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Sample records for french pharmacovigilance database

  1. Drug-induced Depression: a Case/Non Case Study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database.

    PubMed

    Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Chavant, François; Favrelière, Sylvie; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a complex disorder with heterogeneous clinical anomalies whose neurobiological understanding still remains unclear. Medications have been implicated as potential causes of depression but for many of them, data are controversial. The present study aims to investigate association bet ween drugs and reports of depression. We used the case/non case method in the French pharmacovigilance database (FPVD) to identify drugs associated with depression. Cases were reports of depression in the FPVD between January 2007 and December 2011. Non cases were all other reports during the same period. Data were expressed as reporting odds ratio (ROR) with their 95% confidence interval. Of the 114,692 reports recorded in the FPVD during the studied period, we identified 474 cases of depression. For the majority of the patients, they were considered as "non serious" (56%) and evolution was favorable (64%). Significant RORs were found for antiepileptics (topiramate, levetiracetam), anti-infective and especially anti-retroviral drugs (efavirenz, emtricitabine, tenofovir, etravirine, raltegravir), interferons and other agents including isotretinoin, methylphenidate, sodium oxybate, varenicline, montelukast, flunarizine, adalimumab, anastrozole. Taking into account the limits of the methodology, the present study described associations with mainly expected drugs belonging to various therapeutic classes but it also found a signal with some anti-retrovirals. On the contrary, we did not find some assumed associations like cardiovascular medications, antimalarial. For most of the drugs, one or more mechanisms were found to explain these depressogenic effects on the basis of animal and human literature. Even if such associations need to be confirmed by further prospective studies, cautions are necessary for many drugs to early detect depressive symptoms. PMID:26056040

  2. Drug interactions between antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents: a descriptive study using the French Pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Sommet, Agnès; Durrieu, Geneviève; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can lead to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Guidelines are available to help prescribers deal with these drug associations, but their implementation is not well evaluated. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of NSAIDs exposure in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs, using the French Pharmacovigilance database, and explore the ADRs related to DDIs between antihypertensive drugs and NSAIDs. Over the 11, 442 notifications of ADRs recorded in this database in patients treated with oral antihypertensive drugs between 2008 and 2010, 517 (4.5 and 95% CI: 4.1-4.9) also included exposure to NSAIDs. These subjects were more frequently women, took more drugs in general, and were younger and less frequently treated with antiplatelet drugs. In 24.2% of them (125 patients), a DDI between NSAIDs and antihypertensive drugs was potentially the cause of the reported ADR. Acute renal failure caused by DDIs between NSAIDs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or diuretics was the most frequently reported ADR (20.7%). Finally, in the French Pharmacovigilance database, around one-fourth of associations NSAIDs  +  antihypertensive drugs are associated with a 'serious' ADR (mainly acute renal failure), suggesting that this well-known DDI is not enough taken into account by prescribers. PMID:23190210

  3. Reports of withdrawal syndrome with the use of SSRIs: a case/non-case study in the French Pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Trenque, T; Piednoir, D; Frances, C; Millart, H; Germain, M L

    2002-06-01

    The SSRIs can be associated with withdrawal reactions and the objective of this study is to test the existence of an association between reports of withdrawal syndromes with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in the French spontaneous reports database. All reactions are coded according to the WHO ART dictionary. Cases are reports of reactions of interest (withdrawal syndrome). Non-cases are all reports of reactions other than those being studied. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) as the ratio of the odds of the association of reports of withdrawal syndrome with SSRIs in cases and non-cases. SSRIs are clearly associated with a higher risk of withdrawal syndrome (OR: 5.05, 95% CI: 3.81-6.68) and in particular with venlafaxine and paroxetine (OR: 12.16, 95% CI: 6.17-23.35 and OR: 8.47, 95% CI: 5.63-12.65, respectively). The risk of withdrawal reactions appears to be greater with short half-life drugs such as paroxetine and venlafaxine. The precise mechanisms have not been identified. PMID:12138595

  4. Safety profile of etifoxine: A French pharmacovigilance survey.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Judith; Gouraud, Aurore; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Dautriche, Anne Disson-; Boulay, Charlène; Geniaux, Hélène; Auffret, Marine; Bernard, Nathalie; Descotes, Jacques; Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Etifoxine chlorhydrate is a benzoxazine derivative approved for the treatment of psychosomatic manifestations of anxiety since 1979. Previously labeled adverse drug reactions (ADRs) only include drowsiness, benign cutaneous reactions, and acute hypersensitivity reactions. The objectives were to examine recent data on etifoxine-related ADR by reviewing Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) recorded in France especially unexpected ADRs. Etifoxine-related ICSRs were extracted from the French Pharmacovigilance database from 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2012 and data from the marketing authorization holder up to 31 December 2011 were also obtained. Of the 350 cases retained for analysis, 123 (35%) were considered serious. Dermatological or acute hypersensitivity reactions were the most frequent ADRs (59%) mainly isolated cutaneous eruptions. However, there were 24 cases of severe toxidermia (DRESS in 5, erythema multiforme in 10 and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in 5) with etifoxine as the most suspected drug in 11 patients, and seven cases of vasculitis or serum sickness-like reaction. Liver disorders were reported in 34 patients of whom 25 developed acute hepatitis with a cytolytic biological pattern in 16. Other unexpected ADRs included 16 reversible cases of metrorrhagia with positive rechallenge in 5, and three cases of biopsy-proven microscopic colitis of which one recurred after etifoxine re-administration. Although etifoxine has been marketed for more than 30 years, this survey identified a number of unexpected and sometimes serious ADRs, in particularly severe toxidermia and acute cytolytic hepatitis. A recent update of the French etifoxine summary of the product characteristics (SPC) was based on these findings. PMID:26588183

  5. Highlights of the 22nd French pharmacovigilance meeting.

    PubMed

    2002-02-01

    (1) The 22nd French pharmacovigilance meeting, held in July 2001, presented data on adverse effects notified by health professionals to regional pharmacovigilance centres in France. (2) Non specific "immunostimulants" are not harmless placebos, as might be concluded from the relative lack of data. There have been 315 notifications of severe adverse effects, some with positive rechallenge, reporting cutaneous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, haematological and other disorders. Attributability was considered "likely" in 68% of cases. Three deaths occurred. (3) Other well known adverse effects continue to occur: convulsions with camphor, visual hallucinations with oxybutynin, headache with antimigraine drugs, liver damage with dextropropoxyphene, neuropsychological disorders after buflomedil overdose (especially in patients with renal failure), hyperkalaemia during spironolactone combination with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor), and severe infections after intravesical BCG. (4) Rare adverse effects of old drugs were identified, such as oedema with valproic acid, interstitial pneumonia with flecainide, and a bleeding risk due to tramadol interaction with oral anticoagulants. (5) The adverse effects of new drugs are better documented: celecoxib is now implicated in visual disorders. (6) Overall, the meeting confirmed that only a small proportion of adverse drug reactions are notified, that a large number of hospitalised patients suffer from drug induced complications, and that summaries of product characteristics (SPC) are often too brief or reassuring regarding pharmacovigilance data. The poor risk-benefit ratios of some drugs call for their immediate market withdrawal. PMID:11985373

  6. Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, I Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are the fifth most frequent cause of deaths in developed countries, effectively a global epidemic. However, progress in ameliorating the problem has been slow. Pharmacovigilance currently operates without clear objectives in relation to individual decisions, with no protocol (although risk management plans are a great step forward), with obscure materials and methods used for making decisions, with very limited reasoning and discussion, and little or no follow up and audit of the results. Problems include under-reporting, poor quality reports, underuse of the latest communications technology and suboptimal individual feedback to reporters. Assessment of causality is poor, impeding decision-making. After signal detection, more active measures to assess the risk to public health are needed. Other essential factors include precision about the ways in which data are prepared and transformed into databases, the recognition of secondary effects, which may be more obvious than the primary effect, but not so easy to link causally, and cognisance of all kinds of interactions. Areas that should be developed include pharmacoepidemiology, knowledge finding (through data mining), and communication and systems technology. The general way forward seems clear: a rigorous way of documenting all the steps, from getting reports of harms into regulatory databases to assessing their effects on public health, is essential and should be publicly reviewed for weaknesses. In turn, matters would be much improved by input on benefit/harm perceptions from patient groups, influencing decisions about what should be the true targets for regulatory and pharmacovigilance activities, avoiding second guessing by regulators. PMID:22360774

  7. [Pharmacovigilance].

    PubMed

    Livio, F; Renard, D; Buclin, T

    2012-01-18

    Main pharmacovigilance updates in 2011 are reviewed. Dronedarone: Serious cardio-vascular and hepatic adverse reactions for a questionable efficacy. Long-term proton pump inhibitors: A cause of hypomagnesemia. Bisphosphonates: A risk of atypical femoral fractures. Dasatinib: Cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension reported. Lenalidomide: A risk of second primary malignancies. Daptomycine: Cases of eosinophilic pneumonia reported. Tigecycline: Inferior to comparators. Drotrecogin alfa: Market withdrawal due to lack of efficacy. Nimesulide: More hepatotoxic than other NSAIDs. Topiramate: Evidence of teratogenicity (oral clefts). Valproate: Impaired cognitive development in addition to well-known teratogenicity. Antipsychotics in late pregnancy: A risk of neonatal complications. PMID:23185821

  8. Pharmacovigilance of drug allergy and hypersensitivity using the ENDA-DAHD database and the GALEN platform. The Galenda project.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, P-J; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Aberer, W; Bircher, A; Blanca, M; Brockow, K; Pichler, W; Torres, M J; Terreehorst, I; Arnoux, B; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Barbaud, A; Bijl, A; Bonadonna, P; Burney, P G; Caimmi, S; Canonica, G W; Cernadas, J; Dahlen, B; Daures, J-P; Fernandez, J; Gomes, E; Gueant, J-L; Kowalski, M L; Kvedariene, V; Mertes, P-M; Martins, P; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Ponvert, C; Pirmohamed, M; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Sanz, M L; Szczeklik, A; Van Ganse, E; De Weck, A L; Zuberbier, T; Merk, H F; Sachs, B; Sidoroff, A

    2009-02-01

    Nonallergic hypersensitivity and allergic reactions are part of the many different types of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Databases exist for the collection of ADRs. Spontaneous reporting makes up the core data-generating system of pharmacovigilance, but there is a large under-estimation of allergy/hypersensitivity drug reactions. A specific database is therefore required for drug allergy and hypersensitivity using standard operating procedures (SOPs), as the diagnosis of drug allergy/hypersensitivity is difficult and current pharmacovigilance algorithms are insufficient. Although difficult, the diagnosis of drug allergy/hypersensitivity has been standardized by the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) under the aegis of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology and SOPs have been published. Based on ENDA and Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN, EU Framework Programme 6) SOPs, a Drug Allergy and Hypersensitivity Database (DAHD((R))) has been established under FileMaker((R)) Pro 9. It is already available online in many different languages and can be accessed using a personal login. GA(2)LEN is a European network of 27 partners (16 countries) and 59 collaborating centres (26 countries), which can coordinate and implement the DAHD across Europe. The GA(2)LEN-ENDA-DAHD platform interacting with a pharmacovigilance network appears to be of great interest for the reporting of allergy/hypersensitivity ADRs in conjunction with other pharmacovigilance instruments. PMID:19178398

  9. The association of pancreatitis with antidiabetic drug use: gaining insight through the FDA pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Raschi, E; Piccinni, C; Poluzzi, E; Marchesini, G; De Ponti, F

    2013-08-01

    In patients with diabetes, disease per se, co-morbidities and drugs, including novel agents acting on the incretin system, have all been associated with pancreatitis with controversial data. We investigated the publicly available FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FDA_AERS) database to gain insight into the possible association between antidiabetic agents and pancreatitis. To this aim, a case/non-case method was retrospectively performed on the FDA_AERS database (2004-2009 period). Cases were defined as reports of pancreatitis according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terminology. All other reports associated with antidiabetics were considered non-cases. The Reporting Odds Ratio (RORs), with corresponding 95% confidential interval (CI) and Mantel-Haenszel corrected P value, was calculated as a measure of disproportionality, with subsequent time-trend analysis. We retrieved 86,938 reports related to antidiabetics, corresponding to 159,226 drug-report combinations: 2,625 cases and 156,601 non-cases. Disproportionality was found only for exenatide (number of cases, 709; ROR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.61-1.92; P MH < 0.001) and sitagliptin (128; 1.86; 1.54-2.24; <0.001). For exenatide, significant disproportionality appeared in the first quarter of 2008 (ROR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.40; P MH < 0.001), soon after the FDA alert; for sitagliptin in the second quarter of 2008 (1.41; 1.05-1.90; 0.021). This temporal analysis found a striking influence of relevant FDA warnings on reporting of pancreatitis (the so-called notoriety bias) and is, therefore, recommended to avoid transforming a pharmacovigilance signal of alert automatically into an alarm. The precise quantification of the risk of pancreatitis associated with antidiabetics deserves assessment through specific disease-based registries. PMID:22008948

  10. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Livio, F

    2013-01-01

    Main pharmacovigilance updates in 2012 are reviewed here. Dabigatran: elderly patients with renal failure are at higher risk of bleeding. Dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade comprising aliskiren is harmful. Incretins: low risk of acute pancreatitis. Interaction between fusidic acid and statins: many reports of rhabdomyolysis. Interactions between boceprevir/telaprevir and antiretroviral therapies: complex, but manageable. Citalopram, ondansetron: maximum recommended doses are reduced. Atomoxetine: significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate in a fraction of exposed patients. Agomelatine: elevated liver enzymes are common. Fingolimod: bradycardia and heart blocks after first dose - stronger safety recommendations regarding use in patients with heart conditions and strengthened cardiovascular monitoring. PMID:23367709

  11. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Fogarasi Szabo, Nathalie; Diezi, Léonore; Delenclos, Laurie; Renard, Delphine; Chtioui, Haithem; Rothuizen, Laura E; Buclin, Thierry; Livio, Françoise

    2015-01-14

    The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2014 are reviewed. Ivabradine: increased risk of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction in patients with symptomatic angina treated with high dosages. Clopidogrel: rare observations of acquired hemophilia. Orlistat: may reduce the absorption of HIV antiretrovirals. Ponatinib: increased risk of arteriopathy and thrombosis. Axitinib: significant risk of heart failure (class effect). Tocilizumab: possible causal relationship with the emergence or aggravation of psoriasis. Lithium: hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism commonly observed. Sildenalfil: suspected causal association with melanoma, so far not proven, Methylphenidate: rare observations of priapism. St John's wort (Hypericum): reduced effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, including implants. PMID:25799668

  12. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Dao, Kim; Chtioui, Haithem; Rothuizen, Laura E; Diezi, Léonore; Prod'hom, Sylvain; Winterfeld, Ursula; Buclin, Thierry; Livio, Françoise

    2016-01-13

    The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2015are reviewed. Sofosbuvir amiodarone interaction: risk of severe bradycardia. Dasabuvir clopidogrel interaction: increased dasabuvir concentrations and potential risk of QTprolongation. SGLT2 inhibitors: risks of diabetic acidocetosis and bone fracture. Dabigatran: therapeutic drug monitoring may improve benefit-risk ratio. Ibuprofen: at higher dosage, vascular risks are comparable to coxibs. Pregabaline, gabapentine: potential for abuse and addiction. Varenicline: potentiates alcohol's effects. Codeine: contra-indicated as cough medicine under the age of twelve. Valproate: strengthened warnings on the risks of valproate use in pregnancy. Dimethylfumarate: rare observations of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Ustekinumab: rare observations of erythrodermia. PMID:26946710

  13. French health insurance databases: What interest for medical research?

    PubMed

    Moulis, G; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Palmaro, A; Pugnet, G; Montastruc, J-L; Sailler, L

    2015-06-01

    French health insurance databases are organized since 2003 into a huge digital data warehouse, the Système national d'information inter-régime de l'assurance maladie (SNIIR-AM). It covers the entire French population (65 million inhabitants). In order to facilitate studies on more frequent conditions, a random sample of 1/97th of national health system beneficiaries has been built since 2005, called the échantillon généraliste des bénéficiaires (EGB). The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the SNIIR-AM and the EGB, to detail their accessibility according to French law, and to present their strengths and limits. It is illustrated with the most recent studies conducted in these databases. These databases include demographic, out-hospital reimbursement (including drug dispensing), medical (costly long-term diseases, occupational diseases, sick-leaves…), and in-hospital data. All these data are prospectively recorded, individualized, made anonymous and linkable. Consequently, the SNIIR-AM is a very useful data source for epidemiological, pharmacoepidemiological and health economics studies, particularly for rare diseases. The EGB is appropriate for long-term research on more frequent diseases. PMID:25547954

  14. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Diezi, Léonore; Renard, Delphine; Rothuizen, Laura E; Livio, Françoise

    2014-01-15

    The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2013 are reviewed. Nitrofurantoin: lower efficacy and an increased risk of adverse events when creatinine clearance is below 60 ml/min. Dabigatran: contraindicated in patients with mechanical heart valves. Azithromycin: QT prolongation and increased risk of death. Zolpidem: towards a lower dosage. Roflumilast: avoid in patients known or at risk for mood disorders. Retigabine: indication restricted to last-line use and new monitoring requirements after reports of pigment changes in retina and other tissues. Telaprevir and rituximab: severe mucocutaneous reactions. Fingolimod: rare cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Tolvaptan: potential for hepatotoxicity. Nicotinic acid/laropiprant: suspension of marketing authorization as benefits no longer outweigh risks. PMID:24558915

  15. Application of Pharmacovigilance Methods in Occupational Health Surveillance: Comparison of Seven Disproportionality Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Bicout, Dominique Joseph; de Gaudemaris, Regis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The French National Occupational Diseases Surveillance and Prevention Network (RNV3P) is a French network of occupational disease specialists, which collects, in standardised coded reports, all cases where a physician of any specialty, referred a patient to a university occupational disease centre, to establish the relation between the disease observed and occupational exposures, independently of statutory considerations related to compensation. The objective is to compare the relevance of disproportionality measures, widely used in pharmacovigilance, for the detection of potentially new disease × exposure associations in RNV3P database (by analogy with the detection of potentially new health event × drug associations in the spontaneous reporting databases from pharmacovigilance). Methods 2001-2009 data from RNV3P are used (81,132 observations leading to 11,627 disease × exposure associations). The structure of RNV3P database is compared with the ones of pharmacovigilance databases. Seven disproportionality metrics are tested and their results, notably in terms of ranking the disease × exposure associations, are compared. Results RNV3P and pharmacovigilance databases showed similar structure. Frequentist methods (proportional reporting ratio [PRR], reporting odds ratio [ROR]) and a Bayesian one (known as BCPNN for "Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network") show a rather similar behaviour on our data, conversely to other methods (as Poisson). Finally the PRR method was chosen, because more complex methods did not show a greater value with the RNV3P data. Accordingly, a procedure for detecting signals with PRR method, automatic triage for exclusion of associations already known, and then investigating these signals is suggested. Conclusion This procedure may be seen as a first step of hypothesis generation before launching epidemiological and/or experimental studies. PMID:22993712

  16. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors added to nonbiological immunosuppressants vs. nonbiological immunosuppressants alone: a different signal of cancer risk according to the condition. A disproportionality analysis in a nationwide pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Layla; Moulis, Guillaume; Abou Taam, Malak; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Petitpain, Nadine; Baldin, Bernadette; Pugnet, Grégory; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bagheri, Haleh

    2016-04-01

    We aimed at detecting a signal of an increased risk of cancer in patients treated with TNF inhibitor (TNFi) and nonbiological immunosuppressant (NBIS), compared with NBIS alone for autoimmune diseases. Secondly, we aimed at comparing this risk between the different TNFis. We conducted a disproportionality analysis (case/noncase study) from the French National PharmacoVigilance Database. We selected all the reports of serious adverse drug reactions from 2000 to 2010 in patients treated with NBIS for labeled indications of TNFi. Cases were all the reports of cancer that occurred after a minimal 3-month exposure to NBIS. Noncases were all the other reports. We searched for exposure to TNFi and calculated reporting odds ratios (RORs), stratified by condition and type of cancer and adjusted by age, gender, history of cancer, type of NBIS and year of reporting. Of the 1918 reports included in the study population, 217 were cases (135 solid and 82 blood cancers). A safety signal was found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (ROR: 5.43, 95% CI[3.52-8.38]) particularly for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (20.17[2.49-163.36]), and in psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis (3.45[1.09-10.92]). No signal was found in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and ankylosing spondylitis, whatever the type of cancer. There was no difference between TNFis. This study puts the argument of an increased risk of cancer (particularly NMSC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis exposed to TNFi and NBIS compared with NBIS alone, but not in IBD and ankylosing spondylitis patients. No signal was detected for melanoma potentially related to the lack of power. The signal seems similar whatever the TNFi. PMID:26604187

  17. Comparison of two drug safety signals in a pharmacovigilance data mining framework.

    PubMed

    Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Bégaud, Bernard; Ahmed, Ismaïl

    2016-04-01

    Since adverse drug reactions are a major public health concern, early detection of drug safety signals has become a top priority for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Quantitative methods for analyzing spontaneous reporting material recorded in pharmacovigilance databases through data mining have been proposed in the last decades and are increasingly used to flag potential safety problems. While automated data mining is motivated by the usually huge size of pharmacovigilance databases, it does not systematically produce relevant alerts. Moreover, each detected signal requires appropriate assessment that may involve investigation of the whole therapeutic class. The goal of this article is to provide a methodology for comparing two detected signals. It is nested within the automated surveillance framework as (1) no extra information is required and (2) no simple inference on the actual risks can be extrapolated from spontaneous reporting data. We designed our methodology on the basis of two classical methods used for automated signal detection: the Bayesian Gamma Poisson Shrinker and the frequentist Proportional Reporting Ratio. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performances of both proposed methods. The latter were used to compare cardiovascular signals for two HIV treatments from the French pharmacovigilance database. PMID:23070598

  18. A Pharmacovigilance Approach for Post-Marketing in Japan Using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database and Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid dissemination of information regarding adverse drug reactions is a key aspect for improving pharmacovigilance. There is a possibility that unknown adverse drug reactions will become apparent through post-marketing administration. Currently, although there have been studies evaluating the relationships between a drug and adverse drug reactions using the JADER database which collects reported spontaneous adverse drug reactions, an efficient approach to assess the association between adverse drug reactions of drugs with the same indications as well as the influence of demographics (e.g. gender) has not been proposed. Methods and Findings We utilized the REAC and DEMO tables from the May 2015 version of JADER for patients taking antidepressant drugs (SSRI, SNRI, and NaSSA). We evaluated the associations using association analyses with an apriori algorithm. Support, confidence, lift, and conviction were used as indicators for associations. The highest score in adverse drug reactions for SSRI was obtained for "aspartate aminotransferase increased", "alanine aminotransferase increased", with values of 0.0059, 0.93, 135.5, and 13.9 for support, confidence, lift and conviction, respectively. For SNRI, "international normalized ratio increased", "drug interaction" were observed with 0.0064, 1.00, 71.9, and NA. For NaSSA, "anxiety", "irritability" were observed with 0.0058, 0.80, 49.9, and 4.9. For female taking SSRI, the highest support scores were observed in "twenties", "suicide attempt", whereas "thirties", "neuroleptic malignant syndrome" were observed for male. Second, for SNRI, "eighties", "inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion" were observed for female, whereas "interstitial lung disease" and "hepatitis fulminant" were for male. Finally, for NaSSA, "suicidal ideation" was for female, and "rhabdomyolysis" was for male. Conclusions Different combinations of adverse drug reactions were noted between the antidepressants. In addition, the reported

  19. [Pharmacovigilance of major parmaceutical innovation].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yongyang; Xie, Yanming; Yi, Danhui

    2011-10-01

    With the continuous improvement of international "pharmacovigilance" technology and methods,it becomes the key part of the post-marketing evaluation. This issue is based on this research background, and also means to find out the Chinese medicine safety monitor which consistents with the reality. A common problem is that those who choose a career in pharmacovigilance know how the complex data presented to us are a source of both fascination and frustration. In the 70's, for the first time data mining technology in the international pharmacovigilance turn up, we try to establish new signal detection method to make contributes to post-marketing evaluation of Chinese medicine and establishment of registration. Building the national adverse reaction reporting database is widely used in western country. Nature of the problem is that pharmacovigilance issues can come through a lot of assumptions into the statistical problems, different assumptions are for different statistical tests. Through the traditional imbalance between the proportion of fourfold table for other assumptions, few countries use in practice, this does not involve evidence, but this issue provides the introduce of the principle. Methods include the ratio of the report of the Netherlands (ROR), the proportion of reports than the UK ratio (PRR),WHO's information points (IC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration empirical Bayes (EBS), etc. Because there is no international gold standard of the signal detection method, at first we use the simulation comparing these four methods of data mining, From the point of specificity, the sample size demand, this issue views the advantages and disadvantages of four methods and application conditions,and from a technical point of view and try to propose a new signal detection method, for example, Hierarchical Bayesian. PMID:22292378

  20. Pharmacovigilance in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-01-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change. PMID:24347987

  1. Application of data mining techniques in pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew M; Thabane, Lehana; Holbrook, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Aims To discuss the potential use of data mining and knowledge discovery in databases for detection of adverse drug events (ADE) in pharmacovigilance. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify articles, which contained details of data mining, signal generation or knowledge discovery in relation to adverse drug reactions or pharmacovigilance in medical databases. Results ADEs are common and result in significant mortality, and despite existing systems drugs have been withdrawn due to ADEs many years after licensing. Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is a technique which may be used to detect potential ADEs more efficiently. KDD involves the selection of data variables and databases, data preprocessing, data mining and data interpretation and utilization. Data mining encompasses a number of statistical techniques including cluster analysis, link analysis, deviation detection and disproportionality assessment which can be utilized to determine the presence of and to assess the strength of ADE signals. Currently the only data mining methods to be used in pharmacovigilance are those of disproportionality, such as the Proportional Reporting Ratio and Information Component, which have been used to analyse the UK Yellow Card Scheme spontaneous reporting database and the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Centre database. The association of pericarditis with practolol but not with other β-blockers, the association of captopril and other angiotensin-converting enzymes with cough, and the association of terfenadine with heart rate and rhythm disorders could be identified by mining the WHO database. Conclusion In view of the importance of ADEs and the development of massive data storage systems and powerful computer systems, the use of data mining techniques in knowledge discovery in medical databases is likely to be of increasing importance in the process of pharmacovigilance as they are likely to be able to detect signals earlier than using current methods. PMID

  2. European pharmacovigilance: increasingly outsourced to drug companies.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    New regulations reorganising pharmacovigilance at the European level were adopted in late 2010, then revised in 2012 in the wake of the Mediator (benfluorex) disaster. The European Commission's original proposals, released in 2008, would have represented a major step backwards in the protection afforded to European citizens, in particular by facilitating earlier marketing authorisations. Thanks to the mobilisation of civil society, the Members of the European Parliament have improved these proposals, supported by EU health ministers. The role of the new European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) has been strengthened. Patients in every Member State have the right to report adverse drug effects directly to health authorities. EU drug regulatory agencies are required to provide greater transparency, and public access to information about adverse effects has been improved. However, one major regression persists: the central role given to pharmaceutical companies in the collection and interpretation of reports of adverse drug effects, despite their conflicts of interest. Drug companies are asked to record the adverse effect reports of which they are aware in a vast European centralised database, Eudravigilance, without going through drug regulatory agencies. Pharmaceutical companies remain responsible for producing "a scientific evaluation of the risk-benefit balance" of their drug, as part of the periodic benefit-risk assessment reports they are required to submit to drug regulatory agencies. These reports are analysed for the entire EU by two Member States (one rapporteur and one co-rapporteur), so that harmonised decisions can be taken. But these decisions are based on data preanalysed by the drug companies. In addition, the independence of the European Medicines Agency is undermined by its financial reliance on the fees paid by pharmaceutical companies in exchange for these assessments. In 2012, following France's Mediator disaster, several modest

  3. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  4. Updating the French archeomagnetic directional database for the past two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, M.; Warmé, N.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2009-04-01

    Research in archeomagnetism began in France during the 1930's with the pioneering work of Emile Thellier. Combining instrumental and methodological developments, together with the patient establishment of a collaboration with archeologists, Thellier's activity led to the construction of the first directional secular variation curve in France spanning the past two millennia. After Thellier's retirement, Ileana Bucur continued this work, enriching the French archeomagnetic database up to more than 200 directional data, among which 120 dated results were used to construct in 1994 a revised version of the French directional secular variation curve, which is still considered as a reference today. Since 1994, the acquisition of archeomagnetic directional data has been continuously pursued at IPGP and the present study aims to update the French archeomagnetic dataset for the past two millennia. We have sampled about 400 burned structures from more than sixty different archeological sites mostly located near Paris, in the Ile-de-France region. Domestic kilns here represent approximately 2/3 of those structures, which were found in ancient agricultural settlements generally dated to the High Middle Ages. More than one hundred structures were dated using archeological constraints, such as the typo-morphology of ceramics, coins or archives, with enough precision and accuracy to be considered for improving the French reference directional secular variation curve over the past two millennia. We will discuss the present status of the French archeomagnetic directional database, which thus contains more than 600 data, 90% of which are defined with an a95 of less than 2°. We will also illustrate its increasingly potential as a dating tool for archeological purposes.

