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Sample records for frequency sinusoidal voltage

  1. The chording effect on core losses of three-phase induction motor under sinusoidal and PWM voltage supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Ram; Moses, A. J.; Anayi, F.

    The core losses and the lower-order voltage harmonics of four different chorded motors fed from sinusoidal supply and inverter voltage supply were invigilated at no-load condition. All the four motors were tested with 4, 8 and 16 kHz switching frequencies and 30, 40, 50 and 60 Hz modulation frequencies The motor with 120° coil pitch has the least core losses and the lower-order voltage harmonics under sinusoidal and pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage supplies at all switching and modulation frequencies. The drop in the core losses for this motor was 46% and 53% under sinusoidal and PWM voltage supplies, respectively. The motor with 120° coil pitch is recommended to be used under sinusoidal and PWM voltage supplies.

  2. Self-mixing vibration measurement using emission frequency sinusoidal modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yufeng; Wang, Ming; Guo, Dongmei; Hao, Hui; Liu, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a simplified phase demodulation scheme is applied to recover vibration trail on a laser self-mixing interferometer for noncontact vibration measurement. The emission of semiconductor laser diode is modulated by injecting sinusoidal wave, and corresponding interference signal is a quasi-sinusoid wave. The vibration mathematical model for semiconductor laser diode is theoretically educed from basic self-mixing theory, the variation of target is converted into phase information. The simulation of demodulation algorithm and standard deviation are presented and the reconstructed waveform displays a desirable consistence with various moving trails. Following the principle, a minimum experimental system is established and position variation of the target mirror driven by voltage signal is translated into phase shifts, feedback is controlled at weak level during experiment, Fourier transform is implemented to analyze phase information. The comparisons of both amplitude and velocity with a Germany Doppler vibrometer are performed to testify vibration model, the error of proposed demodulation method is less than 30 nm and achieve a high accuracy in vibration frequency. The experimental results indicate the traditional phase technology can be applied on complex optical power signal after adaption providing a feasible application prospects in industrial and scientific situation with an inexpensive semiconductor laser.

  3. Frequency to Voltage Converter Analog Front-End Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos; Raines, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The frequency to voltage converter analog front end evaluation prototype (F2V AFE) is an evaluation board designed for comparison of different methods of accurately extracting the frequency of a sinusoidal input signal. A configurable input stage is routed to one or several of five separate, configurable filtering circuits, and then to a configurable output stage. Amplifier selection and gain, filter corner frequencies, and comparator hysteresis and voltage reference are all easily configurable through the use of jumpers and potentiometers.

  4. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  5. Sinusoidal frequency modulation on laser diode for frequency stabilization and displacement measuring interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aketagawa, Masato; Vu, Thanh-Tung; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the sinusoidal frequency modulation on a laser diode (LD) to achieve both frequency stabilization of the LD and displacement measurement with a homodyne interferometer. The central frequency of the LD is stabilized to a Doppler broadened absorption line of an iodine (I2) molecule near the wavelength of 633 nm. The frequency of the LD is modulated across the absorption line and synchronous detection is utilized to detect the absorption signal. A simple and low-cost homodyne displacement-measuring interferometer can be constructed that can attain high measurement resolution.

  6. Comparison of atmospheric air plasmas excited by high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge and sinusoidal alternating current discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Wen-chun; Jiang, Peng-chao; Yang, De-zheng; Jia, Li; Wang, Sen

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure air discharge plasma in quartz tube is excited by 15 ns high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge (HVNPD) and sinusoidal alternating current discharge (SACD), respectively, and a comparison study of these two kinds of discharges is made through visual imaging, electrical characterization, optical detection of active species, and plasma gas temperature. The peak voltage of the power supplies is kept at 16 kV while the pulse repetition rate of nanosecond pulse power supply is 100 Hz, and the frequency of sinusoidal power supply is 10 kHz. Results show that the HVNPD is uniform while the SACD presents filamentary mode. For exciting the same cycles of discharge, the average energy consumption in HVNPD is about 1/13 of the SACD. However, the chemical active species generated by the HVNPD is about 2-9 times than that excited by the SACD. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures have been obtained via fitting the simulated spectrum of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-2) with the measured one, and the results show that the plasma gas temperature in the HVNPD remains close to room temperature whereas the plasma gas temperature in the SACD is about 200 K higher than that in HVNPD in the initial phase and continually increases as discharge exposure time goes on.

  7. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ha; Lee, Duck-Sik; Park, Choon-Sang; Park, Hyung Dal; Shin, Bhum Jae; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays a significant role in suppressing the irregular discharges caused by the irregular variation in memory voltage and stable discharge can be initiated with the termination of the auxiliary bias pulse. As a result of further investigating the effects of the auxiliary pulse scheme on the jet stability under various process conditions such as the distance between the jet head and the counter electrode, and carrier gas flow, the jet stability can be improved by adjusting the amplitude and number of the bias pulse depending on the variations in the process conditions.

  8. Blocking central pathways in the primate motor system using high-frequency sinusoidal current

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Karen M.; Jillani, Ngalla E.; Oluoch, George O.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation with high-frequency (210 kHz) sinusoidal currents has previously been shown to produce a transient and complete nerve block in the peripheral nervous system. Modeling and in vitro studies suggest that this is due to a prolonged local depolarization across a broad section of membrane underlying the blocking electrode. Previous work has used cuff electrodes wrapped around the peripheral nerve to deliver the blocking stimulus. We extended this technique to central motor pathways, using a single metal microelectrode to deliver focal sinusoidal currents to the corticospinal tract at the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized adult baboons. The extent of conduction block was assessed by stimulating a second electrode caudal to the blocking site and recording the antidromic field potential over contralateral primary motor cortex. The maximal block achieved was 99.6%, similar to findings of previous work in peripheral fibers, and the optimal frequency for blocking was 2 kHz. Block had a rapid onset, being complete as soon as the transient activation associated with the start of the sinusoidal current was over. High-frequency block was also successfully applied to the pyramidal tract at the medulla, ascending sensory pathways in the dorsal columns, and the descending systems of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. High-frequency sinusoidal stimulation produces transient, reversible lesions in specific target locations and therefore could be a useful alternative to permanent tissue transection in some experimental paradigms. It also could help to control or prevent some of the hyperactivity associated with chronic neurological disorders. PMID:25475345

  9. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.; Griffin, John C.

