 years after retirement among 10,023 men and 2,361 women of the French Gazel study. Data were analyzed separately for men and women, using repeated-measures logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Five years prior to retirement, the prevalence of heavy drinking was about 16% among men, and not patterned by socioeconomic status. Among women, this prevalence was 19.5% in managers, 14.7% in intermediate occupations, and 12.8% in clerical workers. Around retirement, the estimated prevalence of heavy drinking increased in both sexes. In men, this increase was 3.1 percentage points for managers, 3.2 in intermediate occupations, 4.6 in clerical workers, and 1.3 in manual workers. In women, this increase was 6.6 percentage points among managers, 4.3 in intermediate occupations, and 3.3 among clerical workers. In men the increase around retirement was followed by a decrease over the following four years, not significant among manual workers; among women such a decrease was also observed in the non-managerial occupations. It is difficult to assess the extent to which the results observed in this cohort would hold for other working populations, other conditions of employment, or in other cultural settings. A plausible explanation for the increase in heavy drinking around retirement could be that increased leisure time after retirement provides more opportunities for drinking, and not having to work during the day after may decrease constraints on drinking. Conclusions Our findings of increased consumption around retirement suggest that information about negative effects of alcohol consumption should be included in pre

  12. Experimental Studies with a 9 French Forward-Looking Intracardiac Imaging and Ablation Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Douglas N.; O’Donnell, Matthew; Thomenius, Kai; Dentinger, Aaron; Wildes, Douglas; Chen, Peter; Shung, K. Kirk; Cannata, Jonathan; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre; Oralkan, Omer; Mahajan, Aman; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Sahn, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop a high resolution, near field optimized 14 MHz 24-element broad bandwidth forward-looking array for integration on a steerable 9 French (Fr) electrophysiology (EP) catheter. Methods Several generations of prototype imaging catheters with bi-directional steering, termed the Micro-Linear (ML), have been built and tested as an integrated catheter design with EP sensing electrodes near the tip. The wide bandwidth ultrasound array is mounted on the very tip, equipped with an aperture of only 1.2 mm by 1.58 mm. The array pulse echo performance has been fully simulated and its construction offers shielding from ablation noise. Both ex-vivo and in-vivo imaging with a porcine animal model were performed. Results The array pulse-echo performance is concordant with KLM simulation. Three generations of prototype devices were tested in four acute pig studies in the right atrium and ventricle for a) image quality, b) anatomic identification, c) visualization of other catheter devices, and d) for a mechanism for stabilization when imaging ablation. The ML catheter is capable of both low artifact ablation imaging on a standard clinical imaging system and high frame rate myocardial wall strain rate imaging for detecting changes in cardiac mechanics associated with ablation. Conclusions The imaging resolution performance of this very small array device, together with its penetration beyond 2cm, is excellent considering its very small array aperture. The forward looking intracardiac catheter has been adapted to work easily on an existing commercial imaging platform with very minor software modifications. PMID:19168770

  13. Mastocytosis among elderly patients: A multicenter retrospective French study on 53 patients.

    PubMed

    Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available.The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features.The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available.Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis. PMID:27310990

  14. Study of Internet use by customers of a large French store for computers.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lucia; Mauro, Françoise; McLoughlin, Mary; Adès, Jean; Lejoyeaux, Michel

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study the relation to the Internet of subjects who own a computer and who use it for professional or personal reasons. We interviewed 150 customers of the biggest French store that specializes in computers. Each day, the mean of duration for connecting time was 6.2 h (SD = 4). Customers were connected 3.7 h (SD = 3.3) between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., 1.8 h (SD = 1.6) between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., and 0.5 hours at night (SD = 1.3). Men were more often connected between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. We found a negative correlation between age and duration of connection to internet. Age was negatively correlated to the time of connection between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. and between 11:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. The number of days of holidays was negatively correlated to total time of connection (p < 0.001) and to connection between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. (p = 0.04). No correlation was found between the time spent watching television or speaking on a cellular phone and parameters of Internet use. High consumers of games are connected 3.4 h every evening and 1.2 h each night. They spend, in addition, 30 min each day connected to virtual casinos. The typical high consumer of the Internet is young and interested in games on-line, he takes fewer days of holiday than others, and he sends and receives more e-mails than other computer users. PMID:12556116

  15. High body mass index and allergies in schoolchildren: the French six cities study

    PubMed Central

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Caillaud, Denis; Charpin, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Kopferschmitt, Christine; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis is increasing rapidly worldwide, especially among children and in western countries. This coincides with an increase in body mass index (BMI), which might be a major risk factor for atopic diseases. Objectives To study the relationship between high BMI and allergic diseases, as well as skin-prick test (SPT) positivity and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in 6733 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 9–11 years in the French Six Cities Study. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Créteil, Marseille, Reims and Strasbourg. Parental questionnaires based on the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) were used to collect information on allergic diseases and potential risk factors. Skin-prick testing to common allergens was performed to identify the existence of an allergic hypersensitivity and an exercise test was also performed to assess EIA. Height and weight were collected by trained investigators. After computing the BMI (weight/height squared), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs were used to define overweight and obesity. The children were also classified as wheezing or non-wheezing. Results After adjustment for confounding factors, lifetime asthma was associated with high BMI among non-wheezing children (adjusted OR, aOR=1.98, 95% CI (1.06 to 3.70)). In addition, lifetime and past-year allergic rhinitis was associated with high BMI in wheezing children (aOR=1.63, (1.09 to 2.45) and aOR=2.20, (1.13 to 4.27)). However, high BMI was not significantly associated with eczema, SPT positivity or EIA. Conclusions This study shows a positive association between high BMI and lifetime asthma in non-wheezing children. High BMI was also associated with lifetime and past-year allergic rhinitis. Further studies are needed to provide causal evidence. PMID:26034606

  16. L'enseignement du francais commercial au niveau elementaire: utilisation du "cas professionnel" (Elementary Level Commercial French Language Instruction: Use of the Professional Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dany, Max; Noe, Christine

    1985-01-01

    Methodological, pedagogical, and psychological reasons for using professional case studies as a teaching technique in elementary business French are discussed, and specific strategies for teaching specific language functions (referential, phatic, metalinguistic, and expressive) are described. (MSE)

  17. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults: A French Nationwide Study Enrolling 41 Patients.

    PubMed

    Audemard-Verger, A; Descloux, E; Ponard, D; Deroux, A; Fantin, B; Fieschi, C; John, M; Bouldouyre, A; Karkowsi, L; Moulis, G; Auvinet, H; Valla, F; Lechiche, C; Davido, B; Martinot, M; Biron, C; Lucht, F; Asseray, N; Froissart, A; Buzelé, R; Perlat, A; Boutboul, D; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V; Isnard, S; Bienvenu, B

    2016-05-01

    Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies.A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis.Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15-67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1-10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35% (n = 14

  18. [Incidence and management of anemia in renal transplantation: an observational-French study].

    PubMed

    Choukroun, Gabriel; Deray, Gilbert; Glotz, Denis; Lebranchu, Yvon; Dussol, Bertrand; Bourbigot, Bernard; Lefrançois, Nicole; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Toupance, Olivier; Hacen, Chafik; Lang, Philippe; Mazouz, Hakim; Martinez, Franck

    2008-12-01

    The management of anemia after kidney transplantation remains poorly explored. The Management of Anemia in French Kidney Transplant Patients (MATRIX) study is an observational study conducted in 10 academic hospitals among kidney-transplant patients designed to evaluate the prevalence, associated factors and management of post-transplant anemia. Over two consecutive weeks, 418 recipients (males: 248; age: 50.8+/-12.7 years) were included, all were transplanted for more than six months. Mean serum creatinine (Scr) was 152+/-67 micromol/l and mean hemoglobin (Hb) was 12.4+/-1.8 g/dl (males: 12.8+/-1.9 g/dl; females 11.9+/-1.6 g/dl). Irrespective of the delay following transplantation, 23% of patients (n=95) were severely anemic (Hb < or = 11 g/dl). Eighteen percent of the patients received an antianemic treatment (10% oral iron, 7% erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), 4% folic acid) and only 35% of the severely anemic patients were actually treated (n=33). A significantly-negative correlation was observed between eGFR and Hb levels (R= -0.347, p<0.02). Ninety-six percent of the 193 patients transplanted for more than six months and a Scr greater than 150 micromol/l (n=185) suffered at least one comorbidity (89% hypertension, 32% hypercholesterolemia, 13% diabetes); this group represent the second cohort. Seventy-four percent of them were treated with mycophenolate mofetil, 16% with azathioprine, and 62% with an ACEI or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Since the transplantation, 127 patients (66%) have been anemic (Hb < or = 11 g/dl) and 58% (n=112) were treated (iron and/or ESA, respectively 81 and 55%). Among the patients not treated for anemia, 74% had an Hb level below 12g/dl. ESA-treated patients received a mean dose of 8500 UI+/-2800 per week. Anemia is under-diagnosed and under-treated in renal-transplant recipients, despite its high prevalence. As expected, a correlation between renal function and Hb levels was observed, as in CKD patients. Prospective

  19. Lexical learning of the English language: a PET study in healthy French subjects.

    PubMed

    Raboyeau, Gaëlle; Marie, Nathalie; Balduyck, Sébastien; Gros, Hélène; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of word learning in adults, 10 right-handed French subjects who had learned English without mastering it performed an English and a French naming task during two PET sessions, one before (PET1) and the second after (PET2) a 4-week lexical training in English. Behavioral performance was collected during the two PET exams and 2 months after (T3). At T2, performance on English naming increased in all subjects; this improvement persisted at T3, with no correlation between English performance at T2 and T3. Cerebral activation during French naming mainly showed a left frontal temporal network. The pattern specifically associated with English lexical learning included, in addition to the anterior cingulate cortex involved in attentional processing and BAs 4/6 reflecting speech output, the right cerebellum and the left insular cortex that are linked to speech gesture learning, and the right medial temporal regions, likely to reflect the involvement of episodic memory during verbal learning. Correlations between English T2/T1 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes reinforced the hypothesis of intervention of episodic memory since they interested right frontal, hippocampal, and lateral temporal regions. 'Predictive' correlations between English T3/T2 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes showed, in good reminders, increased activities in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal cortex probably related to efficient semantic storage of learned words. PMID:15275937

  20. De la television pour comprendre les Francais: cours experimental (Understanding the French Through a Study of Television: An Experimental Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariet, Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college French civilization course based on the important role of television in French contemporary culture, as formative of cultural habits, and on its similar importance to contemporary American students is described. (MSE)

  1. Combined adverse effects of cascading events on systems' functionality: an insular case study, French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desramaut, Nicolas; Wang, Justin; Gehl, Pierre; Marti, Jose; Baills, Audrey; Reveillere, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    In our modern societies, lifelines play a vital role, even in normal conditions. Therefore, during crises, the dependency to critical infrastructures is likely to be exacerbated. Indeed, in order to provide quick emergency services to the population, systems have to be functional. However, even if not directly damaged, in order to be functional, elements of the different systems have to receive enough resources but also to be able to supply their own services. In a multi-risk approach, this necessity to take into account systemic vulnerability to assess the real impact of natural hazards on society is even made more obvious. For example, impacts of one hazard, taken separately, might not significantly affect societies, but might reduce redundancy, and therefore could increase functional vulnerability to other hazards. The present study aims at analyzing the effects of cascading events on the behaviour of interdependent systems and on the capacities of the health care system to treat the victims. In order to work on a close system, an insular context (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) has been selected. The hazard cascading scenario consists of a M6.3 earthquake striking Basse-Terre, and triggering landslides in the mountainous areas where antecedent precipitations have made the area prone to slide. Damages due to earthquakes have been estimated for the 5 considered systems (buildings, healthcare system, electrical network, water supply network and transportation). Due to their localization in mountainous areas, landslides would affect only transportation networks, with closure of roads. The inter- and intra-dependencies of systems have been modeled thanks to the I2Sim platform developed at UBC. The functionality of each element is therefore the consequence of the physical (direct damage) but also functional (indirect) damage. Analyses are performed for different strategies of resources allocations, and one of the final results is the impact of the induced landslides

  2. [Malarial vectors in French Guiana: study in an epidemic focus near Cayenne (1989-1998)].

    PubMed

    Claustre, J; Venturin, C; Nadiré, M; Fauran, P

    2001-11-01

    Malaria has long constituted a major public health problem for French Guyana, limiting its demographic and economic development. From 1949 to 1960, due to chemoprophylaxis and DDT spraying in houses, the number of malaria cases decreased markedly. After 1975, important migratory movements contributed to increasing the incidence of malaria. In 1989, numerous cases were observed when some 500 immigrants settled in a formerly uninhabited area, known as Cabassou BP 134. It is located 7 km (S-E) from the main city of Cayenne and bordered by secondary forest and swamps. The entomological study initiated in 1990 included weekly biting-landing catches (3 hours) on human bait in houses from dusk onwards as well as locating breeding places around the settlement to collect larvae by dipping. Anopheles specimens were identified and the females dissected to detect infections by Plasmodium and also to determine the rate of parous specimens. Control measures included deltamethrin (15 mg/m2) and DDT (2 g/m2) spraying, every four months, of interior walls and thermal fogging of naled around the houses. Cold ULV aerosol of fenitrothion (500 ml/ha) was also used to treat the swamp borders. In April 1990, a health education programme was begun and in June, 288 impregnated bednets (deltamethrin 15 mg/m2) were treated. From 1990 to 1998, 1,588 (498 larvae + 1090 adults) Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) were collected: An. aquasalis 797 (311 L + 486 A). An. braziliensis 139 (87 L + 52 A). An. darlingi 652 (100 L + 552 A). No infected female was found among the 710 dissected. The number of malaria cases decreased abruptly in the fall of 1990 when An. darlingi disappeared and only one case due to P. vivax was detected between 1995 and 1998. An. darlingi (parous rate = 72%) appears to be the main if not the sole vector of malaria in this locality. As in the past, a focus of malaria appears when immigrants from endemic countries settle in a formerly uninhabited place where An. darlingi are breeding

  3. An Empirical Study of Readers' Associations with Multilingual Advertising: The Case of French, German and Spanish in Dutch Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornikx, Jos; van Meurs, Frank; Starren, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    In multilingual advertising, a foreign language is often used for symbolic purposes. In non-French-speaking countries, for instance, French is said to be associated with charm and style. The assumption is that the associations carried by the foreign language are transferred to the product that is advertised. A product advertised using French would…

  4. Old French for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Barbara Nelson

    A list of six main benefits of the study of Old French at the undergraduate level follows a discussion of the value, function, and goals of such a program. The advantages discussed result in: (1) a first-hand acquaintance with medieval masterpieces, (2) a sense of continuity in the history of literature, (3) improved techniques in critical…

  5. [Clinical and therapeutic characteristics of social phobia in French psychiatry (Phoenix study)].

    PubMed

    Pélissolo, A; Huron, C; Fanget, F; Servant, D; Stiti, S; Richard-Berthe, C; Boyer, P

    2006-01-01

    alteration of quality of life (with especially a poor physical health perception) were very significant, in the family, educational or occupational and social domains. Mean scores of the Sheehan Disability Scale were 6.1 +/- 2.6 for professional impairment, 5.0 +/- 2.7 for familial impairment, and 6.6 +/- 2.3 for social life impairment. In addition to the disability due to social phobia intensity, an important part of the burden was due to depressive symptoms. Approximately 60% of the patients had already a psychiatric treatment at the time of the survey (since 1,7 years in average), but only 17% had a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and 48% had an antidepressant treatment. These proportions increased in a significant way after the consultation during which the investigation was carried out: an antidepressant was prescribed to 72% of the patients, and a CBT is proposed to 48%. On the whole, this study confirmed the severity and the morbidity of social phobia in a very large sample of French psychiatric patients. The depressive disorders, suicidal risk, and social impairment associated with this condition should incite to more detect and treat it. Seeing the long duration of the disease in our sample, and the lack of specific therapies in many cases, the identification and the treatment of social phobia must be improved, and the role of the psychiatrists in this process seems very important. PMID:16633297

  6. Neutrophilic Dermatoses in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: A French Multicenter Study of 17 Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    de Boysson, Hubert; Martin Silva, Nicolas; de Moreuil, Claire; Néel, Antoine; de Menthon, Mathilde; Meyer, Olivier; Launay, David; Pagnoux, Christian; Guillevin, Loïc; Puéchal, Xavier; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2016-03-01

    A few reports suggest combination of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and neutrophilic dermatoses (ND). We aimed to describe the main characteristics of patients presenting with both AAV and ND in a French cohort and through a systematic literature review, and to discuss the possible common pathogenic process involved. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with both conditions. Patients were selected via the French Internal Medicine Society (SNFMI) and the French Vasculitis Study Group (FVSG). A literature review focusing on a combination of both conditions, concentrated only on publications with well-established diagnoses and individual detailed data. Seventeen patients diagnosed with AAV and ND were identified in this cohort. Twelve patients had granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 4 had microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and one had eosinophilic GPA (EGPA). Eight patients, all with GPA, displayed pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). Sweet's syndrome was observed in 6 patients (4 with MPA, one with GPA and one with EGPA) and erythema elevatum diutinum in the other three (2 with GPA and 1 with MPA). The literature review identified 33 additional patients with both conditions, including 26 with GPA. Altogether, of the 50 patients (17 from our study and 33 from the literature review), 33 (66%) patients presented with PG associated with GPA in 29 cases (89%). Corticosteroids were the first-line treatment in conjunction with an immunosuppressive agent in most cases. Outcomes were good and a total of 15 patients experienced a relapse. Patients who relapsed were more likely to have ear, nose and throat manifestation than patients who did not [12/15 (80%) relapsing patients vs. 15/35 (43%) non-relapsing patients; p = 0.03)]. In our stud, the most frequent association concerned GPA and PG. ND should be considered and specifically researched within the spectrum of cutaneous manifestations observed in AAV. PMID:26986103

  7. Vigie-Ciel : a french citizen network to study meteors and meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Zanda, B.; Colas, F.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2013-12-01

    Vigie Ciel is a french citizen network supported by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) and the Université Paris-Sud (UPsud). It is based on the scientific FRIPON program developed by Paris Observatory (Fireball Recovery and Planetary Inter Observation Network) which has for main goal to (i) determine the source region(s) of the various meteorite classes, (ii) collect both fresh and rare meteorite types and (iii) perform scientific outreach. This will be achieved by building the densest camera network in the world, based on state of the art technologies and associated with a participative network for meteorite recovery. We propose to install a network of 100 digital cameras covering the entire French territory to compute impact locations with accuracy of the order of one kilometer. Considering that there are 5 to 25 falls over France per year (~15 on average), during the same time, we will observe ~50 falls out of which we realistically expect to find 10 meteorites. Our project is original in several ways. (i) It is inter-disciplinary, involving experts in meteoritics, asteroidal science as well as fireball observation and dynamics. It will thus create new synergies between prominent institutions and/or laboratories, namely between MNHN, Paris Observatory and Université Paris-Sud in the Parisian region; and between CEREGE and LAM in the Provence region. Overall, scientists from over 25 laboratories will be involved, covering a mix of scientific disciplines and all the regions of France. (ii) It will generate a large body of data, feeding databases of interest to several disciplines (e.g. bird migration, variations of the luminosity of the brightest stars, observation of space debris, meteorology...). (iii) It will for the first time involve the general public (including schools) in the search for the meteorite falls, thus boosting the interest in meteorite and asteroid related science.

  8. Science and the French Empire.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Michael A

    2005-03-01

    Scholarly interest in French colonial science, interpreted to include colonial medical and scientific institutions as well as personages and other "actors" in France serving colonial agendas, has been robust for some two decades. This essay characterizes the complex and interlinked historical relationships between French metropolitan and colonial science as one of asymmetric coevolution. In analyzing scholarship on diverse topics from physics and military technology to colonial botany, medicine, geography, and racial theory, it interrogates the concepts of French nation and French empire and questions the historiographical and explanatory utility of the core-periphery model. Special scrutiny falls on a trope common to historigraphical studies of the postrevolutionary era, that of a firm French nationalism enabling largely rational colonial agendas and the promotion of these agendas by highly centralized Parisian bureaucracies. The essay calls for a reading of French history inclusive of regional colonialist activities and argues for the prevalence of municipal and regional maritime, technological, scientific, and military interests in constructing the modern French empire. PMID:16114803

  9. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  10. Aspects of the Acquisition of the French Verb System by Young Speakers of English and French in Quebec and Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beniak, Edouard

    Three studies are presented, each of which is a comparison of the acquisition of an aspect of the French verb system by three groups of speakers. The speakers are: young Anglophones learning French as a second language in an early French immersion program in Montreal; young monolingual Francophones attending elementary French language schools in…

  11. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  12. Q Fever in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem. PMID:25092817

  13. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio <1.2, p>0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  14. Selected Essays and Curriculum Units: Foreign Language Instruction through the Study of Literary Texts. French, German, Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Ellen S., Ed.; Krug, Clara, Ed.

    This guide presents essays and curriculum units designed for use by secondary and college teachers of French, German, and Spanish as a foreign language. The first section of the work includes two essays, in French, and eight curriculum units based on the stories of Guy de Maupassant. The second section contains seven curriculum units that…

  15. A Descriptive Study of Gambling Among Emerging Adult Males in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Alexander; Tichelli, Emmanuel; Ewering, Neil; Nunweiler-Hardegger, Sophie; Simon, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    The aims were twofold: to examine the gambling habits of emerging adult males in the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and to what extent these habits predict problem gambling within this population. We also evaluated problem gambling rates and provided data concerning variables such as gambling location, level of information about problem gambling and awareness of treatment centers. 606 Swiss male conscripts, aged 18-22 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. This was administered during their army recruitment day in 2012. Problem gambling was assessed through the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) (Ferris and Wynne 2001). 78.5% of the respondents were lifetime gamblers, 56.1% were past-year gamblers. Four out of ten past-year gamblers played in private spaces and in back rooms. The PGSI indicated that 10.8% of past-year gamblers presented with moderate gambling problems, whilst 1.4% appeared to be problem gamblers. The majority of respondents had never received information about problem gambling. Moreover, they were unaware of the existence of treatment centers for problem gambling in their region. PGSI scores were significantly predicted by the variety of games played. Problem gambling rates among young men appear to be higher than those of the general Swiss population. This confirms that emerging adult males are a particularly vulnerable population with regards to gambling addiction. The implications of this are considered for youth gambling-prevention programs. PMID:24584952

  16. Divergences on the environmental impact associated to the production of maritime pine wood in Europe: French and Portuguese case studies.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Arroja, Luis

    2014-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a common methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of forest systems in recent years. This study aims to estimate the environmental profile associated with maritime pine wood production in two representative European countries: Portugal and France. Different forest management regimes based on low and high intensive conditions were evaluated and differences in logging equipment, biomass yield and lifespan were also reported. The study was completed with a sensitivity analysis based on two allocation approaches (economic and volumetric) since biomass from thinning processes is harvested and can be used as a co-product. The production of maritime pine in Portugal under low intensity conditions should present the best environmental results with reductions of 50-94% in comparison with the worst scenario. It is mainly associated with the absence of forest activities in periods previous to the logging stage. French intensive forest scenario ranks as the second best alternative of pine wood production. The remaining scenarios reported worse results in terms of environmental impacts mostly due to the remarkable repetition of a selection of those forest activities with large fuel requirement (mainly on site preparation and stand establishment and tending). Regardless of the scenario, logging related activities such as final cutting and forwarding were identified as the hotspots mainly due to the fuel requirements. Fertilizer production (if required), thinning and cleaning processes reported also remarkable contributions to the categories under assessment. In addition, an economic estimation for each forest management scenario has been performed mainly considering fuel, machinery and labor costs. According to the results, the Portuguese low intensive scenario is the best choice together with the French intensive scenario under an economic point of view because of the lowest production costs per functional unit. Activities

  17. Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and anticholinergic levels in the elderly: a population based study in a French region.

    PubMed

    Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Dupont, Corinne; Defebvre, Marie-Margueritte; Puisieux, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions of PIMs and anticholinergic drugs lead to adverse events and hospitalizations in the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PIMs and prescriptions with a high anticholinergic effect in a French region. All prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies in patients aged 75 and older between January 1 and March 31, 2012 were extracted from French Health Insurance information System - Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region for patients affiliated to the Social Security. Prescription of PIMs was defined according to the Laroche list. The anticholinergic score for each prescription was calculated using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). 65.6% (n=207,979) of people aged over 75 years, living in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region were included, of which 4.5% (n=9284) living in nursing homes. Patients received an average of 8.3 drugs over the 3-month study period. In 32.6% (n=67,863) of patients, at least one PMI was prescribed. According to the ADS, 10.0% (n=20,978) of patients in the general population and 24.0% (n=2231) of patients living in nursing homes was exposed to a prescription with a high or very high anticholinergic score (ADS≥3). Hydroxyzine prescribed in 51.4% (n=10,792) of them ranked first among drugs most often reported. In conclusion, PMIs and anticholinergic drugs were commonly prescribed in elderly living in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region. Improving the quality of prescriptions in the elderly appears necessary. PMID:25192614

  18. Identification of sources of lead exposure in French children by lead isotope analysis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The amount of lead in the environment has decreased significantly in recent years, and so did exposure. However, there is no known safe exposure level and, therefore, the exposure of children to lead, although low, remains a major public health issue. With the lower levels of exposure, it is becoming more difficult to identify lead sources and new approaches may be required for preventive action. This study assessed the usefulness of lead isotope ratios for identifying sources of lead using data from a nationwide sample of French children aged from six months to six years with blood lead levels ≥25 μg/L. Methods Blood samples were taken from 125 children, representing about 600,000 French children; environmental samples were taken from their homes and personal information was collected. Lead isotope ratios were determined using quadrupole ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry) and the isotopic signatures of potential sources of exposure were matched with those of blood in order to identify the most likely sources. Results In addition to the interpretation of lead concentrations, lead isotope ratios were potentially of use for 57% of children aged from six months to six years with blood lead level ≥ 25 μg/L (7% of overall children in France, about 332,000 children), with at least one potential source of lead and sufficiently well discriminated lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope ratios revealed a single suspected source of exposure for 32% of the subjects and were able to eliminate at least one unlikely source of exposure for 30% of the children. Conclusions In France, lead isotope ratios could provide valuable additional information in about a third of routine environmental investigations. PMID:21871122

  19. Resultats de l'enquete nationale sur les programmes de formation des enseignants de francais langue seconde au Canada (Results of the National Study for Teacher Education Programs for French Second Language Teachers in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, France; Chinien, Christian; Boutin, Jean-Luc

    The implications of Canada's national study of core French instruction for second language (L2) teacher education in that country are examined. Literature on the study's impact on language teaching philosophy and policy and on French immersion instruction is reviewed, and a survey of 36 Canadian schools of education is reported. The questionnaire…

  20. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  1. A propos de l'agraphie des aphasiques sensoriels: etude comparative italien-francais (On Agraphia of Subjects with Sensory Aphasia: A Comparative Study of Italian and French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Agostini, Maria

    1977-01-01

    A report on research on agraphia using subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. It compares performance in Italian, a phonetic language, with performance in French. The disorders in the Italian language appear less varied than in French. (Text is in French.)

  2. French as a Second Language Program of Studies: Intermediate Level. Year 4 to Year 12 = Francais langue seconde programme d'etudes: niveau Intermediaire de la 4e a la 12e annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The program of studies for French as a Second Language is a legal document that specifies what Alberta (Canada) students are expected to learn in French as a second language from early childhood education through grade 12. In this volume, these expectations for learner knowledge, skills, and attitudes are expressed at the intermediate level of…

  3. A diachronic study of initial stress and other prosodic features in the French news announcer style: corpus-based measurements and perceptual experiments.

    PubMed

    Boula de Mareüil, Philippe; Rilliard, Albert; Allauzen, Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    This study focuses on prosodic evolution in the French news announcer style, based on acoustic and perceptual analysis of French audiovisual archives. A 10-hour corpus covering six decades of broadcast news is investigated automatically. Two prosodic features, which may give an impression of emphatic style, are explored: word-initial stress and penultimate vowel lengthening, especially before a pause. Objective measurements suggest that the following features have decreased since the 40s: mean pitch, pitch rise associated with initial stress, vowel duration characterizing an emphatic initial stress, and prepausal penultimate lengthening. The onsets of stressed initial syllables have become longer while speech rate (measured at the phonemic level) has not changed. This puzzling outcome raises interesting questions for research on French prosody, suggesting that the durational correlates of word-initial stress have changed over time, in the French news announcer style. Three perceptual experiments were conducted using prosody transplantation (copy of fundamental frequency and duration parameters on a synthetic voice), delexicalization and imitation. Rather than manipulating the parameters of,say, word-initial stress, we selected a subset of the corpus to represent the different decades under investigation. Results show that, among other factors, fundamental frequency and duration correlates of prosody contribute to distinguishing early recordings from more recent ones.The higher the pitch and the greater the pitch movements associated with word-initial stress, the more the speech samples are perceived as dating back to the 40s or 50s. PMID:22783635

  4. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2006-01-01

    There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003, a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2…

  5. Automated detection of case clusters of waterborne acute gastroenteritis from health insurance data - pilot study in three French districts.