  5. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations. PMID:25277084

  6. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph

    2014-02-01

    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children. PMID:24446277

  7. Pharmacovigilance is... Vigilance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, I Ralph; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulayamani

    2016-04-01

    The world changes continuously and pharmacovigilance as a new discipline also must change. There are new fields opening with novel challenges whilst we are still perfecting ways to manage and improve the basic challenges such as inadequate data for decision making and under-reporting. Traditional medicines, vaccines, poisoning and medication error are all aspects of the safety of medicines that we have monitored for decades, though without perhaps paying enough attention to their special aspects. There are many new stakeholders taking serious interest in pharmacovigilance outside the regulatory sphere and they often focus on improving individual patient care, rather than the more traditional concentration on broad public health. The same stakeholders are also drawing attention to other iatrogenic outcomes that should be recognised, evaluated and their outcomes compared and contrasted with medication, such as harm from medical devices. The vigilance methods used for medication are very much applicable to all these new fields, though more and different expertise will be needed to evaluate outcomes. PMID:26692393

  8. Development of pharmacovigilance system in Ukraine: first results.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, O; Sharayeva, M; Jajtchenja, V

    2004-03-01

    The article is devoted to the establishment and development of the National Pharmacovigilance system in Ukraine. A drug safety centre of Ukraine started to form a pharmacovigilance system in 1996. It has been operating on a regular basis since 2000 and now provides the regulatory services that include data collection and analysis, database management, education, international contacts, and the publication and dissemination of information. Our ultimate goal is to foster a rational and safe drug use and to improve the quality of pharmacotherapy in Ukraine. PMID:15072120

  9. Obstacles to transparency over pharmacovigilance data within the EMA.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In July and August 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) organised two public consultations concerning European pharmacovigilance. These two consultations reveal a number of EMA proposals that are counterproductive to the objective of improving transparency over pharmacovigilance data. The EMA's proposals offer pharmaceutical companies an opportunity to participate in public hearings held by the European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), in order to defend their drug. They also provide for the possibility of holding non-public hearings to discuss public data. There is a great risk that the drug industry might use these provisions to influence the debate. The strings attached to the access that the EMA proposes to grant researchers to data contained in the centralised European pharmacovigilance database would allow the EMA to censor the publication of their findings. The EMA seems to regard pharmacovigilance data as commercially confidential information. Responding to these consultations provided an opportunity to remind the EMA that data about adverse effects are a public good, in the common interest, and that it is unacceptable to keep this information confidential. PMID:26688911

  10. From Pharmacovigilance to Clinical Care Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Edward; Moses, Christopher; Ryan, Padhraig; Somai, Melek; Stone, David; Tang, Kai-ou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to ensure the continued, safe administration of pharmaceuticals, particularly those agents that have been recently introduced into the market, there is a need for improved surveillance after product release. This is particularly so because drugs are used by a variety of patients whose particular characteristics may not have been fully captured in the original market approval studies. Even well-conducted, randomized controlled trials are likely to have excluded a large proportion of individuals because of any number of issues. The digitization of medical care, which yields rich and accessible drug data amenable to analytic techniques, provides an opportunity to capture the required information via observational studies. We propose the development of an open, accessible database containing properly de-identified data, to provide the substrate for the required improvement in pharmacovigilance. A range of stakeholders could use this to identify delayed and low-frequency adverse events. Moreover, its power as a research tool could extend to the detection of complex interactions, potential novel uses, and subtle subpopulation effects. This far-reaching potential is demonstrated by our experience with the open Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) intensive care unit database. The new database could also inform the development of objective, robust clinical practice guidelines. Careful systematization and deliberate standardization of a fully digitized pharmacovigilance process is likely to save both time and resources for healthcare in general. PMID:26576325

  11. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase. PMID:25945849

  12. Specific features of medicines safety and pharmacovigilance in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Shanthi N.; Olsson, Sten; Dodoo, Alexander; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulayami

    2012-01-01

    The thalidomide tragedy in the late 1950s and early 1960s served as a wakeup call and raised questions about the safety of medicinal products. The developed countries rose to the challenge putting in place systems to ensure the safety of medicines. However, this was not the case for low-resource settings because of prevailing factors inherent in them. This paper reviews some of these features and the current status of pharmacovigilance in Africa. The health systems in most of the 54 countries of Africa are essentially weak, lacking in basic infrastructure, personnel, equipment and facilities. The recent mass deployment of medicines to address diseases of public health significance in Africa poses additional challenges to the health system with notable safety concerns. Other safety issues of note include substandard and counterfeit medicines, medication errors and quality of medicinal products. The first national pharmacovigilance centres established in Africa with membership of the World Health Organization (WHO) international drug monitoring programme were in Morocco and South Africa in 1992. Of the 104 full member countries in the programme, there are now 24 African countries with a further nine countries as associate members. The pharmacovigilance systems operational in African countries are based essentially on spontaneous reporting facilitated by the introduction of the new tool Vigiflow. The individual case safety reports committed to the WHO global database (Vigibase) attest to the growth of pharmacovigilance in Africa with the number of reports rising from 2695 in 2000 to over 25,000 in 2010. There is need to engage the various identified challenges of the weak pharmacovigilance systems in the African setting and to focus efforts on how to provide resources, infrastructure and expertise. Raising the level of awareness among healthcare providers, developing training curricula for healthcare professionals, provisions for paediatric and geriatric

  13. French database of children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Molinas, Catherine; Cazals, Laurent; Diene, Gwenaelle; Glattard, Melanie; Arnaud, Catherine; Tauber, Maithe

    2008-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare multisystem genetic disease leading to severe complications mainly related to obesity. We strongly lack information on the natural history of this complex disease and on what factors are involved in its evolution and its outcome. One of the objectives of the French reference centre for Prader-Willi syndrome set-up in 2004 was to set-up a database in order to make the inventory of Prader-Willi syndrome cases and initiate a national cohort study in the area covered by the centre. Description the database includes medical data of children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome, details about their management, socio-demographic data on their families, psychological data and quality of life of the parents. The tools and organisation used to ensure data collection and data quality in respect of good clinical practice procedures are discussed, and main characteristics of our Prader-Willi population at inclusion are presented. Conclusion this database covering all the aspects of PWS clinical, psychological and social profiles, including familial psychological and quality of life will be a powerful tool for retrospective studies concerning this complex and multi factorial disease and could be a basis for the design of future prospective multicentric studies. The complete database and the Stata.do files are available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes and can be provided upon request to the corresponding author. PMID:18831731

  14. [Pharmacovigilance in children].

    PubMed

    Autret-Leca, E; Marchand, M-S; Cissoko, H; Beau-Salinas, F; Jonville-Béra, A-P

    2012-08-01

    Drug safety in children must take into account the frequency of « off label » prescriptions, children's growth dynamics, and possible long-term consequences (growth, neurodevelopment). The pharmacovigilance methodology is based on spontaneous notification and pharmacoepidemiology studies usually included the in risk management plan. Despite an increased drug risk (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic specificities), drug safety is better in children than in adults. The incidence of drug side effects depends on the country, the type of study (in or out of the hospital), and age. Antibiotics, central nervous, respiratory and dermatologic drug systems are most often involved. The target organs are gastrointestinal and neurologic. In neonates, the most frequent side effects are due to pregnancy exposure to psychotropic drugs, beta-blockers, and antiepileptics. Some studies have shown an increased risk of off-label prescriptions in children. During the last 6 years in France, pediatric alerts (desmopressin, metoclopramide, bronchial mucolytic drugs, first-generation anti-H1, Uvesterol D(®), and Uvesterol A.D.E.C(®), rotavirus vaccines, growth hormone, cisapride) have been less frequent than in adults. PMID:22748689

  15. Today's challenges in pharmacovigilance: what can we learn from epoetins?

    PubMed

    Ebbers, Hans C; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Moors, Ellen H M; Schellekens, Huub; Leufkens, Hubert G

    2011-04-01

    Highly publicized safety issues of medicinal products in recent years and the accompanying political pressure have forced both the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to implement stronger regulations concerning pharmacovigilance. These legislative changes demand more proactive risk management strategies of both pharmaceutical companies and regulators to characterize and minimize known and potential safety concerns. Concurrently, comprehensive surveillance systems are implemented, intended to identify and confirm adverse drug reactions, including the creation of large pharmacovigilance databases and the cooperation with epidemiological centres. Although the ambitions are high, not much is known about how effective all these measures are, or will be. In this review we analyse how the pharmacovigilance community has acted upon two adverse events associated with the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: the sudden increase in pure red cell aplasia and the possible risk of tumour progression associated with these products. These incidents provide important insight for improving pharmacovigilance, but also pose new challenges for regulatory decision making. PMID:21417500

  16. The monitoring medicines project: a multinational pharmacovigilance and public health project.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shanthi N; Olsson, Sten; Brown, Elliot G

    2015-04-01

    The Monitoring Medicines project (MM), funded by the FP-7 EU framework, was carried out between 2009 and 2013 by a consortium of 11 partners. The objectives were to support and strengthen consumer reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs); expand the role and scope of national pharmacovigilance centres concerning medication errors; promote improved use of pharmacovigilance data; and develop methods to complement spontaneous reporting. The work was organised into four themes: patient reporting; medication errors; drug dependence, counterfeit and substandard medicines and clinical risk estimation; and active and targeted spontaneous pharmacovigilance. MM differed from some other major pharmacovigilance initiatives by having participants from developing countries in Asia and Africa and in leaning towards public health and communicable diseases. MM brought together stakeholders including WHO, drug regulators, pharmacovigilance centres, consumers, public health and disease specialists and patient safety networks. Resources and methodologies developed directly by, or with support from, MM include electronic systems/tools for consumer ADR reporting and cohort event monitoring; publication by WHO of handbooks on consumer reporting, medication errors and pharmacovigilance for TB medicines; methodologies for detecting drug dependence and substandard or counterfeit medicines in ADR databases; and a database on HIV treatment risks with a risk assessment tool. MM enabled stakeholders to achieve more than if they had worked alone in pursuit of patient safety. PMID:25829215

  17. Cohort Profile: French hospital database on HIV (FHDH-ANRS CO4).

    PubMed

    Mary-Krause, Murielle; Grabar, Sophie; Lièvre, Laurence; Abgrall, Sophie; Billaud, Eric; Boué, François; Boyer, Laurence; Cabié, André; Cotte, Laurent; De Truchis, Pierre; Duval, Xavier; Duvivier, Claudine; Enel, Patricia; Gasnault, Jacques; Gaud, Catherine; Gilquin, Jacques; Guiguet, Marguerite; Katlama, Christine; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Lang, Sylvie; Lascaux, Anne-Sophie; Launay, Odile; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Pavie, Juliette; Pilorgé, Fabrice; Piroth, Lionel; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Potard, Valérie; Pradier, Christian; Reynes, Jacques; Rouveix, Elisabeth; Selinger-Leneman, Hana; Simon, Anne; Tattevin, Pierre; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Viard, Jean-Paul; Viget, Nathalie; Costagliola, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    The French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH) is a hospital-based multicentre open cohort with inclusions ongoing since 1989. The research objectives focus mainly on mid- and long-term clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies, as well as severe AIDS and non-AIDS morbidities, and public health issues relative to HIV infection. FHDH also serves to describe HIV-infected patients receiving hospital care in France. FHDH includes data on more than 120,000 HIV-infected patients from 70 French general or university hospitals distributed throughout France. Patients are eligible for inclusion if they are infected by HIV-1 or HIV-2 and give their written informed consent. Standardized variables are collected at each outpatient visit or hospital admission during which a new clinical manifestation is diagnosed, a new treatment is prescribed or a change in biological markers is noted, and/or at least every 6 months. Since its inception, variables collected in FHDH include demographic characteristics, HIV-related biological markers, the date and type of AIDS and non AIDS-defining events, antiretroviral treatments and the date and causes of death, as reported in the medical records. Since 2005, data have also been collected on: co-infection with hepatitis B or C virus; alcohol and tobacco use; and non HIV-related biomarkers. Anyone can submit a research project by completing a standardized form available on the FHDH website (http://www.ccde.fr/_fold/fl-1385734776-429.pdf) or from the corresponding author, describing the context and objectives of the study. All projects are reviewed by the scientific committee. PMID:24550249

  18. Pharmacovigilance Discussion Forum--The European Generic Medicines Association's 8th Annual Meeting (January 21, 2015--London, UK).

    PubMed

    Lam, S

    2015-01-01

    The practice and science of pharmacovigilance first emerged following the disaster caused by thalidomide in 1961, which led to the initiation of systemic international efforts to address drug safety issues spearheaded by the WHO. Systems were developed in member states of the WHO to analyze cases of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and collate these data into a central database to aid national drug regulatory authorities in improving safety profiles of medicines. Pharmacovigilance is a key public health function for monitoring all medicinal products to assess their quality, efficacy and safety before and following authorization. These medicines are continually assessed to detect any aspect that could compromise their safety, and ensure that the necessary measures are taken. In July 2012, new legislation for pharmacovigilance in the E.U. came into effect as a result of the changes set out in the Directive 2010/84/EU and the European Commission (EC) implementing Regulation (EU) No 520/2012 to reduce the increasing number of ADRs. The latest developments in pharmacovigilance in Europe, including news on E.U. pharmacovigilance legislation, were discussed at the 8th European Generic Medicines Association (EGA) Pharmacovigilance Discussion Forum. The meeting facilitated constructive dialogue between regulators and industry on a range of topics including how to simplify pharmacovigilance activities and improve the processes of risk management plans, periodic safety update reports, signal detection, joint studies and inspections. PMID:25685861

  19. UMD-MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 databases: description and analysis of genetic variations in French Lynch syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    Grandval, Philippe; Fabre, Aurélie J.; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Ferrari, Anthony; Wang, Qing; Béroud, Christophe; Olschwang, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease caused by germ line heterozygous mutations mainly involving the MSH2, MLH1 and MSH6 genes that belong to the DNA MisMatch Repair (MMR) genes family. The French network counting the 16 licensed laboratories involved in Lynch syndrome genetic testing developed three locus-specific databases with the UMD® software (www.umd.be/MLH1/, www.umd.be/MSH2/ and www.umd.be/MSH6/) that presently contain a total of 7047 sequence variations including 707 distinct variations of a priori unknown functional significance (VUS) that were identified through complete mutation screening or targeted predictive testing. Mutation carriers are at high risk for developing early-onset colorectal and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Consensus clinical guidelines have been proposed, allowing the efficient detection of curable lesions. The major challenge of genetic testing is to reliably classify the genomic variations in those patients who seek genetic counseling. Combining the interactive tools of the software, the relevant published data and mainly original information produced by the French MisMatch Repair network, the UMD-MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 databases provide interpretation data for the 707 VUS that were classified according to the IARC 5-Class system. These public databases are regularly updated to improve the classification of all registered VUS, exploring their role in cancer pre-disposition based on structural and functional approaches. PMID:23729658

  20. Pharmacovigilance in Space: Stability Payload Compliance Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Vernie R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the science of, and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of drug-related problems. Over the lase decade, pharmacovigilance activities have contributed to the development of numerous technological and conventional advances focused on medication safety and regulatory intervention. The topics discussed include: 1) Proactive Pharmacovigilance; 2) A New Frontier; 3) Research Activities; 4) Project Purpose; 5) Methods; 6) Flight Stability Kit Components; 7) Experimental Conditions; 8) Research Project Logistics; 9) Research Plan; 10) Pharmaceutical Stability Research Project Pharmacovigilance Aspects; 11) Security / Control; 12) Packaging/Containment Actions; 13) Shelf-Life Assessments; 14) Stability Assessment Parameters; 15) Chemical Content Analysis; 16) Preliminary Results; 17) Temperature/Humidity; 18) Changes in PHysical and Chemical Assessment Parameters; 19) Observations; and 20) Conclusions.

  1. 3D Pharmacophoric Similarity improves Multi Adverse Drug Event Identification in Pharmacovigilance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Santiago; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Hripcsak, George

    2015-03-01

    Adverse drugs events (ADEs) detection constitutes a considerable concern in patient safety and public health care. For this reason, it is important to develop methods that improve ADE signal detection in pharmacovigilance databases. Our objective is to apply 3D pharmacophoric similarity models to enhance ADE recognition in Offsides, a pharmacovigilance resource with drug-ADE associations extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We developed a multi-ADE predictor implementing 3D drug similarity based on a pharmacophoric approach, with an ADE reference standard extracted from the SIDER database. The results showed that the application of our 3D multi-type ADE predictor to the pharmacovigilance data in Offsides improved ADE identification and generated enriched sets of drug-ADE signals. The global ROC curve for the Offsides ADE candidates ranked with the 3D similarity score showed an area of 0.7. The 3D predictor also allows the identification of the most similar drug that causes the ADE under study, which could provide hypotheses about mechanisms of action and ADE etiology. Our method is useful in drug development, screening potential adverse effects in experimental drugs, and in drug safety, applicable to the evaluation of ADE signals selected through pharmacovigilance data mining.

  2. EU's new pharmacovigilance legislation: considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Begoña; Zuñiga, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Biosimilars are biological medicines, the active substances of which are highly similar to those of biologics that have already been authorized. As for any other medicine, the applicant of the biosimilar marketing authorization must submit a risk-management plan (RMP)/pharmacovigilance plan. The pharmacovigilance plan should take into account risks identified during product development, the potential risks and how those risks will be addressed after authorization of the product.Recently, new European Pharmacovigilance legislation has been implemented, ensuring proper risk management through the recording of suspected adverse drug reactions and data collection from all stakeholders. The new regulation entails a reduction of the administrative burden on companies and regulatory agencies, as obligations of the responsible parties are clearly established and duplication of effort avoided.This article analyzes the new European Pharmacovigilance System requirements, with special focus on those medicines requiring additional monitoring, such as biosimilars, which are priorities for pharmacovigilance. Further, it provides the new obligations to marketing authorization holders, such as the continuous benefit-risk assessment. PMID:24190573

  3. Gathering and Exploring Scientific Knowledge in Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Pedro; Nunes, Tiago; Campos, David; Furlong, Laura Ines; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Sanz, Ferran; Carrascosa, Maria Carmen; Mestres, Jordi; Kors, Jan; Singh, Bharat; van Mulligen, Erik; Van der Lei, Johan; Diallo, Gayo; Avillach, Paul; Ahlberg, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Diaz, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance plays a key role in the healthcare domain through the assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in the human organism. However, technological advances in this field have been slowing down over the last decade due to miscellaneous legal, ethical and methodological constraints. Pharmaceutical companies started to realize that collaborative and integrative approaches boost current drug research and development processes. Hence, new strategies are required to connect researchers, datasets, biomedical knowledge and analysis algorithms, allowing them to fully exploit the true value behind state-of-the-art pharmacovigilance efforts. This manuscript introduces a new platform directed towards pharmacovigilance knowledge providers. This system, based on a service-oriented architecture, adopts a plugin-based approach to solve fundamental pharmacovigilance software challenges. With the wealth of collected clinical and pharmaceutical data, it is now possible to connect knowledge providers’ analysis and exploration algorithms with real data. As a result, new strategies allow a faster identification of high-risk interactions between marketed drugs and adverse events, and enable the automated uncovering of scientific evidence behind them. With this architecture, the pharmacovigilance field has a new platform to coordinate large-scale drug evaluation efforts in a unique ecosystem, publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/euadr/. PMID:24349421

  4. Gathering and exploring scientific knowledge in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Pedro; Nunes, Tiago; Campos, David; Furlong, Laura Ines; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Sanz, Ferran; Carrascosa, Maria Carmen; Mestres, Jordi; Kors, Jan; Singh, Bharat; van Mulligen, Erik; Van der Lei, Johan; Diallo, Gayo; Avillach, Paul; Ahlberg, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Diaz, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance plays a key role in the healthcare domain through the assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in the human organism. However, technological advances in this field have been slowing down over the last decade due to miscellaneous legal, ethical and methodological constraints. Pharmaceutical companies started to realize that collaborative and integrative approaches boost current drug research and development processes. Hence, new strategies are required to connect researchers, datasets, biomedical knowledge and analysis algorithms, allowing them to fully exploit the true value behind state-of-the-art pharmacovigilance efforts. This manuscript introduces a new platform directed towards pharmacovigilance knowledge providers. This system, based on a service-oriented architecture, adopts a plugin-based approach to solve fundamental pharmacovigilance software challenges. With the wealth of collected clinical and pharmaceutical data, it is now possible to connect knowledge providers' analysis and exploration algorithms with real data. As a result, new strategies allow a faster identification of high-risk interactions between marketed drugs and adverse events, and enable the automated uncovering of scientific evidence behind them. With this architecture, the pharmacovigilance field has a new platform to coordinate large-scale drug evaluation efforts in a unique ecosystem, publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/euadr/. PMID:24349421

  5. Pharmacovigilance in pharmaceutical companies: An overview.

    PubMed

    Mammì, Maria; Citraro, Rita; Torcasio, Giovanni; Cusato, Gennaro; Palleria, Caterina; di Paola, Eugenio Donato

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacovigilance is responsible for monitoring the safety of medicines in normal clinical use and during clinical trials. In the light of the experience acquired and following an assessment by the Commission of the Union system of pharmacovigilance, it has become clear that it is necessary to take measures in order to improve the operation of Union law on the pharmacovigilance of medicinal products for human use. Regulation (EU) No 1235/2010 and Directive 2010/84/EU introduced new legislation on pharmacovigilance. The marketing authorization holder should be responsible for continuously monitoring the safety of its medicinal products for human use, for informing the authorities of any changes that might have an impact on the marketing authorization, and for ensuring that the product information is kept up-to-date. Marketing authorization holders (MAH) record all suspected adverse reactions occurring in the European Union or in the third countries, and which are brought to their attention spontaneously by the patients or their health care, or occurring in the context of post-authorization study. For all medicinal products is mandatory to maintain a pharmacovigilance system master file (PSMF). According to the Legislative Decree 219/2006 the MAH must submit to the competent authorities the information on suspected adverse reactions of a medicinal product, in form of a periodic safety update reports (PSURs). PMID:24347978

  6. [Pharmacovigilance IV. The institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Hernández Santillán, David L; Rodríguez Betancourt, Leticia; Jasso Gutiérrez, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this fourth paper of the pharmacovigilance series proposes to communicate the institutional experience during the year 2003 represented by 890 adverse drug reaction reports (ADRs) and to compare these with the international experience. The therapeutic drug classes more frequently included in these reports were antibiotic and antiparasitic drugs (38.2%) followed by oncologic (17.7%), analgesic (16.6%), and cardiologic drugs (7.1%), among others; the drug most frequently implicated in the reports was sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (12%). In addition, we processed data ascertain the 10 drugs most frequently implicated in each therapeutic class, including vaccines and toxoid-group ADRs; using the body system-organ classification, the 20 clinical manifestations most frequently reported are presented herein, skin the most frequently affected organ (874 reports). In relation to severity of suspected adverse drug reactions reported, 68.7% were mild, 26.4% moderate, 3.9% severe, and 0.8%, lethal. This article also includes causality assessment results, quality of information contained in the reports, and patient consequences. After reviewing the results of both the International Drug Monitoring Programme and the Institutional Program during the year 2003, it is possible to conclude that comparisons are similar. PMID:16138461

  7. Automated support for pharmacovigilance: a proposed system.

    PubMed

    Bright, Roselie A; Nelson, Robert C

    2002-03-01

    Governments, manufacturers, and other entities are interested in adverse event surveillance of marketed medical products. FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research redesigned the post-marketing adverse reaction surveillance process to use the advantages of new technology. As part of this effort, a 'Pharmacovigilance Working Group' designed a new strategy for the review and analyses of adverse event reports received by FDA. It created requirements which divided signal detection into five tiers: (1) Single 'urgent' reports would be sent to reviewers' workstations nightly for immediate attention. Reviewers would be able to customize definitions of 'urgent' (events that should not wait for aggregate review). (2) Single urgent reports would be placed in a context matrix containing historical counts of similar events to aid in initial interpretation. (3) In this first level of aggregate review, graphical displays would highlight patterns within all the reports, both urgent and non-urgent, and (4) periodic drug-specific tabled-based reports would display the newly received reports across a pre-defined variety of displays. These four tiers would produce passive and criteria-based results which would be presented to safety reviewers' electronic workstations. (5) Active query capabilities (routine, such as age, sex, and year distributions, as well as ad hoc) would be available for exploring alerted issues. The historical database would be migrated into the new format. All historical and new reaction data would be coded with the new MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) scheme. The strategy was to design a full data capture system which effectively exploits current computing advances and technical performance to automate many aspects of initial adverse event review, supporting more efficient and effective clinical assessment of safety signals. PMID:11998536

  8. Training in Post-authorization Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Vivek; Sharma, Varun

    2010-01-01

    Post-authorization pharmacovigilance refers to all the activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problems, from the time a product gets the authorization to be marketed in a territory. The ultimate objective of pharmacovigilance is patient safety. To ensure this, any responsible pharmaceutical company will readily vouch for the importance of all these activities, each requiring specific training for efficient and effective execution. Having a well planned job specific training curriculum can help the organization realize its goals and objectives by covering the gaps between current and desired job performance levels and existing competencies of its employees. Apart from this, trainings can help in problem solving, increasing productivity and prepare for and respond to future changes in the organization or job duties. As the pharmaceutical business continues to grow, increasing numbers of skilled people are required to manage resultant increase in pharmacovigilance activities to remain compliant. Thus, the need for training qualified resources to develop into highly skilled pharmacovigilance professionals is the need of the hour. Currently, the supply-demand situation for skilled manpower is highly skewed in favor of the demand, as this field is relatively new in India and elsewhere. It is interesting to note that not many resources, be it internet, literature or books, are available specifically addressing the need of the industry to guide them on training requirements to set up and maintain a competent pharmacovigilance department. This article aims to present a comprehensive perspective on the trainings required in the post authorization scenario pertaining to pharmacovigilance activities and suggest ways to manage these in an efficient way so as to be compliant with the global norms and best practices. PMID:21829787

  9. Training in Post-authorization Pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Vivek; Sharma, Varun

    2010-04-01

    Post-authorization pharmacovigilance refers to all the activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problems, from the time a product gets the authorization to be marketed in a territory. The ultimate objective of pharmacovigilance is patient safety. To ensure this, any responsible pharmaceutical company will readily vouch for the importance of all these activities, each requiring specific training for efficient and effective execution. Having a well planned job specific training curriculum can help the organization realize its goals and objectives by covering the gaps between current and desired job performance levels and existing competencies of its employees. Apart from this, trainings can help in problem solving, increasing productivity and prepare for and respond to future changes in the organization or job duties. As the pharmaceutical business continues to grow, increasing numbers of skilled people are required to manage resultant increase in pharmacovigilance activities to remain compliant. Thus, the need for training qualified resources to develop into highly skilled pharmacovigilance professionals is the need of the hour. Currently, the supply-demand situation for skilled manpower is highly skewed in favor of the demand, as this field is relatively new in India and elsewhere. It is interesting to note that not many resources, be it internet, literature or books, are available specifically addressing the need of the industry to guide them on training requirements to set up and maintain a competent pharmacovigilance department. This article aims to present a comprehensive perspective on the trainings required in the post authorization scenario pertaining to pharmacovigilance activities and suggest ways to manage these in an efficient way so as to be compliant with the global norms and best practices. PMID:21829787

  10. Exploitation of semantic methods to cluster pharmacovigilance terms.

    PubMed

    Dupuch, Marie; Dupuch, Laëtitia; Hamon, Thierry; Grabar, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the activity related to the collection, analysis and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by drugs. This activity is usually performed within dedicated databases (national, European, international...), in which the ADRs declared for patients are usually coded with a specific controlled terminology MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Drug Regulatory Activities). Traditionally, the detection of adverse drug reactions is performed with data mining algorithms, while more recently the groupings of close ADR terms are also being exploited. The Standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQs) have become a standard in pharmacovigilance. They are created manually by international boards of experts with the objective to group together the MedDRA terms related to a given safety topic. Within the MedDRA version 13, 84 SMQs exist, although several important safety topics are not yet covered. The objective of our work is to propose an automatic method for assisting the creation of SMQs using the clustering of semantically close MedDRA terms. The experimented method relies on semantic approaches: semantic distance and similarity algorithms, terminology structuring methods and term clustering. The obtained results indicate that the proposed unsupervised methods appear to be complementary for this task, they can generate subsets of the existing SMQs and make this process systematic and less time consuming. PMID:24739596

  11. Description and analysis of genetic variants in French hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families recorded in the UMD-BRCA1/BRCA2 databases

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Sandrine; Benboudjema, Louisa; Sinilnikova, Olga; Rouleau, Etienne; Béroud, Christophe; Lidereau, Rosette

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two main genes responsible for predisposition to breast and ovarian cancers, as a result of protein-inactivating monoallelic mutations. It remains to be established whether many of the variants identified in these two genes, so-called unclassified/unknown variants (UVs), contribute to the disease phenotype or are simply neutral variants (or polymorphisms). Given the clinical importance of establishing their status, a nationwide effort to annotate these UVs was launched by laboratories belonging to the French GGC consortium (Groupe Génétique et Cancer), leading to the creation of the UMD-BRCA1/BRCA2 databases (http://www.umd.be/BRCA1/ and http://www.umd.be/BRCA2/). These databases have been endorsed by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) and are designed to collect all variants detected in France, whether causal, neutral or UV. They differ from other BRCA databases in that they contain co-occurrence data for all variants. Using these data, the GGC French consortium has been able to classify certain UVs also contained in other databases. In this article, we report some novel UVs not contained in the BIC database and explore their impact in cancer predisposition based on a structural approach. PMID:22144684

  12. Pharmacovigilance in Europe: Place of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) in organisation and decisional processes.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Marie-Laure; Batz, Arnaud; Géniaux, Hélène; Féchant, Corinne; Merle, Louis; Maison, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The new European legislation that came into force in July 2012 reinforced the organisation of pharmacovigilance by setting up a committee in charge of risk assessment for medicines, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC). The PRAC has a remit covering the assessment of all aspects of the safety and the risk management of medicinal products for human use in the European Union. It deals with issues regarding pharmacovigilance signals, the periodic evaluation of benefit/risk reports from marketing authorization holders (MAH), risk management plans, post-marketing studies, variations or renewals of marketing authorisations, management of under surveillance drugs lists, inspections for pharmacovigilance reasons and audits of pharmacovigilance systems. The PRAC works with the pharmacovigilance systems of the European Member States, which draw up evaluation reports. These evaluations are circulated and discussed by Member States so as to issue recommendations, which serve as a basis for other European medicines committees, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) or the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMDh) which then give their opinion. The final decision, which applies to all Member States and to the concerned MAH, lies with the European Commission (EC). This decisional procedure thus rests on coordination involving the PRAC, the CHMP, the CMDh, the EC, the Member States and the pharmaceutical companies. In the 3 years from July 2012, the PRAC has processed nearly 4500 procedures and is still facing an increasing workload. PMID:27080834

  13. Strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU: where is Europe heading to? A review of the new EU legislation on pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Borg, John-Joseph; Aislaitner, George; Pirozynski, Michal; Mifsud, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    medicines through risk management and structured data collection in the form of Post-Authorization Safety Studies (PASS), together with rationalized single-case and periodic reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs); (vi) involvement of stakeholders in pharmacovigilance through direct patient reporting of suspected ADRs and inclusion of patients and healthcare professionals in decision making; and (vii) simplification of the current community pharmacovigilance procedures with consequent efficiency gains for both the pharmaceutical industry and medicines regulators. For the first time, companies can be made legally liable to carry out PASS and Post-Authorization Efficacy Studies. The amendments to the Regulation and to the Directive will strengthen the European network on pharmacovigilance. A Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) based at the EMA will be set up, which will be responsible for all matters related to pharmacovigilance at an EU level. Three European databases will be strengthened (EudraVigilance, EudraPharm and the European Pharmacovigilance issues Tracking Tool) as well as the setting up of an EU safety portal to better inform the public on all safety issues being discussed at an EU level. Public hearings at the PRAC will improve transparency in the decision-making process, whilst details and results of all PASS agreed to by the PRAC will also be made publically available. PMID:21332243

  14. A database of psycholinguistic and lexical properties for French adjectives referring to human and/or nonhuman attributes.

    PubMed

    Quadflieg, Susanne; Michel, Caroline; Bukowski, Henryk; Samson, Dana

    2014-03-01

    The processing of human and nonhuman concepts (e.g., agreeable vs. edible) during basic comprehension and reasoning tasks has become a major topic of scientific inquiry. To ensure that the experimental effects obtained from such studies reflect the hypothesised semantic distinction, potential confounds such as psycholinguistic and/or lexical properties of the exact stimuli chosen need to be addressed. In the current study, normative data of such properties were obtained for a series of 875 French adjectives by asking 8 groups of 20 participants to each rate all words on one dimension of theoretical interest. The collected ratings indicate the extent to which each adjective evokes a sensory experience (concreteness), captures an enduring attribute (temporal stability), refers to a visible characteristic (visibility), denotes a neutral or an affectively laden concept (valence), signifies an attribute of low or high intensity, is familiar to the reader and can be used to describe people and/or inanimate entities such as objects. In addition, for each item its exact grammatical class (adjective vs. past participle adjective), length (i.e., number of letters, number of syllables), and word frequency was retrieved from the lexique3 corpus. The resulting database enables researchers to consider pivotal psycholinguistic and lexical properties when selecting human and nonhuman stimuli for future research. PMID:24001094

  15. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research. PMID:21554472

  16. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  17. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the

  18. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine). PMID:24471312

  19. Pharmacoenvironmentology – a component of pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Syed Ziaur; Khan, Rahat Ali; Gupta, Varun; Uddin, Misbah

    2007-01-01

    According to WHO, Pharmacovigilance activities are done to monitor detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of any obnoxious adverse reactions to drugs at therapeutic concentration on animal and human beings. However, there is also a growing focus among scientists and environmentalists about the impact of drugs on environment and surroundings. The existing term 'Ecopharmacology' is too broad and not even defined in a clear manner. The term 'Pharmacoenvironmentology' seeks to deal with the environmental impact of drugs given to humans and animals at therapeutic doses. PMID:17650313

  20. Comparative testing and pharmacovigilance of biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Roger, Simon

    2006-10-01

    Unlike traditional generic pharmaceuticals, biosimilars (also called 'follow-on biopharmaceuticals' in the USA) aim to copy a complex recombinant, three-dimensional protein structure with high molecular weight. Small changes in the manufacturing process can alter the product's effect and safety. According to the guidelines of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal products (EMEA), extensive comparability testing will be required to demonstrate that the biosimilar has a comparable profile in terms of quality, safety and efficacy as the reference product. Various analytical assays are available to compare physicochemical and biological properties between production batches of a potentially similar biopharmaceutical (comparability) and in comparison with a reference product (similarity). It is important to recognize the limits of existing assays so that the results can be accurately interpreted for market authorization. This article examines the quality and limits of such analytical methods. The analytical tests to demonstrate comparability and similarity of a biosimilar product to a reference drug with respect to protein content, activity, physiochemical integrity, stability, impurities and additives, as well as immunogenicity are discussed. Although several assays are available, reliable tests for safety and efficacy still require development. Furthermore, international standards are missing and materials and methods differ from laboratories making the comparison of results very difficult. Clinical trials and post-authorization pharmacovigilance are essential to guarantee the product's safety and efficacy over time. Pharmacovigilance, as part of a comprehensive risk management programme, will need to include regular testing for consistent manufacturing of the drug. PMID:16959789

  1. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  2. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian

    PubMed Central

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  3. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-01-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed. PMID:26301067

  4. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation.