    2015-07-01

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. Using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  10. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we proposemore » a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.« less

  11. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  12. Action of vibration on the response of cat muscle spindle Ia afferents to low frequency sinusoidal stretching.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P B; Watson, J D

    1981-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the effect of continuous vibration, at 150 Hz, upon the response of muscle spindle afferents to low frequency sinusoidal stretching (1 and 8 Hz). Using the soleus muscle of the anaesthetized cat, with severed ventral roots, recordings were made of single Ia afferents and of the massed Ia afferent discharges in the main bulk of the cut L7 dorsal root. 2. When the amplitude of vibration was large (50 micrometers, short pulses) and that of the sinusoidal stretching was not too great (50-100 micrometers, peak-to-peak) the discharge of the afferents was largely locked 1:1 to the vibration and the response to the sinusoidal stretching was abolished. 3. When the amplitude of the vibration was reduced to below that eliciting continuous afferent driving, then the response to sinusoidal stretching of any amplitude was often markedly increased. This arose through the vibration having a much more powerful excitatory action during the rising phase of the sinusoidal stretch than it did during the falling phase. 4. Averaged over a full cycle, the phase of the response to the sinusoidal stretching tended to be delayed during the vibration in comparison with the normal. This was largely dependent upon the afferents continuing to respond maximally to the vibration around the peak of the sinusoidal stretch, at which stage their unvibrated response is declining, rather than to a phase lag of the whole pattern of response. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of vibration on tremor and the human stretch reflex, and on the determination of the frequency-response of spindle afferents. PMID:6458696

  13. Phase inhomogeneity effect (PIE) of the light output in high-frequency sinusoidally modulated semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Changzhi; Zhao Yiguang

    1988-10-01

    The physical mechanism of the PIE of the light output in a sinusoidally modulated semiconductor laser and the dependence of the PIE on the waveguide structure, mechanism, material parameter and working condition, etc. have been analyzed. Various possible ways to overcome the PIE have been proposed.

  14. 46 CFR 111.01-17 - Voltage and frequency variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voltage and frequency variations. 111.01-17 Section 111.01-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-17 Voltage and frequency variations....

  15. 46 CFR 111.01-17 - Voltage and frequency variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Voltage and frequency variations. 111.01-17 Section 111.01-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-17 Voltage and frequency variations....

  16. 46 CFR 111.01-17 - Voltage and frequency variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voltage and frequency variations. 111.01-17 Section 111.01-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-17 Voltage and frequency variations....

  17. 46 CFR 111.01-17 - Voltage and frequency variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voltage and frequency variations. 111.01-17 Section 111.01-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-17 Voltage and frequency variations....

  18. 46 CFR 111.01-17 - Voltage and frequency variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Voltage and frequency variations. 111.01-17 Section 111.01-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-17 Voltage and frequency variations....

  19. Quartz crystal microbalance based on passive frequency to voltage converter

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, Ioan; Tunyagi, Arthur

    2012-02-15

    In dynamics of evaporation or drying of microdrops from a solid surface, a faster and precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is needed. The fast QCM based on frequency to voltage converter is an attractive and powerful tool in the investigation of the dynamic regime of evaporation to translate the frequency shift in terms of a continuous voltage change. The frequency shift monitoring in fast QCM applications is a real challenge for electronic processing interface. Originally developed as a frequency shift processing interface, this novel passive frequency to voltage converter can produce faster, stable, and accurate results in regard to the QCM sensor behavior. In this article, the concept and circuit of passive frequency to voltage converter will be explained followed by static and dynamic characterization. Experimental results of microdrops evaporation will be given.

  20. Quartz crystal microbalance based on passive frequency to voltage converter.

    PubMed

    Burda, Ioan; Tunyagi, Arthur

    2012-02-01

    In dynamics of evaporation or drying of microdrops from a solid surface, a faster and precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is needed. The fast QCM based on frequency to voltage converter is an attractive and powerful tool in the investigation of the dynamic regime of evaporation to translate the frequency shift in terms of a continuous voltage change. The frequency shift monitoring in fast QCM applications is a real challenge for electronic processing interface. Originally developed as a frequency shift processing interface, this novel passive frequency to voltage converter can produce faster, stable, and accurate results in regard to the QCM sensor behavior. In this article, the concept and circuit of passive frequency to voltage converter will be explained followed by static and dynamic characterization. Experimental results of microdrops evaporation will be given. PMID:22380125

  1. Quartz crystal microbalance based on passive frequency to voltage converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Ioan; Tunyagi, Arthur

    2012-02-01

    In dynamics of evaporation or drying of microdrops from a solid surface, a faster and precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is needed. The fast QCM based on frequency to voltage converter is an attractive and powerful tool in the investigation of the dynamic regime of evaporation to translate the frequency shift in terms of a continuous voltage change. The frequency shift monitoring in fast QCM applications is a real challenge for electronic processing interface. Originally developed as a frequency shift processing interface, this novel passive frequency to voltage converter can produce faster, stable, and accurate results in regard to the QCM sensor behavior. In this article, the concept and circuit of passive frequency to voltage converter will be explained followed by static and dynamic characterization. Experimental results of microdrops evaporation will be given.