    PubMed

    Rambaud, Loïc; Galey, Catherine; Beaudeau, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study was conducted to assess the utility of using a health insurance database for the automated detection of waterborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). The weekly number of AGE cases for which the patient consulted a doctor (cAGE) was derived from this database for 1,543 towns in three French districts during the 2009-2012 period. The method we used is based on a spatial comparison of incidence rates and of their time trends between the target town and the district. Each municipality was tested, week by week, for the entire study period. Overall, 193 clusters were identified, 10% of the municipalities were involved in at least one cluster and less than 2% in several. We can infer that nationwide more than 1,000 clusters involving 30,000 cases of cAGE each year may be linked to tap water. The clusters discovered with this automated detection system will be reported to local operators for investigation of the situations at highest risk. This method will be compared with others before automated detection is implemented on a national level. PMID:27105415

  6. Reports of withdrawal syndrome with the use of SSRIs: a case/non-case study in the French Pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Trenque, T; Piednoir, D; Frances, C; Millart, H; Germain, M L

    2002-06-01

    The SSRIs can be associated with withdrawal reactions and the objective of this study is to test the existence of an association between reports of withdrawal syndromes with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in the French spontaneous reports database. All reactions are coded according to the WHO ART dictionary. Cases are reports of reactions of interest (withdrawal syndrome). Non-cases are all reports of reactions other than those being studied. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) as the ratio of the odds of the association of reports of withdrawal syndrome with SSRIs in cases and non-cases. SSRIs are clearly associated with a higher risk of withdrawal syndrome (OR: 5.05, 95% CI: 3.81-6.68) and in particular with venlafaxine and paroxetine (OR: 12.16, 95% CI: 6.17-23.35 and OR: 8.47, 95% CI: 5.63-12.65, respectively). The risk of withdrawal reactions appears to be greater with short half-life drugs such as paroxetine and venlafaxine. The precise mechanisms have not been identified. PMID:12138595

  7. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

  8. Urinary p-cresol is elevated in young French children with autism spectrum disorder: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Cerullo, Sonia; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Tripi, Gabriele; Malvy, Joëlle; Barthelemy, Catherine; Bonnet-Brihault, Frédérique; Persico, Antonio M

    2014-09-01

    The aromatic compound p-cresol (4-methylphenol) has been found elevated in the urines of Italian autistic children up to 8 years of age. The present study aims at replicating these initial findings in an ethnically distinct sample and at extending them by measuring also the three components of urinary p-cresol, namely p-cresylsulfate, p-cresylglucuronate and free p-cresol. Total urinary p-cresol, p-cresylsulfate and p-cresylglucuronate were significantly elevated in 33 French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases compared with 33 sex- and age-matched controls (p < 0.05). This increase was limited to ASD children aged ≤8 years (p < 0.01), and not older (p = 0.17). Urinary levels of p-cresol and p-cresylsulfate were associated with stereotypic, compulsive/repetitive behaviors (p < 0.05), although not with overall autism severity. These results confirm the elevation of urinary p-cresol in a sizable set of small autistic children and spur interest into biomarker roles for p-cresol and p-cresylsulfate in autism. PMID:25010144

  9. FEMIC (Fibromes Embolises aux MICrospheres calibrees): Uterine Fibroid Embolization using Tris-acryl Microspheres. A French Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Joffre, Francis; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pelage, Jean-Pierre

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: A French multicenter registry was set up to confirm the safety and efficacy of large calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres for embolization of symptomatic fibroids. Methods: Technical recommendations included embolization using large microspheres (>500 {mu}m) with no secondary embolization agent. Postprocedural pain, clinical improvement and adverse events were prospectively evaluated during a follow-up period of at least 6 months.Results: Eighty-five women complaining of fibroid-related symptoms entered the study. In seven women, a secondary embolization agent was used in addition to microspheres. Complete resolution of menorrhagia was achieved in 84% of women at 24 months and significant uterine and fibroid volume reductions were noted after 6 months (37% and 73%, respectively). Three women experienced definitive amenorrhea (4%) and two women required hysteroscopic resection of a fibroid. Eight women were treated by hysterectomy because of treatment failure. In seven of these women, treatment failure was explained by an additional cause of symptoms including diffuse adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia or ovarian artery supply to the fibroids.Conclusion: Limited uterine artery embolization using large microspheres has good clinical success rate with low postprocedural pain and complications. Women can expect excellent midterm results with a high level of symptom control and significant fibroid volume reduction. Confidence in the end-point recommended here may require the experience of several cases.

  10. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  11. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  12. Assessment of dietary exposure to annatto (E160b), nitrites (E249-250), sulphites (E220-228) and tartaric acid (E334) in the French population: the second French total diet study.

    PubMed

    Bemrah, N; Vin, K; Sirot, V; Aguilar, F; Ladrat, A-C; Ducasse, C; Gey, J-L; Rétho, C; Nougadere, A; Leblanc, J-C

    2012-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the dietary exposure to annatto, nitrites, tartaric acid and sulphites within the framework of the second French total diet study (TDS) are reported. These 4 additives were selected from the Bemrah et al. study [Bemrah N, Leblanc JC, Volatier JL. 2008. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners. Food Addit Contam B. 1(1):2-14] on 13 food additives which identified a possible health risk for annatto, sulphites and nitrites and a lack of data for tartaric acid. Among the composite samples selected for the whole TDS, 524 were analysed for additives (a sample was analysed for a given additive when it was identified as a major contributor for this additive only): 130 for tartaric acid, 135 for nitrites, 59 for annatto and 200 for sulphites. Estimated concentrations (minimum lower bound to maximum upper bound) vary nationally from 0 to 9 mg/kg for annatto, 0 to 420 mg/kg for tartaric acid, 0 to 108 mg/kg for sulphites and 0 to 3.4 mg/kg for nitrites. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure was calculated for adults and children, separately, using lower bound and upper bound assumptions. The European ADIs for these 4 additives were not exceeded except for the dietary exposure for sulphites among 2.9% of the adult population, where the major contributors were alcoholic drinks and especially wine under both hypotheses (lower and upper bound). PMID:22380884

  13. The Effects of Inventory on Vowel Perception in French and Spanish: An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacquard, Valentine; Walter, Mary Ann; Marantz, Alec

    2007-01-01

    Production studies have shown that speakers of languages with larger phoneme inventories expand their acoustic space relative to languages with smaller inventories [Bradlow, A. (1995). A comparative acoustic study of English and Spanish vowels. "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America," 97(3), 1916-1924; Jongman, A., Fourakis, M., & Sereno,…

  14. Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the prospective Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A preventive role of selenium on the risk of diabetes has been reported and ascribed to the "insulin-like" activity of selenium and the antioxidant properties of the selenoenzymes. By contrast, data from cross-sectional studies and clinical trials have suggested an adverse effect of high selenium status and selenium supplementation on type-2 diabetes risk. Given these controversial results, we investigated prospectively the relationship between baseline plasma selenium concentration and occurrence of dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes) in an elderly French cohort. Methods The Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing (EVA) study (n = 1389, 59-71 years) is a 9-year longitudinal study in which, fasting plasma glucose was measured at baseline, 2, 4 and 9 years. Analyses were performed on 1162 participants with complete data. Results At baseline plasma selenium mean levels were 1.08 (0.21) μmol/l in men and 1.10 (0.20) μmol/l in women. During the 9-year follow-up, 127 cases of dysglycemia occurred. A significant interaction was found between plasma selenium and sex. Risk of dysglycemia was significantly lower in men with plasma selenium in the highest tertile (T3:1.19-1.97) compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1:0.18-1.00) [HR = 0.48 (0.25-0.92)], but no significant relationship was observed in women. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular diseases, body mass index, hypertension and lipid profile, plasma selenium remained marginally significantly associated with occurrence of dysglycemia in men [T3 vs. T1, HR = 0.50 (0.24-1.04)] and unrelated in women. Conclusions This prospective study suggests a sex-specific protective effect of higher selenium status at baseline on later occurrence of dysglycemia. PMID:20298544

  15. Morbidity and mortality revue of the French group of transoral robotic surgery: a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Aubry, K; Vergez, S; de Mones, E; Moriniere, S; Choussy, O; Malard, O; Dolivet, G; Lallemant, B; Ceruse, P

    2016-03-01

    Transoral robotic assisted surgery (TORS) represents an innovative endoscopic therapeutic alternative in the treatment of head and neck tumors. Many publications favor this surgery, especially in terms of functional results. The aim of this study was to investigate the TORS morbidity and mortality and to identify the risk factors for complications. It is a multicenter retrospective study. All head and neck tumor patients treated by TORS were included in the study over a period of 5 years (2009-2014). The studied parameters were the intraoperative and post-operative complications including hemorrhage, fistula, tracheotomy, aspiration pneumonia and death. The parameters were correlated with age, tumor location, tumor stage, endoscopic exposure and patient's co-morbidities. 178 patients were included in the study. Malignant tumors classified as T1 were found in 169 cases (n = 51), T2 (n = 100), T3 (n = 16) and T4 (n = 2). The tumor locations were distributed as follows: larynx (n = 84), oropharynx (n = 51), and hypopharynx (n = 43). Fifty-three patients followed post-radiation therapy. We observed 12 intraoperative complications including 6 hemorrhage, 3 pharyngeal fistulas and 3 external surgical conversions. Postoperatively, we detected 33 hemorrhage, 27 aspiration pneumonia, 9 tracheostomy, 2 pharyngostomes, 2 cervical spondylitis and 2 deaths. The risk factors identified were (i) anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy for hemorrhage, (ii) tumoral stage and the laryngeal location for aspiration pneumonia and (iii) laryngeal location for tracheostomy. Higher age over 65 years has been identified as a risk factor for all post-operative complications. TORS is a safe technique for the treatment of head and neck tumors. We identified some risk factors for complications which should systematically be studied in order to reduce its morbidity. PMID:26559537

  16. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  17. Evaluating Evidence from a Historical Chemical Controversy: A Study in a French High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of evaluating evidence for enriching critical thinking in the chemistry classroom. The purpose of the study was to examine the usefulness of a historical chemical controversy in promoting students' assessment of evidence. The investigation was conducted in a high school in Melun, France. 63 participants (24…

  18. Long-term effectiveness and safety of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) in Schnitzler's syndrome: a French multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Néel, Antoine; Henry, Benoit; Barbarot, Sebastien; Masseau, Agathe; Perrin, François; Bernier, Claire; Kyndt, Xavier; Puechal, Xavier; Weiller, Pierre-Jean; Decaux, Olivier; Ninet, Jacques; Hot, Arnaud; Aouba, Achille; Astudillo, Leonardo; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Bonnet, Fabrice; Brisseau, Jean-Marie; Cador, Bérangère; Closs-Prophette, Fabienne; Dejoie, Thomas; de Korwin, Jean-Dominique; Dhote, Robin; Fior, Renato; Grosbois, Bernard; Hachulla, Eric; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Jardel, Henry; Launay, David; Lorleac'h, Adrien; Pottier, Pierre; Moulis, Guillaume; Serratrice, Jacques; Smail, Amar; Hamidou, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of IL1Ra in Schnitzler syndrome (SchS). Between 2010 and 2012, we performed a nationwide survey among French internal medicine departments to identify SchS patients. We retrospectively analyzed the long-term efficacy and safety of IL1Ra and the outcome of patients that did not receive this treatment. Forty-two patients were included in the study, 29 of whom received IL1Ra. The mean age at disease onset was 59.9years. Disease manifestations included urticaria (100%), fever (76%), bone/joint pain (86%), bone lesions (76%), anemia (67%), and weight loss (60%). The monoclonal gammopathy was overwhelmingly IgM kappa (83%). The mean follow-up was 9.5years (range: 1.6-35). Two patients developed Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and one developed AA amyloidosis. All of the 29 patients who received IL1Ra responded dramatically. After a median follow-up of 36months (range: 2-79), the effectiveness remained unchanged. All patients remained on anti-IL-1 therapy. Twenty-four patients (83%) went into complete remission and five (17%) into partial remission. Three patients experienced grade 3-4 neutropenia. Six patients developed severe infections. No lymphoproliferative diseases occurred while on IL1Ra. When last seen, all patients without anakinra had an active disease with variable impact on their quality of life. Their median corticosteroids dosage was 6mg/d (range: 5-25). IL1Ra is effective in SchS, with a sharp corticosteroid-sparing effect. Treatment failures should lead to reconsider the diagnosis. Long-term follow-up revealed no loss of effectiveness and a favorable tolerance profile. The long-term effects on the risk of hemopathy remain unknown. PMID:25220180

  19. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  20. Outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome: A nationwide cohort-based study from the French Society of Hemapheresis.

    PubMed

    Huart, Antoine; Josse, Anne-Gaëlle; Chauveau, Dominique; Korach, Jean-Michel; Heshmati, Farhad; Bauvin, Eric; Cointault, Olivier; Kamar, Nassim; Ribes, David; Pourrat, Jacques; Faguer, Stanislas

    2016-09-01

    The overall and renal outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome (GS), a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and/or pulmonary hemorrhage, have mostly been reported in small-sized cohorts or by aggregating patients receiving a variety of therapies that include aggressive (i.e., combined plasma exchanges, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide) and less aggressive (i.e., either plasma exchanges or immunosuppressive drugs, or no treatment). To address the prognosis of GS patients with relatively homogeneous management including plasma exchanges, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study on GS patients included in the registry of the French Society of Hemapheresis. 122 patients were included (kidney alone (n = 28), lung alone (n = 5), or combined involvement (n = 89)). All 122 patients received plasma exchanges (median number of sessions: 13 [9-17]), either alone (n = 8) or associated with combined corticosteroids and oral or IV cyclophosphamide (n = 101) or with corticosteroids alone (n = 12) or cyclophosphamide alone (n = 2). One-year survival was 86.9%. 7/16 patients died from severe infection. In multivariate analyses (Cox's regression model), being aged <60 years, and number of plasma exchanges were correlated to overall survival. The use of alternative immunosuppressive drugs (because of refractory or relapsing GS) was correlated to mortality at one year. Superiority of oral cyclophosphamide compared to intravenous intake was close to significant. Using a logistic regression model, renal survival in patients alive at 1 year was only predicted by serum creatinine <500 μmol/L at presentation. This large series describes the predictive factors for overall and renal survival of GS patients treated by plasma exchanges. Interventional studies that compare oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide, as well as testing new immunosuppressive therapies, are warranted. PMID

  1. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  2. The clinical spectrum of IgM-related amyloidosis: a French nationwide retrospective study of 72 patients.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Benjamin; Jaccard, Arnaud; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Delarue, Richard; Tournilhac, Olivier; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Hamidou, Mohamed; Dantal, Jacques; Bernard, Marc; Grosbois, Bernard; Morel, Pierre; Coiteux, Valérie; Gisserot, Olivier; Rodon, Philippe; Hot, Arnaud; Elie, Caroline; Leblond, Véronique; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Fakhouri, Fadi

    2008-03-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-related amyloidosis remains a rare and little-known complication of monoclonal IgM-associated disorders. We sought to determine the clinical and laboratory presentation, response to treatment, and outcome of patients with IgM-related amyloidosis in the era of new therapeutic approaches. We conducted a retrospective study in 29 French centers to identify patients with monoclonal IgM and biopsy-proven amyloidosis; we reviewed patients' records and collected relevant clinical and laboratory data. We identified 72 patients with IgM-related amyloidosis. Systemic primary amyloidosis (AL) was present in 64, peritumoral AL in 5, and systemic secondary amyloidosis (AA) in 3 patients. A peculiar pattern of relatively frequent lymph node (31%) and lung (17%) involvement was noted in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis. Response to alkylating agents was poor, with a hematologic response in 37%, a complete remission in 0%, and an organ response in 21%. Response to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation showed a hematologic response in 100% with complete remission in 75% and an organ response in 75%. Purine analogs and rituximab induced a hematologic response in 73% and 60%, respectively, with complete remission in 9% and 0% and an organ response in 55% and 0%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, prognostic factors for survival were serum albumin level < or =3.5 g/dL (p = 0.018) and heart involvement (p = 0.0034). Further prospective studies are needed in patients with IgM-related amyloidosis, with special emphasis on treatment options: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and purine analogs could represent the most effective therapies. The identification of adverse prognostic factors of survival could be useful for those managing and making treatment decisions for these patients. PMID:18344807

  3. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  4. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and

  5. How French physicians manage with a future change in the primary vaccination of infants against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis? A qualitative study with focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As in other European countries, the French vaccination schedule changes according to epidemiological and socio-economic situations. Further changes are planned for 2013, including the withdrawal of one dose for primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae. A partnership between the French Technical Vaccination Committee and the French Institute for Health and Medical Research designed a study to assess primary care physicians’ agreement about this modification. Methods Qualitative study with focus groups and semi-structured interviews in France. Four focus groups were conducted with physicians, supplemented by four individual interviews. Results The physicians of the survey had accepted the suggested vaccination schedule well. A few concerns had been underlined: fear of less follow-up care for infants resulting from the removal of one visit driven by the primary vaccination; fear of loss of vaccine efficacy; suspicion of the existence of financial arguments at the origin of this change; and adjustment to current vaccination schedule. Several suggestions were made: providing strong support from health authorities; developing stable and simple recommendations; providing effective tools for monitoring patient’s vaccination status. Conclusions Physicians’ opinions suggested a good acceptance of a possible change about primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae. Physicians’ suggestions resulted from this qualitative study on a new vaccination schedule. It showed how that their involvement was feasible for preparing the implementation of a new vaccination schedule. PMID:23782853

  6. Hemispheric Asymmetries Depend on the Phonetic Feature: A Dichotic Study of Place of Articulation and Voicing in French Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Ferragne, Emmanuel; Marsico, Egidio

    2010-01-01

    Dichotic listening experiments show a right-ear advantage (REA), reflecting a left-hemisphere (LH) dominance. However, we found a decrease in REA when the initial stop consonants of two simultaneous French CVC words differed in voicing rather than place of articulation (Experiment 1). This result suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) is more…

  7. The French Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonie, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Gomot, Marie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Charvet, Dorothee; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Assouline, Brigitte; Cabrol, Stephane; Chabane, Nadia; Arnaud, Valerie; Faure, Patricia; Manificat, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of the French version of the "Autism Spectrum Quotient" ("AQ") in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to healthy controls and adolescents with psychiatric disorders (PDs). Three groups of adolescents, aged 11-18, were assessed: 116 with AS/HFA (93 with IQ [greater than or…

  8. The Argumentative Connective "Meme" in French: An Experimental Study in Eight- to Ten-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassano, Dominique; Champaud, Christian

    1989-01-01

    Examines how children understand the argumentative function of the French connective meme (even). Two completion tasks, related to the argumentative properties of the morpheme, were used: 1) to infer the conclusion of an "even" sentence, and 2) to infer the argument position. (34 references) (Author/CB)

  9. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION IN RELATION TO PASSIVE SMOKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AMERICAN AND FRENCH WOMEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results are reported from a parallel analysis of the association of passive smoking with respiratory symptoms and lung function (FEV, FVC, and FEV/FVC) in 2200 U.S. and 3866 French women from the general population examined over the same time period using similar methods. ge, cit...

  10. Concurrent Models and Cross-Linguistic Analogies in the Study of Prepositional Stranding in French in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otheguy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions can be found with and without adjacent complements in many forms of popular spoken French. The alternation appears in main clauses ("il veut pas payer pour ca [approximately] il veut pas payer pour" "he doesn't want to pay for [it]") and, though with a more restricted social and geographic distribution, in relative clauses ("j'avais…

  11. The Role of Form and Meaning in the Processing of Written Morphology: A Priming Study in French Developing Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemart, Pauline; Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Three visual priming experiments using three different prime durations (60 ms in Experiment 1, 250 ms in Experiment 2, and 800 ms in Experiment 3) were conducted to examine which properties of morphemes (form and/or meaning) drive developing readers' processing of written morphology. French third, fifth, and seventh graders and adults (the latter…

  12. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  13. State of the art on forest and shallow landslide interactions illustrated by two studies in the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, F.; Dorren, L.; Lopez, J.; Allegra, C.

    2009-04-01

    landslide prevention and mitigation and due to the lack of scientific knowledge on the interaction between forest stands and landslide activities, there is a real need of research axis specifically devoted to the tree main effects cited before. The main objective of these thematically research axis should be an efficient integration of the effect of the forest vegetation in the modelling of shallow landslide dynamic. This presentation deals with the state of the art on forest and landslide interaction illustrated by two studies conducted in the French Alps. The first one attempts to reduce a gap in the scientific knowledge by quantifying the hazard of landslide occurrence considering vegetation effects, in the Combeloup forest on the French Alps, using a physically based spatial modelling approach. The second one present the added value of dendrogeomorphological analyse to evaluate the past activities of landslide terrain in relationship with the evolution of the forest cover.

  14. Relationships between substance initiation sequence and further substance use: A French nationwide retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Attaiaa, Lalla-Asma; Beck, Francois; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Marimoutou, Catherine; Mayet, Aurélie

    2016-06-01

    The Gateway theory (GT) proposes that tobacco or alcohol use lead to cannabis use, which can itself be followed by other illicit drugs (OID) onset. Aim of this study was to evaluate if the order of initiation sequence could influence further substance use. Data from a 2010 population-based survey were used (22,774 subjects aged 15-64). Using reported ages at initiations, 7 sequences were identified: initiation of tobacco only (T), cannabis or OID only, tobacco followed by cannabis (T-C), cannabis followed by tobacco (C-T), alternative 2-substance sequences, gateway sequence (T-C-OID) and 3-substance alternative sequences. Logistics regressions were performed to study the impact of sequence on further use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and OID), and substance use disorders (SUD) (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis). The most observed sequences were T (45.5%), T-C (20.5%), C-T (5.1%) and T-C-OID (3.5%). Further use and SUD likelihoods, whatever the substance considered, increased with the number of substances previously initiated. However, for a same number of substances initiated, current use and SUD likelihoods did not significantly vary according to sequence. Polysubstance initiation appears as a better predictor of further use and SUD than the initiation sequence, questioning the GT and being more in line with a common liability to substance use. PMID:26826476

  15. Genome-wide association study for jumping performances in French sport horses.

    PubMed

    Brard, S; Ricard, A

    2015-02-01

    A genome-wide association study was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with jumping performances of warmbloods in France. The 999 horses included in the study for jumping performances were sport horses [mostly Selle Français (68%), Anglo-Arabians (13%) and horses from the other European studbooks]. Horses were genotyped using the Illumina EquineSNP50 BeadChip. Of the 54,602 SNPs available on this chip, 44,424 were retained after quality testing. Phenotypes were obtained by deregressing official breeding values for jumping competitions to use all available information, that is, the performances of each horse as well as those of its relatives. Two models were used to test the effects of the genotypes on deregressed phenotypes: a single-marker mixed model and a haplotype-based mixed model (significant: P < 1E-05; suggestive: P < 1E-04). Both models included a polygenic effect to take into account familial structures. For jumping performances, one suggestive quantitative trait locus (QTL) located on chromosome 1 (BIEC2_31196 and BIEC2_31198) was detected with both models. This QTL explains 0.7% of the phenotypic variance. RYR2, a gene encoding a major calcium channel in cardiac muscle in humans and mice, is located 0.55 Mb from this potential QTL. PMID:25515185

  16. Risk assessment in ramps for heavy vehicles--A French study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Veronique; Conche, Florence

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study dealing with the risk for heavy vehicles in ramps. Two approaches are used. On one hand, statistics are applied on several accidents databases to detect if ramps are more risky for heavy vehicles and to define a critical value for longitudinal slope. χ(2) test confirmed the risk in ramps and statistical analysis proved that a longitudinal slope superior to 3.2% represents a higher risk for heavy vehicles. On another hand, numerical simulations allow defining the speed profile in ramps for two types of heavy vehicles (tractor semi-trailer and 2-axles rigid body) and different loads. The simulations showed that heavy vehicles must drive more than 1000 m on ramps to reach their minimum speed. Moreover, when the slope is superior to 3.2%, tractor semi-trailer presents a strong decrease of their speed until 50 km/h. This situation represents a high risk of collision with other road users which drive at 80-90 km/h. Thus, both methods led to the determination of a risky configuration for heavy vehicles: ramps with a length superior to 1000 m and a slope superior to 3.2%. An application of this research work concerns design methods and guidelines. Indeed, this study provides threshold values than can be used by engineers to make mandatory specific planning like a lane for slow vehicles. PMID:26994373

  17. A comparative study of involutional depressive patients in French Canada and in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Böszörményi, Z

    1979-01-01

    The data dealing with 200 involutional depressive patients who were treated in Quebec City and in Budapest are presented. A questionnnaire prepared for this purpose is produced and evaluated. Half of the Canadian and 80% of the Hungarian patients were personally interviewed by the author. Those patients with organic brain syndromes were not included in the population studied. Besides many similarities between the two groups, there were also symptomatological differences observed, e.g. the agitated type of involutional melancholy occurred twice as often in Canada as in Hungary, the apathetic cases were rarer in Canada, and the illness began earlier among Canadian women. Self-blame in Canada was often linked to religious observation. Two typical syndromes in male and female patients are detailed as special disease patterns. The symptomatology of this disorder has become identical in the last few years in both countries, therefore it is improbable that a similar study in the future could point out the differences described here. PMID:538276

  18. A comparative study of involutional depressive patients in French Canada and in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Böszörményi, Z

    1979-01-01

    The data dealing with 200 involutional depressive patients who were treated in Quebec City and in Budapest are presented. A questionnaire prepared for this purpose is produced and evaluated. Half of the Canadian and 80% of the Hungarian patients were personally interviewed by the author. Those patients with organic brain syndromes were not included in the population studied. Besides many similarities between the two groups, there were also symptomatological differences observed, e.g. the agitated type of involutional melancholy occurred twice as often in Canada as in Hungary, the apathetic cases were rarer in Canada, and the illness began earlier among Canadian women. Self-blame in Canada was often linked to religious observation. Two typical syndromes in male and female patients are detailed as special disease patterns. The symptomatology of this disorder has become identical in the last few years in both countries, therefore it is improbable that a similar study in the future could point out the differences described here. PMID:531237

  19. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%]in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  20. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  1. How errors on meteorological variables impact simulated ecosystem fluxes: a case study for six French sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Longdoz, B.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Rambal, S.; Klumpp, K.; Olioso, A.; Cellier, P.; Maignan, F.; Eglin, T.; Calvet, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze how biases of meteorological drivers impact the calculation of ecosystem CO2, water and energy fluxes by models. To do so, we drive the same ecosystem model by meteorology from gridded products and by ''true" meteorology from local observation at eddy-covariance flux sites. The study is focused on six flux tower sites in France spanning across a 7-14 °C and 600-1040 mm yr-1 climate gradient, with forest, grassland and cropland ecosystems. We evaluate the results of the ORCHIDEE process-based model driven by four different meteorological models against the same model driven by site-observed meteorology. The evaluation is decomposed into characteristic time scales. The main result is that there are significant differences between meteorological models and local tower meteorology. The seasonal cycle of air temperature, humidity and shortwave downward radiation is reproduced correctly by all meteorological models (average R2=0.90). At sites located near the coast and influenced by sea-breeze, or located in altitude, the misfit of meteorological drivers from gridded dataproducts and tower meteorology is the largest. We show that day-to-day variations in weather are not completely well reproduced by meteorological models, with R2 between modeled grid point and measured local meteorology going from 0.35 (REMO model) to 0.70 (SAFRAN model). The bias of meteorological models impacts the flux simulation by ORCHIDEE, and thus would have an effect on regional and global budgets. The forcing error defined by the simulated flux difference resulting from prescribing modeled instead than observed local meteorology drivers to ORCHIDEE is quantified for the six studied sites and different time scales. The magnitude of this forcing error is compared to that of the model error defined as the modeled-minus-observed flux, thus containing uncertain parameterizations, parameter values, and initialization. The forcing error is the largest on a daily time scale, for which it is

  2. Total versus subtotal gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma of the gastric antrum. A French prospective controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Gouzi, J L; Huguier, M; Fagniez, P L; Launois, B; Flamant, Y; Lacaine, F; Paquet, J C; Hay, J M

    1989-01-01

    In a multicentric trial the postoperative mortality and the 5-year survival of elective total gastrectomy (TG) was compared with subtotal gastrectomy (SG) for adenocarcinoma of the antrum operated on with intent of cure. Two hundred and one patients were included in the study; 32 were excluded after pathologic examination (linitis plastica, superficial cancer, lymphoma). One hundred sixty-nine patients remained for analysis, with 93 undergoing TG and 76 undergoing SG. Elective TG did not increase postoperative mortality (1.3%) compared with SG (3.2%). There was no difference in the 5-year survival rate (48%). Analysis of survival showed no difference in the two techniques when related to nodal involvement and serosal extension. It is concluded that both TG and SG can be performed safely in patients with adenocarcinoma of the antrum; however TG did not increase the survival rate. PMID:2644898

  3. Guided Learners of French and the Acquisition of Emphatic Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Petra

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by advanced guided learners of French, in particular (Dutch) first grade university students of French are studied and compared to the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by (Dutch) secondary school pupils learning French in a purely institutional situation. It is shown that…

  4. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  5. Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2010-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