    PubMed

    Borg, John Joseph; Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-08-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed. PMID:26301067

  5. Pharmacovigilance in practice: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Michael; Ludwig, Heinz; Henry, David H; Gasal, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or other problems related to medical products after they have been licensed for marketing. The purpose of PV is to advance the safe use of marketed medical products. Regulatory agencies and license holders collaborate to collect data reported by health care providers, patients, and the public as well as data from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and individual clinical and nonclinical studies. They validate and analyze the data to determine whether safety signals exist, and if warranted, develop an action plan to mitigate the identified risk. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) provide an example of how PV is applied in reality. Among other approved indications, ESAs may be used to treat anemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. ESAs increase hemoglobin levels and reduce the need for transfusions; they are also associated with a known increased risk of thromboembolic events. Starting in 2003, emerging data suggested that ESAs might reduce survival. As a result of PV activities by regulatory agencies and license holders, labeling for ESAs addresses these risks. Meta-analyses and individual clinical studies have confirmed that ESAs increase the risk of thromboembolic events, but when used as indicated, ESAs have not been shown to have a significant effect on survival or disease progression. Ongoing safety studies will provide additional data in the coming years to further clarify the risks and benefits of ESAs. PMID:24890561

  6. The Internet and drug safety: what are the implications for pharmacovigilance?

    PubMed

    Cobert, B; Silvey, J

    1999-02-01

    Use of the Internet is becoming widespread throughout the world. Its use in the domain of drug safety and pharmacovigilance is spreading rapidly. Governments and industry have taken the lead in developing extensive web sites. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) and other agencies have developed sites containing enormous amounts of information both on pharmacovigilance in general and on specific drugs in particular. Under the US 'Freedom of Information Act' the FDA has put major parts of its adverse event database on line. Regulatory documents are also available from the FDA site or from hyperlinks described in the site. The US Center for Drug Evaluation and Research updates its site most days and maintains a free automated e-mail announcement service of these updates. Similarly, the EMEA updates its site frequently and publishes extensive material including regulatory documents, guidelines, European Public Assessment Reports on newly approved medications and other useful information. A free update service by e-mail is also available. Although English is the primary language used on the EMEA site, some of the information is available in other languages. Pharmaceutical companies are not using the Internet for pharmacovigilance yet. Rather, the Internet is being used for promotion of their products and for informing consumers on general information on diseases, for financial and investor data and for employment opportunities, etc. Other organisations such as lobbies, consumer groups and medical journals are also beginning to use the Internet. The electronic transmission of safety information, using the standards developed by the International Conference on Harmonization, is currently being tested for the transmission of individual patient adverse event information between companies and governments. In addition, the FDA has begun to accept adverse events from healthcare providers and consumers

  7. Pharmacovigilance in China: current situation, successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wong, Lisa Y L; He, Ying; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-10-01

    With the integration of the global pharmaceutical economy and the gradual transformation of the healthcare insurance system in China, the legislative framework for a comprehensive regulatory system monitoring the whole process including drug development, manufacture, distribution and use has been established by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication use. China has established a relatively comprehensive pharmacovigilance system covering regulation, organisation and technology from 1989 to 2014. As of 2013, one national centre, 34 provincial centres and more than 400 municipal centres for adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring were included in the four-level pharmacovigilance network (national, provincial, municipal and county) with more than 200,000 grassroot organisation users. The China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System (CADRMS) is an online spontaneous reporting system which connects the four-level pharmacovigilance network. By 2013, CADRMS had received over 6.6 million ADR case reports. After integrating and analysing pharmacovigilance data, the National Centre for ADR Monitoring (NCADRM) publishes medication safety information by releasing ADR bulletins, National ADR Annual Reports and International Pharmacovigilance Newsletters. The NCADRM also routinely provides CADRMS data feedback to manufacturers. The CFDA implemented risk management through several approaches, including arranging 'manufacturer communication meetings', modification of medication package inserts, and restriction, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorisations. Seamless information exchange with overseas regulatory authorities and organisations remains an area for improvement. Further development of the China pharmacovigilance system in terms of signal generation, post-marketing pharmacoepidemiology research and education is also needed. PMID:25218237

  8. Information technology in pharmacovigilance: Benefits, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhengwu

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment during clinical product development needs to be conducted in a thorough and rigorous manner. However, it is impossible to identify all safety concerns during controlled clinical trials. Once a product is marketed, there is generally a large increase in the number of patients exposed, including those with comorbid conditions and those being treated with concomitant medications. Therefore, postmarketing safety data collection and clinical risk assessment based on observational data are critical for evaluating and characterizing a product’s risk profile and for making informed decisions on risk minimization. Information science promises to deliver effective e-clinical or e-health solutions to realize several core benefits: time savings, high quality, cost reductions, and increased efficiencies with safer and more efficacious medicines. The development and use of standard-based pharmacovigilance system with integration connection to electronic medical records, electronic health records, and clinical data management system holds promise as a tool for enabling early drug safety detections, data mining, results interpretation, assisting in safety decision making, and clinical collaborations among clinical partners or different functional groups. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database updated on a frequent basis would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues. Due to recent high-profile drug safety problems, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with greater regulatory enforcement and increased accountability demands for the protection and welfare of patients. This changing climate requires biopharmaceutical companies to take a more proactive approach in dealing with drug safety and pharmacovigilance. PMID:21701609

  9. Pharmacovigilance Considerations for Biosimilars in the USA.

    PubMed

    Grampp, Gustavo; Felix, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    In 2015, five or more biosimilars may be approved in the USA. Because no two biologic medicines are identical, postapproval safety monitoring will be critical to detect potential differences in safety signals between a biosimilar, its reference product, and other biosimilars. Postapproval safety monitoring in the USA uses two signal detection systems: spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) and active surveillance (AS) systems. Both depend on accurate identification of the specific product(s) dispensed or administered to patients, which may be compromised when products from multiple manufacturers share common drug nomenclature or coding. Product identification can present challenges across different healthcare settings, including inpatient and ambulatory care. Common oral-dosage drugs are predominantly dispensed directly to patients by pharmacists, whereas most injectable drugs, including biologics, are administered to patients by healthcare professionals in outpatient clinics or hospitals. Thus, the effectiveness of SRS and AS mechanisms in both pharmacy and medical channels must be given greater consideration as biotechnology matures. In this article, we describe these systems and their limitations. We identify challenges and opportunities for product-specific safety surveillance of biologics in both the pharmacy and medical settings and provide recommendations to improve biologic safety surveillance under the current and future systems envisioned in the Drug Quality and Security Act. As biosimilars are integrated into existing pharmacovigilance systems, distinguishable nonproprietary names and codes for all biologics, as well as other opportunities to improve traceability (e.g., increased use of barcodes), must be considered to ensure patient safety and confidence in this new class of drugs. PMID:26419971

  10. Role of Pharmacovigilance in India: An overview.

    PubMed

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kosta, Prabhat; Negi, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) plays a key role in the healthcare system through assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in human. Pharmaceutical and biotechnological medicines are designed to cure, prevent or treat diseases; however, there are also risks particularly adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause serious harm to patients. Thus, for safety medication ADRs monitoring required for each medicine throughout its life cycle, during development of drug such as pre-marketing including early stages of drug design, clinical trials, and post-marketing surveillance. PV is concerns with the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of ADRs. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are an indispensable part of the clinical research. Variation in the human genome is a cause of variable response to drugs and susceptibility to diseases are determined, which is important for early drug discovery to PV. Moreover, PV has traditionally involved in mining spontaneous reports submitted to national surveillance systems. The research focus is shifting toward the use of data generated from platforms outside the conventional framework such as electronic medical records, biomedical literature, and patient-reported data in health forums. The emerging trend in PV is to link premarketing data with human safety information observed in the post-marketing phase. The PV system team obtains valuable additional information, building up the scientific data contained in the original report and making it more informative. This necessitates an utmost requirement for effective regulations of the drug approval process and conscious pre and post approval vigilance of the undesired effects, especially in India. Adverse events reported by PV system potentially benefit to the community due to their proximity to both population and public health practitioners, in terms of language and knowledge, enables easy contact with reporters by electronically. Hence, PV

  11. Role of Pharmacovigilance in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kosta, Prabhat; Negi, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) plays a key role in the healthcare system through assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in human. Pharmaceutical and biotechnological medicines are designed to cure, prevent or treat diseases; however, there are also risks particularly adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause serious harm to patients. Thus, for safety medication ADRs monitoring required for each medicine throughout its life cycle, during development of drug such as pre-marketing including early stages of drug design, clinical trials, and post-marketing surveillance. PV is concerns with the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of ADRs. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are an indispensable part of the clinical research. Variation in the human genome is a cause of variable response to drugs and susceptibility to diseases are determined, which is important for early drug discovery to PV. Moreover, PV has traditionally involved in mining spontaneous reports submitted to national surveillance systems. The research focus is shifting toward the use of data generated from platforms outside the conventional framework such as electronic medical records, biomedical literature, and patient-reported data in health forums. The emerging trend in PV is to link premarketing data with human safety information observed in the post-marketing phase. The PV system team obtains valuable additional information, building up the scientific data contained in the original report and making it more informative. This necessitates an utmost requirement for effective regulations of the drug approval process and conscious pre and post approval vigilance of the undesired effects, especially in India. Adverse events reported by PV system potentially benefit to the community due to their proximity to both population and public health practitioners, in terms of language and knowledge, enables easy contact with reporters by electronically. Hence, PV

  12. Revisiting the reported signal of acute pancreatitis with rasburicase: an object lesson in pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is an interest in methodologies to expeditiously detect credible signals of drug-induced pancreatitis. An example is the reported signal of pancreatitis with rasburicase emerging from a study [the ‘index publication’ (IP)] combining quantitative signal detection findings from a spontaneous reporting system (SRS) and electronic health records (EHRs). The signal was reportedly supported by a clinical review with a case series manuscript in progress. The reported signal is noteworthy, being initially classified as a false-positive finding for the chosen reference standard, but reclassified as a ‘clinically supported’ signal. Objective: This paper has dual objectives: to revisit the signal of rasburicase and acute pancreatitis and extend the original analysis via reexamination of its findings, in light of more contemporary data; and to motivate discussions on key issues in signal detection and evaluation, including recent findings from a major international pharmacovigilance research initiative. Methodology: We used the same methodology as the IP, including the same disproportionality analysis software/dataset for calculating observed to expected reporting frequencies (O/Es), Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Term, and O/E metric/threshold combination defining a signal of disproportionate reporting. Baseline analysis results prompted supplementary analyses using alternative analytical choices. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify additional published case reports of rasburicase and pancreatitis. Results: We could not replicate positive findings (e.g. a signal or statistic of disproportionate reporting) from the SRS data using the same algorithm, software, dataset and vendor specified in the IP. The reporting association was statistically highlighted in default and supplemental analysis when more sensitive forms of disproportionality analysis were used. Two of three reports in the FAERS database were

  13. Heart rhythm disturbances associated with rupatadine: a case series from the Spanish and Portuguese pharmacovigilance systems.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, A; Macías, D; Salado, I; Sáinz, M; Ortega, S; Campo, C; García del Pozo, J; Martín Arias, L H; Velasco, A; Gonçalves, S; Pombal, R; Carmona, R

    2009-05-01

    We searched the Spanish and Portuguese pharmacovigilance databases for spontaneous case reports of heart rhythm disturbances associated with rupatadine and other new H1 antihistamines. Five cases were found involving patients treated with rupatadine (13.9% of all reports relating to this drug). In all five cases, the reaction started after exposure and resolved when the drug was discontinued. In two cases, rupatadine was the only medication being taken by the patient, and no other condition that could explain the heart rhythm disturbances was diagnosed. The reporting odds ratio was 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-10.5). The reporting rate was 2 cases per 100,000 patients treated per year (95% confidence interval, 0.4-6.0). These results suggest a causal relationship between rupatadine and heart rhythm disturbances. PMID:19225450

  14. Utilizing Social Media Data for Pharmacovigilance: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abeed; Ginn, Rachel; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; O’Connor, Karen; Smith, Karen; Jayaraman, Swetha; Upadhaya, Tejaswi; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Objective Automatic monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), defined as adverse patient outcomes caused by medications, is a challenging research problem that is currently receiving significant attention from the medical informatics community. In recent years, user-posted data on social media, primarily due to its sheer volume, has become a useful resource for ADR monitoring. Research using social media data has progressed using various data sources and techniques, making it difficult to compare distinct systems and their performances. In this paper, we perform a methodical review to characterize the different approaches to ADR detection/extraction from social media, and their applicability to pharmacovigilance. In addition, we present a potential systematic pathway to ADR monitoring from social media. Methods We identified studies, describing approaches for ADR detection from social media from the Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases, and the Google Scholar search engine. Studies that met our inclusion criteria were those that attempted to utilize ADR information posted by users on any publicly available social media platform. We categorized the studies into various dimensions such as primary ADR detection approach, size of data, source(s), availability, evaluation criteria, and so on. Results Twenty-two studies met our inclusion criteria, with fifteen (68.2%) published within the last two years. The survey revealed a clear trend towards the usage of annotated data with eleven of the fifteen (73.3%) studies published in the last two years relying on expert annotations. However, publicly available annotated data is still scarce, and we found only six (27.3%) studies that made the annotations used publicly available, making system performance comparisons difficult. In terms of algorithms, supervised classification techniques to detect posts containing ADR mentions, and lexicon-based approaches for extraction of ADR mentions from texts have been

  15. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Is a Challenging Diagnosis: A Systematic Pathology Review, Immunohistochemistry, and Molecular Analysis in 160 Patients From the French Sarcoma Group Database.

    PubMed

    Le Guellec, Sophie; Decouvelaere, Anne-Valérie; Filleron, Thomas; Valo, Isabelle; Charon-Barra, Céline; Robin, Yves-Marie; Terrier, Philippe; Chevreau, Christine; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    An accurate histopathologic diagnosis is essential for an adequate treatment of soft tissue sarcomas. The diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) can be complex, particularly outside the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) context. MPNST is a rare malignancy, and due to the lack of specific histologic criteria, several differential diagnoses must be considered. A total of 350 patients diagnosed with MPNST (from 1990 to 2013) were retrieved from the French sarcoma network (RRePS) and the Conticabase (Connective Tissue Cancer Network database). Tumor samples were available for 160 cases (45.2%). Pathology review, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular analysis (when dealing with a monomorphic sarcoma) were systematically performed. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were evaluated to identify prognostic factors for the definitive primary MPNST (n=106) cohort. Twenty-nine tumors (18.1%) initially diagnosed as MPNST were reclassified on the basis of histologic review, IHC, and molecular analysis. Patients with NF1 disease comprised 64% of the remaining cohort. The 5-year overall survival for patients from the entire cohort was 47%, 34.8% for NF1 patients, and 68.5% for patients without NF1 disease, making NF1 syndrome an independent poor prognostic factor of survival. Positive margins and lack of radiation therapy were independent predictors of local recurrence. The Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer tumor grade was an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis. Given the therapeutic implications of a misdiagnosis, the systematic pathology review, IHC, and molecular analysis (when dealing with monomorphic sarcoma) strategy allowed reclassification of 20% of cases, mainly the sporadic MPNSTs. PMID:27158754

  16. Use of Fibrates Monotherapy in People with Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Care: A French Nationwide Cohort Study Based on National Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Ronan; Chaignot, Christophe; Weill, Alain; Travert, Florence; Hansel, Boris; Marre, Michel; Ricordeau, Philippe; Alla, François; Allemand, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Design Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09) with a follow-up of up to 30 months. Methods Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and >50 (men) or 60 (women), but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death. Results Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8%) received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates) and 2.21% (statins). The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR<540) and after 540 days (HR>540) of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR<540 = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.78–1.16) and HR>540 = 1.73 (1.28–2.32). Conclusion Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy. PMID:26398765

  17. Pharmacovigilance for antiretroviral drugs in Africa, lessons from a study in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Djima, Mariam Mama; Coffie, Patrick; Kacou, Henri Die; Eholie, Serge P.; Messou, Eugene; Minga, Albert; Guehi, Calixte; Yavo, Jean Claude; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Dabis, Francois; Ekouevi, Didier K.

    2011-01-01

    Background While antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse drug reactions (ADR) are documented in industrialized countries, there is no pre-existing surveillance system dedicated to ADR monitoring in most African countries. We assessed knowledge towards pharmacovigilance among ART prescribers and available capacity of HIV clinics to conduct ADR monitoring in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ART prescribers, to assess their knowledge towards the occurrence of ADRs. A retrospective ADR survey was also conducted, based on a data query of treatment modification/interruptions in three HIV clinics. Clinical monitors went back to medical charts to review and validate the reasons of the treatment modification/interruptions. Results Of the 81 ART prescribers interviewed, 25 (31%) declared not grading ADRs and 12 (14.8%) declared notifying ADRs to the national regulatory authorities. Among 5,252 adult ART-treated patients who attended the participating clinics in 2008, 599 treatment modifications were identified. Reasons for treatment modification/interruptions identified in the electronic database were documented in the medical charts in 554 (92.5%) cases, ADR accounting for 273 (45.5%) cases. Toxicity related to ART was graded in only 58 (21%) cases in the medical charts. Discussion This study describes challenges limiting the implementation of reliable pharmacovigilance activities in HIV clinics in Côte d’Ivoire. The lack of knowledge of ART prescribers concerning ADR grading does not support the spontaneous reporting of ADRs. Using treatment modification/interruptions for ADR monitoring appears feasible but improvements are needed to respond to key questions related to drug toxicities in the context of ART scale up in Africa. PMID:21735508

  18. Teaching French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Fernand

    This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…

  19. Updating the French method for the causality assessment of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Arimone, Yannick; Bidault, Irène; Dutertre, Jean-Paul; Gérardin, Marie; Guy, Claire; Haramburu, Françoise; Hillaire-Buys, Dominique; Meglio, Carmine; Penfornis, Catherine; Théophile, Hélène; Valnet-Rabier, Marie-Blanche

    2013-01-01

    The Imputability Working Group (CRI) updated the French drug reaction causality assessment method. This tripartite group is made up of staff from the French network of regional pharmacovigilance centres, pharmaceutical companies, and the French National Agency for the Safety of Medicines and Health Products (ANSM). After reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the previous method, several ideas for improvement were proposed: a better-worded and more discriminating scale for certain chronological and semiological criteria, a larger scale for the intrinsic score (increased from 5 to 7 levels), a new bibliographical scale to differentiate between expected and unexpected adverse drug reactions, and a new informativeness scale. PMID:23773347

  20. Pharmacovigilance amongst patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in Ekiti state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeniran, Adeyinka; Awodele, Deborah F

    2012-01-01

    With the current population of Nigeria and the limited number of trained health care providers, PMVs are inevitable and highly needed especially in the rural areas for the supply of drugs in treating minor illnesses. Thus, pharmacovigilance (PVG) activity in Nigeria cannot exclude the roles of PMVs; therefore, this study was aimed to determine the knowledge of PMVs on PVG and adverse drug reaction reporting system. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of the knowledge of Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting system of 96 PMVs in Ekiti state, Nigeria before the National Pharmacovigilance training in February, 2011 and after the training. The data obtained before the training showed that more than 87% of the respondents had at least secondary level of education. About half of the respondents (58.5%) knew the correct meaning of PVG and 56.6% knew how to report ADRs. But only about one third of them (35.8%) knew where to obtain ADR forms. Very few respondents 3 (5.7%) had received report/complaints of ADR from patients in the last 1 month while just 2 (3.8%) of them reported. The most commonly mentioned factors/reasons for poor reporting of ADRs/compliance with PVG guideline by the respondents were fears of indictment (61.3%), poor public knowledge (88.7%), and poor training on PMVs (92.5%). However, the results after the training showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.005) improvement in the proportion of respondents who were aware of PVG (from 55.8% to 89.1%), those who knew the meaning of PVG (from 49.0% to 61.7%), where to obtain ADR form (28.3% to 92.1%) and those who knew how to report ADRs (44.2% to 88.0%). PMVs are ready to practice PVG if they are properly trained. Training has been revealed to play a significant role in the knowledge of the concept of PVG amongst PMVs. It is therefore recommended that National Pharmacovigilance Centre should continue to organize periodic trainings for PMVs especially those with poor

  1. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Alshammari, Thamir M.; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Louet, Hervé Le; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice. Result: Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training. Conclusion: The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance. PMID:26318468

  2. [Use abusive of benzydamine in Brazil: an overview in pharmacovigilance].

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniel Marques; Costa, Alessandra Alves da; Teixeira, Christiane Dos Santos; Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Dias, Murilo Freitas

    2010-05-01

    The abusive drug use has been object of increasing concern in public health and is commonly issued in the Brazilian press. Amongst medicines, those that are abuse substances and cause physical and/or psychic dependence, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioid analgesics and amphetamines are included. Analgesics, antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, even not making part of this list, are generally associated with recreational use or non therapeutical purpose. The objective of this essay is to present information on the abusive use of benzydamine in Brazil. The present study is an exploratory essay in which different methodological strategies adopted in the regulatory practice of pharmacovigilance have been used. The abusive use of this drug was evidenced in scientific literature, press releases and on the internet. Considering the facility of purchasing drugs under medical prescription, among other factors, it must be demanded ways to assess the marketing and use of medicines, and assure its safe and rational use, including the strengthening of pharmacovigilance in Brazil. PMID:20464184

  3. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement. PMID:21395600

  4. CIOMS and ICH initiatives in pharmacovigilance and risk management: overview and implications.

    PubMed

    Tsintis, Panos; La Mache, Edith

    2004-01-01

    In this article we review the current initiatives by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) on pharmacovigilance planning that are due for general release during 2004. These initiatives could form the basis for applying concepts of risk management to medicines throughout their life cycle, from preclinical and clinical development to marketed use. The CIOMS VI Working Group (with 28 senior scientists worldwide from drug regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical companies) is currently developing scientific guidance that relates to clinical trials for medicines during development. It recommends a developmental pharmacovigilance concept - a 'living' concept that would start early in drug development supporting the science and ethics of research leading up to licensing (marketing authorisation) and continuing to post-authorisation (postmarketing) pharmacovigilance. This approach is seen as complementary to current ICH initiatives called 'Pharmacovigilance Planning'. ICH will introduce two concepts in pharmacovigilance management of medicinal products: the 'Pharmacovigilance Specification' and the 'Pharmacovigilance Plan'. The 'Pharmacovigilance Specification' will summarise important knowns and unknowns about the medicine. It will include safety risks identified at the licensing stage, potential risks and any key missing information. These elements will be essential to the formulation of pharmacovigilance plans. Dialogue and common understanding between regulators and the pharmaceutical industry will be a key factor for developing pharmacovigilance plans during the life cycle of medicines. Appropriate interaction with health professionals and patients should also be planned for the future as regulatory systems become more transparent. Where no significant issues are apparent at the licensing (marketing authorisation) stage, routine pharmacovigilance practices will be followed

  5. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance: The Need for a Different Approach.

    PubMed

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-10-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning pharmacovigilance (PV) system. We argue that a different approach is required to move PV forward in such countries. Although the long-term aim is to build adequate national PV capacity, we propose an approach in which resources are focused initially towards ensuring a proper system for the reporting of "problems with medicines" such as substandard and counterfeit products. The limited health system resources in these countries require that PV will be supported by some of the organizations also giving funding aid for the supply of medicines. PMID:27364632

  6. The periodic safety update report as a pharmacovigilance tool.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The periodic safety update report for marketed drugs (PSUR) was designed to be a stand-alone document that allows a periodic but comprehensive assessment of the worldwide safety data of a marketed drug or biological product. The PSUR can be an important source for the identification of new safety signals, a means of determining changes in the benefit-risk profile, an effective means of risk communication to regulatory authorities and an indicator for the need for risk management initiatives, as well as a tracking mechanism monitoring the effectiveness of such initiatives. For these reasons, the PSUR can be an important pharmacovigilance tool. Numerous steps are involved in the PSUR process including: intake of adverse drug reaction information, case processing, data retrieval, data analysis, and medical review and risk assessment. These processes are heavily reliant on the availability of adequate resources. An overarching principle throughout the PSUR process is the need for a proactive approach in order to identify the critical steps in the process and to have a clear understanding of the consequences of any critical 'mis-step'. With this information comes appropriate planning, building quality into each step of the PSUR process and monitoring performance will maximise the likelihood of generating a quality report. Any failure of a key PSUR process will have the opposite effect - a poor quality report that will give little insight into emerging safety signals or provide misleading information that can adversely affect public health. A pragmatic approach that will avoid or minimise these pitfalls includes the following: adequate resource planning, training, development of 'scripts' designed to maximise the capture of key information for medically important reactions, standardised and harmonised Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) coding procedures, pre-specified search criteria for data retrieval, ongoing medical review, and metrics to evaluate

  7. Health Professionals' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about Pharmacovigilance in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous or voluntary reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is one of the vital roles of all health professionals. In India, under-reporting of ADRs by health professionals is recognized as one of the leading causes of poor ADR signal detection. Therefore, reviewing the literature can provide a better understanding of the status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Pharmacovigilance (PV) activities by health professionals. Methods A systematic review was performed through Pubmed, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar scientific databases. Studies pertaining to KAP of PV and ADR reporting by Indian health professionals between January 2011 and July 2015 were included in a meta-analysis. Results A total of 28 studies were included in the systematic review and 18 of them were selected for meta-analysis. Overall, 55.6% (95% CI 44.4–66.9; p<0.001) of the population studied were not aware of the existence of the Pharmacovigilance Programme in India (PvPI), and 31.9% (95% CI 16.3–47.4; p<0.001) thought that "all drugs available in the market are safe". Furthermore, 28.7% (95% CI 16.4–40.9; p<0.001) of them were not interested in reporting ADRs and 74.5%, (95% CI 67.9–81.9; p<0.001) never reported any ADR to PV centers. Conclusion There was an enormous gap of KAP towards PV and ADR reporting, particularly PV practice in India. There is therefore an urgent need for educational awareness, simplification of the ADR reporting process, and implementation of imperative measures to practice PV among healthcare professionals. In order to understand the PV status, PvPI should procedurally assess the KAP of health professionals PV activities in India. PMID:27010447

  8. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Perceptions About Pharmacovigilance in Malaysian Public Universities

    PubMed Central

    Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M.; Widodo, Riyanto T.; Efan, Qais M. A.; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess senior pharmacy students’ knowledge of and perceptions about pharmacovigilance and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) at 5 public universities in Malaysia Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 1, 2010, and January 31, 2010, using a validated self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 510 final-year (fourth-year) pharmacy students at 5 Malaysian public universities. Results. Four hundred twenty-one (84%) students responded to the survey. About 60% (n = 240) indicated that they had taken courses on the concept of pharmacovigilance during their current pharmacy curriculum. The mean score for knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting was 6.9 ± 1.4. There was a significant difference in the mean scores for knowledge about pharmacovigilance across the 5 universities. The majority (82.3%) of respondents felt it was necessary to confirm the causal relationship between the drug and the ADR. About 57.8% (n = 241) of the respondents believed that pharmacy students are competent and capable of reporting ADRs during their clerkships. The majority (87.0%) of respondents perceived that pharmacy students should be taught how to report ADRs. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrate that the majority of final-year pharmacy students in Malaysian public universities have insufficient knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting. PMID:21829270

  9. Implementing a centralised pharmacovigilance service in a non-commercial setting in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dinnett, Eleanor M; Kean, Sharon; Tolmie, Elizabeth P; Ronald, Elizabeth S; Gaw, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of a pharmacovigilance service compliant with the legal and regulatory responsibilities of clinical trial sponsors presents particular challenges for sponsors in a non-commercial setting.In this paper we examine these challenges in detail. We identify and discuss the key steps in the development of a pharmacovigilance service within a public health service and university setting in the United Kingdom. We describe how we have established a central Pharmacovigilance Office with dedicated staff and resources within our organisation. This office is supported by an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting infrastructure developed to facilitate the receipt and processing of safety information, the onward reporting in compliance with legislation and the provision of sponsor institution oversight of clinical trial participant safety. An education and training programme has also been set up to ensure that all relevant staff in the organisation are fully aware of the pharmacovigilance service and are appropriately trained in its use.We discuss possible alternatives to this approach and why we consider our solution to be the most appropriate to ensure that a non-commercial sponsor organisation and investigators are operating in a fully compliant way. PMID:23758677

  10. Implementing a centralised pharmacovigilance service in a non-commercial setting in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of a pharmacovigilance service compliant with the legal and regulatory responsibilities of clinical trial sponsors presents particular challenges for sponsors in a non-commercial setting. In this paper we examine these challenges in detail. We identify and discuss the key steps in the development of a pharmacovigilance service within a public health service and university setting in the United Kingdom. We describe how we have established a central Pharmacovigilance Office with dedicated staff and resources within our organisation. This office is supported by an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting infrastructure developed to facilitate the receipt and processing of safety information, the onward reporting in compliance with legislation and the provision of sponsor institution oversight of clinical trial participant safety. An education and training programme has also been set up to ensure that all relevant staff in the organisation are fully aware of the pharmacovigilance service and are appropriately trained in its use. We discuss possible alternatives to this approach and why we consider our solution to be the most appropriate to ensure that a non-commercial sponsor organisation and investigators are operating in a fully compliant way. PMID:23758677

  11. Rapid forecast of tsunami wave heights from a database of pre-computed simulations, and application during the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond, D.; Okal, E. A.; Hébert, H.; Bourdet, M.

    2012-06-01

    We present a method for the rapid estimation of tsunami wave heights, either in the deep Pacific Basin, or at specific shore locations. It uses a database of 260 pre-computed scenarios of generic sources distributed along the Pacific trenches, and can provide an estimate of wave heights within minutes of the location of the earthquake and the estimation of its moment. The method is tested against a set of DART data, and of 51 maregraph records in Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands. It was used in real time to successfully predict tsunami amplitudes in Polynesia during the 2011 Tohoku alert.

