Sample records for frequency harmonic imaging

  1. High-frequency harmonic imaging of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Ronald H.; Coleman, D. Jackson; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Lizzi, Frederic L.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Harmonic imaging has become a well-established technique for ultrasonic imaging at fundamental frequencies of 10 MHz or less. Ophthalmology has benefited from the use of fundamentals of 20 MHz to 50 MHz. Our aim was to explore the ability to generate harmonics for this frequency range, and to generate harmonic images of the eye. Methods: The presence of harmonics was determined in both water and bovine vitreous propagation media by pulse/echo and hydrophone at a series of increasing excitation pulse intensities and frequencies. Hydrophone measurements were made at the focal point and in the near- and far-fields of 20 MHz and 40 MHz transducers. Harmonic images of the anterior segment of the rabbit eye were obtained by a combination of analog filtering and digital post-processing. Results: Harmonics were generated nearly identically in both water and vitreous. Hydrophone measurements showed the maximum second harmonic to be -5 dB relative to the 35 MHz fundamental at the focus, while in pulse/echo the maximum harmonic amplitude was -15dB relative to the fundamental. Harmonics were absent in the near-field, but present in the far-field. Harmonic images of the eye showed improved resolution. Conclusion: Harmonics can be readily generated at very high frequencies, and at power levels compliant with FDA guidelines for ophthalmology. This technique may yield further improvements to the already impressive resolutions obtainable in this frequency range. Improved imaging of the macular region, in particular, may provide significant improvements in diagnosis of retinal disease.

  2. 20 MHz/40 MHz Dual Element Transducers for High Frequency Harmonic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Ham; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Liu, Ruibin; Chang, Jin Ho; Silverman, Ronald H.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Concentric annular type dual element transducers for second harmonic imaging at 20 MHz / 40 MHz were designed and fabricated to improve spatial resolution and depth of penetration for ophthalmic imaging applications. The outer ring element was designed to transmit the 20 MHz signal and the inner circular element was designed to receive the 40 MHz second harmonic signal. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3), with its low dielectric constant, was used as the piezoelectric material to achieve good electrical impedance matching. Double matching layers and conductive backing were used and optimized by KLM modeling to achieve high sensitivity and wide bandwidth for harmonic imaging and superior time-domain characteristics. Prototype transducers were fabricated and evaluated quantitatively and clinically. The average measured center frequency for the transmit ring element was 21 MHz and the one-way –3 dB bandwidth was greater than 50%. The 40 MHz receive element functioned at 31 MHz center frequency with acceptable bandwidth to receive attenuated and frequency downshifted harmonic signal. The lateral beam profile for the 20 MHz ring elements at the focus matched the Field II simulated results well, and the effect of outer ring diameter was also examined. Images of a posterior segment of an excised pig eye and a choroidal nevus of human eye were obtained both for single element and dual element transducers and compared to demonstrate the advantages of dual element harmonic imaging. PMID:19126492

  3. A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yujie; Zhu, Banghe; Shen, Haiou; Rasmussen, John C.; Wang, Ge; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2010-08-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging/tomography may play an important future role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics. Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence imaging can acquire more measurement information than the continuous wave (CW) counterpart, improving the image quality of fluorescence molecular tomography. Although diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively applied in optical molecular imaging, high-order photon migration models need to be further investigated to match quantitation provided by nuclear imaging. In this paper, a frequency-domain parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SPN approximations, a fast time-resolved tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo fluorescence simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using a convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. The validation results show that high-order SPN can effectively correct the modeling errors of the diffusion equation, especially when the tissues have high absorption characteristics or when high modulation frequency measurements are used. Furthermore, the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy improves the modeling precision and the simulation speed significantly on a realistic digital mouse phantom. This solver is a promising platform for fluorescence molecular tomography using high-order approximations to the radiative transfer equation.

  4. Optimization of a phased-array transducer for multiple harmonic imaging in medical applications: frequency and topology.

    PubMed

    Matte, Guillaume M; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Danilouchkine, Mike G; Huijssen, Jacob; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico

    2011-03-01

    Second-harmonic imaging is currently one of the standards in commercial echographic systems for diagnosis, because of its high spatial resolution and low sensitivity to clutter and near-field artifacts. The use of nonlinear phenomena mirrors is a great set of solutions to improve echographic image resolution. To further enhance the resolution and image quality, the combination of the 3rd to 5th harmonics--dubbed the superharmonics--could be used. However, this requires a bandwidth exceeding that of conventional transducers. A promising solution features a phased-array design with interleaved low- and high-frequency elements for transmission and reception, respectively. Because the amplitude of the backscattered higher harmonics at the transducer surface is relatively low, it is highly desirable to increase the sensitivity in reception. Therefore, we investigated the optimization of the number of elements in the receiving aperture as well as their arrangement (topology). A variety of configurations was considered, including one transmit element for each receive element (1/2) up to one transmit for 7 receive elements (1/8). The topologies are assessed based on the ratio of the harmonic peak pressures in the main and grating lobes. Further, the higher harmonic level is maximized by optimization of the center frequency of the transmitted pulse. The achievable SNR for a specific application is a compromise between the frequency-dependent attenuation and nonlinearity at a required penetration depth. To calculate the SNR of the complete imaging chain, we use an approach analogous to the sonar equation used in underwater acoustics. The generated harmonic pressure fields caused by nonlinear wave propagation were modeled with the iterative nonlinear contrast source (INCS) method, the KZK, or the Burger's equation. The optimal topology for superharmonic imaging was an interleaved design with 1 transmit element per 6 receive elements. It improves the SNR by ~5 dB compared with the interleaved (1/2) design reported in literature. The optimal transmit frequency for superharmonic echocardiography was found to be 1.0 to 1.2 MHz. For superharmonic abdominal imaging this frequency was found to be 1.7 to 1.9 MHz. For 2nd-harmonic echocardiography, the optimal transmit frequency of 1.8 MHz reported in the literature was corroborated with our simulation results. PMID:21429845

  5. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  6. Second Harmonic and Sum Frequency Generation Imaging of Fibrous Astroglial Filaments in Ex Vivo Spinal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yan; Wang, Haifeng; Shi, Riyi; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2007-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG) were observed from helical fibrils in spinal cord white matter isolated from guinea pigs. By combining SFG with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy, which allows visualization of myelinated axons, these fibers were found to be distributed near the surface of the spinal cord, between adjacent axons, and along the blood vessels. Using 20-?m-thick tissue slices, the ratio of forward to backward SHG signal from large bundles was found to be much larger than that from small single fibrils, indicating a phase-matching effect in coherent microscopy. Based on the intensity profiles across fibrils and the size dependence of forward and backward signal from the same fibril, we concluded that the main SHG signal directly originates from the fibrils, but not from surface SHG effects. Further polarization analysis of the SHG signal showed that the symmetry property of the fibril could be well described with a cylindrical model. Colocalization of the SHG signal with two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) from the immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein demonstrated that SHG arises from astroglial filaments. This assignment was further supported by colocalization of the SHG contrast with TPEF signals from astrocyte processes labeled by a Ca2+ indicator and sulforhodamine 101. This work shows that a combination of three nonlinear optical imaging techniques—coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, TPEF, and SHG (SFG) microscopy—allows simultaneous visualization of different structures in a complex biological system. PMID:17293404

  7. Tissue harmonic imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michalakis A. Averkiou

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic imaging was originally developed for microbubble contrast agents in the early 90s under the assumption that tissue is linear and all harmonic echoes are generated by the bubbles. In fact, tissue, like bubbles, is a nonlinear medium. Whereas the harmonic echoes from bubbles have their origins in nonlinear scattering, those from tissue are a result of nonlinear propagation. The

  8. Tissue harmonic ultrasonic imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michalakis A. Averkiou

    2001-01-01

    Harmonic imaging was originally developed for microbubble contrast agents in the early 90s under the assumption that tissue is linear and all harmonic echoes are generated by the bubbles. In fact, tissue, like bubbles, is a nonlinear medium. Whereas the harmonic echoes from bubbles have their origins in nonlinear scattering, those from tissue are a result of nonlinear propagation. The

  9. Harmonic leakage and image quality degradation in tissue harmonic imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Che-Chou Shen; Pai-Chi Li

    2001-01-01

    Image quality degradation caused by harmonic leakage was studied for finite amplitude distortion-based harmonic imaging. Various sources of harmonic leakage, including transmit waveform, signal bandwidth, and system nonlinearity, were investigated using both simulations and hydrophone measurements. Effects of harmonic leakage in the presence of sound velocity inhomogeneities were also considered. Results indicated that sidelobe levels of the harmonic beam pattern

  10. LOCALIZED HARMONIC MOTION IMAGING: THEORY, SIMULATIONSAND EXPERIMENTS

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    LOCALIZED HARMONIC MOTION IMAGING: THEORY, SIMULATIONSAND EXPERIMENTS Elisa E. Konofagou typically estimate static or harmonic motion resulting from an externally or internally applied mechanical signaltraclung in orderto estimate the localized oscillatory motion resulting from the harmonic radiation force

  11. Physics of tissue harmonic imaging by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuan

    Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) is an imaging modality that is currently deployed on diagnostic ultrasound scanners. In THI the amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse that is used to probe the tissue is large enough that the pulse undergoes nonlinear distortion as it propagates into the tissue. One result of the distortion is that as the pulse propagates energy is shifted from the fundamental frequency of the source pulse into its higher harmonics. These harmonics will scatter off objects in the tissue and images formed from the scattered higher harmonics are considered to have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Processes that have been suggested as possibly responsible for the improved imaging in THI include: (1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, (2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and (3) reduction in side lobes. By using a combination of controlled experiments and numerical simulations, these three reasons have been investigated. A single element transducer and a clinical ultrasound scanner with a phased array transducer were used to image a commercial tissue-mimicking phantom with calibrated targets. The higher image quality achieved with THI was quantified in terms of spatial resolution and "clutter" signals. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed. A time-domain code for solving the KZK equation was validated with measurements of the acoustic field generated by the single element transducer and the phased array transducer. The code was used to investigate the impact of aberration using tissue-like media with three-dimensional variations in all acoustic properties. The three-dimensional maps of tissue properties were derived from the datasets available through the Visible Female project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging (1) suffers less clutter associated with reverberation; (2) is not immune to aberration effects and (3) suffers less clutter due to reduced side-lobe levels. The results indicate that side lobe suppression is the most significant reason for the improvement of second harmonic imaging.

  12. Fully parallel adaptive finite element simulation using the simplified spherical harmonics approximations for frequency-domain fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yujie; Zhu, Banghe; Shen, Haiou; Rasmussen, John C.; Wang, Ge; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging/tomography may play an important role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics as a type of optical molecular. Time- and frequency-domain measurement can acquire more measurement information, reducing the ill-posedness and improving the reconstruction quality of fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography. Although the diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively in optical imaging, high-order photon migration models must be further investigated for application to complex and small tissue volumes. In this paper, a frequency-domain fully parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with the simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SPN approximations, a fast tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using the convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. With simple and real digital mouse phantoms, the results show that the significant precision and speed improvements are obtained from the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy.

  13. Imaging with Second-Harmonic Generation Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    Second-harmonic generation nanoparticles show promise as imaging probes due to their coherent and stable signal with a broad flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength. In this thesis, we developed and demonstrated barium titanate nanoparticles as second-harmonic radiation imaging probes. We studied the absolute second-harmonic generation efficiency of the nanoparticles on single-particle level. The polarization dependent second-harmonic signal of single nanoparticles was studied in detail. From the measured polar response, we were able to find the orientation of the nanoparticle. We developed a biochemical interface for using the second-harmonic nanoprobes as biomarkers, including in vitro cellular imaging and in vivo live animal imaging. The nanoparticles were surface functionalized with primary amine groups for stable colloidal dispersion. We achieved specific labeling of the second-harmonic nanoprobes via immunostaining where the antibodies were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. We observed no toxicity of the functionalized nanoparticles to biological cells. The coherent second-harmonic signal radiated from the nanoparticles offers opportunities for new imaging techniques. Using interferometric detection, namely harmonic holography, both amplitude and phase of the second-harmonic field can be captured. Through digital beam propagation, three-dimensional field distribution, reflecting three-dimensional distribution of the nanoparticles, can be reconstructed. We achieved a scan-free three-dimensional imaging of nanoparticles in biological cells with sub-micron spatial resolution by using the harmonic holographic microscope. We further exploited the coherent second-harmonic signal for imaging through scattering media by performing optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal. We demonstrated an all-digital optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal originated from a nanoparticle by combining harmonic holography and dynamic computer generated holography using a spatial light modulator. The phase-conjugated second-harmonic scattered field retraced the scattering trajectory and formed a clean focus on the nanoparticle placed inside a scattering medium. The nanoparticle acted as a beacon of light; it helped us find the tailored wavefront for concentrating light at the nanoparticle inside the scattering medium. We also demonstrated imaging through a thin scattering medium by raster-scanning the phase-conjugated focus in the vicinity of the beacon nanoparticle, in which a clear image of a target placed behind a ground glass diffuser was obtained.

  14. Superharmonic imaging with chirp coded excitation: filtering spectrally overlapped harmonics.

    PubMed

    Harput, Sevan; McLaughlan, James; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Superharmonic imaging improves the spatial resolution by using the higher order harmonics generated in tissue. The superharmonic component is formed by combining the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics, which have low energy content and therefore poor SNR. This study uses coded excitation to increase the excitation energy. The SNR improvement is achieved on the receiver side by performing pulse compression with harmonic matched filters. The use of coded signals also introduces new filtering capabilities that are not possible with pulsed excitation. This is especially important when using wideband signals. For narrowband signals, the spectral boundaries of the harmonics are clearly separated and thus easy to filter; however, the available imaging bandwidth is underused. Wideband excitation is preferable for harmonic imaging applications to preserve axial resolution, but it generates spectrally overlapping harmonics that are not possible to filter in time and frequency domains. After pulse compression, this overlap increases the range side lobes, which appear as imaging artifacts and reduce the Bmode image quality. In this study, the isolation of higher order harmonics was achieved in another domain by using the fan chirp transform (FChT). To show the effect of excitation bandwidth in superharmonic imaging, measurements were performed by using linear frequency modulated chirp excitation with varying bandwidths of 10% to 50%. Superharmonic imaging was performed on a wire phantom using a wideband chirp excitation. Results were presented with and without applying the FChT filtering technique by comparing the spatial resolution and side lobe levels. Wideband excitation signals achieved a better resolution as expected, however range side lobes as high as -23 dB were observed for the superharmonic component of chirp excitation with 50% fractional bandwidth. The proposed filtering technique achieved >50 dB range side lobe suppression and improved the image quality without affecting the axial resolution. PMID:25389159

  15. Use of harmonic imaging without echocardiographic contrast to improve two-dimensional image quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KirkT Spencer; James Bednarz; PatrickG Rafter; Claudia Korcarz; RobertoM Lang

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether harmonic imaging (HI) improves endocardial visualization during 2-dimensional echocardiography without echocardiographic contrast. HI differs from fundamental imaging (FI) by transmitting ultrasound at one frequency and receiving at twice the transmitted frequency. This technique has been used in conjunction with contrast echocardiography to enhance myocardial contrast visualization. HI and FI were sequentially

  16. Super-harmonic imaging: development of an interleaved phased-array transducer.

    PubMed

    van Neer, Paul L M J; Matte, Guillaume; Danilouchkine, Mikhail G; Prins, Christian; van den Adel, Franc; de Jong, Nico

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the standard in ultrasound imaging has been second-harmonic imaging. A new imaging technique dubbed "super-harmonic imaging" (SHI) was recently proposed. It takes advantage of the higher - third to fifth - harmonics arising from nonlinear propagation or ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) response. Next to its better suppression of near-field artifacts, tissue SHI is expected to improve axial and lateral resolutions resulting in clearer images than second-harmonic imaging. When SHI is used in combination with UCAs, a better contrast-to-tissue ratio can be obtained. The use of SHI implies a large dynamic range and requires a sufficiently sensitive array over a frequency range from the transmission frequency up to its fifth harmonic (bandwidth > 130%). In this paper, we present the characteristics and performance of a new interleaved dual frequency array built chiefly for SHI. We report the rationale behind the design choice, frequencies, aperture, and piezomaterials used. The array is efficient both in transmission and reception with well-behaved transfer functions and a combined -6-dB bandwidth of 144%. In addition, there is virtually no contamination of the harmonic components by spurious transducer transmission, due to low element-to-element crosstalk (< 30 dB) and a low transmission efficiency of the odd harmonics (< 46 dB). The interleaved array presented in this article possesses ideal characteristics for SHI and is suitable for other methods like second-harmonic, subharmonic, and second-order ultrasound field (SURF) imaging. PMID:20178912

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of tissue harmonic imaging (THI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuan; Yang, Xinmai; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-04-01

    In THI the probing ultrasonic pulse has enough amplitude that it undergoes nonlinear distortion and energy shifts from the fundamental frequency of the pulse into its higher harmonics. Images generated from the second harmonic (SH) have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Experiments with a single element focused ultrasound transducer were used to compare a line target embedded in a tissue phantom using either fundamental or SH imaging. SH imaging showed an improvement in both the axial resolution (0.70 mm vs 0.92 mm) and the lateral resolution (1.02 mm vs 2.70 mm) of the target. In addition, the contrast-to-tissue ratio of the target was 2 dB higher with SH imaging. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation has been developed to simulate the experimental system. The model is based on a time-domain code for solving the KZK equation and accounts for arbitrary spatial variations in all tissue properties. The code was used to determine the impact of a nearfield layer of fat on the fundamental and second harmonic signals. For a 15 mm thick layer the SH side-lobes remained the same but the fundamental side-lobes increased by 2 dB. [Work supported by the NSF through the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems.

  18. Special frequencies and Lifshitz singularities in binary random harmonic chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen; J. M. Luck; J. Canisius; J. L. van Hemmen; W. J. Ventevogel

    1986-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled harmonic oscillators; the mass of each atom is a random variable taking only two values ( M or 1). We investigate the integrated density of states H(omega2) near special frequencies: a given frequency omega s with rational wavelength becomes \\

  19. Plane gyroklinotron at first and third harmonics of cyclotron frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Kurayev, A.A.; Lukashonok, D.V.; Sinitsyn, A.K., E-mail: kurayev@bsuir.by, E-mail: timka86@gmail.com [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2011-07-01

    The results of gyroklinotron's parameters optimization for efficiency at f = 100 GHz with interaction on first and third harmonics of the cyclotron frequency are presented. The predicted electron gyroklinotron's efficiency reaches 70% on first harmonic and 40% on third harmonic. This is more than in usual gyrotron. Besides in contrast to usual gyrotron the width electron beam on radius of guiding centers of electron orbits in gyroklinotron may considerable exceed working wave length {lambda}. This allows to use in it considerable more power of electron beams EB then in usual gyrotron. (author)

  20. Super harmonic imaging: a new imaging technique for improved contrast detection.

    PubMed

    Bouakaz, Ayache; Frigstad, Sigmund; Ten Cate, Folkert J; de Jong, Nico

    2002-01-01

    For ultrasound contrast agents (UCA), nonlinear imaging now has become fundamental. All of the current contrast-imaging methods are dominantly based on the nonlinear response of UCA bubbles. The discrimination between the perfused tissue and the UCA is the challenge in the field of UCA-imaging. This differentiation is usually associated or expressed by the ratio of the scattered power from the contrast agent to the scattered power from the tissue and is termed "contrast-to-tissue ratio" (CTR). Second harmonic imaging showed a better discrimination between tissue and UCA than fundamental imaging because of a higher CTR. We demonstrate, in this study, that the CTR increases as a function of the order of the harmonic frequency. Currently, due to the limited bandwidth of the transducers, only the second harmonic is selectively imaged, resulting in images with a superior quality to fundamental images, but still degraded and not optimal because of the harmonic generation in the underlying tissue (due to nonlinear propagation) and hence giving a limited CTR. To increase the CTR and to take advantage of the higher harmonics (third, fourth, fifth and the ultraharmonics and termed here super harmonics), we have developed a new phased array transducer. The array transducer contains two different types of elements arranged in an interleaved pattern (odd and even elements). The total number of elements is 96. The elements can operate separately and at a distinct frequency, enabling separate transmission and reception modes. The odd elements (48) operate at typically 2.8 MHz center frequency and 80% bandwidth. The even elements (48) have a center frequency of 900 kHz with a bandwidth of 50%. In vitro measurements using the dual frequency probe show an increase of 40 dB in the CTR for super harmonic components over the conventional second harmonic system. The increase in CTR is in agreement with the calculations using existing models for the response of encapsulated bubbles and known theory of nonlinear propagation. Animal experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach using commercially available UCA and showed a similar increase of the CTR. PMID:11879953

  1. Contrast and harmonic imaging improves accuracy and efficiency of novice readers for dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlassak, Irmien; Rubin, David N.; Odabashian, Jill A.; Garcia, Mario J.; King, Lisa M.; Lin, Steve S.; Drinko, Jeanne K.; Morehead, Annitta J.; Prior, David L.; Asher, Craig R.; Klein, Allan L.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newer contrast agents as well as tissue harmonic imaging enhance left ventricular (LV) endocardial border delineation, and therefore, improve LV wall-motion analysis. Interpretation of dobutamine stress echocardiography is observer-dependent and requires experience. This study was performed to evaluate whether these new imaging modalities would improve endocardial visualization and enhance accuracy and efficiency of the inexperienced reader interpreting dobutamine stress echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-nine consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography. Both fundamental (2.5 MHZ) and harmonic (1.7 and 3.5 MHZ) mode images were obtained in four standard views at rest and at peak stress during a standard dobutamine infusion stress protocol. Following the noncontrast images, Optison was administered intravenously in bolus (0.5-3.0 ml), and fundamental and harmonic images were obtained. The dobutamine echocardiography studies were reviewed by one experienced and one inexperienced echocardiographer. LV segments were graded for image quality and function. Time for interpretation also was recorded. Contrast with harmonic imaging improved the diagnostic concordance of the novice reader to the expert reader by 7.1%, 7.5%, and 12.6% (P < 0.001) as compared with harmonic imaging, fundamental imaging, and fundamental imaging with contrast, respectively. For the novice reader, reading time was reduced by 47%, 55%, and 58% (P < 0.005) as compared with the time needed for fundamental, fundamental contrast, and harmonic modes, respectively. With harmonic imaging, the image quality score was 4.6% higher (P < 0.001) than for fundamental imaging. Image quality scores were not significantly different for noncontrast and contrast images. CONCLUSION: Harmonic imaging with contrast significantly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the novice dobutamine stress echocardiography reader. The use of harmonic imaging reduces the frequency of nondiagnostic wall segments.

  2. Image watermarking via fractional polar harmonic transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Min; Li, Bing-Zhao; Sun, Huafei

    2015-01-01

    Invariant harmonic transforms based on the fractional Fourier transform are proposed in this paper. The so-called fractional polar harmonic transforms (FrPHTs) with the order parameter ? are first defined, which are generalizations of the PHTs. Second, a watermarking scheme is presented and discussed in detail associated with the newly defined FrPHTs. Finally, the simulations are clearly performed to verify the well capabilities of the transforms on image watermarking, which show that the proposed transforms with suitable parameters outperform the traditional PHTs. In addition, the experimental results also demonstrate that the order parameter ? has an effect on the performance of FrPHTs in the image watermarking robustness and can improve the watermarking safety.

  3. Optimizing third-harmonic generation at terahertz frequencies in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Poschmann, Max; Dignam, Marc M.

    2015-05-01

    We model third-harmonic generation in doped monolayer graphene at terahertz frequencies by employing a nearest-neighbor tight-binding model in the length gauge. We show that for a given incident-field amplitude there is an optimum Fermi level that maximizes the emitted third-harmonic field. The optimum Fermi level depends very strongly on the incident-field amplitude as well as on the scattering time and increasing either enhances the third-harmonic response. We consider the general case of Fermi-level-independent scattering as well as three different scattering mechanisms that are Fermi-level dependent: phonon, long-range impurity, and short-range impurity scattering. For each case, we determine the optimal Fermi level as well as the amplitude of the optimized third-harmonic response for single-cycle incident fields with central frequencies of 1 THz and amplitudes in the range of 25-75 kV/cm. We find that although nonlinear processes beyond third order suppress third-harmonic generation, we still obtain third-harmonic amplitudes as large as 1.6% of the fundamental of the transmitted field.

  4. Multimode Directional Coupler for Utilization of Harmonic Frequencies from TWTAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2013-01-01

    A novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC) intended for the measurement and potential utilization of the second and higher order harmonic frequencies from high-power traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) has been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. The design is based on the characteristic multiple propagation modes of the electrical and magnetic field components of electromagnetic waves in a rectangular waveguide. The purpose was to create a rugged, easily constructed, more efficient waveguide- based MDC for extraction and exploitation of the second harmonic signal from the RF output of high-power TWTs used for space communications. The application would be a satellitebased beacon source needed for Qband and V/W-band atmospheric propagation studies. The MDC could function as a CW narrow-band source or as a wideband source for study of atmospheric group delay effects on highdata- rate links. The MDC is fabricated from two sections of waveguide - a primary one for the fundamental frequency and a secondary waveguide for the second harmonic - that are joined together such that the second harmonic higher order modes are selectively coupled via precision- machined slots for propagation in the secondary waveguide. In the TWTA output waveguide port, both the fundamental and the second harmonic signals are present. These signals propagate in the output waveguide as the dominant and higher order modes, respectively. By including an appropriate mode selective waveguide directional coupler, such as the MDC presented here at the output of the TWTA, the power at the second harmonic can be sampled and amplified to the power level needed for atmospheric propagation studies. The important conclusions from the preliminary test results for the multimode directional coupler are: (1) the second harmonic (Ka-band) can be measured and effectively separated from the fundamental (Ku-band) with no coupling of the latter, (2) power losses in the fundamental frequency are negligible, and (3) the power level of the extracted second harmonic is sufficient for further amplification to power levels needed for practical applications. It was also demonstrated that third order and potentially higher order harmonics are measurable with this device. The design is frequency agnostic, and with the appropriate choice of waveguides, is easily scaled to higher frequency TWTs. The MDC has the same function but with a number of important advantages over the conventional diplexer.

  5. Observations of High Frequency Harmonics of the Ionospheric Alfven Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian; Usanova, Maria; Bortnik, Jacob; Milling, David; Kale, Andy; Shao, Leo; Miles, David; Rae, I. Jonathan

    We present observations of high frequency harmonics of the ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR). These are seen in the form of spectral resonance structures (SRS) recorded by a ground-based search coil magnetometer sampling at 100 samples/s at the Ministik Lake station at L=4.2 within the expanded CARISMA magnetometer array. Previous observational studies have indicated that such SRS are typically confined to frequencies <~5 Hz with only several SRS harmonics being observed. We report the first observations of clear and discrete SRS, which we believe are harmonics of the IAR, and which extend to around 20 Hz in at least 10-12 clear SRS harmonics. We additionally demonstrate the utility of the Bortnik et al. (2007) auto-detection algorithm, designed for Pc1 wavepackets, for characterising the properties of the IAR. Our results also indicate that the cavity supporting SRS in the IAR at this time must be structured to support and trap much higher frequency IAR harmonics than previously assumed. This impacts the potential importance of the IAR for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, especially in relation to the impacts of incident Alfven waves on the ionosphere including Alfvenic aurora. Our observations also highlight the potential value of IAR observations for diagnosing the structure of the topside ionosphere, not least using the observed structure of the SRS. These are the first mid-latitude observations demonstrating that the IAR can extend to frequencies beyond those of the lowest few harmonics of the Schumann resonances - significantly suggesting the possibility that the Schumann resonance modes and the IAR may be coupled. The in-situ structure of the IAR is also examined by combining satellite data with conjugate measurements from the ground, and the impacts of the IAR for magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling examined.

  6. Excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    An alternative mechanism for the excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics as a result of the development of explosive instability in a weakly relativistic beam-plasma system in the solar atmosphere is proposed. The efficiency of the new mechanism as compared to the previously discussed ones is analyzed.

  7. 1-GHz harmonically pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Leitch, S M; Zhang, Z; McCracken, R A; Reid, D T

    2015-01-26

    We present the first example of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb harmonically-pumped by a 333-MHz Ti:sapphire laser to achieve a stabilized signal comb at 1-GHz mode spacing in the 1.1-1.6-µm wavelength band. Simultaneous locking of the comb carrier-envelope-offset and repetition frequencies is achieved with uncertainties over 1 s of 0.27 Hz and 5 mHz respectively, which are comparable with those of 0.27 Hz and 1.5 mHz achieved for 333-MHz fundamental pumping. The phase-noise power-spectral density of the CEO frequency integrated from 1 Hz-64 kHz was 2.8 rad for the harmonic comb, 1.0 rad greater than for fundamental pumping. The results show that harmonic operation does not substantially compromise the frequency-stability of the comb, which is shown to be limited only by the Rb atomic frequency reference used. PMID:25835887

  8. Second harmonic imaging of membrane potential of neurons with retinal

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Second harmonic imaging of membrane potential of neurons with retinal Boaz A. Nemet Volodymyr, New York 10027 Abstract. We present a method to optically measure and image the membrane potential reti- nal as the chromophore [second harmonic retinal imaging of mem- brane potential (SHRIMP)]. We

  9. Hemispherical Harmonic Surface Description and Applications to Medical Image Analysis

    E-print Network

    Huang, Heng

    Hemispherical Harmonic Surface Description and Applications to Medical Image Analysis Heng Huang Lebanon, NH 03756 Abstract The use of surface harmonics for rigid and nonrigid shape description is well known. In this paper we define a set of complete hemispherical harmonic basis functions on a hemisphere

  10. A high-resolution technique for ultrasound harmonic imaging using sparse representations in Gabor frames.

    PubMed

    Michailovich, Oleg; Adam, Dan

    2002-12-01

    Over the last few decades there were dramatic improvements in ultrasound imaging quality with the utilization of harmonic frequencies induced by both tissue and echo-contrast agents. The advantages of harmonic imaging cause rapid penetration of this modality to diverse clinical uses, among which myocardial perfusion determination seems to be the most important application. In order to effectively employ the information, comprised in the higher harmonics of the received signals, this information should be properly extracted. A commonly used method of harmonics separation is linear filtering. One of its main shortcomings is the inverse relationship between the detectability of the contrast agent and the axial resolution. In this paper, a novel, nonlinear technique is proposed for separating the harmonic components, contained in the received radio-frequency images. It is demonstrated that the harmonic separation can be efficiently performed by means of convex optimization. It performs the separation without affecting the image resolution. The procedure is based on the concepts of sparse signal representation in overcomplete signal bases. A special type of the sparse signal representation, that is especially suitable for the problem at hand, is explicitly described. The ability of the novel technique to acquire "un-masked," second (or higher) harmonic images is demonstrated in series of computer and phantom experiments. PMID:12588033

  11. Indoor imaging of targets enduring simple harmonic motion using Doppler radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawan Setlur; Moeness Amin; Fauzia Ahmad; Thayananthan Thayaparan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the micro-Doppler signatures of rotational\\/vibrational targets enduring simple harmonic motions (SHM). The SHM, whether it represents vibrations or rotations, induces frequency modulations on radar returns. The returns capture certain extrinsic motion characteristics of the target which have a sinusoidal instantaneous frequency. Indoor imaging data collection experiments have been performed. The experiments have been designed, keeping

  12. Detecting the harmonics of oscillations with time-variable frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, L. W.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2011-01-01

    A method is introduced for the spectral analysis of complex noisy signals containing several frequency components. It enables components that are independent to be distinguished from the harmonics of nonsinusoidal oscillatory processes of lower frequency. The method is based on mutual information and surrogate testing combined with the wavelet transform, and it is applicable to relatively short time series containing frequencies that are time variable. Where the fundamental frequency and harmonics of a process can be identified, the characteristic shape of the corresponding oscillation can be determined, enabling adaptive filtering to remove other components and nonoscillatory noise from the signal. Thus the total bandwidth of the signal can be correctly partitioned and the power associated with each component then can be quantified more accurately. The method is first demonstrated on numerical examples. It is then used to identify the higher harmonics of oscillations in human skin blood flow, both spontaneous and associated with periodic iontophoresis of a vasodilatory agent. The method should be equally relevant to all situations where signals of comparable complexity are encountered, including applications in astrophysics, engineering, and electrical circuits, as well as in other areas of physiology and biology.

  13. Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    that the second and fourth harmonic frequencies are generated depending on the biased voltage. Let us define d0Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA The second and fourth harmonics of low frequency electric field

  14. Multi-channel microstrip transceiver arrays using harmonics for high field MR imaging in humans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Wang, Chunsheng; Lu, Jonathan; Pang, Yong; Nelson, Sarah J; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2012-02-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) transceiver array design using primary and higher order harmonics for in vivo parallel magnetic resonance imaging imaging (MRI) and spectroscopic imaging is proposed. The improved electromagnetic decoupling performance, unique magnetic field distributions and high-frequency operation capabilities of higher-order harmonics of resonators would benefit transceiver arrays for parallel MRI, especially for ultrahigh field parallel MRI. To demonstrate this technique, microstrip transceiver arrays using first and second harmonic resonators were developed for human head parallel imaging at 7T. Phantom and human head images were acquired and evaluated using the GRAPPA reconstruction algorithm. The higher-order harmonic transceiver array design technique was also assessed numerically using FDTD simulation. Compared with regular primary-resonance transceiver designs, the proposed higher-order harmonic technique provided an improved g-factor and increased decoupling among resonant elements without using dedicated decoupling circuits, which would potentially lead to a better parallel imaging performance and ultimately faster and higher quality imaging. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for densely spaced transceiver array design where the increased mutual inductance among the elements becomes problematic. In addition, it also provides a simple approach to readily upgrade the channels of a conventional primary resonator microstrip array to a larger number for faster imaging. PMID:21878410

  15. Single-element focused transducer method for harmonic motion imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Maleke; Mathieu Pernot; Elisa E. Konofagou

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of the harmonic motion imaging (HMI) technique for simultaneous monitoring and generation of focused ultrasound therapy using two separate focused ultrasound transducer elements was previously shown (1). In this study, a new HMI technique is described that images tissue displacement induced by harmonic radiation force excitation using a single focused ultrasound element. First, wave propagation simulation models were

  16. Non-Harmonic Analysis Applied to Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xu; Uchida, Tetsuya; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Chong, Changho; Morosawa, Atsushi; Totsuka, Koki; Suzuki, Takuya

    2012-02-01

    A new processing technique called non-harmonic analysis (NHA) is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Conventional Fourier-domain OCT employs the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), which depends on the window function and length. The axial resolution of the OCT image, calculated by using DFT, is inversely proportional to the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the wavelength range. The FWHM of wavelength range is limited by the sweeping range of the source in swept-source OCT and it is limited by the number of CCD pixels in spectral-domain OCT. However, the NHA process does not have such constraints; NHA can resolve high frequencies irrespective of the window function and the frame length of the sampled data. In this study, the NHA process is described and it is applied to OCT imaging. It is compared with OCT images based on the DFT. To demonstrate the benefits of using NHA for OCT, we perform OCT imaging with NHA of an onion skin. The results reveal that NHA can achieve an image resolution equivalent that of a 100-nm sweep range using a significantly reduced wavelength range. They also reveal the potential of using this technique to achieve high-resolution imaging without using a broadband source. However, the long calculation times required for NHA must be addressed if it is to be used in clinical applications.

  17. In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-03-23

    The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO? array laser. PMID:25837108

  18. Qualitative and quantitative effects of harmonic echocardiographic imaging on endocardial edge definition and side-lobe artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. N.; Yazbek, N.; Garcia, M. J.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic imaging is a new ultrasonographic technique that is designed to improve image quality by exploiting the spontaneous generation of higher frequencies as ultrasound propagates through tissue. We studied 51 difficult-to-image patients with blinded side-by-side cineloop evaluation of endocardial border definition by harmonic versus fundamental imaging. In addition, quantitative intensities from cavity versus wall were compared for harmonic versus fundamental imaging. Harmonic imaging improved left ventricular endocardial border delineation over fundamental imaging (superior: harmonic = 71.1%, fundamental = 18.7%; similar: 10.2%; P <.001). Quantitative analysis of 100 wall/cavity combinations demonstrated brighter wall segments and more strikingly darker cavities during harmonic imaging (cavity intensity on a 0 to 255 scale: fundamental = 15.6 +/- 8.6; harmonic = 6.0 +/- 5.3; P <.0001), which led to enhanced contrast between the wall and cavity (1.89 versus 1.19, P <.0001). Harmonic imaging reduces side-lobe artifacts, resulting in a darker cavity and brighter walls, thereby improving image contrast and endocardial delineation.

  19. Optical coherence tomography imaging based on non-harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xu; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Chong, Changho; Morosawa, Atsushi; Totsuka, Koki; Suzuki, Takuya

    2009-11-01

    A new processing technique called Non-Harmonic Analysis (NHA) is proposed for OCT imaging. Conventional Fourier-Domain OCT relies on the FFT calculation which depends on the window function and length. Axial resolution is counter proportional to the frame length of FFT that is limited by the swept range of the swept source in SS-OCT, or the pixel counts of CCD in SD-OCT degraded in FD-OCT. However, NHA process is intrinsically free from this trade-offs; NHA can resolve high frequency without being influenced by window function or frame length of sampled data. In this study, NHA process is explained and applied to OCT imaging and compared with OCT images based on FFT. In order to validate the benefit of NHA in OCT, we carried out OCT imaging based on NHA with the three different sample of onion-skin,human-skin and pig-eye. The results show that NHA process can realize practical image resolution that is equivalent to 100nm swept range only with less than half-reduced wavelength range.

  20. Time-frequency analysis and Harmonic Gaussian Functions

    E-print Network

    Tokiniaina Ranaivoson; Raoelina Andriambololona; Rakotoson Hanitriarivo

    2013-08-08

    A method for time-frequency analysis is given. The approach utilizes properties of Gaussian distribution, properties of Hermite polynomials and Fourier analysis. We begin by the definitions of a set of functions called harmonic Gaussian functions. Then these functions are used to define a set of transformations,noted T_n, which associate to a function {\\psi},of the time variable t, a set of functions {\\Psi}_n which depend on time, frequency and frequency (or time) standard deviation. Some properties of the transformations T_n and the functions {\\Psi}_n are given. It is proved in particular that the square of the modulus of each function {\\Psi}_n can be interpreted as a representation of the energy distribution of the signal, represented by the function {\\psi}, in the time-frequency plane for a given value of the frequency (or time) standard deviation. It is also shown that the function {\\psi}, can be recovered from the functions{\\Psi}_n.

  1. A mechanical model to compute elastic modulus of tissues for harmonic motion imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baoxiang Shan; Assimina A. Pelegri; Caroline Maleke; Elisa E. Konofagou

    2008-01-01

    Numerous experimental and computational methods have been developed to estimate tissue elasticity. The existing testing techniques are generally classified into in vitro, invasive in vivo and non-invasive in vivo. For each experimental method, a computational scheme is accordingly proposed to calculate mechanical properties of soft biological tissues. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a new technique that performs radio frequency (RF)

  2. Balancing Vibrations at Harmonic Frequencies by Injecting Harmonic Balancing Signals into the Armature of a Linear Motor/Alternator Coupled to a Stirling Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations at harmonic frequencies are reduced by injecting harmonic balancing signals into the armature of a linear motor/alternator coupled to a Stirling machine. The vibrations are sensed to provide a signal representing the mechanical vibrations. A harmonic balancing signal is generated for selected harmonics of the operating frequency by processing the sensed vibration signal with adaptive filter algorithms of adaptive filters for each harmonic. Reference inputs for each harmonic are applied to the adaptive filter algorithms at the frequency of the selected harmonic. The harmonic balancing signals for all of the harmonics are summed with a principal control signal. The harmonic balancing signals modify the principal electrical drive voltage and drive the motor/alternator with a drive voltage component in opposition to the vibration at each harmonic.

  3. Harmonic Spatial Coherence Imaging: An Ultrasonic Imaging Method Based on Backscatter Coherence

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Jeremy J; Jakovljevic, Marko; Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2012-01-01

    HSCI and SLSC imaging less sensitive to clutter because it has low spatial coherence. The method is based on the coherence of the second harmonic backscatter. Because the same signals that are used to construct harmonic B-mode images are also used to construct HSCI images, the benefits obtained with harmonic imaging are also applicable to HSCI. Harmonic imaging has been the primary tool for suppressing clutter in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, however second harmonic echoes are not necessarily immune to the effects of clutter. HSCI and SLSC imaging are less sensitive to clutter because it has low spatial coherence. Harmonic Spatial Coherence Imaging shows favorable imaging characteristics such as improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), improved speckle signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and better delineation of borders and other structures compared to fundamental and harmonic B-mode imaging. CNRs of up to 1.9 were obtained from in vivo imaging of human cardiac tissue with HSCI, compared to 0.6, 0.9, and 1.5 in fundamental B-mode, harmonic B-mode, and SLSC imaging, respectively. In vivo experiments in human liver tissue demonstrated SNRs of up to 3.4 for HSCI compared to 1.9 for harmonic B-mode. Nonlinear simulations of a heart chamber model were consistent with the in vivo experiments. PMID:22547276

  4. Efficient broadband third harmonic frequency conversion via angular dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Milam, D.; Eimerl, D.

    1995-07-18

    In this paper we present experimental measurements and theoretical modeling of third harmonic (3{omega}) conversion efficiency with optical bandwidth. Third harmonic conversion efficiency drops precipitously as the input bandwidth significantly exceeds the phase matching limitations of the conversion crystals. For Type I/Type II frequency tripling, conversion efficiency be-gins to decrease for bandwidths greater than {approximately}60 GHz. However, conversion efficiency corresponding to monochromatic phase-matched beams can be recovered provided that the instantaneous Propagation vectors are phase matched at all times. This is achieved by imposing angular spectral dispersion (ASD) on the input beam via a diffraction grating, with a dispersion such that the phase mismatch for each frequency is zero. Experiments were performed on the Optical Sciences Laser (OSL), a 1--100 J class laser at LLNL. These experiments used a 200 GHz bandwidth source produced by a multipassed electro-optic phase modulator. The spectrum produced was composed of discrete frequency components spaced at 3 GHz intervals. Angular dispersion was incorporated by the addition of a 1200 gr/mm diffraction grating oriented at the Littrow angle, and capable of rotation about the beam direction. Experiments were performed with a pulse length of 1-ns and a 1{omega} input intensity of {approximately} 4 GW/cm{sup 2} for near optimal dispersion for phase matching, 5.2 {mu}rad/GHz, with 0.1, 60, and 155 GHz bandwidth, as well as for partial dispersion compensation, 1.66 {mu}rad/GHz, with 155 GHz and 0.1 GHz bandwidth. The direction of dispersion was varied incrementally 360{degrees} about the beam diameter. The addition of the grating to the beamline reduced the narrowband conversion efficiency by approximately 10%.

  5. Invariant quaternion radial harmonic Fourier moments for color image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-yang, Wang; Wei-yi, Li; Hong-ying, Yang; Pan-pan, Niu; Yong-wei, Li

    2015-03-01

    Moments and moment invariants have become a powerful tool in image processing owing to their image description capability and invariance property. But, conventional methods are mainly introduced to deal with the binary or gray-scale images, and the only approaches for color image always have poor color image description capability. Based on radial harmonic Fourier moments (RHFMs) and quaternion, we introduced the quaternion radial harmonic Fourier moments (QRHFMs) for representing color images in this paper, which can be seen as the generalization of RHFMs for gray-level images. It is shown that the QRHFMs can be obtained from the RHFMs of each color channel. We derived and analyzed the rotation, scaling, and translation (RST) invariant property of QRHFMs. We also discussed the problem of color image retrieval using invariant QRHFMs. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed color image representation.

  6. Special frequencies and Lifshitz singularities in binary random harmonic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Luck, J.M.; Canisius, J.; van Hemmen, J.L.; Ventevogel, W.J.

    1986-11-01

    The authors consider a one-dimensional chain of coupled harmonic oscillators; the mass of each atom is a random variable taking only two values (M or 1). They investigate the integrated density of states H(omega/sup 2/) near special frequencies: a given frequency omega/sub s/ with rational wavelength becomes special if the mass ratio M exceeds a certain critical value M/sub c/. They show that H has essential singularities of the types H/sub sg/approx. exp(-C/sub 1/ absolute value of omega/sup 2/-omega/sub s//sup 2//sup 1/2/) or exp(-C/sub 2/absolute value of omega/sup 2/-omega/sub s//sup 2/ /sup -1/), according to the value of M and the sign of (omega/sup 2/-omega/sub s//sup 2/). The Lifshitz singularity at the band edge is analyzed in the same way. In each case, the constant C/sub 1/ or C/sub 2/ is evaluated explicitly and compared with a vast amount of numerical work. All these exponential singularities are modulated by periodic amplitudes. The properties of the eigenfunctions with frequencies close to the special values are also discussed, and are illustrated by numerical data.

  7. Frequency-tunable second-harmonic submillimeter-wave gyrotron oscillators

    E-print Network

    Sousa, Antonio C. Torrezan de (Antonio Carlos Torrezan de)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports the design and experimental demonstration of frequency-tunable submillimeter-wave gyrotrons operating in continuous wave (CW) at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. An unprecedented ...

  8. Quantitative viscoelastic parameters measured by harmonic motion imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Vappou; Caroline Maleke; Elisa E. Konofagou

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying the mechanical properties of soft tissues remains a challenging objective in the field of elasticity imaging. In this work, we propose an ultrasound-based method for quantitatively estimating viscoelastic properties, using the amplitude-modulated harmonic motion imaging (HMI) technique. In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is generated inside the medium by using focused ultrasound and the resulting displacements are measured

  9. Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

  10. Time domain simulation of nonlinear acoustic beams generated by rectangular pistons with application to harmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinmai; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2005-01-01

    A time-domain numerical code (the so-called Texas code) that solves the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation has been extended from an axis-symmetric coordinate system to a three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian coordinate system. The code accounts for diffraction (in the parabolic approximation), nonlinearity and absorption and dispersion associated with thermoviscous and relaxation processes. The 3D time domain code was shown to be in agreement with benchmark solutions for circular and rectangular sources, focused and unfocused beams, and linear and nonlinear propagation. The 3D code was used to model the nonlinear propagation of diagnostic ultrasound pulses through tissue. The prediction of the second-harmonic field was sensitive to the choice of frequency-dependent absorption: a frequency squared f2 dependence produced a second-harmonic field which peaked closer to the transducer and had a lower amplitude than that computed for an f1.1 dependence. In comparing spatial maps of the harmonics we found that the second harmonic had dramatically reduced amplitude in the near field and also lower amplitude side lobes in the focal region than the fundamental. These findings were consistent for both uniform and apodized sources and could be contributing factors in the improved imaging reported with clinical scanners using tissue harmonic imaging. .

  11. Imaging and quality assessment of high-harmonic focal spots.

    PubMed

    Valentin, C; Douillet, D; Kazamias, S; Lefrou, Th; Grillon, G; Augé, F; Mullot, G; Balcou, Ph; Mercère, P; Zeitoun, Ph

    2003-06-15

    We present a direct method of studying the focusability of an intense, short-pulse extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) beam obtained by high-harmonic generation. We perform near-field imaging of the focal spot of five high-harmonic orders strongly focused by a broadband toroidal mirror. To visualize the focal spot directly, we image the fluorescence induced by an XUV beam on a cerium-doped YAG crystal on a visible CCD camera. We can thus measure the harmonic spot size on a single image, together with the Strehl ratio, to evaluate the quality of focusing. Such techniques should become instrumental in optimizing the focusing conditions and reaching intensities required for exploring attosecond nonlinear optics in the XUV range. PMID:12836775

  12. Confocal imaging of biological tissues using second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Stoller, Patrick C.; Reiser, Karen M.; Eichler, Juergen P.; Yan, Ming; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2000-04-01

    A confocal microscopy imaging system was devised to selectively detect second harmonic signals generated by biological tissues. Several types of biological tissues were examined using this imaging system, including human teeth, bovine blood vessels, and chicken skin. All these tissues generated strong second harmonic signals. There is considerable evidence that the source of these signals in tissue is collagen. Collagen, the predominant component of most tissues, is known to have second order nonlinear susceptibility. This technique may have diagnostic usefulness in pathophysiological conditions characterized by changes in collagen structure including malignant transformation of nevi, progression of diabetic complications, and abnormalities in wound healing.

  13. Second harmonic generation ? tensor microscopy for tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsian; Su, Ping-Jung; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Lin, Sung-Jan; Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Important biological molecules such as collagen and myosin are strong second harmonic generators. The polarization dependence of second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a property of the second order susceptibility elements (? tensor) of the molecules that produce the signal. In this work, we used polarization SHG microscopy to image and map pixel scale polarization anisotropy information of collagen-muscle junction of chicken wing and the dermis of human skin. We show that the variation in the ? tensor components can be displayed as images to show the contrast between different molecular sources of SHG.

  14. Confocal imaging of biological tissues using second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Stoller, Patrick C.; Reiser, Karen M.; Eichler, Juergen P.; Yan, Ming; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2000-06-01

    A confocal microscopy imaging system was devised to selectively detect second harmonic signals generated by biological tissues. Several types of biological tissues were examined using this imaging system, including human teeth, bovine blood vessels, and chicken skin. All these tissues generated strong second harmonic signals. There is considerable evidence that the source of these signals in tissue is collagen. Collagen, the predominant component of most tissues, is known to have second order nonlinear susceptibility. This technique may have diagnostic usefulness in pathophysiological conditions characterized by changes in collagen structure including malignant transformation of nevi, progression of diabetic complications, and abnormalities in wound healing.

  15. Confocal Imaging of Biological Tissues Using Second Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B-M.; Stoller, P.; Reiser, K.; Eichler, J.; Yan, M.; Rubenchik, A.; Da Silva, L.

    2000-03-06

    A confocal microscopy imaging system was devised to selectively detect Second harmonic signals generated by biological tissues. Several types of biological tissues were examined using this imaging system, including human teeth, bovine blood vessels, and chicken skin. All these tissues generated strong second harmonic signals. There is considerable evidence that the source of these signals in tissue is collagen. Collagen, the predominant component of most tissues, is known to have second order nonlinear susceptibility. This technique may have diagnostic usefulness in pathophysiological conditions characterized by changes in collagen structure including malignant transformation of nevi, progression of diabetic complications, and abnormalities in wound healing.