  6. Suspected community-acquired pneumonia in an ambulatory setting (CAPA): a French prospective observational cohort study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Partouche, Henri; Buffel du Vaure, Céline; Personne, Virginie; Le Cossec, Chloé; Garcin, Camille; Lorenzo, Alain; Ghasarossian, Christian; Landais, Paul; Toubiana, Laurent; Gilberg, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have addressed the pragmatic management of ambulatory patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using a precise description of the disease with or without chest X-ray (X-ray) evidence. Aims: To describe the characteristics, clinical findings, additional investigations and disease progression in patients with suspected CAP managed by French General Practitioners (GPs). Methods: The patients included were older than 18 years, with signs or symptoms suggestive of CAP associated with recent-onset unilateral crackles on auscultation or a new opacity on X-ray. They were followed for up to 6 weeks. Descriptive analyses of all patients and according to their management with X-rays were carried out. Results: From September 2011 to July 2012, 886 patients have been consulted by 267 GPs. Among them, 278 (31%) were older than 65 years and 337 (38%) were at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. At presentation, the three most common symptoms, cough (94%), fever (93%), and weakness or myalgia (81%), were all observed in 70% of patients. Unilateral crackles were observed in 77% of patients. Among patients with positive radiography (64%), 36% had no unilateral crackles. A null CRB-65 score was obtained in 62% of patients. Most patients (94%) initially received antibiotics and experienced uncomplicated disease progression regardless of their management with X-rays. Finally, 7% of patients were hospitalised and 0.3% died. Conclusions: Most patients consulting GPs for suspected CAP had the three following most common symptoms: cough, fever, and weakness or myalgia. More than a third of them were at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. With or without X-rays, most patients received antibiotics and experienced uncomplicated disease progression. PMID:25763466

  7. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  8. TET2 mutations in secondary acute myeloid leukemias: a French retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kosmider, Olivier; Delabesse, Eric; Mas, Véronique Mansat-De; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Blanchet, Odile; Delmer, Alain; Recher, Christian; Raynaud, Sophie; Bouscary, Didier; Viguié, Franck; Lacombe, Catherine; Bernard, Olivier A.; Ifrah, Norbert; Dreyfus, François; Fontenay, Michaëla

    2011-01-01

    Ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) mutations have been involved in myeloid malignancies. This retrospective study aims at evaluating the frequency and impact of TET2 mutations in 247 secondary acute myeloid leukemia cases referred to as myelodysplasia-related changes (n=201) or therapy-related (n=46) leukemias. Mutation of at least one copy of the TET2 gene was detected in 49 of 247 (19.8%) patients who presented with older age, higher hemoglobin level, higher neutrophil and monocyte counts, and lower platelet count. TET2 mutations were significantly less frequent in therapy-related (8.7%) than myelodysplasia-related changes (22.3%; P=0.035) leukemias and strongly associated with normal karyotype (P<0.001). TET2 mutations did not significantly associate with NPM1, FLT3-ITD or FLT3-D835, WT1, or N- or K-RAS mutations. Complete remission was achieved in 57% of evaluable patients who had received intensive chemotherapy. In this group, TET2 mutations did not influence the complete remission rate or overall survival. PMID:21508122

  9. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis: French nationwide case-control study of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case-control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease.We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease.We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03-25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6-204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3-500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002).The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:27442665

  10. UV radiation exposure, skin type and lymphoid malignancies: results of a French case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Laure; Orsi, Laurent; Troussard, Xavier; Monnereau, Alain; Berthou, Christian; Fenaux, Pierre; Marit, Gerald; Soubeyran, Pierre; Huguet, Françoise; Milpied, Noël; Leporrier, Michel; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the relationship between skin type, UV exposure and lymphoid malignancies (LM). Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in France, including 813 incident cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), lymphoproliferative syndrome (LPS) or multiple myeloma and 748 controls. Results Positive associations between HL and blond/red hair (OR=1.8 [0.8–3.8]), very fair/fair skin (OR=1.6 [1.0–2.5]) were observed. High propensity to burn was associated with HL (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.2]) and LPS (OR=1.4 [1.0–2.1]). Poor ability to tan was significantly associated with HL (OR=1.7 [1.0–2.8]). Having light hair with high propensity to burn was associated with NHL (OR=1.5 [0.9–2.5]) and significantly with HL (OR=3.4 [1.4–8.4]). Having dark hair with high propensity to burn was significantly associated with LPS (OR=1.5 [1.0–2.0]). The associations with HL and NHL were significant for men only, with significant interactions. Outdoors activities since leaving school or in the last decade were not related to LM. Only an almost negative trend was observed. Prior exposure to artificial UV was not associated with LM. Conclusion These results suggest a positive association between the most reactive and palest skin types and NHL or HL in men and do not rule out a slight negative relationship between UV exposure and LM. PMID:18040875

  11. Cutaneous Invasive Aspergillosis: Retrospective Multicenter Study of the French Invasive-Aspergillosis Registry and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bernardeschi, Céline; Foulet, Francoise; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Ortonne, Nicolas; Sitbon, Karine; Quereux, Gaëlle; Lortholary, Olivier; Chosidow, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has poor prognosis in immunocompromised patients. Skin manifestations, when present, should contribute to an early diagnosis. The authors aimed to provide prevalence data and a clinical and histologic description of cutaneous manifestations of primary cutaneous IA (PCIA) and secondary CIA (SCIA) in a unique clinical series of IA and present the results of an exhaustive literature review of CIA. Cases of proven and probable IA with cutaneous manifestations were retrospectively extracted from those registered between 2005 and 2010 in a prospective multicenter aspergillosis database held by the National Reference Center for Invasive Mycoses and Antifungals, Pasteur Institute, France. Patients were classified as having PCIA (i.e., CIA without extracutaneous manifestations) or SCIA (i.e., disseminated IA). Among the 1,410 patients with proven or probable IA, 15 had CIA (1.06%), 5 PCIA, and 10 SCIA. Hematological malignancies were the main underlying condition (12/15). Patients with PCIA presented infiltrated and/or suppurative lesions of various localizations not related to a catheter site (4/5), whereas SCIA was mainly characterized by disseminated papules and nodules but sometimes isolated nodules or cellulitis. Histologic data were available for 11 patients, and for 9, similar for PCIA and SCIA, showed a dense dermal polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate, with the epidermis altered in PCIA only. Periodic acid Schiff and Gomori-Grocott methenamine silver nitrate staining for all but 2 biopsies revealed hyphae compatible with Aspergillus. Aspergillus flavus was isolated in all cases of PCIA, with Aspergillus fumigatus being the most frequent species (6/10) in SCIA. Two out 5 PCIA cases were treated surgically. The 3-month survival rate was 100% and 30% for PCIA and SCIA, respectively. Our study is the largest adult series of CIA and provides complete clinical and histologic data for the disease. Primary cutaneous IA should be

  12. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  13. Illustrated French Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Serge M.

    Designed to promote an awareness of the everyday French language, this supplementary textbook was developed to enable students of French to use idiomatic expressions from the early learning stages to the more advanced levels. The units are arranged as follows according to the verb component of the expression: "avoir,""etre,""faire," the three…

  14. FRENCH THROUGH TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AN EARLY MORNING TELEVISION COURSE IN ELEMENTARY FRENCH IS DESCRIBED. THE COURSE IS CONDUCTED PRIMARILY IN FRENCH AND BUILDS FROM ZERO KNOWLEDGE, TEACHING A SMALL HIGH-UTILITY VOCABULARY. INTAKE OF VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURE IS GENTLY GRADED IN SENTENCES MADE UNDERSTANDABLE BY MEANS OF PICTURE-SITUATIONS. EACH LESSON CONSISTS OF THE FILM LESSON OF…

  15. French in Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the usage of French in Gabon. As in other nations of francophone Africa, French is the language of upward social mobility in Gabon, and it offers access to the international community. However, one factor peculiar to Gabon is the virtual absence of a Gabonese national language, which promotes a greater dependency upon a mastery of the…

  16. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  17. French Language Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This guide presents the philosophy, goals, and objectives, as well as the scope and sequence of French instruction at four levels for the public schools of Hawaii. The emphasis is on cultural awareness and communicative competence in French. The goals, objectives, and performance expectations are presented as guides from which teachers can derive…

  18. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM

  19. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-10-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  20. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  1. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  2. Searching for a link between the L-BMAA neurotoxin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study protocol of the French BMAALS programme

    PubMed Central

    Delzor, Aurélie; Couratier, Philippe; Boumédiène, Farid; Nicol, Marie; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Paraf, François; Méjean, Annick; Ploux, Olivier; Leleu, Jean-Philippe; Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Pichon, Valérie; Combès, Audrey; El Abdellaoui, Saïda; Bonneterre, Vincent; Lagrange, Emmeline; Besson, Gérard; Bicout, Dominique J; Boutonnat, Jean; Camu, William; Pageot, Nicolas; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Rigau, Valérie; Masseret, Estelle; Abadie, Eric; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neurone disease. It occurs in two forms: (1) familial cases, for which several genes have been identified and (2) sporadic cases, for which various hypotheses have been formulated. Notably, the β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) toxin has been postulated to be involved in the occurrence of sporadic ALS. The objective of the French BMAALS programme is to study the putative link between L-BMAA and ALS. Methods and analysis The programme covers the period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2011. Using multiple sources of ascertainment, all the incident ALS cases diagnosed during this period in the area under study (10 counties spread over three French regions) were collected. First, the standardised incidence ratio will be calculated for each municipality under concern. Then, by applying spatial clustering techniques, overincidence and underincidence zones of ALS will be sought. A case–control study, in the subpopulation living in the identified areas, will gather information about patients’ occupations, leisure activities and lifestyle habits in order to assess potential risk factors to which they are or have been exposed. Specimens of drinking water, food and biological material (brain tissue) will be examined to assess the presence of L-BMAA in the environment and tissues of ALS cases and controls. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the French ethical committee of the CPP SOOM IV (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud-Ouest & Outre-Mer IV). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. PMID:25180055

  3. Tools and services from the French VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F.; French Vo Teams

    2007-08-01

    The French VO (Action Spécifique Observatoires Virtuels France - ASOV), a joint e action of INSU and CNES, coordinates French participation in the VO for astronomy, solar, heliospheric and space plasma physics, and the study of the planets. It supports teams which develops VO services to uptake VO standards and methods, in particular by organizing tutorials for developers, provides forums for discussion, and funds travel of French participants to IVOA meetings. INSU, on behalf of the French VO, is a member of the IVOA and of Euro-VO, and coordinates the Euro-VO Data Center Alliance, which will be funded by the European Commission as a Coordination Action of the Infrastructure, Communication Network Development program from September 1, 2006. ASOV was created in 2004. Within a few years it has succeeded in creating a national community of VO developers. Several teams participate very actively in the IVOA Interoperability standard development, and collaborate with IT laboratories on VO-related subjects. Most French astronomy laboratories are involved in the development of VO-oriented services and tools, with a wide diversity of actions (observation archives/`science ready' data, value-added data bases and services; tools for visualisation, image analysis, . . . ; software suites; numerical simulations/theoretical astronomy services, thematic services). A recent census received more than 40 answers describing projects at different scales, some operational, some in development. Details on French VO teams and ASOV actions are available from the French VO Web site:

  4. Chine: Les Chances du Francais (The Fortunes of the French Language in China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuning, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current situation in China surrounding the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. After the decline of French teaching subsequent to the Cultural Revolution, the language returned to favor around 1970. Chinese students are infatuated with French; many study it as a first or second foreign language. Additionally, French literature…

  5. A French multicenter study of over 700 patients with 22q11 deletions diagnosed using FISH or aCGH.

    PubMed

    Poirsier, Céline; Besseau-Ayasse, Justine; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Missirian, Chantal; Le Caignec, Cédric; Bazin, Anne; de Blois, Marie Christine; Kuentz, Paul; Catty, Marie; Choiset, Agnès; Plessis, Ghislaine; Basinko, Audrey; Letard, Pascaline; Flori, Elisabeth; Jimenez, Mélanie; Valduga, Mylène; Landais, Emilie; Lallaoui, Hakima; Cartault, François; Lespinasse, James; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Callier, Patrick; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Portnoi, Marie-France; Busa, Tiffany; Receveur, Aline; Amblard, Florence; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Prieur, Fabienne; Le Meur, Nathalie; Pipiras, Eva; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Vialard, François; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect. PMID:26508576

  6. Change in French Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Raymond E.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of attitudes toward education reflects the change from elitism to egalitarianism and points up the problem of redoublement or grade repetition. The French government is taking action in response to these phenomena. (JH)

  7. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  8. First report of the predominance of clonal complex 398 Staphylococcus aureus strains in osteomyelitis complicating diabetic foot ulcers: a national French study.

    PubMed

    Senneville, E; Brière, M; Neut, C; Messad, N; Lina, G; Richard, J-L; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen cultured from diabetic foot infection including diabetic foot osteomyelitis. This French multicentre study determined the genetic content of S. aureus isolated from 157 consecutive cases admitted to 12 diabetic foot centres between 2008 and 2011. We describe for the first time the emergence of the CC398 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clone, the main clone in diabetic foot osteomyelitis, and its tropism for bone. This clone spreads to humans from an animal source through its intrinsic virulence. This adaptation of S. aureus isolates looks to be a worrisome problem and should be carefully monitored. PMID:24118215

  9. Aggressive/hostile personality traits and injury accidents: an eight-year prospective study of a large cohort of French employees -- the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Consoli, Silla M.; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane; Zins, Marie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Chastang, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Background Aggressiveness on the roads and/or anger behind the wheel are considered to be a major traffic safety problem in several countries. However, the psychological mechanisms of anger and/or aggression on the roads remain largely unclear. This study examines a large cohort of French employees followed over the 1994–2001 period to establish whether psychometric measures of aggression/hostility were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury accidents (I-A). Methods A total of 11 754 participants aged from 39 to 54 in 1993 were included in this study. Aggression/hostility was measured in 1993 using the French version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Driving behaviors and I-A were recorded in 2001. Sociodemographic and alcohol consumption data were available from the cohort annual follow-up. The relationship between aggression/hostility scores and I-A was assessed using Negative Binomial regression models with time-dependent covariates. Results The overall BDHI scoring was not statistically predictive of subsequent I-A: adjusted rate ratios (aRR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–1.28 for participants with intermediate scores and 1.25, 95% CI 0.98–1.61 for those with high scores, both compared to those with low scores. The only BDHI subscales found to be associated with I-A were “irritability” (aRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02–1.75 for participants with high scores) and “negativism” (aRR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.71 for participants with high scores). Conclusion Overall aggression/hostility personality traits did not predict injury accidents in this large cohort of French employees, suggesting that aggressiveness on the roads and/or anger behind the wheel extends beyond the individual’s general propensity for aggression. PMID:16332284

  10. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes. PMID:26506372

  11. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  12. Description of the type of chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform hip dysplasia screening radiographs. A retrospective study based on 3302 radiographs.

    PubMed

    Maitre, P; Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Carozzo, C; Arnault, F; Buttin, P; Viguier, E; Fau, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the type of chemical restraint used by French practitioners to perform official hip screening radiographs, to determine the proportion of dogs under general anesthesia versus dogs under sedation, and to search for a difference in hip dysplasia (HD) prevalence between the two groups. From September 2005 to August 2008, 3302 conventional ventrodorsal hip extended radiographs sent for official scoring to the same panellist were selected because information related to the type of chemical restraint had been provided. There were 2825 dogs under general anesthesia and 477 were sedated. Chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform HD screening radiographs is mainly based on general intra-venous anesthesia with an alpha2 agonist associated with ketamine. A single injection of alpha2 agonist is also mostly used for dogs which are radiographed while under sedation. A very low (1.7%) difference in HD prevalence was noted between the anesthetized and the sedated group. Except for acepromazine, which has been demonstrated to provide insufficient muscle relaxation to show evidence of hip laxity, the protocols seem acceptable as regards the Federation Cynologique Internationale requirements for HD screening. PMID:20585709

  13. Is there any impact of HLA-DPB1 disparity in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic SCT? Results of a French multicentric retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gagne, K; Loiseau, P; Dubois, V; Dufossé, F; Perrier, P; Dormoy, A; Jollet, I; Renac, V; Masson, D; Picard, C; Lafarge, X; Hanau, D; Quainon, F; Delbos, F; Coeffic, B; Absi, Léna; Eliaou, J-F; Moalic, V; Fort, M; de Matteis, M; Theodorou, I; Hau, F; Batho, A; Pedron, B; Caillat-Zucman, S; Marry, E; Raus, N; Yakoub-Agha, I; Cesbron, A

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatches in a large cohort of 1342 French patients who underwent 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated HSCT. A significant impact of HLA-DPB1 allelic mismatches (2 vs 0) was observed in severe acute GVHD (aGVHDIII-IV) (risk ratio (RR)=1.73, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.09-2.73, P=0.019) without impact on OS, TRM, relapse and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). According to the T-cell epitope 3 (TCE3)/TCE4 HLA-DPB1 disparity algorithm, 37.6% and 58.4% pairs had nonpermissive HLA-DPB1, respectively. TCE3 and TCE4 disparities had no statistical impact on OS, TRM, relapse, aGVHD and cGVHD. When TCE3/TCE4 disparities were analyzed in the graft-vs-host or host-vs-graft (HVG) direction, only a significant impact of TCE4 nonpermissive disparities in the HVG direction was observed on relapse (RR=1.34, CI 95% 1.00-1.80, P=0.048). In conclusion, this French retrospective study shows an adverse prognosis of HLA-DPB1 mismatches (2 vs 0) on severe aGVHD and of nonpermissive TCE4 HVG disparities on relapse after HLA-matched 10/10 unrelated HSCT. PMID:25365066

  14. Drug interactions between antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents: a descriptive study using the French Pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Sommet, Agnès; Durrieu, Geneviève; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can lead to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Guidelines are available to help prescribers deal with these drug associations, but their implementation is not well evaluated. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of NSAIDs exposure in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs, using the French Pharmacovigilance database, and explore the ADRs related to DDIs between antihypertensive drugs and NSAIDs. Over the 11, 442 notifications of ADRs recorded in this database in patients treated with oral antihypertensive drugs between 2008 and 2010, 517 (4.5 and 95% CI: 4.1-4.9) also included exposure to NSAIDs. These subjects were more frequently women, took more drugs in general, and were younger and less frequently treated with antiplatelet drugs. In 24.2% of them (125 patients), a DDI between NSAIDs and antihypertensive drugs was potentially the cause of the reported ADR. Acute renal failure caused by DDIs between NSAIDs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or diuretics was the most frequently reported ADR (20.7%). Finally, in the French Pharmacovigilance database, around one-fourth of associations NSAIDs  +  antihypertensive drugs are associated with a 'serious' ADR (mainly acute renal failure), suggesting that this well-known DDI is not enough taken into account by prescribers. PMID:23190210

  15. Mid-life occupational grade and quality of life following retirement: a 16-year follow-up of the French GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Platts, Loretta G.; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to contribute to the literature on life course influences upon quality of life by examining pathways linking social position in middle age to quality of life following retirement in French men and women. Method: Data are from the GAZEL cohort study of employees at the French national gas and electricity company. A finely grained measure of occupational grade in 1989 was obtained from company records. Annual self-completion questionnaires provided information on quality of life in 2005, measured with the CASP-19 scale, and on participants’ recent circumstances 2002–2005: mental health, physical functioning, wealth, social status, neighbourhood characteristics, social support and social participation. Path analysis using full information maximum likelihood estimation was performed on 11,293 retired participants. Results: Higher occupational grade in 1989 was associated, in a graded relationship, with better quality of life 16 years later. This association was accounted for by individuals’ more recent circumstances, particularly their social status, mental health, physical functioning and wealth. Conclusion: The graded relationship between occupational grade in mid-life and quality of life after labour market exit was largely accounted for by more recent socio-economic circumstances and state of health. The results support a pathway model for the development of social disparities in quality of life, in which earlier social position shapes individual circumstances in later life. PMID:25220504

  16. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  17. Incidence of adverse events in antipsychotic-naïve children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic drugs: a French multicentre naturalistic study protocol (ETAPE)

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Marie-Line; Thümmler, Susanne; Giannitelli, Marianna; Olliac, Bertrand; Bonnot, Olivier; Cohen, David; Askenazy, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In France, over recent years, the prescription rate of antipsychotic (AP) remained stable in children and adolescents. Prescription of second-generation antipsychotics increased, whereas prescription of first-generation antipsychotics decreased. Off-label prescriptions are very frequent in this population. Adverse events (AEs) in youth treated with AP are common and may be severe. AEs have hitherto been poorly monitored in naturalistic studies independent from industry. Method and analysis We describe a French prospective multicentre study in an AP-naïve paediatric population named Etude de la Tolérance des AntiPsychotique chez l'Enfant (ETAPE). The study started in April 2013. So far, 200 patients have been included. The inclusion criteria are: male or female inpatients aged from 6 to 18 years, treated with an AP drug for less than 28 days, never been treated or having received AP for less than 3 months, discontinued at least 6 months prior to inclusion. These assessments of AE are performed at inclusion, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the introduction of the AP. The monitoring period will end in May 2016. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee ‘Sud Méditerrané V’ (number 12.082) and by the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (number 2012-004546-15). All patients and their parents signed informed consent on enrolment in the study. We will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer national and international presentations. This study will enable better characterisation of the prescription of AP drugs. The results will further help to develop quality standards and recommendations for monitoring AE during the prescription of AP. Trial registration number NCT02007928. PMID:27053275

  18. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  19. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  20. Actualites Francaises (French Current Events)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Monique

    1976-01-01

    Describes a French course offered at the Irish branch of the Alliance Francaise designed for advanced students wishing to expand their knowledge of the language of specialized areas. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  1. The Impact of Stressful Life Events on Excessive Alcohol Consumption in the French Population: Findings from the GAZEL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamers, Sara L.; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bohl, Alex A.; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. Methods Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. Results For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021), children leaving home (p<0.001), and death of loved ones (p = 0.03), and decreased before widowhood (p = 0.015); in the year straddling the event, increased consumption was observed for important purchase (p = 0.018) and retirement (p = 0.002); at the time of the event, consumption decreased for marriage (p = 0.002), divorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all p<0.001), and increased for retirement (p = 0.035). For men, heavy alcohol consumption increased in the years up to and surrounding the death of loved ones, retirement, and important purchase (all p<0.001), and decreased after (all p<0.001, except death of loved one: p = 0.006); at the time of the event, consumption decreased for all events except for children leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all p<0.001). For women and men, heavy alcohol consumption decreased prior to marriage and divorce and increased after (all p<0.001, except for women and marriage: p = 0.01). Conclusion Stressful life events promote healthy and unhealthy alcohol consumption. Certain events impact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time. PMID:24475318

  2. Association of screen time with self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels in French students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Elie; Kurth, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether high levels of screen time exposure are associated with self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity in higher education students. Design Cross-sectional study among participants of the i-Share cohort. Setting French-speaking students of universities and higher education institutions. Participants 4816 graduate students who were at least 18 years old. Exposure Screen time was assessed by self-report of the average time spent on five different screen activities on smartphone, television, computer and tablet and categorised into quartiles. Main outcome measure We used the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) concerning students’ behaviour over the past 6 months to measure self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Responses were summarised into a global score as well as scores for attention problems and hyperactivity. Results The 4816 participants of this study had a mean age of 20.8 years and 75.5% were female. Multivariable ordinary regression models showed significant associations of screen time exposure with quintiles of the total score of self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels as well as the individual domains. Compared to the lowest screen time exposure category, the ORs (95% CI) were 1.58 (1.37 to 1.82) for each increasing level of quintiles of the global score, 1.57 (1.36 to 1.81) for increasing quintiles of attention levels and 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44) for increasing quartiles of hyperactivity. Conclusions Results of this large cross-sectional study among French university and higher education students show dose-dependent associations between screen time and self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether interventions could positively influence these associations. PMID:26920440

  3. Technoscientific French for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    A two-semester sequence of courses in French and Spanish for science and technology at Eastern Michigan University responds to alumni demands for better linguistic and cultural preparation for increasingly global business and industry. In addition, high schools teacher enrolled in the courses find they answer a need for professional upgrading of…

  4. French Theory's American Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  5. Programmed French: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Lucien

    An experiment in programed language instruction based on the "Basic French" method of T. Mueller and H. Niedzielski is reviewed in this paper. Seventy-two civil servants participated in the program which provided for 60 hours of taped instruction. Experiment description, objectives, modifications, and a review of the structuring of lessons 1-20…

  6. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  7. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  8. French Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, DeAnne; Serriere, Connie

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of French instruction in grades 7-12 indicating instructional goals in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of the foreign language behavioral objectives in the guide, the manual presents a section on French…

  9. An Exploratory Study on the Role of L1 Chinese and L2 English in the Cross-Linguistic Influence in L3 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Hansong; Cai, Luna Jing

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates cross-linguistic influence in the comprehension of L3 French past tense. A close examination was made on the L1 (Chinese) and L2 (English) transfer patterns among 20 English majors in their early acquisition of L3 French passé compose (PC). Data were collected through introspective think-aloud protocol in a comprehension…

  10. A Language of Our Own: The Genesis of Michif, the Mixed Cree-French Language of the Canadian Metis. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Peter

    The Michif language, spoken by descendants of French Canadian fur traders and the Cree and Ojibwe Indians of western Canada and the northern United States, is a difficult and unique language because it uses French for nouns and Cree for verbs, therefore comprising two different sets of grammatical rules. This book employs historical research and…

  11. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire paradigm.…

  12. The influence of socio-economic and surveillance characteristics on breast cancer survival: a French population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gentil-Brevet, J; Colonna, M; Danzon, A; Grosclaude, P; Chaplain, G; Velten, M; Bonnetain, F; Arveux, P

    2008-01-01

    Survival data on female invasive breast cancer with 9-year follow-up from five French cancer registries were analysed by logistic regression for prognostic factors of cancer stage. The Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used to estimate and compare the overall survival probability at 5 and 7 years, and at the endpoint. The Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. County of residence, age group, occupational status, mammographic surveillance, gynaecological prevention consultations and the diagnosis mammography, whether within a screening framework or not, were independent prognostic factors of survival. Moreover, for the same age group, and only for cancers T2 and/or N+ (whether 1, 2 or 3) and M0, the prognosis was significantly better when the diagnosis mammography was done within the framework of screening. Socio-economic and surveillance characteristics are independent prognostic factors of both breast cancer stage at diagnosis and of survival. Screening mammography is an independent prognostic factor of survival. PMID:18182980

  13. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  14. A preliminary study of viral metagenomics of French bat species in contact with humans: identification of new mammalian viruses.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Cervantes-Gonzalez, Minerva; Guigon, Ghislaine; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Maufrais, Corinne; Caro, Valérie; Bourhy, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome). We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total) in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs). Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae). In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections. PMID:24489870

  15. Absorption, metabolism, and effects at transcriptome level of a standardized French oak wood extract, Robuvit, in healthy volunteers: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Leoni, Guido; Maldini, Mariateresa; Natarelli, Lucia; Comitato, Raffaella; Schonlau, Frank; Virgili, Fabio; Canali, Raffaella

    2014-01-15

    The consumption of wine and spirits, traditionally aged in oak barrels, exposes humans to roburin ingestion. These molecules belong to a class of ellagitannins (ETs), and their only known source is oak wood. Very little is currently known about roburin bioavailability and biological activity. We reported for the first time human absorption of roburins from a French oak wood (Quercus robur) water extract (Robuvit) by measuring the increase of total phenols (from 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.26 ± 0.18 μg GAE equiv/mL plasma) and the appearance of roburin metabolites (three different glucoronidate urolithins and ellagic acid), in plasma, after 5 days of supplementation. Robuvit supplementation induced also the increase of plasma antioxidant capacity from 1.8 ± 0.05 to 1.9 ± 0.01 nmol Trolox equiv/mL plasma. Moreover, utilizing a combined ex vivo cell culture approach, we assessed the effect of Q. robur metabolites (present in human serum after supplementation) on gene expression modulation, utilizing an Affymetrix array matrix, in endothelial, neuronal, and keratinocyte cell lines. The functional analysis reveals that Robuvit metabolites affect ribosome, cell cycle, and spliceosome pathways. PMID:24354337

  16. Sanctification of "the accursed". Drinking habits of the French existentialists in the 1940s (a case study).

    PubMed

    Arppe, T

    1998-01-01

    The chapter deals with the drinking habits of the French existentialists during and after World War II (roughly from 1943 to 1948). It attempts to show that the phenomenon cannot be understood separately from their lifestyle as a whole, which in this case (as I claim) is primarily manifested through a certain (mythical) structure of meanings related to the category of the sacred. Jean-Paul Sartre's position as the leading intellectual figure of the time is also to be seen as a result of his ambiguous reputation as a "prophet" and a "criminal" in the yellow press. What is involved is a single mythical structure, where "decadent" life is precisely one aspect of sanctification. On the other hand, Sartre's "bohemian lifestyle" and his desire to break bourgeois habits can be seen as a variant of the bourgeois myth of the artistic lifestyle created in the 19th century. From this angle, existentialism can in a certain sense be considered the last hybrid expression of the "transgressive" myth of rebellion which this sort of lifestyle had crystallized. PMID:9751957