  2. Detection of sinusoidal amplitude modulation in logarithmic frequency sweeps across wide regions of the spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2010-01-01

    Many natural sounds such as speech contain concurrent amplitude and frequency modulation (AM and FM), with the FM components often in the form of directional frequency sweeps or glides. Most studies of modulation coding, however, have employed one modulation type in stationary carriers, and in cases where mixed-modulation sounds have been used, the FM component has typically been confined to an extremely narrow range within a critical band. The current study examined the ability to detect AM signals carried by broad logarithmic frequency sweeps using a 2-alternative forced-choice adaptive psychophysical design. AM detection thresholds were measured as a function of signal modulation rate and carrier sweep frequency region. Thresholds for detection of AM in a sweep carrier ranged from -8 dB for an AM rate of 8 Hz to -30 dB at 128 Hz. Compared to thresholds obtained for stationary carriers (pure tones and filtered Gaussian noise), detection of AM carried by frequency sweeps substantially declined at low (12 dB at 8 Hz) but not high modulation rates. Several trends in the data, including sweep- versus stationary-carrier threshold patterns and effects of frequency region were predicted from a modulation filterbank model with an envelope-correlation decision statistic. PMID:20144700

  3. Time- and spatially resolved emission spectroscopy of the dielectric barrier discharge for soft ionization sustained by a quasi-sinusoidal high voltage.

    PubMed

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Michels, Antje; Ahlmann, Norman; Jestel, Gnter; Veza, Damir; Vadla, Cedomil; Franzke, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    A helium capillary dielectric barrier discharge was investigated by means of time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy with the aim of elucidating the process of the formation of the plasma jet. The helium emission line at 706 nm was utilized to monitor spatial and temporal propagation of the excitation of helium atoms. The discharge was sustained with quasi-sinusoidal high voltage, and the temporal evolution of the helium atomic emission was measured simultaneously with the discharge current. The spatial development of the plasma was investigated along the discharge axis in the whole region, which covers the positions in the capillary between the electrodes as well as the plasma jet outside the capillary. The high voltage electrode was placed 2 mm from the capillary orifice, and the distance between the ground and high voltage electrode was 10 mm. The complete spatiotemporal grid of the development of the helium excitation has shown that during the positive half-period of the applied voltage, two independent plasmas, separated in time, are formed. First, the early plasma that constitutes the plasma jet is formed, while the discharge in the capillary follows subsequently. In the early plasma, the helium atom excitation propagation starts in the vicinity of the high voltage electrode and departs from the capillary towards the ground electrode as well as several millimeters outside of the capillary in the form of the plasma jet. After relatively slow propagation of the early plasma in the capillary and the jet, the second plasma starts between the electrodes. During the negative voltage period, only the plasma in the capillary between the electrodes occurs. PMID:26077750

  4. Performance analysis of cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter using mixed switching frequency with various dc-link voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citarsa, I. B. F.; Satiawan, I. N. W.; Wiryajati, I. K.; Supriono

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel inverters have been widely used in many applications since the technology is advantageous to increase the converter capability as well as to improve the output voltage quality. According to the applied switching frequency, multilevel modulations can be subdivided into three classes, i.e: fundamental switching frequency, high switching frequency and mixed switching frequency. This paper investigates the performance of cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel inverter that is modulated using mixed switching frequency (MSF) PWM with various dc-link voltage ratios. The simulation results show the nearly sinusoidal load output voltages are successfully achieved. It is revealed that there is improvement in output voltages quality in terms of THD and low-order harmonics content. The CHB inverter that is modulated using MSF PWM with equal dc-link voltage ratio (½ Vdc: ½ Vdc) produces output voltage with the lowest low-order harmonics (less than 1% of fundamental) while the CHB inverter that is modulated using MSF PWM with un-equal dc-link voltage ratio (2/3 Vdc: 1/3 Vdc) produces a 7-level output voltage with the lowest THD (16.31%) compared to the other PWM methods. Improvement of the output voltage quality here is also in line with improvement of the number of available levels provided in the output voltage. Here only 2 cells H-bridge inverter (contain 8 switches) are needed to produce a 7- level output voltage, while in the conventional CHB inverter at least 3 cells of H-bridge inverter (contain 12 switches) are needed to produce a 7-level output voltage. Hence it is valuable in term of saving number of component.

  5. BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES OF LOW-FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS ALONE AND SUPERIMPOSED ON RF CARRIER WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes in a historical context the experiments that have been performed to examine the biological responses caused by exposure to low frequency electromagnetic radiation directly or as modulation of RF carrier waves. A detailed review is provided of the independentl...

  6. Silver nanoparticles increase cytotoxicity induced by intermediate frequency low voltages.

    PubMed

    Yadegari-Dehkordi, Sajedeh; Sadeghi, Hamid Reza; Attaran-Kakhki, Neda; Shokouhi, Mahin; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Electrical properties of the cells play a key role in biological processes. Intermediate frequencies of electrical fields influence the cells proliferation without heat generation and electrical stimulation. Silver nanoparticle (SNP) as a metallic agent can change the electrical characteristics of the cells. We study the effect of low voltages at an intermediate frequency (300 kHz) on a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7) in the presence of SNPs. At first, cell toxicity of SNPs was determined at different concentrations. Then three different voltages were applied to the cells for 15?min, both in the presence and absence of SNPs. The treatments efficiency was evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that the intermediate frequency-low voltages with SNPs not only provide an additive efficacy on cytotoxicity, but also a synergism was observed between these factors. By increasing the voltage from 3 to 9?V, a rising synergistic rate was observed. It seems that the synergistic effect between SNPs and the 300?kHz low voltages can inhibit cell proliferation and/or increases cell death of MCF-7, and hence increases treatment efficiency of SNPs, effectively. PMID:24901460

  7. Analytical and computational investigations of airfoils undergoing high-frequency sinusoidal pitch and plunge motions at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Gregory Z.