  16. High Harmonic Frequency Combs for High Resolution Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ozawa; J. Rauschenberger; Ch. Gohle; M. Herrmann; D. R. Walker; V. Pervak; A. Fernandez; R. Graf; A. Apolonski; R. Holzwarth; F. Krausz; T. W. Hänsch; Th. Udem

    2008-01-01

    We generated a series of harmonics in a xenon gas jet inside a cavity seeded by pulses from a Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser with a repetition rate of 10.8 MHz. Harmonics up to 19th order at 43 nm were observed with plateau harmonics at the muW power level. An elaborate dispersion compensation scheme and the use of a moderate repetition rate

  17. Third harmonic frequency multiplication of a two-stage tapered gyro-TWT amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Baik; S. G. Jeon; D. H. Kim; G. S. Park; N. Sato; K. Yokoo

    2004-01-01

    The third harmonic frequency multiplication is experimentally verified using a two-stage tapered gyrotron traveling-wave tube amplifier in low-power operation. The third harmonic frequency multiplication is predicted and investigated using a self-consistent large-signal theory and a particle-in-cell code simulation. Both results show a good agreement in frequency multiplication and power amplification. The interaction between a 30 kV axis-encircling electron beam with

  18. Phase conjugation frequency dissemination based on harmonics of optical comb at 10?¹? instability level.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Hou, Dong; Hu, Ermeng; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate a phase conjugation frequency dissemination scheme using an optical frequency comb as a coherent source. After the comb's radio frequency is detected by a photodiode, its repetition frequency's first harmonic is used to modulate a laser, which is injected into a 10 km fiber link. The round-trip signal is mixed with the triple harmonic thereby obtaining a signal that is immune to the fluctuation at the remote end. This method results in frequency instability of 1.1×10(-17) at 10(4) s. Our scheme provides a potential approach to deliver coherent frequencies to many places with high stability. PMID:25166073

  19. Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer function of harmonic shear wave induced phase encoding imaging

    PubMed Central

    McAleavey, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear wave frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer functions of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear wave acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5?MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear wave source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear wave modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency. PMID:24815265

  20. Fourier transform holography with high harmonic spectra for attosecond imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth O; Gonzalez, A I; Künzel, S; Li, L; Lozano, M; Oliva, E; Iwan, B; Daboussi, S; Boutu, W; Merdji, H; Fajardo, M; Zeitoun, Ph

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a method of using a Fourier holographic technique to utilize attosecond soft x-ray pulses to image nanometer-scale objects. A discrete frequency comb of laser-generated high-order harmonics, yielding a train of attosecond pulses, has been used to record spatially and spectrally resolved images. The individual wavelengths were also combined to form a single image, albeit with lower spatial resolution, demonstrating the applicability of the method to using isolated attosecond pulses with continuous bandwidths. PMID:26125403

  1. Harmonic chirp imaging method for ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Borsboom, Jerome M G; Chin, Chien Ting; Bouakaz, Ayache; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, Nico

    2005-02-01

    Coded excitation is currently used in medical ultrasound to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and penetration depth. We propose a chirp excitation method for contrast agents using the second harmonic component of the response. This method is based on a compression filter that selectively compresses and extracts the second harmonic component from the received echo signal. Simulations have shown a clear increase in response for chirp excitation over pulse excitation with the same peak amplitude. This was confirmed by two-dimensional (2-D) optical observations of bubble response with a fast framing camera. To evaluate the harmonic compression method, we applied it to simulated bubble echoes, to measured propagation harmonics, and to B-mode scans of a flow phantom and compared it to regular pulse excitation imaging. An increase of approximately 10 dB in SNR was found for chirp excitation. The compression method was found to perform well in terms of resolution. Axial resolution was in all cases within 10% of the axial resolution from pulse excitation. Range side-lobe levels were 30 dB below the main lobe for the simulated bubble echoes and measured propagation harmonics. However, side-lobes were visible in the B-mode contrast images. PMID:15801312

  2. Comparison of adaptive and fixed-band hysteresis current control considering high frequency harmonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hani Vahedi; Yasser Rahmati Kukandeh; Mahsa Ghapandar Kashani; Aliakbar Dankoob; Abdolreza Sheikholeslami

    2011-01-01

    Shunt active power filters (APF) are widely used in power systems to eliminate the current harmonics and to compensate reactive power due to their accurate and fast operation. In this paper the instantaneous power theory is used to extract the harmonic components of system current. Then fixed- band hysteresis current control is explained. Because of fixed- band variable frequency disadvantages,

  3. A new frequency domain arc furnace model for iterative harmonic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Mayordomo; L. F. Beites; R. Asensi; M. Izzeddine; L. Zabala; J. Amantegui

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new frequency domain Arc Furnace model for Iterative Harmonic Analysis (IHA) by means of a Newton method. Powerful analytical expressions for harmonic currents and their derivatives are obtained under the balanced conditions of the system. The model offers a three phase configuration where there is no path for homopolar currents. Moreover, it contemplates continuous and discontinuous

  4. Analysis of the second harmonic generation of a femtosecond optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dong; Aketagawa, Masato

    2014-12-01

    The second harmonic generation (SHG) of a femtosecond optical frequency comb (FOFC) has been studied. This work focuses on the SHG frequencies that are generated by the mixing of even-numbered frequency components from the original comb with odd-numbered components. It is observed that the generation of those frequencies is the reason the original FOFC and FOFC-based SHG signal have the same repetition frequency. The theoretical derivation agrees with the result of an optical experiment. Our results may be of use with the high-harmonic-generation process and FOFC-based SHG applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, attosecond pulse generation, and precision length measurement.

  5. Imaging Collagen Orientation Using Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, P; Celliers, P M; Reiser, K M; Rubenchik, A M

    2002-01-10

    We use polarization-modulated second harmonic generation to image fiber orientation in collagen tissues, with an axial resolution of about 10 {micro}m and a transverse resolution of up to 1 {micro}m. A linearly polarized ultra-short pulse (200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser beam is modulated using an electro-optic modulator and quarter-wave plate combination and focused onto a translation stage mounted sample using a microscope objective. The generated second harmonic light is collected using a photomultiplier tube and demodulated using phase sensitive detection to obtain signal intensity and fiber orientation information. In order to obtain second harmonic generation images of different types of collagen organization, we analyze several different tissues, including rat-tail tendon, mouse aorta, mouse fibrotic liver, and porcine skin. We can use our technique to image fibrotic tissue in histological sections of damaged liver and to identify burned tissue in porcine skin to a depth of a few hundred microns. Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation potentially could be a useful clinical technique for diagnosing collagen related disease or damage, especially in the skin.

  6. Coherent states and uncertainty relations for the damped harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Um, Chung-In; George, Thomas F.; Pandey, Lakshmi N.

    1993-01-01

    Starting with evaluations of propagator and wave function for the damped harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency, exact coherent states are constructed. These coherent states satisfy the properties which coherent states should generally have.

  7. Position estimation in induction machines utilizing rotor bar slot harmonics and carrier frequency signal injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Degnert; R. D. Lorenzt

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and robust way of utilizing harmonic saliencies for the estimation of rotor position. A carrier frequency voltage excitation is used to produce a carrier frequency current, which contains the desired spatial information. A closed-loop, tracking observer is then used to estimate the rotor position. Due to its reliance on a spatial saliency and carrier frequency

  8. Active optoelectronic system for stabilizing pulsed laser output energy at the fourth-harmonic frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Papayannis; G. Ancellet; J. L. Conrad; C. Laqui; J. Pelon

    1993-01-01

    A feedback loop using an optoelectronic system has been tested successfully for the stabilization of the output energy at the fourth-harmonic frequency of a Nd-YAG laser (266 nm). The system presented includes an optical device to monitor the laser output energy at the nonconverted wavelengths and an electronic circuitry to optimize the laser output energy at the fourth-harmonic frequency, via

  9. Accurate, explicit formulae for higher harmonic force spectroscopy by frequency modulation-AFM.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Sivan, Uri

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between an AFM tip and a sample gives rise to oscillations of the cantilever at integral multiples (harmonics) of the fundamental resonance frequency. The higher order harmonics have long been recognized to hold invaluable information on short range interactions but their utilization has thus far been relatively limited due to theoretical and experimental complexities. In particular, existing approximations of the interaction force in terms of higher harmonic amplitudes generally require simultaneous measurements of multiple harmonics to achieve satisfactory accuracy. In the present letter we address the mathematical challenge and derive accurate, explicit formulae for both conservative and dissipative forces in terms of an arbitrary single harmonic. Additionally, we show that in frequency modulation-AFM (FM-AFM) each harmonic carries complete information on the force, obviating the need for multi-harmonic analysis. Finally, we show that higher harmonics may indeed be used to reconstruct short range forces more accurately than the fundamental harmonic when the oscillation amplitude is small compared with the interaction range. PMID:25671159

  10. Accurate, explicit formulae for higher harmonic force spectroscopy by frequency modulation-AFM

    PubMed Central

    Kuchuk, Kfir

    2015-01-01

    Summary The nonlinear interaction between an AFM tip and a sample gives rise to oscillations of the cantilever at integral multiples (harmonics) of the fundamental resonance frequency. The higher order harmonics have long been recognized to hold invaluable information on short range interactions but their utilization has thus far been relatively limited due to theoretical and experimental complexities. In particular, existing approximations of the interaction force in terms of higher harmonic amplitudes generally require simultaneous measurements of multiple harmonics to achieve satisfactory accuracy. In the present letter we address the mathematical challenge and derive accurate, explicit formulae for both conservative and dissipative forces in terms of an arbitrary single harmonic. Additionally, we show that in frequency modulation-AFM (FM-AFM) each harmonic carries complete information on the force, obviating the need for multi-harmonic analysis. Finally, we show that higher harmonics may indeed be used to reconstruct short range forces more accurately than the fundamental harmonic when the oscillation amplitude is small compared with the interaction range. PMID:25671159

  11. Dynamic simulation of viscoelastic soft tissues in harmonic motion imaging application.

    PubMed

    Shan, Baoxiang; Kogit, Megan L; Pelegri, Assimina A

    2008-10-20

    A finite element model was built to simulate the dynamic behavior of soft tissues subjected to sinusoidal excitation during harmonic motion imaging. In this study, soft tissues and tissue-like phantoms were modeled as isotropic, viscoelastic, and nearly incompressible media. A 3D incompressible mixed u-p element of eight nodes, S1P0, was developed to accurately calculate the stiffness matrix for soft tissues. The finite element equations of motion were solved using the Newmark method. The Voigt description for tissue viscosity was applied to estimate the relative viscous coefficient from the phase shift between the response and excitation in a harmonic case. After validating our model via ANSYS simulation and experiments, a MATLAB finite element program was then employed to explore the effect of excitation location, viscosity, and multiple frequencies on the dynamic displacement at the frequency of interest. PMID:18809178

  12. In vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence and harmonic spatial coherence imaging in fetal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kakkad, Vaibhav; Dahl, Jeremy; Ellestad, Sarah; Trahey, Gregg

    2015-04-01

    Fetal scanning is one of the most common applications of ultrasound imaging and serves as a source of vital information about maternal and fetal health. Visualization of clinically relevant structures, however, can be severely compromised in difficult-to-image patients due to poor resolution and the presence of high levels of acoustical noise or clutter. We have developed novel coherence-based beamforming methods called Short-Lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) imaging and Harmonic Spatial Coherence imaging (HSCI), and applied them to suppress the effects of clutter in fetal imaging. This method is used to create images of the spatial coherence of the backscattered ultrasound as opposed to images of echo magnitude. We present the results of a patient study to assess the benefits of coherence-based beamforming in the context of first trimester fetal exams. Matched fundamental B-mode, SLSC, harmonic B-mode, and HSCI images were generated using raw radio frequency data collected on 11 volunteers in the first trimester of pregnancy. The images were compared for qualitative differences in image texture and target conspicuity as well as using quantitative imaging metrics such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and contrast. SLSC and HSCI showed statistically significant improvements across all imaging metrics compared with B-mode and harmonic B-mode, respectively. These improvements were greatest for poor quality B-mode images where contrast of anechoic targets was improved from 15 dB in fundamental B-mode to 27 dB in SLSC and 17 dB in harmonic B-mode to 30 dB in HSCI. CNR improved from 1.4 to 2.5 in the fundamental images and 1.4 to 3.1 in the harmonic case. These results exhibit the potential of coherence-based beamforming to improve image quality and target detectability, especially in high noise environments. PMID:25116292

  13. Bone strain measurement using 3D digital image correlation of second harmonic generation images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Wentzell; R S Nesbitt; J Macione; R Knapp; S P Kotha

    2011-01-01

    Collagen fibrils contribute to the structural integrity and crack resistance of bone, but their response to stress while in bundles of fibrils is not well known. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful technique for measuring strain by comparing images of deformed samples to non-deformed samples, while second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) captures bright, high contrast images of bone with

  14. Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Membrane Potential with Photon Counting

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Membrane Potential with Photon Counting Jiang Jiang Abstract: Second-harmonic generation ~SHG! can be used for imaging membrane potential in neurons, but poor accurately. Key words: second-harmonic generation, photon counting, neuron, membrane potential INTRODUCTION

  15. Frequency and Amplitude Tracking of Time-Varying Harmonics and Interharmonics in Power Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo D'Apuzzo; Mauro D'Arco

    2006-01-01

    The paper is focused on monitoring operations performed in power systems. The attention is paid to slow variations characterizing frequency and amplitude parameters of sinusoidal components. A suitable digital signal processing method aimed at estimating frequency and amplitude variations characterizing both the fundamental component as well as single harmonics and interharmonics contained in distorted waveforms is presented. To track time-varying

  16. Joint Entropy of the Harmonic Oscillator with Time Dependent Mass and Frequency

    E-print Network

    E. Akturk; O. Ozcan; R. Sever

    2007-09-23

    Time dependent entropy of harmonic oscillator with time dependent mass and frequency are investigated. The joint entropy so called Leipnik's entropy is calculated by using time dependent wave function obtained by the Feynman path integral method. It is shown that, Leipnik's entropy fluctuates with time. However in constant mass and time dependent frequency case, entropy increases monotonically with time.

  17. Image of nonlinear structures of heterogeneous media using the second harmonic in scanning acoustical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, Fedar M.; O'Neill, Brian; Maev, Roman Gr.

    2000-05-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) images are created on the basis of sound reflection from sharp overfall of acoustical impedance. For that reason any internal structural components and inclusions with similar impedance values will be resolved with certain difficulties. In such particular cases, acoustical nonlinear phenomena could provide very important additional information. Interface between two media at certain conditions can be a very effective source of the second harmonic. It is still correct even in the case of exact equality of acoustical impedance of this media, when regular sound wave "can't recognize" that interface. The source of such concentrated nonlinearity is either the difference of nonlinear parameters of the heterogeneous media (material nonlinearity) or weak, "breaking" junction inside this structure (contact nonlinearity). The image in second harmonic reproduces the gradient distributions of nonlinearity parameters in the specimen. Such kind of image processing can provide a unique opportunity to detect small (less then wavelength) grains, cracks, inclusions and other inhomogeneous which can't be resolved using basic frequency. In our experiments, we used the nonlinear mode in the SAM with a basic frequency of 25 MHz. For this reason, the filter-amplifier with a frequency of 50 MHz and bandwidth of 4 MHz was included into the receiving part. As a result of decreasing the receiver bandwidth, brush pulses of second harmonic have a significant duration compared with one of fundamental frequency. It also leads to deterioration of spatial resolution in depth, consequently, this configuration of the device is better for investigations of two-dimensional objects. Based on our experiments and theoretical results, we demonstrate that an acoustical microscope nonlinear regime may be as effective an instrument for detecting various non-full contact in layered structures.

  18. Non-uniform time sampling for multiple-frequency harmonic balance computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédeney, Thomas; Gomar, Adrien; Gallard, François; Sicot, Frédéric; Dufour, Guillaume; Puigt, Guillaume

    2013-03-01

    A time-domain harmonic balance method for the analysis of almost-periodic (multi-harmonics) flows is presented. This method relies on Fourier analysis to derive an efficient alternative to classical time marching schemes for such flows. It has recently received significant attention, especially in the turbomachinery field where the flow spectrum is essentially a combination of the blade passing frequencies. Up to now, harmonic balance methods have used a uniform time sampling of the period of interest, but in the case of several frequencies, non-necessarily multiple of each other, harmonic balance methods can face stability issues due to a bad condition number of the Fourier operator. Two algorithms are derived to find a non-uniform time sampling in order to minimize this condition number. Their behavior is studied on a wide range of frequencies, and a model problem of a 1D flow with pulsating outlet pressure, which enables to prove their efficiency. Finally, the flow in a multi-stage axial compressor is analyzed with different frequency sets. It demonstrates the stability and robustness of the present non-uniform harmonic balance method regardless of the frequency set.

  19. Fluid simulations of frequency effects on nonlinear harmonics in inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Si Xuejiao; Xu Xiang; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Shuxia [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Bogaerts, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    A fluid model is self-consistently established to investigate the harmonic effects in an inductively coupled plasma, where the electromagnetic field is solved by the finite difference time domain technique. The spatiotemporal distribution of harmonic current density, harmonic potential, and other plasma quantities, such as radio frequency power deposition, plasma density, and electron temperature, have been investigated. Distinct differences in current density have been observed when calculated with and without Lorentz force, which indicates that the nonlinear Lorentz force plays an important role in the harmonic effects, especially at low frequencies. Moreover, the even harmonics are larger than the odd harmonics both in the current density and the potential. Finally, the dependence of various plasma quantities with and without the Lorentz force on various driving frequencies is also examined. It is shown that the deposited power density decreases and the depth of penetration increases slightly because of the Lorentz force. The electron density increases distinctly while the electron temperature remains almost the same when the Lorentz force is taken into account.

  20. Effects of introducing low-frequency harmonics in the perception of vocoded telephone speech.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that telephone use presents a challenge for most cochlear implant (CI) users, and this is attributed mainly to the narrow bandwidth (300-3400 Hz) introduced by the telephone network. The present study focuses on answering the question whether telephone speech recognition in noise can be improved by introducing, prior to vocoder processing, low-frequency harmonic information encompassing the missing (due to the telephone network) information residing in the 0-300 Hz band. Experiment 1 regenerates the main harmonics and adjacent partials within the 0-600 Hz range in corrupted (by steady noise) telephone speech which has been vocoded to simulate electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Results indicated that introducing the main harmonics alone did not produce any benefits in intelligibility. Substantial benefit (20%) was observed, however, when both main harmonics and adjacent partials were regenerated in the acoustic portion of EAS-vocoded telephone speech. A similar benefit was noted in Experiment 2 when low-frequency harmonic information was introduced prior to processing noise-corrupted telephone speech using an eight-channel vocoder. The gain in telephone speech intelligibility in noise obtained when low-frequency harmonic information was introduced can be attributed to the listeners having more reliable access to a combination of F0, glimpsing and lexical segmentation cues. PMID:20815463

  1. Artificial Ionization and UHF Radar Response Associated with HF Frequencies near Electron Gyro-Harmonics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Secan, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results from O-mode ionospheric heating experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska to demonstrate that the magnitude of artificial ionization production is critically dependent on the choice of HF frequency near gyro-harmonics. For O-mode heating in the lower F-region ionosphere, typically about 200 km altitude, artificial ionization enhancements are observed in the lower ionosphere (about 150 - 220 km) and also in the topside ionosphere above about 500 km. Lower ionosphere density enhancements are inferred from HF-enhanced ion and plasma-line signals observed with UHF radar. Upper ionospheric density enhancements have been observed with TEC (total electron content) experiments by monitoring satellite radio beacons where signal paths traverse the HF-modified ionosphere. Both density enhancements and corresponding upward plasma fluxes have also been observed in the upper ionosphere via in-situ satellite observations. The data presented focus mainly on observations near the third and fourth gyro-harmonics. The specific values of the height-dependent gyro-harmonics have been computed from a magnetic model of the field line through the HF heated volume. Experiments with several closely spaced HF frequencies around the gyro-harmonic frequency region show that the magnitude of the lower-ionosphere artificial ionization production maximizes for HF frequencies about 1.0 - 1.5 MHz above the gyro-harmonic frequency. The response is progressively larger as the HF frequency is increased in the frequency region near the gyro-harmonics. For HF frequencies that are initially greater than the gyro-harmonic value the UHF radar scattering cross-section is relatively small, and non-existent or very weak signals are observed; as the signal returns drop in altitude due to density enhancements the HF interaction region passes through lower altitudes where the HF frequency is less than the gyro-harmonic value, for these conditions the radar scattering cross-section is significantly increased and strong signals persist while the high-power HF is present . Simultaneous observations of topside TEC measurements and lower-ionosphere UHF radar observations suggest there is an optimum altitude region to heat the lower F-region in order to produce topside ionosphere density enhancements. The observations are dependent on HF power levels and we show several examples where heating results are only observed for the high-power levels attainable with the HAARP facility.

  2. Nonlinear Chemical Imaging Microscopy: Near-Field Third Harmonic Generation Imaging of

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    radiation in human red blood cells. We show that resonantly enhanced THG is a chemically specific bulk probeNonlinear Chemical Imaging Microscopy: Near-Field Third Harmonic Generation Imaging of Human Red experiments do not produce contrast that is truly surface specific. There is much current interest in the use

  3. Quantifying thermodynamics of collagen thermal denaturation by second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.; Su, Ping-Jung; Lin, Sung-Jan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2009-06-01

    Time-lapse second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was applied for the extraction of thermodynamic parameters of collagen thermal denaturation. We found that at sufficiently high temperatures, temporal dependence of SHG intensity from the isothermal treatment of chicken dermal collagen was single exponential and can be modeled by the Arrhenius equation. Activation energy and the frequency factor of chicken dermal collagen thermal denaturation were determined using temporal decays of SHG intensity at different temperatures. Our results show that time-lapse, high temperature SHG imaging can be used to quantify kinetic properties of collagen thermal denaturation within a microscopic volume of 1 nl.

  4. Imaging morphodynamics of human blood cells in vivo with video-rate third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Kuo; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    With a video-rate third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy system, we imaged the micro-circulation beneath the human skin without labeling. Not only the speed of circulation but also the morpho-hydrodynamics of blood cells can be analyzed. Lacking of nuclei, red blood cells (RBCs) shows typical parachute-like and hollow-core morphology under THG microscopy. Quite different from RBCs, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appear in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. PMID:23162724

  5. Imaging granularity of leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Using third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy, we demonstrate that granularity differences of leukocytes can be revealed without a label. Excited by a 1230 nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order of magnitude smaller. Interestingly, the characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to track the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. These results suggest that label-free THG imaging may provide timely tracking of leukocyte movement without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status. PMID:23024916

  6. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  7. Single pulse frequency compounding protocol for superharmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilouchkine, Mikhail G.; van Neer, Paul L. M. J.; Matte, Guillaume M.; Verweij, Martin D.; de Jong, Nico

    2011-03-01

    Second harmonic imaging is currently adopted as standard in commercial echographic systems. A new imaging technique, coined as superharmonic imaging (SHI), combines the 3rd till the 5th harmonics, arising during nonlinear sound propagation. It could further enhance resolution and quality of echographic images. To meet the bandwidth requirement for SHI a dedicated phased array has been developed: a low frequency subarray, intended for transmission, interleaved with a high frequency subarray, used in reception. As the bandwidth of the elements is limited, the spectral gaps in between the harmonics cause multiple reflection artifacts. Recently, we introduce a dual-pulse frequency compounding (DPFC) method to suppress those artifacts at price of a reduced frame rate. In this study we investigate the feasibility of performing the frequency compounding protocol within a single transmission. The traditional DPFC method constructs each trace in a post-processing stage by summing echoes from two emitted pulses, the second slightly frequency-shifted compared to the first. In the newly proposed method, the transmit aperture is divided into two parts: the first half is used to send a pulse at the lower center frequency, while the other half simultaneously transmits at the higher center frequency. The suitability of the protocol for medical imaging applications in terms of the steering capabilities was performed in a simulation study using the FIELD II toolkit. Moreover, an experimental study was performed to deduce the optimal parametric set for implementation of the clinical imaging protocol. The latter was subsequently used to obtain the images of a tissue mimicking phantom containing strongly reflecting wires. For in-vitro acquisitions the SHI probe with interleaved phased array (44 odd elements at 1MHz and 44 even elements at 3.7MHz elements, optimized for echocardiography) was connected to a fully programmable ultrasound system. The results of the Field II simulations demonstrated that the angle between the main and grating lobe amounted to 90°. The difference in the fundamental pressure level between those lobes was equal to -26.8 dB. Those results suggest that the superharmonic content in the grating lobe was acceptably low. A considerable improvement in the axial resolution of the SHI component (0.73 mm) at -6 dB in comparison with the 3rd harmonic (2.23 mm) was observed. A similar comparison in terms of the lateral resolution slightly favored the superharmonic component by 0.2 mm. Additionally, the images of the tissue mimicking phantom exhibited an absence of the multiple reflection artifacts in the focal and post-focal regions. The new method is equally effective in eliminating the ripple artifacts associated with SHI as the dual pulse technique, while the full frame rate is maintained.

  8. Increased efficiency of ion acceleration by using femtosecond laser pulses at higher harmonic frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Psikal, J., E-mail: jan.psikal@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Klimo, O. [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Weber, S.; Margarone, D. [ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-15

    The influence of laser frequency on laser-driven ion acceleration is investigated by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When ultrashort intense laser pulse at higher harmonic frequency irradiates a thin solid foil, the target may become re lativistically transparent for significantly lower laser pulse intensity compared with irradiation at fundamental laser frequency. The relativistically induced transparency results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum energies of accelerated ions and their numbers. Our simulation results have shown the increase in maximum proton energy and increase in the number of high-energy protons by a factor of 2 after the interaction of an ultrashort laser pulse of maximum intensity 7?×?10{sup 21?}W/cm{sup 2} with a fully ionized plastic foil of realistic density and of optimal thickness between 100?nm and 200?nm when switching from the fundamental frequency to the third harmonics.

  9. METHODS FOR COMPUTING HARMONIC DISTORTION IN LOW FREQUENCY POWER AMPLIFIER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Virgil Craciun; Delia Ungureanu; Dominic Mircea Kristaly

    This paper presents few different methods for computing the nonlinear distortion of an amplifier and compares each other, in order to find the simpler one that gives an acceptable precision. An approximate method for computing the amplifier distortion is introduced. The method is based on the five-point distortion analysis and allows the designer to identify the most important low frequency

  10. Polarization-insensitive ultralow-power second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved

    E-print Network

    Purdue University

    expressions for the polarization- scrambling-induced waveguide coupling and SHG conversion loss and confirmPolarization-insensitive ultralow-power second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical; posted January 8, 2007 (Doc. ID 76274); published March 5, 2007 We demonstrate polarization

  11. High efficiency second-harmonic generation in four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromitsu Kiriyama; Shinichi Matsuoka; Yoichiro Maruyama; Takashi Arisawa

    2000-01-01

    A four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme was developed to generate green output with high efficiency for pumping an ultrashort pulse laser system. With this scheme, an efficiency from fundamental energy into total second harmonic energy in excess of 80% was achieved for frequency doubling of 1064 nm in KTP with a low input fundamental laser intensity of 76 MW\\/cm2. A

  12. First-passage time of an inverted pendulum subject to high frequency harmonic and Gaussian white noise excitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. L. Huang; Z. Q. Zhu; X. L. Jin

    2009-01-01

    The first-passage time of an inverted pendulum subject to a combination of high frequency harmonic excitation and Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated. The high frequency harmonic excitation term is simplified to an equivalent autonomous nonlinear stiffness term by using the method of direct partition of motions. Then, the equations of motion of the equivalent system are reduced to an

  13. 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography with microbubble contrast agent improves characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kouji; Shiraki, Katsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeo; Fuke, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Akira; Shimizu, Atsuya; Hamataki, Toshinobu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography with the use of the contrast agent Levovist for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and for the evaluation of therapeutic response. METHODS: Phantom experiments were performed to compare the contrast effects of 2nd harmonic imaging and 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography. 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography was employed to examine 36 patients with HCC (42 nodules) before and after the treatment and to compare against the findings obtained using other diagnostic imaging modalities. RESULTS: In 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography, the tumor vessels of HCCs were clearly identified during the early phase, and late-phase images clearly demonstrated the differences in contrast enhancement between the tumor and surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Blood flow within the tumor was detected in 36 nodules (85.7%) during the early phase and in all 42 nodules (100%) during the late phase using 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography, in 38 nodules (90.5%) using contrast-enhanced CT, in 34 nodules (81.0%) using digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and in 42 nodules (100%) using US CO2 angiography. Following transcatheter arterial embolization, 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography detected blood flow and contrast enhancement within the tumors that were judged to contain viable tissue in 20 of 42 nodules (47.6%). However, 6 of these 20 cases were not judged in contrast-enhanced CT. 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography was compared with the US CO2 angiography findings as the gold standard, and the sensitivity and specificity of these images for discerning viable and nonviable HCC after transcatheter arterial embolization were 100% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography permits the vascular structures of HCCs to be identified and blood flow within the tumor to be clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, 1.5 Harmonic Imaging Sonography is potentially useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of transcatheter arterial embolization on HCC. PMID:16237752

  14. Imaging articular cartilage using second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Jessica C.; Winlove, C. Peter; Knapp, Karen; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2006-02-01

    Sub cellular resolution images of equine articular cartilage have been obtained using both second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM). The SHGM images clearly map the distribution of the collagen II fibers within the extracellular matrix while the TPFM images show the distribution of endogenous two-photon fluorophores in both the cells and the extracellular matrix, highlighting especially the pericellular matrix and bright 2-3?m diameter features within the cells. To investigate the source of TPF in the extracellular matrix experiments have been carried out to see if it may originate from the proteoglycans. Pure solutions of the following proteoglycans hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan have been imaged, only the aggrecan produced any TPF and here the intensity was not great enough to account for the TPF in the extracellular matrix. Also cartilage samples were subjected to a process to remove proteoglycans and cellular components. After this process the TPF from the samples had decreased by a factor of two, with respect to the SHG intensity.

  15. Harmonic generation at high field strengths - Frequency shifts and saturation phenomena. [optical mixing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stappaerts, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Optical harmonic generation and mixing in the gas phase has been proposed as a technique for the generation of coherent radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral region. At the high field strengths required by these processes the interaction between atoms and the electromagnetic field shows intensity-dependent resonances. In this paper we modify harmonic generation theory to include the effect of these frequency shifts. Closed-form expressions for generated dipole moment, absorption probability, and coherence length are presented. The most important consequences of frequency shifts on resonantly enhanced processes are that the pump laser must be tuned away from the small-field resonance frequency, that the conversion efficiency may saturate, and that the dispersion of the medium may change sign. As an example, the generation of 198-A radiation by a five-photon mixing process in Li(+) is considered.

  16. Efficient second-harmonic conversion of CW single-frequency Nd:YAG laser light by frequency locking to a monolithic ring frequency doubler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenberger, D. C.; Tye, G. E.; Wallace, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Efficient second-harmonic conversion of the 1064-nm output of a diode-pumped CW single-frequency Nd:YAG laser to 532 nm was obtained by frequency locking the laser to a monolithic ring resonator constructed of magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate. The conversion efficiency from the fundamental to the second harmonic was 65 percent. Two hundred milliwatts of CW single-frequency 532-nm light were produced from 310 mW of power of 1064-nm light. This represents a conversion efficiency of 20 percent from the 1-W diode laser used to pump the Nd:YAG laser to single-frequency 532-nm output. No signs of degradation were observed for over 500 h of operation.

  17. A Wideband Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesis Architecture Using Multi-Order Harmonic-Synthesis and Variable $N$Push Frequency Multiplication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed M. Abdul-Latif; Mohamed M. Elsayed; Edgar Sanchez-Sinencio

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an architecture and design approach for the realization of wideband millimeter-wave fre- quency synthesizers. This architecture uses two-step multi-order harmonic generation of a low frequency phase-locked signal to generate wideband millimeter-wave frequencies. The first step is implemented using a multi-order digital harmonic synthesis block combined with am ulti-phase injection-locked oscillator. A variable -push frequency multiplier uses the

  18. Second harmonic generation imaging in tissue engineering and cartilage pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilledahl, Magnus; Olderøy, Magnus; Finnøy, Andreas; Olstad, Kristin; Brinchman, Jan E.

    2015-03-01

    The second harmonic generation from collagen is highly sensitive to what extent collagen molecules are ordered into fibrils as the SHG signal is approximately proportional to the square of the fibril thickness. This can be problematic when interpreting SHG images as thick fibers are much brighter than thinner fibers such that quantification of the amount of collagen present is difficult. On the other hand SHG is therefore also a very sensitive probe to determine whether collagen have assembled into fibrils or are still dissolved as individual collagen molecules. This information is not available from standard histology or immunohistochemical techniques. The degree for fibrillation is an essential component for proper tissue function. We will present the usefulness of SHG imaging in tissue engineering of cartilage as well as cartilage related pathologies. When engineering cartilage it is essential to have the appropriate culturing conditions which cause the collagen molecules to assemble into fibrils. By employing SHG imaging we have studied how cell seeding densities affect the fibrillation of collagen molecules. Furthermore we have used SHG to study pathologies in developing cartilage in a porcine model. In both cases SHG reveals information which is not visible in conventional histology or immunohistochemistry

  19. Elimination of low-frequency harmonics caused by PWM in a three-phase soft-switched boost rectifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Wu; Fred C. Lee; Dushan Boroyevich

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents three major causes of low-frequency harmonics in a high-frequency soft-switched three-phase pulsewidth modulation (PWM) boost rectifier: pulsewidth limits; an improper space-vector modulation scheme; and dead time. Among these, the pulsewidth limits are related to soft-switching techniques. To eliminate undesirable low-frequency harmonics, each cause is illustrated and a solution is provided. Both simulation and experimental results prove the

  20. Elimination of low-frequency harmonics caused by PWM in a three-phase soft-switched boost rectifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Wu; Fred C. Lee; Dushan Boroyevich

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents three major causes of low-frequency harmonics in a high-frequency soft-switched three-phase PWM boost rectifier: pulse width limits; an improper space vector modulation scheme; and dead time. Among these, the pulse width limits are related to soft-switching techniques. To eliminate undesirable low-frequency harmonics, each cause is illustrated and a solution is provided. Both simulation and experimental results prove

  1. Generation of harmonic frequencies and their effects in present day ICRF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durodié, F.; Vervier, M.

    1999-09-01

    The whole TEXTOR-94 ICRF system [1,2] circuit has been analyzed, partially modelled and studied at the fundamental operating frequency and, more important, at harmonic frequencies thereof. It has been found that without appropriate measures, present day systems and especially the TEXTOR ICRF system are prone to spurious generation of power at the second harmonic frequency. This leads either to erroneous activation of the reflected power safety protection or to highly increased (in some cases doubled) voltages in the transmission lines and antennas. As the voltage standing waves at the second harmonic displace the total voltage maxima in the transmission lines and antennas, this also explains why arcs are not always found at the expected voltage maxima for the fundamental frequency. The model is also able to give additional explanations why the ASDEX-Upgrade ICRF system has dramatically improved its power handling capabilities after the introduction of the ``3dB coupler reflection compensation scheme'' [3,4]. The output of one of the TEXTOR transmitters has been fitted with a quarter wave length shorted stub which has no effect on the operation at the fundamental frequency but which effectively shorts out the second harmonic. It has to be noted that eg. the Tore Supra RDL [5] antennas are fitted with such a stub in the feeding transmission line whose function is to enter cooling water into the transmission line system. Hence, this could be the explanation of the apparent higher than average power handling capabilities of the TS antenna system. Experimental results clearly indicate a much improved operational power handling capability on plasma and an increased voltage stand-off when conditioning this antenna pair on vacuum. Limits have yet to be explored but already remarkable is the fact that since the installation of the quarter wavelength stub the reflected power safety system has been activated only once and furthermore so in poorly matched conditions.

  2. Harmonic Imaging of Plastic Deformation in Thin Metal Plates Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Koichiro

    2011-07-01

    Plastic deformation in perforated SUS 304 steel strips is imaged by an immersion resonant higher harmonic technique. The higher harmonic components are extracted from resonant waveforms received through a high-pass filter. Plastic zones are imaged by higher harmonic amplitude and delay time from the start of resonance to the peak amplitude. The higher harmonic amplitude corresponds well to the extent of plastic deformation; namely, it is highest in highly deformed regions and lowest in un-deformed regions. This technique could be applied to evaluate material degradation before crack initiation.

  3. Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy of cellular structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Andrew C.; Jin, Lei; Loew, Leslie M.

    2005-03-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy is an important emerging technique for biological research, with many advantages over existing one- or two-photon fluorescence techniques. A non-linear phenomenon employing mode-locked Ti:sapphire or fiber-based lasers, SHG results in intrinsic optical sectioning without the need for a confocal aperture. Furthermore, as a second-order process SHG is confined to loci lacking a center of symmetry. Many important structural proteins such as collagen and cellulose show intrinsic SHG, thus providing access to sub-resolution information on symmetry. However, we are particularly interested here in "resonance-enhanced" SHG from styryl dyes. In general SHG is a combination of a true second-order process and a third-order process dependent on a static electric field, such that SHG from membrane-bound dyes depends on a cell's trans-membrane potential. With simultaneous patch-clamping and non-linear imaging of cells, we have found that SHG is a sensitive probe of trans-membrane potential with sensitivities that are up to four times better than those obtained under optimal conditions using one-photon fluorescence imaging. With the sensitivity of SHG to local electric fields from other sources such as the membrane dipole potential as well as the quadratic dependence of SHG on concentration, we have found that SHG imaging of styryl dyes is also a powerful technique for the investigation of lipid phases and rafts and for the visualization of the dynamics of membrane-vesicle fusion following fertilization of an ovum.

  4. Molecular Mie model for second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Sarina; Schürer, Benedikt; Sauerbeck, Christian; Peukert, Wolfgang; Peschel, Ulf

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical model to simulate second harmonic and sum frequency generation from stratified spherical particles of arbitrary material is presented and compared with the widely used Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation and to experimental results from polystyrene particles with adsorbed malachite green molecules. In this model, the nonlinear polarization is caused by individual dipoles placed in the vicinity of the sphere and is simulated on a molecular basis. This offers greater flexibility to model more sophisticated systems.

  5. Persistent frequency shifts in the dynamic structure factor of the quantum harmonic oscillator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Schimmel; W. Montfrooij; V. W. J. Verhoeven; I. M. de Schepper

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor S(Q,omega) of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator has been known exactly as a function of momentum transfer hbarQ, energy transfer hbaromega and temperature T for a very long time. One aspect of the exact solution has not been explicitly discussed so far: for large Q the maximum in S(Q,omega) is located at a frequency omega =

  6. Molecular QED of coherent and incoherent sum-frequency and second-harmonic generation in chiral liquids in the presence of a static electric field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fischer; A. Salam

    2010-01-01

    Coherent second-order nonlinear optical processes are symmetry forbidden in centrosymmetric environments in the electric-dipole approximation. In liquids that contain chiral molecules, however, and which therefore lack mirror image symmetry, coherent sum-frequency generation is possible, whereas second-harmonic generation remains forbidden. Here we apply the theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics to the calculation of the matrix element, transition rate, and integrated signal

  7. Simulation of HMIFU (Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound) with in-vitro validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Y. Hou; Jianwen Luo; Caroline Maleke; Elisa E. Konofagou

    2010-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) is a technique capable of imaging tissue mechanical properties during acoustic radiation force application. Recently, HMIFU has been shown capable for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy and monitoring. Here, a theoretical analysis of the Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) system is performed using a 2D nonlinear wave propagation model combined with a finite-element (FE)

  8. Automatic recognition of harmonic bird sounds using a frequency track extraction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jason R; Pinezich, John D

    2008-09-01

    This paper demonstrates automatic recognition of vocalizations of four common bird species (herring gull [Larus argentatus], blue jay [Cyanocitta cristata], Canada goose [Branta canadensis], and American crow [Corvus brachyrhynchos]) using an algorithm that extracts frequency track sets using track properties of importance and harmonic correlation. The main result is that a complex harmonic vocalization is rendered into a set of related tracks that is easily applied to statistical models of the actual bird vocalizations. For each vocalization type, a statistical model of the vocalization was created by transforming the training set frequency tracks into feature vectors. The extraction algorithm extracts sets of frequency tracks from test recordings that closely approximate harmonic sounds in the file being processed. Each extracted set in its final form is then compared with the statistical models generated during the training phase using Mahalanobis distance functions. If it matches one of the models closely, the recognizer declares the set an occurrence of the corresponding vocalization. The method was evaluated against a test set containing vocalizations of both the 4 target species and 16 additional species as well as background noise containing planes, cars, and various natural sounds. PMID:19045673

  9. Highly efficient third harmonic generation by means of four-wave difference-frequency mixing in fused silica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Darginavicius; D. Majus; G. Tamosauskas; A. Dubietis

    2009-01-01

    We report on highly efcient third harmonic generation of 1-ps laser pulses in transparent isotropic solid state medium through phase-matched non-collinear four-wave difference-frequency mixing. Third harmonic pulses at 351 nm with 230 \\

  10. Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time-frequency analysis of quantum dipole emission

    E-print Network

    Chu, Shih-I

    Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time-frequency analysis of quantum dipole emission Xi Chu and Shih-I Chu Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas-dimensional quantum study of the coherent control of high-order harmonic generation HHG processes in intense pulsed

  11. Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng-Lei Hong; Kaoru Minoshima; Atsushi Onae; Hajime Inaba; Hideyuki Takada; Akiko Hirai; Hirokazu Matsumoto; Toshiharu Sugiura; Makoto Yoshida

    2003-01-01

    A frequency comb spanning more than one octave has been achieved by injecting the second-harmonic generation (780 nm) of a mode-locked fiber laser (1.56 mum) into a photonic crystal fiber. We propose and realize a novel interferometric scheme for observing the carrier-envelope offset frequency of the frequency comb. Frequency noise has been observed on the measured carrier-envelope offset frequency, which

  12. Adaptive contrast imaging: transmit frequency optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménigot, Sébastien; Novell, Anthony; Voicu, Iulian; Bouakaz, Ayache; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since the introduction of ultrasound (US) contrast imaging, the imaging systems use a fixed emitting frequency. However it is known that the insonified medium is time-varying and therefore an adapted time-varying excitation is expected. We suggest an adaptive imaging technique which selects the optimal transmit frequency that maximizes the acoustic contrast. Two algorithms have been proposed to find an US excitation for which the frequency was optimal with microbubbles. Methods and Materials: Simulations were carried out for encapsulated microbubbles of 2 microns by considering the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for 2 MHz transmit frequency and for various pressure levels (20 kPa up to 420kPa). In vitro experiments were carried out using a transducer operating at 2 MHz and using a programmable waveform generator. Contrast agent was then injected into a small container filled with water. Results and discussions: We show through simulations and in vitro experiments that our adaptive imaging technique gives: 1) in case of simulations, a gain of acoustic contrast which can reach 9 dB compared to the traditional technique without optimization and 2) for in vitro experiments, a gain which can reach 18 dB. There is a non negligible discrepancy between simulations and experiments. These differences are certainly due to the fact that our simulations do not take into account the diffraction and nonlinear propagation effects. Further optimizations are underway.

  13. Extracting tidal frequencies using multivariate harmonic analysis of sea level height time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A. R.; Zaminpardaz, S.; Sharifi, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    This contribution is seen as a first attempt to extract the tidal frequencies using a multivariate spectral analysis method applied to multiple time series of tide-gauge records. The existing methods are either physics-based in which the ephemeris of Moon, Sun and other planets are used, or are observation-based in which univariate analysis methods—Fourier and wavelet for instance—are applied to tidal observations. The existence of many long tide-gauge records around the world allows one to use tidal observations and extract the main tidal constituents for which efficient multivariate methods are to be developed. This contribution applies the multivariate least-squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE) to the tidal time series of the UK tide-gauge stations. The first 413 harmonics of the tidal constituents and their nonlinear components are provided using the multivariate LS-HE. A few observations of the research are highlighted: (1) the multivariate analysis takes information of multiple time series into account in an optimal least- squares sense, and thus the tidal frequencies have higher detection power compared to the univariate analysis. (2) Dominant tidal frequencies range from the long-term signals to the sixth-diurnal species interval. Higher frequencies have negligible effects. (3) The most important tidal constituents (the first 50 frequencies) ordered from their amplitudes range from 212 cm (M2) to 1 cm (OQ2) for the data set considered. There are signals in this list that are not available in the 145 main tidal frequencies of the literature. (4) Tide predictions using different lists of tidal frequencies on five different data sets around the world are compared. The prediction results using the first significant 50 constituents provided promising results on these locations of the world.

  14. Localized harmonic motion imaging: theory, simulations and experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa E. Konofagou; Kullervo Hynynen

    2003-01-01

    Several techniques have been developed in an effort to estimate mechanical properties of tissues. These techniques typically estimate static or harmonic motion resulting from an externally or internally applied mechanical stimulus. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of utilizing a new technique that performs radiofrequency (RF) signal tracking to estimate the localized oscillatory motion resulting from the harmonic radiation

  15. Probing nuclear motion by frequency modulation of molecular high-order harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xue-Bin; Bandrauk, André D

    2014-11-01

    Molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) in a non-Born-Oppenheimer treatment of H(2)(+), D(2)(+), is investigated by numerical simulations of the corresponding time-dependent Schro?dinger equations in full dimensions. As opposed to previous studies on amplitude modulation of intracycle dynamics in MHOHG, we demonstrate redshifts as frequency modulation (FM) of intercycle dynamics in MHOHG. The FM is induced by nuclear motion using intense laser pulses. Compared to fixed-nuclei approximations, the intensity of MHOHG is much higher due to the dependence of enhanced ionization on the internuclear distance. The width and symmetry of the spectrum of each harmonic in MHOHG encode rich information on the dissociation process of molecules at the rising and falling parts of the laser pulses, which can be used to retrieve the nuclear dynamics. Isotope effects are studied to confirm the FM mechanism. PMID:25415907

  16. Quantum quench of the trap frequency in the harmonic Calogero model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabpour, M. A.; Sotiriadis, S.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a quantum quench of the trap frequency in a system of bosons interacting through an inverse-square potential and confined in a harmonic trap (the harmonic Calogero model). We determine exactly the initial state in terms of the postquench eigenstates and derive the time evolution of simple physical observables. Since this model possesses an infinite set of integrals of motion that allow its exact solution, a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE), i.e., a statistical ensemble that takes into account the conservation of all integrals of motion, can be proposed in order to describe the values of local physical observables long after the quench. Even though, due to the presence of the trap, physical observables do not exhibit equilibration but periodic evolution, such a GGE may still describe correctly their time-averaged values. We check this analytically for the local boson density and find that the GGE conjecture is indeed valid, in the thermodynamic limit.

  17. Second Harmonic Imaging improves Echocardiograph Quality on board the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Martin, David; Ebert, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) capabilities have been part of the Human Research Facility (HRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The US equipment on board the ISS includes a first-generation Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) option. Harmonic imaging (HI) is the second harmonic response of the tissue to the ultrasound beam and produces robust tissue detail and signal. Since this is a first-generation THI, there are inherent limitations in tissue penetration. As a breakthrough technology, HI extensively advanced the field of ultrasound. In cardiac applications, it drastically improves endocardial border detection and has become a common imaging modality. U.S. images were captured and stored as JPEG stills from the ISS video downlink. US images with and without harmonic imaging option were randomized and provided to volunteers without medical education or US skills for identification of endocardial border. The results were processed and analyzed using applicable statistical calculations. The measurements in US images using HI improved measurement consistency and reproducibility among observers when compared to fundamental imaging. HI has been embraced by the imaging community at large as it improves the quality and data validity of US studies, especially in difficult-to-image cases. Even with the limitations of the first generation THI, HI improved the quality and measurability of many of the downlinked images from the ISS and should be an option utilized with cardiac imaging on board the ISS in all future space missions.

  18. Three-dimensional tooth imaging using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min-Huey; Chen, Wei-Liang; Sun, Yen; Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Lin, Ming-Gu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-02-01

    Detailed morphological and cellular information relating to the human tooth have traditionally been obtained through histological studies that required decalcification, staining, and fixation. With the recent invention of multiphoton microscopy, it has become possible to acquire high resolution images without histological procedures. Using an epiilluminated multiphoton microscope, we obtained two-photon excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of ex vivo human tooth. By combining these two imaging modalities we obtained submicron resolution images of the enamel, dentin, and the periodontal ligaments. The enamel emits endogenous two-photon autofluorescence. The structure of the dentin is visible from both the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. The periodontal ligament composed mostly of collagen can be visualized by SHG imaging. We also constructed three dimensional images of the enamel, dentin, and periodontal ligament. The effectiveness of using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy to obtain structural information of teeth suggest its potential use in dental diagnostics.

  19. High-resolution harmonic motion imaging (HR-HMI) for tissue biomechanical property characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Qian, Xuejun; Chiu, Chi Tat; Yu, Mingyue; Jung, Hayong; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Elastography, capable of mapping the biomechanical properties of biological tissues, serves as a useful technique for clinicians to perform disease diagnosis and determine stages of many diseases. Many acoustic radiation force (ARF) based elastography, including acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and harmonic motion imaging (HMI), have been developed to remotely assess the elastic properties of tissues. However, due to the lower operating frequencies of these approaches, their spatial resolutions are insufficient for revealing stiffness distribution on small scale applications, such as cancerous tumor margin detection, atherosclerotic plaque composition analysis and ophthalmologic tissue characterization. Though recently developed ARF-based optical coherence elastography (OCE) methods open a new window for the high resolution elastography, shallow imaging depths significantly limit their usefulness in clinics. Methods The aim of this study is to develop a high-resolution HMI method to assess the tissue biomechanical properties with acceptable field of view (FOV) using a 4 MHz ring transducer for efficient excitation and a 40 MHz needle transducer for accurate detection. Under precise alignment of two confocal transducers, the high-resolution HMI system has a lateral resolution of 314 µm and an axial resolution of ?147 µm with an effective FOV of 2 mm in depth. Results The performance of this high resolution imaging system was validated on the agar-based tissue mimicking phantoms with different stiffness distributions. These data demonstrated the imaging system’s improved resolution and sensitivity on differentiating materials with varying stiffness. In addition, ex vivo imaging of a human atherosclerosis coronary artery demonstrated the capability of high resolution HMI in identifying layer-specific structures and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques based on their stiffness differences. Conclusions All together high resolution HMI appears to be a promising ultrasound-only technology for characterizing tissue biomechanical properties at the microstructural level to improve the image-based diseases diagnosis in multiple clinical applications. PMID:25694960

  20. 3D quantitative Fourier analysis of second harmonic generation microscopy images of collagen structure in cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romijn, Elisabeth I.; Lilledahl, Magnus B.

    2013-02-01

    One of the main advantages of nonlinear microscopy is that it provides 3D imaging capability. Second harmonic generation is widely used to image the 3D structure of collagen fibers, and several works have highlighted the modification of the collagen fiber fabric in important diseases. By using an ellipsoidal specific fitting technique on the Fourier transformed image, we show, using both synthetic images and SHG images from cartilage, that the 3D direction of the collagen fibers can be robustly determined.

  1. Correlated ab initio harmonic frequencies and infrared intensities for furan, pyrrole, and thiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Simandiras, E.D.; Handy, N.C.; Amos, R.D.

    1988-04-07

    Equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities are calculated analytically at the second-order Moeller-Plesset level (MP2) with a DZP basis for the five-membered heterocyclic aromatics furan, pyrrole, and thiophene. The results are of an accuracy to show up misassignments in the original experimental interpretation of the spectra. They also give confidence that ab initio calculations including electron correlation and using flexible basis sets can describe accurately the quadratic part of the potential energy surface. For such systems, these ab initio studies will aid the spectroscopic determination of force constants.

  2. Imaging on a sphere with interferometers: the spherical wave harmonic transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carozzi, T. D.