  12. A Multiagent System for Integrated Detection of Pharmacovigilance Signals.

    PubMed

    Koutkias, Vassilis; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the scientific discipline that copes with the continuous assessment of the safety profile of marketed drugs. This assessment relies on diverse data sources, which are routinely analysed to identify the so-called "signals", i.e. potential associations between drugs and adverse effects, that are unknown or incompletely documented. Various computational methods have been proposed to support domain experts in signal detection. However, recent comparative studies illustrated that current methods exhibit high false-positive rates, significantly variable performance across different datasets used for analysis and events of interest, but also complementarity in their outcomes. In this regard, in order to reinforce accurate and timely signal detection, we elaborated through an agent-based approach towards systematic, joint exploitation of multiple heterogeneous signal detection methods, data sources and other drug-related resources under a common, integrated framework. The approach relies on a multiagent system operating based on a collaborative agent interaction protocol, aiming to implement a comprehensive workflow that comprises of method selection and execution, as well as outcomes' aggregation, filtering, ranking and annotation. This paper presents the design of the proposed multiagent system, discusses implementation issues and demonstrates the applicability of the proposed solution in an example signal detection scenario. This work constitutes a step towards large-scale, integrated and knowledge-intensive computational signal detection. PMID:26590975

  13. Pharmacovigilance on Twitter? Mining Tweets for Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Karen; Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Ginn, Rachel; Smith, Karen L; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that Twitter data analytics can have broad implications on public health research. However, its value for pharmacovigilance has been scantly studied – with health related forums and community support groups preferred for the task. We present a systematic study of tweets collected for 74 drugs to assess their value as sources of potential signals for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We created an annotated corpus of 10,822 tweets. Each tweet was annotated for the presence or absence of ADR mentions, with the span and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept ID noted for each ADR present. Using Cohen’s kappa1, we calculated the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) for the binary annotations to be 0.69. To demonstrate the utility of the corpus, we attempted a lexicon-based approach for concept extraction, with promising success (54.1% precision, 62.1% recall, and 57.8% F-measure). A subset of the corpus is freely available at: http://diego.asu.edu/downloads. PMID:25954400

  14. Unplanned medication discontinuation as a potential pharmacovigilance signal: a nested young person cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because of relatively small treatment numbers together with low adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting rates the timely identification of ADRs affecting children and young people is problematic. The primary objective of this study was to assess the utility of unplanned medication discontinuation as a signal for possible ADRs in children and young people. Methods Using orlistat as an exemplar, all orlistat prescriptions issued to patients up to 18 years of age together with patient characteristics, prescription duration, co-prescribed medicines and recorded clinical (Read) codes were identified from the Primary Care Informatics Unit database between 1st Jan 2006-30th Nov 2009. Binary logistic regression was used to assess association between characteristics and discontinuation. Results During the study period, 79 patients were prescribed orlistat (81% female, median age 17 years). Unplanned medication discontinuation rates for orlistat were 52% and 77% at 1 and 3-months. Almost 20% of patients were co-prescribed an anti-depressant. One month unplanned medication discontinuation was significantly lower in the least deprived group (SIMD 1–2 compared to SIMD 9–10 OR 0.09 (95% CI0.01 – 0.83)) and those co-prescribed at least one other medication. At 3 months, discontinuation was higher in young people (≥17 yr versus, OR 3.07 (95% CI1.03 – 9.14)). Read codes were recorded for digestive, respiratory and urinary symptoms around the time of discontinuation for 24% of patients. Urinary retention was reported for 7.6% of patients. Conclusions Identification of unplanned medication discontinuation using large primary care datasets may be a useful tool for pharmacovigilance signal generation and detection of potential ADRs in children and young people. PMID:24594374

  15. A situational analysis of pharmacovigilance plans in the Global Fund Malaria and U.S. President's Malaria Initiative proposals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacovigilance programmes can monitor and help ensure the safe use of medicines that are critical to the success of global public health programmes. The widespread deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) by national malaria control programmes as part of the overall Global Malaria Action Plan for malaria control to elimination and eradication makes ACT an excellent candidate for pharmacovigilance activities. In 2008, The Roll Back Malaria partnership issued guidelines for inclusion of pharmacovigilance in Global Fund and other related proposals. In light of this recommendation and the rapid scale-up of ACT worldwide, an analysis of Global Fund Round 8 proposals and the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) 2009 Malaria Operational Plans was conducted to assess if and how pharmacovigilance has been incorporated into countries' national malaria plans and donor budget requests. Methods The Global Fund - Malaria Round 8 proposals for the 26 countries and the PMI Malaria Operational Plans (MOPs) for fiscal year 2009 for the 15 countries that were approved and received funding from either the Global Fund - Malaria Round 8 or PMI were accessed through the programme websites. The analysis consisted of conducting word counts and key word in context analyses of each proposal and plan. Results Twelve out of 26 (46%) of the Global Fund proposals mentioned that established pharmacovigilance systems were present in their countries. Four of the fifteen PMI MOPs (27%) mentioned that established pharmacovigilance systems were present in their countries. Only seven of the 26 (27%) Global Fund proposals included a request for funding for new or current pharmacovigilance activities. Seven of 15 (47%) MOPs included a request for funding for pharmacovigilance activities. Conclusions There were relatively few requests for funding for pharmacovigilance activities, demonstrating a lack of emphasis placed on pharmacovigilance systems in recipient countries. The

  16. Building an ontology of adverse drug reactions for automated signal generation in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Henegar, Corneliu; Bousquet, Cédric; Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    Automated signal generation in pharmacovigilance implements unsupervised statistical machine learning techniques in order to discover unknown adverse drug reactions (ADR) in spontaneous reporting systems. The impact of the terminology used for coding ADRs has not been addressed previously. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) used worldwide in pharmacovigilance cases does not provide formal definitions of terms. We have built an ontology of ADRs to describe semantics of MedDRA terms. Ontological subsumption and approximate matching inferences allow a better grouping of medically related conditions. Signal generation performances are significantly improved but time consumption related to modelization remains very important. PMID:16185681

  17. Clinical pharmacology: special safety considerations in drug development and pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Atuah, Kwame N; Hughes, Dyfrig; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2004-01-01

    The dose of a drug is a major determinant of its safety, and establishing a safe dose of a novel drug is a prime objective during clinical development. The design of pre-marketing clinical trials precludes the representation of important subpopulations such as children, the elderly and people with co-morbidities. Therefore, postmarketing surveillance (PMS) activities are required to monitor the safety profile of drugs in real clinical practice. Furthermore, individual variations in pharmacogenetic profiles, the immune system, drug metabolic pathways and drug-drug interactions are also important factors in the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Thus, the safety of a drug is a major clinical consideration before and after it is marketed. A multidisciplinary approach is required to enhance the safety profile of drugs at all stages of development, including PMS activities. Clinical pharmacology encompasses a range of disciplines and forms the backbone of drug safety consideration during clinical drug development. In this review we give an overview of the clinical drug development process and consider its limitations. We present a discussion of several aspects of clinical pharmacology and their application to enhancing drug safety. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling provides a method of predicting a clinically safe dose; consideration of drug pharmacokinetics in special populations may enhance safe therapeutics in a wider spectrum of patients, while pharmacogenetics provides the possibility of genotype-specific therapeutics. Pharmacovigilance activities are also discussed. Given the complex nature and unpredictability of type B reactions, PMS activities are crucial in managing the risks drugs pose to the general population. The various aspects of clinical pharmacology discussed make a strong case for this field as the backbone of optimising and promoting safe development and use of drugs. PMID:15154826

  18. Managing the interface with marketing to improve delivery of pharmacovigilance within the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under pressure to improve the scientific quality of its decisions concerning the benefit and risks of its products while ensuring compliance with acceptable standards of marketing. All those in a pharmaceutical company who currently work within pharmacovigilance should be encouraged to lead from the front to examine ongoing marketing activities to see how they can be adapted more towards pharmacovigilance and risk management. The current irony is that the personnel who have the greatest influence on benefit-risk decisions of a product are not necessarily those who acknowledge that they are performing pharmacovigilance. Indeed, for all concerned, whether their orientation is scientific and commercial, effective communication with prescribers and consumers usually underpins product success. Also, a substantial 'marketing' budget is culturally acceptable for the pharmaceutical industry so it is logical to assume that resource for postmarketing activity is often made available. Given these realities, I suggest we should strive for an integrated marketing and risk-management plan based on the best available evidence and that being fully aware and in control of the safety issues for your products is the best way to commercialise them successfully. This approach can still be consistent with other corporate responsibilities such as trying to reduce the financial burden of product development. If this article stimulates further debate about how the pharmaceutical industry can more effectively organise resources and operations to support pharmacovigilance, risk management, and marketing, then it will have achieved its purpose. PMID:15154832

  19. Pharmacovigilance implemented by patients: A necessity in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance should become a well-thought-out reflex for each of us, for any drugs taken on prescription or by self-medication. The issue of pharmacovigilance should naturally take its place in the dialogue between patients and health professionals, through advice given before medication is taken. Patients need to be told the importance of notifying any adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Pharmacovigilance would then become a post-hoc way of protecting patients. The importance of using pharmacovigilance should be promoted by emphasizing the fact that the life of a drug really starts after its marketing. This state of mind could be reinforced by a wider advertising campaign on the possibility of notifying the relevant authorities of any ADRs. Patient associations should encourage and help their members to do this. Notifying any ADRs should become a concern for all medical and paramedical staff: those who prescribe drugs, those who dispense them (pharmacists or pharmacy assistants), those who administer them (nurses), but also the consumers (patients) whose place is becoming more and more prominent. PMID:27080846

  20. Knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among community pharmacists in South India

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, Arul; Nidamanuri, Anitha; Kumar, Senthil

    Pharmacovigilance has not progressed well in India and the concept is still in its infancy. India rates below 1% in pharmacovigilance as against the world rate of 5%. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among registered community pharmacists in Hyderabad, India. Methods This was a prospective study to find out the knowledge, perception and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among community pharmacists. It was conducted by a face to face questionnaire and the convenience factor of the pharmacist was taken into consideration. Results From the 650 questionnaire administered to community pharmacists, 347 (53.3%) were returned completely filled questionnaires. A number of 120 (34.6%) pharmacists could define the term ‘pharmacovigilance’ to an acceptable extent and 119 (34.3%) knew about the National Pharmacovigilance Programme in India. 96 (27.7%) had good knowledge, 36(10.4%) had fair knowledge and 215(61.9%) had poor knowledge about pharmacovigilance. We have found that 196 (56.5%) had good perception, 94(27.1%) had fair perception and 57(16.4%) had poor perception. Only 41(11.8%) pharmacists ever reported an ADR and the other never reported ADR. The majority of pharmacists 223(64.3%) felt that the AE is very simple and non-serious and hence did not report. Pharmacists have poor knowledge, good perception and negligibly low reporting rates. Conclusions Incorporation of ADR reporting concepts in education curriculum, training of pharmacists and voluntary participation of pharmacists in ADR reporting is very crucial in achieving the safety goals and safeguarding public health. PMID:24155840

  1. OpenVigil FDA – Inspection of U.S. American Adverse Drug Events Pharmacovigilance Data and Novel Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Ruwen; von Hehn, Leocadie; Herdegen, Thomas; Klein, Hans-Joachim; Bruhn, Oliver; Petri, Holger; Höcker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance contributes to health care. However, direct access to the underlying data for academic institutions and individual physicians or pharmacists is intricate, and easily employable analysis modes for everyday clinical situations are missing. This underlines the need for a tool to bring pharmacovigilance to the clinics. To address these issues, we have developed OpenVigil FDA, a novel web-based pharmacovigilance analysis tool which uses the openFDA online interface of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to access U.S. American and international pharmacovigilance data from the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). OpenVigil FDA provides disproportionality analyses to (i) identify the drug most likely evoking a new adverse event, (ii) compare two drugs concerning their safety profile, (iii) check arbitrary combinations of two drugs for unknown drug-drug interactions and (iv) enhance the relevance of results by identifying confounding factors and eliminating them using background correction. We present examples for these applications and discuss the promises and limits of pharmacovigilance, openFDA and OpenVigil FDA. OpenVigil FDA is the first public available tool to apply pharmacovigilance findings directly to real-life clinical problems. OpenVigil FDA does not require special licenses or statistical programs. PMID:27326858

  2. OpenVigil FDA - Inspection of U.S. American Adverse Drug Events Pharmacovigilance Data and Novel Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ruwen; von Hehn, Leocadie; Herdegen, Thomas; Klein, Hans-Joachim; Bruhn, Oliver; Petri, Holger; Höcker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance contributes to health care. However, direct access to the underlying data for academic institutions and individual physicians or pharmacists is intricate, and easily employable analysis modes for everyday clinical situations are missing. This underlines the need for a tool to bring pharmacovigilance to the clinics. To address these issues, we have developed OpenVigil FDA, a novel web-based pharmacovigilance analysis tool which uses the openFDA online interface of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to access U.S. American and international pharmacovigilance data from the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). OpenVigil FDA provides disproportionality analyses to (i) identify the drug most likely evoking a new adverse event, (ii) compare two drugs concerning their safety profile, (iii) check arbitrary combinations of two drugs for unknown drug-drug interactions and (iv) enhance the relevance of results by identifying confounding factors and eliminating them using background correction. We present examples for these applications and discuss the promises and limits of pharmacovigilance, openFDA and OpenVigil FDA. OpenVigil FDA is the first public available tool to apply pharmacovigilance findings directly to real-life clinical problems. OpenVigil FDA does not require special licenses or statistical programs. PMID:27326858

  3. Social media and pharmacovigilance: A review of the opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Richard; Osanlou, Orod; Lewis, David; Bollegala, Danushka; Maskell, Simon; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2015-10-01

    Adverse drug reactions come at a considerable cost on society. Social media are a potentially invaluable reservoir of information for pharmacovigilance, yet their true value remains to be fully understood. In order to realize the benefits social media holds, a number of technical, regulatory and ethical challenges remain to be addressed. We outline these key challenges identifying relevant current research and present possible solutions. PMID:26147850

  4. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  5. Paediatric Pharmacovigilance: Use of Pharmacovigilance Data Mining Algorithms for Signal Detection in a Safety Dataset of a Paediatric Clinical Study Conducted in Seven African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kajungu, Dan K.; Erhart, Annette; Talisuna, Ambrose Otau; Bassat, Quique; Karema, Corine; Nabasumba, Carolyn; Nambozi, Michael; Tinto, Halidou; Kremsner, Peter; Meremikwu, Martin; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Speybroeck, Niko

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacovigilance programmes monitor and help ensuring the safe use of medicines which is critical to the success of public health programmes. The commonest method used for discovering previously unknown safety risks is spontaneous notifications. In this study we examine the use of data mining algorithms to identify signals from adverse events reported in a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of several Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in African children. Methods We used paediatric safety data from a multi-site, multi-country clinical study conducted in seven African countries (Burkina Faso, Gabon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Mozambique). Each site compared three out of four ACTs, namely amodiaquine-artesunate (ASAQ), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAPQ), artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or chlorproguanil/dapsone and artesunate (CD+A). We examine two pharmacovigilance signal detection methods, namely proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network on the clinical safety dataset. Results Among the 4,116 children (6–59 months old) enrolled and followed up for 28 days post treatment, a total of 6,238 adverse events were reported resulting into 346 drug-event combinations. Nine signals were generated both by proportional reporting ratio and Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network. A review of the manufacturer package leaflets, an online Multi-Drug Symptom/Interaction Checker (DoubleCheckMD) and further by therapeutic area experts reduced the number of signals to five. The ranking of some drug-adverse reaction pairs on the basis of their signal index differed between the two methods. Conclusions Our two data mining methods were equally able to generate suspected signals using the pooled safety data from a phase IIIb/IV clinical trial. This analysis demonstrated the possibility of utilising clinical studies safety data for key

  6. Awareness among tertiary care doctors about Pharmacovigilance Programme of India: Do endocrinologists differ from others?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Surjit; Dhamija, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with drug use is an important factor in patient safety. Majority of ADRs are preventable through improved prescribing and monitoring. Endocrinologists prescribe drugs with actions on almost all organs and for relatively longer durations. ADR are expected following the use of these drugs. Pharmacovigilance is the study of drug-related adverse effects aimed at protecting patients and public from drug-related harms. The concept of pharmacovigilance is relatively new in India, and this survey is an attempt to explore awareness among doctors of an establishing institution of national importance. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted on faculty and resident doctors by administering a written structured questionnaire in a voluntary manner. The questionnaire contained questions meant to evaluate their awareness, understanding, and misconception about ADR reporting. Identity of the responder was kept confidential. Results: A total of 106 (faculty = 56; residents = 50) participated in survey. The most common cause cited for not reporting an ADR was “do not know how to report” by 64.15%. Majority of them (64%) had no information about the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI), and only few (8.5%) had actually reported or published an ADR. Interpretation and Conclusions: ADRs are major public health problem that needs to be addressed at all levels of health care. High index of clinical suspicion are crucial for their timely detection and management. Various educational interventions have shown to improve medical professionals’ awareness, understanding about ADRs and in their reporting behavior. PvPI is an important initiative toward ensuring patient safety. PMID:27186551

  7. The Patient's Voice in Pharmacovigilance: Pragmatic Approaches to Building a Patient-Centric Drug Safety Organization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Meredith Y; Benattia, Isma

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centeredness has become an acknowledged hallmark of not only high-quality health care but also high-quality drug development. Biopharmaceutical companies are actively seeking to be more patient-centric in drug research and development by involving patients in identifying target disease conditions, participating in the design of, and recruitment for, clinical trials, and disseminating study results. Drug safety departments within the biopharmaceutical industry are at a similar inflection point. Rising rates of per capita prescription drug use underscore the importance of having robust pharmacovigilance systems in place to detect and assess adverse drug reactions (ADRs). At the same time, the practice of pharmacovigilance is being transformed by a host of recent regulatory guidances and related initiatives which emphasize the importance of the patient's perspective in drug safety. Collectively, these initiatives impact the full range of activities that fall within the remit of pharmacovigilance, including ADR reporting, signal detection and evaluation, risk management, medication error assessment, benefit-risk assessment and risk communication. Examples include the fact that manufacturing authorization holders are now expected to monitor all digital sources under their control for potential reports of ADRs, and the emergence of new methods for collecting, analysing and reporting patient-generated ADR reports for signal detection and evaluation purposes. A drug safety department's ability to transition successfully into a more patient-centric organization will depend on three defining attributes: (1) a patient-centered culture; (2) deployment of a framework to guide patient engagement activities; and (3) demonstrated proficiency in patient-centered competencies, including patient engagement, risk communication and patient preference assessment. Whether, and to what extent, drug safety departments embrace the new patient-centric imperative, and the methods and

  8. High dose artesunate in combination with mefloquine: pharmacovigilance in the Venezuelan Amazon.

    PubMed

    Metzger, W G; Magris, M; Vivas-Martínez, S; Giron, A; Brooms, J D; Villalobos, N; Cruz, L; Peña Pimentel, F N; Perez, L; España, R

    2012-03-01

    Forty-six patients in a remote health post of Amazonas, Venezuela, accidentally received artesunate in a dose of 10 mg/kg/day combined with mefloquine. This corresponds to the upper limit of the therapeutic range recommended by the WHO (2-10 mg/kg/day). Side effects were retrospectively investigated and a pharmacovigilance report was written. The main side effects were vomiting and diarrhea. Four patients developed complications with signs of dehydration. It is suggested to re-assess the therapeutic range of artesunate when given in combination with mefloquine and to establish a worldwide centralized antimalarial toxicity reporting system. PMID:22153748

  9. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practices toward pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions in postgraduate students of Tertiary Care Hospital in Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Het B; Vora, Mukeshkumar B; Nagar, Jatin G; Patel, Pruthvish B

    2015-01-01

    Being key health care professional, physicians, pharmacist and nurses have immense responsibility in reporting adverse drug reaction (ADR). Therefore, the study objective was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) toward pharmacovigilance and ADRs of postgraduate students of our institute. A cross-sectional questionnaires based study was carried out in postgraduate students of the clinical department at tertiary care hospital attached with Govt. Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat (India). A total of 22 questionnaires about KAP toward ADRs and pharmacovigilance were developed and peer viewed of all questionnaires by expert faculties from our institute. We were contacted directly to postgraduate students of respective clinical department; questionnaires were distributed and taken back after 30 min. The filled KAP questionnaires were analyzed in question wise and their percentage value was calculated by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Postgraduate residents (n = 101) from different clinical departments were enrolled in the study. Average 34.83% correct and 64.08% incorrect knowledge about ADRs and pharmacovigilance and an average 90.76% students were agreed to reporting ADRs is necessary, mandatory and increased patient's safety. Only 7.92% of postgraduate doctors were reported ADR at institute or ADR reporting center. We concluded that postgraduate students have a better attitude toward reporting ADRs, but have lack of knowledge and poor practices of ADRs. The majority of postgraduate students were felt ADR reporting and monitoring is very important, but few had ever reported ADRs because of lack of sensitization and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADR. PMID:25709967

  11. Illustrated French Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Serge M.

    Designed to promote an awareness of the everyday French language, this supplementary textbook was developed to enable students of French to use idiomatic expressions from the early learning stages to the more advanced levels. The units are arranged as follows according to the verb component of the expression: "avoir,""etre,""faire," the three…

  12. FRENCH THROUGH TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AN EARLY MORNING TELEVISION COURSE IN ELEMENTARY FRENCH IS DESCRIBED. THE COURSE IS CONDUCTED PRIMARILY IN FRENCH AND BUILDS FROM ZERO KNOWLEDGE, TEACHING A SMALL HIGH-UTILITY VOCABULARY. INTAKE OF VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURE IS GENTLY GRADED IN SENTENCES MADE UNDERSTANDABLE BY MEANS OF PICTURE-SITUATIONS. EACH LESSON CONSISTS OF THE FILM LESSON OF…

  13. French in Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the usage of French in Gabon. As in other nations of francophone Africa, French is the language of upward social mobility in Gabon, and it offers access to the international community. However, one factor peculiar to Gabon is the virtual absence of a Gabonese national language, which promotes a greater dependency upon a mastery of the…

  14. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  15. French Language Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This guide presents the philosophy, goals, and objectives, as well as the scope and sequence of French instruction at four levels for the public schools of Hawaii. The emphasis is on cultural awareness and communicative competence in French. The goals, objectives, and performance expectations are presented as guides from which teachers can derive…

  16. Advancing pharmacovigilance through academic–legal collaboration: the case of gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis—a research on adverse drug events and reports (RADAR) report

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, B J; Laumann, A E; Nardone, B; Miller, F H; Restaino, J; Raisch, D W; McKoy, J M; Hammel, J A; Bhatt, K; Bauer, K; Samaras, A T; Fisher, M J; Bull, C; Saddleton, E; Belknap, S M; Thomsen, H S; Kanal, E; Cowper, S E; Abu Alfa, A K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast three databases, that is, The International Centre for Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Registry (ICNSFR), the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and a legal data set, through pharmacovigilance and to evaluate international nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) safety efforts. Methods: The Research on Adverse Drug events And Reports methodology was used for assessment—the FAERS (through June 2009), ICNSFR and the legal data set (January 2002 to December 2010). Safety information was obtained from the European Medicines Agency, the Danish Medicine Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. Results: The FAERS encompassed the largest number (n = 1395) of NSF reports. The ICNSFR contained the most complete (n = 335, 100%) histopathological data. A total of 382 individual biopsy-proven, product-specific NSF cases were analysed from the legal data set. 76.2% (291/382) identified exposure to gadodiamide, of which 67.7% (197/291) were unconfounded. Additionally, 40.1% (153/382) of cases involved gadopentetate dimeglumine, of which 48.4% (74/153) were unconfounded, while gadoversetamide was identified in 7.3% (28/382) of which 28.6% (8/28) were unconfounded. Some cases involved gadobenate dimeglumine or gadoteridol, 5.8% (22/382), all of which were confounded. The mean number of exposures to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) was gadodiamide (3), gadopentetate dimeglumine (5) and gadoversetamide (2). Of the 279 unconfounded cases, all involved a linear-structured GBCA. 205 (73.5%) were a non-ionic GBCA while 74 (26.5%) were an ionic GBCA. Conclusion: Clinical and legal databases exhibit unique characteristics that prove complementary in safety evaluations. Use of the legal data set allowed the identification of the most commonly implicated GBCA. Advances in knowledge: This article is the first to demonstrate explicitly the utility of a legal data set to pharmacovigilance research. PMID:25230161

  17. Linking NHS data for pediatric pharmacovigilance: Results of a Delphi survey

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Y.M.; Francis, J.; Helms, P.J.; Haughney, J.; Bond, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse drug events are a major cause of patient safety incidents. Current systems of pharmacovigilance under-report adverse drug reactions (ADRs), especially in children, leading to delays in their identification. This is of particular concern, as children especially have an increased vulnerability to ADRs. Objectives The objective was to seek consensus among healthcare professionals (HCPs) about barriers and facilitators to the linkage of routinely collected health data for pediatric pharmacovigilance in Scotland. Methods A Delphi survey was conducted with a random sample of HCPs including nurses, pharmacists and doctors, working in primary or secondary care, in Scotland. Participants were identified from sampling frames of the target professionals such as an NHS workforce list for general practitioners and recruited by postal invitation. A total of 819 HCPs were invited to take part. Those agreeing to participate were given the option of completing the questionnaires online or as hard copy. Reminders were sent twice at a fortnightly interval. Questions content included description of professional role as well as testing for the willingness to support the proposed project and was informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework of Behavior Change (TDF) and earlier qualitative work. Three Delphi rounds were administered, including a first round for item generation. Results 121 of those invited agreed to take part (15%). The first round of the Delphi study included 21 open questions and generated over a 1000 individual statements from 61 participants that returned the questionnaires (50.4%). These were rationalized to 149 items for the second round in which participants rated their views on the importance (or not) of each item on a 9-point Likert scale (strongly disagree – strongly agree). After the third round, there was consensus on items that focused on professional standards, and practical requirements, overall there was support for data linkage and a

  18. A questionnaire study on the knowledge, attitude, and the practice of pharmacovigilance among the healthcare professionals in a teaching hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion

  19. Change in French Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Raymond E.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of attitudes toward education reflects the change from elitism to egalitarianism and points up the problem of redoublement or grade repetition. The French government is taking action in response to these phenomena. (JH)

  20. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  1. Regulating medicines in Europe: the European Medicines Agency, marketing authorisation, transparency and pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Permanand, Govin; Mossialos, Elias; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Following a review process lasting almost four years, and culminating in several pieces of new European legislation, adjustments have been made to the European Union's (EU) regulatory framework for pharmaceuticals. The European Commission laid out its priorities for the review as: simplifying the authorisation system, ensuring a high quality of public health, completing the internal market in medicines, and preparing for the enlargement of the Union. Amongst the most important changes brought about by the new rules are those relating to the European drug approval procedures, the functions and operational transparency of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA), and the EU's pharmacovigilance system. This article provides a brief examination of key elements of these changes, and considers the extent to which they serve the goal of improved public health protection within the EU. PMID:16521363

  2. [Evaluation of the website of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center].

    PubMed

    Rochoy, Michaël; Béné, Johana; Messaadi, Nassir; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    We posted the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center website and distributed a survey to its potential users between August 2014 and October 2014 (135 general practitioners, 45 pharmacists, 14 patients). Satisfaction was 7.3±1.6 out of 10 points for the visual aspect, 7.8±1.5 out of 10 points for navigation and 7.6±1.4 out of 10 points for content. The website was declared useful by 98% respondents, particularly for the reporting of adverse drugs reactions (89%). PMID:27235657

  3. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  4. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  5. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  6. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  7. Pattern and quality of scientific communications on drug safety produced by a regional pharmacovigilance center in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Palaian, Subish; Ibrahim, Mohamed I. M.; Mishra, Pranaya

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the pattern and quality of scientific communications on pharmacovigilance can help the regional centers in Nepal and other developing countries to develop approaches for communicating effectively medicine safety issues. This kind of research is lacking in developing countries. Objectives: To analyze the pattern and quality of scientific communications on drug safety produced by the regional pharmacovigilance center at western Nepal. Methodology: Various conference abstracts and journal publications produced by the center during its initial four years of establishment (14th September 2004 till 13th September 2008) were identified. These communications were categorized in to case reports, review articles, conference presentations, short communications, newsletter and bulletin articles, original research and case series. In addition, the quality of the case reports were evaluated as per International Society of Pharmacovigilance/International Society of Pharmacoepidemiology (ISoP/ISPE) guidelines on the requirements for submitting case reports on adverse event reports in biomedical journals. Results: During the study period, 53 scientific communications were produced by the staff of the regional pharmacovigilance center in relation with drug safety. Among these, 18 (34%) were related to case reports and letters. The median (interquartile range) age of the patients described in the case reports was 46.5 (21.7-51.2) years. Among the total 18 ADRs, four were fixed drug eruptions, followed by contact dermatitis (n=2). Majority of the published case reports were related to skin (n=13; 72.2%). Antimicrobials were responsible for 27.8% (n=5) of the case reports. Among the 18 case reports published by the pharmacovigilance center, a majority followed the ISoP/ISPE guidelines. Few parameters like physical examination of the patient experiencing ADR, patient disposition, dosage and administration of the suspected drugs, and drug-reaction interface were missing in few

  8. Actualites Francaises (French Current Events)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Monique

    1976-01-01

    Describes a French course offered at the Irish branch of the Alliance Francaise designed for advanced students wishing to expand their knowledge of the language of specialized areas. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  9. Social Studies in French Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Lee, William B.