  17. Eligibility of patients withheld or withdrawn from life-sustaining treatment to organ donation after circulatory arrest death: epidemiological feasibility study in a French Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transplantation brings sustainably improved quality of life to patients with end-stage organ failure. Persisting shortfall in available organs prompted French authorities and practitioners to focus on organ retrieval in patients withdrawn from life-sustaining treatment and awaiting cardiac arrest (Maastricht classification category III). The purpose of this study was to assess the theoretical eligibility of non-heart-beating donors dying in the intensive care unit (ICU) after a decision to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment (WoWt). Methods We collected the clinical and biological characteristics of all consecutive patients admitted to our ICU and qualified for a WoWt procedure under the terms of the French Leonetti law governing end-of-life care during a 12-month period. The theoretical organ donor eligibility (for kidney, liver, or lung retrieval) of deceased patients was determined a posteriori 1) according to routine medical criteria for graft selection and 2) according to the WoWt measures implemented and their impact on organ viability. Results A total of 596 patients (mean age: 67 ± 16 yr; gender ratio M/F: 1.6; mean SAPS (Simplified Acute Physiology Score) II: 54 ± 24) was admitted to the ICU, of which 84 patients (mean age: 71 ± 14 yr, 14% of admissions, gender ratio M/F: 3.2) underwent WoWt measures. Eight patients left the unit alive. Forty-four patients presented a contraindication ruling out organ retrieval either preexisting admission (n = 20) or emerged during hospitalization (n = 24). Thirty-two patients would have been eligible as kidney (n = 23), liver (n = 22), or lung donors (n = 2). Cardiopulmonary support was withdrawn in only five of these patients, and three died within 120 minutes after withdrawal (the maximum delay compatible with organ viability for donor grafts). Conclusions In this pilot study, a significant number of patients deceased under WoWt conditions theoretically would

  18. Strategies of Communication Used by Native and Non-Native Speakers of French. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamayan, Else V.; Tucker, G. Richard

    This study describes certain communication strategies used by Anglophone children learning French as a second language as well as by children whose mother tongue is French. Three groups of children in the third and fifth grades participated in the study: French native speakers, Anglophone children learning French in an immersion setting, and…

  19. Estimating drinking-water ingestion and dermal contact with water in a French population of pregnant women: the EDDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Dupuis, Antoine; Grignon, Claire; Strezlec, Sylvie; Pierre, Fabrice; Rabouan, Sylvie; Migeot, Virginie

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study, a part of the Endocrine Disruptor Deux-Sèvres (EDDS) cohort study, was to estimate water-use habits of pregnant French women. The study population consisted of 132 pregnant women living in Deux-Sèvres (France) in 2012-2013, in areas where drinking water is exclusively produced by surface water. Drinking-water data included ingested water (tap, bottled and filtered) and ingestion place (home, work and elsewhere). Dermal contact with water included showering, bathing, swimming, spa use, hand-washing and other water activities. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews at second and third trimesters of pregnancy with a 1-day-recall questionnaire. Intertrimestral differences in water-use habits were assessed. Predictors of water ingestion and duration of dermal contact with water were assessed with multiple linear regressions. At the second trimester of pregnancy, the mean total drinking-water ingestion was 1.8±0.6 l per day (mean and SD), 71% of which was tap water. Total drinking-water ingestion was not different between both trimesters but ingestion place differed. Dermal contact with water estimate was 188±118 and 173±92 min/week at second and third trimesters, respectively. Smoking increased water ingestion 777 ml/day 95% CI (171-1384). Duration of dermal contact in spring was 30 min/week 95% CI (13-48) higher than in winter. Obese women spend 26 min/week 95% CI (2-50) more showering than women with recommended weight. Our estimates of pregnant French women's exposure to water will help researchers to better assess water pollutant risks. PMID:25073435

  20. Toxoplasma Seroconversion with Negative or Transient Immunoglobulin M in Pregnant Women: Myth or Reality? A French Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cimon, B.; Chemla, C.; Darde, M. L.; Delhaes, L.; L'Ollivier, C.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Quinio, D.; Robert-Gangneux, F.; Villard, O.; Villena, I.; Candolfi, E.; Pelloux, H.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, Toxoplasma infection is associated with high levels of specific IgM antibody and a rise in specific IgG levels 1 to 3 weeks later. Atypical IgG seroconversion, without IgM detection or with transient IgM levels, has been described during serologic follow-up of seronegative pregnant women and raises difficulties in interpreting the results. To evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of these atypical cases of seroconversion, an investigation was conducted within the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, from which 26 cases collected from 12 laboratories belonging to the network were identified. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the results of serologic testing, the treatments administered, and the results of prenatal and postnatal follow-up for these women. In each case, IgG antibodies were detected using both screening and confirmatory tests. IgM antibodies were not detected in 15 cases, and the levels were equivocal or low-positive in 11 cases. The IgG avidity results were low in 16 cases and high in one case. Most of the pregnant women (22/26) were treated with spiramycin from the time that IgG antibodies appeared until delivery. Amniotic fluid was analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in 11/26 cases, and the results were negative in all cases. Congenital toxoplasmosis was ruled out in 12/26 newborns. There was no abnormality observed at birth for 10 newborns and no information available for 4 newborns. In conclusion, when the interpretation of serological results is so difficult, it seems cautious to initiate treatment by spiramycin and to follow the pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:23616461

  1. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  2. Building a Writing Community through Learning of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoonauth-Bedford, Anu.; Stace, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study designed to develop writing proficiency in French via collaborative writing activities at intermediate level at the University of Wollongong in Australia. Twenty four students in the final year of French studies program took part in this innovative approach which integrates multimodal functionality of the…

  3. Acoustical Measurements of Selected Intonation Contours of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, John M.

    Recent studies of rising intonation contours in French, in particular the acoustical differences that serve to distinguish Yes/No questions from other rising intonations are reviewed. The preliminary results of a pilot study of rising intonations in French, in which average curves were obtained from spectrographic measurements of fundamental…

  4. Influence of mercury exposure on blood pressure, resting heart rate and heart rate variability in French Polynesians: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Populations which diet is rich in seafood are highly exposed to contaminants such as mercury, which could affect cardiovascular risk factors Objective To assess the associations between mercury and blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) among French Polynesians Methods Data were collected among 180 adults (≥ 18 years) and 101 teenagers (12-17 years). HRV was measured using a two-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram (Holter) and BP was measured using a standardized protocol. The association between mercury and HRV and BP parameters was studied using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) Results Among teenagers, the high frequency (HF) decreased between the 2nd and 3rd tertile (380 vs. 204 ms2, p = 0.03) and a similar pattern was observed for the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD) (43 vs. 30 ms, p = 0.005) after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the ratio low/high frequency (LF/HF) increased between the 2nd and 3rd tertile (2.3 vs. 3.0, p = 0.04). Among adults, the standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN) tended to decrease between the 1st and 2nd tertile (84 vs. 75 ms, p = 0.069) after adjusting for confounders. Furthermore, diastolic BP tended to increase between the 2nd and 3rd tertile (86 vs. 91 mm Hg, p = 0.09). No significant difference was observed in resting HR or pulse pressure (PP) Conclusions Mercury was associated with decreased HRV among French Polynesian teenagers while no significant association was observed with resting HR, BP, or PP among teenagers or adults PMID:22078280

  5. The mental health effects of multiple work and family demands : A prospective study of psychiatric sickness absence in the French GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Maria; Berkman, Lisa; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the cumulative effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men. Methods We studied the association between multiple work and family demands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal study conducted among members of the French GAZEL cohort study (8869 men, 2671 women) over a period of 9 years (1995–2003). Work stress and family demands were measured by questionnaire. Medically-certified psychiatric sickness absence data were obtained directly from the employer. Rate ratios (RRs) of sickness absence were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, marital status, social support, stressful life events, alcohol consumption, body mass and depressive symptoms at baseline. Results Participants simultaneously exposed to high levels of work and family demands (>=2 work stress factors and >=4 dependents) had significantly higher rates of sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders than participants with lower levels of demands (compared to participants exposed to 0–1 work stress factors and with 1–3 dependents, age-adjusted rate ratios were 2.37 (95% CI 1.02–5.52) in men and 6.36 (95% CI 3.38–11.94) in women. After adjusting for baseline socio-demographic, behavioral and health characteristics, these RRs were respectively reduced to 1.82 (95% CI 0.86–3.87) in men, 5.04 (95% CI 2.84–8.90) in women. The effect of multiple work and family demands was strongest for sickness absence due to depression : age-adjusted RRs among participants with the highest level of work and family demands were 4.70 (1.96–11.24) in men, 8.57 (4.26–17.22) in women; fully-adjusted RRs: 3.55 (95% CI 1.62–7.77) in men, 6.58 (95% CI 3.46–12.50) in women. Conclusions Men and women simultaneously exposed to high levels of work stress and family demands

  6. Perceptions of French Slang: L'Autre Face de la Medaille. (The Other Side of the Coin.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1986-01-01

    Native French speakers (N=56) were critical of French slang expressions spoken by French youths. A previous study found that the native speakers considered Americans' use of the same slang even less acceptable, suggesting the need for careful consideration of teaching such terms in French-language classrooms. (Author/CB)

  7. Acquisition of the Internal and External Constraints of Variable Schwa Deletion by French Immersion Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uritescu, Dorin; Mougeon, Raymond; Rehner, Katherine; Nadasdi, Terry

    2004-01-01

    This article is one among a series of studies on the acquisition of patterns of linguistic variation observable in the speech of native speakers of Canadian French by French immersion (FI) students. The present study is centered on deletion of the central vowel schwa, a widespread feature of casual spoken French. In this study, FI students are…

  8. An Inquiry into the Contributions of the School and of the Family to Children's Successes in French Minority Schools: A Case Study of Exogamous Families at Ecole Emilie-Tremblay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Denise

    Based on the author's experience working with the French minority in the Yukon, this study investigated the contributions of the school and of the family to the success at Ecole Emilie-Tremblay, a school of children from exogamous families (those with parents from different language groups). Three areas of parental involvement were…

  9. Etude des comportements langagiers dans deux entreprises en debut de processus de francisation (A Study of Language Usage and Attitudes in Two Businesses at the Beginning of the Process of Change from English to French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshaies, Denise; Hamers, Josiane F.

    A comparative study was conducted in two factories in the Montreal area which were in the process of changing the official language within the factory from English to French. The objective of the research was twofold: (1) to analyze the language use and behavior of the employees; and (2) to develop research instruments appropriate for evaluating…

  10. Seismic and mechanical studies of the artificially triggered rockfall at the Mount Néron (French Alps, December 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottelin, P.; Jongmans, D.; Daudon, D.; Mathy, A.; Helmstetter, A.; Bonilla-Sierra, V.; Cadet, H.; Amitrano, D.; Richefeu, V.; Lorier, L.; Baillet, L.; Villard, P.; Donzé, F.

    2014-02-01

    The eastern limestone cliff of Mount Néron (French Alps) was the theatre of two medium-size rockfalls between summer and winter 2011. On 14 August 2011, a ~ 2000 m3 rock compartment detached from the cliff, fell 100 m below and propagated down the slope. Although most of the fallen rocks deposited in the upper part of the slope, about 15 meter-size blocks were stopped by a ditch and an earthen barrier after a runout of 800 m. An unstable overhanging ~ 2600 m3 compartment remained attached to the cliff and was blasted on 13 December 2011. During this artificially triggered event, 7 blocks reached the same ditch, with volumes ranging from 0.8 to 12 m3. A semi-permanent seismic array located about 2.5 km from the site recorded the two events, providing a unique opportunity to understand and to compare the seismic phases generated during natural and artificially triggered rockfalls. Both events have signal duration of ~ 100 s with comparable maximum amplitudes recorded at large distances (computed local magnitude of 1.14 and 1.05, respectively), most of the energy lying below 20 Hz. Remote sensing techniques (photogrammetry and LiDAR) were employed before and after the provoked rockfall, allowing the volume and fracturing to be characterized. This event was filmed by two video cameras and the generated ground motions were recorded using two temporary 3C seismic sensors and 3 seismic arrays deployed at the slope toe. Movie and seismogram processing provided estimates of the propagation velocity during the successive rockfall phases, which ranges from 12 m s-1 to 30 m s-1. The main seismic phases were obtained from combined video and seismic signal analyses. The two most energetic phases are related to the ground impact of fallen material after free-fall, and to individual rock block impacts into the ditch and the earthen barrier. These two phases are characterized by similar low-frequency content but show very different particle motions. The discrete element technique

  11. Seismic and mechanical studies of the artificially triggered rockfall at Mount Néron (French Alps, December 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottelin, P.; Jongmans, D.; Daudon, D.; Mathy, A.; Helmstetter, A.; Bonilla-Sierra, V.; Cadet, H.; Amitrano, D.; Richefeu, V.; Lorier, L.; Baillet, L.; Villard, P.; Donzé, F.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern limestone cliff of Mount Néron (French Alps) was the theater for two medium-size rockfalls between summer and winter 2011. On 14 August 2011, a ~2000 m3 rock compartment detached from the cliff, fell 100 m below and propagated down the slope. Although most of the fallen rocks deposited on the upper part of the slope, some blocks of about 15 m in size were stopped by a ditch and an earthen barrier after a run-out of 800 m. An unstable overhanging ~2600 m3 compartment remained attached to the cliff and was blasted on 13 December 2011. During this artificially triggered event, 7 blocks reached the same ditch, with volumes ranging from 0.8 to 12 m3. A semi-permanent seismic array located about 2.5 km from the site recorded the two events, providing a unique opportunity to understand and to compare the seismic phases generated during natural and artificially triggered rockfalls. Both events have signal duration of ~100 s with comparable maximum amplitudes recorded at large distances (computed local magnitude of 1.14 and 1.05, respectively), most of the energy lying below 20 Hz. Remote sensing techniques (photogrammetry and lidar) were employed before and after the provoked rockfall, allowing the volume and fracturing to be characterized. This event was filmed by two video cameras, and the generated ground motions were recorded using two temporary 3C seismic sensors and three seismic arrays deployed at the slope toe. Videos and seismogram processing provided estimates of the propagation velocity during the successive rockfall phases, which ranges from 12 to 30 m s-1. The main seismic phases were obtained from combined video and seismic signal analyses. The two most energetic phases are related to the ground impact of fallen material after free fall, and to individual rock block impacts into the ditch and the earthen barrier. These two phases are characterized by similar low-frequency content but show very different particle motions. The discrete element

  12. Native Speaker Reactions to Errors Made by French Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiv, Ellen

    In a study of the relative importance native speakers of French attach to different types of errors produced by second language learners, 231 native French speakers listened to 50 pairs of deviant sentences to determine which sentence in each pair contained a more serious error. The sentences contained 20 different types of errors grouped into…

  13. Parier sur le francais fonctionnel (Betting on Functional French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larramendy, Jean-Louis

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of second-language learning looks at the role of functional French in the acquisition of French as a second or foreign language. The choice and implementation of a Vygotskian approach using the study of electricity is described. (MSE)

  14. The Role of Texture in French Spectral Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharse, Kari E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the essential role of texture in French spectral music and its contribution to musical evolution and form in specific works by Gerard Grisey, Tristan Murail, Philippe Hurel, and Kaija Saariaho. The use of texture in French spectral music is placed in a historical context by exploring the new ways that texture is employed in…

  15. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  16. Facebook-Induced Motivation Shifts in a French Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, James

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of instructor's self-disclosure using the Facebook social networking online platform on students' motivation types in an online language course. The participants were 104 beginning French students enrolled in an online French course at a major research university in the southeast U.S. The participants were…

  17. Rocky Mountain House French Immersion Camp: A Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, Patricia; And Others

    This report examines the implementation of a five-day French immersion program whose goal was to expose rural secondary school students to French in cultural context, in order to develop cultural understanding and effective communication. Findings of the study show: (1) 14 percent of the program time was spent on instructional activity, 20 percent…

  18. Do 11-Month-Old French Infants Process Articles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Durand, Catherine; de Boysson-Bardies, Benedicte

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study examined (Parisian) French-learning 11-month-old infants' recognition of the six definite and indefinite French articles: "le", "la", "les", "un", "une", and "des". The six articles were compared with pseudoarticles in the context of disyllabic or monosyllabic nouns, using the Head-turn Preference Procedure. The pseudo…

  19. Structural Influences on Initial Accent Placement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astesano, Corine; Bard, Ellen Gurman; Turk, Alice

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the phrase-final accent (FA), the French phonological system includes a phonetically distinct Initial Accent (IA). The present study tested two proposals: that IA marks the onset of phonological phrases, and that it has an independent rhythmic function. Eight adult native speakers of French were instructed to read syntactically…

  20. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  2. Trophic functioning of coastal ecosystems along an anthropogenic pressure gradient: A French case study with emphasis on a small and low impacted estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Lobry, Jérémy; Amara, Rachid; Brylinski, Jean-Michel; Boët, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    The ecological functioning of various French coastal ecosystems, with special emphasis on the Canche estuary, along an anthropogenic pressure gradient was studied using mass-balanced trophic models in order to test the relevance of functional indices assessing the ecological status of coastal systems. A trophic model of the Canche (eastern English Channel, France) estuarine food web was constructed using an Ecopath approach to determine the structure and functioning of energy flows in the trophic network. The model consisted of 15 compartments, from primary producers (trophic level TL = 1) to the top consumers (fish, TL = 3.8). Input parameters were mainly computed from field studies conducted between 2006 and 2007. Results showed that the majority of flows came from detritus, which is an important energy source in the ecosystem, as indicated by mixed trophic impacts. Keystone index (KSI) revealed that amphipods, copepods, gobies and European eel were identified as key compartments in the Canche estuarine food web, with the first two considered as important vectors for carbon transfer from detritus to top predators. The Canche estuary trophic network has a low recycling level (FCI = 0.8%), a low total system throughput (TST = 1364 gC. m-2. y-1) and a low ascendency (A = 1439 gC. m-2. y-1), but a relatively low connectivity (CI = 0.33), high internal relative ascendency (Ai/Ci = 35.6%) and a high omnivory index (OI = 0.04), indicating that this estuary is immature but relatively organised and complex, with strong production but which little is used as the estuary depends on external exchanges. In addition, the Canche estuary, recognised as a small and low impacted estuarine ecosystem, was compared with six other French coastal systems: the bay of Somme, the Seine estuary, the Mont Saint-Michel bay, the Loire estuary, the Pertuis Charentais and the Gironde estuary, where Ecological Network Analyses (ENA) have been applied using similar methods. Compared with the

  3. Prognostic factors in primary cutaneous lymphomas other than mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome. The French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Grange, F; Hedelin, G; Joly, P; Beylot-Barry, M; D'Incan, M; Delaunay, M; Vaillant, L; Avril, M F; Bosq, J; Wechsler, J; Dalac, S; Grosieux, C; Franck, N; Esteve, E; Michel, C; Bodemer, C; Vergier, B; Laroche, L; Bagot, M

    1999-06-01

    Prognostic studies of primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCL) other than mycosis fungoides (MF) and the Sézary syndrome (SS; non-MF/SS PCL) have been mainly performed on subgroups or on small numbers of patients by using univariate analyses. Our aim was to identify independent prognostic factors in a large series of patients with non-MF/SS PCL. We evaluated 158 patients who were registered in the French Study Group on Cutaneous Lymphomas database from January 1, 1986 to March 1, 1997. Variables analyzed for prognostic value were: age; sex; type of clinical lesions; maximum diameter, location, and number of skin lesions; cutaneous distribution (ie, local, regional, or generalized); prognostic group according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) classification for PCL; B- or T-cell phenotype; serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level; and B symptoms. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a model of relative survival. Forty-nine patients (31%) died. The median relative survival time was 81 months. In univariate analysis, EORTC prognostic group, serum LDH level, B symptoms, and variables related to tumor extension (ie, distribution, maximum diameter, and number of skin lesions) were significantly associated with survival. When these variables were considered together in a multivariate analysis, EORTC prognostic group and distribution of skin lesions remained statistically significant, independent prognostic factors. This study confirms the good predictive value of the EORTC classification for PCL and shows that the distribution of skin lesions at initial evaluation is an important prognostic indicator. PMID:10339469

  4. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  5. A WebGIS service for managing, sharing and communicating information on mountain risks: a pilot study at the Barcelonnette Basin (South French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Skupinski, Grzegorz; Kappes, Melanie; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Integrative analysis, assessment and management of mountain hazards and risks require (1) the intense cooperation among scientists, local practitioners and stakeholders, (2) the compilation of multi-source GIS database on both the sources of the dangers and their impacts, and (3) the communication of scientific results which is still a challenge. Within the European project Mountain Risks and the French-research initiative OMIV (Multi-disciplinary Observatory on Slope Instabilities; http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/omiv), several approaches are under development aiming at a coherent communication of scientific results to the population in order to inform about hazards and risks and support practical risk management measures. A simple and user-friendly approach with a visual-web-based interface is proposed, able (1) to incorporate geographical information on past events and on controlling factors, (2) to include administrative boundaries and official risk regulation maps, and(3) to integrate all modeling results obtained in the study area (already performed or in progress). The possibility to share information by means of web services offers a double utility: firstly it is a way to decrease the gap between scientific community's results and stakeholders' practical needs (simple interface, easy-to-use buttons in a generally user-friendly approach). Secondly the wide collection of diverse information (records of historical events, conditioning and triggering factors, information on elements at risk and their vulnerability, modeling results) in combination with the possibility of comparison among the data offers a great support in the decision-making process. As first case study, the Barcelonnette Basin (South French Alps) has been chosen for the pilot development of the interface. The objective is to organize, manage and share a wide range of information and calibrate a correct web-service solution. Several steps are planned to achieve this goal: the creation of a

  6. French Women in Physics: Status and Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, C.; Pépin, A.; Ducloy, M.; Giacobino, E.; Leduc, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present statistics on the underrepresentation of females entering scientific studies and on the persistence of a glass ceiling for women physicists—and female scientists in general—in France. We also examine actions taken by French research institutions, associations, companies, and professional societies since 2005 to improve these situations.

  7. The Longitudinal Development of Clusters in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing…

  8. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  9. Syntactic Categorization in French-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that infants recognize and store function words starting from the age of 6-8 months. Using a visual fixation procedure, the present study tested whether French-learning 14-month-olds have the knowledge of syntactic categories of determiners and pronouns, respectively, and whether they can use these function words for…

  10. Compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation of French [u]: an acoustic and perceptual study of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Perrier, Pascal; Aubin, Jero Me; Savariaux, Christophe; Thibeault, Mélanie

    2008-08-01

    The relations between production and perception in 4-year-old children were examined in a study of compensation strategies for a lip-tube perturbation. Acoustic and perceptual analyses of the rounded vowel [u] produced by twelve 4-year-old French speakers were conducted under two conditions: normal and with a 15-mm-diam tube inserted between the lips. Recordings of isolated vowels were made in the normal condition before any perturbation (N1), immediately upon insertion of the tube and for the next 19 trials in this perturbed condition, with (P2) or without articulatory instructions (P1), and in the normal condition after the perturbed trials (N2). The results of the acoustic analyses reveal speaker-dependent alterations of F1, F2, and/or F0 in the perturbed conditions and after the removal of the tube. For some subjects, the presence of the tube resulted in very little change; for others, an increase in F2 was observed in P1, which was generally reduced in some of the 20 repetitions, but not systematically and not continuously. The use of articulatory instructions provided in the P2 condition was detrimental to the achievement of a good acoustic target. Perceptual data are used to determine optimal combinations of F0, F1, and F2 (in bark) related to these patterns. The data are compared to a previous study conducted with adults [Savariaux et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 381-393 (1999)]. PMID:18681607

  11. Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women.

    PubMed

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the 'Etude Epidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale' (E3N) study, a French epidemiological cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative or friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy desserts and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with a lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intakes of vitamins B2, B6 and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415

  12. A cross-cultural study of the higher-order structures underlying personality disorders in French-speaking Africa and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Rigozzi, Christine; Rossier, Jérôme; Dahourou, Donatien; Adjahouisso, Marcel; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yeye, Denis; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Bouatta, Cherifa; Cissé, Daouda Dougoumalé; Mbodji, Mamadou; Meyer de Stadelhofen, Franz; Minga, David Minga; Tseung, Caroline Ng; Ondongo, François; Romdhane, Mohamed Nouri; Sfayhi, Nicole; Tsokini, Dieudonné; Verardi, Sabrina

    2009-04-01

    Most studies about the higher-order dimensions to be considered in order to parsimoniously describe Personality Disorders (PDs) have identified between two and four factors but there is still no consensus about their exact number. In this context, the cultural stability of these structures might be a criterion to be considered. The aim of this study was to identify stable higher-order structures of PD traits in a French-speaking African and Swiss sample (N = 2,711). All subjects completed the IPDE screening questionnaire. Using Everett's criterion and conducting a series of principal component analyses, a cross-culturally stable two- and four-factor structure were identified, associated with a total congruence coefficient of .98 and .94, respectively, after Procrustes rotation. Moreover, these two structures were also highly replicable across the four African regions considered, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Mauritius, with a mean total congruence coefficient of .97 and .87, respectively. The four-factor structure presented the advantage of being similar to Livesely's four components and of describing the ten PDs more accurately. PMID:19379094

  13. French Bilingual Classes in Vietnam: Issues and Debates about an Innovative Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called "French bilingual classes". The main aim of the study is…

  14. Syntax and Discourse in Near-Native French: Clefts and Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines aspects of the syntax-discourse interface in near-native French. Two cleft structures--"c'est" clefts and "avoir" clefts--are examined in experimental and spontaneous conversational data from 10 adult Anglophone learners of French and ten native speakers of French. "C'est" clefts mark focus, and "avoir" clefts introduce new…

  15. French for "Hotellies": A Recently Instituted Course at the Cornell School of Hotel Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean-Levy, Andree

    The Cornell School of Hotel Administration in collaboration with the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics offers a course in French for a small group of students who have had the equivalent of at least two semesters of college French. The course emphasizes oral/aural French with very little class time spent on grammar study. Grammar…

  16. French and Spanish-Speaking Children Use Different Visual and Motor Units during Spelling Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This study used a copying task to examine spelling acquisition in French and Spanish from a perception and action perspective. Experiment 1 compared French and Spanish-speaking monolingual children's performance. Experiment 2 analysed the behaviour of bilingual children when copying words in French and Spanish. Gaze lift analysis showed that in…

  17. The Effects of Collaborative Models in Second Life on French Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chia-Jui, Chu

    2015-01-01

    French is the ninth most widely used language globally, but French-learning environments in Taiwan have been insufficient. Language acquisition is easier in a natural setting, and so such a setting should be available to language learners wherever possible. This study aimed to (1) create an authentic environment for learning French in Second Life…

  18. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  19. Raising FLAGS: Renewing Core French at the Pre-Service Teacher Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    A new program for core French teacher candidates called FLAGS (French Language and Global Studies) was established at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 2007. The program is intended for those who are keen to teach core French and possess rudimentary proficiency in the language but may not necessarily have the same proficiency or prior…

  20. Native and Nonnative Interpretation of Pronominal Forms: Evidence from French and Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimke, Sarah; Colonna, Saveria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of grammatical role and discourse-level cues on the interpretation of different pronominal forms in native speakers of French, native speakers of Turkish, and Turkish learners of French. In written questionnaires, we found that native speakers of French were influenced by discourse-level cues when interpreting…

  1. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  2. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically "valid" is…

  3. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  4. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. Participants 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Results The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. Conclusions For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial

  5. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary. PMID:12281137

  6. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  7. Environmental script affects lateral asymmetry of word recognition: A study of French-Hebrew bilinguals tested in Israel and in France.

    PubMed

    Siéroff, Eric; Haehnel-Benoliel, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A written word is identified more easily when it is presented in the right than in the left visual field. This right visual field superiority (RVFS) may be explained by the left hemisphere's role in reading and by reading direction in left-to-right scripts. However, the comparison of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts had not resulted in systematic differences. It had also been found that the linguistic environment has an effect on visuospatial bias. We hypothesized that the linguistic environment might also affect RVFS. In an identification task, French and Hebrew words were presented in each visual field to four groups of 24 neurologically healthy participants, all of whom read French and Hebrew as a first or second language: native French speakers in France, native French speakers in Israel, native Hebrew speakers in Israel, and native Hebrew speakers in France. Results showed a greater RVFS with French than with Hebrew words in all groups except the native Hebrew speakers in Israel. Thus, at least for native Hebrew speakers, the country where participants lived also had an effect on the differential RVFS between languages, suggesting an effect of environmental script or reading practice. PMID:25496428

  8. Relative contribution of structural inheritance and glacial morphology on the post-glacial slope destabilization. The Séchilienne slope case study (French western Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stéphane; Zerathe, Swann; Audin, Laurence; Dumont, Thierry; Jarre, Raphael; Jongmans, Denis; Carcaillet, Julien; Dubois, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    In the main Alpine valleys, the chronological constraints about the onset of the slope movements following glacial retreat are scarse. The southern part of the Belledonne massif (French western Alps) along the Romanche valley is affected by numerous slope destabilizations. A detailed geomorphological study using a high resolution LIDAR digital model elevation, allows to characterize the structural framework, the evolution of the glacial retreat and the distribution of the gravitational instabilities. The systematic survey of (i) the main fracturing and (ii) the glacial and gravity morphological witness along the slopes of the Romanche valley coupled with (iii) cosmogenic 10Be dating provides a regional view of the dynamics of slope destabilisation in this area. The proposed scenario allows to evaluate the relative influence of different triggering factors such as seismo-tectonic stresses and climatic changes. These data also allow to propose a consistent dynamic destabilization model of a major lanslide (> 100×106 m3) in relation with the last episode of glacial retreat ~ 21ka ago.