    2015-07-01

    I present an exact and explicit solution to the scalar (Stokes flux intensity) radio interferometer imaging equation on a spherical surface which is valid also for non-coplanar interferometer configurations. This imaging equation is comparable to w-term imaging algorithms, but by using a spherical rather than a Cartesian formulation this term has no special significance. The solution presented also allows direct identification of the scalar (spin 0 weighted) spherical harmonics on the sky. The method should be of interest for future multispacecraft interferometers, wide-field imaging with non-coplanar arrays, and cosmic microwave background spherical harmonic measurements using interferometers.

  3. Harmonic Frequency Components Detection by a Guide Wave type Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers [EMATs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Riichi; Ayaka, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Kohei; Yoshida, Kazuki

    When an ultrasonic wave is injected into a crack, if the width of the crack opening is of almost the same order as the displacement of the ultrasonic wave, the crack may be closed or opened. As a result, the waveform of the received ultrasonic wave is different from that of the incident ultrasonic wave. Therefore, regarding the incident ultrasonic wave, its harmonic frequency components change as it penetrates the crack. However, the nonlinearity of a solid material is very low compared to that of a liquid medium, therefore, a liquid medium with a high nonlinear efficiency had to be used as a coupling medium. We then attempted to apply an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), which does not require a coupling medium. In addition, we tried to develop an EMAT that could alternately drive a Lamb wave (S0-mode, A0-mode) and a Shear Horizontal (SH0) -plate wave to detect any nonlinearity in an ultrasonic wave. We actually tested the performance using fabricated fatigue specimens. As a result, we observed that the harmonic components increased when we used the specimen with a specific loading condition and a specific ultrasonic mode. This indicated that the harmonic component detection using the trial EMAT could also provide useful information on the damage to any structures or any materials

  4. Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement using the second harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng-Lei Hong; K. Minoshima; A. Onae; H. Inaba; H. Matsumoto; T. Sugiura; M. Yoshida

    2003-01-01

    Frequency comb spanning more than one octave has been achieved by injecting the second harmonic generation (780 nm) of a mode-locked fiber laser (1.56 ?m) into a photonic crystal fiber. We propose and realize a novel interferometric scheme for observing the carrier-envelope offset frequency.

  5. On the squeezing of coherent light coupled to a driven damped harmonic oscillator with time dependent mass and frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swapan Mandal

    2004-01-01

    A possible model corresponding to the driven damped oscillator of time dependent mass and frequency is discussed. The corresponding solution of the quantum damped driven harmonic oscillator of time dependent mass and frequency is exploited to obtain the squeezing of the light initially prepared in coherent state. We observe that the driven term has no role to play on the

  6. High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses. II. Time-frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tosa, V. [Department of Physics, KAIST, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Kim, H.T.; Kim, I.J.; Nam, C.H. [Department of Physics, KAIST, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701(Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    We present a time-dependent analysis of high-order harmonics generated by a self-guided femtosecond laser pulse propagating through a long gas jet. A three-dimensional model is used to calculate the harmonic fields generated by laser pulses, which only differ by the sign of their initial chirp. The time-frequency distributions of the single-atom dipole and harmonic field reveal the dynamics of harmonic generation in the cutoff. A time-dependent phase-matching calculation was performed, taking into account the self-phase modulation of the laser field. Good phase matching holds for only few optical cycles, being dependent on the electron trajectory. When the cutoff trajectory is phase matched, emitted harmonics are locked in phase and the emission intensity is maximized.

  7. Second-order susceptibility imaging with polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsian; Su, Ping-Jung; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Lin, Sung-Jan; Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has become an important tool for minimally invasive biomedical imaging. However, differentiation of different second harmonic generating species is mainly provided by morphological features. Using excitation polarization-resolved SHG microscopy we determined the ratios of the second-order susceptibility tensor elements at single pixel resolution. Mapping the resultant ratios for each pixel onto an image provides additional contrast for the differentiation of different sources of SHG. We demonstrate this technique by imaging collagen-muscle junction of chicken wing.

  8. Extracting quantitative biomechanical parameters for cartilage from second harmonic generation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilledahl, Magnus B.; Pierce, David M.; Ricken, Tim; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; de Lange Davies, Catarina

    2011-03-01

    Cartilage from the medial femoral condyle of chicken was sectioned and imaged using second harmonic generation microscopy. Using image analysis techniques based on the Fourier transform we derived quantitative threedimensional data of the fiber direction and dispersion of the collagen fiber network in the superficial layer. These data can be used directly in biomechanical models to enhance the fidelity of these models.

  9. Quantified characterization of dermal collagen structure in human cutaneous scars from second harmonic generation imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqin Zhu; Youting Chen; Shuangmu Zhuo; Biying Yu; Liqin Zheng; Kecheng Lu; Jianxin Chen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, high resolution images of collagens based on second harmonic generation (SHG) were obtained in the dermis of different scar tissues and surrounding considered uninjured skins, demonstrating differences in their microstructures. In order to quantitatively analyze their structural features, Fourier analysis was applied for the SHG images to compare the alteration in collagen orientation of different scars. Moreover,

  10. Stimulated Second Harmonic Generation for High-Sensitivity Interfacial Spectroscopy and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Aaron; Tisdale, William

    2015-03-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical interactions such as sum- and difference-frequency generation are widely used for bioimaging and as selective probes of interfacial environments. However, inefficient nonlinear optical conversion often leads to poor signal-to-noise ratios and long signal acquisition times. Here, we demonstrate the dramatic enhancement of weak second-order nonlinear optical signals via stimulated sum- and difference-frequency generation. We present a conceptual framework to quantitatively describe the interaction and show that the process is highly sensitive to the relative optical phase of the stimulating field. To emphasize the utility of the technique, we demonstrate stimulated enhancement of second harmonic generation (SHG) from bovine collagen-I fibrils. Using a stimulating pulse fluence of only 3 nJ/cm2, we obtain an SHG enhancement of > 104 relative to the spontaneous signal. The stimulated enhancement is greatest in situations where spontaneous signals are the weakest - such as low laser power, small sample volume, and weak nonlinear susceptibility - emphasizing the importance of this technique for improving signal-to-noise ratios in biological imaging and interfacial spectroscopy.

  11. Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) flight tones: Frequency, harmonicity, spherical spreading, and phase relationships

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Benjamin J.; Emr, Kevin S.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito flight produces a tone as a side effect of wing movement; this tone is also a communication signal that is frequency-modulated during courtship. Recordings of tones produced by tethered flying male and female Aedes aegypti were undertaken using pairs of pressure-gradient microphones above and below, ahead and behind, and to the left and right over a range of distances. Fundamental frequencies were close to those previously reported, although amplitudes were lower. The male fundamental frequency was higher than that of the female and males modulated it over a wider range. Analysis of harmonics shows that the first six partials were nearly always within 1?Hz of integer multiples of the fundamental, even when the fundamental was being modulated. Along the front-back axis, amplitude attenuated as a function of distance raised to the power 2.3. Front and back recordings were out of phase, as were above and below, while left and right were in phase. Recordings from ahead and behind showed quadratic phase coupling, while others did not. Finally, two methods are presented for separating simultaneous flight tones in a single recording and enhancing their frequency resolution. Implications for mosquito behavior are discussed. PMID:25234901

  12. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  13. Measurement of sound velocity made easy using harmonic resonant frequencies with everyday mobile technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, Michael; Kuhn, Jochen; Müller, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Recent articles about smartphone experiments have described their applications as experimental tools in different physical contexts.1-4 They have established that smartphones facilitate experimental setups, thanks to the small size and diverse functions of mobile devices, in comparison to setups with computer-based measurements. In the experiment described in this article, the experimental setup is reduced to a minimum. The objective of the experiment is to determine the speed of sound with a high degree of accuracy using everyday tools. An article published recently proposes a time-of-flight method where sound or acoustic pulses are reflected at the ends of an open tube.5 In contrast, the following experiment idea is based on the harmonic resonant frequencies of such a tube, simultaneously triggered by a noise signal.

  14. Definitions of non-stationary vibration power for time-frequency analysis and computational algorithms based upon harmonic wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2015-02-01

    While the vibration power for a set of harmonic force and velocity signals is well defined and known, it is not as popular yet for a set of stationary random force and velocity processes, although it can be found in some literatures. In this paper, the definition of the vibration power for a set of non-stationary random force and velocity signals will be derived for the purpose of a time-frequency analysis based on the definitions of the vibration power for the harmonic and stationary random signals. The non-stationary vibration power, defined as the short-time average of the product of the force and velocity over a given frequency range of interest, can be calculated by three methods: the Wigner-Ville distribution, the short-time Fourier transform, and the harmonic wavelet transform. The latter method is selected in this paper because band-pass filtering can be done without phase distortions, and the frequency ranges can be chosen very flexibly for the time-frequency analysis. Three algorithms for the time-frequency analysis of the non-stationary vibration power using the harmonic wavelet transform are discussed. The first is an algorithm for computation according to the full definition, while the others are approximate. Noting that the force and velocity decomposed into frequency ranges of interest by the harmonic wavelet transform are constructed with coefficients and basis functions, for the second algorithm, it is suggested to prepare a table of time integrals of the product of the basis functions in advance, which are independent of the signals under analysis. How to prepare and utilize the integral table are presented. The third algorithm is based on an evolutionary spectrum. Applications of the algorithms to the time-frequency analysis of the vibration power transmitted from an excitation source to a receiver structure in a simple mechanical system consisting of a cantilever beam and a reaction wheel are presented for illustration.

  15. Image enhancement by non-linear extrapolation in frequency space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Greenspan, Hayit K. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An input image is enhanced to include spatial frequency components having frequencies higher than those in an input image. To this end, an edge map is generated from the input image using a high band pass filtering technique. An enhancing map is subsequently generated from the edge map, with the enhanced map having spatial frequencies exceeding an initial maximum spatial frequency of the input image. The enhanced map is generated by applying a non-linear operator to the edge map in a manner which preserves the phase transitions of the edges of the input image. The enhanced map is added to the input image to achieve a resulting image having spatial frequencies greater than those in the input image. Simplicity of computations and ease of implementation allow for image sharpening after enlargement and for real-time applications such as videophones, advanced definition television, zooming, and restoration of old motion pictures.

  16. Real-Time Monitoring Of Regional Tissue Elasticity During FUS Focused Ultrasound Therapy Using Harmonic Motion Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Maleke; Mathieu Pernot; Elisa Konofagou

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) technique for simultaneous monitoring and generation of focused ultrasound therapy using two separate focused ultrasound transducer elements has previously been shown. In this study, a new HMI technique is described that images tissue displacement induced by a harmonic radiation force induced using a single focused ultrasound element. First, wave propagation simulation models

  17. Tailoring the nonlinear frequency coupling between odd harmonics for the optimisation of charged particle dynamics in capacitively coupled oxygen plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, A. R.; Greb, A.; Graham, W. G.; Gans, T.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of nonlinear frequency coupling in an oxygen plasma excited by two odd harmonics at moderate pressure is investigated using a numerical model. Through variations in the voltage ratio and phase shift between the frequency components changes in ionization dynamics and sheath voltages are demonstrated. Furthermore, a regime in which the voltage drop across the plasma sheath is minimised is identified. This regime provides a significantly higher ion flux than a single frequency discharge driven by the lower of the two frequencies alone. These operating parameters have potential to be exploited for plasma processes requiring low ion bombardment energies but high ion fluxes.

  18. Pulse-modulated second harmonic imaging microscope quantitatively demonstrates marked increase of collagen in tumor after chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    Raja, Anju M.

    Pulse-modulated second harmonic imaging microscopes (PM-SHIMs) exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over conventional SHIMs on sensitive imaging and quantification of weak collagen signals inside tissues. We quantify ...

  19. Efficient procedure for the numerical calculation of harmonic vibrational frequencies based on internal coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-08-15

    We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described with a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C1 symmetry the computational savings amount to 36! ? 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters are presented. In all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by < 1 cm-1 from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.

  20. Harmonic analysis of irradiation asymmetry for cylindrical implosions driven by high-frequency rotating ion beams.

    PubMed

    Bret, A; Piriz, A R; Tahir, N

    2012-03-01

    Cylindrical implosions driven by intense heavy ion beams should be instrumental in the near future for study of high-energy-density matter. By rotating the beam by means of a high-frequency wobbler, it should be possible to deposit energy in the outer layers of a cylinder, compressing the material deposited in its core. The beam's temporal profile should, however, generate an inevitable irradiation asymmetry likely to feed the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) during the implosion phase. In this paper, we compute the Fourier components of the target irradiation in order to make the connection with previous works on the RTI performed in this setting. Implementing one- and two-dimensional beam models, we find that these components can be expressed exactly in terms of the Fourier transform of the temporal beam profile. If T is the beam duration and ? its rotation frequency, "magic products" ?T can be identified which cancel the first harmonic of the deposited density, resulting in an improved irradiation symmetry. PMID:22587191

  1. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: Basic principles, present situation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS. PMID:25400439

  2. Harmonic Ultrasound Imaging of Nanosized Contrast Agents for Multimodal Molecular Diagnoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Conversano; Antonio Greco; Ernesto Casciaro; Andrea Ragusa; Aimé Lay-Ekuakille; Sergio Casciaro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the possibility of selective detection of nanoparticle contrast agents (NPCAs) on diagnostic echographic images by exploiting the second harmonic component they introduce in the spectra of corresponding ultrasound signals, as a consequence of nonlinear distortion during ultrasound propagation. We employed silica nanospheres (SiNSs) of variable diameter (160 nm, 330 nm, and

  3. 3D Harmonic Mapping and Tetrahedral Meshing of Brain Imaging Data

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    a surface-based de- formation to the whole brain volume. Christensen et al. [7] presented diffeo- morphic, Hansen et al. [11] demonstrated the importance of finite element based brain models in a surgery3D Harmonic Mapping and Tetrahedral Meshing of Brain Imaging Data Yalin Wang1 , Xianfeng Gu2 , Paul

  4. High-resolution imaging of a corneal incision by second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, L.; Dion, C.; Brocas, A.; Singh, K.; Kieffer, J.-C.; Brunette, I.; Ozaki, T.

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate high spatial resolution imaging of a stromal cut in the ex-vivo pig cornea, using second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy. From these images, we see in detail how the cut affects the corneal layers. In the beginning of the cut, the anterior layers, in which the blade is passing through, are disorganized, which could explain the shadows observed on the images. In the stroma, the cut can be imaged by third harmonic microscopy, probably due to the ?3 contrast. Although the current results were obtained from the healthy ex-vivo cornea, it already allows one to understand the effects of the cut on the tissue characteristics (such as scattering).

  5. Graphics processing unit-based quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Jonayat, A S M; Patel, Sanjay; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2014-09-01

    We adapt a graphics processing unit (GPU) to dynamic quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging. We demonstrate the temporal advantage of the GPU-based approach by computing the number of frames analyzed per second from SHG image videos showing varying fiber orientations. In comparison to our previously reported CPU-based approach, our GPU-based image analysis results in ?10× improvement in computational time. This work can be adapted to other quantitative, nonlinear imaging techniques and provides a significant step toward obtaining quantitative information from fast in vivo biological processes. PMID:25223706

  6. Long-term imaging of mouse embryos using adaptive harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Thayil, Anisha; Watanabe, Tomoko; Jesacher, Alexander; Wilson, Tony; Srinivas, Shankar; Booth, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed description of an adaptive harmonic generation (HG) microscope and culture techniques that permit long-term, three-dimensional imaging of mouse embryos. HG signal from both pre- and postimplantation stage (0.5–5.5 day-old) mouse embryos are fully characterized. The second HG images reveal central spindles during cytokinesis whereas third HG images show several features, such as lipid droplets, nucleoli, and plasma membranes. The embryos are found to develop normally during one-day-long discontinuous HG imaging, permitting the observation of several dynamic events, such as morula compaction and blastocyst formation. PMID:21529087

  7. Second-harmonic generation and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy through a rodent mammary imaging window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Pamela A.; Nazir, Muhammad; Szulczewski, Michael J.; Keely, Patricia J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

    2012-03-01

    Tumor-Associated Collagen Signatures (TACS) have been identified that manifest in specific ways during breast tumor progression and that correspond to patient outcome. There are also compelling metabolic changes associated with carcinoma invasion and progression. We have characterized the difference in the autofluorescent properties of metabolic co-factors, NADH and FAD, between normal and carcinoma breast cell lines. Also, we have shown in vitro that increased collagen density alters metabolic genes which are associated with glycolysis and leads to a more invasive phenotype. Establishing the relationship between collagen density, cellular metabolism, and metastasis in physiologically relevant cancer models is crucial for developing cancer therapies. To study cellular metabolism with respect to collagen density in vivo, we use multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy (MPM) in conjunction with a rodent mammary imaging window implanted in defined mouse cancer models. These models are ideal for the study of collagen changes in vivo, allowing determination of corresponding metabolic changes in breast cancer invasion and progression. To measure cellular metabolism, we collect fluorescence lifetime (FLIM) signatures of NADH and FAD, which are known to change based on the microenvironment of the cells. Additionally, MPM systems are capable of collecting second harmonic generation (SHG) signals which are a nonlinear optical property of collagen. Therefore, MPM, SHG, and FLIM are powerful tools with great potential for characterizing key features of breast carcinoma in vivo. Below we present the current efforts of our collaborative group to develop intravital approaches based on these imaging techniques to look at defined mouse mammary models.

  8. Differentially-Enhanced Sideband Imaging via Radio-frequency Encoding

    E-print Network

    Fard, A M; Jalali, B

    2015-01-01

    We present a microscope paradigm that performs differential interference imaging with high sensitivity via optical amplification and radio-frequency (RF) heterodyne detection. This method, termed differentially-enhanced sideband imaging via radio-frequency encoding (DESIRE), uniquely exploits frequency-to-space mapping technique to encode the image of an object onto the RF sidebands of an illumination beam. As a proof-of-concept, we show validation experiment by implementing radio frequency (f = 15 GHz) phase modulation in conjunction with spectrally-encoded laser scanning technique to acquire one-dimensional image of a barcode-like object using a commercial RF spectrum analyzer.

  9. Combined chirp coded tissue harmonic and fundamental ultrasound imaging for intravascular ultrasound: 20–60 MHz phantom and ex vivo results

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyoung; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    The application of chirp coded excitation to pulse inversion tissue harmonic imaging can increase signal to noise ratio. On the other hand, the elevation of range side lobe level, caused by leakages of the fundamental signal, has been problematic in mechanical scanners which are still the most prevalent in high frequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. Fundamental chirp coded excitation imaging can achieve range side lobe levels lower than –60 dB with Hanning window, but it yields higher side lobes level than pulse inversion chirp coded tissue harmonic imaging (PI-CTHI). Therefore, in this paper a combined pulse inversion chirp coded tissue harmonic and fundamental imaging mode (CPI-CTHI) is proposed to retain the advantages of both chirp coded harmonic and fundamental imaging modes by demonstrating 20–60 MHz phantom and ex vivo results. A simulation study shows that the range side lobe level of CPI-CTHI is 16 dB lower than PI-CTHI, assuming that the transducer translates incident positions by 50 ?m when two beamlines of pulse inversion pair are acquired. CPI-CTHI is implemented for a proto-typed intravascular ultrasound scanner capable of combined data acquisition in real-time. A wire phantom study shows that CPI-CTHI has a 12 dB lower range side lobe level and a 7 dB higher echo signal to noise ratio than PI-CTHI, while the lateral resolution and side lobe level are 50 ?m finer and –3 dB less than fundamental chirp coded excitation imaging respectively. Ex vivo scanning of a rabbit trachea demonstrates that CPI-CTHI is capable of visualizing blood vessels as small as 200 ?m in diameter with 6 dB better tissue contrast than either PI-CTHI or fundamental chirp coded excitation imaging. These results clearly indicate that CPI-CTHI may enhance tissue contrast with less range side lobe level than PI-CTHI. PMID:22871273

  10. Simultaneous stimulated Raman scattering and higher harmonic generation imaging for liver disease diagnosis without labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-02-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy (e.g., higher harmonic (second-/third- harmonic) generation (HHG), simulated Raman scattering (SRS)) has high diagnostic sensitivity and chemical specificity, making it a promising tool for label-free tissue and cell imaging. In this work, we report a development of a simultaneous SRS and HHG imaging technique for characterization of liver disease in a bile-duct-ligation rat-modal. HHG visualizes collagens formation and reveals the cell morphologic changes associated with liver fibrosis; whereas SRS identifies the distributions of hepatic fat cells formed in steatosis liver tissue. This work shows that the co-registration of SRS and HHG images can be an effective means for label-free diagnosis and characterization of liver steatosis/fibrosis at the cellular and molecular levels.

  11. High-order harmonic spectroscopy for molecular imaging of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Negro, M; Devetta, M; Faccialá, D; De Silvestri, S; Vozzi, C; Stagira, S

    2014-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation is a powerful and sensitive tool for probing atomic and molecular structures, combining in the same measurement an unprecedented attosecond temporal resolution with a high spatial resolution of the order of an angstrom. Imaging of the outermost molecular orbital by high-order harmonic generation has been limited for a long time to very simple molecules, like nitrogen. Recently we demonstrated a technique that overcame several of the issues that have prevented the extension of molecular orbital tomography to more complex species, showing that molecular imaging can be applied to a triatomic molecule like carbon dioxide. Here we report on the application of such a technique to nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and acetylene (C(2)H(2)). This result represents a first step towards the imaging of fragile compounds, a category which includes most of the fundamental biological molecules. PMID:25415258

  12. Submillisecond second harmonic holographic imaging of biological specimens in three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David R.; Winters, David G.; Bartels, Randy A.

    2013-01-01

    Optical microscopy has played a critical role for discovery in biomedical sciences since Hooke’s introduction of the compound microscope. Recent years have witnessed explosive growth in optical microscopy tools and techniques. Information in microscopy is garnered through contrast mechanisms, usually absorption, scattering, or phase shifts introduced by spatial structure in the sample. The emergence of nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms reveals new information from biological specimens. However, the intensity dependence of nonlinear interactions leads to weak signals, preventing the observation of high-speed dynamics in the 3D context of biological samples. Here, we show that for second harmonic generation imaging, we can increase the 3D volume imaging speed from sub-Hertz speeds to rates in excess of 1,500 volumes imaged per second. This transformational capability is possible by exploiting coherent scattering of second harmonic light from an entire specimen volume, enabling new observational capabilities in biological systems. PMID:24173034

  13. Invited Review Article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carriles, Ramón; Schafer, Dawn N.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus; Sylvester, Anne W.; Squier, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    We review the current state of multiphoton microscopy. In particular, the requirements and limitations associated with high-speed multiphoton imaging are considered. A description of the different scanning technologies such as line scan, multifoci approaches, multidepth microscopy, and novel detection techniques is given. The main nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms employed in microscopy are reviewed, namely, multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation. Techniques for optimizing these nonlinear mechanisms through a careful measurement of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the focal volume are discussed, and a brief summary of photobleaching effects is provided. Finally, we consider three new applications of multiphoton microscopy: nonlinear imaging in microfluidics as applied to chemical analysis and the use of two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation as contrast mechanisms applied to imaging problems in the medical sciences. PMID:19725639

  14. UHF Radar observations at HAARP with HF pump frequencies near electron gyro-harmonics and associated ionospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Brenton; Fallen, Christopher; Secan, James

    Results for HF modification experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska are presented for experiments with the HF pump frequency near third and fourth electron gyro-harmonics. A UHF diagnostic radar with range resolution of 600 m was used to determine time-dependent altitudes of scattering from plasma turbulence during heating experiments. Experiments were conducted with multiple HF frequencies stepped by 20 kHz above and below the gyro-harmonic values. During times of HF heating the HAARP facility has sufficient power to enhance large-scale ionospheric densities in the lower ionosphere (about 150-200 km altitude) and also in the topside ionosphere (above about 350 km). In the lower ionosphere, time-dependent decreases of the altitude of radar scatter result from electron density enhancements. The effects are substantially different even for relatively small frequency steps of 20 kHz. In all cases the time-varying altitude decrease of radar scatter stops about 5-10 km below the gyro-harmonic altitude that is frequency dependent; we infer that electron density enhancements stop at this altitude where the radar signals stop decreasing with altitude. Experiments with corresponding total electron content (TEC) data show that for HF interaction altitudes above about 170 km there is substantial topside electron density increases due to upward electron thermal conduction. For lower altitudes of HF interaction the majority of the thermal energy is transferred to the neutral gas and no significant topside density increases are observed. By selecting an appropriate HF frequency a little greater than the gyro-harmonic value we have demonstrated that the ionospheric response to HF heating is a self-oscillating mode where the HF interaction altitude moves up and down with a period of several minutes. If the interaction region is above about 170 km this also produces a continuously enhanced topside electron density and upward plasma flux. Experiments using an FM scan with the HF frequency increasing near the gyro-harmonic value were conducted. The FM scan rate was sufficiently slow that the electron density was approximately in an equilibrium state. For these experiments the altitude of the HF interaction follows a near straight line downward parallel to the altitude-dependent gyro-harmonic level.

  15. Second harmonic generation imaging of the pig lamina cribrosa using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope-based microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Agopov; L. Lomb; O. La Schiazza; J. F. Bille

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)-based on a video-rate second harmonic generation imaging microscope.\\u000a A titanium:sapphire femtosecond laser was coupled to a modified SLO. The laser beam was scanned over the sample, and the light\\u000a produced by second harmonic generation (SHG) was collected for imaging at video-speed. The device was used for imaging the\\u000a lamina cribrosa (LC) of

  16. A Spectral Finite Element Approach to Modeling Soft Solids Excited with High-Frequency Harmonic Loads

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, John C.; Aquino, Wilkins; Aguilo, Miguel A.; Diamessis, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    An approach for efficient and accurate finite element analysis of harmonically excited soft solids using high-order spectral finite elements is presented and evaluated. The Helmholtz-type equations used to model such systems suffer from additional numerical error known as pollution when excitation frequency becomes high relative to stiffness (i.e. high wave number), which is the case, for example, for soft tissues subject to ultrasound excitations. The use of high-order polynomial elements allows for a reduction in this pollution error, but requires additional consideration to counteract Runge's phenomenon and/or poor linear system conditioning, which has led to the use of spectral element approaches. This work examines in detail the computational benefits and practical applicability of high-order spectral elements for such problems. The spectral elements examined are tensor product elements (i.e. quad or brick elements) of high-order Lagrangian polynomials with non-uniformly distributed Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre nodal points. A shear plane wave example is presented to show the dependence of the accuracy and computational expense of high-order elements on wave number. Then, a convergence study for a viscoelastic acoustic-structure interaction finite element model of an actual ultrasound driven vibroacoustic experiment is shown. The number of degrees of freedom required for a given accuracy level was found to consistently decrease with increasing element order. However, the computationally optimal element order was found to strongly depend on the wave number. PMID:21461402

  17. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    SciTech Connect

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.roke@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jena, Kailash C. [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, 140001 (India); Brown, Matthew A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-14

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  18. A Daily Oscillation in the Fundamental Frequency and Amplitude of Harmonic Syllables of Zebra Finch Song

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William E.; Osseward, Peter J.; Roseberry, Thomas K.; Perkel, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex motor skills are more difficult to perform at certain points in the day (for example, shortly after waking), but the daily trajectory of motor-skill error is more difficult to predict. By undertaking a quantitative analysis of the fundamental frequency (FF) and amplitude of hundreds of zebra finch syllables per animal per day, we find that zebra finch song follows a previously undescribed daily oscillation. The FF and amplitude of harmonic syllables rises across the morning, reaching a peak near mid-day, and then falls again in the late afternoon until sleep. This oscillation, although somewhat variable, is consistent across days and across animals and does not require serotonin, as animals with serotonergic lesions maintained daily oscillations. We hypothesize that this oscillation is driven by underlying physiological factors which could be shared with other taxa. Song production in zebra finches is a model system for studying complex learned behavior because of the ease of gathering comprehensive behavioral data and the tractability of the underlying neural circuitry. The daily oscillation that we describe promises to reveal new insights into how time of day affects the ability to accomplish a variety of complex learned motor skills. PMID:24312654

  19. Harmonic generation and parametric decay in the ion cyclotron frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Skiff, F.N.; Wong, K.L.; Ono, M.

    1984-06-01

    Harmonic generation and parametric decay are examined in a toroidal ACT-I plasma using electrostatic plate antennas. The harmonic generation, which is consistent with sheath rectification, is sufficiently strong that the nonlinearly generated harmonic modes themselves decay parametrically. Resonant and nonresonant parametric decay of the second harmonic are observed and compared with uniform pump theory. Resonant decay of lower hybrid waves into lower hybrid waves and slow ion cyclotron waves is seen for the first time. Surprisingly, the decay processes are nonlinearly saturated, indicating absolute instability.

  20. Multi-line transmission in medical imaging using the second-harmonic signal.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Fabrice; Dénarié, Bastien; Austeng, Andreas; Torp, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of three-dimensional imaging in the field of medical ultrasound imaging has greatly increased the number of transmissions needed to insonify a whole volume. With a large number of transmissions comes a low image frame rate. When using classical transmission techniques, as in two-dimensional imaging, the frame rate becomes unacceptably low, prompting the use of alternative transmission patterns that require less time. One alternative is to use a multi-line transmission (MLT) technique which consists of transmitting several pulses simultaneously in different directions. Perturbations appear when acquiring and beamforming the signal in the direction of one pulse because of the pulses sent in other directions. The edge waves from the pulses transmitted in a different direction add to the signal transmitted in the direction of interest, resulting in artifacts in the final image. Taking advantage of the nonlinear propagation of sound in tissue, the second-harmonic signal can be used with the MLT technique. The image obtained using the second-harmonic signal, compared with an image obtained using the fundamental signal, should have reduced artifacts coming from other pulses transmitted simultaneously. Simulations, backed up by experiments imaging a wire target and an in vivo left ventricle, confirm that the hypothesis is valid. In the studied case, the perturbations appear as an increase in the signal level around the main echo of a point scatterer. When using the fundamental signal, the measured amplitude level of the perturbations was approximately -40 dB compared with the maximum signal amplitude (-27 dB in vivo), whereas it was around -60 dB (-45 dB in vivo) for the second-harmonic signal. The MLT technique encounters limitations in the very near field where the pulses overlap and the perturbation level also increases for images with strong speckle and low contrast. PMID:24297034

  1. Application of abstract harmonic analysis to the high-speed recognition of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are constructed for rapidly computing correlation functions using the theory of abstract harmonic analysis. The theory developed includes as a particular case the familiar Fourier transform method for a correlation function which makes it possible to find images which are independent of their translation in the plane. Two examples of the application of the general theory described are the search for images, independent of their rotation and scale, and the search for images which are independent of their translations and rotations in the plane.

  2. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-09-01

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  3. Expert system for low frequency adaptive image watermarking: Using psychological experiments on human image perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Seok Moon; Taewoo You; Myung Ho Sohn; Hye Soo Kim; Dong-sik Jang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new system for low frequency adaptive image watermarking based on the statistical data from psychological experiments on human image perception. The new approach can lead to a reduction of degrading the subjective image quality that often occurs when watermark is embedded into low frequency area. In order to reduce the degrading of image quality, the new

  4. Progress in the realization of a frequency standard at 192.1 THz (1560.5 nm) using 87Rb D2-line and second harmonic generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Poulin; Normand Cyr; Christine Latrasse; M. Tetu

    1997-01-01

    Second harmonic generation of a 192.1 THz semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) laser is achieved using a KNbO3 crystal in a resonant ring cavity. Optical feedback from this cavity is used to stabilize the laser frequency and reduce its linewidth. A second harmonic power of 5.5 ?W is generated with 38 mW incident on the cavity. We use the second harmonic

  5. Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; de Lange, Joop; Daniels, Johannes M A; Grünberg, Katrien; de Boer, Johannes F

    2015-02-01

    A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to detect interference signal in two orthogonal polarization channels. Per depth location four electro-magnetic field components are measured that can be represented in a complex 2x2 field matrix. A Jones matrix of the sample is derived and the sample birefringence is extracted by eigenvalue decomposition. The condition of balanced detection and the polarization mode dispersion are quantified. A complex field averaging method based on the alignment of randomly pointing field phasors is developed to reduce speckle noise. The variation of the polarization states incident on the tissue due to the circular scanning and catheter sheath birefringence is investigated. With this system we demonstrated imaging of ex vivo chicken muscle, in vivo pig lung and ex vivo human lung specimens. PMID:25836196

  6. Efficient nonlinear-optical frequency conversion in periodic media in the presence of diffraction of the pump and harmonic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Belyakov; L. D. Landau

    1999-01-01

    It has been predicted by Shelton and Shen [Phys. Rev. A 5, 1867 (1972)] and observed by Kajikawa et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, L679 (1992)] and Yamada et al. [Appl. Phys. B 60, 485 (1995)] that the efficiency of nonlinear-optical frequency conversion increases significantly in a nonlinear periodic\\u000a medium and, accordingly, the intensity of the generated harmonic

  7. Equal-time second-order moments of a harmonic oscillator with stochastic frequency and driving force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Lindenberg; V. Seshadri; K. E. Shuler; Bruce J. West

    1980-01-01

    Using a simple matrix method, we have obtained exact second-order equilibrium moments for a linearly damped harmonic oscillator with a fluctuating frequency omega( t) and driven by a fluctuating force f(t). We have assumed each of the fluctuating quantities to be delta-correlated. We demonstrate that the final answers are identical whether f(t) and omega( t) are statistically independent or delta-correlated.

  8. 60GHz System-on-Package Transmitter Integrating SubHarmonic Frequency Amplitude Shift-Keying Modulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Yun Jung; Won-il Chang; Ki Chan Eun; Chul Soon Park

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) integrated transmitter using sub-harmonic amplitude shift-keying modulation for 60-GHz wireless communications applications. The transmitter system-on-package (SoP) has been monolithically implemented with a six-layer LTCC block embedding a resonator, modulator, and antenna and two active circuits, including a negative resistance generator and frequency doubler on the block. The transmitter SoP integrating whole

  9. Thin and Slow Smoke Detection by Using Frequency Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guang; Oe, Shunitiro

    In this paper, a new method to detect thin and slow smoke for early fire alarm by using frequency image has been proposed. The correlation coefficient of the frequency image between the current stage and the initial stage are calculated, so are the gray image correlation coefficient of the color image. When the thin smoke close to transparent enters into the camera view, the correlation coefficient of the frequency image becomes small, while the gray image correlation coefficient of the color image hardly change and keep large. When something which is not transparent, like human beings, etc., enters into the camera view, the correlation coefficient of the frequency image becomes small, as well as that of color image. Based on the difference of correlation coefficient between frequency image and color image in different situations, the thin smoke can be detected. Also, considering the movement of the thin smoke, miss detection caused by the illustration change or noise can be avoided. Several experiments in different situations are carried out, and the experimental results show the effect of the proposed method.

  10. Generation of third harmonic picosecond pulses at 355 nm by sum frequency mixing in periodically poled MgSLT crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbach, André; Schönau, Thomas; Lauritsen, Kristian; Tränkle, Günther; Erdmann, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    Third harmonic 355nm picosecond pulses are generated by sum frequency mixing in a periodically poled magnesium doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPMgSLT) crystal. The third harmonic generation is based on the 1064nm radiation of a gain-switched distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser which is amplified by a two-stage fiber amplifier. The diode laser is freely triggerable at variable repetition rates up to 80MHz and provides optical pulses of 65 ps FWHM duration and pulse energies in the range of 5 pJ. The 355nm third harmonic generation is realized in a two-step conversion process. First, the 1064nm fundamental radiation is frequency-doubled to 532 nm, afterwards both frequencies are mixed in the PPMgSLT crystal to 355 nm. The UV-radiation shows a pulse width of 60 ps, a good beam profile and stable pulse energy over a wide range of repetition rates by proprietary pump power management. At 355nm a pulse peak power of 5.3W was achieved with 192W pulse peak power of the fundamental radiation.

  11. A mechanism for plasma waves at the harmonics of the plasma frequency in the electron foreshock boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A bump-on-tail unstable reduced velocity distribution, constructed from data obtained at the upstream boundary of the electron foreshock by the GSFC electron spectrometer experiment on the ISEE-1 satellite, is used as the initial plasma state for a numerical integration of the 1D-Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations. The integration is carried through the growth of the instability, beyond its saturation, and well into the stabilized plasma regime. A power spectrum computed for the electric field of the stabilized plasma is dominated by a narrow peak at the Bohm-Gross frequency of the unstable field mode but also contains significant power at the harmonics of the Bohm-Gross frequency. The harmonic power is in sharp peaks which are split into closely spaced doublets. The fundamental peak at the Bohm-Gross frequency is split into a closely spaced triplet. The mechanism for excitation of the second harmonic is shown to be second order wave-wave coupling. Previously announced in STAR as N83-17315

  12. Methods of peripheral nerve tissue preparation for second harmonic generation imaging of collagen fibers.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Surabhi; Huq, Rumana; Hausman, Michael R

    2014-03-15

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of the peripheral nerve using multi-photon microscopy is a novel technique with little documentation. It affords the significant possibility of non-destructive imaging of internal nerve anatomy. The nature of nerve tissue, especially its size and viscoelastic properties, present special challenges for microscopy. While nerves are under an innate in situ strain, they retract once dissected, thus distorting microscopic structure. The challenge is to preserve the nerve in its natural strain range to obtain images that most truly reveal its structure. This study examined backscattered SHG images of rat median nerve prepared by several different methods to compare image quality and content. Nerve segments were fixed under strained (constant load or length) and unstrained conditions and imaged as whole nerve as well as plastic (methyl methacrylate) and paraffin embedded sections. These were tested for optimal excitation wavelength, quantitative image contrast, and overall quality. Root mean squared (RMS) contrast proved to be a reliable measure of the level of image contrast perceived by eye. We concluded that images obtained from tissue sections (plastic and paraffin) provided the most accurate and revealing SHG images of peripheral nerve structure. Removing the embedding material prior to imaging significantly improved image quality. Optimal excitation wavelengths were consistent regardless of the preparation method. PMID:23962836

  13. The combined use of SCF-MO calculations and frequency data in the evaluation of general harmonic force fields for molecules containing third row elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Arnold; B. I. Swanson; Y. Yamaguchi; D. J. Nelson

    1979-01-01

    The general harmonic force fields of several small molecules containing third row elements have been evaluated using a semiempirical method which combines SCF-MO calculations and limited frequency data. MOCIC (molecular orbital constraint using interaction coordinates) potential fields have been generated using the SCF-MO MNDO method which has recently been parameterized for third row elements. The general harmonic force field (GHFF)

  14. Dynamic simulation of viscoelastic soft tissues in harmonic motion imaging application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baoxiang Shan; Megan L. Kogit; Assimina A. Pelegri

    2008-01-01

    A finite element model was built to simulate the dynamic behavior of soft tissues subjected to sinusoidal excitation during harmonic motion imaging. In this study, soft tissues and tissue-like phantoms were modeled as isotropic, viscoelastic, and nearly incompressible media. A 3D incompressible mixed u–p element of eight nodes, S1P0, was developed to accurately calculate the stiffness matrix for soft tissues.

  15. Harmonic response of cellular membrane pumps to low frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, D; Miller, J H; Claycomb, J R; Cardenas, G; Warmflash, D

    2005-10-01

    We report on harmonic generation by budding yeast cells in response to a sinusoidal electric field, which is seen to be minimal when the field amplitude is less than a threshold value. Surprisingly, sodium metavanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPases reportedly responsible for nonlinear response in yeast, reduces the threshold field amplitude, increasing harmonic generation at low amplitudes while reducing it at large amplitudes, whereas the addition of glucose dramatically increases the production of even harmonics. Finally, a simple model is proposed to interpret the observed behavior. PMID:16241766

  16. Circularly polarized high order harmonics in the EUV photon energy range: toward table-top nanometric magnetic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Barszczak Sardinha, A.; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Sebban, Stéphane; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Circularly polarized high order harmonics in the extreme ultraviolet range (18 - 27 nm) have been obtained by a two steps process. Harmonics were generated from a linearly polarized infrared laser (40 fs, 0.25 TW) focused into a neon filled gas cell. The harmonics have then been circularly polarized by a four-reflector phase-shifter. The polarization of the harmonics have been measured using a rotating multilayer broadband mirror set at an incidence angle of 45°. Fully circularly polarized radiation has been obtained with an efficiency of a few percents. This is significantly more efficient than currently demonstrated direct generation of elliptically polarized harmonics. This demonstration opens up new experimental capabilities based on high order harmonics, for example, in materials science for time-resolved nanometric magnetic imaging.

  17. Improved sonographic imaging of hepatic hemangioma with contrast-enhanced coded harmonic angiography: comparison with MR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Young Lee; Byung Ihn Choi; Joon Koo Han; Ah Young Kim; Shang Hun Shin; Sung Gyu Moon

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare peripheral nodular enhancement with centripetal progression on contrast-enhanced coded harmonic angio (CHA) with those as seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. A total of 20 patients with 24 hemangiomas confirmed by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were included in this study. All 20 patients were examined with CHA in conjunction with a galactose-based

  18. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%. PMID:18542230

  19. High frequency ultrasonic imaging using optoacoustic arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Buma; J. D. Hamilton; M. Spisar; M. O'Donnell

    2002-01-01

    Optical generation and detection of ultrasound is a promising alternative to piezoelectricity for high frequency arrays. We have used the thermoelastic effect to produce high frequency, broadband ultrasound in water. A pulsed diode laser, followed by an erbium doped fiber amplifier, is focused onto a light absorbing film deposited on a transparent substrate. Conversion efficiency was improved by 18 dB

  20. High-frequency, nonlinear flow imaging of microbubble contrast agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Goertz; Andrew Needles; Peter N. Burns; F. Stuart Foster

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that nonlinear scattering can be stimulated from microbubble contrast agents at high-transmit frequencies (14-32 MHz). This work was extended to demonstrate the feasibility of nonlinear contrast imaging through modifications of existing ultrasound biomicroscopy linear B-scan imaging instrumentation. In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of prototype coherent flow imaging instrumentation for nonlinear microbubble imaging

  1. Near Field Imaging at Microwave and Millemeter Wave Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2007-06-03

    Near field imaging at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies is useful for a wide variety of applications including concealed weapon detection, through-wall and inner-wall imaging, ground penetrating radar imaging, radar cross section analysis, and non-destructive evaluation of materials. A variety of novel imaging techniques have been developed for many of these applications at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) . These techniques make use of wideband holographic wavefront reconstruction methods, and have been developed to optimize the image quality and resolution. This paper will summarize several of these techniques and show imaging results for several interesting application areas.

  2. Quantifying collagen structure in breast biopsies using second-harmonic generation imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ambekar, Raghu; Lau, Tung-Yuen; Walsh, Michael; Bhargava, Rohit; Toussaint, Kimani C.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging is employed to assess stromal collagen in normal, hyperplastic, dysplastic, and malignant breast tissues. The cellular scale organization is quantified using Fourier transform-second harmonic generation imaging (FT-SHG), while the molecular scale organization is quantified using polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation measurements (P-SHG). In the case of FT-SHG, we apply a parameter that quantifies the regularity in collagen fiber orientation and find that malignant tissue contains locally aligned fibers compared to other tissue conditions. Alternatively, using P-SHG we calculate the ratio of tensor elements (d15/d31, d22/d31, and d33/d31) of the second-order susceptibility ?2 for collagen fibers in breast biopsies. In particular, d15/d31 shows potential differences across the tissue pathology. We also find that trigonal symmetry (3m) is a more appropriate model to describe collagen fibers in malignant tissues as opposed to the conventionally used hexagonal symmetry (C6). This novel method of targeting collagen fibers using a combination of two quantitative SHG techniques, FT-SHG and P-SHG, holds promise for breast tissue analysis and applications to characterizing cancer in a manner that is compatible with clinical practice. PMID:23024898

  3. Spike-Mode Oscillation of a Single Frequency, Neodymium: YAG Ring Laser with Intracavity Second Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, George Jefferies

    Spike-mode oscillation of a single-frequency, internally-doubled Nd:YAG laser under conditions of square -wave pump modulation is a potentially interesting technique for increasing the average harmonic conversion efficiency. To investigate this mode of operation, we have designed and built a unidirectional, Nd:YAG ring laser prototype which is capable of single-longitudinal mode oscillation at pump powers which are substantially above threshold. Initial study of this laser with diode-laser-array pumping yielded a maximum continuous-wave (cw) 1064-nm output power of 72 mW at an optical conversion efficiency exceeding 14%. Intracavity second harmonic generation was studied by inserting a crystal of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) inside the resonator and replacing the infrared output coupler with a mirror which was highly reflecting at 1064 nm and had high transmission at the 532-nm second harmonic. A maximum cw harmonic output power of 12 mW was observed from the laser at a pump power of 473 mW. Spike-mode oscillation could be achieved in the intracavity-doubled laser through square wave current modulation of the diode laser pump. Under optimal conditions, the average harmonic conversion efficiency was increased by over 100% under spiked conditions. Spike-mode oscillation with significant intracavity nonlinear coupling was observed to differ substantially from that of laser without the nonlinear crystal. The power-dependent harmonic output coupling had the effect of damping out relaxation oscillations and substantially limiting the peak spiked power. It was also observed to increase the amplitude and temporal stability of the spike pulse train and significantly increase the frequency range over which spiked oscillation would occur. A set of coupled rate equations relating the single -mode intracavity field to the gain in the laser medium was used to model the spike-mode oscillations of the intracavity -doubled ring. Numerical methods were used to obtain solutions corresponding to experimentally measured output parameters. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment was obtained, indicating that computer simulations based on this model can be used to further optimize the laser design for specific applications.

  4. Coherent diffractive imaging microscope with a high-order harmonic source.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Hannaford, Peter; Dao, Lap Van

    2015-06-10

    We report the generation of highly coherent extreme ultraviolet sources with wavelengths around 30 and 10 nm by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a gas cell filled with argon and helium, respectively. We then perform coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) by using a focused narrow-bandwidth HHG source with wavelength around 30 nm as an illumination beam for two kinds of samples. The first is a transmission sample and the second is a absorption sample. In addition, we report the successful reconstruction of a complex absorption sample using a tabletop high-harmonic source. This will open the path to the realization of a compact soft x-ray microscope to investigate biological samples such as membrane proteins. PMID:26192827

  5. Optimization of Contrast-to-Tissue Ratio Through Pulse Windowing in Dual-Frequency "Acoustic Angiography" Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Brooks D; Shelton, Sarah E; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Early-stage tumors in many cancers are characterized by vascular remodeling, indicative of transformations in cell function. We have previously presented a high-resolution ultrasound imaging approach to detecting these changes that is based on microbubble contrast agents. In this technique, images are formed from only the higher harmonics of microbubble contrast agents, producing images of vasculature alone with 100- to 200-?m resolution. In this study, shaped transmit pulses were used to image the higher broadband harmonic echoes of microbubble contrast agents, and the effects of varying pulse window and phasing on microbubble and tissue harmonic echoes were evaluated using a dual-frequency transducer in vitro and in vivo. An increase in the contrast-to-tissue ratio of 6.8 ± 2.3 dB was observed in vitro using an inverted pulse with a cosine window relative to a non-inverted pulse with a rectangular window. The increase in mean image intensity resulting from contrast enhancement in vivo in five rodents was 13.9 ± 3.0 dB greater for an inverted cosine-windowed pulse and 17.8 ± 3.6 dB greater for a non-inverted Gaussian-windowed pulse relative to a non-inverted pulse with a rectangular window. Implications for pre-clinical and diagnostic imaging are discussed. PMID:25819467

  6. Homodyne High-Harmonic Spectroscopy: Coherent Imaging of a Unimolecular Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin Bertrand, Julien

    At the heart of high harmonic generation lies a combination of optical and collision physics entwined by a strong laser field. An electron, initially tunnel-ionized by the field, driven away then back in the continuum, finally recombines back to rest in its initial ground state via a radiative transition. The emitted attosecond (atto=10-18) XUV light pulse carries all the information (polarization, amplitude and phase) about the photorecombination continuum-to-ground transition dipolar field. Photorecombination is related to the time-reversed photoionization process. In this perspective, high-harmonic spectroscopy extends well-established photoelectron spectroscopy, based on charged particle detection, to a fully coherent one, based on light characterization. The main achievement presented in this thesis is to use high harmonic generation to probe femtosecond (femto=10-15) chemical dynamics for the first time. Thanks to the coherence imposed by the strong driving laser field, homodyne detection of attosecond pulses from excited molecules undergoing dynamics is achieved, the signal from unexcited molecules acting as the reference local oscillator. First, applying time-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy to the photodissociation of a diatomic molecule, Br2 ? Br + Br, allows us to follow the break of a chemical bond occurring in a few hundreds of femtoseconds. Second, extending it to a triatomic (NO2) lets us observe both the previously unseen (but predicted) early femtosecond conical intersection dynamics followed by the late picosecond statistical photodissociation taking place in the reaction NO2 ? NO + O. Another important realization of this thesis is the development of a complementary technique to time-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy called LAPIN, for Linked Attosecond Phase INterferometry. When combined together, time-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy and LAPIN give access to the complex photorecombination dipole of aligned excited molecules. These achievements lay the basis for electron recollision tomographic imaging of a chemical reaction with unprecedented angstrom (1 angstrom= 0.1 nanometer) spatial resolution. Other contributions dedicated to the development of attosecond science and the generalization of high-harmonic spectroscopy as a novel, fully coherent molecular spectroscopy will also be presented in this thesis.

  7. Holographic Radar Imaging Privacy Techniques Utilizing Dual-Frequency Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.

    2008-04-18

    Over the last 15 years, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has performed significant research and development activities to enhance the state of the art of holographic radar imaging systems to be used at security checkpoints for screening people for concealed threats hidden under their garments. These enhancement activities included improvements to privacy techniques to remove human features and providing automatic detection of body-worn concealed threats. The enhanced privacy and detection methods used both physical and software imaging techniques. The physical imaging techniques included polarization-diversity illumination and reception, dual-frequency implementation, and high-frequency imaging at 60 GHz. Software imaging techniques to enhance the privacy of the person under surveillance included extracting concealed threat artifacts from the imagery to automatically detect the threat. This paper will focus on physical privacy techniques using dual-frequency implementation.

  8. Modeling of large aperture third harmonic frequency conversion of high power Nd:glass laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Henesian, M.A.; Wegner, P.J.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Laumann, C.W.; Lawson, J.K.; Weiland, T.L.

    1991-03-13

    To provide high-energy, high-power beams at short wavelengths for inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, we routinely convert the 1.053-{mu}m output of the Nova, Nd:phosphate-glass, laser system to its third-harmonic wavelength. We describe performance and conversion efficiency modeling of the 3 {times} 3 arrays potassium-dihydrogen-phosphate crystal plates used for type II/type II phase-matched harmonic conversion of Nova 0.74-m diameter beams, and an alternate type I/type II phase-matching configuration that improves the third-harmonic conversion efficiency. These arrays provide energy conversion of up to 65% and intensity conversion to 70%. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Real-time imaging of two-dimensional cardiac strain using a harmonic phase magnetic resonance imaging (HARP-MRI) pulse sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smita Sampath; J. Andrew Derbyshire; Ergin Atalar; Nael F. Osman; Jerry L. Prince

    2003-01-01

    The harmonic phase (HARP) method provides automatic and rapid analysis of tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images for quantification and visualization of myocardial strain. In this article, the development and implementation of a pulse se- quence that acquires HARP images in real time are described. In this pulse sequence, a CINE sequence of images with 1-1 spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM)

  10. Image based adaptive optics through optimisation of low spatial frequencies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Image based adaptive optics through optimisation of low spatial frequencies Delphine D adaptive optics scheme for an incoherent imaging system. Aberration correction is performed through of America OCIS codes: (010.1080) Adaptive Optics; (010.7350) Wave-front sensing; (110.4850) Optical transfer

  11. Extracting Cardiac Myofiber Orientations from High Frequency Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kishbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts. PMID:24392208

  12. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (<20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.