    1978-01-01

    Examines current educational goals, curricula, and methodology of French social studies education. Investigates influences of the student riots of 1968, and considers what effect these reforms will have on the future of French education. (Author/JK)

  10. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: A challenge for pharmacovigilance in India

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal R.; Mahajan, Vivek; Khajuria, Vijay; Gillani, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the extent and factors responsible for underreporting (UR) of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational, cross-sectional prospective questionnaire-based analysis was undertaken to evaluate the extent and factors for UR of ADRs in pharmacovigilance. Results: At the time, this report was prepared, 90 ADR Monitoring Centers (AMC) were operational in India. Indian AMC functional rate was 56.45%. The average number of Individual Case Safety Reports reported by our center via VigiFlow per month was 48.038. In a period of the 3 years the total number of ADRs reported was 3024. The average number of reports per month was 80.08. Active surveillance versus spontaneous reporting contributed 66.13% versus 33.86% of the total ADRs (P < 0.0001). Outpatient Department (OPD) contribution was 76.05% and indoor contribution was 23.94% of total reports (P < 0.0001). Department of Medicine (33%), followed by oncology (19.27%) and chest disease (13.49%) contributed maximally. The contribution of Pharmacology ADR monitoring OPD was 16.20%. Eye, ear, nose and throat and surgery, private Medical Colleges, hospitals in periphery, sub-district and district contributed no ADRs. ADR detection rates by clinical presentation, biochemical investigation and diagnostic tools were 84.33%, 14.57%, and 1.09% respectively (P < 0.0001). Reporting by postgraduate, registrars, consultants and nurses were 72.65%, 6.58%, 16.56% and 4.19% respectively (P < 0.0001). PG students in Pharmacology contributed an average number of 5.61 ADR reports/month. The lack of knowledge and awareness about Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI), lethargy, indifference, insecurity, complacency, workload, lack of training were the common factors responsible for UR. Major academic activity, exams, thesis and synopsis submission time influenced reporting of ADRs by postgraduate students. Conclusion: UR is a matter of concern PvPI. Multiple

  11. Adverse drug reaction monitoring: support for pharmacovigilance at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are recognised as a common cause of hospital admissions, and they constitute a significant economic burden for hospitals. Hospital-based ADR monitoring and reporting programmes aim to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs provided in a hospital setting. This information may be useful for identifying and minimising preventable ADRs and may enhance the ability of prescribers to manage ADRs more effectively. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate ADRs that occurred during inpatient stays at the Hospital Geral de Palmas (HGP) in Tocantins, Brazil, and to facilitate the development of a pharmacovigilance service. Methods A prospective study was conducted at HGP over a period of 8 months, from January 2009 to August 2009. This observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study was based on an analysis of medical records. Several parameters were utilised in the data evaluation, including patient demographics, drug and reaction characteristics, and reaction outcomes. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results The overall incidence of ADRs in the patient population was 3.1%, and gender was not found to be a risk factor. The highest ADR rate (75.8%) was found in the adult age group 15 to 50 years, and the lowest ADR rate was found in children aged 3 to 13 years (7.4%). Because of the high frequency of ADRs in orthopaedic (25%), general medicine (22%), and oncology (16%) patients, improved control of the drugs used in these specialties is required. Additionally, the nurse team (52.7%) registered the most ADRs in medical records, most likely due to the job responsibilities of nurses. As expected, the most noticeable ADRs occurred in skin tissues, with such ADRs are more obvious to medical staff, with rashes being the most common reactions. Metamizole, tramadol, and vancomycin were responsible for 21, 11.6, and 8.4% of ADRs, respectively. The majority of ADRs had

  12. Old French for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Barbara Nelson

    A list of six main benefits of the study of Old French at the undergraduate level follows a discussion of the value, function, and goals of such a program. The advantages discussed result in: (1) a first-hand acquaintance with medieval masterpieces, (2) a sense of continuity in the history of literature, (3) improved techniques in critical…

  13. Technoscientific French for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    A two-semester sequence of courses in French and Spanish for science and technology at Eastern Michigan University responds to alumni demands for better linguistic and cultural preparation for increasingly global business and industry. In addition, high schools teacher enrolled in the courses find they answer a need for professional upgrading of…

  14. French Theory's American Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  15. Programmed French: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Lucien

    An experiment in programed language instruction based on the "Basic French" method of T. Mueller and H. Niedzielski is reviewed in this paper. Seventy-two civil servants participated in the program which provided for 60 hours of taped instruction. Experiment description, objectives, modifications, and a review of the structuring of lessons 1-20…

  16. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  17. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  18. French Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, DeAnne; Serriere, Connie

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of French instruction in grades 7-12 indicating instructional goals in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of the foreign language behavioral objectives in the guide, the manual presents a section on French…

  19. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire paradigm.…

  20. Pharmacovigilance Knowledge among Patients at a Teaching Hospital in Lalitpur District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Nisha; Rathore, Devendra S; Shankar, P Ravi; Gyawali, Sudesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumer’s knowledge and perception towards adverse drug reactions (ADR) can play an important role in ensuring a healthy lifestyle and proper use of medicines. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perception towards pharma covigilance in general and consumer pharmacovigilance in particular among out patients in a teaching hospital of Nepal. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative and quantitative methods was carried out from 1st May to 3 June 2013. Methods: Every fifth patient visiting the outpatient pharmacy was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Gender, age, educational qualification, profession and ethnicity were noted. Twenty-three patients were interviewed. Results: There were 10 males and 13 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 11 to 50 years with a mean age of 27.8 (SD = 5.61) years. Seven (30.43%) respondents were students studying in different levels. Thirteen (56.52%) participants were from the Newar community. Majority of the patients (86.95%) knew ADRs may be caused by the medicines they consume and 18 (78.26%) were of the opinion that ADRs should be reported to doctors and other health care professionals including pharmacists. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception were low in certain areas. There is a need for educational interventions for improving the awareness of patients and general public for ensuring medicine safety and promoting rational use of medicines. PMID:24783073

  1. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and the need for targeted pharmacovigilance in India.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, M; Singh, Abhishank; Kalaiselvan, V

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of innovative mAb therapeutics are on the global market, and biosimilar versions have now also been approved, including in India. Although efficacy and safety is demonstrated prior to approval, targeted pharmacovigilance is essential for the identification and assessment of risk for any mAb products. We analyzed the ADR data related to mAbs reported to the NCC-PvPI through the spontaneous reporting system Vigiflow during April 2011 to February 2014 to identify mAbs with the highest number of ADR including fatal/serious ADR. Only 0.72% reports were related to mAbs. Although 15 mAbs are approved in the country, only 6 mAbs were reported through Vigiflow. Rituximab was highly reported, and no fatal/serious ADR related to any mAbs were reported during the study period. Our study shows that PvPI is effective and robust system in the detection and assessment of risks associated with the use of mAbs. PMID:25523367

  2. Increasing scientific standards, independence and transparency in post-authorisation studies: the role of the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kevin V; Devries, Corinne S; Arlett, Peter; Kurz, Xavier; Fitt, Henry

    2012-07-01

    PURPOSE: The European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance (ENCePP), an initiative coordinated by the European Medicines Agency, aims to build capacity for and increase trust in post-authorisation studies to further support medicine decision making. METHODS: ENCePP seeks to promote and support high standards throughout the post-authorisation research process based on robust methodologies, transparency and scientific independence. RESULTS: ENCePP provides a point of access to researchers for industry, academia and regulatory authorities seeking collaboration for the conduct of post-authorisation studies. As of 30 November 2011, the network consisted of 98 research centres, 13 networks and 18 data sources, mostly academic and publicly funded institutions but also data source providers and contract research organisations with expertise in the conduct of post-authorisation studies. All are listed in the free, public and fully searchable electronic Database of Research Resources. A guide and a checklist on methodological standards have been published; the concept of an 'ENCePP study', including a Code of Conduct, introduced; and an electronic register of studies have been launched. CONCLUSION: It is envisaged that application of the ENCePP study concept will result in an increase in trust in post-authorisation studies of medicines. The register of studies will allow for ready access to study protocols and results, thereby enhancing transparency and facilitating review. Through the network, standards, transparency and clarity of relationships, ENCePP is expected to add to the European Union capacity to conduct robust post-authorisation studies, thereby benefiting public health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22522622

  3. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  4. The Role of Systematic Reviews in Pharmacovigilance Planning and Clinical Trials Authorisation Application: Example from the SLEEPS Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Carrol; Wolf, Andrew; Sinha, Ian; Spowart, Catherine; Williamson, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate sedation is crucial to the management of children requiring assisted ventilation on Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). The evidence-base of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area is small and a trial was planned to compare midazolam and clonidine, two sedatives widely used within PICUs neither of which being licensed for that use. The application to obtain a Clinical Trials Authorisation from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) required a dossier summarising the safety profiles of each drug and the pharmacovigilance plan for the trial needed to be determined by this information. A systematic review was undertaken to identify reports relating to the safety of each drug. Methodology/Principal Findings The Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) were obtained for each sedative. The MHRA were requested to provide reports relating to the use of each drug as a sedative in children under the age of 16. Medline was searched to identify RCTs, controlled clinical trials, observational studies, case reports and series. 288 abstracts were identified for midazolam and 16 for clonidine with full texts obtained for 80 and 6 articles respectively. Thirty-three studies provided data for midazolam and two for clonidine. The majority of data has come from observational studies and case reports. The MHRA provided details of 10 and 3 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions. Conclusions/Significance No adverse reactions were identified in addition to those specified within the SmPC for the licensed use of the drugs. Based on this information and the wide spread use of both sedatives in routine practice the pharmacovigilance plan was restricted to adverse reactions. The Clinical Trials Authorisation was granted based on the data presented in the SmPC and the pharmacovigilance plan within the clinical trial protocol restricting collection and reporting to adverse reactions. PMID:23554852

  5. Improving Detection of Arrhythmia Drug-Drug Interactions in Pharmacovigilance Data through the Implementation of Similarity-Based Modeling.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Santiago; Lorberbaum, Tal; Hripcsak, George; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Identification of Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) is a significant challenge during drug development and clinical practice. DDIs are responsible for many adverse drug effects (ADEs), decreasing patient quality of life and causing higher care expenses. DDIs are not systematically evaluated in pre-clinical or clinical trials and so the FDA U. S. Food and Drug Administration relies on post-marketing surveillance to monitor patient safety. However, existing pharmacovigilance algorithms show poor performance for detecting DDIs exhibiting prohibitively high false positive rates. Alternatively, methods based on chemical structure and pharmacological similarity have shown promise in adverse drug event detection. We hypothesize that the use of chemical biology data in a post hoc analysis of pharmacovigilance results will significantly improve the detection of dangerous interactions. Our model integrates a reference standard of DDIs known to cause arrhythmias with drug similarity data. To compare similarity between drugs we used chemical structure (both 2D and 3D molecular structure), adverse drug side effects, chemogenomic targets, drug indication classes, and known drug-drug interactions. We evaluated the method on external reference standards. Our results showed an enhancement of sensitivity, specificity and precision in different top positions with the use of similarity measures to rank the candidates extracted from pharmacovigilance data. For the top 100 DDI candidates, similarity-based modeling yielded close to twofold precision enhancement compared to the proportional reporting ratio (PRR). Moreover, the method helps in the DDI decision making through the identification of the DDI in the reference standard that generated the candidate. PMID:26068584

  6. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  7. Reporting of adverse events for marketed drugs: Need for strengthening safety database

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Aditi Anand

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is an evolving discipline in the Indian context. However, there is limited regulatory guidance for adverse event reporting outside the purview of clinical trials. There are number of deficiencies in the framework for adverse event reporting from the perspective of pharma industry, health-care professional and general public due to which adverse events for marketed drugs are highly underreported. This article discusses the need to strengthen national safety database by promoting and mandating reporting of adverse events by all the stakeholders. PMID:27453826

  8. Reporting of adverse events for marketed drugs: Need for strengthening safety database.

    PubMed

    Apte, Aditi Anand

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is an evolving discipline in the Indian context. However, there is limited regulatory guidance for adverse event reporting outside the purview of clinical trials. There are number of deficiencies in the framework for adverse event reporting from the perspective of pharma industry, health-care professional and general public due to which adverse events for marketed drugs are highly underreported. This article discusses the need to strengthen national safety database by promoting and mandating reporting of adverse events by all the stakeholders. PMID:27453826

  9. Electronic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of bibliographic, full-text, and numeric databases. Also discusses how to access these databases online, aids to online retrieval, and several issues and trends (including copyright and downloading, transborder data flow, use of optical disc/videodisc technology, and changing roles in database generation and processing). (JN)

  10. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  11. Pharmacovigilance study of Ayurvedic medicine in Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital: A prospective survey study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanal, Manjunath N.; Nayak, Shradda U.; Kadam, Avinash P.; Prasad, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Though Ayurveda is practiced in the Indian subcontinent since centuries, there is a paucity of systematic documentation related to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other issues regarding the safety of Ayurveda medicines. Aim: To monitor and analyze the pattern and frequency of ADR to Ayurvedic medicines in an Ayurvedic hospital setup. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, ADR monitoring was done in KLE Ayurveda Secondary Care Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India by spontaneous and intensive monitoring technique for a span of 1-year (June 2010 to May 2011). Data pertaining to patient demography, drug and reaction characteristics, organ system involved and reaction outcomes were collected and evaluated. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results: In a span of one year, 84 adverse drug events were reported out of which 52 confirmed as ADR. The overall incidence of ADR in the patient population was 1.14%, out of which 23 (44.23%) were related to Panchakarma (detoxification process), 13 (25.00%) related to the herbal formulations and 06 (11.53%) were of Rasa Aushadhi (mineral or herbo-mineral formulations). The commonly affected organ systems were gastrointestinal system 24 (46.15%) and skin 15 (28.84%). The majority of the reactions were moderate 30 (57.69%) to mild 20 (38.46%) in severity. Most patients recovered from the incidence. Conclusion: The present work has documented the incidence and characteristic of ADR to Ayurvedic medicine in a typical Ayurveda hospital setup. This will help in developing various strategies for boosting pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda, thereby ensuring safer use of Ayurveda medicines. PMID:27011712

  12. Correlation versus Causation? Pharmacovigilance of the Analgesic Flupirtine Exemplifies the Need for Refined Spontaneous ADR Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nora; Borlak, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Annually, adverse drug reactions result in more than 2,000,000 hospitalizations and rank among the top 10 causes of death in the United States. Consequently, there is a need to continuously monitor and to improve the safety assessment of marketed drugs. Nonetheless, pharmacovigilance practice frequently lacks causality assessment. Here, we report the case of flupirtine, a centrally acting non-opioid analgesic. We re-evaluated the plausibility and causality of 226 unselected, spontaneously reported hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions according to the adapted Bradford-Hill criteria, CIOMS score and WHO-UMC scales. Thorough re-evaluation showed that only about 20% of the reported cases were probable or likely for flupirtine treatment, suggesting an incidence of flupirtine-related liver injury of 1∶ 100,000 when estimated prescription data are considered, or 0.8 in 10,000 on the basis of all 226 reported adverse drug reactions. Neither daily or cumulative dose nor duration of treatment correlated with markers of liver injury. In the majority of cases (151/226), an average of 3 co-medications with drugs known for their liver liability was observed that may well be causative for adverse drug reactions, but were reported under a suspected flupirtine ADR. Our study highlights the need to improve the quality and standards of ADR reporting. This should be done with utmost care taking into account contributing factors such as concomitant medications including over-the-counter drugs, the medical history and current health conditions, in order to avoid unjustified flagging and drug warnings that may erroneously cause uncertainty among healthcare professionals and patients, and may eventually lead to unjustified safety signals of useful drugs with a reasonable risk to benefit ratio. PMID:22022383

  13. Pharmacovigilance program to monitor adverse reactions of recombinant streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Blas Y; Marrero-Miragaya, María A; Jiménez-López, Giset; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; García-Iglesias, Elizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Debesa-García, Francisco; González-López, Tania; Alvarez-Falcón, Leovaldo; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2005-01-01

    Background Streptokinase (SK) is an effective fibrinolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of the present study was to assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with intravenous recombinant SK in patients with AMI in routine clinical practice. Methods A national, prospective and spontaneous reporting-based pharmacovigilance program was conducted in Cuba. Patient demographics, suspected ADR description, elements to define causality, and outcomes were documented and analyzed. Results A total of 1496 suspected ADRs identified in 792 patients out of the 1660 (47.7 %) prescriptions reported in the program, were received from July 1995 to July 2002. Most of the patients (71.3%) were male, 67.2% were white and mean age was 61.6 ± 13.0 years. The mean time interval between the onset of symptoms and the start of the SK infusion was 4.9 ± 3.7 h. The most frequently reported ADRs were hypotension, arrhythmias, chills, tremors, vomiting, nauseas, allergy, bleeding and fever. ADR severity was 38% mild, 38% moderate, 10% severe, and 4% very severe. Only 3 patients with hemorrhagic stroke were reported. Seventy-two patients died in-hospital mainly because of cardiac causes associated with the patient's underlying clinical condition. Mortality was 3 times more likely in patients suffering arrhythmias than in those without this event (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.1). Most of the reported ADRs were classified as possibly or probably associated with the study medication. Conclusion Recombinant SK was associated with a similar post-marketing safety profile to those suggested in previous clinical trials. PMID:16262910

  14. Pharmacovigilance in hospice/palliative care: net effect of gabapentin for neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Christine; Quinn, Stephen J; Agar, Meera; Chye, Richard; Clark, Katherine; Doogue, Matthew; Fazekas, Belinda; Lee, Jessica; Lovell, Melanie R; Rowett, Debra; Spruyt, Odette; Currow, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hospice/palliative care patients may differ from better studied populations, and data from other populations cannot necessarily be extrapolated into hospice/palliative care clinical practice. Pharmacovigilance studies provide opportunities to understand the harms and benefits of medications in routine practice. Gabapentin, a γ-amino butyric acid analogue antiepileptic drug, is commonly prescribed for neuropathic pain in hospice/palliative care. Most of the evidence however relates to non-malignant, chronic pain syndromes (diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, central pain syndromes, fibromyalgia). The aim of this study was to quantify the immediate and short-term clinical benefits and harms of gabapentin in routine hospice/palliative care practice. Design Multisite, prospective, consecutive cohort. Population 127 patients, 114 of whom had cancer, who started gabapentin for neuropathic pain as part of routine clinical care. Settings 42 centres from seven countries. Data were collected at three time points—at baseline, at day 7 (and at any time; immediate and short-term harms) and at day 21 (clinical benefits). Results At day 21, the average dose of gabapentin for those still using it (n=68) was 653 mg/24 h (range 0–1800 mg) and 54 (42%) reported benefits, of whom 7 (6%) experienced complete pain resolution. Harms were reported in 39/127 (30%) patients at day 7, the most frequent of which were cognitive disturbance, somnolence, nausea and dizziness. Ten patients had their medication ceased due to harms. The presence of significant comorbidities, higher dose and increasing age increased the likelihood of harm. Conclusions Overall, 42% of people experienced benefit at a level that resulted in continued use at 21 days. PMID:25324335

  15. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  16. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically "valid" is…

  17. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  18. A Survey on the Knowledge, Attitude and the Practice of Pharmacovigilance Among the Health Care Professionals in a Teaching Hospital in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Hardeep; Bajaj, Jagminder Kaur; Rakesh, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pharmacovigilance awareness among the healthcare professionals in a teaching hospital in Northern India. Material and Methods: A questionnaire which was suitable for assessing the basic Knowledge, Attitude and the Practice (KAP) of pharmacovigilance was designed and distributed among 100 doctors of the Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Hospital, Jalandhar, Punjab, India. Results: Among the 100 doctors, 61 responded. The data was analyzed by using the SPSS statistical software. Although 77% of the subjects knew the term ‘pharmacovigilance’, only 59% were aware of the existence of the National Pharmacovigilance Program. 23% volunteered to reports Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), but more than 60% doctors did not know how and where to report the ADRs. Conclusion: There is a need for a regular training and the reenforcement for the ADR reporting among the health care personnel. The perception of the reporting process being tedious, the lack of time, a poor knowledge on the reporting mechanism and inadequate expertise seemed to be the main reasons for not reporting the ADRs. A majority of the respondents suggested regular training sessions on a priority basis for the success of the pharmacovigilance program and for the better clinical management of the patients in general. PMID:23449824

  19. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary. PMID:12281137

  20. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  1. Culture Curriculum: French, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ruth Wellman

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction at level 2 integrates materials derived from several sources. The guide is based on: (1) suggestions from "French for Secondary Schools," New York State Education Department; (2) general information concerning the geography, products, industries, regions, cities of France, the French Union, and the city…

  2. Teaching the French Popular Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Irwin M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the French Popular Front of 1936 as a vehicle to investigate the turbulent decade of the 1930s. Reviews current historiography and discusses various facets of Leon Blum's government, examining the interrelationship of major economic and political forces. Concludes that the French Left still faces Blum's dilemma of implementing socialism…

  3. A Successful French Weekend Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughin, Judith A.

    A weekend immersion French language camp was organized by Raymond Walters College of the University of Cincinnati with the cooperation of a group of interested high school French teachers. The extensive planning and the activities of the weekend are described in detail. The most important aspects of the planning process are noted. These were (1)…

  4. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  5. Statistical databases

    SciTech Connect

    Kogalovskii, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.

  6. Pharmacovigilance in India, Uganda and South Africa with reference to WHO’s minimum requirements

    PubMed Central

    Maigetter, Karen; Pollock, Allyson M.; Kadam, Abhay; Ward, Kim; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacovigilance (PV) data are crucial for ensuring safety and effectiveness of medicines after drugs have been granted marketing approval. This paper describes the PV systems of India, Uganda and South Africa based on literature and Key Informant (KI) interviews and compares them with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) minimum PV requirements for a Functional National PV System. Methods: A documentary analysis of academic literature and policy reports was undertaken to assess the medicines regulatory systems and policies in the three countries. A gap analysis from the document review indicated a need for further research in PV. KI interviews covered topics on PV: structure and practices of the system; current regulatory policy; capacity limitations, staffing, funding and training; availability and reporting of data; and awareness and usage of the systems. Twenty interviews were conducted in India, 8 in Uganda and 11 in South Africa with government officials from the ministries of health, national regulatory authorities, pharmaceutical producers, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), members of professional associations and academia. The findings from the literature and KI interviews were compared with WHO’s minimum requirements. Results: All three countries were confronted with similar barriers: lack of sufficient funding, limited number of trained staff, inadequate training programs, unclear roles and poor coordination of activities. Although KI interviews represented viewpoints of the respondents, the findings confirmed the documentary analysis of the literature. Although South Africa has a legal requirement for PV, we found that the three countries uniformly lacked adequate capacity to monitor medicines and evaluate risks according to the minimum standards of the WHO. Conclusion: A strong PV system is an important part of the overall medicine regulatory system and reflects on the stringency and competence of the regulatory bodies in

  7. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  8. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  9. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  10. Nurses in municipal care of the elderly act as pharmacovigilant intermediaries: a qualitative study of medication management

    PubMed Central

    Johansson-Pajala, Rose-Marie; Jorsäter Blomgren, Kerstin; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Fastbom, Johan; Martin, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore registered nurses’ experience of medication management in municipal care of the elderly in Sweden, with a focus on their pharmacovigilant activities. Design A qualitative approach using focus-group discussions was chosen in order to provide in-depth information. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Setting Five focus groups in five different long-term care settings in two regions in Sweden. Subject A total of 21 registered nurses (RNs), four men and 17 women, aged 27–65 years, with 4–34 years of nursing experience. Results The findings reveal that RNs in municipal long-term care settings can be regarded as “vigilant intermediaries” in the patients’ drug treatments. They continuously control the work of staff and physicians and mediate between them, and also compensate for existing shortcomings, both organizational and in the work of health care professionals. RNs depend on other health care professionals to be able to monitor drug treatments and ensure medication safety. They assume expanded responsibilities, sometimes exceeding their formal competence, and try to cover for deficiencies in competence, experience, accessibility, and responsibility-taking. Conclusion The RNs play a central but also complex role as “vigilant intermediaries” in the medication monitoring process, including the issue of responsibility. Improving RNs’ possibility to monitor their patients’ drug treatments would enable them to prevent adverse drug events in their daily practice. New strategies are justified to facilitate RNs’ pharmacovigilant activities. Key pointsThis study contributes to the understanding of registered nurses’ (RNs’) role in medication management in municipal care of the elderly (i.e. detecting, assessing, and preventing adverse drug events or any drug-related problems). RNs can be considered to be “vigilant intermediaries” in elderly patients’ drug treatments, working at a distance from staff

  11. Science and the French Empire.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Michael A

    2005-03-01

    Scholarly interest in French colonial science, interpreted to include colonial medical and scientific institutions as well as personages and other "actors" in France serving colonial agendas, has been robust for some two decades. This essay characterizes the complex and interlinked historical relationships between French metropolitan and colonial science as one of asymmetric coevolution. In analyzing scholarship on diverse topics from physics and military technology to colonial botany, medicine, geography, and racial theory, it interrogates the concepts of French nation and French empire and questions the historiographical and explanatory utility of the core-periphery model. Special scrutiny falls on a trope common to historigraphical studies of the postrevolutionary era, that of a firm French nationalism enabling largely rational colonial agendas and the promotion of these agendas by highly centralized Parisian bureaucracies. The essay calls for a reading of French history inclusive of regional colonialist activities and argues for the prevalence of municipal and regional maritime, technological, scientific, and military interests in constructing the modern French empire. PMID:16114803

  12. Questions about complementary and alternative medicine to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of clinically relevant information about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to health care professionals is not well described. The aim of the study was to assess questions about CAM to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS). Methods All question-answers pairs (QAPs) in the RELIS database indexed with alternative medicine from 2005-2010 constituted the study material. A randomly selected sample of 100 QAPs was characterized with regard to type of question (category, patient-specific or general), occupation and workplace of enquirer, the type of information search performed (simple or advanced), and if the answers contained information to provide factual or consultative replies (facts about or advice on clinical use of CAM, respectively). Proportions were compared with Fisher’s exact test with significance at the 0.05 level. Results One thousand and thirty-eight (7.7%) out of 13 482 questions involved CAM. Eighty-two out of 100 questions concerned products containing one or more herbs, vitamins and minerals as well as other substances. Thirty-eight out of 100 questions concerned the category documentation (substance identification and/or literature reports about clinical effects), 36 interactions, 16 adverse effects, 9 pregnancy and lactation, and 1 question concerned contraindications. Sixty-three questions were patient-specific and 37 general. Fifty-four questions came from physicians, 33 from pharmacists and 13 from others (including nurses, midwives, students, CAM practitioners, and the public). Pharmacists asked more frequently about interactions while physicians asked more frequently about adverse effects (p < 0.05). Seventy-six of the questions came from outside hospital, mainly general practice and community pharmacies. Fifty-nine answers were based on a simple and 41 on an advanced information search. Thirty-three factual and 38 consultative answers were provided. In 29 answers

  13. Not French manicure but onycholysis.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Stanciu, Roxana; Brzezinski, Piotr; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-09-01

    French manicure, a simple and elegant manicure style, caught the public's attention by the 19th century in French nail salons. Now this style has spread all over the world and is the first choice of 80% of women in the USA and Europe. It consists of a natural, pink, beige, or nude base tipped with pure white at the distal end.Onycholysis is a disease of the nails characterized by separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, with variable causes. We present 2 cases of onycholysis that resemble the beautiful and elegant French manicure. PMID:25244179

  14. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  15. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  16. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  17. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  18. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  19. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  20. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  1. The importance of Pharmacovigilance for the drug safety: Focus on cardiovascular profile of incretin-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Sportiello, Liberata; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    With the recent introduction of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation, all new drugs must be carefully monitored after admission on the European market, in order to assess the long safety profile. Currently, special attention is given to several hypoglycemic agents with recent market approval (agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors [DPP-4i]), which act through the potentiation of incretin hormone signaling. Their inclusion in European additional monitoring is also due to safety problems, which seem to characterize their pharmacological class. In fact, these drugs initially showed a good tolerability profile with mainly gastrointestinal adverse events, low risk of hypoglycemia and minor effects on body weight. But, new concerns such as infections, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and above all cardiovascular events (especially risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization) are now arising. In this review, we highlighted aspects of the new Pharmacovigilance European dispositions, and then we investigated the tolerability profile of incretin-based therapies, in particular DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, we focused our attention on new safety concerns, which are emerging mostly in the post-marketing period, as the cardiovascular risk profile. Evidence in literature and opinions of regulatory agencies (e.g., European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration) about risks of incretin-based therapies are yet controversial, and there are many open questions in particular on cancer and cardiovascular effects. Thus, it is important to continue to monitor closely the use of these drugs in clinical practice to improve the knowledge on their long-term safety and their place in diabetes therapy. PMID:26461922

  2. A Pharmacovigilance Study in First Episode of Psychosis: Psychopharmacological Interventions and Safety Profiles in the PEPs Project

    PubMed Central

    Bioque, Miquel; Llerena, Adrián; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M.; Corripio, Iluminada; Aguilar, Eduardo J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Vieta, Eduard; Lafuente, Amàlia; Mas, Sergi; Parellada, Mara; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. Methods: Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period. Results: The majority of first episode of psychosis patients received a second-generation antipsychotic (96.3%), orally (95%), and in adjusted doses according to the product specifications (87.2%). A total of 24% were receiving an antipsychotic polytherapy pattern at baseline, frequently associated with lower or higher doses of antipsychotics than the recommended ones. Eight patients were taking clozapine, all in monotherapy. Males received higher doses of antipsychotic (P=.043). A total of 5.2% of the patients were being treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics; 12.2% of the patients received anticholinergic drugs, 12.2% antidepressants, and 13.7% mood stabilizers, while almost 40% received benzodiazepines; and 35.52% reported at least one adverse drug reaction during the pharmacovigilance period, more frequently associated with higher antipsychotic doses and antipsychotic polytherapy (85.2% vs 45.5%, P<.001). Conclusions: These data indicate that the overall pharmacologic prescription for treating a first episode of psychosis in Spain follows the clinical practice guideline recommendations, and, together with security issues, support future research of determinate pharmacological strategies for the treatment of early phases of psychosis, such as the role of clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic combination, and the use of benzodiazepines. PMID:26506856

  3. BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database was developed by assembling and evaluating the literature relevant to human biomarkers. It catalogues and evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect which may be relevant for a longitudinal cohort study. In addition to describing ...

  4. Q Fever in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem. PMID:25092817

  5. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  6. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  7. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  8. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  9. Design and methods for a Scandinavian pharmacovigilance study of osteonecrosis of the jaw and serious infections among cancer patients treated with antiresorptive agents for the prevention of skeletal-related events

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, John; Ehrenstein, Vera; Schiødt, Morten; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjellman, Anders; Hansen, Svein; Larsson Wexell, Cecilia; Herlofson, Bente Brokstad; Noerholt, Sven Erik; Ma, Haijun; Öhrling, Katarina; Hernandez, Rohini K; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a recognized complication of potent antiresorptive therapies, especially at the doses indicated to prevent skeletal complications for cancer patients with bone metastases. This paper describes the rationale and methods for a prospective, post-authorization safety study of cancer patients treated with antiresorptive therapies. Methods As part of a comprehensive pharmacovigilance plan, developed with regulators’ input, the study will estimate incidence of ONJ and of serious infections among adult cancer patients with bone metastases treated with denosumab (120 mg subcutaneously) or zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenously, adjusted for renal function). Patients will be identified using routinely collected data combined with medical chart review in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. Followup will extend from the first administration of antiresorptive treatment to the earliest of death, loss-to-follow-up, or 5 years after therapy initiation. Results will be reported for three treatment cohorts: denosumab-naïve patients, zoledronic acid-naïve patients, and patients who switch from bisphosphonate treatment to denosumab. ONJ cases will be identified in three newly established national ONJ databases and adjudicated by the committee that functioned during the XGEVA® clinical trials program. Conclusion This study will provide a real world counterpart to the clinical trial-estimated risks for ONJ and serious infections for cancer patients initiating denosumab or zoledronic acid. The establishment of ONJ databases in the three Scandinavian countries will have potential benefits outside this study for the elucidation of ONJ risk factors and the evaluation of ONJ treatment strategies. PMID:27499646

  10. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  11. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  12. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  13. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  14. [Benefits of large healthcare databases for drug risk research].

    PubMed

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-08-01

    Large electronic healthcare databases have become an important worldwide data resource for drug safety research after approval. Signal generation methods and drug safety studies based on these data facilitate the prospective monitoring of drug safety after approval, as has been recently required by EU law and the German Medicines Act. Despite its large size, a single healthcare database may include insufficient patients for the study of a very small number of drug-exposed patients or the investigation of very rare drug risks. For that reason, in the United States, efforts have been made to work on models that provide the linkage of data from different electronic healthcare databases for monitoring the safety of medicines after authorization in (i) the Sentinel Initiative and (ii) the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP). In July 2014, the pilot project Mini-Sentinel included a total of 178 million people from 18 different US databases. The merging of the data is based on a distributed data network with a common data model. In the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance (ENCEPP) there has been no comparable merging of data from different databases; however, first experiences have been gained in various EU drug safety projects. In Germany, the data of the statutory health insurance providers constitute the most important resource for establishing a large healthcare database. Their use for this purpose has so far been severely restricted by the Code of Social Law (Section 75, Book 10). Therefore, a reform of this section is absolutely necessary. PMID:26092163

  15. How To Cope with the French: Keys to Understanding French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarro, Brian J.

    To deal successfully with the French people in business, the American must first be conversant with his own culture. The French have a tradition of firm opinions and take an intellectual view of the world. Thinking is hierarchical, as is the French society. Education emphasizes strong command of the French language and all formal aspects of French…

  16. French Basic Course: Basic Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume of the French Basic Course contains ten situations from daily life, each divided into five sub-situations. The material for each situation consists of cartoons and lists of selected words. The purpose of the volume is to provide a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of lessons 1-85 of the Basic Course and adding new words…

  17. French Education: Back to Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David

    1985-01-01

    The French government has announced new moves designed to reinforce the teaching of basic skills in this nation's elementary schools. Highlights of these moves and of Jean-Pierre Chevenement's (minister of national education) recommendations on what should be emphasized in schools are presented. (JN)

  18. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  19. French Immersion Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanaimo School District #68 (British Columbia).