  9. Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua; Isaacman, Alice; Franz, Bryan A; McClain, Charles R

    2002-02-20

    We describe our efforts to study and compare the ocean-color data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER). OCTS and POLDER were both on board Japan's Sun-synchronous Advanced Earth Observing Satellite from August 1996 to June 1997, collecting approximately 10 months of global ocean-color data. This operation provided a unique opportunity for the development of methods and strategies for the merging of ocean-color data from multiple ocean-color sensors. We describe our approach to the development of consistent data-processing algorithms for both OCTS and POLDER and the use of a common in situ data set to calibrate vicariously the two sensors. Therefore the OCTS- and POLDER-measured radiances are bridged effectively through common in situ measurements. With this approach to the processing of data from two different sensors, the only differences in the derived products from OCTS and POLDER are the differences that are inherited from the instrument characteristics. Results show that there are no obvious bias differences between the OCTS- and POLDER-derived ocean-color products, whereas the differences due to noise, which stem from variations in sensor characteristics, are difficult to correct at the pixel level. The ocean-color data from OCTS and POLDER therefore can be compared and merged in the sense that there is no significant bias between two. PMID:11900148

  10. Cancer patients' willingness to pay for blood transfusions at home: results from a contingent valuation study in a French cancer network.

    PubMed

    Havet, Nathalie; Morelle, Magali; Remonnay, Raphaël; Carrere, Marie-Odile

    2012-06-01

    Home blood transfusion may be an interesting alternative to hospital transfusion, especially when given with curative or palliative intent or for terminal care in advanced-stage cancer patients. However, there is limited information about patients' attitude toward this type of care. The purpose of this study was to measure French cancer patients' willingness to pay (WTP) for home blood transfusion and to analyze determinants of their choice. A contingent valuation survey was administered to 139 patients receiving transfusions in the framework of a regional home care network or in the hospital outpatient department. Participation was high (90%). Most patients (65%) had received home care, including 43% blood transfusions. Just under half of the patients gave a zero WTP, among which we identified 8 protest bidders. The median WTP for home blood transfusion was 26.5 per patient. In multivariate analysis, long home-hospital distance, poor quality of life, and previous experience of home care were identified as important factors in determining how much more patients would be willing to pay for transfusion at home. These results demonstrate the benefits of developing domiciliary services to improve patient well-being, notably for the weakest among them. The significant impact of previous home care experience on WTP is probably related to the strong involvement of physicians from the blood center and to their active contribution to a high-level homecare network. Some of our findings could be useful for policy decision-making regarding home care. PMID:21660563

  11. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from adults with community-acquired pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections in France: the nationwide French PREMIUM study.

    PubMed

    Leprince, C; Desroches, M; Emirian, A; Coutureau, C; Anais, L; Fihman, V; Soussy, C J; Decousser, J W

    2015-10-01

    The empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) must be based on updated bacterial distribution and susceptibility data. A nationwide study consecutively collected 1288 isolates from CAP (n=467) and cSSTIs (n=821) from 18 French hospitals between 2012 and 2013. The MIC values of commonly used antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined. Bacterial distribution featured Pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus for CAPs and S. aureus, β-hemolytic streptococci and Enterobacteriaceae for cSSTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated i) the sustained third-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin activity against pneumococci and H. influenzae, ii) no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emergence among respiratory pathogens, iii) the high in vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from cSSTIs (98.7% susceptibility), and iv) the worrisome decreasing fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporin susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae. This laboratory-based survey depicts a contrasting situation and supports the scoring of patients for the resistant pathogen risk before empirical therapy. PMID:26166208

  12. Culture Curriculum: French, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ruth Wellman

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction at level 2 integrates materials derived from several sources. The guide is based on: (1) suggestions from "French for Secondary Schools," New York State Education Department; (2) general information concerning the geography, products, industries, regions, cities of France, the French Union, and the city…

  13. Teaching the French Popular Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Irwin M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the French Popular Front of 1936 as a vehicle to investigate the turbulent decade of the 1930s. Reviews current historiography and discusses various facets of Leon Blum's government, examining the interrelationship of major economic and political forces. Concludes that the French Left still faces Blum's dilemma of implementing socialism…

  14. A Successful French Weekend Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughin, Judith A.

    A weekend immersion French language camp was organized by Raymond Walters College of the University of Cincinnati with the cooperation of a group of interested high school French teachers. The extensive planning and the activities of the weekend are described in detail. The most important aspects of the planning process are noted. These were (1)…

  15. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  16. Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Shively, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture…

  17. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  18. Is What's Good for the Goose Good for the Gander? The Case of Male and Female Encouragement to Study French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Male disinterest in second and foreign language programs has been well documented in recent years. The influence of encouragement to study languages also has been thoroughly investigated. There is, however, little research that connects these two phenomena. This study investigated if gender differences exist in the amount of encouragement students…

  19. A Cross-Cultural Study on Meaning and the Nature of Children's Experiences in Australian and French Swimming Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Australia and France that inquired into the meaning and the nature of children's experiences of being in swimming clubs with a focus on the positive aspects of membership that keep them in their clubs. Three-month long case studies were conducted in a club in Australia and in a club in France, employing…

  20. Why Children Join and Stay in Sports Clubs: Case Studies in Australian, French and German Swimming Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen; Memmert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article builds upon research on youth sport clubs conducted from a socio-cultural perspective by reporting on a study that inquired into the reasons why children aged 9-12 joined swimming clubs in France, Germany and Australia. Comprising three case studies it employed a mixed method approach with results considered within the framework of…

  1. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: factor validity and reliability in a French sample of adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were involved in two studies. In study 1, the content, phrasing and answering format of the CES-D were adapted for adolescents with ID. This instrument was renamed CES-D for ID (CES-D-ID) and two different versions based on two alternative answer scales (Likert and Likert-graphical) were developed and their psychometric properties were verified in study 2. The results provided support for the factor validity, reliability and invariance across gender and age of a 14-item version of the CES-D-ID based on a Likert-graphical answer scale. PMID:21530161

  2. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  3. Low predictive value of PGL-I serology for the early diagnosis of leprosy in family contacts: results of a 10-year prospective field study in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, R; Faucher, J F; Cartel, J L

    1993-12-01

    In 1983, a cohort study to follow up the family contacts of leprosy cases was implemented in French Polynesia to assess the usefulness and applicability of phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology in a leprosy control program. A total of 1201 contacts (666 females, 535 males) have been included in the study. The IgM anti-PGL-I seroprevalence determined on the initial sera was 17%. It was significantly higher among females than males (20% vs 15%, p = 0.02). From 1983 to 1992, 4 out of 204 (2%) anti-PGL-I seropositive contacts developed the disease (1 indeterminate, 1 BT, 1 BL, 1 LL) compared with 10 out of 997 (1%) seronegative contacts (4 indeterminate, 3 BT, 1 BB, 2 TT). Of these 10 patients, only 3 (2 indeterminate, 1 BT) converted to seropositivity when leprosy was diagnosed. The risk of developing leprosy was not significantly higher among seropositive than among seronegative groups (2% vs 1%, p = 0.2). A PGL-I circulating antigen test performed on 216 selected sera at entry into the trial showed a higher antigen prevalence when the antibody level was higher. PGL-I antigen was detectable in 5 of 12 patients tested prior to diagnosis (1 LL, 1 BL, 3 indeterminate). The median time to externalize the disease was not significantly different among antibody-positive and -negative contacts (17 vs 25 months, p = 0.3). The relative risk of developing leprosy for contact individuals was 30.8 times that of noncontacts, and 15% of the total new cases detected between 1983 and 1992 emerged from the study population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8151183

  4. Psychometric Properties of Scores on the French and Korean Versions of the Hexaco Personality Inventory. Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boies, Kathleen; Yoo, Tae-Yong; Ebacher, Annik; Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Recent lexical studies of personality structure suggest that there are six independent major dimensions of personality. The HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI), a new questionnaire that measures these six lexically derived personality constructs, was examined in two different cultural contexts using samples of 149 Francophone and 211 Korean…

  5. Computer-Mediated Synchronous and Asynchronous Corrective Feedback Provided by Trainee Teachers to Learners of French: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Julie; Thouësny, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether trainee teachers' practices, with respect to multimodal feedback, differ from current research, and to what extent it may affect students' language development. More specifically, the goal of the present study is threefold: (1) it observes how trainee teachers responded, whether synchronously, asynchronously,…

  6. How Do Children Acquire Early Grammar and Build Multiword Utterances? A Corpus Study of French Children Aged 2 to 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Normand, M. T.; Moreno-Torres, I.; Parisse, C.; Dellatolas, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 50 years, researchers have debated over the lexical or grammatical nature of children's early multiword utterances. Due to methodological limitations, the issue remains controversial. This corpus study explores the effect of grammatical, lexical, and pragmatic categories on mean length of utterances (MLU). A total of 312 speech samples…

  7. Risk factors for death and the 3-year survival of patients with systemic sclerosis: the French ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie study

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Patrick; Gressin, Virginie; Diot, Elisabeth; Allanore, Yannick; Sibilia, Jean; Launay, David; Mouthon, Luc; Jego, Patrick; Cabane, Jean; de Groote, Pascal; Chabrol, Amélie; Lazareth, Isabelle; Guillevin, Loïc; Clerson, Pierre; Humbert, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This longitudinal study investigated survival, risk factors and causes of death in the multicentre ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie cohort of patients with SSc without severe pulmonary fibrosis or severe left heart disease at baseline. Methods. At 3-year follow-up, vital status was obtained from investigators or French national death records. Causes of death were classified as SSc-related or otherwise. Data were censored at 37 months, time of death or loss to follow-up, whichever was earlier. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate survival analyses were conducted using the Cox model. Results. In total, 546 patients were followed for a median duration of 37 months, representing 1547 patient-years. At baseline, the majority of patients were female, with lcSSc, mean age 54.9 ± 13.0 years and mean duration of SSc of 8.8 ± 8.1 years. In total, 47 patients died, giving a 3-year survival of 91.1% and cumulative mortality of 3.04 deaths per 100 patient-years; 17 deaths (32.2%) resulted from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and eight (17.1%) from cancer. Of the 47 patients with PAH at baseline, 20 died during follow-up, giving a 3-year survival of 56.3%. In a multivariate analysis, PAH [hazard ratio (HR) 7.246], age at first symptom (HR 1.052), duration of SSc (HR 1.047 per year) and Rodnan skin score (per one point) (HR 1.045) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion. This 3-year study observed survival and mortality estimates that were comparable with previous reports. PAH increased the HR for mortality in patients with SSc, justifying yearly echocardiographic screening. PMID:19174571

  8. Occurrence of perfluorinated alkylated substances in breast milk of French women and relation with socio-demographical and clinical parameters: results of the ELFE pilot study.

    PubMed

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Veyrand, Bruno; Kadar, Hanane; Marchand, Philippe; Oleko, Amivi; Le Bizec, Bruno; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    A previously developed and validated methodology based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used for determine the concentration levels of 14 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in a set of 48 breast milk samples collected from French women in the frame of the ELFE pilot study. In accordance with other similar studies conducted at european and international levels, PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were detected and quantified in most of the analyzed samples (90%, 98% and 100%, respectively), and appeared as major contributors to the total PFAS exposure (38%, 37%, 25%, respectively), whereas the other targeted PFAS were very rarely, if not, found at the limits of detection of the method. Also in agreement with other published data, the concentration levels measured for the detected substances varied from <0.05 to 0.33μg/L for PFOS (median=0.079), from <0.05 to 0.22μg/L for PFOA (median=0.075), and from 0.04 to 0.07μg/L for PFHxS (median=0.050). On the basis of this relatively limited data set, no statistically significant relation was observed between these exposure levels and developmental outcomes, in particular the weight at birth. Similarly, no relation was observed between the measured PFAS levels and various socio-demographical parameters including the consumption of seafood, alcohol, smoking, or socio-economical level. These results suggest a need for further research and better knowledge regarding the sources, pharmacokinetics, and factors of exposure for other substances belonging to this class of emerging contaminants. PMID:23473698

  9. Risk of neuroblastoma, birth-related characteristics, congenital malformations and perinatal exposures: A pooled analysis of the ESCALE and ESTELLE French studies (SFCE).

    PubMed

    Rios, Paula; Bailey, Helen D; Orsi, Laurent; Lacour, Brigitte; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Levy, Dominique; Corradini, Nadège; Leverger, Guy; Defachelles, Anne-Sophie; Gambart, Marion; Sirvent, Nicolas; Thebaud, Estelle; Ducassou, Stéphane; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), an embryonic tumour arising from neural crest cells, is the most common malignancy among infants. The aetiology of NB is largely unknown. We conducted a pooled analysis to explore whether there is an association between NB and preconception and perinatal factors using data from two French national population-based case-control studies. The mothers of 357 NB cases and 1783 controls younger than 6 years, frequency-matched by age and gender, responded to a telephone interview that focused on demographic, socioeconomic and perinatal characteristics, childhood environment, life-style and maternal reproductive history. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After controlling for matching variables, study of origin and potential confounders, being born either small (OR 1.4 95% CI 1.0-2.0) or large (OR 1.5 95% CI 1.1-2.2) for gestational age and, among children younger than 18 months, having congenital malformations (OR 3.6 95% CI 1.3-8.9), were significantly associated with NB. Inverse associations were observed with breastfeeding (OR 0.7 95% CI 0.5-1.0) and maternal use of any supplements containing folic acid, vitamins or minerals (OR 0.5 95% CI 0.3-0.9) during the preconception period. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that fetal growth anomalies and congenital malformations may be associated with an increased risk of NB. Further investigations are needed in order to clarify the role of folic acid supplementation and breastfeeding, given their potential importance in NB prevention. PMID:27342419

  10. Measuring U-series Disequilibrium in Weathering Rinds to Study the Influence of Environmental Factors to Weathering Rates in Tropical Basse-Terre Island (French Guadeloupe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Ma, L.; Sak, P. B.; Gaillardet, J.; Chabaux, F. J.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical weathering is a critical process to global CO2 consumption, river/ocean chemistry, and nutrient import to biosphere. Weathering rinds experience minimal physical erosion and provide a well-constrained system to study the chemical weathering process. Here, we applied U-series disequilibrium dating method to study weathering advance rates on the wet side of Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe, aiming to understand the role of the precipitation in controlling weathering rates and elucidate the behavior and immobilization mechanisms of U-series isotopes during rind formation. Six weathering clasts from 5 watersheds with mean annual precipitation varying from 2000 to 3000 mm/yr were measured for U-series isotope ratios and major element compositions on linear core-to-rind transects. One sample experienced complete core-to-rind transformation, while the rest clasts contain both rinds and unweathered cores. Our results show that the unweathered cores are under U-series secular equilibrium, while all the rind materials show significant U-series disequilibrium. For most rinds, linear core-to-rind increases of (230Th/232Th) activity ratios suggest a simple continuous U addition history. However, (234U/238U) and (238U/232Th) trends in several clasts show evidences of remobilization of Uranium besides the U addition, complicating the use of U-series dating method. The similarity between U/Th ratios and major elements trends like Fe, Al, P in some transects and the ongoing leaching experiments suggest that redox and organic colloids could control the mobilization of U-series isotopes in the rinds. Rind formation ages and weathering advance rate (0.07-0.29mm/kyr) were calculated for those rinds with a simple U-addition history. Our preliminary results show that local precipitation gradient significantly influenced the weathering advance rate, revealing the potential of estimating weathering advance rates at a large spatial scale using the U-series dating method.

  11. Resistance and virulence potential of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients hospitalized in urology departments: a French prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bruyère, Franck; Bernard, Louis; Combescure, Christophe; Ronco, Esthel; Lanotte, Philippe; Coloby, Patrick; Thibault, Michel; Cariou, Gérard; Desplaces, Nicole; Costa, Pierre; Sotto, Albert

    2016-06-01

    We characterized antibiotic resistance and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients hospitalized in urology departments. A prospective multicentre study was initiated from March 2009 and lasted until February 2010 in French urology units. All patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), acute cystitis, acute pyelonephritis or acute prostatitis in whom UPEC was detected were included. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors were compared among the different groups. To identify independent associations between virulence markers and the risk of UTI, we used a multivariate logistic regression. We included 210 patients (mean age: 65.8 years; 106 female). Episode of UTI was community acquired in 72.4 %. ABU was diagnosed in 67 cases (31.9 %), cystitis in 52 cases (24.7 %), pyelonephritis in 35 cases (16.7 %) and prostatitis in 56 cases (26.7 %). ABU was more frequent in patients with a urinary catheter (76.1 vs 23.9 %, P<0.001). The resistance rate was 7.6 and 24.8 % for cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, respectively. UPEC isolated from infections belonged more frequently to phylotypes B2 and D (P =0.07). The papG allele II and papA, papC, papE, kpsMTII and iutA genes were significantly more frequent in infecting strains (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, strains susceptible to ciprofloxacin were significantly associated with papG allele II (P=0.007), kpsMTK1 (P<0.001) and hlyA (P<0.001) compared with the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the antibiotic resistance and virulence features of UPEC isolated from patients hospitalized in urology departments. High resistance rates were observed, notably for ciprofloxacin, highlighting the importance of a reinforced surveillance in this setting. PMID:26953145

  12. Integration of production and financial models to analyse the financial impact of livestock diseases: a case study of Schmallenberg virus disease on British and French dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    Häsler, Barbara; Alarcon, Pablo; Raboisson, Didier; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the financial impact of Schmallenberg disease for different dairy production types in the United Kingdom and France. Materials and methods Integrated production and financial models for dairy cattle were developed and applied to Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease in a British and French context. The five main production systems that prevail in these two countries were considered. Their respective gross margins measuring the holding's profitability were calculated based on public benchmarking, literature and expert opinion data. A partial budget analysis was performed within each production model to estimate the impact of SBV in the systems modelled. Two disease scenarios were simulated: low impact and high impact. Results The model gross margin obtained per cow space and year ranged from £1014 to £1484 for the UK and from £1037 to £1890 for France depending on the production system considered. In the UK, the net SBV disease costs in £/cow space/year for an average dairy farm with 100 milking spaces were estimated between £16.3 and £51.4 in the high-impact scenario and between £8.2 and £25.9 in the low-impact scenario. For France, the net SBV disease costs in £/cow space/year ranged from £19.6 to £48.6 in the high-impact scenario and £9.7 to £22.8 in the low-impact scenario, respectively. Conclusion The study illustrates how the combination of production and financial models allows assessing disease impact taking into account differing management and husbandry practices and associated price structures in the dairy sector. It supports decision-making of farmers and veterinarians who are considering disease control measures as it provides an approach to estimate baseline disease impact in common dairy production systems in the UK and France. PMID:26392883

  13. Comparative in vitro activity of Meropenem, Imipenem and Piperacillin/tazobactam against 1071 clinical isolates using 2 different methods: a French multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Meropenem is a carbapenem that has an excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The major objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro activity of meropenem compared to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam, against 1071 non-repetitive isolates collected from patients with bacteremia (55%), pneumonia (29%), peritonitis (12%) and wound infections (3%), in 15 French hospitals in 2006. The secondary aim of the study was to compare the results of routinely testings and those obtained by a referent laboratory. Method Susceptibility testing and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of meropenem, imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam were determined locally by Etest method. Susceptibility to meropenem was confirmed at a central laboratory by disc diffusion method and MICs determined by agar dilution method for meropenem, imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Results Cumulative susceptibility rates against Escherichia coli were, meropenem and imipenem: 100% and piperacillin/tazobactam: 90%. Against other Enterobacteriaceae, the rates were meropenem: 99%, imipenem: 98% and piperacillin/tazobactam: 90%. All Staphylococci, Streptococci and anaerobes were susceptible to the three antibiotics. Against non fermeters, meropenem was active on 84-94% of the strains, imipenem on 84-98% of the strains and piperacillin/tazobactam on 90-100% of the strains. Conclusions Compared to imipenem, meropenem displays lower MICs against Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Except for non fermenters, MICs90 of carbapenems were <4 mg/L. Piperacillin/tazobactam was less active against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter but not P. aeruginosa. Some discrepancies were noted between MICs determined by Etest accross centres and MICs determined by agar dilution method at the central laboratory. Discrepancies were more common for imipenem testing and more frequently related to a few

  14. Population studies of the filarial vector Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in two island settings of French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Hapairai, Limb K; Sang, Michel A Cheong; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2013-09-01

    A mark-release-recapture study was conducted to estimate the adult population size, migration, and dispersal patterns of male and female Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis (Marks) in a valley of Moorea, a volcanic island, and a motu (islet) on the atoll of Tetiaroa, two settings typical of the Society Islands. Aedes polynesiensis recapture rate was high for females and low for males. The distribution of Aedes species in the valley was heterogeneous. Marked individuals dispersed to most parts of the motu and over great distances in the valley for some females. The study provides insights into the field dynamics of Ae. polynesiensis populations and confirms that more efficient sampling methods are warranted. There was no evidence of active migration between motus on the atoll, suggesting that Tetiaroa is a suitable site for small-scale initial open releases of Wolbachia incompatible insect technique and other sterile insect technique-like suppression or replacement strategies. PMID:24180100

  15. The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Brucato, Nicolas; Tortevoye, Patricia; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed. PMID:19819412

  16. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Orientation and Achievements in L2 of Arab Learners of English, French and German: A Study from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreishan, Lana J.; Al-Dhaimat, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore Jordanian undergraduate students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and instrumental and integrative orientations toward learning English, French, and German as foreign languages. The paper also reflects on how subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations relate to orientations and examines possible…

  17. From eradication to containment: invasion of French Polynesia by Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and releases of two natural enemies: a 17-year case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was discovered on Tahiti Island, French Polynesia, in 1996. Two other economically important Bactrocera species were previously established: B. kirki (Froggatt) in 1928, and B. tryoni (Froggatt), Queensland fruit fly, in 1970. This situation provi...

  18. Francais, langue seconde, premier cycle, secondaire. Programme d'etudes. (French as a Second Language, First Cycle, Secondary Level. Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quebec Dept. of Education, Quebec.

    The program of French as a second language required of first and second year students in public and private secondary English schools in Quebec is presented. The curriculum outline begins with an introductory section describing: (1) the program's relationship to other required programs; (2) background information; (3) a formal needs assessment;…

  19. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  20. Processing Tense/Aspect-Agreement Violations On-Line in the Second Language: A Self-Paced Reading Study with French and German L2 Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah; Liszka, Sarah Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of a self-paced reading experiment designed to investigate the question of whether or not advanced French and German learners of English as a second language (L2) are sensitive to tense/aspect mismatches between a fronted temporal adverbial and the inflected verb that follows (e.g. *"Last week, James has…

  1. Walk Score, Transportation Mode Choice, and Walking Among French Adults: A GPS, Accelerometer, and Mobility Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Méline, Julie; Kestens, Yan; Day, Kristen; Elbel, Brian; Trasande, Leonardo; Chaix, Basile

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have used GPS data to analyze the relationship between Walk Score, transportation choice and walking. Additionally, the influence of Walk Score is understudied using trips rather than individuals as statistical units. The purpose of this study is to examine associations at the trip level between Walk Score, transportation mode choice, and walking among Paris adults who were tracked with GPS receivers and accelerometers in the RECORD GPS Study. Methods: In the RECORD GPS Study, 227 participants were tracked during seven days with GPS receivers and accelerometers. Participants were also surveyed with a GPS-based web mapping application on their activities and transportation modes for all trips (6969 trips). Walk Score, which calculates neighborhood walkability, was assessed for each origin and destination of every trip. Multilevel logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate associations between Walk Score and walking in the trip or accelerometry-assessed number of steps for each trip, after adjustment for individual/neighborhood characteristics. Results: The mean overall Walk Scores for trip origins were 87.1 (SD = 14.4) and for trip destinations 87.1 (SD = 14.5). In adjusted trip-level associations between Walk Score and walking only in the trip, we found that a walkable neighborhood in the trip origin and trip destination was associated with increased odds of walking in the trip assessed in the survey. The odds of only walking in the trip were 3.48 (95% CI: 2.73 to 4.44) times higher when the Walk Score for the trip origin was “Walker’s Paradise” compared to less walkable neighborhoods (Very/Car-Dependent or Somewhat Walkable), with an identical independent effect of trip destination Walk Score on walking. The number of steps per 10 min (as assessed with accelerometry) was cumulatively higher for trips both originating and ending in walkable neighborhoods (i.e., “Very Walkable”). Conclusions: Walkable

  2. A Lymph Node Ratio of 10% Is Predictive of Survival in Stage III Colon Cancer: A French Regional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between “good prognosis” and “poor prognosis” colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P = 0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P = 0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P = 0.02) and DFS (P = 0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff. PMID:25058763

  3. A lymph node ratio of 10% is predictive of survival in stage III colon cancer: a French regional study.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between "good prognosis" and "poor prognosis" colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P=0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P=0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P=0.02) and DFS (P=0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff. PMID:25058763

  4. [Anemia management in French hemodialysis patients: DiaNE study results at 3 years (DiaNE2)].

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michèle; Landais, Paul; Bataille, Pierre; Yver, Laurent; Koné, Sébastien; Kraemer, Sandrine; Brillet, Georges; Canivet, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The observational study DiaNE provides a current state of anemia management with Epoetine bêta in hemodialysis patients regarding European recommendations over a 3-year period in France. Patients still treated with Epoetine bêta twelve months after their inclusion in DiaNE were eligible for a 24-month extension phase entitled DiaNE 2. Data regarding 439 patients followed during three years, from M0 to M36, were analyzed. Hemoglobin (Hb) level of the cohort remained over the target value of 11g/dL during the study (M0: 11.3±1.2g/dL; M36: 11.8±1.3g/dL). The anemia management had evolved with European recommendations updates and was in accordance with the last recommended target range (11-12g/dL) in a third of patients. During the follow-up, the majority of patients (97%) had at least one modification of treatment with Epoetine bêta (change in frequency of injections, adjustment of doses) mainly justified by excursion of Hb level out of the target range. However, the median dose of Epoetine bêta was relatively stable. The number of patients with iron treatment remained stable (60%). In spite of undertaken efforts, anemia management of hemodialysed patients in France still needs optimization for maintaining Hb level in the recommended target range. PMID:21227765

  5. Is Navoban (tropisetron) as effective as Zofran (ondansetron) in cisplatin-induced emesis? The French Navoban Study Group.