  13. Far-field imaging with a multi-frequency metalens

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvaud, C., E-mail: camille.jouvaud@centraliens-lille.org; Ourir, A.; Rosny, J. de [ESPCI ParisTech, PSL Research University, Institut Langevin, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France and CNRS, Institut Langevin, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-06-16

    A metalens, i.e., a dense array of identical resonators, allows to image an object pattern at subwavelength scale from far field radiation field. Here, we show that the efficiency can be improved when the resonant frequencies of the cell are distributed over a given frequency range. Because in such systems each eigen mode is localized, the subwavelength image is built from a spectral analysis of the radiated field. A simple model based on coupled resonant dipoles is used to find the best frequency distribution. This multifrequency metalens approach is validated using a flat array of split ring resonators. We experimentally demonstrate the subwavelength resolution of such a device at microwave range.

  14. Extra Low-Frequency Terrestrial Radio-Wave Field Calculations with the Zonal Harmonics Series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ralph Johler; Richard L. Lewis

    1969-01-01

    Use of the zonal harmonics series for calculating the terrestrial wave guide fields directly is described. The analysis is extended to include radio waves propagating into sea water or below the earth's surface. A sample calculation of ELF radio waves is analyzed into a direct wave and a wave that has traveled the circumference of the earth. The location of

  15. Aalborg Universitet Frequency Adaptive Selective Harmonic Control for Grid-Connected Inverters

    E-print Network

    Berning, Torsten

    of private study or research. ? You may not further distribute the material or use it for any profit portal ? Take down policy If you believe that this document breaches copyright please contact us at vbn be optimally weighted in accordance with the harmonic distribution. The hybrid SHC thus offers an optimal trade-off

  16. Theory of electron cyclotron maser interaction in a cavity at the harmonic frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Chu

    1978-01-01

    A theory of the cyclotron maser interaction between an annular electron beam and the standing electromagnetic wave in a cavity structure is formulated on the basis of the relativistic Vlasov equation and the Maxwell equations. Detailed analytical expressions for the beam-wave coupling coefficient, beam energy gain, and threshold beam power have been derived for the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics.

  17. High-frequency harmonic generation in a toroidal magnetized laboratory plasma and detection of plasma turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ajendouz; Th. Pierre; M. Boussouis; K. Quotb

    2008-01-01

    We show for the first time experimentally that plasma turbulence can be detected easily when an electromagnetic extraordinary wave launched from the inner side of a toroidal magnetized plasma reaches a turbulent resonance layer. The second-harmonic wave generated inside the resonance layer is detected from outside the magnetized plasma and its power spectrum is analyzed. This new technique could be

  18. Digital pathology and image analysis augment biospecimen annotation and biobank quality assurance harmonization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bih-Rong; Simpson, R Mark

    2014-03-01

    Standardization of biorepository best practices will enhance the quality of translational biomedical research utilizing patient-derived biobank specimens. Harmonization of pathology quality assurance procedures for biobank accessions has lagged behind other avenues of biospecimen research and biobank development. Comprehension of the cellular content of biorepository specimens is important for discovery of tissue-specific clinically relevant biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment. While rapidly emerging technologies in molecular analyses and data mining create focus on appropriate measures for minimizing pre-analytic artifact-inducing variables, less attention gets paid to annotating the constituent makeup of biospecimens for more effective specimen selection by biobank clients. Both pre-analytic tissue processing and specimen composition influence acquisition of relevant macromolecules for downstream assays. Pathologist review of biorepository submissions, particularly tissues as part of quality assurance procedures, helps to ensure that the intended target cells are present and in sufficient quantity in accessioned specimens. This manual procedure can be tedious and subjective. Incorporating digital pathology into biobank quality assurance procedures, using automated pattern recognition morphometric image analysis to quantify tissue feature areas in digital whole slide images of tissue sections, can minimize variability and subjectivity associated with routine pathologic evaluations in biorepositories. Whole-slide images and pathologist-reviewed morphometric analyses can be provided to researchers to guide specimen selection. Harmonization of pathology quality assurance methods that minimize subjectivity and improve reproducibility among collections would facilitate research-relevant specimen selection by investigators and could facilitate information sharing in an integrated network approach to biobanking. PMID:24362266

  19. In vivo structural imaging of the cornea by polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Gaël; Gusachenko, Ivan; Kowalczuk, Laura; Lamarre, Isabelle; Schanne-Klein, Marie?Claire

    2011-01-01

    The transparency and mechanical strength of the cornea are related to the highly organized three-dimensional distribution of collagen fibrils. It is of great interest to develop specific and contrasted in vivo imaging tools to probe these collagenous structures, which is not available yet. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy is a unique tool to reveal fibrillar collagen within unstained tissues, but backward SHG images of cornea fail to reveal any spatial features due to the nanometric diameter of stromal collagen fibrils. To overcome this limitation, we performed polarization-resolved SHG imaging, which is highly sensitive to the sub-micrometer distribution of anisotropic structures. Using advanced data processing, we successfully retrieved the orientation of the collagenous fibrils at each depth of human corneas, even in backward SHG homogenous images. Quantitative information was also obtained about the submicrometer heterogeneities of the fibrillar collagen distribution by measuring the SHG anisotropy. All these results were consistent with numerical simulation of the polarization-resolved SHG response of cornea. Finally, we performed in vivo SHG imaging of rat corneas and achieved structural imaging of corneal stroma without any labeling. Epi-detected polarization-resolved SHG imaging should extend to other organs and become a new diagnosis tool for collagen remodeling. PMID:22254163

  20. Contrast enhancement in second harmonic imaging: discriminating between muscle and collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Artigas, David; Soria, Guadalupe; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Torre, Iratxe; Gratacos, Eduard; Planas, Anna M.; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    In this study, polarization second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is used and data analysis is developed to gain contrast and to discriminate with pixel resolution, in the same image, SHG source architectures. We use mammalian tissue in which both skeletal muscle and fibrilar collagen can be found. The images are fitted point by point using an algorithm based on a biophysical model, where the coefficient of determination is utilized as a filtering mechanism. For the whole image we retrieve for every pixel, the effective orientation, ?e , of the SHG active structures. As a result a new image is formed which its contrast depends on the values of ?e . Collagen presented in the forward direction for a predefined region of interest (ROI), peak distribution of angles ?e centered in the region of ~45°, while muscle in the region of ~65°. Consequently, collagen and muscle are represented in different colors in the same image. Thus, here we show that it is possible to gain contrast and to discriminate between collagen and muscle without the use of any exogenous labeling or any co-localization with fluorescence imaging.

  1. Image Deconvolution by Means of Frequency Blur Invariant Concept

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Different blur invariant descriptors have been proposed so far, which are either in the spatial domain or based on the properties available in the moment domain. In this paper, a frequency framework is proposed to develop blur invariant features that are used to deconvolve a degraded image caused by a Gaussian blur. These descriptors are obtained by establishing an equivalent relationship between the normalized Fourier transforms of the blurred and original images, both normalized by their respective fixed frequencies set to one. Advantage of using the proposed invariant descriptors is that it is possible to estimate both the point spread function (PSF) and the original image. The performance of frequency invariants will be demonstrated through experiments. An image deconvolution is done as an additional application to verify the proposed blur invariant features. PMID:25202743

  2. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  3. Imaging molecular structure with Stokes-polarimeter based second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Nirmal; Qiu, Jianjun; Hu, Chih-Wei; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed the polarization states of second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from starch granules and type I collagen through a four-channel photon counting based Stokes-polarimeter. The 2D SHG images of samples are reconstructed using various polarization parameters, such as the degree of polarization (DOP), the degree of linear polarization (DOLP), the degree of circular polarization (DOCP), as well as the anisotropy from the acquired Stokes parameters. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the polarization parameters are changes at different input polarizations and focusing depths.

  4. Motionless polarization-resolved second harmonic generation imaging of corneal collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans G.; Batista, Ana; Uchugonova, Aisada; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy was used to investigate the collagenous structures of cornea samples in vitro in forward and backward direction. Although structural features appear different in both directions, following an approach by Latour et al. the collagen domain orientation is determined in forward as well as in backward direction, the latter being the only accessible direction for in vivo imaging. The experimental setup enables fast and completely motionless rotation of the polarization direction of 100 fs pulses by a polarization rotation based on a liquid crystal retarder.

  5. Magnetic particle imaging with a planar frequency mixing magnetic detection scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyobong; Lim, Jaeho; Choi, Chel-Jong; Shin, Sung-Woong; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We present the first experimental results of our planar-Frequency Mixing Magnetic Detection (p-FMMD) technique to obtain Magnetic Particles Imaging (MPI). The p-FMMD scanner consists of two magnetic measurement heads with intermediate space for the analysis of the sample. The magnetic signal originates from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of superparamagnetic particles as in case of the usual MPI scanner. However, the detection principle is different. Standard MPI records the higher order harmonic response of particles at a field-free point or line. By contrast, FMMD records a sum-frequency component generated from both a high and a low frequency magnetic field incident on the magnetically nonlinear particles. As compared to conventional MPI scanner, there is no limit on the lateral dimensions of the sample; just the sample height is limited to 2 mm. In addition, the technique does not require a strong magnetic field or gradient because of the mixing of the two different frequencies. In this study, we acquired an 18 mm × 18 mm image of a string sample decorated with 100 nm diameter magnetic particles, using the p-FMMD technique. The results showed that it is feasible to use this novel MPI scanner for biological analysis and medical diagnostic purposes.

  6. Ultra high frequency imaging acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2006-05-23

    An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

  7. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of 60 Hz magnetic fields and harmonic frequencies in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ryan, B M; Polen, M; Gauger, J R; Mallett, E; Kearns, M B; Bryan, T L; McCormick, D L

    2000-05-01

    Experimental data suggest that exposure to the 50 and 60 Hz sinusoidal components of power-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) does not have an adverse impact on fetal development. However, the possible developmental toxicity of MF harmonics has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine whether exposure to 180 Hz MFs (third harmonic), alone or in combination with 60 Hz MFs, induces birth defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of sperm-positive dams (> or =20/group) were exposed for 18.5 h per day from gestation days 6 through 19 to (1) ambient MFs only (<0.0001 mT; sham controls); (2) 60 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; (3) 180 Hz MFs at 0.2 mT; or (4) 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs (10% third harmonic; total field strength = 0.2 mT). Litter size, litter weight, percentage live births, sex ratio, and number of resorption sites were determined for each dam, and gross external, visceral, cephalic and skeletal examinations were performed on all fetuses. MF exposure had no significant effects on litter size, litter weight, or fetal development. With the exception of common rib variants, the incidence of fetal anomalies was comparable in all groups. A small increase in the incidence of rib variants was seen in the group exposed to 60 Hz + 180 Hz MFs; however, the incidence of rib variants in this group was similar to that in historical controls from our laboratory. These data extend the existing database on developmental toxicity of MFs by demonstrating that exposure to 180 Hz MFs, either alone or superimposed on an underlying 60 Hz signal, does not induce biologically significant developmental toxicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to power-frequency MFs is an important risk factor for fetal development. PMID:10790286

  8. Computational segmentation of collagen fibers from second-harmonic generation images of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bredfeldt, Jeremy S; Liu, Yuming; Pehlke, Carolyn A; Conklin, Matthew W; Szulczewski, Joseph M; Inman, David R; Keely, Patricia J; Nowak, Robert D; Mackie, Thomas R; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2014-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging can help reveal interactions between collagen fibers and cancer cells. Quantitative analysis of SHG images of collagen fibers is challenged by the heterogeneity of collagen structures and low signal-to-noise ratio often found while imaging collagen in tissue. The role of collagen in breast cancer progression can be assessed post acquisition via enhanced computation. To facilitate this, we have implemented and evaluated four algorithms for extracting fiber information, such as number, length, and curvature, from a variety of SHG images of collagen in breast tissue. The image-processing algorithms included a Gaussian filter, SPIRAL-TV filter, Tubeness filter, and curvelet-denoising filter. Fibers are then extracted using an automated tracking algorithm called fiber extraction (FIRE). We evaluated the algorithm performance by comparing length, angle and position of the automatically extracted fibers with those of manually extracted fibers in twenty-five SHG images of breast cancer. We found that the curvelet-denoising filter followed by FIRE, a process we call CT-FIRE, outperforms the other algorithms under investigation. CT-FIRE was then successfully applied to track collagen fiber shape changes over time in an in vivo mouse model for breast cancer. PMID:24407500

  9. Computational segmentation of collagen fibers from second-harmonic generation images of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bredfeldt, Jeremy S.; Liu, Yuming; Pehlke, Carolyn A.; Conklin, Matthew W.; Szulczewski, Joseph M.; Inman, David R.; Keely, Patricia J.; Nowak, Robert D.; Mackie, Thomas R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging can help reveal interactions between collagen fibers and cancer cells. Quantitative analysis of SHG images of collagen fibers is challenged by the heterogeneity of collagen structures and low signal-to-noise ratio often found while imaging collagen in tissue. The role of collagen in breast cancer progression can be assessed post acquisition via enhanced computation. To facilitate this, we have implemented and evaluated four algorithms for extracting fiber information, such as number, length, and curvature, from a variety of SHG images of collagen in breast tissue. The image-processing algorithms included a Gaussian filter, SPIRAL-TV filter, Tubeness filter, and curvelet-denoising filter. Fibers are then extracted using an automated tracking algorithm called fiber extraction (FIRE). We evaluated the algorithm performance by comparing length, angle and position of the automatically extracted fibers with those of manually extracted fibers in twenty-five SHG images of breast cancer. We found that the curvelet-denoising filter followed by FIRE, a process we call CT-FIRE, outperforms the other algorithms under investigation. CT-FIRE was then successfully applied to track collagen fiber shape changes over time in an in vivo mouse model for breast cancer. PMID:24407500

  10. Computational segmentation of collagen fibers from second-harmonic generation images of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredfeldt, Jeremy S.; Liu, Yuming; Pehlke, Carolyn A.; Conklin, Matthew W.; Szulczewski, Joseph M.; Inman, David R.; Keely, Patricia J.; Nowak, Robert D.; Mackie, Thomas R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging can help reveal interactions between collagen fibers and cancer cells. Quantitative analysis of SHG images of collagen fibers is challenged by the heterogeneity of collagen structures and low signal-to-noise ratio often found while imaging collagen in tissue. The role of collagen in breast cancer progression can be assessed post acquisition via enhanced computation. To facilitate this, we have implemented and evaluated four algorithms for extracting fiber information, such as number, length, and curvature, from a variety of SHG images of collagen in breast tissue. The image-processing algorithms included a Gaussian filter, SPIRAL-TV filter, Tubeness filter, and curvelet-denoising filter. Fibers are then extracted using an automated tracking algorithm called fiber extraction (FIRE). We evaluated the algorithm performance by comparing length, angle and position of the automatically extracted fibers with those of manually extracted fibers in twenty-five SHG images of breast cancer. We found that the curvelet-denoising filter followed by FIRE, a process we call CT-FIRE, outperforms the other algorithms under investigation. CT-FIRE was then successfully applied to track collagen fiber shape changes over time in an in vivo mouse model for breast cancer.

  11. Position estimation in induction machines utilizing rotor bar slot harmonics and carrier-frequency signal injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Degner; Robert D. Lorenz

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and robust way of utilizing harmonic saliencies created by rotor and stator slotting, present in some induction machine designs, for the estimation of rotor position. The injection of a carrier-signal voltage, in addition to the fundamental excitation, produces a carrier-signal current that contains the desired spatial information. A closed-loop tracking observer is then used to

  12. High efficiency and output power from second- and third-harmonic millimeter-wave InP-TED oscillators at frequencies above 170 GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Rydberg

    1990-01-01

    InP TED (transferred electron device) oscillators have been experimentally investigated for frequencies between 170 and 279 GHz. It has been found that output powers of more than 7 and 0.2 mW are possible at 180 and 272 GHz using second- and third-harmonic mode operation, respectively. Conversion efficiencies of more than 13% and 0.3% between fundamental and second harmonic and fundamental

  13. Second harmonic imaging: a new ultrasound technique to assess human brain tumour perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrer, J; Mayfrank, L; Mull, M; Klotzsch, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Second harmonic imaging is a new ultrasound technique that allows evaluation of brain tissue perfusion after application of an ultrasound contrast agent. Objective: To evaluate the potential of this technique for the assessment of abnormal echo contrast characteristics of different brain tumours. Methods: 27 patients with brain tumours were studied. These were divided into four groups: gliomas, WHO grade III–IV (n = 6); meningiomas (n = 9); metastases (n = 5); and others (n = 7). Patients were examined by second harmonic imaging in a transverse axial insonation plane using the transtemporal approach. Following intravenous administration of 4 g (400 mg/ml) of a galactose based echo contrast agent, 62 time triggered images (one image per 2.5 seconds) were recorded and analysed off-line. Time–intensity curves of two regions of interest (tumour tissue and healthy brain tissue), including peak intensity (PI) (dB), time to peak intensity (TP) (s), and positive gradient (PG) (dB/s), as well as ratios of the peak intensities of the two regions of interest, were derived from the data and compared intraindividually and interindividually. Results: After administration of the contrast agent a marked enhancement of echo contrast was visible in the tumour tissue in all patients. Mean PI and PG were significantly higher in tumour tissue than in healthy brain parenchyma (11.8 v 5.1 dB and 0.69 v 0.16 dB/s; p < 0.001). TP did not differ significantly (37.1 v 50.2 s; p = 0.14). A tendency towards higher PI and PG as well as shorter TP was apparent in malignant gliomas. When comparing different tumour types, however, none of these variables reached significance, nor were there significant differences between malignant and benign tumours in general. Conclusions: Second harmonic imaging not only allows identification of brain tumours, but may also help in distinguishing between different tumour types. It gives additional and alternative information about tumour perfusion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical potential of this technique in investigating brain tumours—for example in follow up investigations of patients undergoing radiation or chemotherapy—especially in comparison with neuroradiological and neuropathological findings. PMID:12588918

  14. Quantitative second-harmonic generation imaging to detect osteogenesis imperfecta in human skin samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, J.; Ferreira, A. E.; D'Souza-Li, L.; Pelegati, V. B.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Almeida, D. B.; Baratti, M. O.; Carvalho, H. F.; Cesar, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder that leads to bone fractures due to mutations in the Col1A1 or Col1A2 genes that affect the primary structure of the collagen I chain with the ultimate outcome in collagen I fibrils that are either reduced in quantity or abnormally organized in the whole body. A quick test screening of the patients would largely reduce the sample number to be studied by the time consuming molecular genetics techniques. For this reason an assessment of the human skin collagen structure by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) can be used as a screening technique to speed up the correlation of genetics/phenotype/OI types understanding. In the present work we have used quantitative second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy to investigate the collagen matrix organization of the OI human skin samples comparing with normal control patients. By comparing fibril collagen distribution and spatial organization, we calculated the anisotropy and texture patterns of this structural protein. The analysis of the anisotropy was performed by means of the two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform and image pattern analysis with Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM). From these results, we show that statistically different results are obtained for the normal and disease states of OI.

  15. In Vivo Feasibility of Real-Time Monitoring of Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS) Using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Maleke

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) technique is applied to monitor changes in mechanical properties of tissues during thermal therapy in a transgenic breast cancer mouse model in vivo. An HMIFU system, composed of a 4.5-MHz focused ultrasound (FUS) and a 3.3-MHz phased-array imaging transducer, was mechanically moved to image and ablate the entire tumor.

  16. Harmonic Vibrational Frequencies:  An Evaluation of Hartree?Fock, Møller?Plesset, Quadratic Configuration Interaction, Density Functional Theory, and Semiempirical Scale Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony P. Scott; Leo Radom

    1996-01-01

    Scaling factors for obtaining fundamental vibrational frequencies, low-frequency vibrations, zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVE), and thermal contributions to enthalpy and entropy from harmonic frequencies determined at 19 levels of theory have been derived through a least-squares approach. Semiempirical methods (AM1 and PM3), conventional uncorrelated and correlated ab initio molecular orbital procedures (Hartree- Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset (MP2), and quadratic configuration interaction including

  17. A novel soft-switching high-frequency transformer isolated three phase AC-to-DC converter with low harmonic distortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Hamdad; A. K. S. Bhat

    1998-01-01

    A high-frequency transformer isolated, fixed-frequency, 3-? single-stage AC-to-DC converter using a boost-integrated bridge converter is proposed. This converter enjoys natural power factor correction with low line current harmonic distortion and symmetric high frequency voltage and current waveforms while ensuring zero voltage switching for all the switches for a wide variation in load and line voltage. Various operating modes of the

  18. Dependency of the highest harmonic oscillation frequency on junction diameter of IMPATT diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ohmori; T. Ishibashi; S. Ono

    1977-01-01

    The effect of series resistance and junction capacitance on the high-frequency limit of IMPATT diode operation is studied with a Read-type small-signal theory, and is confirmed experimentally. Oscillation frequencies from 30 to 400 GHz have been measured with Si p+-n-n+abrupt junction diodes with a depletion layer width of 0.2 µm. The highest oscillation frequency increases as the junction diameter is

  19. A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system

    PubMed Central

    LeBoulluec, Peter; Liu, Hanli; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging techniques have recently attracted much attention and can be used for noninvasive imaging of biological tissues. Most PA imaging systems in research laboratories use the time domain method with expensive nanosecond pulsed lasers that are not affordable for most educational laboratories. Using an intensity modulated light source to excite PA signals is an alternative technique, known as the frequency domain method, with a much lower cost. In this paper, we describe a simple frequency domain PA system and demonstrate its imaging capability. The system provides opportunities not only to observe PA signals in tissue phantoms, but also to acquire hands-on skills in PA signal detection. It also provides opportunities to explore the underlying mechanisms of the PA effect. PMID:24659823

  20. A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBoulluec, Peter; Liu, Hanli; Yuan, Baohong

    2013-09-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging techniques have recently attracted much attention and can be used for noninvasive imaging of biological tissues. Most PA imaging systems in research laboratories use the time domain method with expensive nanosecond pulsed lasers that are not affordable for most educational laboratories. Using an intensity modulated light source to excite PA signals is an alternative technique, known as the frequency domain method, with a much lower cost. In this paper, we describe a simple frequency domain PA system and demonstrate its imaging capability. The system provides opportunities not only to observe PA signals in tissue phantoms but also to acquire hands-on skills in PA signal detection. It also provides opportunities to explore the underlying mechanisms of the PA effect.

  1. Harmonic and frequency modulated ultrasonic vocalizations reveal differences in conditioned and unconditioned reward processing.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Erik J; McCowan, Talus J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    Novelty and sensation seeking (NSS) and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are both used as measures of individual differences in reward sensitivity in rodent models. High responders in the inescapable novelty screen have a greater response to low doses of amphetamine and acquire self-administration more rapidly, while the novelty place preference screen is positively correlated with compulsive drug seeking. These screens are uncorrelated and implicated in separate drug abuse models. 50kHz USVs measure affective state in rats and are evoked by positive stimuli. NSS and USVs are each implicated in drug response, self-administration, and reveal differences in individual behavior, yet their relationship with each other is not understood. The present study screened rats for their response to novelty and measured USVs of all call types in response to heterospecific play to determine the relationships between these individual difference traits. Generally, we hypothesized that 50kHz USVs would be positively correlated with the NPP screen, and that 22kHz would be positively correlated with the IEN screen. Results indicate none of the screens were correlated indicating they are measuring different individual difference traits. However, examination of the subtypes of USVs indicated harmonic USVs and the novelty place preference were positively correlated. Harmonic 50kHz USVs increased in response to reward associated context, suggesting animals conditioned to the heterospecific tickle arena and anticipated rewarding stimuli, while FM only increased in response to tickling. USV subtypes can be used to elucidate differences in attribution of incentive value across conditioned stimuli and receipt of rewarding stimuli. These data provide strong support that harmonic and FM USVs can be used to understand reward processing in addition to NSS. PMID:25827931

  2. Interactive ultrasound image retrieval using magnitude frequency spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jae Gon; Kim, Nam Chul; Chun, Young Deok; Park, Jun Hyo; Bae, Jun Ik

    2003-05-01

    An efficient algorithm is proposed for interactive ultrasound image retrieval using magnitude frequency spectrum (MFS). The interactive retrieval is especially intended to be useful for training an intern to diagnose with ultrasound images. In the retrieval process, information on which are relevant to a query image among object images retrieved in the previous iteration is fed back by user interaction. In order to improve discrimination between a query image and each of object images in a database (DB) by using the MFS, which is powerful for ultrasound image retrieval, we incorporate feature vector normalization and root filtering in feature extraction. To effectively integrate the feedback information, we use a feedback scheme based on Rocchio equation, where the feature of a query image is replaced with the weighted average of the feature of a query image and those of object images. Experimental results for real ultrasound images show that while yielding a precision of about 75% at a recall of about 8% in the initial retrieval, the interactive procedure yields a great performance improvement, that is, a precision of about 95% in the third iteration.

  3. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS WITH POLYNOMIAL GROWTH

    E-print Network

    Minicozzi, William

    HARMONIC FUNCTIONS WITH POLYNOMIAL GROWTH TOBIAS 1 1. Harmonic functions with polynomial growth on cones 5 2. Tools to study the growth of harmonic functions on manifolds 13 3. Lower bound of the frequency

  4. Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis.

    PubMed

    Raki?, Aleksandar D; Taimre, Thomas; Bertling, Karl; Lim, Yah Leng; Dean, Paul; Indjin, Dragan; Ikoni?, Zoran; Harrison, Paul; Valavanis, Alexander; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Wilson, Stephen J; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles

    2013-09-23

    The terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a compact source of high-power radiation with a narrow intrinsic linewidth. As such, THz QCLs are extremely promising sources for applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, heterodyne detection, and coherent imaging. We exploit the remarkable phase-stability of THz QCLs to create a coherent swept-frequency delayed self-homodyning method for both imaging and materials analysis, using laser feedback interferometry. Using our scheme we obtain amplitude-like and phase-like images with minimal signal processing. We determine the physical relationship between the operating parameters of the laser under feedback and the complex refractive index of the target and demonstrate that this coherent detection method enables extraction of complex refractive indices with high accuracy. This establishes an ultimately compact and easy-to-implement THz imaging and materials analysis system, in which the local oscillator, mixer, and detector are all combined into a single laser. PMID:24104111

  5. Low-Power Analog Processing for Sensing Applications: Low-Frequency Harmonic Signal Classification

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel J.; William, Peter E.; Hoffman, Michael W.; Balkir, Sina

    2013-01-01

    A low-power analog sensor front-end is described that reduces the energy required to extract environmental sensing spectral features without using Fast Fouriér Transform (FFT) or wavelet transforms. An Analog Harmonic Transform (AHT) allows selection of only the features needed by the back-end, in contrast to the FFT, where all coefficients must be calculated simultaneously. We also show that the FFT coefficients can be easily calculated from the AHT results by a simple back-substitution. The scheme is tailored for low-power, parallel analog implementation in an integrated circuit (IC). Two different applications are tested with an ideal front-end model and compared to existing studies with the same data sets. Results from the military vehicle classification and identification of machine-bearing fault applications shows that the front-end suits a wide range of harmonic signal sources. Analog-related errors are modeled to evaluate the feasibility of and to set design parameters for an IC implementation to maintain good system-level performance. Design of a preliminary transistor-level integrator circuit in a 0.13 ?m complementary metal-oxide-silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit process showed the ability to use online self-calibration to reduce fabrication errors to a sufficiently low level. Estimated power dissipation is about three orders of magnitude less than similar vehicle classification systems that use commercially available FFT spectral extraction. PMID:23892765

  6. Frequency Synthesizers and Oscillator Architectures Based on Multi-Order Harmonic Generation

    E-print Network

    Abdul-Latif, Mohammed

    2012-02-14

    transmission and reception to accommodate these large bandwidths, wireless circuits now have to work at higher frequencies and cover wider ranges of frequencies as well. ____________ This dissertation follows the style of IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits... of this bandwidth such as IEEE 802.16 (10-66 GHz), IEEE 802.16a (2-11GHz) and recently IEEE 802.15.3c (57-66 GHz). In addition, emerging software defined radios and cognitive radios are also required to operate over wide range of frequencies [1]. Furthermore...

  7. Axial standing-wave illumination frequency-domain imaging (SWIF)

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    Axial standing-wave illumination frequency- domain imaging (SWIF) Benjamin Judkewitz* and Changhuei-field, point scanning or selective plane illumination microscopy face inherent limiting trade-offs between how this can be achieved with propagation-invariant illumination patterns that extend over several

  8. Optoacoustics for high-frequency ultrasonic imaging and manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew O'Donnell; Takashi Buma

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed lasers can generate ultrasound through thermoelastic expansion of a thin optical absorber. By carefully designing the optical absorbing structure, efficient transduction is possible for a number of biomedical applications including high-frequency imaging, microfluidics, and sensing. The major key for efficient optoacoustic transduction in biomedical applications is to engineer a nearly perfect optical absorber possessing a large coefficient of thermal

  9. Towards Real-Time High Frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Cells

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    -thinning of lithium Niobate wafers for devices for high-frequency medical ultrasound imaging Srikanta Sharma, Jim Mc Pattern amic ars Array wired to connec and packaged for test Array substrate Generate data matrix Save of good quality radiation pattern with fewer elements · The annular array requires mechanical scanning

  10. High frequency ultrasound imaging using an active optical detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Hamilton; Cameron J. Brooks; Gerald L. Vossler; Matthew O'Donnell

    1998-01-01

    Optical detection of ultrasound has numerous advantages over traditional piezoelectric methods. These systems offer noncontact inspection, rapid scanning capabilities, fine spatial sampling, and large bandwidths. In addition, difficulties associated with conventional ultrasound imaging systems such as cross-talk between elements, electrical connections, and electromechanical resonances are greatly reduced or even eliminated. Because of this, high frequency phased arrays for ultrasound detection

  11. Theoretical analysis of dynamic chemical imaging with lasers using high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Van-Hoang Le [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Anh-Thu Le; Xie Ruihua; Lin, C. D. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We report theoretical investigations of the tomographic procedure suggested by Itatani et al. [Nature (London) 432, 867 (2004)] for reconstructing highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) using high-order harmonic generation (HHG). Due to the limited range of harmonics from the plateau region, we found that even under the most favorable assumptions, it is still very difficult to obtain accurate HOMO wave functions using the tomographic procedure, but the symmetry of the HOMOs and the internuclear separation between the atoms can be accurately extracted, especially when lasers of longer wavelengths are used to generate the HHG. Since the tomographic procedure relies on approximating the continuum wave functions in the recombination process by plane waves, the method can no longer be applied upon the improvement of the theory. For future chemical imaging with lasers, we suggest that one may want to focus on how to extract the positions of atoms in molecules instead, by developing an iterative method such that the theoretically calculated macroscopic HHG spectra can best fit the experimental HHG data.

  12. The harmonic inversion of the field-swept fixed-frequency resonance spectrum.

    PubMed

    Magon, Claudio José; Lima, José Fernando; Ribeiro, Ronny Rocha; Martins, Mateus José

    2007-01-01

    When the spin Hamiltonian is a linear function of the magnetic field intensity the resonance fields can be determined, in principle, by an eigenfield equation. In this report, we show a new technical approach to the resonance field problem where the eigenfield equation leads to a dynamic equation or, more specifically, to a first order differential equation of a variable L(x), where x is associated with the magnetic field h. Such differential equation has the property that: its stationary solution is the eigenfield equation and the spectral information contained in L(x) is directly related to the resonance spectrum. Such procedure, known as the "harmonic inversion problem" (HIP), can be solved by the "filter diagonalization method" (FDM) providing sufficient precision and resolution for the spectral analysis of the dynamic signals. Some examples are shown where the resonance fields are precisely determined in a single procedure, without the need to solve eigenvalue equations. PMID:17056289

  13. Detection of Myocardial Perfusion in Multiple Echocardiographic Windows With One Intravenous Injection of Microbubbles Using Transient Response Second Harmonic Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Porter; Shouping Li; David Kricsfeld; Robert W. Armbruster

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to prove that transient response harmonic imaging could detect normal and abnormal myocardial perfusion in multiple echocardiographic windows with one intravenous injection of microbubbles in humans.Background. Myocardial ultrasound contrast can be produced from intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin, and ultrasound can be significantly improved by briefly suspending the interval between frame rates. Whether

  14. Articular Cartilage Zonal Differentiation via 3D Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Rajeev; Campbell, Kirby R.; Tilbury, Karissa B.; Vanderby, Ray; Block, Walter F.; Kijowski, Richard; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The collagen structure throughout the patella has not been thoroughly investigated by 3D imaging, where the majority of the exiting data comes from histological cross sections. It is important to have a better understanding of the architecture in normal tissues, where this could then be applied to imaging of diseased states. Methods To address this shortcoming, we investigated the combined use of collagen specific Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging and measurement of bulk optical properties to characterize collagen fiber orientations of the histologically defined zones of bovine articular cartilage. Forward and backward SHG intensities from sections from superficial, middle and deep zones were collected as a function of depth and analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations to extract the SHG creation direction, which is related to the fibrillar assembly. Results Our results revealed differences in SHG forward-backward response between the three zones, where these are consistent with a previously developed model of SHG emission. Some of the findings are consistent with that from other modalities; however, SHG analysis showed the middle zone had the most organized fibril assembly. While not distinct, we also report bulk optical property values for these different zones within the patella. Conclusions Collectively, these results provide quantitative measurements of structural changes at both the fiber and fibril assembly of the different cartilage zones and reveals structural information not possible by other microscope modalities. This can provide quantitative insight to the collagen fiber network in normal cartilage, which may ultimately be developed as a biomarker for osteoarthritis. PMID:25738523

  15. Real-time Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS) Monitoring Using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Maleke, Caroline [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Konofagou, Elisa E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Monitoring changes in tissue mechanical properties to optimally control thermal exposure is important in thermal therapies. The amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging (HMI) for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique is a radiation force technique, which has the capability of tracking tissue stiffness during application of an oscillatory force. The feasibility of HMIFU for assessing mechanical tissue properties has been previously demonstrated. In this paper, a confocal transducer, combining a 4.5 MHz FUS transducer and a 3.3 MHz phased array imaging transducer, was used. The FUS transducer was driven by AM wave at 15 Hz with an acoustic intensity (I{sub spta}) was equal to 1050 W/cm{sup 2}. A lowpass digital filter was used to remove the spectrum of the higher power beam prior to displacement estimation. The resulting axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D cross-correlation with a correlation window of 2 mm and a 92.5% overlap. A thermocouple was also used to measure the temperature near the ablated region. 2D HMI-images from six-bovine-liver specimens indicated the onset of coagulation necrosis through changes in amplitude displacement after coagulation due to its simultaneous probing and heating capability. The HMI technique can thus be used to monitor temperature-related stiffness changes of tissues during thermal therapies in real-time, i.e., without interrupting or modifying the treatment protocol.

  16. Contrast enhancement in combined two-photon second harmonic imaging of skin by using hyperosmotic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Massi, D.; Stambouli, D.; Sampson, D. D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2006-02-01

    We used combined simultaneous two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPE) and second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG) on human skin tissue slices. We studied the effect caused by topical application of optical clearing agents (OCAs). We demonstrated that hyperosmotic agents as glycerol, propylene glycol and glucose in aqueous solution, are all effective in improving excitation light penetration depth and in enhancing image contrast. The effect caused on acquired images by sample immersion in OCAs or in their aqueous dilution, was studied. We observed a similar clearing effect with TPE and SHG acquisitions, with different effectiveness and rising time for each agent. The TPE acquired data are in good agreement with a simple diffusion model developed. From the SHG acquisition some different behaviour was observed. All three agents are potentially bio-compatible and effective in reducing scattering, improving light penetration depth and image contrast. Use of OCA can be suitable for in vivo application in two-photon microscopy, as well as in other techniques performing optical biopsy of human skin tissue.

  17. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  18. Simultaneous optical comb frequency stabilization and super-mode noise suppression of harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser using an intracavity etalon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gee; F. Quinlan; S. Ozharar; P. J. Delfyett

    2005-01-01

    Using an intracavity Pound-Drever-Hall technique, simultaneous optical frequency comb stabilization within ±3-MHz range and super-mode phase noise suppression were demonstrated for a 10-GHz harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser. Together with an additional phase-lock loop, timing jitter integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz (5 GHz) was 63.5 fs (161 fs).

  19. Measurement of radiated interferences generated on harmonics and secondary frequencies of transmitting devices in accordance with the MIL-STD-461F standard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Bugaj; Rafal Przesmycki; Leszek Nowosielski; Kazimierz Piwowarczyk

    2012-01-01

    The article concerns problems of electromagnetic compatibility of military equipment. Its aim is to present a sample application of position and methodology of measuring the emission level of radiated interferences, generated on harmonic and other secondary frequencies of transmitting or transmitting-receiving devices in the frequency range from 10kHz to 40GHz. The article presents the measuring methodology and description of the

  20. Bipolar-power-transistor-based limiter for high frequency ultrasound imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Yang, Hao-Chung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    High performance limiters are described in this paper for applications in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. Limiters protect the ultrasound receiver from the high voltage (HV) spikes produced by the transmitter. We present a new bipolar power transistor (BPT) configuration and compare its design and performance to a diode limiter used in traditional ultrasound research and one commercially available limiter. Limiter performance depends greatly on the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and response time (RT), each of which will be evaluated in all the limiters. The results indicated that, compared with commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter had less IL (–7.7 dB), THD (–74.6 dB) and lower RT (43 ns) at 100MHz. To evaluate the capability of these limiters, they were connected to a 100 MHz single element transducer and a two-way pulse-echo test was performed. It was found that the -6 dB bandwidth and sensitivity of the transducer using BPT-based limiter were better than those of the commercial limiter by 22 % and 140 %, respectively. Compared to the commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter is shown to be capable of minimizing signal attenuation, RT and THD at high frequencies and is thus suited for high frequency ultrasound applications. PMID:24199954

  1. High-frequency ultrasonic arrays for ocular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, M. D.; Kline-Schoder, R. J.; Douville, G. M.; Gagne, J. R.; Morrison, K. T.; Audette, W. E.; Kynor, D. B.

    2007-03-01

    High-resolution ultrasound imaging of the anterior portion of the eye has been shown to provide important information for sizing of intraocular lens implants, diagnosis of pathological conditions, and creation of detailed maps of corneal topography to guide refractive surgery. Current ultrasound imaging systems rely on mechanical scanning of a single acoustic element over the surface of the eye to create the three-dimensional information needed by clinicians. This mechanical scanning process is time-consuming and subject to errors caused by eye movement during the scanning period. This paper describes development of linear ultrasound imaging arrays intended to increase the speed of image acquisition and reduce problems associated with ocular motion. The arrays consist of a linear arrangement of high-frequency transducer elements designed to operate in the 50 - 75 MHz frequency range. The arrays are produced using single-crystal lithium niobate piezoelectric material, thin film electrodes, and epoxy-based acoustic layers. The array elements have been used to image steel test structures and bovine cornea.

  2. Elucidating low-frequency vibrational dynamics in calcite and water with time-resolved third-harmonic generation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Weimin; Fang, Chong

    2015-06-24

    Low-frequency vibrations are foundational for material properties including thermal conductivity and chemical reactivity. To resolve the intrinsic molecular conformational dynamics in condensed phase, we implement time-resolved third-harmonic generation (TRTHG) spectroscopy to unravel collective skeletal motions in calcite, water, and aqueous salt solution in situ. The lifetime of three Raman-active modes in polycrystalline calcite at 155, 282 and 703 cm(-1) is found to be ca. 1.6 ps, 1.3 ps and 250 fs, respectively. The lifetime difference is due to crystallographic defects and anharmonic effects. By incorporating a home-built wire-guided liquid jet, we apply TRTHG to investigate pure water and ZnCl2 aqueous solution, revealing ultrafast dynamics of water intermolecular stretching and librational bands below 500 cm(-1) and a characteristic 280 cm(-1) vibrational mode in the ZnCl4(H2O)2(2-) complex. TRTHG proves to be a compact and versatile technique that directly uses the 800 nm fundamental laser pulse output to capture ultrafast low-frequency vibrational motion snapshots in condensed-phase materials including the omnipresent water, which provides the important time dimension to spectral characterization of molecular structure-function relationships. PMID:26062639

  3. Multi-level effects in the high-order harmonic generation driven by intense frequency-comb laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Di; Jiang, Chen-Wei; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-07-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) driven by intense frequency-comb laser fields can be dramatically enhanced via multiphoton resonance by tuning the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) shift, without increasing the driving intensity. However, the multiphoton-resonant enhancement (MRE) factor in the realistic atomic hydrogen is much smaller than that in a two-level system. To study the deviation, we present a theoretical investigation of the multiphoton resonance dynamics of three-level systems driven by intense frequency-comb laser fields. The many-mode Floquet theorem (MMFT) is employed to provide a nonperturbative and exact treatment of the interaction between the quantum system and the laser fields. The investigations show that the dipole interaction of a two-level system with the third level affects the multiphoton resonance dynamics and enhances the HHG spectra. It is the dipole interaction of the excited level of the two-level system with other levels that results in the smaller MRE factor in the realistic atomic system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374239, 21203144, and 11074199), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20120201120056), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China.

  4. A theoretical study of the harmonic vibrational frequencies of SiO 4H 3X (X?H,Li and Na): model structures for silicate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, Carlos; Ferris, Kim F.; Noga, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The influence of alkali metals on the molecular spectra of silicates has been investigated using ab initio molecular orbital methods. The atomic polar tensors, harmonic vibrational frequencies and absolute infrared intensities were calculated on a series of model compounds (SiO 4H 3X;X? H, Li and Na). The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated at the Hartree-Fock level using 3-21G and 3-21G(d) (d functions on Si,Li and Na) basis sets. The SiO 4H 3X models show a bridging type structure between the alkali metals and neighbouring oxygen atom. The effects of correlation and anharmonicities were estimated by scaling the vibrational frequencies by a single parameter (0.89). Scaled harmonic vibrational frequencies for the OH stretches in SiO 4H 3X (X?Li and Na) are predicted lower in frequency in comparison to Si (OH) 4. Lowering in the intrinsic vibrational frequencies for the OH stretches suggests an increase in the acidity of the remaining OH groups.

  5. Spherical Harmonic Inductive Detection Coils and their use In Dynamic Pre-emphasis for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edler, Karl T.

    The issue of eddy currents induced by the rapid switching of magnetic field gradients is a long-standing problem in magnetic resonance imaging. A new method for dealing with this problem is presented whereby spatial harmonic components of the magnetic field are continuously sensed, through their temporal rates of change, and corrected. In this way, the effects of the eddy currents on multiple spatial harmonic components of the magnetic field can be detected and corrections applied during the rise time of the gradients. Sensing the temporal changes in each spatial harmonic is made possible with specially designed detection coils. However to make the design of these coils possible, general relationships between the spatial harmonics of the field, scalar potential, and vector potential are found within the quasi-static approximation. These relationships allow the vector potential to be found from the field -- an inverse curl operation -- and may be of use beyond the specific problem of detection coil design. Using the detection coils as sensors, methods are developed for designing a negative feedback system to control the eddy current effects and optimizing that system with respect to image noise and distortion. The design methods are successfully tested in a series of proof-of-principle experiments which lead to a discussion of how to incorporate similar designs into an operational MRI. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, eddy currents, dynamic shimming, negative feedback, quasi-static fields, vector potential, inverse curl

  6. First and second harmonic ECRH experience at gyrotron frequencies at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.

    1987-11-01

    Plasma heating of electrons in both mirror machines and tokamaks, using mm wave gyrotron sources, have been carried out in many experiments in recent years. The technology for both sources and mode-preserving waveguide transmission systems is well developed at power levels of 200 kW. At LLNL electron heating at 28 GHz in the TMX-U tandem mirror has been used to create hot electrons required for a thermal barrier (potential well). TMX-U, and other devices operating at lower frequency and power (10 GHz, few kW), routinely generates electron populations with mean energies of 100 to 500 keV and densities in the low to mid 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/ range. Radial pressure profiles vary from peaked-on-axis to hollow and are dependent on the mod-B resonance surfaces. Experiments on the axisymmetric mirror SM-1 have shown improved heating efficiency using multiple frequencies with narrow frequency separation. The importance of rf diffusion in determining electron confinement has been shown in CONSTANCE B. Fokker-Planck and particle orbit models have been useful for understanding the importance of cavity heating for creating runaway electrons, the sensitivity of hot electron production to cold plasma, the reduction of electron lifetime by rf diffusion, and the effect of multiple frequencies on heating stochasticity. Potential wells generated in plasmas with large fractions of mirror-trapped electrons have been measured in TMX-U. These offer prospects for enhanced confinement of highly stripped ions. 11 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. First and second harmonic ECRH experience at gyrotron frequencies at LLNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, B.

    1987-11-01

    Plasma heating of electrons in both mirror machines and tokamaks, using mm wave gyrotron sources, have been carried out in many experiments in recent years. The technology for both sources and mode-preserving waveguide transmission systems is well developed at power levels of 200 kW. At LLNL electron heating at 28 GHz in the TMX-U tandem mirror has been used to create hot electrons required for a thermal barrier (potential well). TMX-U, and other devices operating at lower frequency and power (10 GHz, few kW), routinely generates electron populations with mean energies of 100 to 500 keV and densities in the low to mid 10 to the 11th power/cu cm range. Radial pressure profiles vary from peaked-on-axis to hollow and are dependent on the mod-B resonance surfaces. Experiments on the axisymmetric mirror SM-1 have shown improved heating efficiency using multiple frequencies with narrow frequency separation. The importance of RF diffusion in determining electron confinement has been shown in CONSTANCE B. Fokker-Planck and particle orbit models have been useful for understanding the importance of cavity heating for creating runaway electrons, the sensitivity of hot electron production to cold plasma, the reduction of electron lifetime by RF diffusion, and the effect of multiple frequencies on heating stochasticity. Potential wells generated in plasmas with large fractions of mirror-trapped electrons have been measured in TMX-U. These offer prospects for enhanced confinement of highly stripped ions.

  8. Development of small aperture polymer transducers for high frequency imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Lockwood; C. R. Hazzard

    1997-01-01

    Poor receiver sensitivity has hampered the development of small aperture (⩽2 mm diameter) polymer transducers for high frequency (30-80 MHz) medical imaging. The authors have developed a miniature spherically shaped polymer transducer incorporating an integrated circuit pre-amplifier. The pre-amplifier reduces the problem of poor receiver sensitivity by providing a high input impedance buffer. Using this approach, the amplitude of the

  9. Label-free imaging of Schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyungsik; Sharoukhov, Denis; Kassim, Imran; Zhang, Yanqing; Salzer, James L; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen V

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the dynamic axon-glial cell interaction underlying myelination is hampered by the lack of suitable imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate third harmonic generation microscopy (THGM) for label-free imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in live culture and ex vivo and in vivo tissue. A 3D structure was acquired for a variety of compact and noncompact myelin domains, including juxtaparanodes, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, and Cajal bands. Other subcellular features of Schwann cells that escape traditional optical microscopies were also visualized. We tested THGM for morphometry of compact myelin. Unlike current methods based on electron microscopy, g-ratio could be determined along an extended length of myelinated fiber in the physiological condition. The precision of THGM-based g-ratio estimation was corroborated in mouse models of hypomyelination. Finally, we demonstrated the feasibility of THGM to monitor morphological changes of myelin during postnatal development and degeneration. The outstanding capabilities of THGM may be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of myelin formation and pathogenesis. PMID:25453108

  10. Label-free imaging of Schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungsik; Sharoukhov, Denis; Kassim, Imran; Zhang, Yanqing; Salzer, James L.; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic axon–glial cell interaction underlying myelination is hampered by the lack of suitable imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate third harmonic generation microscopy (THGM) for label-free imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in live culture and ex vivo and in vivo tissue. A 3D structure was acquired for a variety of compact and noncompact myelin domains, including juxtaparanodes, Schmidt–Lanterman incisures, and Cajal bands. Other subcellular features of Schwann cells that escape traditional optical microscopies were also visualized. We tested THGM for morphometry of compact myelin. Unlike current methods based on electron microscopy, g-ratio could be determined along an extended length of myelinated fiber in the physiological condition. The precision of THGM-based g-ratio estimation was corroborated in mouse models of hypomyelination. Finally, we demonstrated the feasibility of THGM to monitor morphological changes of myelin during postnatal development and degeneration. The outstanding capabilities of THGM may be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of myelin formation and pathogenesis. PMID:25453108

  11. Depth-sensitive subsurface imaging of polymer nanocomposites using second harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Uribe, Octavio Alejandro; Reifenberger, Ronald; Raman, Arvind; Avila, Alba

    2015-03-24

    We study the depth sensitivity and spatial resolution of subsurface imaging of polymer nanocomposites using second harmonic mapping in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM). This method allows the visualization of the clustering and percolation of buried Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) via capacitance gradient (?C/?z) maps. We develop a multilayered sample where thin layers of neat Polyimide (PI) (?80 nm per layer) are sequentially spin-coated on well-dispersed SWCNT/Polyimide (PI) nanocomposite films. The multilayer nanocomposite system allows the acquisition of ?C/?z images of three-dimensional percolating networks of SWCNTs at different depths in the same region of the sample. We detect CNTs at a depth of ?430 nm, and notice that the spatial resolution progressively deteriorates with increasing depth of the buried CNTs. Computational trends of ?C/?z vs CNT depth correlate the sensitivity and depth resolution with field penetration and spreading, and enable a possible approach to three-dimensional subsurface structure reconstruction. The results open the door to nondestructive, three-dimensional tomography and nanometrology techniques for nanocomposite applications. PMID:25591106

  12. Statistical Validation of Brain Tumor Shape Approximation via Spherical Harmonics for Image-Guided Neurosurgery1

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Talos, Ion-Florin; Bhagwat, Jui G.; Haker, Steven J.; Black, Peter M.; Zou, Kelly H.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Surgical planning now routinely uses both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models that integrate data from multiple imaging modalities, each highlighting one or more aspects of morphology or function. We performed a preliminary evaluation of the use of spherical harmonics (SH) in approximating the 3D shape and estimating the volume of brain tumors of varying characteristics. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) images from five patients with brain tumors were selected randomly from our MR-guided neurosurgical practice. Standardized mean square reconstruction errors (SMSRE) by tumor volume were measured. Validation metrics for comparing performances of the SH method against segmented contours (SC) were the dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and standardized Euclidean distance (SED) measure. Results Tumor volume range was 22413–85189 mm3, and range of number of vertices in triangulated models was 3674–6544. At SH approximations with degree of at least 30, SMSRE were within 1.66 × 10?5 mm?1. Summary measures yielded a DSC range of 0.89–0.99 (pooled median, 0.97 and significantly >0.7; P < .001) and an SED range of 0.0002–0.0028 (pooled median, 0.0005). Conclusion 3D shapes of tumors may be approximated by using SH for neurosurgical applications. PMID:15831419

  13. Second harmonic generation imaging as a potential tool for staging pregnancy and predicting preterm birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akins, Meredith L.; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Mahendroo, Mala

    2010-03-01

    We use second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to assess changes in collagen structure of murine cervix during cervical remodeling of normal pregnancy and in a preterm birth model. Visual inspection of SHG images revealed substantial changes in collagen morphology throughout normal gestation. SHG images collected in both the forward and backward directions were analyzed quantitatively for changes in overall mean intensity, forward to backward intensity ratio, collagen fiber size, and porosity. Changes in mean SHG intensity and intensity ratio take place in early pregnancy, suggesting that submicroscopic changes in collagen fibril size and arrangement occur before macroscopic changes become evident. Fiber size progressively increased from early to late pregnancy, while pores between collagen fibers became larger and farther apart. Analysis of collagen features in premature cervical remodeling show that changes in collagen structure are dissimilar from normal remodeling. The ability to quantify multiple morphological features of collagen that characterize normal cervical remodeling and distinguish abnormal remodeling in preterm birth models supports future studies aimed at development of SHG endoscopic devices for clinical assessment of collagen changes during pregnancy in women and for predicting risk of preterm labor which occurs in 12.5% of all pregnancies.