    Current interests in Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technologies call for the development of aerodynamic-design tools that will aid in the design of more efficient platforms that will also have adequate stability and control for flight in gusty environments. Influenced largely by nature MAVs tend to be very small, have low flight speeds, and utilize flapping motions for propulsion. For these reasons the focus is, specifically, on high-frequency motions at low Reynolds numbers. Toward the goal of developing design tools, it is of interest to explore the use of elementary flow solutions for simple motions such as pitch and plunge oscillations to predict aerodynamic performance for more complex motions. In the early part of this research, a validation effort was undertaken. Computations from the current effort were compared with experiments conducted in a parallel, collaborative effort at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). A set of pure-pitch and pure-plunge sinusoidal oscillations of the SD7003 airfoil were examined. Phase-averaged measurements using particle image velocimetry in a water tunnel were compared with computations using two flow solvers: (i) an incompressible Navier-Stokes Immersed Boundary Method and (ii) an unsteady compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The motions were at a reduced frequency of k = 3.93, and pitch-angle amplitudes were chosen such that a kinematic equivalence in amplitudes of effective angle of attack (from plunge) was obtained. Plunge cases showed good qualitative agreement between computation and experiment, but in the pitch cases, the wake vorticity in the experiment was substantially different from that predicted by both computations. Further, equivalence between the pure-pitch and pure-plunge motions was not attained through matching effective angle of attack. With the failure of pitch/plunge equivalence using equivalent amplitudes of effective angle of attack, the effort shifted to include pitch-rate and wake-effect terms through the use of analytical methods including quasi-steady thin-airfoil theory (QSTAT) and Theodorsen's theory. These theories were used to develop three analytical approaches for determining pitch motions equivalent to plunge motions. A study of variation in plunge height was then examined and followed by a study of the effect of rotation point using the RANS solver. For the range of plunge heights studied, it was observed that kinematic matching between plunge and pitch using QSTAT gave outstanding similarities in flow field, while the matching performed using Theodorsen's theory gave the best equivalence in lift coefficients for all cases. The variation of rotation point revealed that, for the given plunge height, with rotation point in front of the mid-chord location, all three schemes matched flow-field vorticity well, and with rotation point aft of the mid-chord no scheme matched vorticity fields. However, for all rotation points (except for the mid-chord location), CFD prediction of lift coefficients from the Theodorsen matching scheme matched the lift time histories closely to CFD predictions for pure-pitch. Combined pitch and plunge motions were then examined using kinematic parameters obtained from the three schemes. The results showed that QSTAT nearly cancels the vortices emanating from the trailing edge. Theodorsen's matching approach was successful in generating a lift that was close to constant over the entire cycle. Additionally this approach showed the presence of the reverse Karman vortex sheet through the wake. Combined pitch/plunge motions were then analyzed, computationally and experimentally, with a non-zero mean angle of attack. All computational results compared excellently with experiments, capturing vorticity production on the airfoil's surface and through the wake. Lift coefficient through a cycle was shown to tend toward a constant using Theodorsen's parameters, with the constant being dependent on the initial angle of attack. This result points to the possibility of designing an unsteady motion to match a given flig

  8. A high voltage nanosecond pulser with independently adjustable output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Carscadden, John; Slobodov, Ilia

    2014-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT) is developing a high voltage nanosecond pulser capable of generating microwaves and non-equilibrium plasmas for plasma medicine, material science, enhanced combustion, drag reduction, and other research applications. The EHT nanosecond pulser technology is capable of producing high voltage (up to 60 kV) pulses (width 20-500 ns) with fast rise times (<10 ns) at high pulse repetition frequency (adjustable up to 100 kHz) for CW operation. The pulser does not require the use of saturable core magnetics, which allows for the output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency to be fully adjustable, enabling researchers to explore non-equilibrium plasmas over a wide range of parameters. A magnetic compression stage can be added to improve the rise time and drive lower impedance loads without sacrificing high pulse repetition frequency operation. Work supported in part by the US Navy under Contract Number N00014-14-P-1055 and the US Air Force under Contract Number FA9550-14-C-0006.

  9. High-frequency voltage oscillations in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Wiebke; Theiss, Stephan; Slotta, Johannes; Holland, Christine; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2015-05-11

    Because of their close interaction with neuronal physiology, astrocytes can modulate brain function in multiple ways. Here, we demonstrate a yet unknown astrocytic phenomenon: Astrocytes cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) exhibited extracellular voltage fluctuations in a broad frequency spectrum (100-600Hz) after electrical stimulation. These aperiodic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) could last several seconds and did not spread across the MEA. The voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist cilnidipine dose-dependently decreased the power of the oscillations. While intracellular calcium was pivotal, incubation with bafilomycin A1 showed that vesicular release of transmitters played only a minor role in the emergence of HFOs. Gap junctions and volume-regulated anionic channels had just as little functional impact, which was demonstrated by the addition of carbenoxolone (100?mol/L) and NPPB (100?mol/L). Hyperpolarization with low potassium in the extracellular solution (2mmol/L) dramatically raised oscillation power. A similar effect was seen when we added extra sodium (+50mmol/L) or if we replaced it with NMDG(+) (50mmol/L). The purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS suppressed the oscillation power, while the agonist ATP (100?mol/L) had only an increasing effect when the bath solution pH was slightly lowered to pH 7.2. From these observations, we conclude that astrocytic voltage oscillations are triggered by activation of voltage-gated calcium channels and driven by a downstream influx of cations through channels that are permeable for large ions such as NMDG(+). Most likely candidates are subtypes of pore-forming P2X channels with a low affinity for ATP. PMID:25969464