    PubMed

    Marty, M; Kleisbauer, J P; Fournel, P; Vergnenegre, A; Carles, P; Loria-Kanza, Y; Simonetta, C; de Bruijn, K M

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antiemetic effectiveness and tolerability of Navoban (tropisetron) and Zofran (ondansetron) following high-dose (> or = 50 mg/m2) cisplatin chemotherapy. In a randomised, multi-centre, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group study, 117 evaluable chemotherapy-naive patients who received Navoban were compared with 114 who received Zofran. Patient diary cards were used to assess both acute (Day 1) and delayed (Days 2-6) nausea and vomiting. Total control of acute vomiting was achieved in 54% of Navoban and 65% of Zofran patients (p = 0.052), and total control of acute nausea in 66% and 62% respectively (p = 0.655). Total control of delayed vomiting was achieved in 44% of Navoban patients and 46% of Zofran patients (p = 0.765), and of delayed nausea in 56% and 47% respectively (p = 0.207). Both reactions combined were totally prevented during the entire 6-day trial period in 22% of Navoban and 24% of Zofran patients (NS), while a further 42% of patients in both groups remained largely free from both nausea and emesis. The few adverse reactions (e.g. headache, constipation, diarrhoea) were mainly mild and typical of the 5-HT3-receptor antagonists. In conclusion, there were no significant differences in efficacy and tolerability between Navoban 5 mg once daily and the highest recommended dose of Zofran (32 mg on Day 1, followed by 8 mg three times a day). PMID:7749165

  6. Between psychology and pedagogy: "moral orthopedics" and case studies of children in fin-de-siècle French medicine.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anna Christina

    2011-02-01

    In the latter decades of the 19th century, European physicians debated a controversial practice that mixed placebos with suggestion therapy to treat children diagnosed with neurotic disorders and behavioral problems. Designed to optimize suggestibility in juvenile patients, this "moral orthopedics" offered parents and therapists the message that children could be saved from becoming victims of their own personalities, of familial neuroses, or even of public health problems. Case studies, published in medical journals and books, circulated accounts of innovative strategies to treat childhood hysteria and to change habits that were considered destructive. Moral orthopedics actualized the insight that suggestibility could be therapeutically productive for juvenile subjects. However, because its adherents sought to manipulate patients' behavior and health by influencing unconscious thought, moral orthopedics provoked questions of expertise and disciplinary propriety among domains of medicine, law, and philosophy. This article reconstructs the controversy surrounding moral orthopedics by examining case studies. I argue that adherents of moral orthopedics did overcome philosophical objections raised against the method, and that they did so through what physician Edgar B6rillon referred to as "education of the will." PMID:21688751

  7. Not French manicure but onycholysis.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Stanciu, Roxana; Brzezinski, Piotr; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-09-01

    French manicure, a simple and elegant manicure style, caught the public's attention by the 19th century in French nail salons. Now this style has spread all over the world and is the first choice of 80% of women in the USA and Europe. It consists of a natural, pink, beige, or nude base tipped with pure white at the distal end.Onycholysis is a disease of the nails characterized by separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, with variable causes. We present 2 cases of onycholysis that resemble the beautiful and elegant French manicure. PMID:25244179

  8. High-resolution forest mapping for behavioural studies in the Nature Reserve ‘Les Nouragues’, French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Ringler, Max; Mangione, Rosanna; Pašukonis, Andrius; Rainer, Gerhard; Gyimesi, Kristin; Felling, Julia; Kronaus, Hannes; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Chave, Jérôme; Reiter, Karl; Ringler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    For animals with spatially complex behaviours at relatively small scales, the resolution of a global positioning system (GPS) receiver location is often below the resolution needed to correctly map animals’ spatial behaviour. Natural conditions such as canopy cover, canyons or clouds can further degrade GPS receiver reception. Here we present a detailed, high-resolution map of a 4.6 ha Neotropical river island and a 8.3 ha mainland plot with the location of every tree >5 cm DBH and all structures on the forest floor, which are relevant to our study species, the territorial frog Allobates femoralis (Dendrobatidae). The map was derived using distance- and compass-based survey techniques, rooted on dGPS reference points, and incorporates altitudinal information based on a LiDAR survey of the area. PMID:27053943

  9. Proteins, dietary acid load, and calcium and risk of postmenopausal fractures in the E3N French women prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Sabia, Sèverine; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Bréart, Gérard; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2008-12-01

    Excess dietary proteins and "acid ash" diets have been suspected to increase the risk of osteoporosis, but experimental and epidemiological evidence is mixed. We aimed to determine whether the association between protein intake and the overall acid-base equilibrium of the diet (as renal net acid excretion [RNAE] estimate) and fracture risk vary according to calcium intake. During an average of 8.37 +/- 1.73 yr of follow-up, 2408 women reported a fracture (excluding high-impact trauma) among 36,217 postmenopausal women from the E3N prospective study. We used Cox regression models to study the interaction between calcium and, respectively, proteins and RNAE, from the 1993 dietary questionnaire for fracture risk determination, adjusting for potential confounders. There was no overall association between fracture risk and total protein or RNAE. However, in the lowest quartile of calcium (<400 mg/1000 kcal), high protein intake was associated with a significant increased fracture risk (RR = 1.51 for highest versus lowest quartile; 95% CI, 1.17-1.94). An increasing fracture risk with increasing animal protein intake was also observed (trend, p < 0.0001). A similar pattern of interaction for fracture risk was observed between RNAE and calcium. In this Western population of postmenopausal women with normal to high protein intake and fairly high calcium intake, there was no overall association between total protein or RNAE and fracture risk. However, there was some evidence that high protein-high acid ash diets were associated with an increased risk of fracture when calcium intake was low (<400 mg/1000 kcal). PMID:18665794

  10. Familial history of cancer and childhood acute leukemia: a French population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819

  11. Cyclical mastalgia as a marker of breast cancer susceptibility: results of a case-control study among French women.

    PubMed Central

    Plu-Bureau, G.; Thalabard, J. C.; Sitruk-Ware, R.; Asselain, B.; Mauvais-Jarvis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A matched case-control study in a population of urban, non-menopaused women living in Paris was performed between 1983 and 1985 to investigate the risk of breast cancer (BC) in relation to various factors with a particular interest in the effect of the use of oral contraceptive (OC) and the existence of cyclical mastalgia (CM). Two hundred and ten non-menopaused women, less than 45 years old, with newly diagnosed BC were compared to 210 controls from the same geographic area matched on year of birth, age, education level and age at first full term pregnancy (FFTP), when justified. The adjusted Relative Risk of BC (RRa) was significantly increased for a total duration of OC use longer than 72 months (RRa 2.80; 95% CI 1.56-5.01), as well as the RRa for OC use above 48 months before FFTP (3.26 95% CI 1.37-7.76) and, to a lesser extent, the RRa for OC use above 48 months after FFTP (2.02 95% CI 1.07-3.84) respectively. Adjustment was performed on familial history of BC, personal history of Benign Breast Disease (BBD), age at menarche. A previous history of cyclical mastalgia was found to be associated with an increased risk of BC. The significant increase remained after adjustment on the previously mentioned confounding factors and OC use: RRa 2.12; 95% CI (1.31-3.43). Under a precise definition related to the hormonal environment, mastalgia appear to be an interesting marker of breast cell susceptibility, the importance of which can only be validated by prospective studies. PMID:1616869

  12. The role of method of production and resolution of the DEM on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment - Ubaye Valley, French Alps case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögel, Romy; Marchesini, Ivan; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment forms the basis of any hazard mapping, which is one of the essential parts of quantitative risk mapping. For the same study area, different susceptibility maps can be achieved depending on the type of susceptibility mapping methods, mapping unit, and scale. In the Ubaye Valley (South French Alps), we investigate the effect of resolution and method of production of the DEM to delineate slope units for landslide susceptibility mapping method. Slope units delineation has been processed using multiple combinations of circular variance and minimum area size values, which are the input parameters for a new software for terrain partitioning. We rely on this method taking into account homogeneity of aspect direction inside each unit and inhomogeneity between different units. We computed slope units delineation for 5, 10 and 25 meters resolution DEM, and investigate statistical distributions of morphometric variables within the different polygons. Then, for each different slope units partitioning, we calibrated a landslide susceptibility model, considering landslide bodies and scarps as a dependent variable (binary response). This work aims to analyse the role of DEM resolution on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment. Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic is investigated for the susceptibility model calculations. In addition, we analysed further the performance of the Logistic Regression Model by looking at the percentage of significant variable in the statistical analyses. Results show that smaller slope units have a better chance of containing a smaller number of thematic and morphometric variables, allowing for an easier classification. Reliability of the models according to the DEM resolution considered as well as scarp area and landslides bodies presence/absence as dependent variable are discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. Methods The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a “no label” condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. Results The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the “no label” situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. Conclusions The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products’ nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where

  14. Use of Fibrates Monotherapy in People with Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Care: A French Nationwide Cohort Study Based on National Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Ronan; Chaignot, Christophe; Weill, Alain; Travert, Florence; Hansel, Boris; Marre, Michel; Ricordeau, Philippe; Alla, François; Allemand, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Design Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09) with a follow-up of up to 30 months. Methods Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and >50 (men) or 60 (women), but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death. Results Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8%) received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates) and 2.21% (statins). The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR<540) and after 540 days (HR>540) of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR<540 = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.78–1.16) and HR>540 = 1.73 (1.28–2.32). Conclusion Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy. PMID:26398765

  15. Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: results of a French case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, Laurent; Delabre, Laurene; Monnereau, Alain; Delval, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Fenaux, Pierre; Marit, Gerald; Soubeyran, Pierre; Huguet, Francoise; Milpied, Noel; Leporrier, Michel; Hemon, Denis; Troussard, Xavier; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms (LN) in men. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in six centres in France between 2000 and 2004. The cases were incident cases with a diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm aged 18 to 75 years. During the same period, controls of the same age and gender as the cases were recruited in the same hospital, mainly in the orthopaedic and rheumatological departments. Exposures to pesticides were evaluated through specific interviews and case-by-case expert reviews. Four hundred and ninety-one cases (244 cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), 87 of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), 104 of lymphoproliferative syndromes (LPS) and 56 of multiple myeloma (MM) cases) and 456 controls were included in the analyses. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regressions. Results Positive associations between HL and occupational exposure to triazole fungicides and urea herbicides were observed (OR=8.4 [2.2–32.4], 10.8 [2.4–48.1] respectively). Exposure to insecticides, fungicides and herbicides were linked to a three-fold increases in MM risk (OR=2.8 [1.2–6.5], 3.2 [1.4–7.2], 2.9 [1.3–6.5]). For LPS subtypes, associations restricted to hairy-cell leukaemia (HCL) were evidenced for exposure to organochlorine insecticides, phenoxy herbicides and triazine herbicides (OR=4.9 [1.1–21.2], 4.1 [1.1–15.5], 5.1 [1.4–19.3]), although based on small numbers. Lastly, despite the increased odds ratios for organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, carbamate fungicides and triazine herbicides, no significant associations were evidenced for NHL. Conclusions The results, based on case-by-case expert review of occupation-specific questionnaires, support the hypothesis that occupational pesticide exposures may be involved in HL, MM and HCL and do not rule out a role in NHL. The analyses

  16. Cause of death in patients with atrial fibrillation admitted to French hospitals in 2012: a nationwide database study

    PubMed Central

    Fauchier, Laurent; Samson, Adeline; Chaize, Gwendoline; Gaudin, Anne-Françoise; Vainchtock, Alexandre; Bailly, Cécile; Cotté, Francois-Emery

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have risk factors and coexisting conditions that increase their mortality risk. We performed a cause-of-death analysis to identify predictors of mortality in hospitalised patients with AF in France. Methods and results In this retrospective, population-based cross-sectional study, the Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information was used to identify 533 044 adults with a diagnosis of AF or atrial flutter hospitalised for any reason in France from January through December 2012. Stepwise multivariable analyses were performed to identify determinants of mortality. The mean age was 78.0±11.4 years, 47.1% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.0±1.8. During hospitalisation, 9.4% (n=50 165) of the patients died, 34% due to a cardiovascular event, most often heart failure (16.6%), stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism (9.8%) or vascular or ischaemic disease (4.0%). The strongest predictors of overall death were age ≥75 years (OR 2.57, 95% CI 2.47 to 2.68), renal failure (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.81 to 1.89), cancer (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.78 to 1.85) and lung disease (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.62). Conclusions Cardiovascular events were the most common cause of death, occurring in one-third of patients, in this comprehensive study of hospitalised patients with AF. Despite the high risk of stroke in this population, only 10% died from stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism. The strongest predictors of overall death were non-cardiovascular. Physicians should be encouraged to focus on preventable serious and disabling cardiovascular events (such as stroke) as well as on potentially fatal non-cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID:26688739

  17. Multiple myeloma: the quality of care is linked to geographical and organisational determinants. A study in a French registry.

    PubMed

    Puyade, M; Defossez, G; Guilhot, F; Ingrand, P

    2016-09-01

    Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy whose care is spread over several specialities and provided by centres that various sizes, which raises the issue of equal opportunities in care access. Incident cases of myeloma between 2008 and 2010 were exhaustively identified by the Poitou-Charentes Cancer Registry. To ascertain the quality of care, the diagnosis, staging, and treatment administered were compared to international recommendations. Three hundred and sixty-seven patients were included. The diagnostic procedure exhibited 98% compliance, the staging 58%, and treatment 89%. Concerning diagnostic and staging, non-compliance with recommendations was associated to the failure to perform collegiate case assessments in multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings [OR 2.15 (1.15-4.04)], care provided at a secondary centre, and a distance between home and the centre of 5-25 km [2.16 (1.06-4.40)] and 25-50 km [2.86 (1.37-6.01)]. Regarding treatment, non-compliance with recommendations was associated with care provided at a secondary centre [5.28 (2.03-13.75)]. Finally, diagnosis, staging and treatment quality improved over time. This study underlines the need to improve the organisation of the healthcare offer, so that patients can receive the best possible care. MDT seems to be the main means to improve quality of care. PMID:26603508

  18. Epidemiology, risk factor, species distribution, antifungal resistance and outcome of Candidemia at a single French hospital: a 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Tadec, Laurent; Talarmin, Jean-Philippe; Gastinne, Thomas; Bretonnière, Cédric; Miegeville, Michel; Le Pape, Patrice; Morio, Florent

    2016-05-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of disease worldwide and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a retrospective study of candidemia at Nantes Hospital, France, between 2004 and 2010. A total of 191 episodes (n = 188 patients) were reviewed. Incidence, demographics, risk factors, antifungal management, species identification, in vitro susceptibility and 12 weeks survival were analysed. Global incidence of candidemia was 0.37‰ admissions. Higher incidences were observed in haematology (6.65‰) and intensive care units (2‰). Central venous catheter and antibiotic exposure were the most frequent risk factors (77% and 76% respectively). Candida albicans was the predominant species (51.8%) followed by C. parapsilosis (14.5%), C. glabrata (9.8%), C. tropicalis (9.8%) and C. krusei (4.1%). However, species distribution differed significantly between medical units with frequency of C. tropicalis being higher in haematology compared to other medical units. Fluconazole and caspofungin were the main antifungals given as first-line therapy. Although not significant, 12 weeks mortality rate was 30.9%, being higher for C. tropicalis (44.4%) than for C. parapsilosis (16%). Acquired azole or echinocandin resistance was noted in some isolates, underlining the need for systematic antifungal susceptibility testing in patients with candidemia. These epidemiological findings will be of interest for antifungal stewardship at our hospital. PMID:26806101

  19. Comparison of coaches' perceptions and officials guidance towards health promotion in French sport clubs: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Van Hoye, A; Heuzé, J-P; Larsen, T; Sarrazin, P

    2016-06-01

    Despite the call to improve health promotion (HP) in sport clubs in the existing literature, little is known about sport clubs' organizational capacity. Grounded within the setting-based framework, this study compares HP activities and guidance among 10 football clubs. At least three grassroots coaches from each club (n = 68) completed the Health Promoting Sports Clubs scale to assess their perceptions of HP; an official (n = 10) was interviewed about club's activities and official's guidance provided to coaches. A concurrent embedded design with quantitative results guiding the qualitative analysis was used. Despite no significant differences regarding coaches' perceptions of HP between the 10 sport clubs, except for the policy dimension, officials' interviews revealed some contradictions. Sport participation was recognized as automatically promoting HP, meaning that sport practice entails many benefits, without questioning the nature of the activities. HP was considered as a secondary aim in regard to sport performance, leading to the lack of written policies, partnerships and sporadic HP activities. Future interventions should consider: (i) the creation of required policy and long-term vision; (ii) the link between HP and sport performance; (iii) the rootedness of sport clubs within their community and (iv) guidelines towards HP from sport federations. PMID:27060789

  20. Nutri-Bébé 2013 Study Part 2. How do French mothers feed their young children?

    PubMed

    Bocquet, A; Vidailhet, M

    2015-10-01

    Nutri-Baby SFAE 2013 is the 5th edition of a survey conducted every 8 years since 1981 by SFAE (Secteur Français des Aliments de l'Enfance) in collaboration with an opinion poll institute (SOFRES) for the feeding behavior part of the study and with CREDOC for calculating nutrient intake: 1,188 mothers of infants and young children from 15 days to 3 years of age were interviewed in 2013. The present paper is limited to the behavioral part of the investigation on the observance by mothers of pediatric recommendations. Overall, the "2013 mother" is self-confident (76% declare being confident in their experience and instinct). They are aware of the recommendations of healthcare professionals, but the family circle is also influential. Although growing-up milk is more widely consumed than in 2005 (+8%), cow's milk (half-skimmed and not whole milk), even if it is introduced 2 months later than in 2005, is still consumed by 34% of children at 12-17 months of age and by 64% of 24 - to 29-month-old children. Milk is still frequently warmed up in a microwave oven. Breastfeeding mothers or those who breastfed more frequently give growing-up milk and home-cooked foods and afterwards their children refuse different foods less frequently. Adult foods that are not adapted for children are introduced too early. Foods in morsels are proposed very late. Fried foods and sweet foods appear too early in infant meals. Consumption of infant formulas and specific baby foods is increasing, but at around 1 year of age a decrease in the consumption of these adapted foods is observed. PMID:26474671

  1. Are managers' and the general public's perceptions of risk communication needs in line? A French alpine valley case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Sprague, Teresa; Bogaard, Thom; Greiving, Stefan; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Risk communication is a crucial element of risk management. It contributes to social capacity building by influencing the knowledge, attitude, behavior, psychology, as well as social and organizational aspects1,2. It is globally recognized that effective risk communication should address needs and requirements of targeted audiences, especially those of the public. This study compares needs and requirements related to risk communication as seen by the risk managers, with the needs and requirements as expressed by the general public. Two surveys were conducted in a mountainous region facing multi-hazards, the Ubaye valley (France). The first survey, conducted within the context of the Marie Curie Research and Training Network 'Mountain Risk', was addressed to the local community. It aimed at gathering perceptions, needs and requirements of the general public (344 respondents) on risk communication3. The second survey, conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network 'CHANGES', targeted risk managers (16 stakeholders of the authorities, technical services and emergency units) at both the local and the regional scale to evaluate their perceptions regarding risk communication with the general public. The needs and requirements were analyzed with respect to several dimensions: 1) the information provided to the public, 2) the legal requirements for communication, 3) the level of trust the population has in risk managers, 4) insights on awareness and preparedness, and 5) information on the media used in past communication efforts. Results of the analysis concerning the last dimension reveal that, while the general public mentioned press, official reports and technical reports as the top three media by which they received information, the risk managers cited the press but in contrast also selected radio and television. Other results indicate that a potential mismatch exists as more than 80% of the respondents of the population find all listed topics

  2. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  3. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  4. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  5. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  6. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  7. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  8. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  9. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  10. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  11. Seeking health- and nutrition-related information on the Internet in a large population of French adults: results of the NutriNet-Santé study.

    PubMed

    Fassier, Philippine; Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Pouchieu, Camille; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-06-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health and nutrition information. Little is known about the type of consulted websites (institutional v. non-institutional) and the tendency to discuss with a healthcare professional (HCP) the information found on the Internet. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate health- and nutrition-related Internet use in a large French population-based study. Data were collected in 2013 using self-administered, web-based questionnaires from 42 113 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study (mean age=51·2 years, 76 % women). Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analyses and χ 2 tests were used for comparisons. In total, 85·1 % of the subjects used the Internet to search for health and/or nutrition information, and 23·6 % used the Internet to read or post messages on health/nutrition forums. Only 16·0 % discussed with a HCP the information found online. This proportion was lower in subjects with lower educational level (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·82) and lower computer skills (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·76). In total, 8038 health/nutrition websites were cited, with institutional websites representing only 12·9 % of that number. Only one institutional website was present in the top 10. Older subjects (OR 1·49; 95 % CI 1·28-1·74), those with lower educational level (OR 2·08; 95 % CI 1·75, 2·50) and lower nutritional knowledge (OR 1·33; 1·12, 1·59) were more likely to cite non-institutional websites. This large population-based study showed that institutional websites were infrequently accessed and that a few participants discussed the information found online with their HCP. This particular trend was especially visible among individuals who were more vulnerable regarding misleading information. This supports the need to increase awareness of high-quality websites providing reliable health/nutrition information. PMID:27081008

  12. Rethinking low-temperature thermochronology data sampling strategies for quantification of denudation and relief histories: A case study in the French western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Braun, Jean

    2011-07-01

    . Simulations with different model topography resolutions show that degrading the resolution for computational efficiency may result in a loss of quantitative information on denudation rates and relief history. In summary, we highlight that both thermochronological sampling strategies and the choice of thermal parameters or model topography resolution have a significant influence on predicted denudation and relief histories. Ideally, the sampling strategy should be designed using preliminary modeling of expected denudation and relief histories, and a sensitivity study on assumed thermal parameters and model resolution should be performed when modeling the data. Although our modeling is based on a particular case study of relief evolution in the French western Alps, we believe that these inferences have general relevance for thermochronological studies within mountain belts.

  13. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  14. Study of morphological changes of a gravel-bed braided river with a combined analysis of airborne LiDAR and archive aerial photographs (French Prealps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallias-Tacon, S.; Liébault, F.; Piégay, H.; Leduc, P.

    2012-04-01

    The recent development of innovative topographic survey technologies offers new opportunities for investigating spatial and temporal patterns of gravel-bed rivers morphological responses to flood events. In this study, multidate airborne LiDAR surveys were used to reconstruct reach-scale morphological changes of a gravel-bed braided river following a channel-forming flood event. LiDAR surveys were acquired in October 2008 and June 2010 for a 7-km reach of the Bès River, a very active aggrading braided channel, which is a tributary to the Bléone River in the Southern French Prealps (drainage area: 234 km2). Between these two dates, a 15-year flood occurred in December 2009, with a peakflow discharge of 171 m3 s-1. A DEM of difference (DoD) was produced by subtraction of LiDAR-derived DTM pair. Spatially distributed error in Dod was accounted with dGPS field measurement by sampling of different types of terrains (exposed gravel bars, spares and dense vegetated areas). The scour and fill maps allowed reconstructing erosion and deposition of bedforms and provide a volume estimate for calculating a sediment budget. These bedforms were described by different factors like their geometry (width, shape), their position and elevation relative to the main low-flow channel and their vegetation cover. Bed morphology was also studied by extracting different metrics at regularly-spaced cross-sections to infer information about sediment transfer in the braided channel. Final aim is to link bedform characteristics with their morphological response. Morphological changes were also studied in a historical context with a series of aerial photographs (1948-2010) to link the present-day morphology of the river with longer term channel changes. Active channel and island area were measured at reach and sub-reach scales (50 m), as well as active channel and island widths for cross-sections (every 10 m along). These variables were coupled with landscape changes and hydrological events in

  15. How much sugar do consumers add to plain yogurts? Insights from a study examining French consumer behavior and self-reported habits.

    PubMed

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Leclercq, Hélène; Berthelo, Sébastien; Saulnier, Benjamin; Oettgen, Walther; Delarue, Julien

    2016-04-01

    In France, 50% of consumers sweeten plain yogurts prior to consumption. This study measured how much sugar consumers added under contextualized testing conditions. Participants (199 French adults who regularly consume plain yogurt adding sugar) were given a plain yogurt (125 g) at the end of a full meal and were allowed to sweeten it with their usual sweetener (caster sugar, honey, or jam). The quantities added were measured indirectly by weighing the sweetener containers before and after use; they were then converted into equivalent quantities of sucrose, or "added sugar." Participants were asked to describe their relative hunger, thirst, and liking for plain yogurt and to estimate the quantity of sweetener they had added. On average, participants added 13.6 g of sugar to their yogurts, which is higher than the 10.2 g of sugar contained in pre-sweetened commercial yogurts (125 g). More sugar was added when subjects used jam (24.4 g/yogurt, n = 36) as opposed to caster sugar (11.0 g/yogurt, n = 134) or honey (12.1 g/yogurt, n = 29). Age, socio-professional category, and BMI had a significant influence on added-sugar quantity. Based on behavior and attitude, participants could be separated into three evenly sized groups: "low sugar users" (n = 67, median = 6.1 g/yogurt), who tended to control their food intake, "medium sugar users" (n = 66, median = 11.4 g/yogurt), and "heavy sugar users" (n = 66, median = 19.9 g/yogurt) who sought immediate satisfaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide robust data on the amount of sugar consumers add to plain yogurts in contextualized conditions (self preparation during a real meal). Our findings show that consumers underestimated by half the quantity of sweetener they added. PMID:26826527

  16. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  17. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  18. Gaining a better understanding of respiratory health inequalities among cities: An ecological case study on elderly males in the larger French cities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there have been a growing number of studies on spatial inequalities in health covering a variety of scales, from small areas to metropolitan areas or regions, and for various health outcomes. However, few investigations have compared health status between cities with a view to gaining a better understanding of the relationships between such inequalities and the social, economic and physical characteristics. This paper focuses on disparities in respiratory health among the 55 largest French cities. The aim is to explore the relationships between inter-urban health patterns, city characteristics and regional context, and to determine how far a city’s health status relates to the features observed on different geographical scales. Methods We used health data describing hospitalizations for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a proxy for respiratory health, and the total number of hospitalizations (overall) as a proxy for general health. This last indicator was used as a benchmark. A large set of indicators relating to socioeconomic, physical and amenity aspects of the cities (urban units) was also constructed. Data were analyzed using linear correlations and multiple linear regression models. Results The results suggest that socioeconomic characteristics are major discriminators for inequalities in respiratory health status among urban units. Indeed, once combined to socioeconomic characteristics, only a climate indicator remained significant among the physical indicators. It appeared that the pollution indicators which were significantly correlated with COPD hospitalization rates loosed significance when associated to the socio-economic indicators in a multiple regression. The analysis showed that among the socio-economic indicators, an employment indicator derived at the regional scale, and two indicators reflecting the unequal intra-urban spatial distribution of population according to their education, were the most

  19. Experimental study of the silica precipitation kinetics from geothermal fluids under the exploitation conditions of the Bouillante power station (Guadeloupe, French West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Brach, M.; Bernard, M.-L.; Gaspard, S.

    2012-04-01

    The hot geothermal fluid produced by the wells of the Bouillante power station, in Guadeloupe, contains various dissolved species such as silica or some metals (Zn, Pb, etc). During the exploitation, the geothermal fluid is flashing and cooling (from 260 to 160 °C for the high-pressure steam-liquid separation and down to 110°C for the low-pressure phase separation of a part of the separated liquid at 160°C). Consequently, the dissolved species can form scale deposits such as amorphous silica or poly-metallic sulphides, according to the exploitation conditions, and cause serious scaling problems on the production and the surface installations. These minerals could also precipitate during the partial underground re-injection of the production fluids which is being set up in the Bouillante power station. In this study, in order to predict and prevent the possible silica precipitation at temperature lower than 160°C, during the partial underground reinjection of the production fluids of Bouillante or their thermal valorization down to 110°C temperatures, we propose to investigate on site the kinetics of silica precipitation as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments presented here were carried out on site on samples of separated waters collected after the steam-water separator at 160°C, containing about 600 ppm of SiO2, at four cooling temperatures: 22, 50, 75 and 90°C, and for pH ranging from 4 to 9. These experiments showed that the silica deposition was always initiated by a polymerization mechanism characterized by an order 2 kinetic law and the formation of a white colloidal gel, which slowed down the silica precipitation under solid form. This latter was observed much later, after the polymerization stage, and only in particular conditions (long time of atmospheric exposure, water stagnation,…). The results also confirmed that the silica precipitation kinetics is strongly dependent on pH. In acidic solution, a transition period is observed

  20. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  1. Comparison of the performance and reliability of 18 lumped hydrological models driven by ECMWF rainfall ensemble forecasts: a case study on 29 French catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Juan Alberto; Anctil, François; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Perrin, Charles

    2010-05-01

    provide reliable probabilistic forecasts of streamflow, based on ensemble weather predictions. The models were therefore adapted to run in a forecasting mode, i.e., to update initial conditions according to the last observed discharge at the time of the forecast, and to cope with ensemble weather scenarios. All models are lumped, i.e., the hydrological behavior is integrated over the spatial scale of the catchment, and run at daily time steps. The complexity of tested models varies between 3 and 13 parameters. The models are tested on 29 French catchments. Daily streamflow time series extend over 17 months, from March 2005 to July 2006. Catchment areas range between 1470 km2 and 9390 km2, and represent a variety of hydrological and meteorological conditions. The 12 UTC 10-day ECMWF rainfall ensemble (51 members) was used, which led to daily streamflow forecasts for a 9-day lead time. In order to assess the performance and reliability of the hydrological ensemble predictions, we computed the Continuous Ranked probability Score (CRPS) (Matheson and Winkler, 1976), as well as the reliability diagram (e.g. Wilks, 1995) and the rank histogram (Talagrand et al., 1999). Since the ECMWF deterministic forecasts are also available, the performance of the hydrological forecasting systems was also evaluated by comparing the deterministic score (MAE) with the probabilistic score (CRPS). The results obtained for the 18 hydrological models and the 29 studied catchments are discussed in the perspective of improving the operational use of ensemble forecasting in hydrology. References Bartholmes, J. and Todini, E.: Coupling meteorological and hydrological models for flood forecasting, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 333-346, 2005. Cloke, H. and Pappenberger, F.: Ensemble Flood Forecasting: A Review. Journal of Hydrology 375 (3-4): 613-626, 2009. Jaun, S., Ahrens, B., Walser, A., Ewen, T., and Schär, C.: A probabilistic view on the August 2005 floods in the upper Rhine catchment, Nat. Hazards

  2. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  3. Strategies for improved French-language health services

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Alain P.; Timony, Patrick E.; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify strategies to improve the quality of health services for Francophone patients. Design A series of semistructured key informant interviews. Setting Northeastern Ontario. Participants A total of 18 physicians were interviewed. Ten physicians were interviewed in French, 7 physicians were women, and 10 physicians were located in urban communities. Methods Purposive and snowball sampling strategies were used to conduct a series of semistructured key informant interviews with family physicians practising in communities with a large Francophone population. Principles of grounded theory were applied, guided by a framework for patient-professional communication. Results were inductively derived following an iterative data collection–data analysis process and were analyzed using a detailed thematic approach. Main findings Respondents identified several strategies for providing high-quality French-language health services. Some were unique to non–French-speaking physicians (eg, using appropriate interpreter services), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg, using a flexible dialect), and some strategies were common to all physicians serving French populations (eg, hiring bilingual staff or having pamphlets and posters in both French and English). Conclusion Physicians interviewed for this study provided high-quality health care by attributing substantial importance to effective communication. While linguistic patient-to-physician concordance is ideal, it might not always be possible. Thus, conscious efforts to attenuate communication barriers are necessary, and several effective strategies exist. PMID:26505060

  4. French NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1990-06-01

    France, having long proclaimed the need to change the European status quo, regards the potential for change in the structure of European relationships with more anxiety than do most of its allies. However, French security assumptions have not remained static. French policy has been adjusting for some time, but this movement is only partially related to the changes set loose by Soviet President Gorbachev, and can be understood only in the broader context of the security perspectives that have guided French thinking since the end of World War II. This study traces the roots of Charles de Gaulle's policies and describes the nearly 15-year-long transition away from purist Gaullism toward a new compromise between independence and integration. The author describes the adjustments taken in response, including several important steps to improve the interaction between the French military and NATO, and ways that French diplomacy of the early 1980s began to emphasize common NATO positions. The author then examines the emerging policy environment and its effects on the basic assumptions underpinning French policy. He concludes that in the future, France will be easier to work with as an ally, but will continue to seek autonomy in the East-West dialogue.