  14. In vivo wound healing diagnosis with second harmonic and fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Gitanjal; Wu, Wei-Wen; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2013-06-01

    Skin wounds heal when a series of cell lineages are triggered, followed by collagen deposition, to reconstruct damaged tissues. This study evaluates the regeneration of collagen and change in cellular metabolic rate in vivo during wound healing in rats, with second harmonic generation (SHG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy respectively. The metabolic rate of cells is reflected through the lifetime of the autofluorescence from the co-enzyme protein, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, due to its change in the relative concentration of bound and free forms. A higher than normal cellular metabolic rate is observed during the first week of healing, which decreases gradually after eight days of wound formation. SHG signal intensity change indicates the net degradation of collagen during the inflammatory phase, and net regeneration begins on day five. Eventually, the quantity of collagen increases gradually to form a scar tissue as the final product. Importantly, this work demonstrates the feasibility of an in vivo imaging approach for a normal wound on rat skin, which has the potential to supplement the noninvasive clinical diagnosis of wounds.

  15. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya; H. C. Carlson; V. A. Kornienko; T. D. Borisova; M. T. Rietveld; T. K. Yeoman; A. Brekke

    2009-01-01

    Multi-instrument observational data from an ex- periment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT\\/HEATING fa- cility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of

  16. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya; H. C. Carlson; V. A. Kornienko; T. D. Borisova; M. T. Rietveld; T. K. Yeoman; A. Brekke

    2009-01-01

    Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT\\/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment

  17. Generating high-frequency, rotating magnetic fields with low harmonic content

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Chang, X.; Litvinenko, V.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Skaritka, J.

    2011-09-13

    The future electron-ion collider (eRHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory demands a high-current, polarized, bunched electron beam [http://www.bnl.gov/cad/eRhic]. One of the challenges here is to combine the bunched beams generated by multiple cathodes so to address the issue of designing and prototyping a combiner with high-frequency (700 kHz) rotational magnetic fields. This article presents its design, and simulation, and details some of the test results from this unprecedented device.

  18. Design of variable frequency endoscope ultrasonic digital imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya-nan; Bai, Bao-ping; Chen, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Qiang; Deng, Hao-ran; Wang, Yi; Yu, Dao-yin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presented a real-time endoscope ultrasonic digital imaging system, which was based on FPGA and applied for gastrointestinal examination. Four modules, scan-line data processing module, coordinate transformation and interpolation algorithm module, cache reading and writing control module and transmitting and receiving control module were included in this FPGA based system. Through adopting different frequency ultrasound probes in a single insertion of endoscope, the system showed a high speed data processing mechanism capable of achieving images with various display effects. A high-precision modified coordinate calibration CORDIC (HMCC-CORDIC) algorithm was employed to realize coordinate transformation and interpolation simultaneously, while the precision and reliability of the algorithm could be greatly improved through utilizing the pipeline structure based on temporal logic. Also, system real-time control by computer could be achieved through operating under the condition of USB2.0 interface. The corresponding experimental validations proved the feasibility and the correctness of the proper data processing mechanism, the HMCC-CORDIC algorithm and the USB real-time control. Finally, the specific experimental sample, a tissue mimicking phantom, was imaged in real-time (25 frames per second) by an endoscope ultrasonic imaging system with image size 1024×1024. The requirements for clinical examination could be well satisfied with the imaging parameters discussed above.

  19. Applying Echoes Mean Frequency Shift for Attenuation Imaging in Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litniewski, J.; Klimonda, Z.; Nowicki, A.

    The purpose of this study was to develop the attenuation parametric imaging technique and to apply it for in vivo characterization of tissue. Local attenuation coefficient was determined by evaluating the frequency downshift that encounters the amplitude spectrum of the interrogating ultrasonic pulse during propagation in the absorbing tissue. Operation and accuracy of the processing methods were verified by assessing the size-independent region of interest (ROI) for attenuation determination and calculating the attenuation coefficient distribution for experimentally recorded tissue-phantom scattered waveforms. The Siemens Antares scanner equipped with Ultrasound Research Interface unit allowing for direct radiofrequency (RF) signals recording was used for B-scan imaging of the tissue- mimicking phantom in vitro and liver in vivo. RF data were processed to determine attenuation coefficient along the B-scan lines. Also, the preliminary studies of backscattered signals from skin recorded using a skin scanner were performed to calculate parametric-attenuation images.

  20. Subwavelength imaging using plasmonic lenses at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggie, Tanner

    The effects of diffraction at terahertz frequencies limit the spatial resolution of imaging systems. One approach to achieve subwavelength resolution is near-field imaging using a subwavelength aperture, however, the low transmission through subwavelength apertures limits the sensitivity of this approach. Plasmonic lenses in the form of bullseye structures, consisting of a circular subwavelength aperture with concentric periodic corrugations, have demonstrated enhanced transmission and beam confinement. This thesis discusses the design criteria of plasmonic lenses optimized for 325 GHz. Fabrication for optical applications is traditionally achieved by nanolithography. Since the scale of plasmonic structures depends on the wavelength, precision micromilling techniques are well suited for terahertz applications. Theoretical simulations are obtained using a finite-difference time-domain solver and the performance the devices are evaluated using a customized terahertz testbed. The prospect of using plasmonic lenses in a terahertz imaging configuration for the diagnosis of cancer is also discussed.

  1. Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs

    E-print Network

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2013-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy and imaging of microscopic samples have opened up a wide range of applications throughout the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. High chemical specificity may be achieved by directly interrogating the fundamental or low-lying vibrational energy levels of the compound molecules. Amongst the available prevailing label-free techniques, coherent Raman scattering has the distinguishing features of high spatial resolution down to 200 nm and three-dimensional sectioning. However, combining fast imaging speed and identification of multiple - and possibly unexpected- compounds remains challenging: existing high spectral resolution schemes require long measurement times to achieve broad spectral spans. Here we overcome this difficulty and introduce a novel concept of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectro-imaging with two laser frequency combs. We illustrate the power of our technique with high resolution (4 cm-1) Raman spectra spanning more than 1200 cm-1 recorded within le...

  2. Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging in a 2D periodically-poled LiTaO3 crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Wei, Dunzhao; Zhang, Yong; Zou, Jiong; Hu, X P; Zhu, S N; Xiao, Min

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate the improved second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging through the quasi-phase-matching technique in a 2D periodically-poled LiTaO(3) crystal. The domain structure not only composes a nonlinear optical grating which is necessary to realize nonlinear Talbot self-imaging, but also provides reciprocal vectors to satisfy the phase-matching condition for second-harmonic generation. Our experimental results show that quasi-phase-matching can improve the intensity of the second-harmonic Talbot self-imaging by a factor of 21. PMID:23787586

  3. Optimal configuration for vibration frequencies in a ring of harmonic oscillators: The nonidentical mass effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Guo-Yong; He, Zhiwei; Zhan, Meng

    2015-06-01

    The parameter diversity effect in coupled nonidentical elements has attracted persistent interest in nonlinear dynamics. Of fundamental importance is the so-called optimal configuration problem for how the spatial position of elements with different parameters precisely determines the dynamics of the whole system. In this work, we study the optimal configuration problem for the vibration spectra in the classical mass-spring model with a ring configuration, paying particular attention to how the configuration of different masses affects the second smallest vibration frequency ( ? 2) and the largest one ( ? N ). For the extreme values of ? 2 and ? N , namely, ( ? 2)min, ( ? 2)max, ( ? N )min, and ( ? N )max, we find some explicit organization rules for the optimal configurations and some approximation rules when the explicit organization rules are not available. The different distributions of ? 2 and ? N are compared. These findings are interesting and valuable for uncovering the underlying mechanism of the parameter diversity effect in more general cases.

  4. Frequency Identification of Vibration Signals Using Video Camera Image Data

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Yih-Nen; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2012-01-01

    This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC) can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system. PMID:23202026

  5. Methods for estimating selected low-flow frequency statistics and harmonic mean flows for streams in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2012-01-01

    A statewide study was conducted to develop regression equations for estimating six selected low-flow frequency statistics and harmonic mean flows for ungaged stream sites in Iowa. The estimation equations developed for the six low-flow frequency statistics include: the annual 1-, 7-, and 30-day mean low flows for a recurrence interval of 10 years, the annual 30-day mean low flow for a recurrence interval of 5 years, and the seasonal (October 1 through December 31) 1- and 7-day mean low flows for a recurrence interval of 10 years. Estimation equations also were developed for the harmonic-mean-flow statistic. Estimates of these seven selected statistics are provided for 208 U.S. Geological Survey continuous-record streamgages using data through September 30, 2006. The study area comprises streamgages located within Iowa and 50 miles beyond the State's borders. Because trend analyses indicated statistically significant positive trends when considering the entire period of record for the majority of the streamgages, the longest, most recent period of record without a significant trend was determined for each streamgage for use in the study. The median number of years of record used to compute each of these seven selected statistics was 35. Geographic information system software was used to measure 54 selected basin characteristics for each streamgage. Following the removal of two streamgages from the initial data set, data collected for 206 streamgages were compiled to investigate three approaches for regionalization of the seven selected statistics. Regionalization, a process using statistical regression analysis, provides a relation for efficiently transferring information from a group of streamgages in a region to ungaged sites in the region. The three regionalization approaches tested included statewide, regional, and region-of-influence regressions. For the regional regression, the study area was divided into three low-flow regions on the basis of hydrologic characteristics, landform regions, and soil regions. A comparison of root mean square errors and average standard errors of prediction for the statewide, regional, and region-of-influence regressions determined that the regional regression provided the best estimates of the seven selected statistics at ungaged sites in Iowa. Because a significant number of streams in Iowa reach zero flow as their minimum flow during low-flow years, four different types of regression analyses were used: left-censored, logistic, generalized-least-squares, and weighted-least-squares regression. A total of 192 streamgages were included in the development of 27 regression equations for the three low-flow regions. For the northeast and northwest regions, a censoring threshold was used to develop 12 left-censored regression equations to estimate the 6 low-flow frequency statistics for each region. For the southern region a total of 12 regression equations were developed; 6 logistic regression equations were developed to estimate the probability of zero flow for the 6 low-flow frequency statistics and 6 generalized least-squares regression equations were developed to estimate the 6 low-flow frequency statistics, if nonzero flow is estimated first by use of the logistic equations. A weighted-least-squares regression equation was developed for each region to estimate the harmonic-mean-flow statistic. Average standard errors of estimate for the left-censored equations for the northeast region range from 64.7 to 88.1 percent and for the northwest region range from 85.8 to 111.8 percent. Misclassification percentages for the logistic equations for the southern region range from 5.6 to 14.0 percent. Average standard errors of prediction for generalized least-squares equations for the southern region range from 71.7 to 98.9 percent and pseudo coefficients of determination for the generalized-least-squares equations range from 87.7 to 91.8 percent. Average standard errors of prediction for weighted-least-squares equations developed for estimating the harmonic-mean-flow statistic for each of the thr

  6. Optimum frequency for subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Patitz, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    A subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar (SISAR) has potential for application in areas as diverse as non-proliferation programs for nuclear weapons to environmental monitoring. However, most conventional synthetic-aperture radars operate at higher microwave frequencies which do not significantly penetrate below the soil surface. This study attempts to provide a basis for determining optimum frequencies and frequency ranges which will allow synthetic-aperture imaging of buried targets. Since the radar return from a buried object must compete with the return from surface clutter, the signal-to-clutter ratio is an appropriate measure of performance for a SISAR. A parameter-based modeling approach is used to model the complex dielectric constant of the soil from measured data obtained from the literature. Theoretical random-surface scattering models, based on statistical solutions to Maxwell's equations, are used to model the clutter. These models are combined to estimate the signal-to-clutter ratio for canonical targets buried in several soil configurations. Initial results indicate that the HF spectrum (3--30 MHz), although it could be used to detect certain targets under some conditions, has limited practical value for use with SISAR, while the upper vhf through uhf spectrum ([approximately]100 MHz--1 GHz) shows the most promise for a general purpose SISAR system. Recommendations are included for additional research.

  7. Testing a simple control law to reduce broadband frequency harmonic vibrations using semi-active tuned mass dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutinho, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper is focused on the control problems related to semi-active tuned mass dampers (TMDs) used to reduce harmonic vibrations, specially involving civil structures. A simplified version of the phase control law is derived and its effectiveness is investigated and evaluated. The objective is to improve the functioning of control systems of this type by simplifying the measurement process and reducing the number of variables involved, making the control system more feasible and reliable. Because the control law is of ON/OFF type, combined with appropriate trigger conditions, the activity of the actuation system may be significantly reduced, which may be of few seconds a day in many practical cases, increasing the durability of the device and reducing its maintenance. Moreover, due to the ability of the control system to command the motion of the inertial mass, the semi-active TMD is relatively insensitive to its initial tuning, resulting in the capability of self-tuning and in the possibility of controlling several vibration modes of a structure over a significant broadband frequency.

  8. Sub-Hz Linewidth harmonics in a microwave frequency comb generated by focusing a mode-locked ultrafast laser on the tunneling junction of a scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, Mark; Stenger, Frank; Yarotski, Dmitry

    2014-03-01

    A microwave frequency comb (MFC) with hundreds of measurable harmonics superimposed on the DC tunneling current is generated by optical rectification when focusing a mode-locked ultrafast laser on the tip-sample junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Using a Kerr-lens passively mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser (CompactPro, Femtolasers) having a pulse repetition frequency of 74.25 MHz with a STM (UHV700, RHK Technology) operated in air, 200 harmonics from 74.25 MHz to 14.85 GHz have reproducible measured linewidths equal to the 1 Hz resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the spectrum analyzer. At the 200th harmonic the signal-to-noise ratio is 20 dB. When the RBW exceeds 1 Hz the measured linewidth increases to remain equal to the RBW. However, for a RBW of 0.1 Hz the measured linewidth is distributed from 0.1 Hz to 1.2 Hz which we attribute to the stochastic behavior of the pulse repetition frequency in the unstabilized laser. Measurements of drift in the pulse repetition frequency and a derivation showing the effects of timing jitter support this hypothesis. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility.

  9. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): a fully integrated technique for sonication and monitoring of thermal ablation in tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Maleke; E E Konofagou

    2008-01-01

    FUS (focused ultrasound), or HIFU (high-intensity-focused ultrasound) therapy, a minimally or non-invasive procedure that uses ultrasound to generate thermal necrosis, has been proven successful in several clinical applications. This paper discusses a method for monitoring thermal treatment at different sonication durations (10 s, 20 s and 30 s) using the amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique

  10. Nano-indentation at the surface contact level: applying a harmonic frequency for measuring contact stiffness of self-assembled monolayers adsorbed on Au.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2008-08-01

    In this study, the well-ordered alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of varied chain lengths and tail groups were employed as examples for nano-characterization on their mechanical properties. A novel nano-indentation technique with a constant harmonic frequency was applied on SAMs chemically adsorbed on Au to explore their contact mechanics, and furthermore to interpret how SAM molecules respond to an infinitesimal oscillation force without pressing them. Experimental results demonstrated that the harmonic contact stiffness along with the measured displacement of SAMs/Au was distinguishable using a dynamic contact modulus with the distinct feature of phase angles. Phase angles resulted from the relaxing continuation of an applied harmonic frequency and mostly influenced by the outermost tail group of SAM molecules. The harmonic contact stiffness of SAM molecules obviously increased with the densely packed alkyl chains and relatively intense agglomeration of the head group at the anchoring site. As a consequence, the result of this work is relevant to contact mechanics at the surface contact level for the distinction of molecular substances attached on a solid surface. Furthermore it is particularly anticipated to identify biological molecules of variable qualities under a fluid-like micro-environment. PMID:21828795

  11. Evidence for Harmonic Content and Frequency Evolution of Oscillations during the Rising Phase of X-ray Bursts from 4U 1636-536

    E-print Network

    Sudip Bhattacharyya; Tod E. Strohmayer

    2005-12-03

    We report on a study of the evolution of burst oscillation properties during the rising phase of X-ray bursts from 4U 1636--536 observed with the proportional counter array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We present evidence for significant harmonic structure of burst oscillation pulses during the early rising phases of bursts. This is the first such detection in burst rise oscillations, and has interesting implications for constraining neutron star structure parameters and the equation of state models of matter at the core of a neutron star. The detection of harmonic content only during the initial portions of the burst rise appears consistent with the theoretical expectation that with time the thermonuclear burning region becomes larger, and hence the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes both diminish. We also find, for the first time from this source, strong evidence of frequency increases during burst rise. The timing behavior of harmonic content, amplitude, and frequency of burst rise oscillations may be important in understanding the spreading of thermonuclear flames under the extreme physical conditions on neutron star surfaces.

  12. Evidence for Harmonic Content and Frequency Evolution of Oscillations During the Rising Phase of X-ray Bursts From 4U 1636-536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bgattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, E.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a study of the evolution of burst oscillation properties during the rising phase of X-ray bursts from 4U 1636-536 observed with the proportional counter array (PCA) on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) . We present evidence for significant harmonic structure of burst oscillation pulses during the early rising phases of bursts. This is the first such detection in burst rise oscillations, and is very important for constraining neutron star structure parameters and the equation of state models of matter at the core of a neutron star. The detection of harmonic content only during the initial portions of the burst rise is consistent with the theoretical expectation that with time the thermonuclear burning region becomes larger, and hence the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes both diminish. We also find, for the first time from this source, strong evidence of oscillation frequency increase during the burst rise. The timing behavior of harmonic content, amplitude, and frequency of burst rise oscillations may be important in understanding the spreading of thermonuclear flames under the extreme physical conditions on neutron star surfaces.

  13. Focused high frequency needle transducer for ultrasonic imaging and trapping

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Zhou, Qifa; Kirk Shung, K.

    2012-01-01

    A miniature focused needle transducer (<1?mm) was fabricated using the press-focusing technique. The measured pulse-echo waveform showed the transducer had center frequency of 57.5 MHz with 54% bandwidth and 14?dB insertion loss. To evaluate the performance of this type of transducer, invitro ultrasonic biomicroscopy imaging on the rabbit eye was obtained. Moreover, a single beam acoustic trapping experiment was performed using this transducer. Trapping of targeted particle size smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength was observed. Potential applications of these devices include minimally invasive measurements of retinal blood flow and single beam acoustic trapping of microparticles. PMID:22865930

  14. Focused high frequency needle transducer for ultrasonic imaging and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Zhou, Qifa; Kirk Shung, K.

    2012-07-01

    A miniature focused needle transducer (<1 mm) was fabricated using the press-focusing technique. The measured pulse-echo waveform showed the transducer had center frequency of 57.5 MHz with 54% bandwidth and 14 dB insertion loss. To evaluate the performance of this type of transducer, invitro ultrasonic biomicroscopy imaging on the rabbit eye was obtained. Moreover, a single beam acoustic trapping experiment was performed using this transducer. Trapping of targeted particle size smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength was observed. Potential applications of these devices include minimally invasive measurements of retinal blood flow and single beam acoustic trapping of microparticles.

  15. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.H.; Xie, G.Q.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The travel times corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter [alpha] for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography. 13 figures.

  16. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki H. (Lafayette, CA); Xie, Gan Q. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The traveltimes corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter .alpha. for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography.

  17. High frequency ultrasound imaging using Fabry-Perot optical etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazi, Shai; Witte, Russell; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2005-04-01

    An etalon is an optical resonator where light is confined to a thin transparent layer having reflecting coatings on the sides. Optical reflection from this structure is highly sensitive to local mechanical perturbation. This is the basic principle allowing these devices to act as 2D ultrasound detector arrays. Optical probing of the etalon surface defines the array geometry and detection size of each element in the array. Element size on the order of several microns is easily realized. The detection bandwidth is limited primarily by the acoustic propagation time thru the layer thickness. We have developed etalon structures optimized for high frequency ultrasound detection using thin polymer layers (less than 10 ?m). The detection bandwidth of these devices is typically 100MHz. The sensitivity of the etalon detector was demonstrated to be comparable to that of a piezoceramic detector. The etalon was integrated into a photoacoustic imaging system. High resolution images of phantom targets and biological tissue (nerve cord) were obtained. The additional information of optical absorption obtained by photoacoustic imaging, along with the high resolution detection of the etalon, offer unique advantages for intravascular and neurological imaging applications.

  18. Imaging interplanetary CMEs at radio frequency from solar polar orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ji; Sun, Weiying; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Yan, Jingye; Wang, Chi; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Shui

    2011-09-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) represent a great concentration of mass and energy input into the lower corona. They have come to be recognized as the major driver of physical conditions change in the Sun-Earth system. Consequently, observations of CMEs are important for understanding and ultimately predicting space weather conditions. This paper discusses a proposed mission, the Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope (SPORT) mission, which will observe the propagation of interplanetary CMEs to distances of near 0.35 AU from the Sun. The orbit of SPORT is an elliptical solar polar orbit. The inclination angle between the orbit and ecliptic plane should be about 90°. The main payload on board SPORT will be an imaging radiometer working at the meter wavelength band (radio telescope), which can follow the propagation of interplanetary CMEs. The images that are obtained by the radio telescope embody the brightness temperature of the objectives. Due to the very large size required for the antenna aperture of the radio telescope, we adopt interferometric imaging technology to reduce it. Interferometric imaging technology is based on indirect spatial frequency domain measurements plus Fourier transformation. The SPORT spacecraft will also be equipped with a set of optical and in situ measurement instruments such as a EUV solar telescope, a solar wind ion instrument, an energetic particle detector, a magnetometer, a wave detector and a solar radio burst spectrometer.

  19. Emission spectroscopy, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and improved ground state structures of jet-cooled monochloro- and monobromosilylene (HSiCl and HSiBr)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Hostutler; Nicholas Ndiege; Dennis J. Clouthier; Steven W. Pauls

    2001-01-01

    The ground state harmonic frequencies of gas phase H\\/DSi35Cl and H\\/DSi79Br have been determined by exciting single vibronic bands of the A~ 1A''-X~ 1A' electronic transition and recording the dispersed fluorescence. The jet-cooled radicals were produced in a pulsed discharge jet using H\\/DSiX3 (X=Cl or Br) precursors. The emission data were fitted to an anharmonic model and a normal coordinate

  20. Emission spectroscopy, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and improved ground state structures of jet-cooled monochloro- and monobromosilylene (HSiCl and HSiBr)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Hostutler; Nicholas Ndiege; Dennis J. Clouthier; Steven W. Pauls

    2001-01-01

    The ground state harmonic frequencies of gas phase H\\/DSi35Cl and H\\/DSi79Br have been determined by exciting single vibronic bands of the à 1A?–X˜ 1A? electronic transition and recording the dispersed fluorescence. The jet-cooled radicals were produced in a pulsed discharge jet using H\\/DSiX3(X=Cl or Br) precursors. The emission data were fitted to an anharmonic model and a normal coordinate analysis

  1. Fundamental and low frequency harmonic components of leakage current as a diagnostic tool to study aging of RTV and HTV silicone rubber in salt-fog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman H. El-Hag; Shesha H. Jayaram; Edward A. Cherney

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of using the fundamental and the low frequency harmonic components of leakage current to study aging of silicone rubber in salt-fog. Experiments have been conducted on RTV and HTV coated rods at different fields (0.25-0.6 kV\\/cm) and conductivities (1000 to 2500 ?S\\/cm). The onset of dry-band arcing on samples could be determined by measuring the

  2. Determination of Optimal Imaging Mode for Ultrasonographic Detection of Subdermal Contraceptive Rods: Comparison of Spatial Compound, Conventional, and Tissue Harmonic Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjun; Seo, Kyung; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Jeong Seon; Kim, Ah Hyun; Park, Ah Young; Kim, Yaena

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine which mode of ultrasonography (US), among the conventional, spatial compound, and tissue-harmonic methods, exhibits the best performance for the detection of Implanon® with respect to generation of posterior acoustic shadowing (PAS). Materials and Methods A total of 21 patients, referred for localization of impalpable Implanon®, underwent US, using the three modes with default settings (i.e., wide focal zone). Representative transverse images of the rods, according to each mode for all patients, were obtained. The resulting 63 images were reviewed by four observers. The observers provided a confidence score for the presence of PAS, using a five-point scale ranging from 1 (definitely absent) to 5 (definitely present), with scores of 4 or 5 for PAS being considered as detection. The average scores of PAS, obtained from the three different modes for each observer, were compared using one-way repeated measure ANOVA. The detection rates were compared using a weighted least square method. Results Statistically, the tissue harmonic mode was significantly superior to the other two modes, when comparing the average scores of PAS for all observers (p < 0.00-1). The detection rate was also highest for the tissue harmonic mode (p < 0.001). Conclusion Tissue harmonic mode in uS appears to be the most suitable in detecting subdermal contraceptive implant rods. PMID:22977328

  3. Experimental investigation of the ionospheric hysteresis effect on the threshold excitation level of the Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) during heating at the second electron gyro-harmonic frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samimi, A.; Scales, W.; Cruz, M.; Isham, B.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent experimental observations of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum during heating at the second electron gyro-harmonic show structures ordered by ion gyro-frequency. The proposed generation mechanism considers parametric decay of a pump upper hybrid/electron Bernstein (UH/EB) wave into another UH/EB and a group of neutralized ion Bernstein waves. The presumption of the proposed mechanism is that the pump electromagnetic wave is converted into the UH/EB wave. This conversion process generates field aligned irregularity which exhibits hysteresis effect. The predicted ionospheric hysteresis effect is studied during the PARS 2012 at HAARP. The preliminary results are presented for the first time. Also, experimental study of the effects of 1) the transmitter beam angle and 2) the transmitter frequency offset relative to the second electron gyro-harmonic frequency on the ion gyro-harmonic structures in the SEE spectrum are provided. The aforementioned observations are compared to the predictions of the analytical model. Possible connection of the SEE spectral features and artificially generated ionospheric descending layer is also discussed

  4. Employing phase modulation and second harmonic nulling to eliminate the interference fringes from the spectrum of a portable coherent frequency-domain THz spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Joseph R.; Kasper, Bryon L.

    2013-05-01

    Interpreting the spectrum from a continuous wave frequency domain terahertz spectrometer that employs coherent detection can be challenging due to the presence of an interference pattern. We report on the continued progress of a portable, battery-operated frequency domain terahertz spectrometer with an integrated, fiber-coupled, lithium-niobate optical phase-modulator and how we achieve interference fringe elimination using phase modulation and second harmonic nulling. The implications for both transmission and reflection measurements are discussed and data on the explosive compound RDX will be presented.

  5. Multiscale nonlinear frequency response analysis of single-layered graphene sheet under impulse and harmonic excitation using the atomistic finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajbhiye, Sachin O.; Singh, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    The atomistic finite element method (AFEM) is a multiscale technique where a sequential mode is used to transfer information between two length scales to model and simulate nanostructures at the continuum level. This method is used in this paper to investigate the nonlinear frequency response of a single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) for impulse and harmonic excitation. The multi-body interatomic Tersoff–Brenner (TB) potential is used to represent the energy between two adjacent carbon atoms. Based on the TB potential, the equivalent geometric and elastic properties of carbon–carbon bonds are derived which are consistent with the material constitutive relations. These properties are used further to derive the nonlinear material model (stress–strain curve) of carbon–carbon bonds based on the force–deflection curve using the multi-body interatomic Tersoff–Brenner potential. A square SLGS is considered and its nonlinear vibration characteristics under an impulse and harmonic excitation for bridged, cantilever and clamped boundary conditions are investigated using the derived nonlinear material model (NMM). Before using the proposed nonlinear material model, the derived equivalent geometric and elastic properties of carbon–carbon bond are validated using molecular dynamics simulation results. The geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities are included in the nonlinear frequency response analysis. The investigated results of the nonlinear frequency response analysis are compared with those of the linear frequency response analysis, and the effect of the nonlinear behavior of carbon–carbon bonds on the frequency response of SLGS is studied.

  6. Harmonic operation of STW filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Baer; C. A. FLory

    1988-01-01

    The physical mechanism causing the propagation loss of surface transverse wave (STW) devices during harmonic operation is modeled and analyzed. It is found that as the mode frequency is pushed beyond the fundamental, the dominant Bloch component of the STW solution passes through the higher spatial harmonics. In these frequency regions, the lower harmonic components which contribute (perhaps weakly) to

  7. Theory of higher harmonics imaging in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Li; Jian-Qiang Qian; Ying-Zi Li

    2010-01-01

    The periodic impact force induced by tip-sample contact in a tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) gives rise to the non-harmonic response of a micro-cantilever. These non-harmonic signals contain the full characteristics of tip-sample interaction. A complete theoretical model describing the dynamical behaviour of tip-sample system was developed in this paper. An analytic formula was introduced to describe the relationship

  8. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; Yu, Che-Hang; Tai, Shih-Peng; Kung, Chun-Ta; Wang, I-Jong; Yu, Han-Chieh; Huang, Hsiang-Ju; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chan, Yi-Fan

    2007-09-01

    Elastin is an essential and widespread structural protein in charge of the integrity on tissues and organs. In this study, we demonstrate that elastin is a major origin of the third-harmonic-generation (THG) contrast under Cr:forsterite laser excitation operating at 1230nm, with selective visualization inside many tissues such as lung tissues and arteries. In vivo imaging of the nude mouse elastic cartilage beneath the hypodermis by epi- THG microscopy keeps the high resolution and contrast in all three dimensions. Combined with second-harmonic-generation microscopy, THG microscopy exhibits the ability to show the extraordinary proliferation of elastic fibers for the ophthalmic disease of pterygium and the capability of distinguishable visualization from collagen. PMID:19547471

  9. Continuous-wave operation of a frequency-tunable 460-GHz second-harmonic gyrotron for enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance

    E-print Network

    Torrezan de Sousa, Antonio Carlos

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic ...

  10. An experimental investigation of refraction-induced distortions in harmonic-light images of laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, C.; Montgomery, D.S.; Estabrook, K.; Drake, R.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (USA)); Busch, G.E.; Gabl, E.F. (KMS Fusion Inc., 3621 South State Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 (USA))

    1990-04-15

    In this paper the results of a simple experiment designed to study refraction-induced distortion of images of narrow-band-light-emitting regions in a laser-produced plasma are described. Source regions were formed by relaying the image of a backlit pinhole array into the plasma (25 {mu}m-diam. pinhole; 30-ps, 0.25-{mu}m backlighter beam). Images of these source regions were recorded on film and compared with and without plasma present. Refraction effects, evidenced by translation of the apparent pinhole locations and blurring of the pinhole spots, are compared for different plasma sizes and for different delays of the backlighter pulse with respect to the plasma-production laser pulse. These results were then compared with expectations based on numerical raytraces through a plasma-density profile derived from a hydrodynamic simulation of our exploding-foil plasma. The significance of these results in the imaging of harmonic and half-harmonic light as a plasma-density diagnostic is discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  11. Current status of tissue harmonic imaging in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-elastography in pancreatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Eizaburo; Kawashima, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Senju; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has high spatial and contrast resolution, and is thought to be one of the most reliable and efficient diagnostic modalities for pancreatobiliary diseases. Recent progress in EUS, especially in the development of the electronic scanning method, has enabled the application of several utilities and software of a high-end transabdominal ultrasound apparatus as an image-enhanced EUS. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) is a novel US acquisition method that provides better US images by using second harmonic signals. The potential advantages of THI are improved lateral resolution, reduced side lobe artifact and an increased signal-to-noise ratio. EUS-elastography is another novel technique that provides information about the distributed pattern of tissue hardness. Clinical benefits of EUS-elastography for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors and the evaluation of pancreatic fibrosis have been reported. It is necessary to develop a unified and objective method of imaging and analysis to increase the use of EUS-elastography in the future. PMID:25630752

  12. Frequency modulated infrared imaging for thermal characterization of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Lalat Indu; Tuli, Suneet

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents frequency modulated thermal wave imaging (FMTWI) as a fast and efficient non-contact technique for in-plane thermal characterization of thin plate nanomaterials. A novel excitation signal in the form of an up-chirp is applied and the thermal response is monitored using an infrared (IR) thermography based temperature sensing system. The in-plane thermal diffusivity of any sample can be measured using the multiple phase information extracted from a single run of the experiment. This feature provides a time efficient approach for thermal measurements using infrared thermography techniques. The theoretical background and experimental details of the technique are discussed, with practical measurement of thermal diffusivity of an empty anodic alumina (AAO) template in direction perpendicular to the nanochannel axis, in support.

  13. High-frequency transducers for medical ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snook, Kevin A.; Zhao, Jian-Zhong; Alves, Carlos H. F.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Chen, WoHsing; Meyer, Richard J., Jr.; Ritter, Timothy A.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2000-04-01

    A wide variety of fabrication techniques and materials produce ultrasound transducers with very different performance characteristics. High frequency (50 MHz), focused single element transducers using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber composite, lead titanate (PbTiO3) ceramic, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal are compared in design and performance. The transducers were all constructed with a 3 mm aperture and f- number of 2 - 3. Design considerations discussed include optimization of designs using different lens, backing and matching materials for acoustic matching and the use of several electrical tuning techniques to match the transducers to the 50(Omega) circuitry. Transducers were tested for insertion loss and -6dB bandwidth using a quartz flat- plate target. Insertion loss measurements between transducers were -20dB to -50dB with bandwidths in the range of 50 - 120%. Through the use of an ultrasound backscatter microscope (UBM), the transducer were compared using in vitro images of the human eye. Images of a wire phantom were also made for comparison of lateral and axial resolution of each device.

  14. Radio-frequency energy quantification in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alon, Leeor

    Mapping of radio frequency (RF) energy deposition has been challenging for 50+ years, especially, when scanning patients in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. As result, electromagnetic simulation software is often used for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR), the rate of RF energy deposition in tissue. The thesis work presents challenges associated with aligning information provided by electromagnetic simulation and MRI experiments. As result of the limitations of simulations, experimental methods for the quantification of SAR were established. A system for quantification of the total RF energy deposition was developed for parallel transmit MRI (a system that uses multiple antennas to excite and image the body). The system is capable of monitoring and predicting channel-by-channel RF energy deposition, whole body SAR and capable of tracking potential hardware failures that occur in the transmit chain and may cause the deposition of excessive energy into patients. Similarly, we demonstrated that local RF power deposition can be mapped and predicted for parallel transmit systems based on a series of MRI temperature mapping acquisitions. Resulting from the work, we developed tools for optimal reconstruction temperature maps from MRI acquisitions. The tools developed for temperature mapping paved the way for utilizing MRI as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of RF/microwave emitting device safety. Quantification of the RF energy was demonstrated for both MRI compatible and non-MRI-compatible devices (such as cell phones), while having the advantage of being noninvasive, of providing millimeter resolution and high accuracy.

  15. Is the Technically Limited Echocardiographic Study an Endangered Species? Endocardial Border Definition with Native Tissue Harmonic Imaging and Optison Contrast: A Review of 200 Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinay Malhotra; John Nwogu; Mary D. Bondmass; Maurice Bean; Teresa Bieniarz; Meg Tertell; Maureen Conliss; Stephen Devries

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to determine whether contrast adds diagnostic value to both fundamental and native tissue harmonic imaging (NTHI) for endocardial border definition. Methods: Two hundred consecutive patients who underwent stress echocardiography imaging were studied in either fundamental (n = 52) or NTHI mode (n = 148) with an Acuson Sequoia echocardiographic system. Contrast agent (Optison) was administered (0.5

  16. Harmonic Motion Imaging Applications in the Detection of Stiffer Masses E. E. Konofagou1,2

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Water f2 RF Amplifier 1 RF Amplifier 2 Frequency Generator 2 Band-pass Filter Amplifier Oscilloscope PC Computer Frequency Generator 1 f1 Water Water f2 RF Amplifier 1 RF Amplifier 2 Frequency Generator 2 Band at 100 mm and acquired RF signals of 5 ms in total duration (PRF =3.5 kHz) at 100 MHz sampling frequency

  17. Three-dimensional polarization second harmonic generation (3D-PSHG) imaging: the effect of the tilted-off the plane SHG active structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    Polarization sensitive second harmonic generation (PSHG) provides additional information in intensity only SHG imaging. In particular, it offers the SHG effective orientation of the implicated SHG active structures. Assuming that those structures possess cylindrical symmetry, the supplementary contrast is based on the ratio of two non-vanishing, independent elements of the ?2 tensor. This ratio is experimentally extracted by fitting pixel by pixel a theoretical model to the PSHG images and by finding the maximum frequency value or the mean of the consequent pixels' histogram. In the present study we show that the above ?2 elements' ratio critically depends on the tilted-off the plane SHG active structures. We performed PSHG in different z-planes of a starch granule (presenting radially oriented amylopectin molecules, the SHG source in starch) and we found different pick values of the ?2 elements' ratio histogram for each plane. By assuming a fixed value for the ?2 elements' ratio, we present here a generalized three dimensional (3D) model that determines the 3D orientation of the SHG active structures.

  18. Quantification of collagen fiber organization in biological tissues at cellular and molecular scales using second-harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambekar Ramachandra Rao, Raghu

    Collagen is the most abundant structural protein found in the human body, and is responsible for providing structure and function to tissues. Collagen molecules organize naturally into structures called fibers on the scale of the wavelength of light and lack inversion symmetry, thus allowing for the process of second harmonic generation (SHG) when exposed to intense incident light. We have developed two quantitative techniques: Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation (FT-SHG) imaging and generalized chi2 second-harmonic generation (chi2-SHG) imaging. In order to show that FT-SHG imaging can be used as a valuable diagnostic tool for real-world biological problems, we first investigate collagenase-induced injury in horse tendons. Clear differences in collagen fiber organization between normal and injured tendon are quantified. In particular, we observe that the regularly oriented organization of collagen fibers in normal tendons is disrupted in injured tendons leading to a more random organization. We also observe that FT-SHG microscopy is more sensitive in assessing tendon injury compared to the conventional polarized light microscopy. The second study includes quantifying collagen fibers in cortical bone using FT-SHG imaging and comparing it with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, as an example study, we show how FT-SHG imaging could be used to quantify changes in bone structure as a function of age. Some initial work and future directions for extending FT-SHG to 3D are also discussed. The second technique, chi2-SHG imaging, takes advantage of the coherent nature of SHG and utilizes polarization to extract the second-order susceptibility (d elements) which provides information on molecular organization, i.e., it provides access to sub-diffractional changes "optically". We use chi2-SHG in combination with FT-SHG imaging to investigate a couple of biological problems. First, we quantify differences in collagen fiber organization between cornea and sclera of the eye in order to investigate their properties of transparency and opacity, respectively. We find from chi2-SHG imaging that there is no statistical difference in the values of d elements between cornea and sclera, indicating that the underlying collagen structure generating SHG from the two is similar at the level of detection of SHG microscopy. However, the difference lies in the spatial organization of these collagen fibers as observed from FT-SHG imaging. We find that cornea contains lamellae with patches of ordered and uniform diameter collagen fibers with axial order, which could be the reason for its transparent behavior. Conversely, there are no lamellae in sclera (i.e., no axial order), and fibers are thicker, denser, have inconsistent diameters, and possess relatively inhomogeneous orientations, leading to its opaque nature. We also utilized the two techniques to assess differences in stromal collagen fibers for several human breast tissue conditions: normal, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and malignant. Using FT-SHG imaging, we note differences between malignant and other pathological conditions through the metric A.I. ratio. Using generalized chi2-SHG imaging, we observe structural changes in collagen at the molecular scale, and a particular d element showed a more sensitive differentiation between breast tissue conditions, except between hyperplasia and normal/dysplasia. We also find that the trigonal symmetry (3m) is a more appropriate model to describe collagen fibers in malignant tissues as opposed to the conventionally used hexagonal symmetry (C6). Furthermore, the percentage of abnormal collagen fibers could potentially be used as a metric for differentiating breast tissue conditions. We also introduce a technique for extending chi2-SHG to fibers with curvature which is useful for generating chi2-image maps (in terms of d elements) instead of the conventional SHG intensity images. The spatial variations in d elements will provide additional information. For example, in breast cancer tissues, it may help in observing how fibers chang

  19. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Karls, Joseph; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Vanderby, Ray; Sethares, William

    2014-07-01

    Modern ultrasound systems can output video images containing more spatial and temporal information than still images. Super-resolution techniques can exploit additional information but face two challenges: image registration and complex motion. In addition, information from multiple available frequencies is unexploited. Herein, we utilised these information sources to create better ultrasound images and videos, extending existing technologies for image capture. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution processing using multiple motion estimation and frequency combination was applied to ultrasound videos of deforming models. Processed images are larger, have greater clarity and detail, and less variability in intensity between frames. Significantly, strain measurements are more accurate and precise than those from raw videos, and have a higher contrast ratio between 'tumour' and 'surrounding tissue' in a phantom model. We attribute improvements to reduced noise and increased resolution in processed images. Our methods can significantly improve quantitative and qualitative assessments of ultrasound images when compared assessments of standard images. PMID:25191631

  20. Brillouin-zone integration schemes: an efficiency study for the phonon frequency moments of the harmonic, solid, one-component plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, R.C.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of four different Brillouin-zone integration schemes including the uniform mesh, special point method, special directions method, and Holas method are compared for calculating moments of the harmonic phonon frequencies of the solid one-component plasma. Very accurate values for the moments are also presented. The Holas method for which weights and integration points can easily be generated has roughly the same efficiency as the special directions method, which is much superior to the uniform mesh and special point methods for this problem.

  1. Linewidth of the harmonics in a microwave frequency comb generated by focusing a mode-locked ultrafast laser on a tunneling junction

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, Mark J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Stenger, Frank S. [School of Computing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Yarotski, Dmitry A. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    Previous analyses suggest that microwave frequency combs (MFCs) with harmonics having extremely narrow linewidths could be produced by photodetection with a mode-locked ultrafast laser. In the MFC generated by focusing a passively mode-locked ultrafast laser on a tunneling junction, 200 harmonics from 74.254?MHz to 14.85?GHz have reproducible measured linewidths approximating the 1?Hz resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the spectrum analyzer. However, in new measurements at a RBW of 0.1?Hz, the linewidths are distributed from 0.12 to 1.17?Hz. Measurements and analysis suggest that, because the laser is not stabilized, the stochastic drift in the pulse repetition rate is the cause for the distribution in measured linewidths. It appears that there are three cases in which the RBW is (1) greater than, (2) less than, or (3) comparable with the intrinsic linewidth. The measured spectra in the third class are stochastic and may show two or more peaks at a single harmonic.

  2. Linewidth of the harmonics in a microwave frequency comb generated by focusing a mode-locked ultrafast laser on a tunneling junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, Mark J.; Stenger, Frank S.; Yarotski, Dmitry A.

    2013-12-01

    Previous analyses suggest that microwave frequency combs (MFCs) with harmonics having extremely narrow linewidths could be produced by photodetection with a mode-locked ultrafast laser. In the MFC generated by focusing a passively mode-locked ultrafast laser on a tunneling junction, 200 harmonics from 74.254 MHz to 14.85 GHz have reproducible measured linewidths approximating the 1 Hz resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the spectrum analyzer. However, in new measurements at a RBW of 0.1 Hz, the linewidths are distributed from 0.12 to 1.17 Hz. Measurements and analysis suggest that, because the laser is not stabilized, the stochastic drift in the pulse repetition rate is the cause for the distribution in measured linewidths. It appears that there are three cases in which the RBW is (1) greater than, (2) less than, or (3) comparable with the intrinsic linewidth. The measured spectra in the third class are stochastic and may show two or more peaks at a single harmonic.

  3. Monitoring the effect of low-level laser therapy in healing process of skin with second harmonic generation imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoman; Yu, Biying; Weng, Cuncheng; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    The 632nm wavelength low intensity He-Ne laser was used to irradiated on 15 mice which had skin wound. The dynamic changes and wound healing processes were observed with nonlinear spectral imaging technology. We observed that:(1)The wound healing process was accelerated by the low-level laser therapy(LLLT);(2)The new tissues produced second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Collagen content and microstructure differed dramatically at different time pointed along the wound healing. Our observation shows that the low intensity He-Ne laser irradiation can accelerate the healing process of skin wound in mice, and SHG imaging technique can be used to observe wound healing process, which is useful for quantitative characterization of wound status during wound healing process.

  4. Analysis of a multi-frequency electromagnetic imaging functional for thin, crack-like electromagnetic inclusions

    E-print Network

    Won-Kwang Park

    2013-12-26

    Recently, a non-iterative multi-frequency subspace migration imaging algorithm was developed based on an asymptotic expansion formula for thin, curve-like electromagnetic inclusions and the structure of singular vectors in the Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix. The present study examines the structure of subspace migration imaging functional and proposes an improved imaging functional weighted by the frequency. We identify the relationship between the imaging functional and Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. Numerical examples for single and multiple inclusions show that the presented algorithm not only retains the advantages of the traditional imaging functional but also improves the imaging performance.

  5. Advanced Reservoir Imaging Using Frequency-Dependent Seismic Attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Hilterman; Tad Patzek; Gennady Goloshubin; Dmitriy Silin; Charlotte Sullivan; Valeri Korneev

    2007-12-31

    Our report concerning advanced imaging and interpretation technology includes the development of theory, the implementation of laboratory experiments and the verification of results using field data. We investigated a reflectivity model for porous fluid-saturated reservoirs and demonstrated that the frequency-dependent component of the reflection coefficient is asymptotically proportional to the reservoir fluid mobility. We also analyzed seismic data using different azimuths and offsets over physical models of fractures filled with air and water. By comparing our physical model synthetics to numerical data we have identified several diagnostic indicators for quantifying the fractures. Finally, we developed reflectivity transforms for predicting pore fluid and lithology using rock-property statistics from 500 reservoirs in both the shelf and deep-water Gulf of Mexico. With these transforms and seismic AVO gathers across the prospect and its down-dip water-equivalent reservoir, fluid saturation can be estimated without a calibration well that ties the seismic. Our research provides the important additional mechanisms to recognize, delineate, and validate new hydrocarbon reserves and assist in the development of producing fields.

  6. Co-registration of ultrasound and frequency-domain photoacoustic radar images and image improvement for tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the co-registration of ultrasound (US) and frequency domain photoacoustic radar (FD-PAR) images with significant image improvement from applying image normalization, filtering and amplification techniques. Achieving PA imaging functionality on a commercial Ultrasound instrument could accelerate clinical acceptance and use. Experimental results presented demonstrate live animal testing and show enhancements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast and spatial resolution. The co-registered image produced from the US and phase PA images, provides more information than both images independently.

  7. Regularized Quadrature Filters for Local Frequency Estimation: Application to Multimodal Volume Image Registration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jundong Liu

    2001-01-01

    Multimodal image registration is a fundamental problem in medical image analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to compute the local frequency representations of the multimodal data sets to be registered. Local frequency representa- tion can detect edge and ridge information simul- taneously. In this algorithm, we develop regular- ized quadrature filters (RQFs) to compute local fre- quency

  8. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John Ponticorvo Bernard Choi Anthony J. Durkin #12;Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John Quan Nguyen,a Christian Crouzet,a Tuan Mai,a Kathleen Riola

  9. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of

    E-print Network

    Choi, Bernard

    Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John://biomedicaloptics.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 07/15/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity John Quan Nguyen,a Christian Crouzet,a Tuan Mai,a Kathleen Riola

  10. Second Harmonic and Sum Frequency Generation Imaging of Fibrous Astroglial Filaments in Ex Vivo Spinal Tissues

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    in the central nervous system (CNS), astrocytes closely interact with neurons across the extracellular space deficiency have shown that astroglial filaments act as strong inhibitors of CNS regeneration (4). Because

  11. Off-axis digital holography: image reconstruction in case of Nyquist frequency excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenyuk, Konstantin A.; Grebenyuk, Anton A.; Ryabukho, Vladimir P.

    2012-03-01

    When recording holograms with a digital image sensor, the sampling theorem is to be fulfilled. This requirement limits possible values of the angle between the object and reference waves. However there is a theoretical possibility of reconstruction of finite-sized object image, even when spatial frequencies of hologram structure are above the Nyquist limit. In this paper such a possibility is experimentally verified and investigated by example of lensless Fourier transform digital holography. It is shown, that excess of the Nyquist frequency by spatial frequencies of the hologram structure does not necessarily lead to object image disappearance. However, it leads to gradual degradation of the object image.

  12. Off-axis digital holography: image reconstruction in case of Nyquist frequency excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenyuk, Konstantin A.; Grebenyuk, Anton A.; Ryabukho, Vladimir P.

    2011-10-01

    When recording holograms with a digital image sensor, the sampling theorem is to be fulfilled. This requirement limits possible values of the angle between the object and reference waves. However there is a theoretical possibility of reconstruction of finite-sized object image, even when spatial frequencies of hologram structure are above the Nyquist limit. In this paper such a possibility is experimentally verified and investigated by example of lensless Fourier transform digital holography. It is shown, that excess of the Nyquist frequency by spatial frequencies of the hologram structure does not necessarily lead to object image disappearance. However, it leads to gradual degradation of the object image.

  13. High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman, this frequency modulation results in an ampli- tude modulation of the CARS signal, I =I 1 -I 2 , that can, tightly fo- cused, and raster scanned pump and Stokes laser beams, whose difference frequency is rapidly

  14. Fabrication and modeling of piezoelectric transducers for High-Frequency medical imaging

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the properties of the transducer in particular its operating frequency, sensitivity and spatial resolutions [3 response. For high-frequency devices, the piezoelectric element should be a few tens of micrometers thickFabrication and modeling of piezoelectric transducers for High-Frequency medical imaging Andre

  15. 3D small animal imaging with high-frequency ultrasound (20 MHz) using limited-angle spatial compounding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Opretzka; M. Vogt; H. Ermert

    2008-01-01

    For ultrasound imaging of small animals often standard systems for human medicine or special high frequency ultrasound systems are used. The former are limited to frequencies below 15 MHz, and therefore their spatial resolution often is not sufficient. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging systems working at frequencies up to 40 MHz offer a rather high resolution, but high ultrasound frequencies and

  16. Multi-Frequency Synthesis of VLBI Images Using a Generalized Maximum Entropy Method

    E-print Network

    Anisa T. Bajkova

    2008-10-18

    A new multi-frequency synthesis algorithm for reconstructing images from multi-frequency VLBI data is proposed. The algorithm is based on a generalized maximum-entropy method, and makes it possible to derive an effective spectral correction for images over a broad frequency bandwidth, while simultaneously reconstructing the spectral-index distribution over the source. The results of numerical simulations demonstrating the capabilities of the algorithm are presented.