  10. High-frequency voltage oscillations in cultured astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Wiebke; Theiss, Stephan; Slotta, Johannes; Holland, Christine; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Because of their close interaction with neuronal physiology, astrocytes can modulate brain function in multiple ways. Here, we demonstrate a yet unknown astrocytic phenomenon: Astrocytes cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) exhibited extracellular voltage fluctuations in a broad frequency spectrum (100600Hz) after electrical stimulation. These aperiodic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) could last several seconds and did not spread across the MEA. The voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist cilnidipine dose-dependently decreased the power of the oscillations. While intracellular calcium was pivotal, incubation with bafilomycin A1 showed that vesicular release of transmitters played only a minor role in the emergence of HFOs. Gap junctions and volume-regulated anionic channels had just as little functional impact, which was demonstrated by the addition of carbenoxolone (100?mol/L) and NPPB (100?mol/L). Hyperpolarization with low potassium in the extracellular solution (2mmol/L) dramatically raised oscillation power. A similar effect was seen when we added extra sodium (+50mmol/L) or if we replaced it with NMDG+ (50mmol/L). The purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS suppressed the oscillation power, while the agonist ATP (100?mol/L) had only an increasing effect when the bath solution pH was slightly lowered to pH 7.2. From these observations, we conclude that astrocytic voltage oscillations are triggered by activation of voltage-gated calcium channels and driven by a downstream influx of cations through channels that are permeable for large ions such as NMDG+. Most likely candidates are subtypes of pore-forming P2X channels with a low affinity for ATP. PMID:25969464

  11. Automatic frequency control of voltage-controlled oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Optical-capacitive coupling is used for isolation of control voltages, such as the high-voltage level of a klystron control electrode that is not referenced to ground, to serve as error voltages referenced to system ground so that the magnitude and sense of correction may be transferred.

  12. Optical frequency domain reflectometry based fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor array using sinusoidal current modulation of laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Atsushi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Takahashi, Nobuaki

    2015-09-01

    We present multipoint vibration sensing using fiber Bragg gratings and optical frequency domain refrectometry (OFDR). In OFDR based method, the maximum number of arrayed sensor can be few thousands and the measurement time is determined by wavelength scanning rate of a light source. In our sensor system, a laser diode is used as a wavelength scanning light source. Lasing wavelength of a laser diode can be modulated by changing its injection current. The injection current can be precisely modulated at high frequency up to 1 MHz using a laser-diode controller and wavelength scanning can be then easily achieved with a laser diode.

  13. Systems and methods for process and user driven dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    DOEpatents

    Mallik, Arindam (Evanston, IL); Lin, Bin (Hillsboro, OR); Memik, Gokhan (Evanston, IL); Dinda, Peter (Evanston, IL); Dick, Robert (Evanston, IL)

    2011-03-22

    Certain embodiments of the present invention provide a method for power management including determining at least one of an operating frequency and an operating voltage for a processor and configuring the processor based on the determined at least one of the operating frequency and the operating voltage. The operating frequency is determined based at least in part on direct user input. The operating voltage is determined based at least in part on an individual profile for processor.

  14. Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Dorman, Daniel B; Bulka, Ben A; Shivers, Bethany L; Chancey, Valeta C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-10-01

    Whole body vibration has been postulated to contribute to the onset of back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and corresponding muscle responses of seated male volunteers during whole body vibration exposures along the vertical and anteroposterior directions to define the transmissibility and associated muscle activation responses for relevant whole body vibration exposures. Seated human male volunteers underwent separate whole body vibration exposures in the vertical (Z-direction) and anteroposterior (X-direction) directions using sinusoidal sweeps ranging from 2 to 18?Hz, with a constant amplitude of 0.4?g. For each vibration exposure, the accelerations and displacements of the seat and lumbar and thoracic spines were recorded. In addition, muscle activity in the lumbar and thoracic spines was recorded using electromyography (EMG) and surface electrodes in the lumbar and thoracic region. Transmissibility was determined, and peak transmissibility, displacement, and muscle activity were compared in each of the lumbar and thoracic regions. The peak transmissibility for vertical vibrations occurred at 4?Hz for both the lumbar (1.55??0.34) and thoracic (1.49??0.21) regions. For X-directed seat vibrations, the transmissibility ratio in both spinal regions was highest at 2?Hz but never exceeded a value of 1. The peak muscle response in both spinal regions occurred at frequencies corresponding to the peak transmissibility, regardless of the direction of imposed seat vibration: 4?Hz for the Z-direction and 2-3?Hz for the X-direction. In both vibration directions, spinal displacements occurred primarily in the direction of seat vibration, with little off-axis motion. The occurrence of peak muscle responses at frequencies of peak transmissibility suggests that such frequencies may induce greater muscle activity, leading to muscle fatigue, which could be a contributing mechanism of back pain. PMID:25010637

  15. Assessment of low-frequency hearing with narrow-band chirp-evoked 40-Hz sinusoidal auditory steady-state response.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Uzma S; Kaf, Wafaa A; Danesh, Ali A; Lichtenhan, Jeffery T

    2016-04-01

    Objective To determine the clinical utility of narrow-band chirp-evoked 40-Hz sinusoidal auditory steady state responses (s-ASSR) in the assessment of low-frequency hearing in noisy participants. Design Tone bursts and narrow-band chirps were used to respectively evoke auditory brainstem responses (tb-ABR) and 40-Hz s-ASSR thresholds with the Kalman-weighted filtering technique and were compared to behavioral thresholds at 500, 2000, and 4000 Hz. A repeated measure ANOVA and post-hoc t-tests, and simple regression analyses were performed for each of the three stimulus frequencies. Study sample Thirty young adults aged 18-25 with normal hearing participated in this study. Results When 4000 equivalent response averages were used, the range of mean s-ASSR thresholds from 500, 2000, and 4000 Hz were 17-22 dB lower (better) than when 2000 averages were used. The range of mean tb-ABR thresholds were lower by 11-15 dB for 2000 and 4000 Hz when twice as many equivalent response averages were used, while mean tb-ABR thresholds for 500 Hz were indistinguishable regardless of additional response averaging. Conclusion Narrow-band chirp-evoked 40-Hz s-ASSR requires a ∼15 dB smaller correction factor than tb-ABR for estimating low-frequency auditory threshold in noisy participants when adequate response averaging is used. PMID:26795555

  16. Electronic Frequency Converter Controls A. C. Voltage Using Fixed Power Factor Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunomura, Ken; Onishi, Mitsuru; Kai, Masahiko; Iio, Naotaka; Otsuki, Midori; Ishizuka, Tomotsugu

    In Tokaido Shinkansen, the power of a feeding substation increases in a short time because the train schedule is of high density and the acceleration performance of the rolling stock has improved. If the load power of the feeding substation increases further, the feeder voltage cannot be maintained when the power converter supplies only the reactive power. Because such a case was assumed in the frequency conversion section, we developed the Electronic Frequency Converter controls the A. C. voltage using the fixed power factor method. The Electronic Frequency Converter is under construction in the Numazu frequency conversion substation. We describe the domination of A. C. voltage control using the fixed power factor method.