  5. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infants<4-year-oldsFrench) listeners discrimination performance is comparable across the age groups tested (infants=4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  6. Association between Prenatal Exposure to Antiretroviral Therapy and Birth Defects: An Analysis of the French Perinatal Cohort Study (ANRS CO1/CO11)

    PubMed Central

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Le Chenadec, Jérôme; Boullag-Bonnet, Naima; Faye, Albert; Dollfus, Catherine; Tubiana, Roland; Bonnet, Damien; Lelong, Nathalie; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV) drug used. Methods and Findings The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388) were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%–4.7%), according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267), adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.7), p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%). Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1–10.4), p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1–13.8), p = 0

  7. [Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in mothers and infants in French Guyana. Epidemiologic study apropos of 44 women having conceived 55 children].

    PubMed

    Pradinaud, R; Sainte-Marie, D; Plat, J M; Cassiede, P; Vienne, P; Vigneron-Meleder, H; Wojcick, L; Wojcick, J M; Sankale-Suzanon, J; Patient, G

    1989-01-01

    The French Guyana is an Overseas French Department in South America, with 100,000 inhabitants among them are 20% of Haitian immigrants. At 31 December 1987, 103 AIDS cases have been recorded, 86% by heterosexual transmission. The first case dated May 1979 was retroactively diagnosed in an Haitian parturient, thank to her serum kept in the Pasteur institute of Cayenne. 44 women got their pregnancy during their HIV infection: 5 with clinical and biological evidence of AIDS, 7 developed AIDS after getting pregnant, and 10 out of these 12 women died. All of them were from a rather low social group and, generally, were not married. 43 are black (40 Haitians and 3 Guyanese Creoles), one is Indian and presented some psychic disorders. The mean age was 32 1/2 (from 15 to 51 years old). 55 babies were born: 12 developed AIDS (6 died during the first 15 months of their life); 14 are HIV +, 3 stillborns, 4 never tested and 22 developed negative reaction (with ELISA and Western-Blot) between 7.5 and 10 months of their life. Two Hutchinson's triads were observed. Prurigo is the most commonly skin manifestation observed. PMID:2725245

  8. How To Cope with the French: Keys to Understanding French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarro, Brian J.

    To deal successfully with the French people in business, the American must first be conversant with his own culture. The French have a tradition of firm opinions and take an intellectual view of the world. Thinking is hierarchical, as is the French society. Education emphasizes strong command of the French language and all formal aspects of French…

  9. French Basic Course: Basic Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume of the French Basic Course contains ten situations from daily life, each divided into five sub-situations. The material for each situation consists of cartoons and lists of selected words. The purpose of the volume is to provide a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of lessons 1-85 of the Basic Course and adding new words…

  10. French Education: Back to Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David

    1985-01-01

    The French government has announced new moves designed to reinforce the teaching of basic skills in this nation's elementary schools. Highlights of these moves and of Jean-Pierre Chevenement's (minister of national education) recommendations on what should be emphasized in schools are presented. (JN)

  11. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  12. French Immersion Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanaimo School District #68 (British Columbia).

    The Nanaimo (British Columbia) school district's French immersion program is evaluated. An introductory section gives background on the evaluation, outlines the evaluation process used, and offers brief comments on its outcome. The second section describes the immersion program's history and its current status in terms of enrollment, class size,…

  13. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  14. The Future of Intensive French in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Joan; Germain, Claude

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the oral proficiency in French of students in core French, intensive French (IF), and post-IF to determine the effectiveness of these programs. Between 2003 and 2009, students in nine jurisdictions were assessed using the New Brunswick Middle School Scale (MSS). Students were tested prior to beginning IF (multiple grade…

  15. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  16. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  17. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson); "Is Core French a Valid Option?"…

  18. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  19. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  20. Comparison of the performance and reliability of 18 lumped hydrological models driven by ECMWF rainfall ensemble forecasts: a case study on 29 French catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Juan Alberto; Anctil, François; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Perrin, Charles

    2010-05-01

    provide reliable probabilistic forecasts of streamflow, based on ensemble weather predictions. The models were therefore adapted to run in a forecasting mode, i.e., to update initial conditions according to the last observed discharge at the time of the forecast, and to cope with ensemble weather scenarios. All models are lumped, i.e., the hydrological behavior is integrated over the spatial scale of the catchment, and run at daily time steps. The complexity of tested models varies between 3 and 13 parameters. The models are tested on 29 French catchments. Daily streamflow time series extend over 17 months, from March 2005 to July 2006. Catchment areas range between 1470 km2 and 9390 km2, and represent a variety of hydrological and meteorological conditions. The 12 UTC 10-day ECMWF rainfall ensemble (51 members) was used, which led to daily streamflow forecasts for a 9-day lead time. In order to assess the performance and reliability of the hydrological ensemble predictions, we computed the Continuous Ranked probability Score (CRPS) (Matheson and Winkler, 1976), as well as the reliability diagram (e.g. Wilks, 1995) and the rank histogram (Talagrand et al., 1999). Since the ECMWF deterministic forecasts are also available, the performance of the hydrological forecasting systems was also evaluated by comparing the deterministic score (MAE) with the probabilistic score (CRPS). The results obtained for the 18 hydrological models and the 29 studied catchments are discussed in the perspective of improving the operational use of ensemble forecasting in hydrology. References Bartholmes, J. and Todini, E.: Coupling meteorological and hydrological models for flood forecasting, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 333-346, 2005. Cloke, H. and Pappenberger, F.: Ensemble Flood Forecasting: A Review. Journal of Hydrology 375 (3-4): 613-626, 2009. Jaun, S., Ahrens, B., Walser, A., Ewen, T., and Schär, C.: A probabilistic view on the August 2005 floods in the upper Rhine catchment, Nat. Hazards

  1. Francais langue seconde: trousse d'evaluation--tests modeles pour les cours: French 31a (Avance 7); French 31b (Avance 8); French 31c (Avance 9) (French as a Second Language: Evaluation Resource Package--Model Tests for the Courses: French 31a (Advanced 7); French 31b (Advanced 8); French 31c (Advanced 9)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The French as a Second Language model tests for advanced levels 7, 8, and 9 were designed to evaluate students' language performance, as outlined in the program of studies for Alberta, Canada, in listening and reading comprehension and oral and written production, communication skills, culture, language and general language knowledge. The tests…

  2. Validity and reliability of the French versions of the body shape questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Berchtold, André; Rousseau, Amélie; Ferrand, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The validity of the 34-item and shortened versions of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) has been evaluated in various languages. To date, only the validity of the 34-item French BSQ scale has been tested in a nonclinical sample. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the 34-item French BSQ and 7 shortened versions in clinical and nonclinical samples. The 34-item French BSQ was administered to 159 obese women with and without binge eating disorders and to 1,169 female undergraduate students. The results suggested that the BSQ-8B was the best French BSQ to use in nonclinical and clinical samples. PMID:24134410

  3. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  4. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian

    PubMed Central

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  5. Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into α and β components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean α-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional β-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and

  6. French Alps, Mont Blanc, French/Italian Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this southeast looking view, Mont Blanc, on the French/Italian border, (48.0N, 4.5E) the highest mountain peak in all of Europe, is just below and right of center (below the end of the prominent valley of the Aosta River, in the center of the photo. The rivers flow out of the Alps into Italy toward Turin. Chamonix, the famous resort town and center of Alpine mountain climbing, lies in the valley just below Mont Blanc.

  7. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  8. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  9. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  10. Francais sur objectif specifique: parier sur l'ouverture (French for Specific Purposes: Betting on Expansion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couillerot, Jacques; Fariol, Hanna

    1990-01-01

    The description and summary of a large-scale French study of the future and directions of French-language teaching for special purposes looks at instructional efforts currently under way and at three aspects of the study: the publics addressed, the areas of specialization targeted, and the methods used. (MSE)

  11. Understanding and Improving the Use of Writing Portfolios in One French Immersion Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Christine L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the use of writing portfolios in improving the accuracy of French immersion students' written French. It emerged from regularly observed notable and repeated errors in many of the author's students' writing (entitled fossilized errors due their resistance to correction). This study reaffirms that students of French…

  12. On-Line Grammaticality Judgments in French Children and Adults: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the on-line processing of French sentences in a grammaticality judgment experiment. Three age groups of French children (mean age: 6;8, 8;6 and 10;10 years) and a group of adults were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors were studied: the violation type: agreement violations (number and…

  13. Corporate Image and the Establishment of Euro Disney: Mickey Mouse and the French Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Janis

    1998-01-01

    Considers interweaving themes that characterized the construction of Euro Disney, drawing upon articles in the French press. Offers analysis of the historical context for and the implications of the park's construction, using the literature of French cultural studies and cross-cultural studies for support. Discusses possible consequences to the…

  14. Utilizing Journal Dissertation Listings for Bibliometric Analysis: French History Dissertations 1976-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use and importance of examining dissertations listed in scholarly journals, while focusing on a critical period of French doctoral education in historical studies. French dissertations in history were bibliometrically examined from "Revue historique," a mainstream history journal published in France.…

  15. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  16. [French medical journals since 1800].

    PubMed

    Tesnière, Valérie; Cantau, Alina

    2014-01-01

    French medical journals take the lead among the 1 385 titles of the statistical survey (15.4%). Efficient tool in communication, with an important publishing market, linked to the rise of medicine in the 19(th) century, prosperity of medical journals do not only mean rise of specialties. Monthly periodicals dominate quickly the publishing market which is also characterized by complex links between generalist and highly specialized medicine, public health and professional training. PMID:25311892

  17. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  18. French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose

    SciTech Connect

    Kibriya, Nabil Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven; How, Thien; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed.

  19. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  20. [Feasibility and acceptability of insulin therapy using a pen suitable for injecting regular or intermediate insulin. Results of the French multicenter study conducted by the Optipen-France Study Group].

    PubMed

    Pinget, M; Vexiau, P; Sandre, D; Pasqual, C; Weisselberg, C

    1990-12-01

    Most of the commercially available insulin-pens are only suitable for regular insulin and have to be used in combination with syringe injections of long-acting insulin preparations. The aim of the french multicentric study is to estimate the clinical interest of a new insulin-pen (Optipen-Hoechst) with two main characteristics: the ability of a predetermination of the insulin dosage to be administered and the suitability for both regular, intermediate and pre-mixed regular (25%) and intermediate (75%) Hoechst insulin preparations. This new pen can so be used alone in all insulin regimen, consisting only of regular and/or intermediate insulin injection. Ninety five insulin treated patients, with at least two daily injections of these kinds of insulin, have been selected injection in a 8 weeks follow up study: After been included they were treated for two weeks by syringe injections of Hoechst insulin solutions (U40), equivalent to the former insulin preparations. Optipen was then used during 4 weeks to inject similar U100 insulin solution, without any other changes in diet and home blood glucose monitoring. Metabolic control was assessed by glycemic measurements, fructosamine and glycosylated hemoglobin determinations and remained unchanged all over the study. The acceptability of pen-treatment was excellent since 95% of the population decided not to return to syringe injections at the end of the study. Injections by mean of an Optipen are more convenient at home as well as outside. Further long term randomized studies are necessary to definite the clinical indications for Optipen use in insulin treated patient. PMID:2086280

  1. Dislocation in Spoken French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calve, Pierre

    1985-01-01

    Discusses dislocation, a construction in which one element, usually a noun, is isolated either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence while being represented in the body of the sentence by a pronoun. Discusses the place of dislocation in linguistic studies and its pedagogical implications. (SED)

  2. French Secondary School Students' Perceptions of the Education-Labor Market Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique

    2004-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to a paper-and-pencil…

  3. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  4. The Status of the "Weaker" Language in Unbalanced French/German Bilingual Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnesen, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the status of the so-called "weaker" language, French, in French/German bilingual first language acquisition, using data from two children from the DuFDE-corpus (see Schlyter, 1990a), Christophe and Francois. Schlyter (1993, 1994) proposes that the "weaker" language in the unbalanced children she studied has the status…

  5. Natural Gender, Phonological Cues and the Default Grammatical Gender in French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure

    2013-01-01

    According to a dominant thesis, nominal endings are the privileged cues French children use to determine new nouns' gender subclass. Children will rely on phonology even in cases of discordance with natural gender. Two elicited production studies involving more than 250 4- to 17-year-olds showed that while French children did not base their gender…

  6. Linguistic Change in Endangered Dialects: The Case of Alternation between "Avoir" and "Etre" in Vermont French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Marijke; Roberts, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examines the pattern of variation of the auxiliary "avoir" and "etre" in the passe compose tense in Vermont French in 22 adult speakers who immigrated from Quebec or are first-generation Franco-Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine if the process of replacement of "etre" by "avoir" in progress in Canadian French is also taking place…

  7. Pitch Cues for the Recognition of Yes-No Questions in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Linguistic studies of the intonation of Yes-No questions in French show that, in questions containing more than two stress groups, interrogative intonation is characterized by a sequence of lowered pitches or downstepped tones which precede the final rise. The gating paradigm was used here to determine whether subjects listening to French NP…

  8. Student and Teacher Perceptions of First Language Use in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culligan, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study (Creswell, 2003, 2007; van Manen, 1997) explores student and teacher perceptions of first language use in French immersion mathematics classrooms at a large, urban high school in Canada. During individual interviews, participants discussed their perceptions and experiences of French immersion mathematics, language use,…

  9. Real-Time Changes in the Paradigm of Personal Pronouns in Montreal French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondeau, Helene

    2001-01-01

    Based on the results of three variationist studies on personal pronouns used in Montreal French, shows how real-time data can shed light on apparent time interpretation and increase understanding of morphosyntactic changes. Longitudinal data for a 24-year period from three corpora of spoken French are used to discuss cases of variation.…

  10. Matching Intended and Actual French Curriculum Objectives in Secondary Schools in Western Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omusonga, T. O.; Kazadi, I. M.; Indoshi, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    Intended French curriculum objectives refer to four official objectives of teaching and learning French in secondary schools in Kenya as laid down in syllabuses; namely, to equip learners with basic communicative skills, give learners access to oral and written materials, facilitate further studies, and promote global peace (Republic of Kenya,…

  11. Year-One Evaluation of French in the Elementary Schools. Research Report 75-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleadow, N. E.

    During the 1974-1975 school year eight itinerant French teachers travelled among 20 elementary schools teaching oral French to Grade 6 and Grade 7 students. Each teacher was responsible for two or three schools, The course was based on the book Le Francais Partout-Cours Preliminaire (1967) ed.). The study described in this report was initiated to…

  12. Learners' Selective Perceptions of Information during Instructed Learning in French: Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how American learners of French perceived the influence of instruction on their existing stereotypes about the French people to determine the effects of these stereotypes on their language learning and cultural openness. During a semester, 22 undergraduate students, all native English speakers enrolled in 4 sections of…

  13. Specific Language Impairment in French-Speaking Children: Beyond Grammatical Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thordardottir, Elin T.; Namazi, Mahchid

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies on specific language impairment (SLI) in French have identified specific aspects of morphosyntax as particularly vulnerable. However, a cohesive picture of relative strengths and weaknesses characterizing SLI in French has not been established. In light of normative data showing low morphological error rates in the spontaneous…

  14. Testing Brief Intervention and Phone Contact among Subjects with Suicidal Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial in French Polynesia in the Frames of the World Health Organization/Suicide Trends in At-Risk Territories Study

    PubMed Central

    Amadéo, Stéphane; Rereao, Moerani; Malogne, Aurelia; Favro, Patrick; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Jehel, Louis; Milner, Allison; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Suicide trends in at-risk territories study is a multi-site regional research program operating first in French Polynesia and countries of the Western Pacific, then extended to the world. The aims of the study were to establish a monitoring system for suicidal behaviors and to conduct a randomised control trial intervention for non-fatal suicidal behaviors. The latter part is the purpose of the present article. Over the period 2008-2010, 515 patients were admitted at the Emergency Department of the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française for suicidal behavior. Those then hospitalized in the Psychiatry Emergency Unit were asked to be involved in the study and randomly allocated to either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC), which provides a psycho-education session and a follow-up of 9 phone contacts over an 18-months period. One hundred persons were assigned to TAU, while 100 participants were allocated to the BIC group. At the end of the follow-up there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of number of presentations to the hospital for repeated suicidal behaviors. Although the study could not demonstrate the superiority of a treatment over the other, nevertheless – given its importance – the investigation captured public attention and was able to contribute to the awareness of the need of suicide prevention in French Polynesia. The BIC model of intervention seemed to particularly suit the geographical and health care context of the country. PMID:26605034

  15. Multimodal Indices to Japanese and French Prosodically Expressed Social Affects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilliard, Albert; Shochi, Takaaki; Martin, Jean-Claude; Erickson, Donna; Auberge, Veronique

    2009-01-01

    Whereas several studies have explored the expression of emotions, little is known on how the visual and audio channels are combined during production of what we call the more controlled social affects, for example, "attitudinal" expressions. This article presents a perception study of the audovisual expression of 12 Japanese and 6 French attitudes…

  16. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  17. Randomized study of glibenclamide versus traditional Chinese treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. Chinese-French Scientific Committee for the Study of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vray, M; Attali, J R

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a traditional Chinese treatment (TCT) based on three plants in association with a sulfonylurea, glibenclamide (2.5 mg X 3/d). A 2 X 2 factorial design was adopted for this multicentre randomized double-blind trial involving 4 groups [A = placebo (P) TCT + P glibenclamide; B = P TCT + verum glibenclamide; C = verum TCT + P glibenclamide; D = verum TCT + verum glibenclamide]. Patients included were type 2 diabetic outpatients, 40-70 years of age, treated by diet alone or oral anti-diabetic drugs. Endpoint criteria evaluated were HbA1, blood glucose and plasma insulin (at fasting, and 1 and 2 h after a test meal). At each visit, a clinical examination was performed, and a questionnaire on side effects and associated symptoms was completed. The dose was reduced by half in the case of hypoglycaemia. The 216 patients were recruited in 5 centres [Shanghai (1) = 48, Shanghai (2) = 40, Beijing = 40, Canton = 42, Chengdu = 46 and randomized into treatment groups A, B, C, D (56, 56, 50 and 54 respectively). Eleven patients were withdrawn for administrative reasons. In patients treated with glibenclamide, a significant increase in weight and insulinaemia was observed, together with a significant decrease in blood glucose values; in those receiving TCT, blood glucose values were significantly decreased only 2 h after the test meal. A synergistic effect on blood glucose was observed when both treatments were given. Hypoglycaemia occurred in 19 patients (all in the two verum glibenclamide groups). This first multicentre controlled trial showed that the 3 Chinese plants tested were well-tolerated and effective in Type 2 diabetes as indicated by a significant synergistic effect in association with a sulfonylurea. PMID:8593925

  18. Overweight and obesity in French Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Valéro, René; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of overweight (45%) and obesity (30%) were recorded in French Hajj pilgrims originating from North Africa. Females were significantly more likely to suffer from obesity compared to males. The overall prevalence of obesity among French pilgrims born in North-Africa was twice that of the overall French population. The prevalence of obesity in pilgrims aged 55-64 years and 65 years and over were respectively 38 and 25% compared to 20 and 18% in the corresponding overall French population age classes. The prevalence of diabetes in French pilgrims was five times higher compared to that of the overall French population. This situation prompts us to organize in the next future, pre-Hajj education seminars for diabetics. PMID:22331406

  19. Etude des sequences de type consonne constrictive plus voyelle en francais, a l'aide de la radiocinematographie et de l'oscillographie (A Study of the Constrictive Consonant Plus Vowel Sequences in French, Using X-Ray Filming and Oscillography). Publication B-148.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Claude; Simard, Claude

    A study of the phonetic combination of a constrictive consonant (specifically, [f], [v], and [r]) and a vowel in French using x-ray and oscillograph technology focused on the speed and process of articulation between the consonant and the vowel. The study considered aperture size, nasality, labiality, and accent. Articulation of a total of 407…

  20. Mesotherapy - The french connection.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, G

    2010-01-01

    Mesotherapy involves the use of multiple intradermal or subcutaneous injections of a mixture of compounds in minute doses, by means of very fine needles, directly over/near the affected sites. Originally invented in France to manage painful medical conditions, it is presently the buzz word in the field of cosmetic dermatology, chiefly to get rid of disfiguring fat. Depending upon the condition treated, the drugs injected, the techniques followed and the number of sessions involved vary. The wider reception of mesotherapy by its stakeholders are probably due to factors like inexpensive equipments, relatively minimal training for providers, much reduced dosage need of the drugs with resultant minimal untoward effects, quicker realization of benefits, minimal invasiveness/pain involved and not the least it is an outpatient procedure. Despite so many plus points, it has to be noted that currently there is a dearth of rigorous scientific studies to prove its efficacy and safety. Further, the average cost per session alone ranges from 200 USD to 600 USD. PMID:21808584

  1. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments. PMID:8511621

  2. How deaf are French speakers to stress?

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schön, Daniele; Dufour, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    This event-related potential study examined whether French listeners use stress at a phonological level when discriminating between stressed and unstressed words in their language. Participants heard five words and made same/different decisions about the final word (male voice) with respect to the four preceding words (different female voices). Compared to the first four context words, the target word was (i) phonemically and prosodically identical (/ʃu/-/ʃu/; control condition), (ii) phonemically identical but differing in the presence of a primary stress (/ʃu'/-/ʃu/), (iii) prosodically identical but phonemically different (/ʃo/-/ʃu/), or (iv) both phonemically and prosodically different (/ʃo'/-/ʃu/). Crucially, differences on the P200 and the following N200 components were observed for the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ and the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ conditions compared to the /ʃu/-/ʃu/ control condition. Moreover, on the N200 component more negativity was observed for the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ condition compared to the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ conditions, while no difference emerged between these two conditions on the earlier P200 component. Crucially, the results suggest that French listeners are capable of creating an abstract representation of stress. However, as they receive more input, participants react more strongly to phonemic than to stress information. PMID:27036270

  3. Performance Testing of PCR Assay in Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in AIDS Patients from the French Departments of America and Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: A Prospective and Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Lamaury, Isabelle; Demar, Magalie; Vautrin, Cyrille; Cabié, André; Simon, Stéphane; Nicolas, Muriel; Desbois-Nogard, Nicole; Boukhari, Rachida; Riahi, Homayoun; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Massip, Patrice; Dupon, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Labrunie, Anaïs; Boncoeur, Marie-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay. Conclusion/Significance Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621 PMID:27355620

  4. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  5. Panton-valentine leukocidin-positive and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French multicenter prospective study in 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet. PMID:21220529

  6. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French Multicenter Prospective Study in 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet. PMID:21220529

  7. Tracing sediment sources during floods using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry (DRIFTS): A case study in a highly erosive mountainous catchment (Southern French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulenard, J.; Legout, C.; Némery, J.; Bramorski, J.; Navratil, O.; Douchin, A.; Fanget, B.; Perrette, Y.; Evrard, O.; Esteves, M.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIn mountainous catchments, large quantities of sediment are exported within very short periods leading to numerous environmental problems (e.g. reservoir siltation). The origin of suspended sediment during two distinct floods was determined by conducting an original fingerprinting method coupling Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and a chemometric technique (i.e. Partial Least Squares - PLS-analysis). Samples of the potential sediment sources were collected in badland areas developed on various substrates (i.e. molasse, marly limestones, black marls and gypsum) in the Galabre 20 km 2-catchment located in the French Southern Alps. DRIFTS spectra provided a way to discriminate between the different potential sediment sources. Furthermore, the use of mid-infrared spectra allowed the direct quantification of the gypsum proportion in sediment. This contribution was systematically null at the catchment outlet because of the rapid dissolution of gypsum in the river. A PLS model was then constructed to estimate the contribution of the three other potential sources to the sediment flux during the floods. This model was developed and validated using a set of 45 "experimental" samples that were prepared in the laboratory in order to contain various proportions of the three remaining sources. By introducing DRIFTS spectra into the PLS model, we could predict the proportions of those sources in the mixed 'experimental' samples with a confidence interval of ca. ±10%. The model was then applied to the sediment collected during the two selected floods in order to outline their origin. Black marls provided the highest contribution of sediment during both events, but the analysis also revealed a significant contribution of molasse. Results also showed the remobilisation of sediment originated from molassic substrates that deposited on the riverbed during a preceding event. Opportunities for improvement and further use of this method as an

  8. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  9. Prosodically-Conditioned Variability in Children's Production of French Determiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; Tremblay, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have long noted that children's grammatical morphemes are variably produced, raising questions about when and how grammatical competence is acquired. This study examined the spontaneous production of determiners by two French-speaking children aged 1 ; 5-2 ; 5. It found that determiners were produced earlier with monosyllabic words,…

  10. Phonological Deficits in French Speaking Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillart, Christelle; Parisse, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the phonological disorders of French-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) in production. Aims: The main goal was to confirm whether children with SLI have limitations in phonological ability as compared with normally developing children matched by mean length of utterance (MLU) and phonemic…

  11. English in the French Workplace: Realism and Anxieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The adoption of English as a corporate language in an increasingly large number of French companies has provoked various reactions ranging from enthusiastic embrace to strong rejection based on anxiety and cultural protectionism. This paper is an attempt to understand these reactions based on a stratified study of the extent to which English has…

  12. The Language Learning Motivation of Early Adolescent French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    This interpretive multiple case study examines the motivation to learn a second language among sixth grade students who attended a French immersion school for grades K-5. Parent surveys, student surveys based on Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery, and individual and group interviews with students were the data sources used to identify…

  13. "What Are We Black Men Who Are Called French?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSeur, Geta J.

    This teachers guide for an eight-week unit on 20th century French African literature, is intended for use with heterogeneously grouped juniors and seniors. The unit is one in a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. The guide represents a thematic approach to literature well suited to team teaching with…

  14. Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

  15. Implicit and Explicit Recasts in L2 Oral French Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlam, Rosemary; Loewen, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory-based study of second- and third-year American university students learning French examines the effectiveness of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on noun-adjective agreement errors. The treatment consisted of one hour of interactive tasks. Implicit feedback was operationalized as a single recast with interrogative…

  16. The Formation of Professional Identity in French "Apprenti" Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angot, Jacques; Malloch, Hedley; Kleymann, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to show how professional identity is constructed at a very early stage of initial management education. In so doing, it questions the notion of "le metier" in management. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a study of the experiences of six French management apprentices (or apprentis) who participated in a…

  17. Persistent Stress "Deafness": The Case of French Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupoux, Emmanuel; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Navarrete, Eduardo; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Previous research by Dupoux et al. [Dupoux, E., Pallier, C., Sebastian, N., & Mehler, J. (1997). A destressing "deafness" in French? "Journal of Memory Language" 36, 406-421; Dupoux, E., Peperkamp, S., & Sebastian-Galles (2001). A robust method to study stress' deafness. "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America" 110, 1608-1618.] found that…

  18. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  19. University Students' Beliefs about Learning English and French in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diab, Rula L.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs about language learning of Lebanese English as a Foreign Language university students, compared their beliefs about learning different target languages, namely, English and French, and investigated within-group variation in these students' beliefs. A modified version of Horwitz's "Beliefs about Language Learning…

  20. Voicing and Devoicing Assimilation of French /s/ and /z/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B.

    2012-01-01

    The present acoustic-phonetic study explores whether voicing and devoicing assimilations of French fricatives are equivalent in magnitude and whether they operate similarly (i.e., complete vs. gradient, obligatory vs. optional, regressive vs. progressive). It concurrently assesses the contribution of speakers' articulation rate to the proportion…

  1. Perceptual Processing of Partially and Fully Assimilated Words in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

    2008-01-01

    Models of speech perception attribute a different role to contextual information in the processing of assimilated speech. This study concerned perceptual processing of regressive voice assimilation in French. This phonological variation is asymmetric in that assimilation is partial for voiced stops and nearly complete for voiceless stops. Two…

  2. Reading in French-Speaking Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer; Cole, Pascale; Leuwers, Christel; Casalis, Severine; Zorman, Michel; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reading and reading-related skills of 15 French-speaking adults with dyslexia, whose performance was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CA) and reading-level controls (RL). Experiment 1 assessed the efficiency of their phonological reading-related skills (phonemic awareness, phonological short-term…

  3. Voice Source Characteristics of Male and Female Speakers of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Rosalind A. M.