  17. High frequency nonlinear B-scan imaging of microbubble contrast agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Goertz; Emmanuel Cherin; Andrew Needles; Raffi Karshafian; Allison S. Brown; Peter N. Burns; F. Stuart Foster

    2005-01-01

    It was previously shown that it is possible to produce nonlinear scattering from microbubble contrast agents using transmit frequencies in the 14-32 MHz range, suggesting the possibility of performing high-frequency, nonlinear microbubble imaging. In this study, we describe the development of nonlinear microbubble B-scan imaging instrumentation capable of operating at transmit center frequencies between 10 and 50 MHz. The system

  18. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio C. Torrezan; Seong-Tae Han; Ivan Mastovsky; Michael A. Shapiro; Jagadishwar R. Sirigiri; Richard J. Temkin; Alexander B. Barnes; Robert G. Griffin

    2010-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11, 2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA

  19. Molecular structure, Normal Coordinate Analysis, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Natural Bond Orbital, TD-DFT calculations and biological activity analysis of antioxidant drug 7-hydroxycoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, S.; Sylvestre, S.; Jayarajan, D.; Amalanathan, M.; Oudayakumar, K.; Gnanapoongothai, T.; Jayavarthanan, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report harmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular structure, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Umbelliferone also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC). The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by computation (monomer and dimmer) shows good agreement with experimental XRD data. Harmonic frequencies of 7HC were determined and analyzed by DFT utilizing 6-311+G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). The change in electron density (ED) in the ?* and ?* antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies E(2) have been calculated by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen-bonded interaction. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincides with the experimental spectra. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis.

  20. Physics 116 Simple Harmonic Motion

    E-print Network

    Glashausser, Charles

    Physics 116 Simple Harmonic Motion Any Simple Harmonic Oscillator (SHO) has the following features Harmonic Motion (SHM). If the system is a SHO, then the following is true: MASS-SPRING system of the motion. Because of (3) above, we characterize SH oscillators based on their oscillation frequencies

  1. Imaging in electrically conductive porous media without frequency encoding.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Horn, J A; Walbrecker, J O

    2012-07-01

    Understanding multi-phase fluid flow and transport processes under various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions is a key feature in many remote monitoring applications, such as long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) or nuclear waste in geological formations. We propose a low-field NMR tomographic method to non-invasively image the water-content distribution in electrically conductive formations in relatively large-scale experiments (?1 m(3) sample volumes). Operating in the weak magnetic field of Earth entails low Larmor frequencies at which electromagnetic fields can penetrate electrically conductive material. The low signal strengths associated with NMR in Earth's field are enhanced by pre-polarization before signal recording. To localize the origin of the NMR signal in the sample region we do not employ magnetic field gradients, as is done in conventional NMR imaging, because they can be difficult to control in the large sample volumes that we are concerned with, and may be biased by magnetic materials in the sample. Instead, we utilize the spatially dependent inhomogeneity of fields generated by surface coils that are installed around the sample volume. This relatively simple setup makes the instrument inexpensive and mobile (it can be potentially installed in remote locations outside of a laboratory), while allowing spatial resolution of the order of 10 cm. We demonstrate the general feasibility of our approach in a simulated CO(2) injection experiment, where we locate and quantify the drop in water content following gas injection into a water-saturated cylindrical sample of 0.45 m radius and 0.9 m height. Our setup comprises four surface coils and an array consisting of three volume coils surrounding the sample. The proposed tomographic NMR methodology provides a more direct estimate of fluid content and properties than can be achieved with acoustic or electromagnetic methods alone. Therefore, we expect that our proposed method is relevant for geophysical applications, such as for monitoring CO(2) injections in saline aquifers or detecting water leakage into nuclear waste deposit sites installed in electrically conductive formations. PMID:22683582

  2. 2D harmonic filtering of MR phase images in multicenter clinical setting: toward a magnetic signature of cerebral microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Kaaouana, Takoua; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Samaille, Thomas; Thiery, Nathalie; Dufouil, Carole; Delmaire, Christine; Dormont, Didier; Chupin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have emerged as a new imaging marker of small vessel disease. Composed of hemosiderin, CMBs are paramagnetic and can be detected with MRI sequences sensitive to magnetic susceptibility (typically, gradient recalled echo T2* weighted images). Nevertheless, their identification remains challenging on T2* magnitude images because of confounding structures and lesions. In this context, T2* phase image may play a key role in better characterizing CMBs because of its direct relationship with local magnetic field variations due to magnetic susceptibility difference. To address this issue, susceptibility-based imaging techniques were proposed, such as Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM). But these techniques have not yet been validated for 2D clinical data in multicenter settings. Here, we introduce 2DHF, a fast 2D phase processing technique embedding both unwrapping and harmonic filtering designed for data acquired in 2D, even with slice-to-slice inconsistencies. This method results in internal field maps which reveal local field details due to magnetic inhomogeneity within the region of interest only. This technique is based on the physical properties of the induced magnetic field and should yield consistent results. A synthetic phantom was created for numerical simulations. It simulates paramagnetic and diamagnetic lesions within a 'brain-like' tissue, within a background. The method was evaluated on both this synthetic phantom and multicenter 2D datasets acquired in standardized clinical setting, and compared with two state-of-the-art methods. It proved to yield consistent results on synthetic images and to be applicable and robust on patient data. As a proof-of-concept, we finally illustrate that it is possible to find a magnetic signature of CMBs and CMCs on internal field maps generated with 2DHF on 2D clinical datasets that give consistent results with CT-scans in a subsample of 10 subjects acquired with both modalities. PMID:25149849

  3. Multi-view second-harmonic generation imaging of mouse tail tendon via reflective micro-prisms.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R; Cox, Benjamin L; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Superfine, Richard; Campagnola, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Here we experimentally show that second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is not sensitive to collagen fibers oriented parallel to the direction of laser propagation and, as a consequence, can potentially miss important structural information. As an alternative approach, we demonstrate the use of reflective micro-prisms to enable multi-view SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon by redirecting the focused excitation and collection of subsequent emission. Our approach data corroborates the theoretical treatment on vanishing and nonvanishing orientations, where fibers along the laser direction are largely transparent by SHG. In strong contrast, the two-photon excited fluorescence of dye-labeled collagen fibers is isotropic and is not subject to this constraint. We utilized Pearson correlation to quantify differences in fluorescent and backward detected SHG images of the tendon fiber structure, where the SHG and TPEF were highly statistically correlated (0.6-0.8) for perpendicular excitation but were uncorrelated for excitation parallel to the fiber axis. The results suggest that improved imaging of 3D collagen structure is possible with multi-view SHG microscopy. PMID:26125402

  4. Influence of Non-Linear Image Processing on Spatial Frequency Response of Digital Still Cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukio Okano

    1998-01-01

    The spatial frequency response (SFR) for a digital still camera is affected by non-linear image processing. We analyze the influence of image enhancement processing and gamma correction on SFR characteristics by varying the edge chart contrast. SFR expressions depending on the chart image contrast are proposed, as is a measurement method of resolving power based on the slanted edge.

  5. Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. O'Leary; D. A. Boas; B. Chance; A. G. Yodh

    We present images of heterogeneous turbid media derived from measurements of diffuse photon-density waves traveling through highly scattering tissue phantoms. To our knowledge, the images are the first experimental reconstruction based on data collected in the frequency domain. We demonstrate images of both absorbing and scattering heterogeneities and show that this method is sensitive to the optical properties of the

  6. Imaging of Focal Contacts of Chicken Heart Muscle Cells by High-Frequency Acoustic Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eike C. Weiss; Robert M. Lemor; Götz Pilarczyk; Pavlos Anastasiadis; Pavel V. Zinin

    2007-01-01

    A study of the adhesion of embryonic chicken heart muscle cells was conducted with a newly developed time-resolved acoustic microscope, which operates in the GHz-frequency range. The interpretation of the acoustical images of the heart muscle cells was done in combination with the fluorescence optical microscopy. A comparison between the acoustical images of chicken heart muscle cells and optical images

  7. Second-harmonic generation imaging of semiconductor nanowires with focused vector beams.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Godofredo; Mäkitalo, Jouni; Chen, Ya; Dhaka, Veer; Grasso, Marco; Karvonen, Lasse; Jiang, Hua; Huttunen, Mikko J; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Kauranen, Martti

    2015-03-11

    We use second-harmonic generation (SHG) with focused vector beams to investigate individual vertically aligned GaAs nanowires. Our results provide direct evidence that SHG from oriented nanowires is mainly driven by the longitudinal field along the nanowire growth axis. Consequently, focused radial polarization provides a superior tool to characterize such nanowires compared to linear polarization, also allowing this possibility in the native growth environment. We model our experiments by describing the SHG process for zinc-blende structure and dipolar bulk nonlinearity. PMID:25651302

  8. Robust Nonrigid Multimodal Image Registration Using Local Frequency Maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Jian; Baba C. Vemuri; José L. Marroquín

    2005-01-01

    Automatic multi-modal image registration is central to numerous tasks in medical imag- ing today and has a vast range of applications e.g., image guidance, atlas construction, etc. In this paper, we present a novel multi-modal 3D non-rigid registration algorithm where in 3D images to be registered are represented by their corresponding local fre- quency maps efficiently computed using the Riesz

  9. Imaging interferometric microscopy: Resolution to the limit of frequency space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuliya Kuznetsova

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an increase of resolution over conventional microscopy configuration optical system using imaging interferometric microscopy (IIM), which is related to holography, synthetic aperture imaging and off-axis\\/dark-field illumination techniques. This involves both off-axis coherent illumination and re-injection of appropriate zero-order reference beams onto the image plane for image formation. First, in this dissertation, a simple case of IIM is presented

  10. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-12-01

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging.

  11. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-01-01

    The work presented herein describes system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens microPET/CT commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 ?M IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. 3-D mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate FDPM approach. Finally, PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The results obtained validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging. PMID:23171509

  12. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Darne, Chinmay D; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C; Smith, Anne M; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-12-21

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and ??Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP?) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging. PMID:23171509

  13. Motion compensated frequency modulated continuous wave 3D coherent imaging ladar with scannerless architecture.

    PubMed

    Krause, Brian W; Tiemann, Bruce G; Gatt, Philip

    2012-12-20

    A principal difficulty of long dwell coherent imaging ladar is its extreme sensitivity to target or platform motion. This paper describes a motion compensated frequency modulated continuous wave 3D coherent imaging ladar method that overcomes this motion sensitivity, making it possible to work with nonstatic targets such as human faces, as well as imaging of targets through refractive turbulence. Key features of this method include scannerless imaging and high range resolution. The reduced motion sensitivity is shown with mathematical analysis and demonstration 3D images. Images of static and dynamic targets are provided demonstrating up to 600×800 pixel imaging with millimeter range resolution. PMID:23262614

  14. Linking high harmonics from gases and solids.

    PubMed

    Vampa, G; Hammond, T J; Thiré, N; Schmidt, B E; Légaré, F; McDonald, C R; Brabec, T; Corkum, P B

    2015-06-25

    When intense light interacts with an atomic gas, recollision between an ionizing electron and its parent ion creates high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser frequency. This sub-cycle effect generates coherent soft X-rays and attosecond pulses, and provides a means to image molecular orbitals. Recently, high harmonics have been generated from bulk crystals, but what mechanism dominates the emission remains uncertain. To resolve this issue, we adapt measurement methods from gas-phase research to solid zinc oxide driven by mid-infrared laser fields of 0.25 volts per ångström. We find that when we alter the generation process with a second-harmonic beam, the modified harmonic spectrum bears the signature of a generalized recollision between an electron and its associated hole. In addition, we find that solid-state high harmonics are perturbed by fields so weak that they are present in conventional electronic circuits, thus opening a route to integrate electronics with attosecond and high-harmonic technology. Future experiments will permit the band structure of a solid to be tomographically reconstructed. PMID:26108855

  15. The Classical Harmonic Vibrations of the Atomic Centers of Mass with Micro Amplitudes and Low Frequencies Monitored by the Entanglement between the Two Two-level Atoms in a Single mode Cavity

    E-print Network

    Yong-Yi Huang

    2013-12-08

    We study the entanglement dynamics of the two two-level atoms coupling with a single-mode polarized cavity field after incorporating the atomic centers of mass classical harmonic vibrations with micro amplitudes and low frequencies. We propose a quantitative vibrant factor to modify the concurrence of the two atoms states. When the vibrant frequencies are very low, we obtain that: (i) the factor depends on the relative vibrant displacements and the initial phases rather than the absolute amplitudes, and reduces the concurrence to three orders of magnitude; (ii) the concurrence increases with the increase of the initial phases; (iii) the frequency of the harmonic vibration can be obtained by measuring the maximal value of the concurrence during a small time. These results indicate that even the extremely weak classical harmonic vibrations can be monitored by the entanglement of quantum states.

  16. Time domain simulation of harmonic ultrasound images and beam patterns in 3D using the k-space pseudospectral method.

    PubMed

    Treeby, Bradley E; Tumen, Mustafa; Cox, B T

    2011-01-01

    A k-space pseudospectral model is developed for the fast full-wave simulation of nonlinear ultrasound propagation through heterogeneous media. The model uses a novel equation of state to account for nonlinearity in addition to power law absorption. The spectral calculation of the spatial gradients enables a significant reduction in the number of required grid nodes compared to finite difference methods. The model is parallelized using a graphical processing unit (GPU) which allows the simulation of individual ultrasound scan lines using a 256 x 256 x 128 voxel grid in less than five minutes. Several numerical examples are given, including the simulation of harmonic ultrasound images and beam patterns using a linear phased array transducer. PMID:22003638

  17. Second harmonic imaging of plants tissues and cell implosion using two-photon process in ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Ben E; Neogi, Purnima B; Butler, Sween J; Fujita, Yasuhisa; Neogi, Arup

    2012-03-01

    The optical properties of colloidal ZnO nanoparticle (NP) solutions, with size ranging from several nm to around 200 nm, have been tailored to have high optical nonlinearity for bioimaging with no auto-fluorescence above 750 nm and minimal auto-fluorescence below 750 nm. The high second harmonic conversion efficiency enables selective tissue imaging and cell tracking using tunable near-infrared femtosecond laser source ranging from 750-980 nm. For laser energies exceeding the two-photon energy of the bandgap of ZnO (half of 3.34 eV), the SHG signal greatly decreases and the two-photon emission becomes the dominant signal. The heat generated due to two-photon absorption within the ZnO NPs enable selective cell or localized tissue destruction using excitation wavelength ranging from 710-750 nm. PMID:22045551

  18. Direct Observation of Anisotropic Carrier Transport in Organic Semiconductor by Time-Resolved Microscopic Optical Second-Harmonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaka, Takaaki; Matsubara, Kohei; Abe, Kentaro; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2013-10-01

    In-plane anisotropic carrier transport in single-crystalline grains of the dip-coated 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene film is studied by using the time-resolved microscopic optical second-harmonic generation (TRM-SHG). The TRM-SHG imaging directly visualizes the directional dependence of the carrier velocity, indicating the anisotropic carrier mobility of the TIPS pentacene single crystal. Results showed that the mobility anisotropy is smaller than that obtained from the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Overestimation of the mobility anisotropy using the I-V characteristics, compared with that obtained from the TRM-SHG measurement, is ascribed to the effect of the grain boundary on the carrier transport.

  19. Coupling CARS with multiphoton fluorescence and high harmonic generation imaging modalities using a femtosecond laser source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongtao Chen; Mikhail N. Slipchenko; Jiabin Zhu; Kimberly K. Buhman; Ji-Xin Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging has opened new opportunities and becomes a powerful tool for imaging complex tissue samples with inherent 3D spatial resolution.. We present a robust and easy-to-operate approach to add the coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging modality to a widely used multiphoton microscope. The laser source composed of a Mai Tai femtosecond laser and an optical parametric

  20. Investigation of Photonic Devices using Second-Harmonic-Generation Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (SHG-FROG)

    E-print Network

    Washburn, Brian

    Gating (SHG-FROG) Brian R. Washburn The heart of an experiment in ultrafast optics is the pulsed laser be used to determine the pulse duration. Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) is a technique autocorrelation. Plus, due to the overdetermination of the pulse in the time- frequency domain, FROG has built

  1. Diagnostic potential of multimodal imaging of ovarian tissue using optical coherence tomography and second-harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Welge, Weston A.; DeMarco, Andrew T.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini S.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is usually diagnosed after it has metastasized. We have previously identified features of ovarian cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy (targeting collagen). OCT provides an image of the ovarian microstructure while SHG provides a high-resolution map of collagen fiber bundle arrangement. Here we investigated the diagnostic potential of dual-modality OCT and SHG imaging. We conducted a fully crossed, multi-reader, multi-case study using seven human observers. Each observer classified 44 ex vivo mouse ovaries (16 normal and 28 abnormal) as normal or abnormal from OCT, SHG, and simultaneously viewed, co-registered OCT and SHG images and provided a confidence rating on a six-point scale. We determined the average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the ROC curves (AUC), and other quantitative figures of merit. The results show that OCT has diagnostic potential with an average AUC of 0.91 ± 0.06. The average AUC for SHG was less promising at 0.71 ± 0.13. The average AUC for simultaneous OCT and SHG was not significantly different from OCT alone, possibly due to the limited SHG field of view. The high performance of OCT and co-registered OCT and SHG warrants further investigation. PMID:25798444

  2. Optical second-harmonic imaging of Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scheidt, T.; Rohwer, E.G.; Bergmann, H.M. von; Saucedo, E.; Dieguez, E.; Fornaro, L.; Stafast, H. [Laser Research Institute, Physics Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag XI, Maticland 7602 (South Africa); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Grupo de Semiconductores Compuestos, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo 11800 (Uruguay); Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie (IPHT), P.O. Box 100239, 07702 Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-15

    We employ femtosecond laser pulses (80 fs, 1.59 eV, and 80 MHz) to study the optical second-harmonic (SH) response of Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te ternary alloys (x about 0.2) grown by the vertical Bridgman method. The alloy segregates into a Pb-rich and a Cd-rich phase, the latter dominating the SH response of the ternary alloy by at least two orders of magnitude. Several sample regions show a regular layer-by-layer accommodation of the Pb-rich and Cd-rich phases as seen by a periodic alternation of the alloy's SH response on a {approx}10-{mu}m length scale. Furthermore, we employ polarization-resolved SH imaging as well as SH imaging at different azimuthal angles to obtain spatially resolved mappings of the sample, which are sensitive to the composition as well as the growth orientation of the Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te material system. We observe an azimuthal phase shift of approximately 30 deg. between coherent macroscopic regions (several mm{sup 2}) in the Cd-rich phase of the ternary alloy. We interpret these regions as large area crystalline grains of (111) and (411) crystal orientations and approximately equal composition. Hence, SH imaging is shown to spatially resolve regions of different growth directions within the Pb{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}Te sample.

  3. Imaging the grain boundaries in polycrystalline MoS2 monolayer by non-invasive second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jinxin; Jiang, Tao; Ji, Qingqing; Zhang, Yanfeng; Gong, Xingao; Liu, Wei-Tao; Wu, Shiwei

    2015-03-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers have showed intriguing physical properties for high performance quantum electronics. In order to utilize them in technological applications at industrial scale, mass production of this two dimensional materials via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is demanded and urged. Despite the success of growing large-scale monolayer, limited grain size and emergence of grain boundary remain as the major hurdle being single crystalline sheets. To resolve this issue, it is necessary to image the grain and grain boundary, and further understand their formation with statistical significance. Here we used second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, a noninvasive coherent imaging technique, to image the grain and grain boundary in CVD grown monolayer molybdenum disulfide. The destructive interference between neighboring grains enabled us to pinpoint the location of grain boundary; the anisotropic polarization pattern permitted us to determine the type of grain boundary. Furthermore, this high-throughput characterization technique allows statistical analysis of hundreds of grain and grain boundary, unambiguously revealing that the CVD growth mechanism of monolayer MoS2.

  4. Optical interference-based image encryption using circular harmonic expansion and spherical illumination in gyrator transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a new optical interference-based encryption method using off-axis circular harmonic component (CHC) expansion and iterative phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform (GT) domain is proposed. Off-axis CHC expansion is employed to divide the inverse GT spectrum of primitive image into two parts: the zero-order CHC and the sum of the other CHCs. The sum term of CHCs is further encrypted into a complex image whose amplitude constraint is devised to be the amplitude of zero-order CHC by the iterative retrieval GT algorithm. The amplitude part of CHC is the final ciphertext which has rotation-symmetric distribution. Three phase-only keys, the main keys of this proposal, are also calculated during the digital encryption process. To recover the primitive image correctly, two identical ciphertexts placed in the two interference branch should be illuminated by two spherical waves with required parameters (wavelength and radius). Moreover, rotational center of ciphertexts must be placed in a predefined position, which is off the optical axis. The transform angles of GTs, the propagation parameters of spherical waves and the relative position of rotational center of ciphertext are sensitive additional keys for correct retrieval. Numerical simulation tests have been carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. Theory of high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse emission by a low-frequency elliptically polarized laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkov, V. V. [General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation) and Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux I, Talence (France)

    2006-07-15

    We present a quantum-mechanical theory of xuv generation by an elliptically polarized intense laser field. Our approach is valid when the Keldysh parameter {gamma} is about unity or less, and the driving ellipticity is less than {radical}(2){gamma}. After the photoionization the motion of the electronic wave packet along the major axis of the driving field polarization ellipse is described quasiclassically, whereas the motion in the transverse direction is considered fully quantum mechanically; we also find the condition that allows the reduction of the motion description to a quantum orbit in the polarization plane of the laser field. We use the ionization rate calculated via numerical solution of the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation (TDSE), and take into account the Coulomb modification of the free electronic wave packet. The predictions of our theory for xuv emission agree well with numerical and experimental results. We study the high harmonic intensities and phases as functions of the driving intensity and ellipticity, and also the ellipticity and the rotation angle of the harmonic field polarization ellipse as functions of the driving ellipticity. The atomic response is decomposed into the contributions of different quantum paths. This allows finding a straightforward explanation for the observed dependencies.

  6. Multi-frequency imaging of perfectly conducting cracks via boundary measurements

    E-print Network

    Won-Kwang Park; Dominique Lesselier

    2012-07-07

    Imaging of perfectly conducting crack(s) in a 2-D homogeneous medium using boundary data is studied. Based on the singular structure of the Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix whose elements are normalized by an adequate test function at several frequencies, an imaging functional is introduced and analyzed. A non-iterative imaging procedure is proposed. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data show that acceptable images of single and multiple cracks are obtained.

  7. Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongkyun Kang; Melissa J. Suter; Caroline Boudoux; Patrick S. Yachimski; Brett E. Bouma; Norman S. Nishioka; Guillermo J. Tearney

    2009-01-01

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) are two reflectancebased imaging technologies that may be utilized for high-resolution microscopic screening of internal organs. SECM provides en face images of tissues with a high lateral resolution of 1-2 mum, and a penetration depth of up to 300 mum. OFDI generates cross-sectional images of tissue architecture with a

  8. Evaluation of influences of frequency and amplitude on image degradation caused by satellite vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Yi-Bing; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Li-Jun; Zheng, Cheng; Wang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Satellite vibrations during exposure will lead to pixel aliasing of remote sensors, resulting in the deterioration of image quality. In this paper, we expose the problem and discuss the characteristics of satellite vibrations, and then present a pixel mixing model. The idea of mean mixing ratio (MMR) is proposed. MMR computations for different frequencies are implemented. In the mixing model, a coefficient matrix is introduced to estimate each mixed pixel. Thus, the simulation of degraded image can be performed when the vibration attitudes are known. The computation of MMR takes into consideration the influences of various frequencies and amplitudes. Therefore, the roles of these parameters played in the degradation progress are identified. Computations show that under the same vibration amplitude, the influence of vibrations fluctuates with the variation of frequency. The fluctuation becomes smaller as the frequency rises. Two kinds of vibration imaging experiments are performed: different amplitudes with the same frequency and different frequencies with the same amplitude. Results are found to be in very good agreement with the theoretical results. MMR has a better description of image quality than modulation transfer function (MTF). The influence of vibrations is determined mainly by the amplitude rather than the frequency. The influence of vibrations on image quality becomes gradually stable with the increase of frequency. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB329202) and the Basic Industrial Technology Project of China (Grant No. J312012B002).

  9. Stabilized atomic force microscopy imaging in liquids using second harmonic of cantilever motion for setpoint control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Schiener; Susanne Witt; Martin Stark; Reinhard Guckenberger

    2004-01-01

    We present an automated stabilization of the imaging process in tapping mode atomic force microscopy. For biological applications, the requirement of stable imaging conditions to achieve reliable high resolution is contradicted by the necessity to work in solution to ensure biological functionality: thermal and saline variations of the viscosity, in particular when exchanging the solution the sample is surrounded with,

  10. A high-frequency, high frame rate duplex ultrasound linear array imaging system for small animal imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lequan Zhang; Xiaochen Xu; Changhong Hu; Lei Sun; Jesse Yen; Jonathan Cannata; K. K. Shung

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency (HF) ultrasound imaging has been shown to be useful for non-invasively imaging anatomical structures of the eye and small animals in biological and pharmaceutical research, achieving superior spatial resolution. Cardiovascular research utilizing mice requires not only realtime B-scan imaging, but also ultrasound Doppler to evaluate both anatomy and blood flow of the mouse heart. This paper reports the development

  11. Millimeter-wave imaging with frequency scanning antenna and optical arrayed waveguide gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuntao; Yu, Guoxin; Fu, Xinyu; Jiang, Yuesong

    2012-12-01

    The principle of a novel passive millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging method using frequency scanning antenna (FSA) and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is analyzed theoretically. The imaging processes are divided to three stages and discussed respectively. Then the FSA with 33~ 43GHz frequency scanning range is designed carefully with a field of view of +/-25°for the MMW imaging system. An AWG of 1×24 is then simply designed with a channel spacing of 0.5GHz. The designing and simulating demonstrated the feasibility to build such an imaging system which is progressing.

  12. Scaling factors for fundamental vibrational frequencies and zero-point energies obtained from HF, MP2, and DFT\\/DZP and TZP harmonic frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Andrade; Luísa C. S. Gonçalves; F. E. Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Recently, segmented contracted basis sets of double, triple, and quadruple zeta valence quality plus polarization functions (XZP, X=D, T, and Q) for the atoms from H to Ar were presented by Jorge et al. Scaling factors for the fundamental vibrational frequencies, low-frequency vibrations, and zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) evaluated at 14 levels of theory are reported. The ab initio Hartree–Fock

  13. Graphene for radio frequency electronics and infrared thermal imaging

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Allen Long

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is two-fold: The first is to develop a reliable processing technology for CVD graphene devices for applications in graphene circuits, i.e. mixers, frequency multipliers and phase key shifters. The ...

  14. Even harmonic lasing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of a free-electron laser at harmonics of the fundamental frequency is explored with the numerical simulation code HELEX. This code includes coupling to the harmonics caused by misalignment of the electrons with the optical beam and coupling due to transverse gradients. Albeit weak, the transverse gradients produce the dominant coupling of the electrons to the even-harmonic light. Even-harmonic lasing occurs in a TEM{sub 0,2m+1}-like mode where the field on axis is zero. As bunching of the electron beam progresses, radiation at the higher odd harmonics is suppressed owing to the absence of higher-order odd-harmonic Fourier components in the bunch. Growth of the even-harmonic power from small signal requires suppression of competing harmonics (including the fundamental) that have higher gain. Lasing at an even harmonic has yet to be experimentally demonstrated in an open resonator (i.e. optical cavity). Strategies to make such an experiment possible are discussed. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jessie R.; Cuccia, David J.; Johnson, William R.; Bearman, Gregory H.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Hsu, Mike; Lin, Alexander; Binder, Devin K.; Wilson, Dan; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach for rapidly and quantitatively mapping tissue absorption and scattering spectra in a wide-field, noncontact imaging geometry by combining multifrequency spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) with a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). SFDI overcomes the need to spatially scan a source, and is based on the projection and analysis of periodic structured illumination patterns. CTIS provides a throughput advantage by simultaneously diffracting multiple spectral images onto a single CCD chip to gather spectra at every pixel of the image, thus providing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot. The spatial-spectral data set was acquired 30 times faster than with our wavelength-scanning liquid crystal tunable filter camera, even though it is not yet optimized for speed. Here we demonstrate that the combined SFDI-CTIS is capable of rapid, multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering in a noncontact, nonscanning platform. The combined system was validated for 36 wavelengths between 650–1000 nm in tissue simulating phantoms over a range of tissue-like absorption and scattering properties. The average percent error for the range of absorption coefficients (?a) was less than 10% from 650–800 nm, and less than 20% from 800–1000 nm. The average percent error in reduced scattering coefficients (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\mu_{\\rm s}^{\\prime}\\end{equation*} \\end{document}?s?) was less than 5% from 650–700 nm and less than 3% from 700–1000 nm. The SFDI-CTIS platform was applied to a mouse model of brain injury in order to demonstrate the utility of this approach in characterizing spatially and spectrally varying tissue optical properties. PMID:21280902

  16. Image Encryption Using Differential Evolution Approach in Frequency Domain

    E-print Network

    Hassan, Maaly Awad S; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2105

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new effective method for image encryption which employs magnitude and phase manipulation using Differential Evolution (DE) approach. The novelty of this work lies in deploying the concept of keyed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) followed by DE operations for encryption purpose. To this end, a secret key is shared between both encryption and decryption sides. Firstly two dimensional (2-D) keyed discrete Fourier transform is carried out on the original image to be encrypted. Secondly crossover is performed between two components of the encrypted image, which are selected based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) index generator. Similarly, keyed mutation is performed on the real parts of a certain components selected based on LFSR index generator. The LFSR index generator initializes it seed with the shared secret key to ensure the security of the resulting indices. The process shuffles the positions of image pixels. A new image encryption scheme based on the DE approach is developed...

  17. Combined nonlinear laser imaging (two-photon excitation fluorescence, second and third-harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopies) in ovarian tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, J.; Pelegati, V. B.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Bottcher-Luiz, F.; Andrade, L. A. L. A.; Almeida, D. B.; Carvalho, H. F.; Cesar, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    We applied Two-photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF), Second/Third Harmonic Generation (SHG and THG) and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) Non Linear Optics (NLO) Laser-Scanning Microscopy within the same imaging platform to evaluate their use as a diagnostic tool in ovarian tumors. We assess of applicability of this multimodal approach to perform a pathological evaluation of serous and mucinous tumors in human samples. The combination of TPEF-SHG-THG imaging provided complementary information about the interface epithelium/stromal, such as the transformation of epithelium surface (THG) and the overall fibrillar tissue architecture (SHG). The fact that H&E staining is the standard method used in clinical pathology and that the stored samples are usually fixed makes it important a re-evaluation of these samples with NLO microscopy to compare new results with a library of already existing samples. FLIM, however, depends on the chemical environment around the fluorophors that was completely changed after fixation; therefore it only makes sense in unstained samples. Our FLIM results in unstained samples demonstrate that it is possible to discriminate healthy epithelia from serous or mucinous epithelia. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the different imaging modalities used showed that multimodal nonlinear microscopy has the potential to differentiate between cancerous and healthy ovarian tissue.

  18. Electrostatic velocity-space instabilities stimulated near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Data are presented on observations made in the ionospheric plasma that provide evidence for the stimulation of Harris type instabilities at nf sub H in a single electron transition. An illustration is also given of the change in shape of the dispersion curve for a given nf sub H as the upper hybrid frequency crosses the nf sub H value. It was concluded that the instability can exist near nf sub H only when the hybrid frequency nf sub H.

  19. Three-dimensional simulations of harmonic radiation and harmonic lasing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, M.J.; McVey, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the harmonic emission from free-electron lasers (FELs) are examined in the spontaneous, coherent-spontaneous and stimulated emission regimes. The radiation at both odd and even harmonic frequencies is treated for electron beams with finite emittance and energy spread. In the spontaneous emission regime, the transverse radiation patterns including the transverse frequency dependences, are given. How this expression is modified to include energy spread and emittance is described. In the coherent-spontaneous emission and stimulated emission regimes, the interaction of the radiation fields with the electrons must be treated self-consistently. Here, a single-frequency distributed transverse source function for each electron is used in the harmonic version of the 3-D code FELEX to model the harmonic radiation. The code has recently been modified to simultaneously model the fundamental and harmonic interactions for multiple-pass oscillator simulations. These modifications facilitate the examination of FELs under various operating conditions. When the FEL is lasing at the fundamental, the evolution of the harmonic fields can be examined. This evolution is unique in the sense that the electron beam radiates at the harmonic frequencies in the presence of the harmonic radiation circulating in the cavity. As a result, enhancements of the harmonic emission can be observed. Finally, harmonic lasing can occur in cases where there is sufficient gain to overcome cavity losses and lasing at the fundamental can be suppressed. The characteristics and efficiency of these interactions are explored. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Nanoscale Subsurface Imaging via Resonant Difference-Frequency Atomic Force Ultrasonic Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, Sean A.; Cantrell, John H.; Lilehei, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    A novel scanning probe microscope methodology has been developed that employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by the fundamental resonance frequency of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever fundamental resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of embedded nanoscale features.

  1. Simultaneous sum-frequency and vibro-acoustography imaging for nondestructive evaluation and testing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F. G.; Silva, G. T.; Greenleaf, J. F.; Fatemi, M. [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Instituto Nacional de Matematica Pura e Aplicada-IMPA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22460-320 (Brazil); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution ultrasound imaging systems for inspection of defects and flaws in materials are of great demand in many industries. Among these systems, Vibro-acoustography (VA) has shown excellent capabilities as a noncontact method for nondestructive high-resolution imaging applications. This method consists of mixing two confocal ultrasound beams, slightly shifted in frequency, to produce a dynamic (oscillatory) radiation force in the region of their intersection. This force vibrates the object placed at the focus of the confocal transducer. As a result of the applied force, an acoustic emission field at the difference frequency of the primary incident ultrasound beams is produced. In addition to the difference frequency acoustic emission signal, there exists another signal at the sum frequency, formed in the intersection region of the two primary beams. The goal of this study is to investigate the formation of high-resolution images using the sum frequency of ultrasound waves in VA while concurrently forming the conventional difference-frequency VA image, thereby increasing the amount of information acquired during a single scan. A theoretical model describing the sum-frequency wave propagation, including beam forming and image formation in the confocal configuration, is developed and verified experimentally. Moreover, sample experiments are performed on a flawed fiber-reinforced ceramic composite plate. Images at both the difference and sum frequencies are compared and discussed. Results show that the sum-frequency image produces a high-resolution C scan of the plate by which the flaws and structural details of the plate can be detected.

  2. The response of phospholipid-encapsulated microbubbles to chirp-coded excitation: Implications for high-frequency nonlinear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Himanshu; Doyley, Marvin M.

    2013-01-01

    The current excitation strategy for harmonic and subharmonic imaging (HI and SHI) uses short sine-bursts. However, alternate pulsing strategies may be useful for enhancing nonlinear emissions from ultrasound contrast agents. The goal of this study was to corroborate the hypothesis that chirp-coded excitation can improve the performance of high-frequency HI and SHI. A secondary goal was to understand the mechanisms that govern the response of ultrasound contrast agents to chirp-coded and sine-burst excitation schemes. Numerical simulations and acoustic measurements were conducted to evaluate the response of a commercial contrast agent (Targestar-P®) to chirp-coded and sine-burst excitation (10?MHz frequency, peak pressures 290 kPa). The results of the acoustic measurements revealed an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by 4 to 14?dB, and a two- to threefold reduction in the subharmonic threshold with chirp-coded excitation. Simulations conducted with the Marmottant model suggest that an increase in expansion-dominated radial excursion of microbubbles was the mechanism responsible for the stronger nonlinear response. Additionally, chirp-coded excitation detected the nonlinear response for a wider range of agent concentrations than sine-bursts. Therefore, chirp-coded excitation could be a viable approach for enhancing the performance of HI and SHI. PMID:23654417

  3. In Vivo Imaging of Myelin in the Vertebrate Central Nervous System Using Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Chris B.

    )) and positron emission tomography (7­9), but at resolutions of ~200 mm and ~1 mm, respectively, these modalities-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has enabled imaging of myelinated fibers without labeling in live

  4. Frequency response and directivity of highly sensitive optical microresonator detectors for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenheim, James A.; Li, Jing; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.

    2015-03-01

    Plano-convex optical microresonator detectors have been developed as an alternative to planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) sensors used in all-optical photoacoustic imaging systems with the potential to provide two or more orders-of-magnitude higher detection sensitivity. This study further characterises the performance of these detectors by investigating their normal incidence frequency response and frequency-dependent directivity. It is shown that sensors with thicknesses in the range ~50-320?m provide broadband, smooth frequency response characteristics and low directional sensitivity. This suggests that a photoacoustic imaging system based on microresonator detectors may be capable of imaging with similar performance to the FP system but with significantly higher sensitivity, paving the way to deep tissue imaging applications such as the clinical assessment of breast cancer and preclinical whole body small animal imaging.

  5. Determining Electromagnetic Energy Loss Through a Radio-Frequency Transmission Line by Infrared Thermal Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atef Alnukari; Philippe Guillemet; Yves Scudeller; Serge Toutain

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for measuring local electromagnetic energy loss through a transmission line by infra- red thermal imaging. The technique offers an attractive route to investigate solid-state radio-frequency (RF) structures with differ- ent sizes and an arbitrary layout of lines by achieving an electro- magnetic energy mapping over a wide frequency range between 300 MHz and 6 GHz.

  6. High-frequency acoustic imaging with focused transducer for rapid micro echography of interfaces

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the ultrasound source and the object, an acoustic lens focusing. Such diopter is achieved using two materialsHigh-frequency acoustic imaging with focused transducer for rapid micro echography of interfaces of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 3343 #12;The high frequency micro acoustic

  7. Use of low frequencies for sub-basalt imaging Anton Ziolkowski,1

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Use of low frequencies for sub-basalt imaging Anton Ziolkowski,1 * Peter Hanssen,2 Robert Gatliff,2 margins are covered by large areas of basalts. These basalts are often extremely heterogeneous and scatter that the acquisition system for sub-basalt targets should be modified to emphasize the low frequencies, using much

  8. A High Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor with In-Pixel Light-To-Frequency Conversion

    E-print Network

    Hornsey, Richard

    A High Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor with In-Pixel Light-To-Frequency Conversion by Xiuling WangB and the total electrical dynamic range (output frequency range, including non-linear parts) of over 130 d of Master of Applied Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2004 c

  9. Near-Field Infrared Sum-Frequency Generation Imaging of Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Selenide

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Near-Field Infrared Sum-Frequency Generation Imaging of Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Selenide-frequency generation (SFG) has been detected with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) for the first time. SFG. Detection of SFG with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) transcends both of these difficulties

  10. Optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid

    E-print Network

    Lee, Edward Chin Wang

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a practical noninvasive technology for imaging the microstructure of the human eye in vivo. Using optical interferometry to spatially-resolve backreflections from within ...

  11. The design of protection circuitry for high-frequency ultrasound imaging systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff R. Lockwood; John W. Hunt; F. Stuart Foster

    1991-01-01

    Transmission line lengths in the protection circuitry of a high-frequency (>20-MHz) ultrasound imaging system have an important effect on the frequency, amplitude, and bandwidth of the pulse-echo response of the system. A model that includes the transmission line lengths between the pulser, transducer, and receiver and the electromechanical properties of high-frequency transducers is used to illustrate the importance of correctly

  12. Space-Frequency Quantization for Image Compression With Directionlets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladan Velisavljevic; Baltasar Beferull-lozano; Martin Vetterli

    2007-01-01

    The standard separable two-dimensional (2-D) wavelet transform (WT) has recently achieved a great success in image processing because it provides a sparse representation of smooth images. However, it fails to capture efficiently one-dimensional (1-D) discontinuities, like edges or contours (1). These features, being elongated and characterized by geometrical regularity along different directions, intersect and generate many large magnitude wavelet coefficients.

  13. Mechanism of stability enhancement of passively harmonic mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser by passively modulating the saturable absorber's loss and the amplifier's gain depletion at high frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?chiopu, Ionut Romeo; ?chiopu, Paul

    2010-11-01

    After many experimental investigations of passive harmonic mode-locking erbium doped fiber ring laser cavity, we have observed some new typical characteristics of the solitons and we propose here a circular cavity laser where a high frequency cavity transmission modulation is possible by sending a reflected pulse into the cavity, in the opposite direction to the direct pulse. The pre-saturation of the absorber and the gain depletion at the optimum frequency, superposed on the natural effect of harmonic state, determine a stable harmonic solitonic state. In this mode we can better estimate the importance of the role of unstable continuous waves and of gain recovery in forming a stable equidistant multisoliton state.

  14. Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions with Spherical Harmonics: Comparison of MR Imaging and Pathologic Findings1

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Shalmon, Bruria; Zou, Kelly H.; Azhari, Haim; Nass, Dvora; Achiron, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Spherical harmonics (SH) were used to approximate the volume and three-dimensional geometry of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in deceased patients. The institutional ethical committee does not require its approval for studies involving pathologic specimens. Pathologic findings were used as the reference standard. In addition, lesion volume was measured with cylindrical approximation (CA). Volumetric comparisons of biases were based on summary statistics, Spearman correlation, Wilcoxon test, and two-way analysis of variance. Shape comparison metrics included mean distance and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Eight of 11 lesions had smaller biases with SH method (P < .001). Median biases with SH and CA did not differ significantly, as compared with pathologic findings (r = 1.00 vs 0.99, respectively). Variances of the biases were significantly smaller for SH (P =.04). Ranges of normalized distance and DSC were 0.1%–2.5% and 75%–96%, respectively. Mean DSC was significantly higher than 70% (P < .001). SH method provided unbiased lesion volume and added geometric information that may enable a better understanding of the pathogenesis and lesion evolution over time. PMID:15833980

  15. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  16. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the use of microbolometer infrared technology for real time imaging at THz frequencies.

    E-print Network

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the use of microbolometer infrared technology for real time imaging at THz microbolometer pixels for sensing at THz frequencies. PHASE 1: During the initial phase of research, a detailed study of real-time THz imaging character- istics of a microbolometer infrared camera will be carried out

  17. Application of spatial frequency response as a criterion for evaluating thermal imaging camera performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Lock; Francine Amon

    2008-01-01

    Police, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel are examples of first responders that are utilizing thermal imaging cameras in a very practical way every day. However, few performance metrics have been developed to assist first responders in evaluating the performance of thermal imaging technology. This paper describes one possible metric for evaluating spatial resolution using an application of Spatial Frequency Response

  18. SEGMENTATION OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC IMAGES BASED ON STATISTICAL MODELLING OF THE RADIO-FREQUENCY SIGNAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Bernard; Denis Friboulet; INSA Blaise Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This work presents an algorithm for segmentation of ultrasound images based on the statistics of the ra dio- frequency (RF) signal. We first show that the Gener alized Gaussian distribution can reliably model both fully (blood pool) and partially (tissue area) developed speckle in echocardiographic RF images. We then show that this probability density function (pdf) may be used in

  19. Digital parallel frequency-domain spectroscopy for tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Arnesano, Cosimo; Santoro, Ylenia; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Near-infrared (NIR) (650 to 1000 nm) optical properties of turbid media can be quantified accurately and noninvasively using methods based on diffuse reflectance or transmittance, such as frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM). Conventional FDPM techniques based on white-light steady-state (SS) spectral measurements in conjunction with the acquisition of frequency-domain (FD) data at selected wavelengths using laser diodes are used to measure broadband NIR scattering-corrected absorption spectra of turbid media. These techniques are limited by the number of wavelength points used to obtain FD data and by the sweeping technique used to collect FD data over a relatively large range. We have developed a method that introduces several improvements in the acquisition of optical parameters, based on the digital parallel acquisition of a comb of frequencies and on the use of a white laser as a single light source for both FD and SS measurements. The source, due to the high brightness, allows a higher penetration depth with an extremely low power on the sample. The parallel acquisition decreases the time required by standard serial systems that scan through a range of modulation frequencies. Furthermore, all-digital acquisition removes analog noise, avoids the analog mixer, and does not create radiofrequency interference or emission. PMID:23085915

  20. Suppression of Unwanted Harmonics Using Integrated Complementary Split-Ring Resonators in Nonlinear Transmission Line Frequency Multipliers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasra Payandehjoo; Ramesh Abhari

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the distributed nature of nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs), a novel filtering method that integrates the filter stages within the NLTL periodic structure is introduced to suppress unwanted signals. To implement the filter, compact complementary split-ring resonators are designed and included in a coplanar waveguide-based NLTL frequency doubler. Analytical derivations for the filter design and prediction of the dispersion

  1. Combined photoacoustic and high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan; Harrison, Tyler; Ranasinghesagara, Janaka; Zemp, Roger J.

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has emerged as a promising technique for visualizing optically absorbing structures with ultrasonic spatial resolution. Since it relies on optical absorption of tissues, photoacoustic imaging is particularly sensitive to vascular structures even at the micro-scale. Power Doppler ultrasound can be used to detect moving blood irrespective of Doppler angles. However, the sensitivity may be inadequate to detect very small vessels with slow flow velocities. In this work, we merge these two synergistic modalities and compare power Doppler ultrasound images with high-contrast photoacoustic images. We would like to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each technique for assessing microvascular density, an important indicator of disease status. A combined photoacoustic and highfrequency ultrasound system has been developed. The system uses a swept-scan 25 MHz ultrasound transducer with confocal dark-field laser illumination optics. A pulse-sequencer enables ultrasonic and laser pulses to be interlaced so that photoacoustic and Doppler ultrasound images are co-registered. Experiments have been performed on flow phantoms to test the capability of our system and signal processing methods. Work in progress includes in vivo color flow mapping. This combined system will be used to perform blood oxygen saturation and flow estimations, which will provide us with the parameters to estimate the local rate of metabolic oxygen consumption, an important indicator for many diseases.

  2. The solutions of the generalized classical and quantum harmonic oscillators with time dependent mass, frequency, two-photon parameter and external force: The squeezing effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mandal, Swapan

    2010-12-01

    The exact analytical solutions of a generalized classical harmonic oscillator with time dependent mass, frequency, two-photon parameter and external forces are obtained. By using the invariance property of the scaled Wronskian, these solutions are used to obtain the solutions of the quantum mechanical counterpart of the oscillator under Heisenberg picture. In order to discuss the applications of these solutions of the quantum mechanical oscillator, we calculate the exact analytical expressions for the second order variances of both the canonically conjugate quadratures in terms of the time dependent mass, frequency and two-photon parameter. However, these variances calculated in terms of the initial coherent state do not depend on the time dependent driven terms. We argued that the time dependent frequency is on the way of the exact analytical solutions and hence it is kept constant throughout the investigation. We, however, discuss few situations of physical interest where the mass is varying in time. The special circumstance where all the parameters are time independent is used to discuss the squeezing effect in both the quadratures. It is seen that the parameter g involving the two-photon interaction term produces squeezing effects. With the increase of interaction time, the squeezing in both the quadrature components exhibit collapse and revival phenomena for g < ? (frequency of the oscillator). The squeezing of X-quadrature is completely ruled out for g > ?. However, the squeezing for P-quadrature is possible for small interaction time. The squeezing patterns of the X and P-quadratures are also discussed for pulsating mass, and for mass increasing with time. The squeezing is also discussed when the mass is increasing exponentially in time. It is envisage that the solutions could be used in the investigation of quantum statistical properties of the radiation field coupled to the said oscillator.

  3. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young’s modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r2 > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r2 = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62? ± ?0.41?kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2? ± ?2.58?kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens.

  4. Quantitative analysis of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic and subharmonic ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Wilkes, Annina; Sevrukov, Alexander; Mattrey, Robert F; Wallace, Kirk; Chalek, Carl L; Thomenius, Kai E; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-03-01

    Ability to visualize breast lesion vascularity and quantify the vascular heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced 3-D harmonic (HI) and subharmonic (SHI) ultrasound imaging was investigated in a clinical population. Patients (n = 134) identified with breast lesions on mammography were scanned using power Doppler imaging, contrast-enhanced 3-D HI, and 3-D SHI on a modified Logiq 9 scanner (GE Healthcare). A region of interest corresponding to ultrasound contrast agent flow was identified in 4D View (GE Medical Systems) and mapped to raw slice data to generate a map of time-intensity curves for the lesion volume. Time points corresponding to baseline, peak intensity, and washout of ultrasound contrast agent were identified and used to generate and compare vascular heterogeneity plots for malignant and benign lesions. Vascularity was observed with power Doppler imaging in 84 lesions (63 benign and 21 malignant). The 3-D HI showed flow in 8 lesions (5 benign and 3 malignant), whereas 3-D SHI visualized flow in 68 lesions (49 benign and 19 malignant). Analysis of vascular heterogeneity in the 3-D SHI volumes found benign lesions having a significant difference in vascularity between central and peripheral sections (1.71 ± 0.96 vs. 1.13 ± 0.79 dB, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas malignant lesions showed no difference (1.66 ± 1.39 vs. 1.24 ± 1.14 dB, p = 0.24), indicative of more vascular coverage. These preliminary results suggest quantitative evaluation of vascular heterogeneity in breast lesions using contrast-enhanced 3-D SHI is feasible and able to detect variations in vascularity between central and peripheral sections for benign and malignant lesions. PMID:25935933

  5. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    PubMed

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young's modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r(2) > 0.99, relative error <10%) and on polyacrylamide gels (r(2) = 0.95, relative error <24%). The average HMI modulus on five liver samples was found to EHMI = 2.62? ± ?0.41?kPa, compared to EMechTesting = 4.2? ± ?2.58?kPa measured by rheometry. This study has demonstrated for the first time the initial feasibility of a non-invasive, model-independent method to estimate local elastic properties of biological tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens. PMID:25776065

  6. Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic

    E-print Network

    Miao, Jianwei "John"

    anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography," J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380­386 (2008). 10. C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, "X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast

  7. FEATURE ARTICLE Nonlinear Chemical Imaging Nanomicroscopy: From Second and Third Harmonic

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    - Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), and a variety of related mixing techniques.5-7 However, the general-photon fluorescence imaging stands as one of the most important modern advances. The dependence of two of other far-field nonlinear laser spectroscopy technologies have been developed and applied to chemical

  8. Ellipsoidal harmonic (Lame) MRI shims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Crozier; L. K. Forbes; M. Brideson

    2002-01-01

    Ellipsoidal harmonics are presented as a basis function set for the design of shim coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or spectroscopy. MR shim coils may be either superconductive or resistive. Ellipsoidal harmonics form an orthogonal set over an ellipsoid and hence are appropriate in circumstances where the imaging or spectroscopic region of a magnet more closely conforms to an

  9. Transmit beams adapted to reverberation noise suppression using dual-frequency SURF imaging.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Hansen, Rune; Måsøy, Svein-Erik; Johansen, Tonni F; Angelsen, Bjørn A J

    2009-10-01

    A method that uses dual-frequency pulse complexes of widely separated frequency bands to suppress noise caused by multiple scattering or multiple reflections in medical ultrasound imaging is presented. The excitation pulse complexes are transmitted to generate a second order ultrasound field (SURF) imaging synthetic transmit beam. This beam has reduced amplitude near the transducer, which illustrates the multiple scattering suppression ability of the imaging method. Field simulations solving a nonlinear wave equation are used to calculate SURF imaging beams, which are compared with beams for pulse inversion (PI) and fundamental imaging. In addition, a combined SURF and PI beam generation is described and compared with the beams mentioned above. A quality ratio, relating the energy within the near-field to that within the imaging region, is defined and used to score the multiple scattering and multiple reflection suppression abilities when imaging with the different beams. The realized combined SURF-PI beam scores highest, followed by SURF, PI (that score equally well), and the fundamental. The amplitude in the imaging region and therefore also the SNR is highest for the fundamental followed by SURF, PI, and SURF-PI. The work hence indicates that when substituting PI for SURF, one may trade increased SNR into use of increased imaging frequencies without loss of multiple scattering and multiple reflection noise suppression. PMID:19942500

  10. Bistatic frequency-swept microwave imaging: Principle, methodology and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Dingbing Lin; Tahhsiung Chu (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, (Taiwan, Province of China). Electrical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-05-01

    The basic principle, methodology and experimental results of frequency-swept microwave imaging of continuous shape conducting and discrete line objects in a bistatic scattering arrangement are presented. Theoretical analysis is developed under the assumptions of plane wave illumination and physical optics approximation. The measurement system and calibration procedures are implemented based on the plane wave spectrum analysis. Images of three different types of scattering objects reconstructed from the experimental data measured in the frequency range 7.5-12.5 GHz are shown in good agreement with the scattering object geometries. The results demonstrate that the developed bistatic frequency-swept microwave imaging system has potential as a cost-effective tool for the application of remote sensing, imaging radar, and nondestructive evaluation.