  17. Modulation linearization of a frequency-modulated voltage controlled oscillator, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honnell, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the voltage versus frequency characteristics of a varactor modulated VHF voltage controlled oscillator in which the frequency deviation is linearized by using the nonlinear characteristics of a field effect transistor as a signal amplifier. The equations developed are used to calculate the oscillator output frequency in terms of pertinent circuit parameters. It is shown that the nonlinearity exponent of the FET has a pronounced influence on frequency deviation linearity, whereas the junction exponent of the varactor controls total frequency deviation for a given input signal. A design example for a 250 MHz frequency modulated oscillator is presented.

  18. A unifying explanation of complex frequency spectra of ? Dor, SPB and Be stars: combination frequencies and highly non-sinusoidal light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Murphy, Simon J.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Bowman, Dominic M.

    2015-07-01

    There are many Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) stars and ? Dor stars in the Kepler mission data set. The light curves of these pulsating stars have been classified phenomenologically into stars with symmetric light curves and with asymmetric light curves. In the same effective temperature ranges as the ? Dor and SPB stars, there are variable stars with downward light curves that have been conjectured to be caused by spots. Among these phenomenological classes of stars, some show `frequency groups' in their amplitude spectra that have not previously been understood. While it has been recognized that non-linear pulsation gives rise to combination frequencies in a Fourier description of the light curves of these stars, such combination frequencies have been considered to be a only a minor constituent of the amplitude spectra. In this paper, we unify the Fourier description of the light curves of these groups of stars, showing that many of them can be understood in terms of only a few base frequencies, which we attribute to g-mode pulsations, and combination frequencies, where sometimes a very large number of combination frequencies dominate the amplitude spectra. The frequency groups seen in these stars are thus tremendously simplified. We show observationally that the combination frequencies can have amplitudes greater than the base frequency amplitudes, and we show theoretically how this arises. Thus for some ? Dor and SPB stars, combination frequencies can have the highest observed amplitudes. Among the B stars are pulsating Be stars that show emission lines in their spectra from occasional ejection of material into a circumstellar disc. Our analysis gives strong support to the understanding of these pulsating Be stars as rapidly rotating SPB stars, explained entirely by g-mode pulsations.

  19. Collisionless sheath heating in current-driven capacitively coupled plasma discharges via higher order sinusoidal signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Mishra, S. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Das, A.; Sirse, N.; Turner, M. M.

    2015-04-01

    Collisionless heating of the electrons in the vicinity of the sheath region corresponding to higher order sinusoidal signals in a current-driven radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharge has been investigated analytically and further verified by particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation results for collisionless sheath heating are found to be in good agreement with analytical predictions. In contrast to the voltage driven case, it is demonstrated that a pure sinusoidal waveform gives maximum electron sheath heating with a current-driven configuration and the ion energy can be controlled by varying the pulse width.

  20. Sinusoidally Modulated Graphene Leaky-Wave Antenna for Electronic Beamscanning at THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquius-Morote, Marc; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept, analysis and design of a sinusoidally-modulated graphene leaky-wave antenna with beam scanning capabilities at a fixed frequency. The antenna operates at terahertz frequencies and is composed of a graphene sheet transferred onto a back-metallized substrate and a set of polysilicon DC gating pads located beneath it. In order to create a leaky-mode, the graphene surface reactance is sinusoidally-modulated via graphene's field effect by applying adequate DC bias voltages to the different gating pads. The pointing angle and leakage rate can be dynamically controlled by adjusting the applied voltages, providing versatile beamscanning capabilities. The proposed concept and achieved performance, computed using realistic material parameters, are extremely promising for beamscanning at THz frequencies, and could pave the way to graphene-based reconfigurable transceivers and sensors.

  1. Radio frequency current-voltage probe for impedance and power measurements in multi-frequency unmatched loads.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, T; Delattre, P A; Booth, J P; Johnson, E V; Dine, S

    2013-01-01

    A broad-band, inline current-voltage probe, with a characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, is presented for the measurement of voltage and current waveforms, impedance, and power in rf systems. The probe, which uses capacitive and inductive sensors to determine the voltage and current, respectively, can be used for the measurement of single or multi-frequency signals into both matched and unmatched loads, over a frequency range of about 1-100 MHz. The probe calibration and impedance/power measurement technique are described in detail, and the calibrated probe results are compared with those obtained from a vector network analyzer and other commercial power meters. Use of the probe is demonstrated with the measurement of power into an unmatched capacitively coupled plasma excited by multi-frequency tailored voltage waveforms. PMID:23387681