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the realization of voicing contrasts ("breathiness") in plosive consonants produced by young French adults, particularly as they differ in males and females. Data came from acoustic analysis of recordings of nine informants reading lists of monosyllabic words with initial plosive consonants in isolation and in the content,…

  4. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: a qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    One consequence of the legal diversity in Europe is that legal restrictions on treatments can be evaded by going abroad. Many French lesbian couples and single women are crossing the border to Belgium because they are denied access to treatments with donor sperm at home. This is the first qualitative research study into the experiences and moral perspectives of these women. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 11 lesbian couples and 2 single women were recruited at the department of reproductive medicine at Ghent University Hospital. The data from the semi-structured interviews was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results show that these women face several additional challenges to the already difficult process of cross-border treatment. Before they can start the treatment, they can only obtain information from the internet or from stories of friends who also went abroad for treatment with donor sperm. During the treatment, they need to find local clinics or physicians to monitor their cycle. Several women managed to game the French system to ensure partial reimbursement for their treatment when they were successful in finding a physician who was willing to prescribe drugs and perform tests. Most women had difficulties justifying their absence from work. In general these women felt that they were discriminated against and that their rights were not protected because of who they are. In that regard, the lack of legal recognition of the genetically unrelated partner in their country was particularly hard to cope with for the lesbian couples. These women have to develop many different strategies to deal with the difficulties they face during cross-border reproductive care. It is concluded that it is very important that they find a physician who is willing to support them in their 'baby project'. PMID:25239009

  5. Direct Mapping of Acoustics to Phonology: On the Lexical Encoding of Front Rounded Vowels in L1 English-L2 French Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Isabelle; Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Sprouse, Rex A.; Glover, Justin; Kaden, Christiane; McGuire, Michael; Scott, John H. G.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that adult US-English-speaking learners of French experience difficulties acquiring high /y/-/u/ and mid /oe/-/[openo]/ front vs. back rounded vowel contrasts in French. This study examines the acquisition of these French vowel contrasts at two levels: phonetic categorization and lexical representations. An ABX categorization task…

  6. Des stereotypes de la France et des Francais chez des etudiants mexicains (Some Stereotypes of France and the French Held by Mexican Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugibet, Veronica

    1983-01-01

    The origins and functions of stereotypes are discussed, a classroom study of Mexican students' perceptions of the French and French culture based on their responses to French advertising and cartoons is reported, and implications for instruction and teacher behavior to change existing stereotypes are outlined. (MSE)

  7. Methods of Costing in Universities. Brief Comparison Between the NCHEMS Approach and the Approach Used by the French-Speaking Research Group Associated with the IMHE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossu, Claude

    1975-01-01

    A group of French universities modified the NCHEMS accounting method for use in a study of its budget control procedures and cost-evaluation methods. The conceptual differences in French university education (as compared to American higher education) are keyed to the adjustments in the accounting method. French universities, rather than being…

  8. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5%) and urinary system malformations (0.3%). Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence). Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children. PMID:18442369

  9. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the CHAMPS Questionnaire in French Canadians with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Susanne; Soicher, Judith E.; Mayo, Nancy E.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Bourbeau, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is difficult to measure in individuals with COPD. The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire demonstrated strong clinometric properties when used with the elderly and with those affected by chronic disease. Study objectives were to translate, culturally adapt the CHAMPS into French, and reexamine its test-retest reliability and construct validity in French and English Canadians with COPD. This paper presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the CHAMPS; results of its clinometric testing will be described in another article. The CHAMPS examines the degree of physical activity performed in a typical week through two summary scales, caloric expenditure and activity frequency. The CHAMPS was only in English; thus, a cross-cultural adaptation was needed to translate the CHAMPS into French for use in French Canadians with COPD. Cross-cultural adaptation consisted of forward and back translation, with expert review at each stage of translation: minor inconsistencies were uncovered and rectified. Five French participants with COPD completed the finalized Canadian French CHAMPS and participated in cognitive debriefing; no problematic items were identified. A structured and stepwise, cross-cultural adaptation process produced the Canadian French CHAMPS, with items of equivalent meaning to the English version, for use in French Canadians with COPD. PMID:27445570

  10. Development of English and French Language and Literacy Skills in EL1 and EL French Immersion Students in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au-Yeung, Karen; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian; D'Angelo, Nadia; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report two studies that compared the development of English and French language and literacy skills in French immersion students identified as native English speakers (EL1s) and English learners (ELs). In study 1, 81 EL1s and 147 ELs were tested in the fall and spring terms of grade 1. The EL1s and ELs had similar outcomes and…

  11. French oil companies in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum interest in Africa is fairly recent: the first exploration in 1947, Hassi Messaoud (Algeria) in 1957, and more serious interest on the part of French companies in the early 1960s. Two major French companies active in Africa are Elf Aquitaine and CIE Francaise des Petroles (CFP). Elf Aquitaine intends to maintain its effort in Gabon with 9 exploratory wells in 1980 and investments of 50 billion francs, and intends to lessen the production decline in the Congo, particularly after the discovery of the Emeraude offshore field. The difficulties here are the shallow depth forcing high angle directional drilling, high viscosity oil, and a very complex reservoir. Investments in the Congo include 45 billion francs including a terminal and an electric plant. CFP is active mainly in Tunisia, Sudan, and Egypt. In Tunisia, 6 fields are of interest, with investments in the order of 110 million francs. More recently, the effort in Egypt has seen further exploration and production from a well, with the investment of 80 million francs in 1980, probably doubling in 1981.

  12. Gustave Caillebotte, French impressionism, and mere exposure.

    PubMed

    Cutting, James E

    2003-06-01

    Gustave Caillebotte was a painter, a collector of some of his colleagues' most renowned works, and a major force in the creation of the late 19th century French Impressionist canon. Six studies are presented as a naturalistic investigation of the effects of mere exposure to images in his collection and to those matched to them. The probabilities of cultural exposure to the 132 stimulus images were indexed by the frequencies of their separate appearances in Cornell University library books--a total of 4,232 times in 980 different books. Across the studies, adult preferences were correlated with differences in image frequencies, but not with recognition, complexity, or prototypicality judgments; children's preferences were not correlated with frequency. Prior cultural exposure also interacted with experimental exposure in predictable ways. The results suggest that mere exposure helps to maintain an artistic canon. PMID:12921411

  13. Multistage deformation of Au-quartz veins (Laurieras, French Massif Central): evidence for late gold introduction from microstructural, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essarraj, S.; Boiron, M.-C.; Cathelineau, M.; Fourcade, S.

    2001-07-01

    The relative chronology of fluid migration, quartz and Au-deposition in a silicified fault from the main Au-district (Laurieras, St Yrieix district) from northern French Massif Central has been determined from microstructural, fluid inclusion, isotopic and ore mineral evidences. Three main stages of fluid circulation, microfracturing and quartz crystallization, and ore deposition were distinguished on the basis of textural relationships and the pressure, temperature and composition of the palaeo-fluids: (1) a series of early fluid events was responsible for the localized drainage of retrograde metamorphic fluids along the main fault and the subsequent sealing by milky and microcrystalline quartz preceeded the main Au-ore stages. Early fluids were aqueous-carbonic, trapped under lithostatic to sublithostatic pressures at temperatures in the range 350-500°C. Subsequently, several types of microstructures were developed in the early quartz matrix. (2) NS microfractures filled by clear quartz, arsenopyrite and boulangerite (I) contain significant refractory gold concentrations. Clear quartz formed from aqueous-carbonic fluids of lower densities than those of the earlier fluids. Significant pressure drops, down to pressures around 55 MPa were responsible for a local immiscibility of the aqueous-carbonic fluids at temperatures of 340±20°C. (3) The main ore stage is characterized by the formation of dense sets of sub-vertical (EW) microfractures, healed fluid inclusion planes in quartz, and filled by ore minerals (native gold, galena and boulangerite II) when they crosscut earlier sulfides. The fluids are aqueous with low and decreasing salinity, and probable trapping temperatures around 230°C. Isotopic data, obtained on microfissured quartz, indicate these dilute aqueous fluids may be considered as meteoric waters that deeply infiltrated the crust. Late microfissuring of a mesothermal quartz vein, originally barren (only with pyrite and arsenopyrite), appears to be

  14. Exploring the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: a case study in Martinique Island (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Darriet, Frederic; Reynaud, Stéphane; Bonnet, Julien; Strode, Clare; Brengues, Cecile; Yébakima, André; Ranson, Hilary; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, causing up to 100 million dengue infections every year. As there is still no medicine and efficient vaccine available, vector control largely based on insecticide treatments remains the only method to reduce dengue virus transmission. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to chemical insecticides has been reported worldwide and the underlying molecular mechanisms, including the identification of enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification are not completely understood. Results The present paper investigates the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in a population of Ae. aegypti collected in Martinique (French West Indies). Bioassays with insecticides on adults and larvae revealed high levels of resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations showed a high frequency (71%) of the sodium channel 'knock down resistance' (kdr) mutation. Exposing mosquitoes to detoxification enzymes inhibitors prior to bioassays induced a significant increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, revealing the presence of metabolic-based resistance mechanisms. This trend was biochemically confirmed by significant elevated activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases at both larval and adult stages. Utilization of the microarray Aedes Detox Chip containing probes for all members of detoxification and other insecticide resistance-related enzymes revealed the significant constitutive over-transcription of multiple detoxification genes at both larval and adult stages. The over-transcription of detoxification genes in the resistant strain was confirmed by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion These results suggest

  15. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  16. Manual of Tape Scripts: French, Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    Designed specifically for use in the oral phase of first-level French classes in New York City Public Schools, these scripts may be used as supplemental drill or review material in any beginning conversational French course with or without the accompanying audio tapes. The two-part manual treats through a variety of drills such aspects of grammar…

  17. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  18. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  19. Why Learn French for Business in 2001?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratier-Declety, Guilhene

    This essay makes the case for why it is worth learning French for business purposes, even though it is acknowledged that English is increasingly the lingua franca of international business, science, technology, and the Internet. It is asserted that French is still the dominant language in some important markets, and being able to conduct business…

  20. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  1. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  2. PRE-PROGRAMED BASIC FRENCH COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VALDMAN, ALBERT

    FIVE PREPROGRAMED UNITS OF BASIC INTERMEDIATE FRENCH ARE THE CONTENTS OF THIS TEXT. FRENCH "DIALOGS FOR LISTENING" ARE PRESENTED AT THE BEGINNING OF EACH UNIT WITH A STEP-BY-STEP ORGANIZATION, ALLOWING THE STUDENT TO GRADUALLY WORK UP TO KNOWLEDGE OF MANY SPOKEN VARIETIES OF THE ORIGINAL DIALOG WHICH HE HEARD. PRONUNCIATION REVIEWS ARE PROVIDED ON…

  3. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  4. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  5. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  6. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  7. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  8. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  9. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  10. Stories of Frenchness: Becoming a Francophile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on life-story accounts used to gain insights into the symbolic value language learners attach to French. The concept of "interpretative repertoires" is used to show how participants situate personal narratives in broader cultural discourses (a "Francophile repertoire") to construct their experience of Frenchness. Data from three…

  11. Pratique intonative et utlisation d'un logiciel de visualisation dans un cours de prononciation en francais langue seconde: une etude descriptive (Practicing Pitch and Using Visualization Software in a French as a Second Language Pronunciation Course: A Descriptive Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoerr, Helene

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of a pitch visualization software in a pronunciation course in French as a second language. Outlines the software's characteristics and explains the methodological and pedagogical framework of the experiment. (Author/VWL)

  12. French work on ocean thermal energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, P.

    The ocean is discussed as a world-wide potential source of renewable energy, with special attention given to the 'deposit' of ocean thermal energy, which is determined by the temperature difference existing between surface water and that at a depth of 1000 m. A brief history of work done in France is presented, and mention is made of the work of d'Arsonval (1881), Claude and Boucherot (1926), and of projects, such as those at Abidjan and Guadeloupe. Attention is given to the French ocean thermal energy sites, to the Empain-Schneider closed-cycle studies, and the open-cycle floating ocean thermal energy station, with a discussion of thermodynamic considerations and cold water pipes. Problems and prospects are reviewed.

  13. Leukaemia mortality around French nuclear sites.

    PubMed Central

    Hattchouel, J. M.; Laplanche, A.; Hill, C.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate leukaemia mortality in the population under the age of 25 residing around the 13 French nuclear sites operating in 1985. In four geographical zones defined according to the distance from the site, 503 exposed communes were identified and followed up between 1968 and 1989. A total of 4,132,000 person-years of observation were accumulated. The number of leukaemia deaths observed (69) did not differ from the expected number (86.15) estimated according to national mortality statistics. There was no difference in the risks of leukaemia mortality according to sex, age, type of installation and no trend with an increasing distance from installations. PMID:7880754

  14. French participation in the Soviet PHOBOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Blamont, J. E.; Bibring, J. P.

    1989-10-01

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July, 1988. It carries some 30 experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its vicinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the sun and the interplanetary medium. France, through its laboratories (participating in a number of experiments) and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse (participating in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations), is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are described (ISM, Auguste, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and Apex, and the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander DAS (cameras, Stenopee). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contributions to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  15. French participation in the Soviet Phobos mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bibring, J. P.; Blamont, J. E.; Bonneau, F.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Hamelin, M.; Trotignon, J. G.

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July 88. It carries some thirty experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its viscinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the Sun and the Interplanetary Medium. France, through its laboratories participating in a number of experiments and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations, is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are discribed (ISM, AUGUSTE, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and APEX, the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander: DAS (cameras, STENOPEE). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contribution to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  16. French Frigate Shoals reef health survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Coles, Steve L.; Rameyer, Robert

    2002-01-01

    French Frigate Shoals consists of a large (31 nm) fringing reef partially enclosing a lagoon. A basalt pinnacle (La Perouse Pinnacle) arises approximately halfway between the two ends of the arcs of the fringing reefs. Tern Island is situated at the northern end of the lagoon and is surrounded by a dredged ship channel. The lagoon becomes progressively shallower from west to east and harbors a variety of marine life including corals, fish, marine mammals, and sea turtles (Amerson 1971). In 2000, an interagency survey of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands was done to document the fauna and flora in FFS (Maragos and Gulko, 2002). During that survey, 38 stations were examined, and 41 species of stony corals were documented, the most of any of the NW Hawaiian islands (Maragos and Gulko 2002). In some of these stations, corals with abnormalities were observed. The present study aimed to expand on the 2000 survey to evaluate the lesions in areas where they were documented.

  17. When pitch Accents Encode Speaker Commitment: Evidence from French Intonation.

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Portes, Cristel; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies on a variety of languages have shown that a speaker's commitment to the propositional content of his or her utterance can be encoded, among other strategies, by pitch accent types. Since prior research mainly relied on lexical-stress languages, our understanding of how speakers of a non-lexical-stress language encode speaker commitment is limited. This paper explores the contribution of the last pitch accent of an intonation phrase to convey speaker commitment in French, a language that has stress at the phrasal level as well as a restricted set of pitch accents. In a production experiment, participants had to produce sentences in two pragmatic contexts: unbiased questions (the speaker had no particular belief with respect to the expected answer) and negatively biased questions (the speaker believed the proposition to be false). Results revealed that negatively biased questions consistently exhibited an additional unaccented F0 peak in the preaccentual syllable (an H+!H* pitch accent) while unbiased questions were often realized with a rising pattern across the accented syllable (an H* pitch accent). These results provide evidence that pitch accent types in French can signal the speaker's belief about the certainty of the proposition expressed in French. It also has implications for the phonological model of French intonation. PMID:27363256

  18. French Project For Operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliquen, S.; Petit de La Villéon, L.; Carval, T.; Loaec, G.; Gourmelen, L.; Desaubies, Y.; Coriolis, A.

    2003-04-01

    The seven French agencies concerned by ocean research are developing together a strong capability in operational oceanography based on a triad including satellite altimetry (JASON), numerical modelling with assimilation (MERCATOR), and in situ data (CORIOLIS). The CORIOLIS project aims to build a pre-operational structure to collect, valid and distribute ocean data (temperature/salinity profiles and current speeds) to the scientific community and modellers. CORIOLIS aims at four goals : (1) To build up a data management centre, part of the ARGO network for the GODAE experiment, able to provide quality-controlled data in real time and delay modes. (2) To contribute to ARGO floats deployment mainly in the Atlantic with about 250 floats during the 2001-2004 period. (3) To develop and improve profiling ARGO floats. PROVOR is a self-ballasted float, able to drift at a user-defined parking depth and then to dive to 2000m before profiling up to the surface where data are transmitted using the Argos system. More than 100 cycles can be performed during its 3-year lifetime. (4) To integrate into CORIOLIS all other data presently collected at sea by French agencies from surface drifting buoys, PIRATA anchored buoys, oceanographic research vessels (XBT, thermosalinograph and ADCP transmitted on a daily basis). CORIOLIS data centre, already one of the two global data centres for ARGO, and aims to be an important partner in projects within GMES et 6th PRCD calls. In 2004, recommendations will be done to transform the CORIOLIS activity into a permanent, routinely contribution to ocean measurement, in accordance with international plans which will follow the ARGO/GODAE experiment.

  19. Production of low fat french-fries with single and multi-layer hydrocolloid coatings.

    PubMed

    Daraei Garmakhany, A; Mirzaei, H O; Maghsudlo, Y; Kashaninejad, M; Jafari, S M

    2014-07-01

    In this study the influence of coating with different hydrocolloids on the oil absorption and quality attributes of French fries was investigated. Our results revealed that hydrocolloid coatings reduced the moisture loss during frying, and hence, reduced the oil uptake of French fries. Among the studied gums as a single layer coating, combination of carboxy methyl cellulose and pectin (0.5 and 1% w/w) lead to the lowest oil uptake of French fries. In samples coated with two and three-layer hydrocolloids, the oil absorption reduced further and the moisture content of final products was higher than the blank samples. PMID:24966427

  20. Analysis of DNAJC13 mutations in French-Canadian/French cohort of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jay P; Dupre, Nicolas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Strong, Stephanie; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Spiegelman, Dan; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Pourcher, Emanuelle; Langlois, Melanie; Boivin, Michel; Leblond, Claire S; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A; Gan-Or, Ziv

    2016-09-01

    DNAJC13 mutations have been suggested to cause Parkinson's disease (PD), yet subsequent studies reported conflicting results on this association. In the present study, we sequenced the coding region of DNAJC13 in a French-Canadian/French cohort of 528 PD patients and 692 controls. A total of 62 (11.7%) carriers of rare DNAJC13 variants were identified among the PD patients compared with 82 (11.8%) among controls (p = 1.0). Two variants that were previously suggested to be associated with PD, p.R1516H and p.L2170W, were identified with similar directions of association as previously reported. The p.R1516H was found in 2 (0.4%) patients versus 6 (0.9%, nonsignificant) controls and the p.L2170W variant was found in 9 (1.7%) patients and 5 (0.7%, nonsignificant) controls. Meta-analysis with previous reports resulted in odds ratios of 0.32 (95% confidence interval = 0.15-0.68, p = 0.0037) and 2.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.32-5.42, p = 0.007), respectively. Our results provide some support for the possibility that specific DNAJC13 variants may play a minor role in PD susceptibility, although studies in additional populations are necessary. PMID:27236598

  1. Socio-emotional support in French hospitals: Effects on French nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Ruiller, Caroline; Van Der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2016-02-01

    In spite of the differences in human resource management (HRM) practices between the non-profit health care sector and business life, the majority of health care sector research appears to be based on the HRM (for human resources management) blueprint for business life staff policy and practice. This study is aimed to better understand the impact of workplace social support in the context of French hospitals. Concrete, the first objective of this article comprises a thorough conceptualization and operationalization of workplace social support (i.e. both professional and personal social support). Data were collected in a French hospital among a sample of 62 respondents (for the qualitative part of our study), and among a sample of 171 health care professionals (nurses and nurse aids) (for the quantitative part of our study). Our outcomes indicate that, especially, personal support given by one's supervisor is strongly and positively related to nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment. After a discussion about the outcomes, followed by some recommendations for future research, the article concludes with some practical implications for management in hospitals. PMID:26856519

  2. Effects of consonantal context on perception of French rounded vowels by American English adults with and without French language experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Erika S.; Strange, Winifred

    2002-05-01

    This study extended Gottfried's [J. Phonetics 12, 91-114 (1984)] investigation of the effects of learning French on AE listeners categorial discrimination of the contrasts involving Parisian French vowels /y/, /ø/, /u/, and /i/. Vowels were presented in /rabVp/ and /radVt/ bisyllables embedded in carrier phrases by three different speakers in an AXB discrimination task. Two groups were tested: proficient L2-French-speaking AE listeners (Exp) and non-French-speaking AE listeners (Inexp). Overall, the Exp group performed better than the Inexp group on /u-ø/, /y-i/, and /y-ø/ distinctions (mean errors: Exp=5%, Inexp=24%). However, for /u-y/, the groups did not differ (Exp=30% vs Inexp=24% errors). The findings may be explained by perceptual assimilation patterns, which are determined, in part, by consonantal context. The Inexp group confused /y/ with /i/ in bilabial context, but /y/ with /u/ in alveolar context, whereas the Exp group confused /y/ with /u/, in both contexts. For all contrasts, the Inexp group performed better in bilabial than in alveolar context (16% vs 32% errors), whereas no context effect was revealed for the Exp group. The results suggest that learning a foreign language includes learning its coarticulatory rules.

  3. Reversal of Vitamin K Antagonist (VKA) effect in patients with severe bleeding: a French multicenter observational study (Optiplex) assessing the use of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC) in current clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC) is a key treatment in the management of bleeding related to Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). This study aimed to evaluate prospectively PCC use in patients with VKA-related bleeding in view of the French guidelines published in 2008. Methods All consecutive patients with VKA-related bleeding treated with a 4-factor PCC (Octaplex®) were selected in 33 French hospitals. Collected data included demographics, site and severity of bleeding, modalities of PCC administration, International Normalized Ratio (INR) values before and after PCC administration, outcomes and survival rate 15 days after infusion. Results Of 825 patients who received PCC between August 2008 and December 2010, 646 had severe bleeding. The main haemorrhage sites were intracranial (43.7%) and abdominal (24.3%). Mean INR before PCC was 4.4 ± 1.9; INR was unavailable in 12.5% of patients. The proportions of patients who received a PCC dose according to guidelines were 15.8% in patients with initial INR 2-2.5, 41.5% in patients with INR 2.5-3, 40.8% in patients with INR 3-3.5, 26.9% in patients with INR > 3.5, and 63.5% of patients with unknown INR. Vitamin K was administered in 84.7% of patients. The infused dose of PCC did not vary with initial INR; the mean dose was 25.3 ± 9.8 IU/Kg. Rates of controlled bleeding and target INR achievement were similar, regardless of whether or not patients were receiving PCC doses as per the guidelines. No differences in INR after PCC treatment were observed, regardless of whether or not vitamin K was administered. INR was first monitored after a mean time frame of 4.5 ± 5.6 hours post PCC. The overall survival rate at 15 days after PCC infusion was 75.4% (65.1% in patients with intracranial haemorrhage). A better prognosis was observed in patients reaching the target INR. Conclusions Severe bleeding related to VKA needs to be better managed, particularly regarding the PCC infused dose, INR monitoring and

  4. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Joe; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  5. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  6. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  7. The Perceived Effectiveness of French and Raven's Five Power Bases for Vocational High School Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.; Knouse, Stephen B.

    A study examined the way in which vocational and technical faculty and students perceive the effectiveness of French and Raven's five power bases. (To explain the way in which organizational control operates, French and Raven postulated the following five power bases: reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert power.) During the study,…

  8. Images de la variation du francais: dominantes et harmoniques, changements (Images of Variation in French: Dominant and Harmonic, Changes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellotti, Veronique; De Robillard, Didier

    2001-01-01

    This study gathered knowledge on an ill-explored field: attitudes toward French in France. It discusses ways and means to produce empirical data on this issue. Data indicate that the field described deserves investigation because, alongside standard French, the other "parlure" sampled in this study produce a variety of different attitudes and…

  9. Validation of the French version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Aoudia, Malik; Levy, Pierre P.; Bui, Eric; Insana, Salvatore; de Fouchier, Capucine; Germain, Anne; Jehel, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are one of the main complaints of patients with trauma-related disorders. The original Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A) is self-report instrument developed to evaluate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-specific sleep disturbances in trauma-exposed individuals. However, to date, the PSQI-A has not yet been translated nor validated in French. Objective The present study aims to: a) translate the PSQI-A into French, and b) examine its psychometric properties. Method Seventy-three adult patients (mean age=40.3 [SD=15.0], 75% females) evaluated in a specialized psychotraumatology unit completed the French versions of the PSQI-A, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results The French version of the PSQI-A showed satisfactory internal consistency, inter-item correlations, item correlations with the total score, convergent validity with PTSD and anxiety measures, and divergent validity with a depression measure. Conclusion Our findings support the use of the French version of the PSQI-A for both clinical care and research. The French version of the PSQI-A is an important addition to the currently available instruments that can be used to examine trauma-related sleep disturbances among French-speaking individuals. PMID:24044071

  10. Studying and Being a Student: How Are These Valued by Today's Youth? The Perspective of French Language Sociology on the Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Jacques; Methot, Christian; Dore, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine students' values in "relationship to their studies." After defining the concept within this rubric, we attempt to define the values at work from the perspectives of (1) the motivation for pursuing post-secondary studies; (2) the pace of studies; (3) the time devoted to study; (4) the time spent in the institutions; and…

  11. Preparation for International Business: A Cultural Immersion Model in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Martin, Gerry

    A Salisbury State University (Maryland) program integrating intensive French language and business administration instruction is described. In its pilot, the program had 11 students, all but 1 drawn from French language classes; one was a native speaker. The French portion was taught in the morning by two French professors, and the business…

  12. The Teaching of French Intonation to Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates how the intonation of French differs from that of English and discusses French intonation under the headings of stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns. Outlines a program to teach the rudiments of French intonation based upon the theoretical analyzing of French notation presented in the first part of this paper. (SED)

  13. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  14. [The French general inspectorate of prisons].

    PubMed

    Dupont, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The French general inspectorate of prisons is an independent watchdog responsible for ensuring that inmates' fundamental rights are respected. An interview with Xavier Dupont, the secretary general, who assesses the objectives and methods of this institution. PMID:21526539

  15. French academy cries out over swingeing cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2014-02-01

    The French Academy of Sciences has issued what it calls a "cry of alarm" denouncing heavy cuts to the 2014 budget for the National Research Agency (ANR), which was set up in 2005 to fund project-based research.

  16. [Epidemiology of envenomation in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Galtier, J; Lefait, J F

    1984-01-01

    Incidence of snake bites, scorpion and venomous fish stings are established in French Guiana (a South American French territory). About 75 snake bites per 100,000 population, 90 scorpion stings and 125 fish stings are recorded in a year by official sanitary services. Authors give geographical and ecological variations, and risks, of venomous animal accidents. Severity of snake bites and medical cost are emphasized. Necrosis and/or bleedings follow 5% of cases and hospital lethality reaches 2.2%. PMID:6722970

  17. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  18. Alternative School Programs for French Language Learning. Evaluation of the Federally-Funded Extensions of the Second Language Learning (French) Programs in the Schools of the Carleton and the Ottawa Boards of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Gerald; And Others

    This research compared alternative school programs for French language learning. Student achievement was focused on, and data concerned French language arts (including attitudes), mathematics, English language arts, environmental science, social studies, geography, and history. Research was carried out during the 1973/74 and 74/75 academic years,…

  19. [French scale validation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire three months after birth].

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Marie; Delmas, Philippe; Carrier, Nathalie; Rabillon, Florence; Couture, Marie-Estelle

    2015-06-01

    Breastfeeding is recognize to be the perfect food of mother and child's health. The child's temperament is one of the factors that may explain pursuing the breastfeeding. Few instruments are available in French to measure this factor. The objective of the study is to present and validate the French translation of the scale "Infant Behavior Questionnaire" (IBQ). The sample consists of 193 primaparous or multiparous women who gave birth in a maternity in Paris. The child's temperament questionnaire was sent by mail three months after the birth. The same questionnaire was sent to a sub-sample of 30 women 15 days later. Analyses were conducted to assess the temporal stability, internal consistency, construct validity and predictive. The different results tend to show a compliant validity to the french scale version. This first IBQ French-language validation is worth pursuing in order to confirm the scale factor structure and participate to studies supporting mothers in their breastfeeding project. PMID:26411241

  20. High Cycle Thermal Fatigue in French PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Blondet, Eric; Faidy, Claude

    2002-07-01

    Different fatigue-related incidents which occurred in the world on the auxiliary lines of the reactor coolant system (SIS, RHR, CVC) have led EDF to search solutions in order to avoid or to limit consequences of thermodynamic phenomenal (Farley-Tihange, free convection loop and stratification, independent thermal cycling). Studies are performed on mock-up and compared with instrumentation on nuclear power stations. At the present time, studies allow EDF to carry out pipe modifications and to prepare specifications and recommendations for next generation of nuclear power plants. In 1998, a new phenomenal appeared on RHR system in Civaux. A crack was discovered in an area where hot and cold fluids (temperature difference of 140 deg. C) were mixed. Metallurgic studies concluded that this crack was caused by high cycle thermal fatigue. Since 1998, EDF is making an inventory of all mixing areas in French PWR on basis of criteria. For all identified areas, a method was developed to improve the first classifying and to keep back only potential damage pipes. Presently, studies are performing on the charging line nozzle connected to the reactor pressure vessel. In order to evaluate the load history, a mock-up has been developed and mechanical calculations are realised on this nozzle. The paper will make an overview of EDF conclusions on these different points: - dead legs and vortex in a no flow connected line; - stratification; - mixing tees with high {delta}T. (authors)