  11. Spatial frequency heterodyne imaging in the soft x-ray water window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Vrbová, M.; Fidler, V.; Rose-Petruck, C.

    2014-06-01

    An x-ray imaging modality called Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI) is applied in the soft x-ray water window. SFHI permits the computational decomposition of the images acquired with a single-shot exposure into an x-ray absorption image and into two image pairs formed exclusively by x-rays scattered and refracted normally to the orientation of the grid wires. In the experiments, a laser-driven plasma soft x-ray source is used in an imaging setup consisting of a linear arrangement of source, object, a metal grid, and an image detector. Theoretical simulations and experimental results are found to be in a good agreement. SFHI is demonstrated to deliver more detailed sample information than conventional x-ray absorption imaging.

  12. High-frequency transducers for medical ultrasonic imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin A. Snook; Jian-Zhong Zhao; Carlos H. Alves; Jonathan M. Cannata; Wo-Hsing Chen; Richard J. Meyer; Timothy A. Ritter; K. Kirk Shung

    2000-01-01

    A wide variety of fabrication techniques and materials produce ultrasound transducers with very different performance characteristics. High frequency (50 MHz), focused single element transducers using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber composite, lead titanate (PbTiO3) ceramic, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal are compared in design and performance. The transducers were all constructed with a 3 mm

  13. High-frequency ultrasound imaging using opto-acoustic arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Buma; James D. Hamilton; M. Spisar; Matthew O'Donnell

    2002-01-01

    A promising alternative to piezoelectricity for high frequency array applications is optical generation and detection of ultrasound. An array element is defined by the size and location of a laser beam focused onto a suitable surface. We've built a two-dimensional synthetic receive array, where a HeNe laser probes the surface displacements of a thin reflective membrane. Using a conventional transducer

  14. Ultralow-power second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating using aperiodically poled lithium niobate waveguides [Invited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houxun Miao; Shang-Da Yang; Carsten Langrock; Rostislav V. Roussev; M. M. Fejer; Andrew M. Weiner

    2008-01-01

    mW 2 in a collinear SHG FROG geometry, approximately 5 orders of magnitude better than previously reported for any FROG measurement modality. We also discuss asymmetric Y-junction A-PPLN waveguides that permit background-free SHG FROG and a polarization-insensitive SHG FROG tech- nique that eliminates the impairment that frequency-independent random polarization fluctuations induce in the FROG measurement. Finally, we applied these SHG

  15. A spot-matching method using cumulative frequency matrix in 2D gel images

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chan-Myeong; Park, Joon-Ho; Chang, Chu-Seok; Ryoo, Myung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A new method for spot matching in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images using a cumulative frequency matrix is proposed. The method improves on the weak points of the previous method called ‘spot matching by topological patterns of neighbour spots’. It accumulates the frequencies of neighbour spot pairs produced through the entire matching process and determines spot pairs one by one in order of higher frequency. Spot matching by frequencies of neighbour spot pairs shows a fairly better performance. However, it can give researchers a hint for whether the matching results can be trustworthy or not, which can save researchers a lot of effort for verification of the results. PMID:26019609

  16. Pose detection of 3-D objects using S2-correlated images and discrete spherical harmonic transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy C. Hoover; Anthony A. Maciejewski; Rodney G. Roberts

    2008-01-01

    The pose detection of three-dimensional (3-D) objects from two-dimensional (2-D) images is an important issue in computer vision and robotics applications. Specific examples include automated assembly, automated part inspection, robotic welding, and human robot interaction, as well as a host of others. Eigendecomposition is a common technique for dealing with this issue and has been applied to sets of correlated

  17. Second-order fractional Talbot effect induced frequency-doubling optical pulse injection for 40 GHz rational-harmonic mode-locking of an SOA fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jung-Jui; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-09-01

    A second-order fractional Talbot effect induced frequency-doubling of a 10 GHz optical pulse-train is demonstrated to backward injection mode-lock a semiconductor optical amplifier fiber laser (SOAFL) for 40 GHz rational-harmonic mode-locking (RHML). That is, a real all-optical gain-modulation of the SOAFL can be created by injecting such a time-multiplexed but pseudo-frequency-doubled pulse-train into the cavity. The time-multiplexing pulse-train can thus be transformed into a frequency-multiplied pulse-train via cross-gain modulation (XGM). The optical pulse-train at 10 GHz is generated by nonlinearly driving an electro-absorption modulator (EAM), which experiences the second-order fractional Talbot effect after propagating through a 4 km long dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). The DCF not only plays the role of frequency-doubler but also compensates the frequency chirp of the 10 GHz optical pulse-train. The pulsewidth broadening from 22 to 60 ps for initiating the time-domain Talbot effect is simulated by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. With careful detuning of the RF modulation power of the EAM at 5 dBm, the generated 20 GHz optical pulse-train exhibits a positive frequency chirp with minimum peak-to-peak value of 2 GHz, and the peak-amplitude fluctuation between adjacent pulses is below 1.4%. In comparison with the SOAFL pulse-train repeated at 40 GHz generated by the fourth-order purely RHML process, the optimized second-order fractional Talbot effect in combination with the second-order RHML mechanism significantly enhances the modulation-depth of RHML, thus improving the on/off extinction ratio of the 40 GHz SOAFL pulse-train from 1.8 to 5.6 dB. Such a new scheme also provides a more stable 40 GHz RHML pulse-train from the SOAFL with its timing jitter reducing from 0.51 to 0.23 ps.

  18. Role of clinical judgment and tissue harmonic imaging ultrasonography in diagnosis of paediatric acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency in children; yet, diagnosis of equivocal presentations continues to challenge clinicians. Aim The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the use of a modified clinical practice and harmonic ultrasonographic grading scores (MCPGS) may improve the accuracy in diagnosing acute appendicitis in the pediatric population. Patients & Methods Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the modified scoring system. Five hundred and thirty patients presented with suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis during the period from December 2000 to December 2009 were enrolled in this study. Children's data that have already been published of those who presented with suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis- to whom a special clinical practice grading scores (CPGS) incorporating clinical judgment and results of gray scale ultrasonography (US) was applied- were reviewed and compared to the data of 265 pediatric patients with equivocal diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), to whom a modified clinical practice grading scores (MCPGS) was applied. Statistical analyses were carried out using Z test for comparing 2 sample proportions and student's t-test to compare the quantitative data in both groups. Sensitivity and specificity for the 2 scoring systems were calculated using Epi-Info software. Results The Number of appendectomies declined from 200 (75.5%) in our previous CPGS to 187 (70.6%) in the MCPGS (P > 0.05). Specificity was significantly higher when applying MCPGS (90.7%) in this study compared to 70.47% in our previous work when CPGS was applied (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the positive predictive value (PPV) was significantly higher (95.72%) than in our previous study (82.88%), (P < 0.01). Overall agreement (accuracy) of MCPGS was 96.98%. Kappa = 0.929 (P < 0.001). Negative predictive power was 100%. And the Overall agreement (accuracy) was 96.98%. Conclusions MCPGS tends to help in reduce the numbers of avoidable and unnecessary appendectomies in suspected cases of pediatric acute appendicitis that may help in saving hospital resources. PMID:22087573

  19. Can recent innovations in harmonic analysis 'explain' key findings in natural image statistics?

    PubMed

    Donoho, D L; Flesia, A G

    2001-08-01

    Recently, applied mathematicians have been pursuing the goal of sparse coding of certain mathematical models of images with edges. They have found by mathematical analysis that, instead of wavelets and Fourier methods, sparse coding leads towards new systems: ridgelets and curvelets. These new systems have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. In fact they have highly direction-specific elements and exhibit increasing numbers of distinct directions as we go to successively finer scales. Meanwhile, researchers in natural scene statistics (NSS) have been attempting to find sparse codes for natural images. The new systems they have found by computational optimization have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. The new systems are certainly unlike wavelet and Gabor systems, on the one hand because of the multi-orientation and on the other hand because of the multi-scale nature. There is a certain degree of visual resemblance between the findings in the two fields, which suggests the hypothesis that certain important findings in the NSS literature might possibly be explained by the slogan: edges are the dominant features in images, and curvelets are the right tool for representing edges. We consider here certain empirical consequences of this hypothesis, looking at key findings of the NSS literature and conducting studies of curvelet and ridgelet transforms on synthetic and real images, to see if the results are consistent with predictions from this slogan. Our first experiment measures the nonGaussianity of Fourier, wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet coefficients over a database of synthetic and photographic images. Empirically the curvelet coefficients exhibit noticeably higher kurtosis than wavelet, ridgelet, or Fourier coefficients. This is consistent with the hypothesis. Our second experiment studies the inter-scale correlation of wavelet coefficient energies at the same location. We describe a simple experiment showing that presence of edges explains these correlations. We also develop a crude nonlinear 'partial correlation' by considering the correlation between wavelet parents and children after a few curvelet coefficients are removed. When we kill the few biggest coefficients of the curvelet transform, much of the correlation between wavelet subbands disappears--consistent with the hypothesis. We suggest implications for future discussions about NSS. PMID:11563535

  20. Sparse matrix beamforming and image reconstruction for 2-D HIFU monitoring using harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) with in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gary Y; Provost, Jean; Grondin, Julien; Wang, Shutao; Marquet, Fabrice; Bunting, Ethan; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-11-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) utilizes an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam to induce a localized focal oscillatory motion simultaneously estimated. The objective of this study is to develop and show the feasibility of a novel fast beamforming algorithm for image reconstruction using GPU-based sparse-matrix operation with real-time feedback. In this study, the algorithm was implemented onto a fully integrated, clinically relevant HMIFU system. A single divergent transmit beam was used while fast beamforming was implemented using a GPU-based delay-and-sum method and a sparse-matrix operation. Axial HMI displacements were then estimated from the RF signals using a 1-D normalized cross-correlation method and streamed to a graphic user interface with frame rates up to 15 Hz, a 100-fold increase compared to conventional CPU-based processing. The real-time feedback rate does not require interrupting the HIFU treatment. Results in phantom experiments showed reproducible HMI images and monitoring of 22 in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2-D system demonstrated reproducible displacement imaging, and monitoring of 22 in vitro HIFU treatments using the new 2-D system showed a consistent average focal displacement decrease of 46.7 ±14.6% during lesion formation. Complementary focal temperature monitoring also indicated an average rate of displacement increase and decrease with focal temperature at 0.84±1.15%/(°)C, and 2.03±0.93%/(°)C , respectively. These results reinforce the HMIFU capability of estimating and monitoring stiffness related changes in real time. Current ongoing studies include clinical translation of the presented system for monitoring of HIFU treatment for breast and pancreatic tumor applications. PMID:24960528

  1. Tissue characterization by imaging the local frequency dependent relative backscatter coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenderka, Klaus V.; Gaertner, Tilio; Cobet, Ulrich; Zacharias, Mario; Heynemann, Hans

    2000-04-01

    Conventional B-scan systems only use the amplitude information of the backscattered signals for imaging. By imaging the local frequency dependent relative backscatter coefficient it is possible to improve the image contrast and to reduce system effects. Based on spectral analysis of rf echo signals, a procedure was developed to correct for system specific effects and to determine the relative backscatter coefficient. A new image with improved contrast results from grayscale or color coding of the frequency components of the relative backscatter coefficient. The method was applied to in vivo measurements of human prostate and transplanted kidney. For cancerous prostate tissue the relative backscatter coefficient is about 8 dB lower than for normal tissue regions. The results of the investigations on kidneys show no correlation to the current function of the organ. Certainly the different course of the frequency dependence of the relative backscatter coefficient of renal cortex and calices regions allows a contrast improvement. The method provides a system independent imaging procedure with improved image contrast for tissues with different scattering behavior and slightly reduced spatial resolution. Imaging the relative backscatter coefficient will not substitute the conventional B-mode image, but it is a useful tool providing additional information about the tissue state.

  2. High-intensity focused ultrasound monitoring using harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) under boiling or slow denaturation conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Apostolakis, Iason-Zacharias; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-07-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method that utilizes an amplitude-modulated therapeutic ultrasound beam to induce an oscillatory radiation force at the HIFU focus and estimates the focal tissue displacement to monitor the HIFU thermal treatment. In this study, the performance of HMIFU under acoustic, thermal, and mechanical effects was investigated. The performance of HMIFU was assessed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 13) under slow denaturation or boiling regimes. A passive cavitation detector (PCD) was used to assess the acoustic cavitation activity, and a bare-wire thermocouple was used to monitor the focal temperature change. During lesioning with slow denaturation, high quality displacements (correlation coefficient above 0.97) were observed under minimum cavitation noise, indicating the tissue initial-softeningthen- stiffening property change. During HIFU with boiling, HMIFU monitored a consistent change in lesion-to-background displacement contrast (0.46 ± 0.37) despite the presence of strong cavitation noise due to boiling during lesion formation. Therefore, HMIFU effectively monitored softening-then-stiffening during lesioning under slow denaturation, and detected lesioning under boiling with a distinct change in displacement contrast under boiling in the presence of cavitation. In conclusion, HMIFU was shown under both boiling and slow denaturation regimes to be effective in HIFU monitoring and lesioning identification without being significantly affected by cavitation noise. PMID:26168177

  3. Post-processing enhancement of reverberation-noise suppression in dual-frequency SURF imaging.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Hansen, Rune; Angelsen, Bjørn A J

    2011-02-01

    A post-processing adjustment technique to enhance dual-frequency second-order ultrasound field (SURF) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence, the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5-MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5-MHz low-frequency soundspeed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to coincide with the depth where the first scattering or reflection occurs for the reverberation noise one intends to suppress. The beams realized with post-processing show energy decrease at the chosen depth, especially for shallow depths where, in a medical imaging situation, a body-wall is often located. This indicates that the post-processing may further enhance the reverberation- suppression abilities of SURF imaging. Moreover, it is shown that the methods might be utilized to reduce the accumulated near-field energy of the SURF transmit-beam relative to its imaging region energy. The adjustments presented may therefore potentially be utilized to attain a slightly better general suppression of multiple scattering and multiple reflection noise compared with non-adjusted SURF reverberation-suppression imaging. PMID:21342819

  4. A phase-imaging technique for cyclotron-frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Dörr, A.; Droese, C.; Eronen, T.; Goncharov, M.; Höcker, M.; Ketter, J.; Ramirez, E. Minaya; Nesterenko, D. A.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Schweikhard, L.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach to mass measurements at the 10-9 level for short-lived nuclides with half-lives well below one second is presented. It is based on the projection of the radial ion motion in a Penning trap onto a position-sensitive detector. Compared with the presently employed time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance technique, the novel approach is 25-times faster and provides a 40-fold gain in resolving power. Moreover, it offers a substantially higher sensitivity since just two ions are sufficient to determine the ion's cyclotron frequency. Systematic effects specific to the technique that can change the measured cyclotron frequency are considered in detail. It is shown that the main factors that limit the maximal accuracy and resolving power of the technique are collisions of the stored ions with residual gas in the trap, the temporal instability of the trapping voltage, the anharmonicities of the trapping potential and the uncertainty introduced by the conversion of the cyclotron to magnetron motion.

  5. Post-Processing Enhancement of Reverberation-Noise Suppression in Dual-Frequency SURF Imaging

    E-print Network

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; Angelsen, Bjørn A J; 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.1811

    2013-01-01

    A post-processing adjustment technique which aims for enhancement of dual-frequency SURF (Second order UltRasound Field) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5 MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5 low-frequency sound-speed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, in order to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to ...

  6. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  7. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1983-08-31

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  8. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  9. High precision spectroscopy and imaging in THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.

    2014-03-01

    Application of microwave methods for development of the THz frequency range has resulted in elaboration of high precision THz spectrometers based on nonstationary effects. The spectrometers characteristics (spectral resolution and sensitivity) meet the requirements for high precision analysis. The gas analyzers, based on the high precision spectrometers, have been successfully applied for analytical investigations of gas impurities in high pure substances. These investigations can be carried out both in absorption cell and in reactor. The devices can be used for ecological monitoring, detecting the components of chemical weapons and explosive in the atmosphere. The great field of THz investigations is the medicine application. Using the THz spectrometers developed one can detect markers for some diseases in exhaled air.

  10. A real-time algorithm for the harmonic estimation and frequency tracking of dominant components in fusion plasma magnetic diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Alves, D; Coelho, R

    2013-08-01

    The real-time tracking of instantaneous quantities such as frequency, amplitude, and phase of components immerse in noisy signals has been a common problem in many scientific and engineering fields such as power systems and delivery, telecommunications, and acoustics for the past decades. In magnetically confined fusion research, extracting this sort of information from magnetic signals can be of valuable assistance in, for instance, feedback control of detrimental magnetohydrodynamic modes and disruption avoidance mechanisms by monitoring instability growth or anticipating mode-locking events. This work is focused on nonlinear Kalman filter based methods for tackling this problem. Similar methods have already proven their merits and have been successfully employed in this scientific domain in applications such as amplitude demodulation for the motional Stark effect diagnostic. In the course of this work, three approaches are described, compared, and discussed using magnetic signals from the Joint European Torus tokamak plasma discharges for benchmarking purposes. PMID:24011401

  11. Metamaterial fibres for subdiffraction imaging and focusing at terahertz frequencies over optically long distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuniz, Alessandro; Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.; Fischer, Bernd M.; Walther, Markus; Fleming, Simon C.; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T.

    2013-10-01

    Using conventional materials, the resolution of focusing and imaging devices is limited by diffraction to about half the wavelength of light, as high spatial frequencies do not propagate in isotropic materials. Wire array metamaterials, because of their extreme anisotropy, can beat this limit; however, focusing with these has only been demonstrated up to microwave frequencies and using propagation over a few wavelengths only. Here we show that the principle can be scaled to frequencies orders of magnitudes higher and to considerably longer propagation lengths. We demonstrate imaging through straight and tapered wire arrays operating in the terahertz spectrum, with unprecedented propagation of near field information over hundreds of wavelengths and focusing down to 1/28 of the wavelength with a net increase in power density. Applications could include in vivo terahertz-endoscopes with resolution compatible with imaging individual cells.

  12. Multi-frequency subspace migration for imaging of perfectly conducting, arc-like cracks

    E-print Network

    Won-Kwang Park

    2013-06-03

    Multi-frequency subspace migration imaging technique are usually adopted for the non-iterative imaging of unknown electromagnetic targets such as cracks in the concrete walls or bridges, anti-personnel mines in the ground, etc. in the inverse scattering problems. It is confirmed that this technique is very fast, effective, robust, and can be applied not only full- but also limited-view inverse problems if suitable number of incident and corresponding scattered field are applied and collected. But in many works, the application of such technique is somehow heuristic. Under the motivation of such heuristic application, this contribution analyzes the structure of imaging functional employed in the subspace migration imaging technique in two-dimensional inverse scattering when the unknown target is arbitrary shaped, arc-like perfectly conducting cracks located in the homogeneous two-dimensional space. Opposite to the Statistical approach based on the Statistical Hypothesis Testing, our approach is based on the fact that subspace migration imaging functional can be expressed by a linear combination of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This is based on the structure of the Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix collected in the far-field at nonzero frequency in either Transverse Magnetic (TM) mode or Transverse Electric (TE) mode. Explored expression of imaging functionals gives us certain properties of subspace migration and an answer of why multi-frequency enhances imaging resolution. Particularly, we carefully analyze the subspace migration and confirm some properties of imaging when a small number of incident field is applied. Consequently, we simply introduce a weighted multi-frequency imaging functional and confirm that which is an improved version of subspace migration in TM mode.

  13. Multi-frequency image reconstruction for radio interferometry. A regularized inverse problem approach

    E-print Network

    Ferrari, André; Ferrari, Chiara; Mary, David; Schutz, Antony; Smirnov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    We describe a "spatio-spectral" deconvolution algorithm for wide-band imaging in radio interferometry. In contrast with the existing multi-frequency reconstruction algorithms, the proposed method does not rely on a model of the sky-brightness spectral distribution. This non-parametric approach can be of particular interest for the new generation of low frequency radiotelescopes. The proposed solution formalizes the reconstruction problem as a convex optimization problem with spatial and spectral regularizations. The efficiency of this approach has been already proven for narrow-band image reconstruction and the present contribution can be considered as its extension to the multi-frequency case. Because the number of frequency bands multiplies the size of the inverse problem, particular attention is devoted to the derivation of an iterative large scale optimization algorithm. It is shown that the main computational bottleneck of the approach, which lies in the resolution of a linear system, can be efficiently ...

  14. Does face image statistics predict a preferred spatial frequency for human face processing?

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Matthias S

    2008-01-01

    Psychophysical experiments suggested a relative importance of a narrow band of spatial frequencies for recognition of face identity in humans. There exists, however, no conclusive evidence of why it is that such frequencies are preferred. To address this question, I examined the amplitude spectra of a large number of face images and observed that face spectra generally fall off more steeply with spatial frequency compared with ordinary natural images. When external face features (such as hair) are suppressed, then whitening of the corresponding mean amplitude spectra revealed higher response amplitudes at those spatial frequencies which are deemed important for processing face identity. The results presented here therefore provide support for that face processing characteristics match corresponding stimulus properties. PMID:18544506

  15. A High-Frequency High Frame Rate Duplex Ultrasound Linear Array Imaging System for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lequan; Xu, Xiaochen; Hu, Changhong; Sun, Lei; Yen, Jesse T.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency (HF) ultrasound imaging has been shown to be useful for non-invasively imaging anatomical structures of the eye and small animals in biological and pharmaceutical research, achieving superior spatial resolution. Cardiovascular research utilizing mice requires not only real-time B-scan imaging, but also ultrasound Doppler to evaluate both anatomy and blood flow of the mouse heart. This paper reports the development of a high frequency ultrasound duplex imaging system capable of both B-mode imaging and Doppler flow measurements, using a 64-element linear array. The system included a HF pulsed-wave Doppler module, a 32-channel HF B-mode imaging module, a PC with a 200 MS/s 14-bit A/D card, and real-time LabView software. A 50dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a depth of penetration of larger than 12 mm were achieved using a 35 MHz linear array with 50 ?m pitch. The two-way beam widths were determined to be 165 ?m to 260 ?m and the clutter energy to total energy ratio (CTR) were 9.1 dB to 12 dB, when the array was electronically focused at different focal points at depths from 4.8 mm to 9.6 mm. The system is capable of acquiring real-time B-mode images at a rate greater than 400 frames per second (fps) for a 4.8 × 13 mm field of view, using a 30 MHz 64-element linear array with 100 ?m pitch. Sample in vivo cardiac high frame rate images and duplex images of mouse hearts are shown to assess its current imaging capability and performance for small animals. PMID:20639149

  16. Three-Dimensional (3D) High-Frequency Ultrasound Images of Skin and an Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumi Kamada; Osamu Oshiro; Kunihiro Chihara; Wojciech Secomski; Andrzej Nowicki

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of skin and an eye using high-frequency ultrasound. A high-frequency ultrasound image has high resolution of the order of 10 mum and demonstrates the detailed internal structure of an organ. Therefore it is suitable for visualizing the structure of organs such as skin and the eye. The method of 3D visualization of skin

  17. An approach for images with low-frequency noise denoising via pre-emphasis and high-pass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Ma, Shaobo; Cao, Li

    2013-03-01

    Wavelet-based denoising methods have been successfully applied in processing images with high-frequency noise, such as salt noise, Gausian noise, Poisson noise, etc. However, it is less effective when processing images with low-frequency noise. Seemingly, we can consider using high-pass filter directly to remove the low-frequency noise, but it turns out that when the noise is removed, the useful low-frequency information is also weakened during the process. In this paper, we proposed a new approach to denoise the images with low-frequency noise via pre-emphasis and high-pass filtration. Thereby we removed the low-frequency noise effectively without losing useful low-frequency information. The approach can be well applied in decreasing the interference of low-frequency noise in image transmission.

  18. Fiber bundle based endomicroscopy prototype with two collection channels for simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and second harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengfan; Satira, Zachary A.; Wang, Xi; Xu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xu; Wong, Kelvin; Chen, Shufen; Xin, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2014-02-01

    Label-free multiphoton imaging is promising for replacing biopsy and could offer new strategies for intraoperative or surgical applications. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging could provide lipid-band contrast, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is useful for imaging collagen, tendon and muscle fibers. A combination of these two imaging modalities could provide rich information and this combination has been studied by researchers to investigate diseases through microscopy imaging. The combination of these two imaging modalities in endomicroscopy imaging has been rarely investigated. In this research, a fiber bundle consisted of one excitation fiber and 18 collection fibers was developed in our endomicroscopy prototype. The 18 collection fibers were divided into two collection channels with 9 fibers in each channel. These two channels could be used together as one channel for effective signal collection or used separately for simplifying detection part of the system. Differences of collection pattern of these two channels were investigated. Collection difference of central excitation fiber and surrounding 18 fibers was also investigated, which reveals the potential ability of this system to measure forward to backward (F/B) ratio in SHG imaging. CARS imaging of mouse adipocyte and SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon were performed to demonstrate the CARS and SHG tissue imaging performance of this system. Simultaneous CARS and SHG imaging ability of this system was demonstrated by mouse tail imaging. This fiber bundle based endomicroscopy imaging prototype, offers a promising platform for constructing efficient fiber-based CARS and SHG multimodal endomicroscopes for label free intraoperative imaging applications.

  19. Current density imaging using directly measured harmonic Bz data in MREIT.

    PubMed

    Park, Chunjae; Kwon, Oh In

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) measures magnetic flux density signals through the use of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to visualize the internal conductivity and/or current density. Understanding the reconstruction procedure for the internal current density, we directly measure the second derivative of Bz data from the measured k-space data, from which we can avoid a tedious phase unwrapping to obtain the phase signal of Bz . We determine optimal weighting factors to combine the derivatives of magnetic flux density data, [Symbol: see text](2) Bz , measured using the multi-echo train. The proposed method reconstructs the internal current density using the relationships between the induced internal current and the measured [Symbol: see text](2) Bz data. Results from a phantom experiment demonstrate that the proposed method reduces the scanning time and provides the internal current density, while suppressing the background field inhomogeneity. To implement the real experiment, we use a phantom with a saline solution including a balloon, which excludes other artifacts by any concentration gradient in the phantom. PMID:23573168

  20. Multi-frequency time-reversal-based imaging for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation using full matrix capture.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chengguang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu; Drinkwater, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, two multi-frequency time-reversal (TR)-based imaging algorithms are explored for application to the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging of defects in solids: time reversal with multiple signal classification (TRMUSIC) and a related phase-coherent form (PC-MUSIC). These algorithms are tested with simulated and experimental ultrasonic array data acquired using the full matrix capture (FMC) process. The performance of these algorithms is quantified in terms of their spatial resolution and robustness to noise. The effect of frequency bandwidth is investigated and the results are compared with the single-frequency versions of these algorithms. It is shown that both TR-MUSIC and PCMUSIC are capable of resolving lateral targets spaced closer than the Rayleigh limit, achieving super-resolution imaging. TR-MUSIC can locate the positions of scatterers correctly, whereas the results from PC-MUSIC are less clear because of the presence of multiple peaks in the vicinity of target. However, an advantage of PC-MUSIC is that it can overcome the elongated point spread function that appears in TR-MUSIC images, and hence provide enhanced axial resolution. For high noise levels, TR-MUSIC and PC-MUSIC are shown to provide stable images and suppress the presence of artifacts seen in their single-frequency equivalents. PMID:25474781

  1. The effects of static quartic anharmonicity on the quantum dynamics of a linear oscillator with time-dependent harmonic frequency: Perturbative analysis and numerical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, P.; Bhattacharyya, S.P. [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India)

    1995-06-15

    The effects of quartic anharmonicity on the quantum dynamics of a linear oscillator with time-dependent force constant (K) or harmonic frequency ({omega}) are studied both perturbatively and numerically by the time-dependent Fourier grid Hamiltonian method. In the absence of anharmonicity, the ground-state population decreases and the population of an accessible excited state (k = 2.4, 6 ... ) increases with time. However, when anharmonicity is introduced, both the ground- and excited-state populations show typical oscillations. For weak coupling, the population of an accessible excited state at a certain instant of time (short) turns out to be a parabolic function of the anharmonic coupling constant ({lambda}), when all other parameters of the system are kept fixed. This parabolic nature of the excited-state population vs. the {lambda} profile is independent of the specific form of the time dependence of the force constant, K{sub t}. However, it depends upon the rate at which K{sub t} relaxes. For small anharmonic coupling strength and short time scales, the numerical results corroborate expectations based on the first-order time-dependent perturbative analysis, using a suitably repartitioned Hamiltonian that makes H{sub 0} time-independent. Some of the possible experimental implications of our observations are analyzed, especially in relation to intensity oscillations observed in some charge-transfer spectra in systems in which the dephasing rates are comparable with the time scale of the electron transfer. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. "Half-hydration" at the air/water interface revealed by heterodyne-detected electronic sum frequency generation spectroscopy, polarization second harmonic generation, and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Sen, Sobhan; Morita, Akihiro; Tahara, Tahei

    2010-04-14

    A solute-solvent interaction at the air/water interface was investigated both experimentally and theoretically, by studying a prototypical surface-active polarity indicator molecule, coumarin 110 (C110), adsorbed at the air/water interface with heterodyne-detected electronic sum frequency generation (HD-ESFG) spectroscopy, polarization second harmonic generation (SHG), and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (chi((2))) tensor elements of C110 at the air/water interface were determined experimentally by HD-ESFG and polarization SHG, and information on "intermediate" polarity sensed by C110 at the interface was obtained by HD-ESFG. An MD simulation and a time-dependent density functional theory calculation were used to theoretically evaluate the chi((2)) tensor elements, which were in good agreement with the experimental results of HD-ESFG and polarization SHG. The microscopic "half-hydration" structure around C110 at the water surface was visualized on the basis of the MD simulation data, with which we can intuitively understand the microscopic origin of the surface activity of C110 and the intermediate polarity sensed by C110 at the air/water interface. PMID:20406004

  3. ``Half-hydration'' at the air/water interface revealed by heterodyne-detected electronic sum frequency generation spectroscopy, polarization second harmonic generation, and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Sen, Sobhan; Morita, Akihiro; Tahara, Tahei

    2010-04-01

    A solute-solvent interaction at the air/water interface was investigated both experimentally and theoretically, by studying a prototypical surface-active polarity indicator molecule, coumarin 110 (C110), adsorbed at the air/water interface with heterodyne-detected electronic sum frequency generation (HD-ESFG) spectroscopy, polarization second harmonic generation (SHG), and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (?(2)) tensor elements of C110 at the air/water interface were determined experimentally by HD-ESFG and polarization SHG, and information on "intermediate" polarity sensed by C110 at the interface was obtained by HD-ESFG. An MD simulation and a time-dependent density functional theory calculation were used to theoretically evaluate the ?(2) tensor elements, which were in good agreement with the experimental results of HD-ESFG and polarization SHG. The microscopic "half-hydration" structure around C110 at the water surface was visualized on the basis of the MD simulation data, with which we can intuitively understand the microscopic origin of the surface activity of C110 and the intermediate polarity sensed by C110 at the air/water interface.

  4. Three-dimensional ground penetrating radar imaging using multi-frequency diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper we present results from a three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm for impulse radar operating in monostatic pulse-echo mode. The application of interest to us is the nondestructive evaluation of civil structures such as bridge decks. We use a multi-frequency diffraction tomography imaging technique in which coherent backward propagations of the received reflected wavefield form a spatial image of the scattering interfaces within the region of interest. This imaging technique provides high-resolution range and azimuthal visualization of the subsurface region. We incorporate the ability to image in planarly layered conductive media and apply the algorithm to experimental data from an offset radar system in which the radar antenna is not directly coupled to the surface of the region. We present a rendering in three-dimensions of the resulting image data which provides high-detail visualization.

  5. 3D displacement measurement by white light digital image analysis in frequency domination area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinhua Ji; Xinwei Yang; Jinlong Chen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, white light digital image analysis in frequency domination area for measuring 3D displacement is put forward.\\u000a The measuring system has the characteristics of whole-field, non-contact and omni-bearing measurement. It is simple and the\\u000a coherent light is not demanded. Gray images before and after deformation are recorded using two CCDs at two different shooting\\u000a angles, then digitalized and

  6. Spatial frequency response of color image sensors: Bayer color filters and Foveon X3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Hubel; John Liu; Rudolph J. Guttosch

    2004-01-01

    We compared the Spatial Frequency Response (SFR) of image sensors that use the Bayer color filter pattern and Foveon X3 technology for color image capture. Sensors for both consumer and professional cameras were tested. The results show that the SFR for Foveon X3 sensors is up to 2.4x better. In addition to the standard SFR method, we also applied the

  7. Endoscopic frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging for clinical cancer photodetection: apparatus design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnieres, Georges A.; Mizeret, Jerome C.; Studzinski, A.; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1995-05-01

    We describe a new fluorescence imaging device for clinical cancer photodetection in hollow organs in which the image contrast is derived from the fluorescence lifetime of the fluorochrome at each point in a 2D image. Lifetime images are created from a series of images obtained from two gain-modulated image intensifiers. One of them (II-1) detects the light-induced tissue fluorescence, whereas the other (II-2) detects the backscattered fluorescence excitation light. This light is modulated at the same frequency as the detectors, resulting in homodyne phase-sensitive image. These stationary phase-sensitive images are collected using two CCD cameras, digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator in real time. A series of such images, obtained with both image intensifiers at various phase shifts between their gain modulation and the modulation of the excitation light, is used to determine phase angle and/or the modulation of the fluorescence emission at each pixel. The reference values of these phase angles and modulations are obtained with II-2, whereas II-1 enables the measurement of the phase and modulation of the fluorescence. Phase and modulation are related to the fluorescence lifetime of the fluorochrome. An advantage of the experimental method proposed here is that pixel-to-pixel scanning is not required to obtain the fluorescence lifetime image, as the information from all pixels is obtained at the same time.

  8. High-frequency modulated light source for phase fluorometry and fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. G.; Mitchell, A. C.; Peacock, N.; Murray, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    Phase fluorometry and fluorescence lifetime imaging require a source of exciting light which can be modulated at radiofrequency. This is difficult to achieve with reasonable efficiency using conventional light sources with external modulators such as Pockels cells, while laser sources are limited in wavelength tunability. In this paper a low-cost and versatile high-frequency modulated light source is described which is well suited to frequency-domain fluorescence measurements. The source is a modified deuterium arc lamp which can be driven directly at frequencies up to approximately 130 MHz, and which provides a highly stable source of ultraviolet and visible light.

  9. DeStripe: frequency-based algorithm for removing stripe noises from AFM images

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a relatively recently developed technique that shows a promising impact in the field of structural biology and biophysics. It has been used to image the molecular surface of membrane proteins at a lateral resolution of one nanometer or less. An immediate obstacle of characterizing surface features in AFM images is stripe noise. To better interpret structures at a sub-domain level, pre-processing of AFM images for removing stripe noises is necessary. Noise removal can be performed in either spatial or frequency domain. However, denoising processing in the frequency domain is a better solution for preserving edge sharpness. Results We have developed a denoising protocol, called DeStripe, for AFM bio-molecular images that are contaminated with heavy and fine stripes. This program adopts a divide-and-conquer approach by dividing the Fourier spectrum of the image into central and off-center regions for noisy pixels detection and intensity restoration; it is also applicable to other images interfered with high-density stripes such as those acquired by the scanning electron microscope. The denoising effect brought by DeStripe provides better visualization for image objects without introducing additional artifacts into the restored image. Conclusions The DeStripe denoising effect on AFM images is illustrated in the present work. It allows extracting extended information from the topographic measurements and implicitly enhances the molecular features in the image. All the presented images were processed by DeStripe with the raw image as the only input without any requirement for other prior information. A web service, http://biodev.cea.fr/destripe, is available for running DeStripe. PMID:21281524

  10. Electrical tissue property imaging using MRI at dc and Larmor frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin Keun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Joonsung; In Kwon, Oh; Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Woo, Eung Je

    2012-08-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of conductivity and permittivity distributions inside the human body has been actively investigated in impedance imaging areas such as electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and magnetic induction tomography (MIT). Since the conductivity and permittivity values exhibit frequency-dependent changes, it is worthwhile to perform spectroscopic imaging from almost dc to hundreds of MHz. To probe the human body, we may inject current using surface electrodes or induce current using external coils. In EIT and MIT, measured data are only available on the boundary or exterior of the body unless we invasively place sensors inside the body. Their image reconstruction problems are nonlinear and ill-posed to result in images with a relatively low spatial resolution. Noting that an MRI scanner can noninvasively measure magnetic fields inside the human body, electrical tissue property imaging methods using MRI have lately been proposed. Magnetic resonance EIT (MREIT) performs conductivity imaging at dc or below 1 kHz by externally injecting current into the human body and measuring induced internal magnetic flux density data using an MRI scanner. Magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT) produces both conductivity and permittivity images at the Larmor frequency of an MRI scanner based on B1-mapping techniques. Since internal data are only available in MREIT and MREPT, we may formulate well-posed inverse problems for image reconstructions. To develop related imaging techniques, we should clearly understand the basic principles of MREIT and MREPT, which are based on coupled physics of bioelectromagnetism and MRI as well as associated mathematical methods. In this paper, we describe the physical principles of MREIT and MREPT in a unified way and associate measurable quantities with the conductivity and permittivity. Clarifying the key relations among them, we examine existing image reconstruction algorithms to reveal their capabilities and limitations. We discuss technical issues in MREIT and MREPT and suggest future research directions to improve the quality of cross-sectional images of the electrical tissue properties.

  11. Adaptive enhancement of sea-surface targets in infrared images based on local frequency cues.

    PubMed

    Karali, A Onur; Okman, O Erman; Aytaç, Tayfun

    2010-03-01

    Image enhancement is an important preprocessing step of infrared (IR) based target recognition and surveillance systems. For a better visualization of targets, it is vital to develop image enhancement techniques that increase the contrast between the target and background and emphasize the regions in the target while suppressing noises and background clutter. This study proposes what we believe to be a novel IR image enhancement method for sea-surface targets based on local frequency cues. The image is transformed blockwise into the Fourier domain, and clustering is done according to the number of expected regions to be enhanced in the scene. Based on the variations in the elements in any cluster and the differences between the cluster centers in the frequency domain, two gain matrices are computed for midfrequency and high frequency images by which the image is enhanced accordingly. We provide results for real data and compare the performance of the proposed algorithm through subjective and quantitative tests with four different enhancement methods. The algorithm shows a better performance in the detail visibility of the target. PMID:20208942

  12. Polarized light spatial frequency domain imaging for non-destructive quantification of soft tissue fibrous structures

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Sharma, Manu; Hill, Michael; Sacks, Michael S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of soft tissue fiber orientation is fundamental to pathophysiology and biomechanical function in a multitude of biomedical applications. However, many existing techniques for quantifying fiber structure rely on transmitted light, limiting general applicability and often requiring tissue processing. Herein, we present a novel wide-field reflectance-based imaging modality, which combines polarized light imaging (PLI) and spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) to rapidly quantify preferred fiber orientation on soft collagenous tissues. PLI utilizes the polarization dependent scattering property of fibers to determine preferred fiber orientation; SFDI imaging at high spatial frequency is introduced to reject the highly diffuse photons and to control imaging depth. As a result, photons scattered from the superficial layer of a multi-layered sample are highlighted. Thus, fiber orientation quantification can be achieved for the superficial layer with optical sectioning. We demonstrated on aortic heart valve leaflet that, at spatial frequency of f = 1mm?1, the diffuse background can be effectively rejected and the imaging depth can be limited, thus improving quantification accuracy. PMID:25909033

  13. Infants' perception of pitch: Number of harmonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marsha G. Clarkson; Rhonda L. Martin; Sheridan G. Miciek

    1996-01-01

    This experiment assessed 7-month-old infants' discrimination of harmonic complexes containing two, three, or five harmonics. In an operant head-turn procedure, infants learned to discriminate between complexes having fundamental frequencies of 160 Hz and 200 Hz. Infants were then presented complexes that contained different-frequency harmonics and were required to categorize them on the basis of their fundamental frequencies. Finally, the fundamental

  14. Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy operation by imaging at the frequency shift minimum: The dip-df mode

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Rahe, Philipp, E-mail: rahe@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    In frequency modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy, the change of the cantilever frequency (?f) is used as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Around the ?f(z) minimum, however, stable feedback operation is challenging using a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback design due to the change of sign in the slope. When operated under liquid conditions, it is furthermore difficult to address the attractive interaction regime due to its often moderate peakedness. Additionally, the ?f signal level changes severely with time in this environment due to drift of the cantilever frequency f{sub 0} and, thus, requires constant adjustment. Here, we present an approach overcoming these obstacles by using the derivative of ?f with respect to z as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Rather than regulating the absolute value to a preset setpoint, the slope of the ?f with respect to z is regulated to zero. This new measurement mode not only makes the minimum of the ?f(z) curve directly accessible, but it also benefits from greatly increased operation stability due to its immunity against f{sub 0} drift. We present isosurfaces of the ?f minimum acquired on the calcite CaCO{sub 3}(101{sup ¯}4) surface in liquid environment, demonstrating the capability of our method to image in the attractive tip-sample interaction regime.

  15. Histotripsy Lesion Formation Using an Ultrasound Imaging Probe Enabled by a Low-Frequency Pump Transducer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuang-Wei; Hall, Timothy L; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2015-08-01

    When histotripsy pulses shorter than 2 cycles are applied, the formation of a dense bubble cloud relies only on the applied peak negative pressure (p-) exceeding the "intrinsic threshold" of the medium (absolute value of 26-30 MPa in most soft tissues). It has been found that a sub-threshold high-frequency probe pulse (3 MHz) can be enabled by a sub-threshold low-frequency pump pulse (500 kHz) where the sum exceeds the intrinsic threshold, thus generating lesion-producing dense bubble clouds ("dual-beam histotripsy"). Here, the feasibility of using an imaging transducer to provide the high-frequency probe pulse in the dual-beam histotripsy approach is investigated. More specifically, an ATL L7-4 imaging transducer (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA), pulsed by a V-1 Data Acquisition System (Verasonics, Redmond, WA, USA), was used to generate the high-frequency probe pulses. The low-frequency pump pulses were generated by a 20-element 345-kHz array transducer, driven by a custom high-voltage pulser. These dual-beam histotripsy pulses were applied to red blood cell tissue-mimicking phantoms at a pulse repetition frequency of 1 Hz, and optical imaging was used to visualize bubble clouds and lesions generated in the red blood cell phantoms. The results indicated that dense bubble clouds (and resulting lesions) were generated when the p- of the sub-threshold pump and probe pulses combined constructively to exceed the intrinsic threshold. The average size of the smallest reproducible lesions using the imaging probe pulse enabled by the sub-threshold pump pulse was 0.7 × 1.7 mm, whereas that using the supra-threshold pump pulse alone was 1.4 × 3.7 mm. When the imaging transducer was steered laterally, bubble clouds and lesions were steered correspondingly until the combined p- no longer exceeded the intrinsic threshold. These results were also validated with ex vivo porcine liver experiments. Using an imaging transducer for dual-beam histotripsy can have two advantages: (i) lesion steering can be achieved using the steering of the imaging transducer (implemented with the beamformer of the accompanying programmable ultrasound system), and (ii) treatment can be simultaneously monitored when the imaging transducer is used in conjunction with an ultrasound imaging system. PMID:25929995

  16. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

  17. Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n=2-6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory

    SciTech Connect

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-09-21

    We report the first optimum geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the ring pentamer and several water hexamer (prism, cage, cyclic and two book) at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. All five hexamer isomer minima previously reported by MP2 are also minima on the CCSD(T) potential energy surface (PES). In addition, all CCSD(T) minimum energy structures for the n=2-6 cluster isomers are quite close to the ones previously obtained by MP2 on the respective PESs, as confirmed by a modified Procrustes analysis that quantifies the difference between any two cluster geometries. The CCSD(T) results confirm the cooperative effect of the homodromic ring networks (systematic contraction of the nearest-neighbor (nn) intermolecular separations with cluster size) previously reported by MP2, albeit with O-O distances shorter by ~0.02 Å, indicating that MP2 overcorrects this effect. The harmonic frequencies at the minimum geometries were obtained by the double differentiation of the CCSD(T) energy using an efficient scheme based on internal coordinates that reduces the number of required single point energy evaluations by ~15% when compared to the corresponding double differentiation using Cartesian coordinates. Negligible differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are found for the librational modes, while uniform increases of ~15 and ~25 cm-1 are observed for the bending and “free” OH harmonic frequencies. The largest differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are observed for the harmonic hydrogen bonded frequencies. The CCSD(T) red shifts from the monomer frequencies (??) are smaller than the MP2 ones, due to the fact that the former produces shorter elongations (?R) of the respective hydrogen bonded OH lengths from the monomer value with respect to the latter. Both the MP2 and CCSD(T) results for the hydrogen bonded frequencies were found to closely follow the relation - ?? = s ? ?R, with a rate of s = 20.3 cm-1 / 0.001 Å. The CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies, when corrected using the MP2 anharmonicities obtained from second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2), produce anharmonicCCSD(T) estimates that are within < 60 cm-1 from the measured infrared (IR) active bands of the n=2-6 clusters and furthermore trace the observed red shifts with respect to the monomer (??) quite accurately. The energetic order between the various hexamer isomers on the PES (prism has the lowest energy) previously reported at MP2 was found to be preserved at the CCSD(T) level, whereas the inclusion of anharmonic corrections further stabilizes the cage among the hexamer isomers.

  18. A novel radio frequency coil for veterinary magnetic resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Bin; Huang, Kai-Wen; Wang, Wei-Min

    2010-07-01

    In this article, a novel designed radio frequency (RF) coil is designed and built for the imaging of puppies in a V-shape permanent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Two sets of Helmholtz coil pairs with a V-shape structure are used to improve the holding of an animal in the coil. The homogeneity and the sensitivity of the RF field in the coil are analysed by theoretical calculation. The size and the shape of the new coil are optimized and validated by simulation through using the finite element method (FEM). Good magnetic resonance (MR) images are achieved on a shepherd dog.

  19. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuno, Takashi, E-mail: e1417@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800??s) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200?V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2??m from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  20. CARS Imaging of Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Using Terahertz-Frequency Phonon Modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-ichi Shikata; Kazuhisa Endo; A. Nawahara; S. Nagano; H. Ito

    2007-01-01

    Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) via terahertz-frequency optical phonon modes was successfully applied to the imaging of periodically poled lithium niobate crystals. Using spectral changes in the E-mode (50-1100 cm-1 = 1.5-33 THz), periodic structures of ferroelectric domains (period: 20 mum) were clearly mapped with CARS signals.

  1. Near field focusing algorithm for high frequency ground penetration imaging radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell D. Brown; E. Douglas Lynch; David W. Mokry; James M. VanDamme; Richard A. Schneible; Michael C. Wicks

    1999-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been successfully used for imaging stratigraphic structures. The goal of our ground penetrating radar program is to provide a capability for strategic subsurface target detection for military applications. This paper describes an experimental approach to high frequency (HF) radar sub-surface profiling, and the results obtained from signal and data processing for deep tunnel detection. Ongoing experiments

  2. Robust image restoration for rotary motion blur based on frequency analysis

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    Robust image restoration for rotary motion blur based on frequency analysis Zheng Yuan* Jianxun Li Engineering Dongchuan Rd. 800# Shanghai, 200240, China Zhengfu Zhu Optical Signature of Targets spatial methods to deblur rotary motion blur raise an overregularization problem in the solution

  3. LOW FREQUENCY SOUND SPEED MEASUREMENTS PAIRED WITH COMPUTED X-RAY TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING IN GAS-

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Preston S.

    LOW FREQUENCY SOUND SPEED MEASUREMENTS PAIRED WITH COMPUTED X-RAY TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING IN GAS the overall void fraction (VF) and the bubble size distribution (BSD), both of which greatly effect varying fractions of biogenic gas bubbles or air bubbles. The acoustic resonator operated between 100

  4. Frequency domain ultrasound waveform tomography: breast imaging using a ring transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. Y.; Li, C.; Roy, O.; Schmidt, S.; Duric, N.

    2015-07-01

    Application of the frequency domain acoustic wave equation on data acquired from ultrasound tomography scans is shown to yield high resolution sound speed images on the order of the wavelength of the highest reconstructed frequency. Using a signal bandwidth of 0.4–1 MHz and an average sound speed of 1500 m s?1, the resolution is approximately 1.5?mm. The quantitative sound speed values and morphology provided by these images have the potential to inform diagnosis and classification of breast disease. In this study, we present the formalism, practical application, and in vivo results of waveform tomography applied to breast data gathered by two different ultrasound tomography scanners that utilize ring transducers. The formalism includes a review of frequency domain modeling of the wave equation using finite difference operators as well as a review of the gradient descent method for the iterative reconstruction scheme. It is shown that the practical application of waveform tomography requires an accurate starting model, careful data processing, and a method to gradually incorporate higher frequency information into the sound speed reconstruction. Following these steps resulted in high resolution quantitative sound speed images of the breast. These images show marked improvement relative to commonly used ray tomography reconstruction methods. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by obtaining similar results from two different ultrasound tomography devices. We also compare our method to MRI to demonstrate concordant findings. The clinical data used in this work was obtained from a HIPAA compliant clinical study (IRB 040912M1F).