  2. Improvement of neurofeedback therapy for improved attention through facilitation of brain activity using local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Zandi Mehran, Yasaman; Firoozabadi, Mohammad; Rostami, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Traditional neurofeedback (NF) is a training approach aimed at altering brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms as feedback. In NF training, external factors such as the subjects' intelligence can have an effect. In contrast, a low-energy NF system (LENS) does not require conscious effort from the subject, which results in fewer attendance sessions. However, eliminating the subject role seems to eliminate an important part of the NF system. This study investigated the facilitating effect on the theta-to-beta ratio from NF training, using a local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field (LSELF-MF) versus traditional NF. Twenty-four healthy, intelligent subjects underwent 10 training sessions to enhance beta (15-18 Hz), and simultaneously inhibit theta (4-7 Hz) and high beta (22-30 Hz) activity, at the Cz point in a 3-boat-race video game. Each session consisted of 3 statuses, PRE, DURING, and POST. In the DURING status, the NF training procedure lasted 10 minutes. Subjects were led to believe that they would be exposed to a magnetic field during NF training; however, 16 of the subjects who were assigned to the experimental group were really exposed to 45 Hz-360 T LSELF-MF at Cz. For the 8 other subjects, only the coil was located at the Cz point with no exposure. The duty cycle of exposure was 40% (2-second exposure and 3-second pause). The results show that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of each group differs significantly from the PRE and POST statuses. Between-group analysis shows that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of the experimental group is significantly (P < .001) lower than in the sham group. The result shows the effect of LSELF-MF on NF training. PMID:24939868

  3. The role of the relative voltage and phase for frequency coupling in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Semmler, E.; Awakowicz, P.

    2008-08-25

    Frequency coupling in multifrequency discharges is a complex nonlinear interaction of the different frequency components. An alpha-mode low pressure rf capacitively coupled plasma operated simultaneously with two frequencies is investigated and the coupling of the two frequencies is observed to greatly influence the excitation and ionization within the discharge. Through this, plasma production and sustainment are dictated by the corresponding electron dynamics and can be manipulated through the dual-frequency sheath. These mechanisms are influenced by the relative voltage and also the relative phase of the two frequencies.

  4. Sinusoidal Tracking Control of a PWM Inverter with Inverse System Feedforward Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Toshiji; Inoue, Kaoru; Watanabe, Fumio

    Fast responses without any steady-state errors are required for control of a sinusoidal PWM inverter. There are two key points. One is that its reference voltage waveform is not constant but sinusoidal. It is necessary to design a compensator by considering these sinusoidal variations of the reference waveform to get a good steady-state and fast transient response. A sinusoidal tracking compensator which is based on the optimal control and the internal model principle has been proposed by the authors to realize a response with no deviation for a periodic sinusoidal reference input. The other is that compensator and feedback (FB) gains have a trade-off between responses and sensitivities to noises and they can not be too large. Feedforward(FF) compensation can improve responses without alternating system stabilities. This paper proposes a PWM control system which has a sinusoidal FB and an inverse system FF compensators. According to the inverse system FF compensation, appropriate nominal control input values are determined to give the reference steady-state response. Therefore the input values are computed by deconvolving a set of system response equations inversely. The proposed system is investigated and validated through theoretical and experimental results for a rated, an unbalanced, and a rectifier loads by using a simulator Matlab and a DSP system at the switching frequency of 20kHz. The proposed control showed better performances than the original FB and the preview controls.

  5. Stabilization of Gyrotron Frequency by PID Feedback Control on the Acceleration Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-12-01

    The results of frequency stabilization by proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control of acceleration voltage in the 460-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GVI (the official name in Osaka University is Gyrotron FU CW GOI) are presented. The experiment was organized on the basis of the frequency modulation by modulation of acceleration voltage of beam electrons. The frequency stabilization during 10 h experiment was better than 10-6, which is compared with the results of the frequency deviation in free-running gyrotron operation.

  6. Theory study on a photonic-assisted radio frequency phase shifter with direct current voltage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Ning, Ti-Gang; Pei, Li; Jian, Wei; You, Hai-Dong; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Hong-Yao; Zhang, Chan; Zheng, Jing-Jing

    2014-10-01

    A photonic-assisted radio frequency phase shifter with direct current voltage control is proposed using a polymer-based integrated MachZehnder modulator. A closed-form expression of radio frequency (RF) signal power and phase is given. Theoretical calculation reveals that by carefully setting the bias voltages, RF signal power variation lower than 1-dB and phase accuracy less than 3 can be achieved and are not degraded by perturbation of modulation index once the bias voltage drift is kept within -3% ~ 3%.

  7. Low-frequency switching voltage regulators for terrestrial photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The photovoltaic technology project and the stand alone applications project are discussed. Two types of low frequency switching type regulators were investigated. The design, operating characteristics and field application of these regulators is described. The regulators are small in size, low in cost, very low in power dissipation, reliable and allow considerable flexibility in system design.

  8. Electron heating of voltage-driven and matched dual frequency discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    In a dual frequency capacitive sheath, a high frequency uniform sheath motion is coupled with a low frequency Child law sheath motion. For current-driven high and low frequency sheaths, the high frequency sheath motion generates most of the ohmic and stochastic heating of the discharge electrons. The low frequency motion, in addition to its primary purpose of establishing the ion bombarding energy, also increases the heating by widening the sheath width and transporting the oscillating electrons to regions of lower plasma density, and hence higher sheath velocity. In this work, we show that for voltage-driven high and low frequency sheaths, increasing the low frequency voltage reduces the heating, due to the reduced high frequency current that flows through the sheath under voltage-driven conditions. We determine the dependence of the heating on various parameters and compare the results with the current-driven case. Particle-in-cell simulations are used to confirm this result. Discharges generally employ a matching network to maximize the power transmitted to the plasma. We obtain analytic expressions for the effect of the low frequency source under matched conditions and, again, find that the low frequency source reduces the heating.

  9. Frequency stabilization of a GaAlAs semiconductor laser by voltage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludvigsen, Hanne; Holmlund, Christer; Ikonen, Erkki; Junttila, Marja-Leena

    1992-06-01

    A frequency-stabilization method based on controlling the injection current and the voltage across the laser constant is presented. Frequency stability of 7 x 10 exp -8, and reproducibility of 3 x 10 exp -7, were obtained for a GaAlAs single-mode double heterostructure laser with a Fourier transform wavemeter.