    The Nanaimo (British Columbia) school district's French immersion program is evaluated. An introductory section gives background on the evaluation, outlines the evaluation process used, and offers brief comments on its outcome. The second section describes the immersion program's history and its current status in terms of enrollment, class size,…

  20. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  1. The Future of Intensive French in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Joan; Germain, Claude

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the oral proficiency in French of students in core French, intensive French (IF), and post-IF to determine the effectiveness of these programs. Between 2003 and 2009, students in nine jurisdictions were assessed using the New Brunswick Middle School Scale (MSS). Students were tested prior to beginning IF (multiple grade…

  2. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  3. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  4. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson); "Is Core French a Valid Option?"…

  5. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  6. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  7. Hepatotoxicity associated with agomelatine and other antidepressants: Disproportionality analysis using pooled pharmacovigilance data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Zeiss, René; Lang, Dirk; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Since its marketing approval, the attention to the hepatic side-effect profile of the antidepressant agomelatine (AGM) has gradually increased. Several cases of severe hepatotoxic adverse drug reactions (ADR) have been reported and the European Medicines Agency has released a safety warning regarding AGM-associated hepatotoxicity. However, there are insufficient data for an adequate safety assessment of AGM-related hepatotoxicity. Therefore, we performed a quantitative signal detection analysis using pharmacovigilance data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre from the WHO that records ADR data from worldwide sources; we calculated reporting odds ratios (ROR) as measures for disproportionality within a case/non-case approach for AGM and several other antidepressants. AGM was statistically associated with an increased risk of hepatotoxicity (ROR 6.4 [95%CI 5.7-7.2]) as well as both positive controls: amineptine (ROR 38.4 [95%CI 33.8-43.6]) and nefazodone (ROR 3.2 [95%CI 3.0-3.5]). Following amineptine, AGM was associated with the second highest ROR, followed by tianeptine (ROR 4.4 [95%CI 3.6-5.3]), mianserin (ROR 3.6 [95%CI 3.3-3.9]), and nefazodone. These results support the hypothesis that AGM is associated with relevant hepatotoxicity. However, the used data and applied method do not allow a quantitative evaluation of hepatotoxicity or assessment of substance-specific differences regarding the extent of hepatotoxicity. PMID:25650773

  8. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work. PMID:26518315

  9. Pharmacovigilance from social media: mining adverse drug reaction mentions using sequence labeling with word embedding cluster features

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abeed; O’Connor, Karen; Ginn, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks, particularly for pharmacovigilance, via the use of natural language processing (NLP) techniques. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed medical concepts are often nontechnical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and thus far, advanced machine learning-based NLP techniques have been underutilized. Our objective is to design a machine learning-based approach to extract mentions of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from highly informal text in social media. Methods We introduce ADRMine, a machine learning-based concept extraction system that uses conditional random fields (CRFs). ADRMine utilizes a variety of features, including a novel feature for modeling words’ semantic similarities. The similarities are modeled by clustering words based on unsupervised, pretrained word representation vectors (embeddings) generated from unlabeled user posts in social media using a deep learning technique. Results ADRMine outperforms several strong baseline systems in the ADR extraction task by achieving an F-measure of 0.82. Feature analysis demonstrates that the proposed word cluster features significantly improve extraction performance. Conclusion It is possible to extract complex medical concepts, with relatively high performance, from informal, user-generated content. Our approach is particularly scalable, suitable for social media mining, as it relies on large volumes of unlabeled data, thus diminishing the need for large, annotated training data sets. PMID:25755127

  10. Text mining for pharmacovigilance: Using machine learning for drug name recognition and drug-drug interaction extraction and classification.

    PubMed

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Chowdhury, Md Faisal Mahbub; Karanasiou, Aikaterini; Mrabet, Yassine; Lavelli, Alberto; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is defined by the World Health Organization as the science and activities related to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem. An essential aspect in PV is to acquire knowledge about Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs). The shared tasks on DDI-Extraction organized in 2011 and 2013 have pointed out the importance of this issue and provided benchmarks for: Drug Name Recognition, DDI extraction and DDI classification. In this paper, we present our text mining systems for these tasks and evaluate their results on the DDI-Extraction benchmarks. Our systems rely on machine learning techniques using both feature-based and kernel-based methods. The obtained results for drug name recognition are encouraging. For DDI-Extraction, our hybrid system combining a feature-based method and a kernel-based method was ranked second in the DDI-Extraction-2011 challenge, and our two-step system for DDI detection and classification was ranked first in the DDI-Extraction-2013 task at SemEval. We discuss our methods and results and give pointers to future work. PMID:26432353

  11. Lessons Learned From Enhancing Vaccine Pharmacovigilance Activities During PsA-TT Introduction in African Countries, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Yaméogo, Téné M.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Viviani, Simonetta; Ouandaogo, Claude-Roger; Keita, Modibo; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Mbakuliyemo, Nehemie; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky; Sow, Samba O.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The rollout of the group A meningococcal vaccine, PsA-TT, in Africa's meningitis belt countries represented the first introduction of a vaccine specifically designed for this part of the world. During the first year alone, the number of people who received the vaccine through mass vaccination campaigns was several hundredfold higher than that of subjects who participated in the closely monitored clinical trials. Implementation of a system to identify rare but potentially serious vaccine reactions was therefore a high priority in the design and implementation of those campaigns. Methods. National authorities and their technical partners set up effective vaccine pharmacovigilance systems, including conducting active surveillance projects. Results. Implementation of national expert advisory groups to review serious adverse events following immunization in all countries and active monitoring of conditions of interest in 3 early-adopter countries did not identify particular concerns with the safety profile of PsA-TT, which had already provided tremendous public health benefits. Conclusions. Lessons learned from this experience will help to improve preparations for future vaccine introductions in resource-poor settings and capitalize on such efforts to advance vaccine safety systems in the future. PMID:26553675

  12. Relationships Between Pharmacovigilance, Molecular, Structural, and Pathway Data: Revealing Mechanisms for Immune-Mediated Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ho, SS; McLachlan, AJ; Chen, TF; Hibbs, DE; Fois, RA

    2015-01-01

    Immune-mediated drug-induced liver injury (IMDILI) can be devastating, irreversible, and fatal in the absence of successful transplantation surgery. We present a novel approach that combines the methods of pharmacoepidemiology with in silico molecular modeling to identify specific features in toxic ligands that are associated with clinical features of IMDILI. Specifically, from pharmacovigilance data multivariate logistic regression identified 18 drugs associated with IMDILI (P < 0.00015). Eleven of these drugs, along with their known and proposed metabolites, constituted a training set used to develop a four-point pharmacophore model (sensitivity 75%; specificity 85%). Subsequently, this information was combined with information from immune-pathway reviews and genetic-association studies and complemented with ligand-protein docking simulations to support a hypothesis implicating two putative targets within separate, possibly interacting, immune-system pathways: the major histocompatibility complex within the adaptive immune system and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), in particular TLR-7, which represent pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. PMID:26312166

  13. The new IAGOS Database Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Damien; Gautron, Benoit; Thouret, Valérie; Fontaine, Alain

    2016-04-01

    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) is a European Research Infrastructure which aims at the provision of long-term, regular and spatially resolved in situ observations of the atmospheric composition. IAGOS observation systems are deployed on a fleet of commercial aircraft. The IAGOS database is an essential part of the global atmospheric monitoring network. It contains IAGOS-core data and IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) data. The IAGOS Database Portal (http://www.iagos.fr, damien.boulanger@obs-mip.fr) is part of the French atmospheric chemistry data center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). The new IAGOS Database Portal has been released in December 2015. The main improvement is the interoperability implementation with international portals or other databases in order to improve IAGOS data discovery. In the frame of the IGAS project (IAGOS for the Copernicus Atmospheric Service), a data network has been setup. It is composed of three data centers: the IAGOS database in Toulouse; the HALO research aircraft database at DLR (https://halo-db.pa.op.dlr.de); and the CAMS data center in Jülich (http://join.iek.fz-juelich.de). The CAMS (Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service) project is a prominent user of the IGAS data network. The new portal provides improved and new services such as the download in NetCDF or NASA Ames formats, plotting tools (maps, time series, vertical profiles, etc.) and user management. Added value products are available on the portal: back trajectories, origin of air masses, co-location with satellite data, etc. The link with the CAMS data center, through JOIN (Jülich OWS Interface), allows to combine model outputs with IAGOS data for inter-comparison. Finally IAGOS metadata has been standardized (ISO 19115) and now provides complete information about data traceability and quality.

  14. French Alps, Mont Blanc, French/Italian Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this southeast looking view, Mont Blanc, on the French/Italian border, (48.0N, 4.5E) the highest mountain peak in all of Europe, is just below and right of center (below the end of the prominent valley of the Aosta River, in the center of the photo. The rivers flow out of the Alps into Italy toward Turin. Chamonix, the famous resort town and center of Alpine mountain climbing, lies in the valley just below Mont Blanc.

  15. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  16. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  17. [French medical journals since 1800].

    PubMed

    Tesnière, Valérie; Cantau, Alina

    2014-01-01

    French medical journals take the lead among the 1 385 titles of the statistical survey (15.4%). Efficient tool in communication, with an important publishing market, linked to the rise of medicine in the 19(th) century, prosperity of medical journals do not only mean rise of specialties. Monthly periodicals dominate quickly the publishing market which is also characterized by complex links between generalist and highly specialized medicine, public health and professional training. PMID:25311892

  18. Database Marketplace 2002: The Database Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Robinson, William

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the database industry over the past year, including new companies and services, company closures, popular database formats, popular access methods, and changes in existing products and services. Lists 33 firms and their database services; 33 firms and their database products; and 61 company profiles. (LRW)

  19. Linked health data for pharmacovigilance in children: perceived legal and ethical issues for stakeholders and data guardians

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Yvonne Marina; Bond, Christine B; Francis, Jill J; Haughney, John; Helms, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Objective The inclusion of the Community Health Index in the recording of National Health Service (NHS) contacts in Scotland facilitates national linkage of data such as prescribing and healthcare utilisation. This linkage could be the basis for identification of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to report the views of healthcare professionals on data sharing, ownership and the legal and other applicable frameworks relevant to linkage of routinely collected paediatric healthcare data. Design Qualitative study using semistructured face-to-face interviews addressing the study aims. Participants Purposive sample of professional stakeholders (n=25) including experts on ethics, data protection, pharmacovigilance, data linkage, legal issues and prescribing. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed using a framework approach. Results Participants identified existing data sharing systems in the UK. Access to healthcare data should be approved by the data owners. The definition of data ownership and associated legal responsibilities for linked healthcare data were seen as important factors to ensure accountability for the use of linked data. Yet data owners were seen as facilitators of the proposed data linkage. Twelve frameworks (legal, regulatory and governance) applicable to the linkage of healthcare data were identified. Conclusions A large number of potentially relevant legal and regulatory frameworks were identified. Ownership of the linked data was seen as an extension of responsibility for, or guardianship of, the source datasets. The consensus emerging from the present study was that clarity is required on the definition of data sharing, data ownership and responsibilities of data owners. PMID:24523422

  20. Evaluation of gemtuzumab ozogamycin associated sinusoidal obstructive syndrome: Findings from an academic pharmacovigilance program review and a pharmaceutical sponsored registry

    PubMed Central

    Magwood-Golston, Jametta S.; Kessler, Samuel; Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved gemtuzumab ozogamycin for monotherapy for older patients with relapsed AML. A 0.9% rate of hepatic sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) was noted in licensing trials. In 2001, FDA received reports of 14 GO-associated SOS cases from MD Anderson Cancer Center. A State of South Carolina/National Cancer Institute funded pharmacovigilance program and a manufacturer sponsored registry independently evaluated this concern. Methods The manufacturer’s registry and the academic program focused on risk factors and incidence of GO-associated SOS in routine clinical practice and clinical trial settings, respectively. Comparisons were made of findings and dissemination efforts from the two studies. Results Retrospective analysis of clinical trials by the academic initiative identified 99 cases of SOS among 221 GO-treated stem cell patients and 649 patients who did not undergo HSCTs. SOS rates were 3% when GO was administered at doses ≤6 mg/m2 as monotherapy or with non-hepatotoxic agents; 28% when administered with 6-thioguanine, a hepatotoxic agent; 15% when administered as monotherapy at doses at a dose of 9 mg/m2, and between 15% and 40% if a stem cell transplant (SCT) was performed within 3 months of GO administration. Death from SOS occurred in 33% of the cases. The manufacturer’s registry prospectively evaluated 482 GO-treated patients who received a mean dose of 7.8 mg/m2. Overall, 41% received concomitant chemotherapy, 18% had undergone prior SCT, 9.1% developed SOS, and death from SOS occurred in 60% of the SOS cases. Findings from each initiative were disseminated at national conferences and in peer-reviewed manuscripts beginning in 2003. Conclusion Retrospective review of clinical trials, case series, and FDA reports and prospective registries can provide important information on safety signals initially identified in licensing trials. PMID:27030962

  1. International pharmacovigilance: developing cooperation to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, M M

    2000-01-01

    Much has been accomplished internationally in the past decade to harmonise the much of the process of post-marketing drug risk detection. However, formidable challenges exist in harmonising analytical approaches to such data and in leveraging international database resources to improve the quality of such data. In addition, international challenges continue in the arena of drug risk management once a specific risk has been detected. Especially problematic are the questions of appropriate methodology and metrics to assess the public health impact of our risk management techniques. Finally, international challenges remain in the world of drug risk communication to practitioners, dispensers, and patients. The primary challenge confronting us is that of providing easily accessible, understandable, unbiased information on drug risk to these communities so that truly informed decisions about medicines can be made at the individual patient level. Only by meeting internationally these challenges in drug risk detection, management, and communication can our citizens know how to best use these wonderful pharmacological gifts to which we now have access. PMID:10905749

  2. Overweight and obesity in French Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Valéro, René; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of overweight (45%) and obesity (30%) were recorded in French Hajj pilgrims originating from North Africa. Females were significantly more likely to suffer from obesity compared to males. The overall prevalence of obesity among French pilgrims born in North-Africa was twice that of the overall French population. The prevalence of obesity in pilgrims aged 55-64 years and 65 years and over were respectively 38 and 25% compared to 20 and 18% in the corresponding overall French population age classes. The prevalence of diabetes in French pilgrims was five times higher compared to that of the overall French population. This situation prompts us to organize in the next future, pre-Hajj education seminars for diabetics. PMID:22331406

  3. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  4. Essentials for starting a pediatric clinical study (4): Clinical pediatric safety planning based on preclinical toxicity studies and pediatric pharmacovigilance guidance.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Neha

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile toxicology studies in animals provide useful information to guide monitoring of potential adverse effects in children especially on growth and development. In order to continue to gain knowledge and build upon these preclinical studies, recent experience has suggested that additional approaches for monitoring of safety concerns in the pediatric population may be required. Recently, pediatric guidance has become available from the health authorities which provide pharmacovigilance concepts as they specifically relate to drugs being developed for pediatric indications. Clinical trials are typically not robust enough to detect rare or delayed safety effects as the pediatric trials are relatively short-term. Furthermore, such long term or rare effects may not be detected via standard voluntary postmarketing surveillance. Safety monitoring of children with Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis (JIA) taking nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)s will be used as an example to describe a post-marketing risk management and pharmacovigilance program that serves to better evaluate safety data from various sources. The intent of this program is to identify adverse events (AE), including events with longer latency, which may be associated with NSAID use in a pediatric population. In this presentation, the 4 major components of the program are to be addressed. Such a program may serve as a model to proactively generate and monitor safety data in order to identify AEs that may be associated with new therapeutics for a pediatric population. PMID:19571487

  5. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  6. A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French

    PubMed Central

    Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. Objective The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). Methods To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. Results More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. Conclusions It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese. PMID:25448528

  7. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  8. French oil companies in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum interest in Africa is fairly recent: the first exploration in 1947, Hassi Messaoud (Algeria) in 1957, and more serious interest on the part of French companies in the early 1960s. Two major French companies active in Africa are Elf Aquitaine and CIE Francaise des Petroles (CFP). Elf Aquitaine intends to maintain its effort in Gabon with 9 exploratory wells in 1980 and investments of 50 billion francs, and intends to lessen the production decline in the Congo, particularly after the discovery of the Emeraude offshore field. The difficulties here are the shallow depth forcing high angle directional drilling, high viscosity oil, and a very complex reservoir. Investments in the Congo include 45 billion francs including a terminal and an electric plant. CFP is active mainly in Tunisia, Sudan, and Egypt. In Tunisia, 6 fields are of interest, with investments in the order of 110 million francs. More recently, the effort in Egypt has seen further exploration and production from a well, with the investment of 80 million francs in 1980, probably doubling in 1981.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  10. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  11. Pharmacovigilance during the pre-approval phases: an evolving pharmaceutical industry model in response to ICH E2E, CIOMS VI, FDA and EMEA/CHMP risk-management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Craig G; Petchel, Kasia S; Mickail, Hani; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; McHale, Mary; Grana, John M; Marquez, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance science has traditionally been a discipline focussed on the postmarketing or post-authorisation period, with due attention directed towards pre-clinical safety data, clinical trials and adverse events. As the biological sciences have evolved, pharmacovigilance has slowly shifted toward earlier, proactive consideration of risks and potential benefits of drugs in the pre- and peri-approval stages of drug development, leading to a maturing of drug safety risk management. Further advances in biology, pharmacology and improvements in computational applications to medicine have led to the development of more complex medicines previously unobtainable and have also permitted a more thorough assessment of risks and potential benefits even earlier in the development process. Elevated public concern with the safety of more sophisticated medicines, combined with new science, have led pharmaceutical innovators, regulators and healthcare professionals to collaborate to develop guidelines, which drive enhanced pharmacovigilance and safety risk management earlier in drug development. In this paper, we review international guidelines on pharmacovigilance planning applicable to the pre-approval phases of medicines development and provide author opinion on these guidelines' potential drug safety implications. We discuss the possible evolution of a pharmaceutical industry model to respond to these guidelines; a view on multidisciplinary safety management teams is provided to encourage refinement of safety-signal identification and risk assessment early in drug development and to communicate important safety concerns to internal research efforts, patients, investigators and regulators. We further describe these functions in the context of the complexities of vulnerable populations, including the example of medicines research for paediatric populations. We also discuss the special role of epidemiology in pre-approval drug development and the impact on epidemiological

  12. The EXOSAT database system. Available databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, C.

    1991-02-01

    This User's Guide describes the databases that are currently available by remote login to the EXOSAT/ESTEC site of the EXOSAT database system. This includes where ever possible the following: brief descriptions of each observatory, telescope and instrument references to more complete observatory descriptions a list of the contents of each database and how it was generated, parameter descriptions.

  13. Risk of gastrointestinal complications associated to NSAIDs, low-dose aspirin and their combinations: Results of a pharmacovigilance reporting system.

    PubMed

    Rafaniello, Concetta; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Sessa, Maurizio; Sportiello, Liberata; Balzano, Antonio; Manguso, Francesco; Aiezza, Maria Luisa; Rossi, Francesco; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complications are one of the most limiting cause of use of NSAIDs. Beyond others well defined factors, history of peptic ulcer, older age, Helicobacter pylori infection and use of gastrotoxic drugs may affect their GI safety profile. In particular, the risk of GI complications associated to the use of antiplatelet drugs, especially low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDA) should deserve much attention. However, only few studies have focused on the effect of combination LDA/NSAIDs on the GI tract compared with the monotherapy and much less studies assessed this effect with multiple NSAIDs use. We aimed to characterize the GI safety profile of NSAIDs and LDA as monotherapy or their combinations in real-life conditions by analysing spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting system in a Southern Italy. We used the case/non-case method in the Italian Pharmacovigilance Network (RNF). Cases were reports of GI events in the RNF between January 2007 and December 2011. Non-cases were all other reports during the same period. The association between NSAID and suspected GI ADRs was calculated using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) with 95% confidence intervals as a measure of disproportionality while adjusting for age, and concomitant use of antineoplastic agents or drugs for cardiovascular diseases. Sub-analysis were performed within the NSAID class. Among the 2816 adverse drug reactions recorded, we identified 374 (13.3%) cases of GI complications. Upper GI complications were the most frequently reported type of events. The highest associations were found for the combined use of NSAIDs and/or LDA, whilst the lowest associations were for their respective monotherapy. Looking at individual NSAIDs the highest association with GI events was observed for ketorolac exposure followed by nimesulide, diclofenac, aspirin, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen. This study highlights the primary role of the national spontaneous reporting system to bring out potential signals

  14. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  15. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  16. French for Business: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brenda

    The paper discusses the development and evolution of the French for Business undergraduate language course at Oregon State University, focusing on: (1) instructor preparation; (2) course structure; (3) course content; (4) the business student as teacher and mentor; (5) cultural exchanges with French-speaking business students; (6) oral and written…

  17. Manual of Tape Scripts: French, Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    Designed specifically for use in the oral phase of first-level French classes in New York City Public Schools, these scripts may be used as supplemental drill or review material in any beginning conversational French course with or without the accompanying audio tapes. The two-part manual treats through a variety of drills such aspects of grammar…

  18. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  19. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  20. Why Learn French for Business in 2001?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratier-Declety, Guilhene

    This essay makes the case for why it is worth learning French for business purposes, even though it is acknowledged that English is increasingly the lingua franca of international business, science, technology, and the Internet. It is asserted that French is still the dominant language in some important markets, and being able to conduct business…

  1. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  2. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  3. PRE-PROGRAMED BASIC FRENCH COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VALDMAN, ALBERT

    FIVE PREPROGRAMED UNITS OF BASIC INTERMEDIATE FRENCH ARE THE CONTENTS OF THIS TEXT. FRENCH "DIALOGS FOR LISTENING" ARE PRESENTED AT THE BEGINNING OF EACH UNIT WITH A STEP-BY-STEP ORGANIZATION, ALLOWING THE STUDENT TO GRADUALLY WORK UP TO KNOWLEDGE OF MANY SPOKEN VARIETIES OF THE ORIGINAL DIALOG WHICH HE HEARD. PRONUNCIATION REVIEWS ARE PROVIDED ON…

  4. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  5. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  6. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  7. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  8. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2006-01-01

    There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003, a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2…

  9. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  10. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  11. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  12. Stories of Frenchness: Becoming a Francophile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on life-story accounts used to gain insights into the symbolic value language learners attach to French. The concept of "interpretative repertoires" is used to show how participants situate personal narratives in broader cultural discourses (a "Francophile repertoire") to construct their experience of Frenchness. Data from three…

  13. The French network of hydrogeological sites H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, P.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Gautier, S.; Porel, G.; Bodin, J.; de Dreuzy, J.; Pezard, P.

    2008-12-01

    For groundwater issues (potential leakages in waste repository, aquifer management "), the development of modeling techniques is far ahead of the actual knowledge of aquifers. This raises two fundamental issues: 1) which and how much data are necessary to make predictions accurate enough for aquifer management issues; 2) which models remain relevant to describe the heterogeneity and complexity of geological systems. The French observatory H+ was created in 2002 with the twofold motivation of acquiring a large database for validating models of heterogeneous aquifers, and of surveying groundwater quality evolution in the context of environmental changes. H+ is a network of 4 sites (Ploemeur, Brittany, France; HES Poitiers, France; Cadarache, France; Campos, Mallorca, Spain) with different geological, climatic, and economic contexts. All of them are characterized by a highly heterogeneous structure (fractured crystalline basement for Ploemeur, karstified and fractured limestone for Poitiers, Cadarache and Mallorca), which is far to be taken into account by basic models. Ploemeur is exploited as a tap-water plant for a medium-size coastal city (15,000 inhabitants) for 20 years. Each site is developed for long term investigation and monitoring. They involves a dense network of boreholes, detailed geological and geophysical surveys, periodic campaigns and/or permanent measurements of groundwater flow, water chemistry, geophysical signals (including ground motions), climatic parameter, etc. Several large-scale flow experiments are scheduled per year to investigate the aquifer structure with combined geophysical, hydrogeological, and geochemical instruments. All this information is recorded in a database that has been developed to improve the sustainability and quality of data, and to be used as a collaborative tool for both site researchers and modelers. This project lasts now for 5 years. It is a short time to collect the amount of information necessary to apprehend the

  14. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a French Isolate of Maize rough dwarf virus, a Fijivirus Member in the Family Reoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Svanella-Dumas, L.; Marais, A.; Faure, C.; Theil, S.; Thibord, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a French isolate of Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) was determined by next-generation sequencing and compared with the single available complete sequence and with the partial sequences of two additional isolates available in online databases. PMID:27445367

  15. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

  16. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

  17. French Project For Operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliquen, S.; Petit de La Villéon, L.; Carval, T.; Loaec, G.; Gourmelen, L.; Desaubies, Y.; Coriolis, A.

    2003-04-01

    The seven French agencies concerned by ocean research are developing together a strong capability in operational oceanography based on a triad including satellite altimetry (JASON), numerical modelling with assimilation (MERCATOR), and in situ data (CORIOLIS). The CORIOLIS project aims to build a pre-operational structure to collect, valid and distribute ocean data (temperature/salinity profiles and current speeds) to the scientific community and modellers. CORIOLIS aims at four goals : (1) To build up a data management centre, part of the ARGO network for the GODAE experiment, able to provide quality-controlled data in real time and delay modes. (2) To contribute to ARGO floats deployment mainly in the Atlantic with about 250 floats during the 2001-2004 period. (3) To develop and improve profiling ARGO floats. PROVOR is a self-ballasted float, able to drift at a user-defined parking depth and then to dive to 2000m before profiling up to the surface where data are transmitted using the Argos system. More than 100 cycles can be performed during its 3-year lifetime. (4) To integrate into CORIOLIS all other data presently collected at sea by French agencies from surface drifting buoys, PIRATA anchored buoys, oceanographic research vessels (XBT, thermosalinograph and ADCP transmitted on a daily basis). CORIOLIS data centre, already one of the two global data centres for ARGO, and aims to be an important partner in projects within GMES et 6th PRCD calls. In 2004, recommendations will be done to transform the CORIOLIS activity into a permanent, routinely contribution to ocean measurement, in accordance with international plans which will follow the ARGO/GODAE experiment.

  18. French MeSH Browser: a cross-language tool to access MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Thirion, Benoit; Pereira, Susanne; Névéol, Aurélie; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2007-01-01

    When searching the medical literature, health professionals and lay people strongly prefer to use their native language. Therefore, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) translations would be helpful to those who are not fluent in English to access scientific papers indexed in the MEDLINE bibliographic database. Furthermore, medical terminologies such as MeSH are challenging in any language. In this context, a French MeSH Browser was developed. PMID:18694229

  19. Tools and services from the French VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F.; French Vo Teams

    2007-08-01

    The French VO (Action Spécifique Observatoires Virtuels France - ASOV), a joint e action of INSU and CNES, coordinates French participation in the VO for astronomy, solar, heliospheric and space plasma physics, and the study of the planets. It supports teams which develops VO services to uptake VO standards and methods, in particular by organizing tutorials for developers, provides forums for discussion, and funds travel of French participants to IVOA meetings. INSU, on behalf of the French VO, is a member of the IVOA and of Euro-VO, and coordinates the Euro-VO Data Center Alliance, which will be funded by the European Commission as a Coordination Action of the Infrastructure, Communication Network Development program from September 1, 2006. ASOV was created in 2004. Within a few years it has succeeded in creating a national community of VO developers. Several teams participate very actively in the IVOA Interoperability standard development, and collaborate with IT laboratories on VO-related subjects. Most French astronomy laboratories are involved in the development of VO-oriented services and tools, with a wide diversity of actions (observation archives/`science ready' data, value-added data bases and services; tools for visualisation, image analysis, . . . ; software suites; numerical simulations/theoretical astronomy services, thematic services). A recent census received more than 40 answers describing projects at different scales, some operational, some in development. Details on French VO teams and ASOV actions are available from the French VO Web site:

  20. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  1. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  2. The Amma-Sat Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, K.; Desbois, M.; Eymard, L.

    2004-12-01

    The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project is a French initiative, which aims at identifying and analysing in details the multidisciplinary and multi-scales processes that lead to a better understanding of the physical mechanisms linked to the African Monsoon. The main components of the African Monsoon are: Atmospheric Dynamics, the Continental Water Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, Oceanic and Continental Surface Conditions. Satellites contribute to various objectives of the project both for process analysis and for large scale-long term studies: some series of satellites (METEOSAT, NOAA,.) have been flown for more than 20 years, ensuring a good quality monitoring of some of the West African atmosphere and surface characteristics. Moreover, several recent missions, and several projects will strongly improve and complement this survey. The AMMA project offers an opportunity to develop the exploitation of satellite data and to make collaboration between specialist and non-specialist users. In this purpose databases are being developed to collect all past and future satellite data related to the African Monsoon. It will then be possible to compare different types of data from different resolution, to validate satellite data with in situ measurements or numerical simulations. AMMA-SAT database main goal is to offer an easy access to satellite data to the AMMA scientific community. The database contains geophysical products estimated from operational or research algorithms and covering the different components of the AMMA project. Nevertheless, the choice has been made to group data within pertinent scales rather than within their thematic. In this purpose, five regions of interest where defined to extract the data: An area covering Tropical Atlantic and Africa for large scale studies, an area covering West Africa for mesoscale studies and three local areas surrounding sites of in situ observations. Within each of these regions satellite data are projected on

  3. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  4. Multitemporal glacier inventory of the French Alps from the late 1960s to the late 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardent, Marie; Rabatel, Antoine; Dedieu, Jean-Pierre; Deline, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The most recent and complete French glacier inventory was previously the Vivian database, dating from the end of the 1960s but incorporated in the World Glacier Inventory database at the end of the 1990s. Because of the important changes in glacier extent over recent decades an update of the inventory of glaciers of the French Alps was made in a digital vector format (with the associated database) for several dates covering the last 40 years. Such a multitemporal glacier inventory matches a key demand of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space initiative (GLIMS). Topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images were used to map the extent of glaciers using both manual and automatic methods; and the database was generated considering the design of the GLIMS database. Glaciers in the French Alps covered 369 km2 in 1967/71, 340 km2 in 1985/86, 300 km2 in 2003, and 275 km2 in 2006/09. This represents a decrease in surface area of about 25% over the entire study period. Acceleration in glacier shrinkage during the study period was revealed, probably linked to the increase in average air temperature in the 20th century, which has been particularly pronounced since the 1970s. The behaviour of glaciers of the French Alps is in agreement with that of glaciers observed by other studies across the European Alps. We also report the distribution of the morpho-topographic variables (aspect, elevation, etc.) of glaciers of the French Alps for the period 2006/09, and analyse changes of these variables in the last four decades.

  5. Experience of safety monitoring in the context of a prospective observational study of artemether-lumefantrine in rural Tanzania: lessons learned for pharmacovigilance reporting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify and implement strategies that help meet safety monitoring requirements in the context of an observational study for artemether-lumefantrine (AL) administered as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in rural Tanzania. Methods Pharmacovigilance procedures were developed through collaboration between the investigating bodies, the relevant regulatory authority and the manufacturer of AL. Training and refresher sessions on the pharmacovigilance system were provided for healthcare workers from local health facilities and field recorders of the Ifakara Health Demographic Surveillance System (IHDSS). Three distinct channels for identification of adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were identified and implemented. Passive reporting took place through IHDSS and health care facilities, starting in October 2007. The third channel was through solicited reporting that was included in the context of a survey on AL as part of the ALIVE (Artemether-Lumefantrine In Vulnerable patients: Exploring health impact) study (conducted only in March-April 2008). Results Training was provided for 40 healthcare providers (with refresher training 18 months later) and for six field recorders. During the period 1st September 2007 to 31st March 2010, 67 AEs were reported including 52 under AL, five under sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, one under metakelfin, two after antibiotics; the remaining seven were due to anti-pyretic or anti-parasite medications. Twenty patients experienced SAEs; in 16 cases, a relation to AL was suspected. Six of the 20 cases were reported within 24 hours of occurrence. Discussion Safety monitoring and reporting is possible even in settings with weak health infrastructure. Reporting can be enhanced by regular and appropriate training of healthcare providers. SMS text alerts provide a practical solution to communication challenges. Conclusion Experience gained in this setting could help to improve spontaneous reporting of AEs

  6. Preparation for International Business: A Cultural Immersion Model in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Martin, Gerry

    A Salisbury State University (Maryland) program integrating intensive French language and business administration instruction is described. In its pilot, the program had 11 students, all but 1 drawn from French language classes; one was a native speaker. The French portion was taught in the morning by two French professors, and the business…

  7. The Teaching of French Intonation to Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates how the intonation of French differs from that of English and discusses French intonation under the headings of stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns. Outlines a program to teach the rudiments of French intonation based upon the theoretical analyzing of French notation presented in the first part of this paper. (SED)

  8. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  9. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  10. [The French general inspectorate of prisons].