  5. Stepped-frequency continuous-wave microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Hao; Arbabian, Amin

    2014-06-01

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic (TA) imaging combines the dielectric contrast of microwave imaging with the resolution of ultrasound imaging. Prior studies have only focused on time-domain techniques with short but powerful microwave pulses that require a peak output power in excess of several kilowatts to achieve sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This poses safety concerns as well as to render the imager expensive and bulky with requiring a large vacuum radio frequency source. Here, we propose and demonstrate a coherent stepped-frequency continuous-wave (SFCW) technique for TA imaging which enables substantial improvements in SNR and consequently a reduction in peak power requirements for the imager. Constructive and destructive interferences between TA signals are observed and explained. Full coherency across microwave and acoustic domains, in the thermo-elastic response, is experimentally verified and this enables demonstration of coherent SFCW microwave-induced TA imaging. Compared to the pulsed technique, an improvement of 17 dB in SNR is demonstrated.

  6. Stepped-frequency continuous-wave microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Hao, E-mail: haonan@stanford.edu; Arbabian, Amin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic (TA) imaging combines the dielectric contrast of microwave imaging with the resolution of ultrasound imaging. Prior studies have only focused on time-domain techniques with short but powerful microwave pulses that require a peak output power in excess of several kilowatts to achieve sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This poses safety concerns as well as to render the imager expensive and bulky with requiring a large vacuum radio frequency source. Here, we propose and demonstrate a coherent stepped-frequency continuous-wave (SFCW) technique for TA imaging which enables substantial improvements in SNR and consequently a reduction in peak power requirements for the imager. Constructive and destructive interferences between TA signals are observed and explained. Full coherency across microwave and acoustic domains, in the thermo-elastic response, is experimentally verified and this enables demonstration of coherent SFCW microwave-induced TA imaging. Compared to the pulsed technique, an improvement of 17?dB in SNR is demonstrated.

  7. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging of Zebrafish Embryo by High-Frequency Coded Excitation Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyoung; Lee, Jungwoo; Lau, Sien Ting; Lee, Changyang; Huang, Ying; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been developed as a non-invasive method for quantitative illustration of tissue stiffness or displacement. Conventional ARFI imaging (2–10 MHz) has been implemented in commercial scanners for illustrating elastic properties of several organs. The image resolution, however, is too coarse to study mechanical properties of micro-sized objects such as cells. This article thus presents a high-frequency coded excitation ARFI technique, with the ultimate goal of displaying elastic characteristics of cellular structures. Tissue mimicking phantoms and zebrafish embryos are imaged with a 100-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO3) transducer, by cross-correlating tracked RF echoes with the reference. The phantom results show that the contrast of ARFI image (14 dB) with coded excitation is better than that of the conventional ARFI image (9 dB). The depths of penetration are 2.6 and 2.2 mm, respectively. The stiffness data of the zebrafish demonstrate that the envelope is harder than the embryo region. The temporal displacement change at the embryo and the chorion is as large as 36 and 3.6 ?m. Consequently, this high-frequency ARFI approach may serve as a remote palpation imaging tool that reveals viscoelastic properties of small biological samples. PMID:22101757

  8. A frequency multiplication technique based on EUV near-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yijian; Shroff, Yashesh

    2014-03-01

    We present a simulation study of the near-field Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) imaging technique to break the diffraction limit of conventional lithography for spatial frequency multiplication. Rigorous electromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the near-field EUV imaging performance and its process capability. An optical index, depth of thickness fluctuation (DOT) is defined to characterize the tolerable variation of the imaging-layer thickness, which plays a key role in evaluating the feasibility of this lithography technology. High sensitivity of the near-field image (profile and amplitude) to both absorber CD and propagation depth is found in transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) illumination modes. Despite the attractive prospect of applying this near-field imaging technique for semiconductor manufacturing, technical challenges from its optical performance and process control are non-trivial.

  9. Video rate imaging of narrow band THz radiation based on frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekavec, Patrick F.; Kozlov, Vladimir G.; Mcnee, Ian; Spektor, Igor E.; Lebedev, Sergey P.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate video rate THz imaging by detecting a frequency upconverted signal with a CMOS camera. A fiber laser pumped, double resonant optical parametric oscillator generates THz pulses via difference frequency generation in a quasi-phasematched gallium arsenide (QPM-GaAs) crystal located inside the OPO cavity. The output produced THz pulses centered at 1.5 THz, with an average power up to 1 mW, a linewidth of <100 GHz, and peak power of >2 W. By mixing the THz pulses with a portion of the fiber laser pump (1064 nm) in a second QPM-GaAs crystal, distinct sidebands are observed at 1058 nm and 1070 nm, corresponding to sum and difference frequency generation of the pump pule with the THz pulse. By using a polarizer and long pass filter, the strong pump light can be removed, leaving a nearly background free signal at 1070 nm. For imaging, a Fourier imaging geometry is used, with the object illuminated by the THz beam located one focal length from the GaAs crystal. The spatial Fourier transform is upconverted with a large diameter pump beam, after which a second lens inverse transforms the upconverted spatial components, and the image is detected with a CMOS camera. We have obtained video rate images with spatial resolution of 1mm and field of view ca. 20 mm in diameter without any post processing of the data.

  10. A practical implementation of multifrequency widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongtao; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime, especially in kinetic studies in biomedical researches. However, the small range of modulation frequencies available in commercial instruments makes this technique limited in its applications. Herein, we describe a practical implementation of multifrequency widefield FD-FLIM using a pulsed supercontinuum laser and a direct digital synthesizer. In this instrument we use a pulse to modulate the image intensifier rather than the more conventional sine-wave modulation. This allows parallel multifrequency FLIM measurement using the Fast Fourier Transform and the cross-correlation technique, which permits precise and simultaneous isolation of individual frequencies. In addition, the pulse modulation at the cathode of image intensifier restores the loss of optical resolution caused by the defocusing effect when the cathode is sinusoidally modulated. Furthermore, in our implementation of this technique, data can be graphically analyzed by the phasor method while data are acquired, which allows easy fit-free lifetime analysis of FLIM images. Here, our measurements of standard fluorescent samples and a Föster resonance energy transfer pair demonstrate that the widefield multifrequency FLIM system is a valuable and simple tool in fluorescence imaging studies. PMID:23296945

  11. Nanoscale Subsurface Imaging of Nanocomposites via Resonant Difference-Frequency Atomic Force Ultrasonic Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, Sean A.; Cantrell, John H.; Lillehei, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope methodology, called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), has been developed. The method employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope engages the sample top surface. The cantilever is driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave at the sample surface generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create amplitude and phase-generated images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features. RDF-AFUM phase images of LaRC-CP2 polyimide polymer containing embedded nanostructures are presented. A RDF-AFUM micrograph of a 12.7 micrometer thick film of LaRC-CP2 containing a monolayer of gold nanoparticles embedded 7 micrometers below the specimen surface reveals the occurrence of contiguous amorphous and crystalline phases within the bulk of the polymer and a preferential growth of the crystalline phase in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticles. A RDF-AFUM micrograph of LaRC-CP2 film containing randomly dispersed carbon nanotubes reveals the growth of an interphase region at certain nanotube-polymer interfaces.

  12. Endoscopic tissue fluorescence life-time imaging by frequency doamin light-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeret, Jerome C.; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Studzinski, A.; Shangguan, C.; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1995-12-01

    An instrumentation is being developed to draw a fluorescence life-time map of tissue endoscopically. This fluorescence life-time of an endogenous or exogenous fluorochrome gives information about the physico-chemical environment which is thought to vary between normal and diseased tissue. The excitation light from a cw laser is modulated in amplitude at high frequencies by an electro-optic modulator and delivered to the endoscopic site through an optical fiber. The image of the tissue is spectrally split in two parts, the one being the backscattered excitation light, the other the fluorescence of the fluorochromes. Each image is focused on the photocathode of an image intensifier whose gain is modulated at the same frequency. By acquiring frames at different phases between the excitation and the emission, it is possible to calculate pixel by pixel the apparent fluorescence life-time of the corresponding tissue region.

  13. Far-field subwavelength imaging with near-field resonant metalens scanning at microwave frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Gong, Zhi-Shuang; Ding, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A method for far-field subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies using near-field resonant metalens scanning is proposed. The resonant metalens is composed of switchable split-ring resonators (SRRs). The on-SRR has a strong magnetic coupling ability and can convert evanescent waves into propagating waves using the localized resonant modes. In contrast, the off-SRR cannot achieve an effective conversion. By changing the switch status of each cell, we can obtain position information regarding the subwavelength source targets from the far field. Because the spatial response and Green’s function do not need to be measured and evaluated and only a narrow frequency band is required for the entire imaging process, this method is convenient and adaptable to various environment. This method can be used for many applications, such as subwavelength imaging, detection, and electromagnetic monitoring, in both free space and complex environments. PMID:26053074

  14. Far-field subwavelength imaging with near-field resonant metalens scanning at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Gong, Zhi-Shuang; Ding, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A method for far-field subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies using near-field resonant metalens scanning is proposed. The resonant metalens is composed of switchable split-ring resonators (SRRs). The on-SRR has a strong magnetic coupling ability and can convert evanescent waves into propagating waves using the localized resonant modes. In contrast, the off-SRR cannot achieve an effective conversion. By changing the switch status of each cell, we can obtain position information regarding the subwavelength source targets from the far field. Because the spatial response and Green's function do not need to be measured and evaluated and only a narrow frequency band is required for the entire imaging process, this method is convenient and adaptable to various environment. This method can be used for many applications, such as subwavelength imaging, detection, and electromagnetic monitoring, in both free space and complex environments. PMID:26053074

  15. High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; Mo, Jianhua; Helderman, Frank; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2013-06-01

    We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 - 12,500 rpm. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 ?m and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation distortion and found a location fluctuation of only 1.87° in repeated measurements of the same object. The probe was integrated in a high-speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging setup at 1310 nm. We demonstrated its performance with imaging ex vivo pig bronchial and in vivo goat lung.

  16. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.

    1998-10-27

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE{sub 01} mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper.

  17. High-speed camera with real time processing for frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Victor; Watt, David; Faris, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a high-speed camera system for frequency domain imaging suitable for applications such as in vivo diffuse optical imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging. 14-bit images are acquired at 2 gigapixels per second and analyzed with real-time pipeline processing using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Performance of the camera system has been tested both for RF-modulated laser imaging in combination with a gain-modulated image intensifier and a simpler system based upon an LED light source. System amplitude and phase noise are measured and compared against theoretical expressions in the shot noise limit presented for different frequency domain configurations. We show the camera itself is capable of shot noise limited performance for amplitude and phase in as little as 3 ms, and when used in combination with the intensifier the noise levels are nearly shot noise limited. The best phase noise in a single pixel is 0.04 degrees for a 1 s integration time. PMID:21750770

  18. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with a femtosecond high harmonic light source using a two-dimensional imaging electron analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, S.; Miaja-Avila, L.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H.; Aeschlimann, M.; Bauer, M.

    2007-08-01

    An experimental setup for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy using a femtosecond 1kHz high harmonic light source and a two-dimensional electron analyzer for parallel energy and momentum detection is presented. A selection of the 27th harmonic (41.85eV) from the harmonic spectrum of the light source is achieved with a multilayer Mo /Si double mirror monochromator. The extinction efficiency of the monochromator in selecting this harmonic is shown to be better than 7:1, while the transmitted bandwidth of the selected harmonic is capable of supporting temporal pulse widths as short as 3fs. The recorded E(k ) photoelectron spectrum from a Cu(111) surface demonstrates an angular resolution of better than 0.6° (=0.03Å-1 at Ekin ,e=36eV). Used in a pump-probe configuration, the described experimental setup represents a powerful experimental tool for studying the femtosecond dynamics of ultrafast surface processes in real time.

  19. Harmonic Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Scott; L. J. Black

    1938-01-01

    When plate current in a vacuum-tube amplifier flows for only a portion of the grid-excitation cycle, harmonics appear in the output circuit. The magnitude of any one of these harmonics depends upon the fraction of the fundamental cycle during which plate current flows. In the gradual transition from perfect class A to extreme class C operation, the magnitude of the

  20. Fast frequency sweeping in resonance-tracking SPM for high-resolution AFAM and PFM imaging.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Flores, C I; Gervacio-Arciniega, J J; Cruz-Valeriano, E; de Urquijo-Ventura, P; Gutierrez-Salazar, B J; Espinoza-Beltran, F J

    2012-12-14

    A new resonance-tracking (RT) method using fast frequency sweeping excitation was developed for quantitative scanning probe microscopy (SPM) imaging. This method allows quantitative imaging of elastic properties and ferroelectrical domains with nanoscale resolution at high data acquisition rates. It consists of a commercial AFM system combined with a high-frequency lock-in amplifier, a programmed function generator and a fast data acquisition card. The resonance-tracking method was applied to the atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) and to the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) modes. Plots of amplitude versus time and phase versus time for resonant spectra working with different sweeping frequencies were obtained to evaluate the response speed of the lock-in amplifier. It was proved that this resonance-tracking method allows suitable spectral acquisition at a rate of about 5 ms/pixel, which is useful for SPM imaging in a practical scanning time. In order to demonstrate the system performance, images of RT-AFAM for TiN films and RT-PFM for GeTe are shown. PMID:23149480

  1. Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging of Water Filled Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, Francisco; Rand, Danielle; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Evaporation and condensation of water on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces was monitored as a function of both temperature and time using x-ray Spatial Frequency Heterodyne Imaging (SFHI). SFHI is an imaging method that produces an absorption and scatter image from a single exposure, with increased sensitivity to variations in electron density relative to more common place x-ray imaging techniques. Different features seen in the temporal scatter intensity profiles recorded during evaporation and condensation revealed the existence of an absorption-desorption hysteresis. Effects on the previously mentioned phenomena due to chemical functionalization of the carbon nanotube surfaces were also observed. Functionalization increased the interaction potential between the MWCNT walls and water molecules, altering the evaporation event time scale and increasing the temperature at which condensation could take place. The observed temperature dependent changes in evaporation time scales coincide with the boiling point for confined water predicted by the Kelvin equation.

  2. Beating photo-degradation in sum-frequency imaging of chiral organic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taupier, Grégory; Boeglin, Alex; Crégut, Olivier; Mager, Loïc; Barsella, Alberto; G?sior, Katarzyna; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; (Honorat) Dorkenoo, Kokou D.

    2015-07-01

    Sum-frequency generation from chiral bulk media holds the promise of a powerful tool in the investigation of biological as well as artificial materials containing optically active elements. Since this technique is based on a nonlinear optical effect, the high intensities of the illuminating light sources may induce spurious artifacts. Using simple conjugated chromophores, we demonstrate that multi-photon induced irreversible photolysis may be avoided while keeping undiminished levels of sum-frequency signals. In addition we show that the concurrent multi-photon induced luminescence may provide complementary means of imaging samples.

  3. Switching circuit to improve the frequency modulation difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, N. K.; Dean, P.; Khanna, S. P.; Salih, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate new switching circuit for difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) imaging by amplitude modulation and lock in detection. The switching circuit is designed to improve the frequency modulation so that it can stably lock the amplitude modulation of the QCL and the detector output. The combination of a voltage divider and a buffer in switching circuit to quickly switch the amplitude of the QCL biases of 15.8 V and 17.2 V is successfully to increase the frequency modulation up to ˜100 Hz.

  4. Spectral discrimination of breast pathologies in situ using spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nationally, 25% to 50% of patients undergoing lumpectomy for local management of breast cancer require a secondary excision because of the persistence of residual tumor. Intraoperative assessment of specimen margins by frozen-section analysis is not widely adopted in breast-conserving surgery. Here, a new approach to wide-field optical imaging of breast pathology in situ was tested to determine whether the system could accurately discriminate cancer from benign tissues before routine pathological processing. Methods Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was used to quantify near-infrared (NIR) optical parameters at the surface of 47 lumpectomy tissue specimens. Spatial frequency and wavelength-dependent reflectance spectra were parameterized with matched simulations of light transport. Spectral images were co-registered to histopathology in adjacent, stained sections of the tissue, cut in the geometry imaged in situ. A supervised classifier and feature-selection algorithm were implemented to automate discrimination of breast pathologies and to rank the contribution of each parameter to a diagnosis. Results Spectral parameters distinguished all pathology subtypes with 82% accuracy and benign (fibrocystic disease, fibroadenoma) from malignant (DCIS, invasive cancer, and partially treated invasive cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy) pathologies with 88% accuracy, high specificity (93%), and reasonable sensitivity (79%). Although spectral absorption and scattering features were essential components of the discriminant classifier, scattering exhibited lower variance and contributed most to tissue-type separation. The scattering slope was sensitive to stromal and epithelial distributions measured with quantitative immunohistochemistry. Conclusions SFDI is a new quantitative imaging technique that renders a specific tissue-type diagnosis. Its combination of planar sampling and frequency-dependent depth sensing is clinically pragmatic and appropriate for breast surgical-margin assessment. This study is the first to apply SFDI to pathology discrimination in surgical breast tissues. It represents an important step toward imaging surgical specimens immediately ex vivo to reduce the high rate of secondary excisions associated with breast lumpectomy procedures. PMID:23915805

  5. Extremely High-Frequency Holographic Radar Imaging of Personnel and Mail

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    2006-08-01

    The awareness of terrorists covertly transporting chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents into government, military, and civilian facilities to harm the occupants has increased dramatically since the attacks of 9/11. Government and civilian security personnel have a need for innovative surveillance technology that can rapidly detect these lethal agents, even when they are hidden away in sealed containers and concealed either under clothing or in hand-carried items such as mailed packages or handbags. Sensor technology that detects BW and CW agents in mail or sealed containers carried under the clothing are under development. One promising sensor technology presently under development to defeat these threats is active millimeter-wave holographic radar imaging, which can readily image concealed items behind paper, cardboard, and clothing. Feasibility imaging studies at frequencies greater than 40 GHz have been conducted to determine whether simulated biological or chemical agents concealed in mail packages or under clothing could be detected using this extremely high-frequency imaging technique. The results of this imaging study will be presented in this paper.

  6. Clinical combination of multiphoton tomography and high frequency ultrasound imaging for evaluation of skin diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, K.; Speicher, M.; Koehler, M. J.; Scharenberg, R.; Elsner, P.; Kaatz, M.

    2010-02-01

    For the first time, high frequency ultrasound imaging, multiphoton tomography, and dermoscopy were combined in a clinical study. Different dermatoses such as benign and malign skin cancers, connective tissue diseases, inflammatory skin diseases and autoimmune bullous skin diseases have been investigated with (i) state-of-the-art and highly sophisticated ultrasound systems for dermatology, (ii) the femtosecond-laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspectTM and (iii) dermoscopes. Dermoscopy provides two-dimensional color imaging of the skin surface with a magnification up to 70x. Ultrasound images are generated from reflections of the emitted ultrasound signal, based on inhomogeneities of the tissue. These echoes are converted to electrical signals. Depending on the ultrasound frequency the penetration depth varies from about 1 mm to 16 mm in dermatological application. The 100-MHz-ultrasound system provided an axial resolution down to 16 ?m and a lateral resolution down to 32 ?m. In contrast to the wide-field ultrasound images, multiphoton tomography provided horizontal optical sections of 0.36×0.36 mm2 down to 200 ?m tissue depth with submicron resolution. The autofluorescence of mitochondrial coenzymes, melanin, and elastin as well as the secondharmonic- generation signal of the collagen network were imaged. The combination of ultrasound and multiphoton tomography provides a novel opportunity for diagnostics of skin disorders.

  7. Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromenteze, Thomas; Yurduseven, Okan; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah; Decroze, Cyril; Carsenat, David; Smith, David R.

    2015-05-01

    We present a 3D computational imaging system based on a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies. The core component of this system is an electrically large rectangular cavity with one corner re-shaped to catalyze mode mixing, often called a Sinai Billiard. The front side of the cavity is perforated with a grid of periodic apertures that sample the cavity modes and project them into the imaging scene. The radiated fields are scattered by the scene and are measured by low gain probe antennas. The complex radiation patterns generated by the cavity thus encode the scene information onto a set of frequency modes. Assuming the first Born approximation for scattering dynamics, the received signal is processed using computational methods to reconstruct a 3D image of the scene with resolution determined by the diffraction limit. The proposed mode-mixing cavity is simple to fabricate, exhibits low losses, and can generate highly diverse measurement modes. The imaging system demonstrated in this letter can find application in security screening and medical diagnostic imaging.

  8. Three-dimensional phantoms for curvature correction in spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Le, Hanh N. D.; Vo, Minh; Wang, Zhaoyang; Luu, Long; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity to surface profile of non-contact optical imaging, such as spatial frequency domain imaging, may lead to incorrect measurements of optical properties and consequently erroneous extrapolation of physiological parameters of interest. Previous correction methods have focused on calibration-based, model-based, and computation-based approached. We propose an experimental method to correct the effect of surface profile on spectral images. Three-dimensional (3D) phantoms were built with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic using an accurate 3D imaging and an emergent 3D printing technique. In this study, our method was utilized for the correction of optical properties (absorption coefficient ?a and reduced scattering coefficient ?s?) of objects obtained with a spatial frequency domain imaging system. The correction method was verified on three objects with simple to complex shapes. Incorrect optical properties due to surface with minimum 4 mm variation in height and 80 degree in slope were detected and improved, particularly for the absorption coefficients. The 3D phantom-based correction method is applicable for a wide range of purposes. The advantages and drawbacks of the 3D phantom-based correction methods are discussed in details. PMID:22741068

  9. Three-dimensional phantoms for curvature correction in spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu T A; Le, Hanh N D; Vo, Minh; Wang, Zhaoyang; Luu, Long; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C

    2012-06-01

    The sensitivity to surface profile of non-contact optical imaging, such as spatial frequency domain imaging, may lead to incorrect measurements of optical properties and consequently erroneous extrapolation of physiological parameters of interest. Previous correction methods have focused on calibration-based, model-based, and computation-based approached. We propose an experimental method to correct the effect of surface profile on spectral images. Three-dimensional (3D) phantoms were built with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic using an accurate 3D imaging and an emergent 3D printing technique. In this study, our method was utilized for the correction of optical properties (absorption coefficient ?(a) and reduced scattering coefficient ?(s)') of objects obtained with a spatial frequency domain imaging system. The correction method was verified on three objects with simple to complex shapes. Incorrect optical properties due to surface with minimum 4 mm variation in height and 80 degree in slope were detected and improved, particularly for the absorption coefficients. The 3D phantom-based correction method is applicable for a wide range of purposes. The advantages and drawbacks of the 3D phantom-based correction methods are discussed in details. PMID:22741068

  10. Discrete frequency infrared microspectroscopy and imaging with a tunable quantum cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Matthew R.; Reddy, Rohith K.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Gelber, Matthew K.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared imaging (FT-IR) is a well-established modality but requires the acquisition of a spectrum over a large bandwidth, even in cases where only a few spectral features may be of interest. Discrete frequency infrared (DF-IR) methods are now emerging in which a small number of measurements may provide all the analytical information needed. The DF-IR approach is enabled by the development of new sources integrating frequency selection, in particular of tunable, narrow-bandwidth sources with enough power at each wavelength to successfully make absorption measurements. Here, we describe a DF-IR imaging microscope that uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a source. We present two configurations, one with an uncooled bolometer as a detector and another with a liquid nitrogen cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detector and compare their performance to a commercial FT-IR imaging instrument. We examine the consequences of the coherent properties of the beam with respect to imaging and compare these observations to simulations. Additionally, we demonstrate that the use of a tunable laser source represents a distinct advantage over broadband sources when using a small aperture (narrower than the wavelength of light) to perform high-quality point mapping. The two advances highlight the potential application areas for these emerging sources in IR microscopy and imaging. PMID:23113653

  11. A high-frame rate high-frequency ultrasonic system for cardiac imaging in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Richard, William D; Cannata, Jonathan M; Feng, Ching C; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Yen, Jesse T; Shung, K Kirk

    2007-08-01

    We report the development of a high-frequency (30-50 MHz), real-time ultrasonic imaging system for cardiac imaging in mice. This system is capable of producing images at 130 frames per second (fps) with a spatial resolution of less than 50 microm. A novel mechanical sector probe was developed that utilizes a magnetic drive mechanism and custom-built servo controller for high speed and accuracy. Additionally, a very light-weight (< 0.28 g), single-element transducer was constructed and used to reduce the mass load on the motor. The imaging electronics were triggered according to the angular position of the transducer in order to compensate for the varying speed of the sector motor. This strategy ensured the production of equally spaced scan lines with minimal jitter. Wire phantom testing showed that the system axial and lateral resolutions were 48 microm and 72 microm, respectively. In vivo experiments showed that high-frequency ultrasonic imaging at 130 fps is capable of showing a detailed depiction of a beating mouse heart. PMID:17703669

  12. Discrete frequency infrared microspectroscopy and imaging with a tunable quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Kole, Matthew R; Reddy, Rohith K; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Gelber, Matthew K; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-12-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging is a well-established modality but requires the acquisition of a spectrum over a large bandwidth, even in cases where only a few spectral features may be of interest. Discrete frequency infrared (DF-IR) methods are now emerging in which a small number of measurements may provide all the analytical information needed. The DF-IR approach is enabled by the development of new sources integrating frequency selection, in particular of tunable, narrow-bandwidth sources with enough power at each wavelength to successfully make absorption measurements. Here, we describe a DF-IR imaging microscope that uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a source. We present two configurations, one with an uncooled bolometer as a detector and another with a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector and compare their performance to a commercial FT-IR imaging instrument. We examine the consequences of the coherent properties of the beam with respect to imaging and compare these observations to simulations. Additionally, we demonstrate that the use of a tunable laser source represents a distinct advantage over broadband sources when using a small aperture (narrower than the wavelength of light) to perform high-quality point mapping. The two advances highlight the potential application areas for these emerging sources in IR microscopy and imaging. PMID:23113653

  13. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  14. Comparison of articular cartilage images assessed by high-frequency ultrasound microscope and scanning acoustic microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Hagiwara; Yoshifumi Saijo; Akira Ando; Yoshito Onoda; Hideaki Suda; Eiichi Chimoto; Kouki Hatori; Eiji Itoi

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to compare images of a newly developed high-frequency ultrasound imaging system (HFUIS) and\\u000a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) and to calculate their Pearson product moment correlations with a view to applying HFUIS\\u000a for clinical use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cylindrical cartilage–bone complexes from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were obtained. The specimens were immersed in normal\\u000a saline and scanned by

  15. Combined spectrally encoded confocal microscopy and optical frequency domain imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, DongKyun; Suter, Melissa J.; Boudoux, Caroline; Yachimski, Patrick S.; Bouma, Brett E.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-02-01

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) are two reflectancebased imaging technologies that may be utilized for high-resolution microscopic screening of internal organs. SECM provides en face images of tissues with a high lateral resolution of 1-2 ?m, and a penetration depth of up to 300 ?m. OFDI generates cross-sectional images of tissue architecture with a resolution of 10-20 ?m and a penetration depth of 1- 2 mm. Since the two technologies yield complementary microscopic information on two different size scales (SECM-cellular and OFDI-architectural) that are commonly used for histopathologic evaluation, their combination may allow for more accurate optical diagnosis. Here, we report the integration of these two imaging modalities in a single bench top system. SECM images of swine small intestine showed the presence of goblet cells, and OFDI images revealed the finger-shaped villous architecture. In clinical study of 9 gastroesophageal biopsies from 8 patients, a diverse set of architectural and cellular features was observed, including squamous mucosa with mild hyperplasia and gastric antral mucosa with gastric pits and crypts. The capability of this multimodality device to enable the visualization of microscopic features on these two size scales supports our hypothesis that improved diagnostic accuracy may be obtained by merging these two technologies into a single instrument.

  16. Frame frequency prediction for Risley-prism-based imaging laser radar.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yafei; Zhou, Yuan; Hei, Mo; Fan, Dapeng

    2014-06-01

    A dual-wedge scanner has potential applications in laser imaging radar. To realize fast scanning imaging without a blind region, the rotation rates of the wedges have to be controlled to perform beam scanning along appropriate track paths. The first-order paraxial approximation method is employed to investigate the 2D scan patterns and path density for different angular frequency ratios of the wedges rotating steadily in the same and opposite directions. The frame rate of no-blind-region scanning imaging is estimated in terms of the imaging coverage requirement. The internal relations between the rotation rates, the instantaneous field of view (IFOV), and the imaging velocity are revealed. The results show that the spiral scanning trace, resulting from co-rotating wedges, is dense in the center and sparse at the edge of the scanning field. The reverse results can be obtained for the rosette scanning trace, resulting from counter-rotating wedges. The denser the scanning trace is, the longer the scan period is. The faster the wedges rotate and the wider the IFOV is, the higher the frame rate is. When the ratio of the width of IFOV to the angular radius of the scanning field is 0.15, the frame rate of no-blind-region spiral scanning imaging can be up to 18 fps for wedge rotation rate of 12000??r/min, and that for rosette scanning imaging can be up to 20 fps. PMID:24922434

  17. Low-Frequency Spectral Turn-Overs in Millisecond Pulsars Studied from Imaging Observations

    E-print Network

    Kuniyoshi, M; Lee, K J; Adebahr, B; Kramer, M; Noutsos, A

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of pulsar flux densities are of great importance for understanding the pulsar emission mechanism and for predictions of pulsar survey yields and the pulsar population at large. Typically these flux densities are determined from phase-averaged "pulse profiles", but this method has limited applicability at low frequencies because the observed pulses can easily be spread out by interstellar effects like scattering or dispersion, leading to a non-pulsed continuum component that is necessarily ignored in this type of analysis. In particular for the class of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) at frequencies below 200MHz, such interstellar effects can seriously compromise de- tectability and measured flux densities. In this paper we investigate MSP spectra based on a complementary approach, namely through investigation of archival con- tinuum imaging data. Even though these images lose sensitivity to pulsars since the on-pulse emission is averaged with off-pulse noise, they are insensitive to effects from s...

  18. Real-time processing for frequency domain optical imaging based on field programmable gated arrays.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongying

    2014-09-10

    Frequency domain optical imaging (OFDI) provides high resolution and sensitivity. However, the speed of the data processing program in C language limits its application. A real-time imaging system of OFDI based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) is proposed. It adopts a high-speed digitizer board PXI14400 from Signatec for interferometric data acquisition. The acquired data is processed in the user defined FPGA on board in real-time with a pipeline data processing algorithm. The algorithm eliminates the complex conjugate ambiguity, overcomes the swept laser source's nonlinearity in k-space, and allows the data to be processed continuously. We also provide an economic method of IQ demodulation for FPGA data processing. The design breaks through the speed bottleneck of data processing, and allows the system to process each sample point at a frequency of 200 MHz. PMID:25321669

  19. Open Positions at the Numerical Harmonic Analysis Group

    E-print Network

    Feichtinger, Hans Georg

    Open Positions at the Numerical Harmonic Analysis Group The Numerical Harmonic Analysis Group (Nu¨ochenig. The successful candidate will be part of the Numerical Harmonic Analysis group. NuHAG is an international abstract harmonic analysis to concrete computational problems in time-frequency analysis and sampling

  20. Progressive image coding using trellis-coded space-frequency quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigneurbieux, Pierre; Xiong, Zixiang

    2001-08-01

    This paper addresses progressive wavelet image coding within the trellis-coded space-frequency quantization (TCSFQ) framework. A method similar to that in [2] is used to approximately invert TCSFQ when decoding at rates lower than the encoding rate. Our experiments show that the loss incurred for progressive transmission is within one dB in PSNR and that the progressive coding performance of TCSFQ is competitive with that of the celebrated SPIHT coder at all rates.

  1. Characterization of nonmelanoma skin cancer for light therapy using spatial frequency domain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Zeitouni, Nathalie C.; Muffoletto, Daniel; Saager, Rolf; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Sunar, Ulas

    2015-01-01

    The dosimetry of light-based therapies critically depends on both optical and vascular parameters. We utilized spatial frequency domain imaging to quantify optical and vascular parameters, as well as estimated light penetration depth from 17 nonmelanoma skin cancer patients. Our data indicates that there exist substantial spatial variations in these parameters. Characterization of these parameters may inform understanding and optimization of the clinical response of light-based therapies. PMID:26137378

  2. An application system for automation of constant-time radio frequency electron paramagnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Taube; Sankaran Subramanian; Ramachandran Murugesan; Nallathamby Devasahayam; James B. Mitchell; Murali C. Krishna; John A. Cook

    2003-01-01

    A Windows based application system for data collection, Fourier reconstruction and analysis of pure phase encoded constant-time radio frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images, is described. The graphical user interface (GUI) of the system was written in MATLAB version 5.0, using its built-in GUI utilities. Design considerations of the application system included speed, flexibility and user-friendly data display and analysis.

  3. Characterization of nonmelanoma skin cancer for light therapy using spatial frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Daniel J; Zeitouni, Nathalie C; Muffoletto, Daniel; Saager, Rolf; Tromberg, Bruce J; Sunar, Ulas

    2015-05-01

    The dosimetry of light-based therapies critically depends on both optical and vascular parameters. We utilized spatial frequency domain imaging to quantify optical and vascular parameters, as well as estimated light penetration depth from 17 nonmelanoma skin cancer patients. Our data indicates that there exist substantial spatial variations in these parameters. Characterization of these parameters may inform understanding and optimization of the clinical response of light-based therapies. PMID:26137378

  4. Frequency domain ultrasound waveform tomography: breast imaging using a ring transducer.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, G Y; Li, C; Roy, O; Schmidt, S; Duric, N

    2015-07-01

    Application of the frequency domain acoustic wave equation on data acquired from ultrasound tomography scans is shown to yield high resolution sound speed images on the order of the wavelength of the highest reconstructed frequency. Using a signal bandwidth of 0.4-1 MHz and an average sound speed of 1500 m s(-1), the resolution is approximately 1.5?mm. The quantitative sound speed values and morphology provided by these images have the potential to inform diagnosis and classification of breast disease. In this study, we present the formalism, practical application, and in vivo results of waveform tomography applied to breast data gathered by two different ultrasound tomography scanners that utilize ring transducers. The formalism includes a review of frequency domain modeling of the wave equation using finite difference operators as well as a review of the gradient descent method for the iterative reconstruction scheme. It is shown that the practical application of waveform tomography requires an accurate starting model, careful data processing, and a method to gradually incorporate higher frequency information into the sound speed reconstruction. Following these steps resulted in high resolution quantitative sound speed images of the breast. These images show marked improvement relative to commonly used ray tomography reconstruction methods. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by obtaining similar results from two different ultrasound tomography devices. We also compare our method to MRI to demonstrate concordant findings. The clinical data used in this work was obtained from a HIPAA compliant clinical study (IRB 040912M1F). PMID:26110909

  5. Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n = 2-6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory.

    PubMed

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Aprà, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2013-09-21

    We report the first optimum geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the ring pentamer and several water hexamer (prism, cage, cyclic and two book) at the coupled-cluster including single, double, and full perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T))/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. All five examined hexamer isomer minima previously reported by Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) are also minima on the CCSD(T) potential energy surface (PES). In addition, all CCSD(T) minimum energy structures for the n = 2-6 cluster isomers are quite close to the ones previously obtained by MP2 on the respective PESs, as confirmed by a modified Procrustes analysis that quantifies the difference between any two cluster geometries. The CCSD(T) results confirm the cooperative effect of the homodromic ring networks (systematic contraction of the nearest-neighbor (nn) intermolecular separations with cluster size) previously reported by MP2, albeit with O-O distances shorter by ~0.02 Å, indicating that MP2 overcorrects this effect. The harmonic frequencies at the minimum geometries were obtained by the double differentiation of the CCSD(T) energy using an efficient scheme based on internal coordinates that reduces the number of required single point energy evaluations by ~15% when compared to the corresponding double differentiation using Cartesian coordinates. Negligible differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) frequencies are found for the librational modes, while uniform increases of ~15 and ~25 cm(-1) are observed for the bending and "free" OH harmonic frequencies. The largest differences between CCSD(T) and MP2 are observed for the harmonic hydrogen bonded frequencies, for which the former produces larger absolute values than the latter. Their CCSD(T) redshifts from the monomer values (??) are smaller than the MP2 ones, due to the fact that CCSD(T) produces shorter elongations (?R) of the respective hydrogen bonded OH lengths from the monomer value with respect to MP2. Both the MP2 and CCSD(T) results for the hydrogen bonded frequencies were found to closely follow the relation -?? = s · ?R, with a rate of s = 20.2 cm(-1)/0.001 Å for hydrogen bonded frequencies with IR intensities >400 km/mol. The CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies, when corrected using the MP2 anharmonicities obtained from second order vibrational perturbation theory, produce anharmonic CCSD(T) estimates that are within <60 cm(-1) from the measured infrared (IR) active bands of the n = 2-6 clusters. Furthermore, the CCSD(T) harmonic redshifts (with respect to the monomer) trace the measured ones quite accurately. The energetic order between the various hexamer isomers on the PES (prism has the lowest energy) previously reported at MP2 was found to be preserved at the CCSD(T) level, whereas the inclusion of anharmonic corrections further stabilizes the cage among the hexamer isomers. PMID:24070285

  6. Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n = 2-6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Aprà, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-09-01

    We report the first optimum geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the ring pentamer and several water hexamer (prism, cage, cyclic and two book) at the coupled-cluster including single, double, and full perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T))/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. All five examined hexamer isomer minima previously reported by Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) are also minima on the CCSD(T) potential energy surface (PES). In addition, all CCSD(T) minimum energy structures for the n = 2-6 cluster isomers are quite close to the ones previously obtained by MP2 on the respective PESs, as confirmed by a modified Procrustes analysis that quantifies the difference between any two cluster geometries. The CCSD(T) results confirm the cooperative effect of the homodromic ring networks (systematic contraction of the nearest-neighbor (nn) intermolecular separations with cluster size) previously reported by MP2, albeit with O-O distances shorter by ˜0.02 Å, indicating that MP2 overcorrects this effect. The harmonic frequencies at the minimum geometries were obtained by the double differentiation of the CCSD(T) energy using an efficient scheme based on internal coordinates that reduces the number of required single point energy evaluations by ˜15% when compared to the corresponding double differentiation using Cartesian coordinates. Negligible differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) frequencies are found for the librational modes, while uniform increases of ˜15 and ˜25 cm-1 are observed for the bending and "free" OH harmonic frequencies. The largest differences between CCSD(T) and MP2 are observed for the harmonic hydrogen bonded frequencies, for which the former produces larger absolute values than the latter. Their CCSD(T) redshifts from the monomer values (??) are smaller than the MP2 ones, due to the fact that CCSD(T) produces shorter elongations (?R) of the respective hydrogen bonded OH lengths from the monomer value with respect to MP2. Both the MP2 and CCSD(T) results for the hydrogen bonded frequencies were found to closely follow the relation -?? = s . ?R, with a rate of s = 20.2 cm-1/0.001 Å for hydrogen bonded frequencies with IR intensities >400 km/mol. The CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies, when corrected using the MP2 anharmonicities obtained from second order vibrational perturbation theory, produce anharmonic CCSD(T) estimates that are within <60 cm-1 from the measured infrared (IR) active bands of the n = 2-6 clusters. Furthermore, the CCSD(T) harmonic redshifts (with respect to the monomer) trace the measured ones quite accurately. The energetic order between the various hexamer isomers on the PES (prism has the lowest energy) previously reported at MP2 was found to be preserved at the CCSD(T) level, whereas the inclusion of anharmonic corrections further stabilizes the cage among the hexamer isomers.

  7. Modeling of second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of molecular quasi-one-dimensional aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovski, Valeri Z.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2007-01-01

    Far- and near-field second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SOM) of molecular quasi-one-dimensional aggregates, such as molecular nanoneedles, is modeled in the frame of the effective susceptibility concept formulated beyond the near-field approximation. Far- and near-field SOM images of molecular nanoneedles are calculated at both fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies for different polarization combinations. Far-field two-photon luminescence SOM is also considered, and the simulated images are found qualitatively consistent with the available experimental results.

  8. A Fundamental Suppression Type Harmonic Analyzer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Piddington

    1936-01-01

    The principles and design of an harmonic analyzer of novel form are described. The analyzer operates by suppressing the fundamental and passing the harmonics through an amplifier with a calibrated gain control to a cathode-ray oscillograph or vacuum tube voltmeter. The apparatus is designed for analysis of audio-frequency oscillations but could be used with frequencies of a much higher order

  9. Enhanced third harmonic generation in periodic structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mahalakshmi; Jolly Jose; S Dutta Gupta

    1996-01-01

    We consider third harmonic generation in a periodic layered medium with alternate nonlinear media. We show enhanced third\\u000a harmonic generation when the fundamental frequency matches one of the mode frequencies of the distributed feedback structure.\\u000a The observed feature is explained in terms of large local field enhancement for the fundamental wave.

  10. Dynamics of the solar chromosphere. V. High-frequency modulation in ultraviolet image sequences from TRACE

    E-print Network

    A. G. de Wijn; R. J. Rutten; T. D. Tarbell

    2007-06-13

    We search for signatures of high-frequency oscillations in the upper solar photosphere and low chromosphere in the context of acoustic heating of outer stellar atmospheres. We use ultraviolet image sequences of a quiet center-disk area from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) mission which were taken with strict cadence regularity. The latter permits more reliable high-frequency diagnosis than in earlier work. Spatial Fourier power maps, spatially averaged coherence and phase-difference spectra, and spatio-temporal k-f decompositions all contain high-frequency features that at first sight seem of considerable intrinsic interest but actually are more likely to represent artifacts of different nature. Spatially averaged phase difference measurement provides the most sensitive diagnostic and indicates the presence of acoustic modulation up to f=20 mHz (periods down to 50 seconds) in internetwork areas.

  11. Compensation of motion artifacts in intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging and optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jinyong; Yoo, Hongki; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracoronary optical coherence tomography and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) have been utilized for two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging of vascular microanatomy. Image quality and the spatial accuracy of multidimensional reconstructions, however, can be degraded due to artifacts resulting from relative motion between the intracoronary catheter and the vessel wall. To track the relative motion of a catheter with regard to the vessel, a motion tracking system was incorporated with a standard OFDI system by using wavelength division multiplexing techniques. Motion of the vessel was acquired by a frequency shift of the backscattered light caused by the Doppler effect. A single monochromatic beam was utilized for tracking the relative longitudinal displacements of a catheter-based fiber probe with regard to the vessel. Although two tracking beams are, in general, required to correct for longitudinal motion artifacts, the accurate reconstruction in a longitudinal view was achieved by the Doppler frequency information of a single beam. Our results demonstrate that the single beam based motion tracking scheme is a cost-effective, practical approach to compensating for longitudinal distortions due to cardiac dynamics, thus leading to accurate quantitative analysis of 3D intracoronary OFDI. PMID:21993895

  12. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Karla P; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-07-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13-47?MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices. PMID:25517512

  13. Multi-frequency synthetic-aperture imaging with a lightweight ground penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppenjan, Steven K.; Allen, Curt M.; Gardner, Duane; Wong, Howard R.; Lee, Hua; Lockwood, Stephanie J.

    2000-03-01

    The detection of buried objects, particularly hazardous waste containers and unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the Unites States in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing concern and the application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. The US Department of Energy's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), operated by Bechtel Nevada, has developed several frequency-modulated, continuous-wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units. To meet technical requirements for higher-resolution data, STL and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is investigating advanced GPR hardware, signal processing, and synthetic-aperture imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery-operated unit that does not require surface contact, can be operated by a novice user, and can achieve improved resolution. The latter is accomplished by using synthetic-aperture imaging, which forms the subsurface images by fully utilizing the data sequences collectively along a scan path. We also present the backward propagation algorithm as the basic structure of the multiple-frequency tomographic imaging technique, and the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT) method which can be described as a degenerated case of the model where the computation procedure is approximated under the narrow-beam assumption.

  14. Real-time imaging of in-vitro human middle ear using high frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Landry, Thomas G; Rainsbury, James W; Adamson, Robert B; Bance, Manohar L; Brown, Jeremy A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging techniques currently used in the clinic to inspect ears in patients are generally limited to views terminating at the tympanic membrane (TM) surface. For imaging past the TM, methods such as computed tomography are typically used, but in addition to disadvantages such as being costly, time consuming, and causing radiation exposure, these often do not provide sufficient resolution of the middle ear structures of interest. This study presents an investigation into the capability of high frequency ultrasound to image the middle ear with high resolution in real-time, as well as measure vibrations of TM and middle ear structures in response to sound stimuli. In unfixed cadaver ears, the TM, ossicles, and ossicular support tissues were all readily identifiable, with capabilities demonstrated for real-time imaging and video capture, and vibrometry of middle ear structures. Based on these results, we conclude that high frequency ultrasonography is a relatively simple and minimally invasive technology with great potential to provide clinicians with new tools for diagnosing and monitoring middle ear pathologies. PMID:25818516

  15. High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yah Leng; Taimre, Thomas; Bertling, Karl; Dean, Paul; Indjin, Dragan; Valavanis, Alexander; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Schaider, Helmut; Prow, Tarl W; Peter Soyer, H; Wilson, Stephen J; Linfield, Edmund H; Giles Davies, A; Raki?, Aleksandar D

    2014-11-01

    There is considerable interest in the interrogation of biological tissue at terahertz (THz) frequencies, largely due to the contrast in the optical properties of different biological tissues which occur in this electro-magnetic radiation band. Of particular interest are THz biomedical images, which have the potential to highlight different information than those acquired in other frequency bands, thereby providing an augmented picture of biological structures. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of an interferometric biological imaging technique using a THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating at 2.59 THz to perform coherent imaging of porcine tissue samples. We show the potential of this new THz biomedical imaging technique for in vivo studies, by virtue of its reflection geometry and useful tissue penetration depth enabled by the large THz powers emitted by the quantum cascade laser used in this work. The observed clustering of interferometric tissue signatures opens a pathway towards automatic techniques for the discrimination of healthy tissue types for the study of normal physiology and possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:25426324

  16. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): an ex vivo feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-03-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n = 43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 28). Two-dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10 s, 20 s and 30 s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11 W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and passive cavitation detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (??) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite the expectedly chaotic changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property changes throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with treatment duration, which was validated against pathology. In conclusion, multi-parametric HMIFU was shown capable of monitoring and mapping tissue viscoelastic response changes during and after HIFU boiling, some of which were independent of the acoustic parameter changes. PMID:24556974

  17. Enhanced frequency-domain optical image reconstruction in tissues through total-variation minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Keith D.; Jiang, Huabei

    1996-07-01

    Optical image reconstruction in heterogeneous turbid media is sensitive to noise, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement system is low. A total-variation-minimization-based iterative algorithm is described in this paper that enhances the quality of reconstructed images with frequency-domain data over that obtained previously with a regularized least-squares approach. Simulation experiments in an 8.6-cm-diameter circular heterogeneous region with low- and high-contrast levels between the target and the background show that the quality of the reconstructed images can be improved considerably when total-variation minimization is included. These simulated results are further verified and confirmed by images reconstructed from experimental data by the use of the same geometry and optically tissue-equivalent phantoms. Measures of imaging performance, including the location, size, and shape of the reconstructed heterogeneity, along with absolute errors in the predicted optical-property values are used to quantify the enhancements afforded by this new approach to optical image reconstruction with diffuse light. The results show improvements of up to 5 mm in terms of geometric information and an order of magnitude or more decrease in the absolute errors in the reconstructed optical-property values for the test cases examined.

  18. Motion of free spins and NMR imaging without a radio-frequency magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Kees van Schenk Brill; Jassem Lahfadi; Tarek Khalil; Daniel Grucker

    2015-04-19

    NMR imaging without any radio-frequency magnetic field is explained by a quantum treatment of independent spin~$\\tfrac 12$. The total magnetization is determined by means of their individual wave function. The theoretical treatment, based on fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics and solving explicitly the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with the kinetic energy part which gives the motion of free spins, is recalled. It explains the phase shift of the spin noise spectrum with its amplitude compared to the conventional NMR spectrum. Moreover it explains also the relatively good signal to noise ratio of NMR images obtained without a RF pulse. This derivation should be helpful for new magnetic resonance imaging sequences or for developing quantum computing by NMR.

  19. In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edward C.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Mujat, Mircea; Lim, Hyungsik; Yun, Seok H.

    2006-05-01

    Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) using swept laser sources is an emerging second-generation method for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Despite the widespread use of conventional OCT for retinal disease diagnostics, until now imaging the posterior eye segment with OFDI has not been possible. Here we report the development of a highperformance swept laser at 1050 nm and an ophthalmic OFDI system that offers an A-line rate of 18.8 kHz, sensitivity of >92 dB over a depth range of 2.4 mm with an optical exposure level of 550 ?W, and deep penetration into the choroid. Using these new technologies, we demonstrate comprehensive human retina, optic disc, and choroid imaging in vivo. This advance enables us to view choroidal vasculature in vivo without intravenous injection of fluorescent dyes and may provide a useful tool for evaluating choroidal as well as retinal diseases.

  20. Magnetically-coated silica nanospheres for dual-mode imaging at low ultrasound frequency

    PubMed Central

    Chiriacò, Fernanda; Soloperto, Giulia; Greco, Antonio; Conversano, Francesco; Ragusa, Andrea; Menichetti, Luca; Casciaro, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To experimentally investigate the acoustical behavior of different dual-mode nanosized contrast agents (NPCAs) for echographic medical imaging at low ultrasound (US) frequency. METHODS: We synthesized three different nanosized structures: (1) Pure silica nanospheres (SiNSs); (2) FePt-iron oxide (FePt-IO)-coated SiNSs; and (3) IO-coated SiNSs, employing three different diameter of SiNS-core (160, 330 and 660 nm). Tissue mimicking phantoms made of agarose gel solution containing 5 mg of different NPCAs in 2 mL-Eppendorf tubes, were insonified by a commercial echographic system at three different low US pulse values (2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 MHz). The raw radiofrequency signal, backscattered from each considered NPCA containing sample, has been processed in order to calculate the US average backscatter intensity and compare the acoustic behavior of the different NPCA types. RESULTS: The highest US contrast was exhibited by pure SiNSs; FePt-IO-coated SiNSs acoustical behavior followed a similar trend of pure SiNSs with a slight difference in terms of brightness values. The acoustic response of the examined NPCAs resulted function of both SiNS diameter and US frequency. Specifically, higher US frequencies determined higher value of the backscatter for a given SiNS diameter. Frequency-dependent enhancement was marked for pure SiNSs and became less remarkable for FePt-IO-coated SiNSs, whereas IO-coated SiNSs resulted almost unaffected by such frequency variations. Pure and FePt-IO-coated SiNSs evidenced an image backscatter increasing with the diameter up to 330 nm. Conversely, among the types of NPCA tested, IO-coated SiNSs showed the lowest acoustical response for each synthesized diameter and employed US frequency, although a diameter-dependent raising trend was evidenced. CONCLUSION: The US characterization of magnetically covered SiNS shows that FePt-IO, rather than IO, was the best magnetic coating for realizing NPCAs suitable for dual mode imaging of deep organs, combining US and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:24349645