    PubMed

    Dupont, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The French general inspectorate of prisons is an independent watchdog responsible for ensuring that inmates' fundamental rights are respected. An interview with Xavier Dupont, the secretary general, who assesses the objectives and methods of this institution. PMID:21526539

  11. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  12. French academy cries out over swingeing cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2014-02-01

    The French Academy of Sciences has issued what it calls a "cry of alarm" denouncing heavy cuts to the 2014 budget for the National Research Agency (ANR), which was set up in 2005 to fund project-based research.

  13. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    PubMed

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  14. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  15. Statistical correlation between meteorological and rockfall databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonca, A.; Gunzburger, Y.; Verdel, T.

    2014-08-01

    Rockfalls are a major and essentially unpredictable sources of danger, particularly along transportation routes (roads and railways). Thus, the assessment of their probability of occurrence is a major challenge for risk management. From a qualitative perspective, it is known that rockfalls occur mainly during periods of rain, snowmelt, or freeze-thaw. Nevertheless, from a quantitative perspective, these generally assumed correlations between rockfalls and their possible meteorological triggering events are often difficult to identify because (i) rockfalls are too rare for the use of classical statistical analysis techniques and (ii) not all intensities of triggering factors have the same probability. In this study, we propose a new approach for investigating the correlation of rockfalls with rain, freezing periods, and strong temperature variations. This approach is tested on three French rockfall databases, the first of which exhibits a high frequency of rockfalls (approximately 950 events over 11 years), whereas the other two databases are more typical (approximately 140 events over 11 years). These databases come from (1) national highway RN1 on Réunion, (2) a railway in Burgundy, and (3) a railway in Auvergne. Whereas a basic correlation analysis is only able to highlight an already obvious correlation in the case of the "rich" database, the newly suggested method appears to detect correlations even in the "poor" databases. Indeed, the use of this method confirms the positive correlation between rainfall and rockfalls in the Réunion database. This method highlights a correlation between cumulative rainfall and rockfalls in Burgundy, and it detects a correlation between the daily minimum temperature and rockfalls in the Auvergne database. This new approach is easy to use and also serves to determine the conditional probability of rockfall according to a given meteorological factor. The approach will help to optimize risk management in the studied areas based

  16. Pharmacovigilance in radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Verma, Ravendra; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission is Committed for maintaining the standards of drugs including Radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) by publishing Indian Pharmacopoeia. These RPs are being used in India for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. RPs though contain relatively small quantities of active ingredient and administered in small volumes could cause some adverse reactions to the patients. The objective of presenting this article is to introduce the system of adverse drug reaction reporting to the nuclear medicine fraternity who are dealing with RPs. PMID:27095855

  17. Pharmacovigilance using Clinical Text.

    PubMed

    Lependu, Paea; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Harpaz, Rave; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Cooke, John P; Shah, Nigam H

    2013-01-01

    The current state of the art in post-marketing drug surveillance utilizes voluntarily submitted reports of suspected adverse drug reactions. We present data mining methods that transform unstructured patient notes taken by doctors, nurses and other clinicians into a de-identified, temporally ordered, patient-feature matrix using standardized medical terminologies. We demonstrate how to use the resulting high-throughput data to monitor for adverse drug events based on the clinical notes in the EHR. PMID:24303315

  18. [Epidemiology of envenomation in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Galtier, J; Lefait, J F

    1984-01-01

    Incidence of snake bites, scorpion and venomous fish stings are established in French Guiana (a South American French territory). About 75 snake bites per 100,000 population, 90 scorpion stings and 125 fish stings are recorded in a year by official sanitary services. Authors give geographical and ecological variations, and risks, of venomous animal accidents. Severity of snake bites and medical cost are emphasized. Necrosis and/or bleedings follow 5% of cases and hospital lethality reaches 2.2%. PMID:6722970

  19. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  20. Aspects of the Acquisition of the French Verb System by Young Speakers of English and French in Quebec and Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beniak, Edouard

    Three studies are presented, each of which is a comparison of the acquisition of an aspect of the French verb system by three groups of speakers. The speakers are: young Anglophones learning French as a second language in an early French immersion program in Montreal; young monolingual Francophones attending elementary French language schools in…

  1. French vertical-flow constructed wetland design: adaptations for tropical climates.

    PubMed

    Molle, P; Latune, R Lombard; Riegel, C; Lacombe, G; Esser, D; Mangeot, L

    2015-01-01

    The French Outermost Regions are under tropical climate yet still have to comply with both French and EU regulations. French vertical-flow constructed wetland systems appear well adapted to the technical specifics of these regions but their adaptation to tropical climate requires new design guidelines to be defined (area needed, number of filters, type of plants, material to be used, etc.). A study was started in 2008, with backing from the national water authorities, to implement full-scale experimental sites and assess the impacts of local context on design and performances. This paper reports the monitoring results on three vertical-flow constructed wetlands fed directly with raw wastewater (known as the 'French system') in Mayotte and French Guiana. The plants, now in operation for between 1 and 6 years, range from 160 to 480 population equivalent (p.e.). Monitoring consisted of 28 daily composite flow samples in different seasons (dry season, rainy season) at the inlet and outlet of each filter. Performances are benchmarked against French mainland area standards from Irstea's database. Results show that performances are improved by warmer temperature for chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and satisfy national quality objectives with a single stage of filters. Treatment plant footprint can thus be reduced as only two parallel filters are needed. Indeed, warm temperatures allow faster mineralization of the sludge deposit, making it possible to operate at similar rest and feeding period durations. Systems operated using one twin-filter stage can achieve over 90% COD, SS and TKN removal for a total surface of 0.8 m²/p.e. PMID:26442494

  2. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  3. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  4. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  5. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  6. French-Canadians, Acadians and the French in New England. A Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    The history of the French-Canadians from their beginnings to the present time is the topic of this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Designed to acquaint students with the French, Canada's earliest permanent settlers following the Indians, the unit is divided into six objectives which include learning activities for each. Students are expected to…

  7. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  8. Third Semester College French, A Different Approach: Practical French for Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Blandine

    An alternative approach used in a third semester French course at the University of Colorado at Denver is described. The approach was adopted to improve student motivation. The course focuses on the learning of practical French for everyday situations, while traveling abroad for business or pleasure. Emphasis is on conversational, communicative…

  9. MPlus Database system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-20

    The MPlus Database program was developed to keep track of mail received. This system was developed by TRESP for the Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations. The MPlus Database program is a PC application, written in dBase III+'' and compiled with Clipper'' into an executable file. The files you need to run the MPLus Database program can be installed on a Bernoulli, or a hard drive. This paper discusses the use of this database.

  10. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  11. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  12. Plant and Crop Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Databases have become an integral part of all aspects of biological research, including basic and applied plant biology. The importance of databases continues to increase as the volume of data from direct and indirect genomics approaches expands. What is not always obvious to users of databases is t...

  13. French Gender "Rules" in the Speech of English-Dominant, French-Dominant and Monolingual French-Speaking Children. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Birgit

    The French gender usage of grade two and grade five Franco-Ontarian children was compared with that of English-speaking children enrolled in French immersion programs, and monolingual French-speaking children in Quebec. While some of the Franco-Ontarian children are similar to the Quebec children with respect to the gender "rules" they appear to…

  14. Astrophysics Production in INSU until 2000: What Image is Conveyed by the Los Alamos and ADS Databases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Nathalie

    First, we defined a list of astrophysics laboratories from INSU, the French Institut des Sciences de l'Univers, and a corpus of 793 researchers who worked at these laboratories. We then compared their publications with both the LANL and ADS databases. This paper provides bibliometric results about the researchers. One notes a strong concentration of publications present in the LANL database, but less so in the ADS database due to its recording of a larger number of reviews and conference proceedings.

  15. Sugar composition of French royal jelly for comparison with commercial and artificial sugar samples.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-09-15

    A gas chromatographic method was developed to quantify the major and minor sugars of 400 Royal Jellies (RJs). Their contents were compared in relation to the geographical origins and different production methods. A reliable database was established from the analysis of 290 RJs harvested in different French areas that took into account the diversity of geographical origin, harvesting season, forage sources available in the environment corresponding to natural food of the bees: pollen and nectar. Around 30 RJ samples produced by Italian beekeepers, about sixty-ones from French market, and around thirty-ones derived from feeding experiments were analysed and compared with our database. Fructose and glucose contents are in the range 2.3-7.8% and 3.4-7.7%, respectively, whatever the RJ's origin. On the contrary, differences in minor sugar composition are observed. Indeed sucrose and erlose contents in French RJs are lesser than 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively, whereas they reach 3.9% and 2.0% in some commercial samples and 5.1% and 1.7% in RJs produced from feeding experiments. This study could be used to discriminate different production methods and provide an additional tool for identifying unknown commercial RJs. PMID:23107723

  16. Visualization of multidimensional database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  17. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  18. [French immigration policy at a turning point?].

    PubMed

    Wihtol De Wenden, C

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France. PMID:12321430

  19. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  20. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  1. Opening CEM vendor databases

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A.; Patel, D.

    1995-12-31

    CEM database performance requirements (i.e., voluminous data storage, rapid response times) often conflict with the concept of an open, accessible database. Utilities would like to use their CEM data for more purposes than simply submitting environmental reports. But in most cases, other uses are inhibited because today`s sophisticated CEM systems incorporate databases that have forsaken openness and accessibility in favor of performance. Several options are available for CEM vendors wishing to move in the direction of open, accessible CEM databases.

  2. Databases for Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493

  3. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  4. Backing up DMF Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A complete backup of the Cray Data Migration Facility (DMF) databases should include the data migration databases, all media specific process' (MSP's) databases, and the journal file. The backup should be able to accomplished without impacting users or stopping DMF. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center undertook the task of finding an effective and efficient way to backup all DMF databases. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of new features introduced in DMF 2.0 and adding a minor modification to the dmdaemon. This paper discusses the investigation and the changes necessary to implement these enhancements.

  5. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  6. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  7. Le Francais Moderne, (Modern French) Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Performance objectives and broad goals for listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in French instruction are presented in this text. Cultural awareness and student attitude are also considered. Vocabulary and structure of the course are presented through three situations: shopping, meeting a train, and making vacation plans. Short films…

  8. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  9. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  10. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  11. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  12. French Women in Physics: Status and Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, C.; Pépin, A.; Ducloy, M.; Giacobino, E.; Leduc, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present statistics on the underrepresentation of females entering scientific studies and on the persistence of a glass ceiling for women physicists—and female scientists in general—in France. We also examine actions taken by French research institutions, associations, companies, and professional societies since 2005 to improve these situations.

  13. The Longitudinal Development of Clusters in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing…

  14. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  15. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  16. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  17. Syntactic Categorization in French-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that infants recognize and store function words starting from the age of 6-8 months. Using a visual fixation procedure, the present study tested whether French-learning 14-month-olds have the knowledge of syntactic categories of determiners and pronouns, respectively, and whether they can use these function words for…

  18. Wandering atrial pacemaker (prevalence in French hornists).

    PubMed

    Nizet, P M; Borgi, J F; Horvath, S M

    1976-01-01

    Continuous electrocardiographic recordings were obtained in a group of French horn players during performance of identical pieces of music. Half of the musicians developed wandering atrial pacemaker. One example is illustrated. The causative mechanism is briefly discussed. This may represent an "occupational" hazard. PMID:1245812

  19. Eurodisney, French Politics, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Bill

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past, present, and future of Eurodisney in France from cultural awareness and cultural business ethics viewpoints, suggesting that although the French have not bought into the American dream that is Disney, they are so heavily involved in Eurodisney from a financial angle that they can do naught but continue to provide…

  20. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  1. Pourquoi le francais et quel francais au Maroc? (Why French and Which French in Morocco?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akouaou, Ahmed

    1984-01-01

    The status of French in Morocco is ambiguous: it is neither an official language nor a foreign language, and it would benefit greatly from an official definition that would allow a variety of language conflicts to be resolved. (MSE)

  2. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  3. Immersion francaise precoce. Early French Immersion: Administrator's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy

    This handbook (in English) is part of a series of early French immersion program teaching guides--all written in French--and is designed to serve as a guide for administrators in schools with classes of students who are being instructed in French for a large part of their school program. It addresses itself to areas of concern which are unique to…

  4. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  5. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  6. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  7. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  8. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  9. Linguistic, Academic, and Cognitive Benefits of French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Wally

    2007-01-01

    A survey of research on French as a second language (FSL) education in Canada suggests that French immersion (FI) students enjoy significant linguistic, academic, and cognitive benefits. We organize our summary of the advantages of FI around these three themes, comparing students' proficiency in French and English across various FI programs, and…

  10. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

  11. Guided Learners of French and the Acquisition of Emphatic Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Petra

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by advanced guided learners of French, in particular (Dutch) first grade university students of French are studied and compared to the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by (Dutch) secondary school pupils learning French in a purely institutional situation. It is shown that…

  12. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  13. Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2010-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

  14. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  15. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  16. French-Algonquian Interaction in Canada: A Michif Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the language contact situation between Algonquian languages and French in Canada. Michif, a French-Plains Cree mixed language, is used as a case study for linguistic results of language contact. The paper describes the phonological, morphological, and syntactic conflict sites between the grammars of Plains Cree and French, as…

  17. View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  18. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  19. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  20. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  1. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  2. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  3. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  4. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  5. Database Searching by Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

  6. Morchella MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...

  7. First Look: TRADEMARKSCAN Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne Conway; Davidson, Alan B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes database produced by Thomson and Thomson and available on Dialog which contains over 700,000 records representing all active federal trademark registrations and applications for registrations filed in United States Patent and Trademark Office. A typical record, special features, database applications, learning to use TRADEMARKSCAN, and…

  8. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  9. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  10. Assignment to database industy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kohichiroh

    Various kinds of databases are considered to be essential part in future large sized systems. Information provision only by databases is also considered to be growing as the market becomes mature. This paper discusses how such circumstances have been built and will be developed from now on.

  11. Dictionary as Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  12. A Quality System Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  13. BioImaging Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  14. The intelligent database machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    The IDM data base was compared with the data base crack to determine whether IDM 500 would better serve the needs of the MSFC data base management system than Oracle. The two were compared and the performance of the IDM was studied. Implementations that work best on which database are implicated. The choice is left to the database administrator.

  15. Build Your Own Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter; Lancaster, F. W.

    This book is intended to help librarians and others to produce databases of better value and quality, especially if they have had little previous experience in database construction. Drawing upon almost 40 years of experience in the field of information retrieval, this book emphasizes basic principles and approaches rather than in-depth and…

  16. Database Reviews: Legal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia

    Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size of file. A detailed…

  17. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  18. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  19. National Vulnerability Database (NVD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Vulnerability Database (NVD) (Web, free access)   NVD is a comprehensive cyber security vulnerability database that integrates all publicly available U.S. Government vulnerability resources and provides references to industry resources. It is based on and synchronized with the CVE vulnerability naming standard.

  20. Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Jay

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…

  1. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  2. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2008-01-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database reports analyses of animal cancer tests on 1,547 chemicals. These tests are used in support of cancer risk assessments for humans. Results are searchable and are made available via the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) TOXNET system. This column will provide background information on the database, as well as present search basics. PMID:19042710

  3. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  4. Protein sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Bairoch, Amos; Wu, Cathy H

    2004-02-01

    A variety of protein sequence databases exist, ranging from simple sequence repositories, which store data with little or no manual intervention in the creation of the records, to expertly curated universal databases that cover all species and in which the original sequence data are enhanced by the manual addition of further information in each sequence record. As the focus of researchers moves from the genome to the proteins encoded by it, these databases will play an even more important role as central comprehensive resources of protein information. Several the leading protein sequence databases are discussed here, with special emphasis on the databases now provided by the Universal Protein Knowledgebase (UniProt) consortium. PMID:15036160

  5. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules on ultrasonography with the French TI-RADS: description and reflections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of ultrasonography places it in a key position for use in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. The French proposal is a five-tier system, our version of a thyroid imaging reporting and database system (TI-RADS), which includes a standardized vocabulary and report and a quantified risk assessment. It allows the selection of the nodules that should be referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Effort should be directed towards merging the different risk stratification systems utilized around the world and testing this unified system with multi-center studies. PMID:26324117

  6. The French language virtual medical university.

    PubMed

    Morin, A; Benhamou, A C; Spector, M; Bonnin, A; Debry, C

    2004-01-01

    The work program of the French Language Virtual Medical University started about 2 years ago, and entered into a real active phase of development and implementation in 2002. Various national programs and organizational initiatives should accelerate and facilitate further appropriation of modem pedagogical approaches by knowledge providers and all users of the FSVMU, so as to advance on the way of virtual education. The French Language Virtual Medical University under the auspices of both the National Conference of Deans of Medical Schools and the International Conference of Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools has been developed to create a major Internet portal for French-speaking distance medical learning and teaching. This construct should be representative of all medical schools in France and French-speaking countries. Contents will also be translated into English, Spanish and Arabic. All medical disciplines with their various levels of teaching are to be included. Cross-related fields are also going to be present in order to offer full range programs. The latter are intended to provide both initial and continuing education for medical students as well as all other categories of health professionals and medical and scientific research workers. To develop the appropriate technology and make such a portal, on one hand correspond to the specific educational requirements and proper training for health professionals, and on the other hand provide a general access to e-learning in all schools of medicine; in keeping with such goals, the following approaches should be stressed upon. To build a virtual space where individual patients, their families, patient associations as well as the general public, can obtain medical information of good quality for the purposes of both education and prevention. Providing such categories with reliable and validated sources of information, and offering an ethical basis for the increasing practice of e-medicine, represent in today

  7. [Relevance of the hemovigilance regional database for the shared medical file identity server].

    PubMed

    Doly, A; Fressy, P; Garraud, O

    2008-11-01

    The French Health Products Safety Agency coordinates the national initiative of computerization of blood products traceability within regional blood banks and public and private hospitals. The Auvergne-Loire Regional French Blood Service, based in Saint-Etienne, together with a number of public hospitals set up a transfusion data network named EDITAL. After four years of progressive implementation and experimentation, a software enabling standardized data exchange has built up a regional nominative database, endorsed by the Traceability Computerization National Committee in 2004. This database now provides secured web access to a regional transfusion history enabling biologists and all hospital and family practitioners to take in charge the patient follow-up. By running independently from the softwares of its partners, EDITAL database provides reference for the regional identity server. PMID:18938099

  8. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  9. PADB : Published Association Database

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  10. ResPlan Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellers, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The main project I was involved in was new application development for the existing CIS0 Database (ResPlan). This database application was developed in Microsoft Access. Initial meetings with Greg Follen, Linda McMillen, Griselle LaFontaine and others identified a few key weaknesses with the existing database. The weaknesses centered around that while the database correctly modeled the structure of Programs, Projects and Tasks, once the data was entered, the database did not capture any dynamic status information, and as such was of limited usefulness. After the initial meetings my goals were identified as follows: Enhance the ResPlan Database to include qualitative and quantitative status information about the Programs, Projects and Tasks Train staff members about the ResPlan database from both the user perspective and the developer perspective Give consideration to a Web Interface for reporting. Initially, the thought was that there would not be adequate time to actually develop the Web Interface, Greg wanted it understood that this was an eventual goal and as such should be a consideration throughout the development process.

  11. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  12. Database for propagation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1991-01-01

    A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.

  13. The Gaia Parameter Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Lammers, U.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    2005-01-01

    The parallel development of many aspects of a complex mission like Gaia, which includes numerous participants in ESA, industrial companies, and a large and active scientific collaboration throughout Europe, makes keeping track of the many design changes, instrument and operational complexities, and numerical values for the data analysis a very challenging problem. A comprehensive, easily-accessible, up-to-date, and definitive compilation of a large range of numerical quantities is required, and the Gaia parameter database has been established to satisfy these needs. The database is a centralised repository containing, besides mathematical, physical, and astronomical constants, many satellite and subsystem design parameters. At the end of 2004, more than 1600 parameters had been included. Version control has been implemented, providing, next to a `live' version with the most recent parameters, well-defined reference versions of the full database contents. The database can be queried or browsed using a regular Web browser (http://www.rssd.esa.int/Gaia/paramdb). Query results are formated by default in HTML. Data can also be retrieved as Fortran-77, Fortran-90, Java, ANSIC, C++, or XML structures for direct inclusion into software codes in these languages. The idea is that all collaborating scientists can use the database parameters and values, once retrieved, directly linked to computational routines. An off-line access mode is also available, enabling users to automatically download the contents of the database. The database will be maintained actively, and significant extensions of the contents are planned. Consistent use in the future of the database by the Gaia community at large, including all industrial teams, will ensure correct numerical values throughout the complex software systems being built up as details of the Gaia design develop. The database is already being used for the telemetry simulation chain in ESTEC, and in the data simulations for GDAAS2.

  14. Human variation databases

    PubMed Central

    Küntzer, Jan; Eggle, Daniela; Klostermann, Stefan; Burtscher, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    More than 100 000 human genetic variations have been described in various genes that are associated with a wide variety of diseases. Such data provides invaluable information for both clinical medicine and basic science. A number of locus-specific databases have been developed to exploit this huge amount of data. However, the scope, format and content of these databases differ strongly and as no standard for variation databases has yet been adopted, the way data is presented varies enormously. This review aims to give an overview of current resources for human variation data in public and commercial resources. PMID:20639550

  15. International Comparisions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    International Comparisions Database (Web, free access)   The International Comparisons Database (ICDB) serves the U.S. and the Inter-American System of Metrology (SIM) with information based on Appendices B (International Comparisons), C (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and D (List of Participating Countries) of the Comit� International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The official source of the data is The BIPM key comparison database. The ICDB provides access to results of comparisons of measurements and standards organized by the consultative committees of the CIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations.

  16. Hybrid Terrain Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey

    2006-01-01

    A prototype hybrid terrain database is being developed in conjunction with other databases and with hardware and software that constitute subsystems of aerospace cockpit display systems (known in the art as synthetic vision systems) that generate images to increase pilots' situation awareness and eliminate poor visibility as a cause of aviation accidents. The basic idea is to provide a clear view of the world around an aircraft by displaying computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information.

  17. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  18. JICST Factual Database(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Keisuke

    The computer programme, which builds atom-bond connection tables from nomenclatures, is developed. Chemical substances with their nomenclature and varieties of trivial names or experimental code numbers are inputted. The chemical structures of the database are stereospecifically stored and are able to be searched and displayed according to stereochemistry. Source data are from laws and regulations of Japan, RTECS of US and so on. The database plays a central role within the integrated fact database service of JICST and makes interrelational retrieval possible.

  19. Databases for materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Cambridge Materials Selector (CMS2.0) materials database was developed by the Engineering Dept. at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. This database makes it possible to select a material for a specific application from essentially all classes of materials. Genera, Predict, and Socrates software programs from CLI International, Houston, Texas, automate materials selection and corrosion problem-solving tasks. They are said to significantly reduce the time necessary to select a suitable material and/or to assess a corrosion problem and reach cost-effective solutions. This article describes both databases and tells how to use them.

  20. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  1. French language space science educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I.; Masongsong, E. V.; Connors, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Athabasca University's AUTUMNX ground-based magnetometer array to measure and report geomagnetic conditions in eastern Canada is located in the heart of French speaking Canada. Through the course of the project, we have had the privilege to partner with schools, universities, astronomy clubs and government agencies across Quebec, all of which operate primarily in French. To acknowledge and serve the needs of our research partners, we have endeavored to produce educational and outreach (EPO) material adapted for francophone audiences with the help of UCLA's department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (EPSS). Not only will this provide greater understanding and appreciation of the geospace environment unique to Quebec and surrounding regions, it strengthens our ties with our francophone, first nations (native Americans) and Inuit partners, trailblazing new paths of research collaboration and inspiring future generations of researchers.

  2. [The First World War and French nurses].

    PubMed

    Darrow, Margaret H

    2014-06-01

    The First World War changed the place of women in French society. The major contribution they made in numerous sectors of activity is indisputable. However, the process of professionalisation was not really undertaken and the level of training given to the nurses, most of whom were volunteers, was very sketchy. The nurses seemed to be appreciated as much for their dedication as for their skills. PMID:25069374

  3. [The origins of the French neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J

    2016-06-01

    Modern French neurosurgery starts at the beginning of the XXth century under the motivation of Joseph Babinski. He submitted his patients to Thierry de Martel who had learned this new specialized area of medicine with H. Cushing in the États-Unis and V. Horsey in Great Britain. His first successfully treated case of an intracranial tumor was published in 1909. But the true founding father was Clovis Vincent, initially a neurologist and collaborator of de Martel, who became the first chairman in 1933 of the neurosurgical department at the Pitié hospital of Paris and the first professor of neurosurgery in 1938. After the Second World War, many departments were created outside of Paris. Neurosurgery was definitively recognized as a specialized area in medicine in 1948. Currently, more than 400 neurosurgeons work in France. Because I had the very great privilege to be present at the birth of this society in 1970 and to still be in contact with some of the second and third generation of French neurosurgeons who led it to its high international recognition, the Chairman of the French Neurosurgical Society asked me to write this short historical vignette. PMID:27234912

  4. Infant observation and the French model.

    PubMed

    Houzel, Didier

    2012-02-01

    Psychoanalytic training in the French Societies belonging to the International Psychoanalytic Association does not grant any place to the observation of babies as it exists in certain societies of other countries. Infant observation is even the object of sharp critiques by eminent French theoreticians. The reasons given for condemning infant observation and refusing to give it any place in the training programme lie in theoretical positions concerning the very nature of the Freudian discovery and its interpretation, which is more idealistic than empirical. The author discusses these reasons while drawing attention to the frequent confusion between a reference to empiricism and a reference to the experimental. The fear of a psychologizing deviation of metapsychology and of a denial of psychic reality leads, in the French model, to placing the emphasis on personal analytic experience during the candidate's psychoanalysis, prolonged by supervisions. It excludes any academic teaching of metapsychology or of related disciplines. The confusion between the empiricism of Esther Bick's method and the recourse to experimental procedures in developmental research stands in the way of making a place for infant observation and of recognizing its training value, not so much for the acquisition of new knowledge or the validation of metapsychological models, as for its usefulness in developing a mode of psychoanalytic observation and an increase in the candidates' containing capacities. PMID:22320142

  5. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  6. NCCDPHP PUBLICATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts of publications produced by the CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) including journal articles, monographs, book chapters, reports, policy documents, and fact sheets. Full...

  7. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  8. THE CTEPP DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) database contains a wealth of data on children's aggregate exposures to pollutants in their everyday surroundings. Chemical analysis data for the environmental media and ques...

  9. Hawaii bibliographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  10. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  11. Requirements Management Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-08-13

    This application is a simplified and customized version of the RBA and CTS databases to capture federal, site, and facility requirements, link to actions that must be performed to maintain compliance with their contractual and other requirements.

  12. Navigating Public Microarray Databases

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  13. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  14. Navigating public microarray databases.

    PubMed

    Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  15. Household Products Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commercial / Institutional Product Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...

  16. TREATABILITY DATABASE DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities, first responders to spills or emergencies, treatment process designers, research organizations, academics, regulato...

  17. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  18. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase-out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  19. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  20. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  1. The ribosomal database project.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, N; Olsen, G J; Maidak, B L; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Macke, T J; Marsh, T L; Woese, C R

    1993-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome data along with related programs and services. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via ftp and electronic mail. Certain analytic services are also provided by the electronic mail server. PMID:8332524

  2. Database computing in HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. ); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. ); Baden, A. . Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. . Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  3. Database computing in HEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, C. T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J. F.; May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L. E.; Baden, A.; Grossman, R.; Qin, X.

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors, I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototypes based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  4. Societal risk as seen by the French public

    SciTech Connect

    Karpowicz-Lazreg, C.; Mullet, E. )

    1993-06-01

    Mean risk magnitude judgments expressed by French students on 90 hazardous activities are reported and compared with findings on American, Hungarian, and Norwegian samples. In many respects, rating of perceived risk in the French sample is highly comparable to rating in American subjects. American and French people tend to share the same preoccupations to the same extent. The only major differences concern hallucinatory drugs and oral contraceptives. The Norwegians and French ratings differ much more. Norwegians and French people generally have the same preoccupations (which make Norwegian ratings the best predictor of French ratings) but not to the same extent. The French are much more concerned with a whole series of activities connected to violence, the implementation of high technology or agricultural technology. However, like the Norwegians, the French are extremely concerned about the spread of hallucinogenic drugs. The Hungarian and French ratings differ on practically all instances, except on basic activities or substances in all industrialized nations (caffeine, motorcycles, ...). Differences were observed within the French sample itself. Women more than men consider that home appliances in general and large-scale public transportation are potentially dangerous. Science students more than art students tend to fear a certain number of medical techniques and a certain number of toxic substances (e.g., smoking). 7 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Databases: Peter's Picks and Pans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the best and worst in databases on disk, CD-ROM, and online, and offers judgments and observations on database characteristics. Two databases are praised and three are criticized. (Author/JMV)

  6. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  7. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  8. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

  9. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  10. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  11. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  12. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  13. Ticlopidine- and clopidogrel-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and pharmacovigilance findings (1989–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Zakarija, Anaadriana; Kwaan, Hau C.; Moake, Joel L.; Bandarenko, Nicholas; Pandey, Dilip K.; McKoy, June M.; Yarnold, Paul R.; Raisch, Dennis W.; Winters, Jeffrey L.; Raife, Thomas J.; Cursio, John F.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Richey, Elizabeth A.; Fisher, Matthew J.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Tallman, Martin S.; Zheng, X. Long; Matsumoto, Masanori; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a fulminant disease characterized by platelet aggregates, thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, neurologic changes, and mechanical injury to erythrocytes. Most idiopathic cases of TTP are characterized by a deficiency of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease, with thrombospondin-1-like domains) metalloprotease activity. Ironically, use of anti-platelet agents, the thienopyridine derivates clopidogrel and ticlopidine, is associated with drug induced TTP. Data were abstracted from a systematic review of English-language literature for thienopyridine-associated TTP identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the public website of the Food and Drug Administration, and abstracts from national scientific conferences from 1991 to April 2008. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel are the two most common drugs associated with TTP in FDA safety databases. Epidemiological studies identify recent initiation of anti-platelet agents as the most common risk factor associated with risks of developing TTP. Laboratory studies indicate that most cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP involve an antibody to ADAMTS13 metalloprotease, present with severe thrombocytopenia, and respond to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); a minority of thienopyridine-associated TTP presents with severe renal insufficiency, involves direct endothelial cell damage, and is less responsive to TPE. The evaluation of this potentially fatal drug toxicity can serve as a template for future efforts to comprehensively characterize other severe adverse drug reactions. PMID:19180126

  14. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  15. Chemical Explosion Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peder; Brachet, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    A database containing information on chemical explosions, recorded and located by the International Data Center (IDC) of the CTBTO, should be established in the IDC prior to entry into force of the CTBT. Nearly all of the large chemical explosions occur in connection with mining activity. As a first step towards the establishment of this database, a survey of presumed mining areas where sufficiently large explosions are conducted has been done. This is dominated by the large coal mining areas like the Powder River (U.S.), Kuznetsk (Russia), Bowen (Australia) and Ekibastuz (Kazakhstan) basins. There are also several other smaller mining areas, in e.g. Scandinavia, Poland, Kazakhstan and Australia, with large enough explosions for detection. Events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC that are located in or close to these mining areas, and which therefore are candidates for inclusion in the database, have been investigated. Comparison with a database of infrasound events has been done as many mining blasts generate strong infrasound signals and therefore also are included in the infrasound database. Currently there are 66 such REB events in 18 mining areas in the infrasound database. On a yearly basis several hundreds of events in mining areas have been recorded and included in the REB. Establishment of the database of chemical explosions requires confirmation and ground truth information from the States Parties regarding these events. For an explosion reported in the REB, the appropriate authority in whose country the explosion occurred is encouraged, on a voluntary basis, to seek out information on the explosion and communicate this information to the IDC.

  16. Two centuries of French patents as documentation of musical instrument construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Haury

    2005-09-01

    The French Patent Office I.N.P.I. has preserved the originals of ca. 12000 French patents filed between 1791 and present days that are concerned with music-related inventions. As an I.N.P.I. pilot project, these were identified, collected, and classified by the present author, and the actual database named ``Musique & Brevets'' is going to be expanded with English, American, and German material, bringing currently a knowledge base up to 1900. It is expected to be made available on an I.N.P.I. website. This is an unequaled initiative that covers all branches of musical instrument manufacture, mechanical musical instruments, early recording and reproducing of music, but also educational material and methods for printing music. There already exists a number of websites presenting inventions on musical instruments, but these are restricted to one particular instrument and its related patents. ``Musique & Brevets'' intends to be exhaustive and make links between patents filed in different countries at the same time. The paper will present the content of the database, the access to texts and drawings of the patents via specific links, and their importance for the study of history and construction of musical instruments.

  17. ADANS database specification

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  18. The Chandra Bibliography Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.

  19. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  20. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  1. Using the Reactome Database

    PubMed Central

    Haw, Robin

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the bioinformatics community in creating pathway databases. The Reactome project (a collaboration between the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York University Medical Center and the European Bioinformatics Institute) is one such pathway database and collects structured information on all the biological pathways and processes in the human. It is an expert-authored and peer-reviewed, curated collection of well-documented molecular reactions that span the gamut from simple intermediate metabolism to signaling pathways and complex cellular events. This information is supplemented with likely orthologous molecular reactions in mouse, rat, zebrafish, worm and other model organisms. This unit describes how to use the Reactome database to learn the steps of a biological pathway; navigate and browse through the Reactome database; identify the pathways in which a molecule of interest is involved; use the Pathway and Expression analysis tools to search the database for and visualize possible connections within user-supplied experimental data set and Reactome pathways; and the Species Comparison tool to compare human and model organism pathways. PMID:22700314

  2. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  3. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  4. Integrating Paleoecological Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blois, Jessica; Goring, Simon; Smith, Alison

    2011-02-01

    Neotoma Consortium Workshop; Madison, Wisconsin, 23-26 September 2010 ; Paleoecology can contribute much to global change science, as paleontological records provide rich information about species range shifts, changes in vegetation composition and productivity, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem responses to abrupt climate change, and paleoclimate reconstruction, for example. However, while paleoecology is increasingly a multidisciplinary, multiproxy field focused on biotic responses to global change, most paleo databases focus on single-proxy groups. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (http://www.neotomadb.org) aims to remedy this limitation by integrating discipline-specific databases to facilitate cross-community queries and analyses. In September, Neotoma consortium members and representatives from other databases and data communities met at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to launch the second development phase of Neotoma. The workshop brought together 54 international specialists, including Neotoma data stewards, users, and developers. Goals for the meeting were fourfold: (1) develop working plans for existing data communities; (2) identify new data types and sources; (3) enhance data access, visualization, and analysis on the Neotoma Web site; and (4) coordinate with other databases and cooperate in tool development and sharing.

  5. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  6. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  7. DETAIL VIEW, SOUTH PORTICO, CENTER DOOR OPENING CONTAINING FRENCH WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, SOUTH PORTICO, CENTER DOOR OPENING CONTAINING FRENCH WINDOWS. (NOTE THE INCISED STUCCO MIMICKING ASHLAR STONE COURSING - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  10. Protein Structure Databases.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    Web-based protein structure databases come in a wide variety of types and levels of information content. Those having the most general interest are the various atlases that describe each experimentally determined protein structure and provide useful links, analyses, and schematic diagrams relating to its 3D structure and biological function. Also of great interest are the databases that classify 3D structures by their folds as these can reveal evolutionary relationships which may be hard to detect from sequence comparison alone. Related to these are the numerous servers that compare folds-particularly useful for newly solved structures, and especially those of unknown function. Beyond these are a vast number of databases for the more specialized user, dealing with specific families, diseases, structural features, and so on. PMID:27115626

  11. Cytochrome P450 database.

    PubMed

    Lisitsa, A V; Gusev, S A; Karuzina, I I; Archakov, A I; Koymans, L

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a specialized database dedicated exclusively to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. The system provides the impression of superfamily's nomenclature and describes structure and function of different P450 enzymes. Information on P450-catalyzed reactions, substrate preferences, peculiarities of induction and inhibition is available through the database management system. Also the source genes and appropriate translated proteins can be retrieved together with corresponding literature references. Developed programming solution provides the flexible interface for browsing, searching, grouping and reporting the information. Local version of database manager and required data files are distributed on a compact disk. Besides, there is a network version of the software available on Internet. The network version implies the original mechanism, which is useful for the permanent online extension of the data scope. PMID:11769119

  12. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  13. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  14. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  15. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  16. The PROSITE database.

    PubMed

    Hulo, Nicolas; Bairoch, Amos; Bulliard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; De Castro, Edouard; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J A

    2006-01-01

    The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to a documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE database is now complemented by a series of rules that can give more precise information about specific residues. During the last 2 years, the documentation and the ScanProsite web pages were redesigned to add more functionalities. The latest version of PROSITE (release 19.11 of September 27, 2005) contains 1329 patterns and 552 profile entries. Over the past 2 years more than 200 domains have been added, and now 52% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 48.1 of September 27, 2005) have a cross-reference to a PROSITE entry. The database is accessible at http://www.expasy.org/prosite/. PMID:16381852

  17. The PROSITE database

    PubMed Central

    Hulo, Nicolas; Bairoch, Amos; Bulliard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; De Castro, Edouard; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S.; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J. A.

    2006-01-01

    The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to a documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE database is now complemented by a series of rules that can give more precise information about specific residues. During the last 2 years, the documentation and the ScanProsite web pages were redesigned to add more functionalities. The latest version of PROSITE (release 19.11 of September 27, 2005) contains 1329 patterns and 552 profile entries. Over the past 2 years more than 200 domains have been added, and now 52% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 48.1 of September 27, 2005) have a cross-reference to a PROSITE entry. The database is accessible at . PMID:16381852

  18. [French national health insurance. The current situation].

    PubMed

    Huguier, Michel; Lagrave, Michel; Marcelli, Aline; Rossignol, Claude; Tillement, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    An audit of the French national health insurance system would be justified by economic considerations alone, but this would risk overlooking the notions of solidarity and freedom to which the French are rightly attached. European comparisons suggest, however, that our system could be made more efficient without undermining public health. The national health insurance system allows each member of the population to receive high-quality medical care. Practitioners have near-total freedom of prescription and practice. Medical care contributes to the ongoing increase in life expectancy, which is currently 73 years and second only to Japan. Healthcare is also a source of a million jobs. Macro-economic spending controls have failed, owing to medical progress and population aging, and also to medical consumerism favored by an unprecedented range of examinations and treatments, the increasing reimbursement of medical care, and the extension of direct payment by the insurer. Many ineffective measures have been implemented, such as tarification according to activity, and hospital certification. Health spending is also increased unnecessarily by bureaucratisation of healthcare spending and the transfer of professionals to posts for which they are not qualified. Some controversial medical prescriptions are not adequately controlled by the health service. Many reforms are based on over-optimistic economic predictions that fail to take related overheads into account. Lobbying by special interests groups undermines reform and the public interest. Too many independent administrative bodies have been created, and many are less efficient than the public structures they replaced. In sum, the French national health insurance system has become less and less efficient over the years. PMID:21513139

  19. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  20. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  1. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Barnosky, A. D.; Betancourt, J. L.; Bills, B.; Booth, R.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Graham, R. W.; Goring, S. J.; Hausmann, S.; Smith, A. J.; Williams, J. W.; Buckland, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) is a multiproxy, open-access, relational database that includes fossil data for the past 5 million years (the late Neogene and Quaternary Periods). Modern distributional data for various organisms are also being made available for calibration and paleoecological analyses. The project is a collaborative effort among individuals from more than 20 institutions worldwide, including domain scientists representing a spectrum of Pliocene-Quaternary fossil data types, as well as experts in information technology. Working groups are active for diatoms, insects, ostracodes, pollen and plant macroscopic remains, testate amoebae, rodent middens, vertebrates, age models, geochemistry and taphonomy. Groups are also active in developing online tools for data analyses and for developing modules for teaching at different levels. A key design concept of NeotomaDB is that stewards for various data types are able to remotely upload and manage data. Cooperatives for different kinds of paleo data, or from different regions, can appoint their own stewards. Over the past year, much progress has been made on development of the steward software-interface that will enable this capability. The steward interface uses web services that provide access to the database. More generally, these web services enable remote programmatic access to the database, which both desktop and web applications can use and which provide real-time access to the most current data. Use of these services can alleviate the need to download the entire database, which can be out-of-date as soon as new data are entered. In general, the Neotoma web services deliver data either from an entire table or from the results of a view. Upon request, new web services can be quickly generated. Future developments will likely expand the spatial and temporal dimensions of the database. NeotomaDB is open to receiving new datasets and stewards from the global Quaternary community

  2. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  3. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise. PMID:25515143

  4. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  5. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  6. Expeditionary medicine in Africa: the French experience.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Eric; Kenane, Maj Nadia; Montcriol, Ambroise; Palmier, Bruno

    2007-07-01

    The French army is often engaged in stability and support operations in Africa, and its military health service has gained much experience. The goal of this article is to present our military medical management strategies during the two main phases of military action. These situations most often begin with an initial combat phase, with combat casualty care. This consists of first aid, i.e., treatment of bleeding points, followed by battlefield forward medical care, damage control surgery, and resuscitation in forward surgical units. The quieter second phase of peacekeeping operations is dominated by the management of tropical diseases and their prevention, essential for the preservation of the military strength. PMID:17691682

  7. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  8. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  9. REPORT AND EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL CLASS IN FRENCH (FRENCH 20) FIRST SEMESTER IN OPERATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARRAR, RONALD D.

    THIS EXPERIMENT TESTS CERTAIN INNOVATIONS IN THE PRESENTATION OF A FRENCH COURSE. THE COURSE COVERED, IN ONE SEMESTER, THE MATERIAL NORMALLY GIVEN IN TWO, AND WAS INTENDED TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS' PROFICIENCY BY INTENSIVE CONTACT AND STILL MAINTAIN THE STANDARDS OF FORMAL EXPRESSION AND GRAMMAR. IT WAS GIVEN TWO SUCCESSIVE HOURS PER DAY FOR FIVE…

  10. Business French or French Business? What Do We Teach and What Do We Call It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe-Dupas, Helene

    It is argued that while college courses in French business communication aim to introduce business concepts, syllabuses and textbooks for this purpose do not integrate business skill training with business language training. Texts may contain extensive business-related vocabulary, readings, correspondence exercises, and definition of new concepts,…

  11. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  12. Incarcerated French Students, Do They Measure Up?: A Comparison of Three Elementary College French Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ann Masters

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of examination results showed that one intact classroom of incarcerated students performed comparably to two other intact classrooms of French 111, 112, and 113 students on two regional campuses of the same university system. No statistically significant differences in achievement among the groups were revealed. (Author/JOW)

  13. French behind Bars: A Qualitative and Quantitative Examination of College French Teaching in Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ann Masters

    1994-01-01

    One instructor's experiences teaching French to prison inmates is recounted. Descriptions of the students, instructional environment, limitations of the textbook, and student creativity are accompanied by a quantitative analysis of the inmates' academic achievement. Their grades did not differ noticeably from those of students taught by the author…

  14. Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1981 Wayne Erickson founded Microrim, Inc, a company originally focused on marketing a microcomputer version of RIM (Relational Information Manager). Dennis Comfort joined the firm and is now vice president, development. The team developed an advanced spinoff from the NASA system they had originally created, a microcomputer database management system known as R:BASE 4000. Microrim added many enhancements and developed a series of R:BASE products for various environments. R:BASE is now the second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software in the world.

  15. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  16. JICST Factual Database(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Shinji

    The outline of JICST factual database (JOIS-F), which JICST has started from January, 1988, and its online service are described in this paper. First, the author mentions the circumstances from 1973, when its planning was started, to the present, and its relation to "Project by Special Coordination Founds for Promoting Science and Technology". Secondly, databases, which are now under development aiming to start its services from fiscal 1988 or fiscal 1989, of DNA, metallic material intensity, crystal structure, chemical substance regulations, and so forth, are described. Lastly, its online service is briefly explained.

  17. The Ribosomal Database Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Larsen, N; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Fogel, K; Blandy, J; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services, and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server/rdp.life.uiuc.edu) and gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu). The electronic mail server also provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for chimeric nature of newly sequenced rRNAs, and automated alignment. PMID:7524021

  18. DataBase on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.

    2012-12-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  19. An International Study of the Ability and Cost-Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to Facilitate Study Participant Self-Enrolment Into a Pilot Pharmacovigilance Study During Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the fetal effects of maternal medication use in pregnancy is often inadequate and current pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PV) surveillance methods have important limitations. Patient self-reporting may be able to mitigate some of these limitations, providing an adequately sized study sample can be recruited. Objective To compare the ability and cost-effectiveness of several direct-to-participant advertising methods for the recruitment of pregnant participants into a study of self-reported gestational exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Methods The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium (PROTECT) pregnancy study is a non-interventional, prospective pilot study of self-reported medication use and obstetric outcomes provided by a cohort of pregnant women that was conducted in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Direct-to-participant advertisements were provided via websites, emails, leaflets, television, and social media platforms. Results Over a 70-week recruitment period direct-to-participant advertisements engaged 43,234 individuals with the study website or telephone system; 4.78% (2065/43,234) of which were successfully enrolled and provided study data. Of these 90.4% (1867/2065) were recruited via paid advertising methods, 23.0% (475/2065) of whom were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The overall costs per active recruited participant were lowest for email (€23.24) and website (€24.41) advertisements and highest for leaflet (€83.14) and television (€100.89). Website adverts were substantially superior in their ability to recruit participants during their first trimester of pregnancy (317/668, 47.5%) in comparison with other advertising methods (P<.001). However, we identified international variations in both the cost-effectiveness of the various advertisement methods used and in their ability to recruit participants in early pregnancy. Conclusions Recruitment of a

  20. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  1. GENERAL PERMITS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:This database was used to provide permit writers with a library of examples for writing general permits. It has not been maintained and is outdated and will be removed. Water Permits Division is trying to determine whether or not to recreate this databas...

  2. Triatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  3. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  4. Redis database administration tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  5. NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

  6. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT DATABASE (NAD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The National Assessment Database stores State water quality assessments that are reported under Section 305(b) of the Clean Water Act. The data are stored by individual water quality assessments. Threatened, partially and not supporting waters also have da...

  7. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

  8. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. T.; Fakhouri, O.; Marcy, G. W.; Han, E.; Feng, Y.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Valenti, J. A.; Anderson, J.; Piskunov, N.

    2011-04-01

    We present a database of well-determined orbital parameters of exoplanets, and their host stars' properties. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 427 planets orbiting 363 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form online through the Exoplanets Data Explorer table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanet Data Explorer plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots, giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the different selection biases between radial velocity and transit surveys, and that the multiplanet systems show a distinct semimajor-axis distribution from apparently singleton systems.

  9. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  10. NATIONAL CONTAMINANT OCCURRENCE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Under the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments, EPA is to assemble a National Drinking Water Occurrence Database (NCOD) by August 1999. The NCOD is a collection of data of documented quality on unregulated and regulated chemical, radiological, microbia...

  11. Database Technologies for RDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Souripriya; Srinivasan, Jagannathan

    Efficient and scalable support for RDF/OWL data storage, loading, inferencing and querying, in conjunction with already available support for enterprise level data and operations reliability requirements, can make databases suitable to act as enterprise-level RDF/OWL repository and hence become a viable platform for building semantic applications for the enterprise environments.

  12. Biomedical term mapping databases.

    PubMed

    Wren, Jonathan D; Chang, Jeffrey T; Pustejovsky, James; Adar, Eytan; Garner, Harold R; Altman, Russ B

    2005-01-01

    Longer words and phrases are frequently mapped onto a shorter form such as abbreviations or acronyms for efficiency of communication. These abbreviations are pervasive in all aspects of biology and medicine and as the amount of biomedical literature grows, so does the number of abbreviations and the average number of definitions per abbreviation. Even more confusing, different authors will often abbreviate the same word/phrase differently. This ambiguity impedes our ability to retrieve information, integrate databases and mine textual databases for content. Efforts to standardize nomenclature, especially those doing so retrospectively, need to be aware of different abbreviatory mappings and spelling variations. To address this problem, there have been several efforts to develop computer algorithms to identify the mapping of terms between short and long form within a large body of literature. To date, four such algorithms have been applied to create online databases that comprehensively map biomedical terms and abbreviations within MEDLINE: ARGH (http://lethargy.swmed.edu/ARGH/argh.asp), the Stanford Biomedical Abbreviation Server (http://bionlp.stanford.edu/abbreviation/), AcroMed (http://medstract.med.tufts.edu/acro1.1/index.htm) and SaRAD (http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/idl/projects/abbrev.html). In addition to serving as useful computational tools, these databases serve as valuable references that help biologists keep up with an ever-expanding vocabulary of terms. PMID:15608198

  13. The Indra Simulation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, Bridget; Budavari, T.; Cole, S.; Crankshaw, D.; Dobos, L.; Lemson, G.; Neyrinck, M.; Szalay, A.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present the Indra suite of cosmological N-body simulations and the design of its companion database. Indra consists of 512 different instances of a 1 Gpc/h-sided box, each with 100 million dark matter particles and the same input cosmology, enabling a characterization of very large-scale modes of the matter power spectrum with galaxy-scale mass resolution and an excellent handle on cosmic variance. Each simulation outputs 64 snapshots, giving over 100 TB of data for the full set of simulations, all of which will be loaded into a SQL database. We discuss the database design for the particle data, consisting of the positions and velocities of each particle; the FOF halos, with links to the particle data so that halo properties can be calculated within the database; and the density field on a power-of-two grid, which can be easily linked to each particle's Peano-Hilbert index. Initial performance tests and example queries will be given. The authors are grateful for support from the Gordon and Betty Moore and the W.M. Keck Foundations.

  14. Diatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.

  15. Databases and data mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of the past decade, the breadth of information that is made available through online resources for plant biology has increased astronomically, as have the interconnectedness among databases, online tools, and methods of data acquisition and analysis. For maize researchers, the numbe...

  16. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  17. The Ribosomal Database Project

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Gary J.; Overbeek, Ross; Larsen, Niels; Marsh, Terry L.; McCaughey, Michael J.; Maciukenas, Michael A.; Kuan, Wen-Min; Macke, Thomas J.; Xing, Yuqing; Woese, Carl R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) compiles ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development. PMID:1598241

  18. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians. PMID:20809527

  19. LHCb distributed conditions database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.

    2008-07-01

    The LHCb Conditions Database project provides the necessary tools to handle non-event time-varying data. The main users of conditions are reconstruction and analysis processes, which are running on the Grid. To allow efficient access to the data, we need to use a synchronized replica of the content of the database located at the same site as the event data file, i.e. the LHCb Tier1. The replica to be accessed is selected from information stored on LFC (LCG File Catalog) and managed with the interface provided by the LCG developed library CORAL. The plan to limit the submission of jobs to those sites where the required conditions are available will also be presented. LHCb applications are using the Conditions Database framework on a production basis since March 2007. We have been able to collect statistics on the performance and effectiveness of both the LCG library COOL (the library providing conditions handling functionalities) and the distribution framework itself. Stress tests on the CNAF hosted replica of the Conditions Database have been performed and the results will be summarized here.

  20. WETLANDS TREATMENT DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA sponsored a project to collect and catalog information from wastewater treatment wetlands into a computer database. PA has also written a user friendly, stand-alone, menu-driven computer program to allow anyone with DOS 3.3 or higher to access the information in the ...

  1. ECOREGION SPATIAL DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This spatial database contains boundaries and attributes describing Level III ecoregions in EPA Region 8. The ecoregions shown here have been derived from Omernik (1987) and from refinements of Omernik's framework that have been made for other projects. These ongoing or re...

  2. Une Planche de Salut pour le Francais: le Francais Quotidien et les Niveaux de Langue (A Last Resort for French: Everyday French and Language Levels)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    Before asking how to teach French, one should ask what French to teach. It is suggested that everyday French, "la langue usuelle," should be the norm for American teachers and textbook writers and editers. Greater utilization of film scenarios and songs of good quality are among the means suggested. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. "So She Has Been Educated by a Vulgar, Silly, Conceited French Governess!" Social Anxieties, Satirical Portraits, and the Eighteenth-Century French Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegele, Arden

    2011-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth's pedagogical short stories "Mademoiselle Panache" (1800, 1801) and "The Good French Governess" (1801) portray contrasting French instructors, and illustrate a transformation in English girls' education in French at the end of the eighteenth century. While "Mademoiselle Panache" looks back to the disingenuous French instructors of…

  4. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Under the generic title, ‘French Crossings’, this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour’s potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross.

  5. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication. PMID:25413488

  6. Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Phelippeau, Michael; Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Musso, Didier

    2015-01-01

    As few data are available in the Pacific countries and territories of the Oceania region regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria, we retrospectively identified 87 such isolates from French Polynesia from 2008 to 2013 by hybridization using DNA-strip, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Partial rpoB gene sequencing classified 42/87 (48.3%) isolates in the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, 28 (32.2%) in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, 8 (9.2%) in the Mycobacterium mucogenicum complex, and 5 (5.7%) in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium acapulcensis and Mycobacterium cosmeticum by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One isolate, unidentified by MALDI-TOF MS and yielding less than 92% and 96% sequence similarity with rpoB and hsp65 reference sequences, respectively, was regarded as a potentially new species. Samples from three patients exhibiting ≥2 Mycobacterium porcinum isolates and from one patient with emphysema and a lung abscess exhibiting 2 Mycobacterium senegalense isolates fulfilled the American Thoracic Society microbiological criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Remote geographic areas, such as French Polynesia, are potential sources for the discovery of new mycobacterial species. PMID:26400787

  7. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments. PMID:8511621

  8. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933). PMID:27035726

  9. How deaf are French speakers to stress?

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schön, Daniele; Dufour, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    This event-related potential study examined whether French listeners use stress at a phonological level when discriminating between stressed and unstressed words in their language. Participants heard five words and made same/different decisions about the final word (male voice) with respect to the four preceding words (different female voices). Compared to the first four context words, the target word was (i) phonemically and prosodically identical (/ʃu/-/ʃu/; control condition), (ii) phonemically identical but differing in the presence of a primary stress (/ʃu'/-/ʃu/), (iii) prosodically identical but phonemically different (/ʃo/-/ʃu/), or (iv) both phonemically and prosodically different (/ʃo'/-/ʃu/). Crucially, differences on the P200 and the following N200 components were observed for the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ and the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ conditions compared to the /ʃu/-/ʃu/ control condition. Moreover, on the N200 component more negativity was observed for the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ condition compared to the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ conditions, while no difference emerged between these two conditions on the earlier P200 component. Crucially, the results suggest that French listeners are capable of creating an abstract representation of stress. However, as they receive more input, participants react more strongly to phonemic than to stress information. PMID:27036270

  10. The AMMA database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloche, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Fleury, Laurence; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim

    2010-05-01

    The AMMA project includes aircraft, ground-based and ocean measurements, an intensive use of satellite data and diverse modelling studies. Therefore, the AMMA database aims at storing a great amount and a large variety of data, and at providing the data as rapidly and safely as possible to the AMMA research community. In order to stimulate the exchange of information and collaboration between researchers from different disciplines or using different tools, the database provides a detailed description of the products and uses standardized formats. The AMMA database contains: - AMMA field campaigns datasets; - historical data in West Africa from 1850 (operational networks and previous scientific programs); - satellite products from past and future satellites, (re-)mapped on a regular latitude/longitude grid and stored in NetCDF format (CF Convention); - model outputs from atmosphere or ocean operational (re-)analysis and forecasts, and from research simulations. The outputs are processed as the satellite products are. Before accessing the data, any user has to sign the AMMA data and publication policy. This chart only covers the use of data in the framework of scientific objectives and categorically excludes the redistribution of data to third parties and the usage for commercial applications. Some collaboration between data producers and users, and the mention of the AMMA project in any publication is also required. The AMMA database and the associated on-line tools have been fully developed and are managed by two teams in France (IPSL Database Centre, Paris and OMP, Toulouse). Users can access data of both data centres using an unique web portal. This website is composed of different modules : - Registration: forms to register, read and sign the data use chart when an user visits for the first time - Data access interface: friendly tool allowing to build a data extraction request by selecting various criteria like location, time, parameters... The request can

  11. JDD, Inc. Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    JDD Inc, is a maintenance and custodial contracting company whose mission is to provide their clients in the private and government sectors "quality construction, construction management and cleaning services in the most efficient and cost effective manners, (JDD, Inc. Mission Statement)." This company provides facilities support for Fort Riley in Fo,rt Riley, Kansas and the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field here in Cleveland, Ohio. JDD, Inc. is owned and operated by James Vaughn, who started as painter at NASA Glenn and has been working here for the past seventeen years. This summer I worked under Devan Anderson, who is the safety manager for JDD Inc. in the Logistics and Technical Information Division at Glenn Research Center The LTID provides all transportation, secretarial, security needs and contract management of these various services for the center. As a safety manager, my mentor provides Occupational Health and Safety Occupation (OSHA) compliance to all JDD, Inc. employees and handles all other issues (Environmental Protection Agency issues, workers compensation, safety and health training) involving to job safety. My summer assignment was not as considered "groundbreaking research" like many other summer interns have done in the past, but it is just as important and beneficial to JDD, Inc. I initially created a database using a Microsoft Excel program to classify and categorize data pertaining to numerous safety training certification courses instructed by our safety manager during the course of the fiscal year. This early portion of the database consisted of only data (training field index, employees who were present at these training courses and who was absent) from the training certification courses. Once I completed this phase of the database, I decided to expand the database and add as many dimensions to it as possible. Throughout the last seven weeks, I have been compiling more data from day to day operations and been adding the

  12. PMAG: Relational Database Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keizer, P.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Genevey, A.; Staudigel, H.; Helly, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Scripps center for Physical and Chemical Earth References (PACER) was established to help create databases for reference data and make them available to the Earth science community. As part of these efforts PACER supports GERM, REM and PMAG and maintains multiple online databases under the http://earthref.org umbrella website. This website has been built on top of a relational database that allows for the archiving and electronic access to a great variety of data types and formats, permitting data queries using a wide range of metadata. These online databases are designed in Oracle 8.1.5 and they are maintained at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. They are directly available via http://earthref.org/databases/. A prototype of the PMAG relational database is now operational within the existing EarthRef.org framework under http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/. As will be shown in our presentation, the PMAG design focuses around the general workflow that results in the determination of typical paleo-magnetic analyses. This ensures that individual data points can be traced between the actual analysis and the specimen, sample, site, locality and expedition it belongs to. These relations guarantee traceability of the data by distinguishing between original and derived data, where the actual (raw) measurements are performed on the specimen level, and data on the sample level and higher are then derived products in the database. These relations may also serve to recalculate site means when new data becomes available for that locality. The PMAG data records are extensively described in terms of metadata. These metadata are used when scientists search through this online database in order to view and download their needed data. They minimally include method descriptions for field sampling, laboratory techniques and statistical analyses. They also include selection criteria used during the interpretation of the data and, most importantly, critical information about the

  13. Tautomerism in large databases

    PubMed Central

    Sitzmann, Markus; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    We have used the Chemical Structure DataBase (CSDB) of the NCI CADD Group, an aggregated collection of over 150 small-molecule databases totaling 103.5 million structure records, to conduct tautomerism analyses on one of the largest currently existing sets of real (i.e. not computer-generated) compounds. This analysis was carried out using calculable chemical structure identifiers developed by the NCI CADD Group, based on hash codes available in the chemoinformatics toolkit CACTVS and a newly developed scoring scheme to define a canonical tautomer for any encountered structure. CACTVS’s tautomerism definition, a set of 21 transform rules expressed in SMIRKS line notation, was used, which takes a comprehensive stance as to the possible types of tautomeric interconversion included. Tautomerism was found to be possible for more than 2/3 of the unique structures in the CSDB. A total of 680 million tautomers were calculated from, and including, the original structure records. Tautomerism overlap within the same individual database (i.e. at least one other entry was present that was really only a different tautomeric representation of the same compound) was found at an average rate of 0.3% of the original structure records, with values as high as nearly 2% for some of the databases in CSDB. Projected onto the set of unique structures (by FICuS identifier), this still occurred in about 1.5% of the cases. Tautomeric overlap across all constituent databases in CSDB was found for nearly 10% of the records in the collection. PMID:20512400

  14. An Acoustic Profile of Right-Dislocations in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an acoustic profile of the prosody of right-dislocations in French, using the CECIL computer hardware and software package to analyze 28 right-dislocations occurring in a corpus of natural French discourse. It was found that, although right-dislocations appear to fulfill various functional roles in discourse, no correlation appears…

  15. French: Supplementary Exercises for Basic Course: Units 1-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Robert J.

    This manual has been developed to supplement the drills in Units 1 through 15 of the FSI "French Basic Course," or to substitute for them. Designed as a companion piece, the materials do not stand on their own but must be used in conjunction with the dialogues, grammatical notes and instructions in "French Basic Course", to which the numbered…

  16. Curriculum Problems and the Teaching of Old French to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Raymond J.; Niedzielski, Henri

    This two-section paper treating Old French on the undergraduate level and suggesting changes in the French curriculum criticizes the traditional, chronological approach to program articulation. Cormier focuses on three ways to restructure the current program. He proposes to: (1) teach genre courses rather than chronologically oriented courses, (2)…

  17. Fairy Tales as a Cultural Context in the French Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obergfell, Sandra C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the use of fairy tales in intermediate and advanced French courses as source material for discussion of French cultural values and traditional behavior patterns. Methods of analyzing values in a fairy tale and implementation in the classroom are discussed using "Le Petit Chaperon Rouge" as an example. (AMH)

  18. Teaching French as a World Language: A Curriculum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1976-01-01

    The National Endowment for the Humanities supports a University of Michigan-Flint effort to develop multimedia curriculum materials to teach French as an international and multicultural language. The project concentrates on non-European French-speaking areas. Filmstrips, reading materials and tapes record characteristic life, music, speech and…

  19. Native Speaker Reactions to Errors Made by French Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiv, Ellen

    In a study of the relative importance native speakers of French attach to different types of errors produced by second language learners, 231 native French speakers listened to 50 pairs of deviant sentences to determine which sentence in each pair contained a more serious error. The sentences contained 20 different types of errors grouped into…

  20. Strategies for Developing Cultural Awareness in the Business French Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathleen

    The technique used by one teacher to incorporate cultural sensitivity into the business French course is described. Cultural orientation begins in the first class meeting with a discussion of shapes and symbols. Discussion proceeds to the hexagon, a geographic, cultural, and linguistic symbol for France. A discussion of French geography and a…