  10. Effects of frequencies of AC modulation voltage on piezoelectric-induced images using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C.H. . E-mail: mmcjxu@polyu.edu.hk; Woo, C.H.; Shi, S.Q.; Wang, Y.

    2004-07-15

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film is prepared by sol-gel method on Pt/Ti electrode/SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer. Local poling is performed on the PZT film using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The topography and piezoelectric-induced (PEI) images on the polarized PZT film are recorded using AFM at piezo-responsive mode, operated with an AC voltage at varying frequencies. The best PEI image was obtained at the frequency around 300 kHz. It is explained that the change of piezoelectric vibrations and input noise signals with the frequency of AC modulation voltage affects the intensity of PEI images.

  11. Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Skowroński, Witold Frankowski, Marek; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Wrona, Jerzy; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Barnaś, Józef

    2014-08-18

    We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.

  12. The Coefficient of the Voltage Induced Frequency Shift Measurement on a Quartz Tuning Fork

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the coefficient of the voltage induced frequency shift (VIFS) of a 32.768 KHz quartz tuning fork. Three vibration modes were studied: one prong oscillating, two prongs oscillating in the same direction, and two prongs oscillating in opposite directions. They all showed a parabolic dependence of the eigen-frequency shift on the bias voltage applied across the fork, due to the voltage-induced internal stress, which varies as the fork oscillates. The average coefficient of the VIFS effect is as low as several hundred nano-Hz per millivolt, implying that fast-response voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-locked loops with nano-Hz resolution can be built. PMID:25414971

  13. Stability of highly nonlinear oxide-zinc resistors under continuous voltage of industrial frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanenko, K. B.; Sergeyev, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study of ZnO resistors for high-voltage overvoltage limiters without spark gaps was made, the purpose being to determine the dependence of their aging rate on the applied voltage and on the ambient temperature as well as on their initial current-voltage characteristic. Tests were performed on 150 strings of 10-15 resistors 28 mm in diameter each, connected in series and inserted in a thermosetting polyethylene tube. These strings were tested for a cumulative time of 115,000 hours with the ambient temperature varied from 0 C to 75 C and with the amplitude of the continuous voltage at 50 Hz frequency varied from 58% to 76% of the residual voltage. Accordingly, the aging process was found to have three stages: (1) initial transient buildup of aging rate; (2) power rising as linear function of time; and (3) power rising faster than resistor temperature, following loss of thermal balance and stability. An empirical relation for the aging rate is derived on this basis, including a voltage parameter which characterizes both current-voltage and power-voltage relations in the resistors.

  14. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms.

    PubMed

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics. PMID:26026522

  15. Analog-to-digital conversion for low-frequency waveforms based on the Josephson voltage standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mun-Seog; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Wan-Seop; Chong, Yonuk; Kwon, Sung-Won

    2010-11-01

    A waveform synthesizer adopting a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor junction array has been developed, which can generate arbitrary stepwise waveforms with a number of quantum-voltage steps up to 1 V level amplitude. As an application of the synthesizer, we have built a sampling voltmeter that measures the differential voltages between a sinusoidal waveform produced by a semiconductor-based ac source and the Josephson waveforms. We carried out extensive sampling measurements for a 50 Hz sine wave with 1 V amplitude, applying sampling apertures in the range of 55 µs <=ta <= 130 µs and using Josephson waveforms with 32, 60, 80 and 100 quantum steps. From the measurements, the amplitude of the ac waveform was determined with a type A uncertainty (k = 2) of 0.15 µV. Also, we elucidated how the phase jitter in the ac waveform is reflected in the overall uncertainty for the measurements. The type B uncertainty due to the jitter is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the type A uncertainty.

  16. Frequency spectra for admittances and voltage transfers measured on a three-phased power transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, M. H. J.; Vaessen, P. T. M.

    1987-10-01

    Frequency spectra for admittance and voltage transfer were measured on a 25 MVA 150/11 kV transformer. Recorded input and output pulses were processed with the aid of a FFT algorithm to give admittances and voltage transfers. The results are reliable between 1 kHz and some hundreds of kHz additional measurements were carried out with a sweep generator and with stationary frequencies. The spectra show large scale phenomena with superimposed maxima and minima probably caused by part-winding resonances. A simple model, consisting of lumped capacitances and inductances is given to reproduce the large scale behavior.

  17. Improved high-voltage, high-frequency square-wave generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernius, Mark T.; Chutjian, Ara

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a prototype high-voltage full-floating high-frequency square-wave generator which is an improved version of the generator developed by Bernius and Chutjian (1989). The present design overcomes possible momentary simultaneous ON states in the MOSFET configuration and is less susceptible to deleterious effects caused by the component aging and replacements with nonidentical parts. The circuit performs well over a wide voltage and frequency range, until a limit is imposed by the operating characteristics of the active MOSFET elements. Circuit diagrams are presented.

  18. Sinusoids and Phasors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balabanian, Norman; Root, Augustin A.

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who is familiar with integral calculus and electrical networks. The first portion of this booklet is concerned with sinusoids, their properties, and their mathematical and graphical representations. The second portion is concerned with phasors and the mathematical relationship between…

  19. Improved frequency/voltage converters for fast quartz crystal microbalance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R.; Kim, L. To Thi; Garcia, J. V.; Arnau, A.

    2008-04-15

    The monitoring of frequency changes in fast quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications is a real challenge in today's instrumentation. In these applications, such as ac electrogravimetry, small frequency shifts, in the order of tens of hertz, around the resonance of the sensor can occur up to a frequency modulation of 1 kHz. These frequency changes have to be monitored very accurately both in magnitude and phase. Phase-locked loop techniques can be used for obtaining a high performance frequency/voltage converter which can provide reliable measurements. Sensitivity higher than 10 mV/Hz, for a frequency shift resolution of 0.1 Hz, with very low distortion in tracking both the magnitude and phase of the frequency variations around the resonance frequency of the sensor are required specifications. Moreover, the resonance frequency can vary in a broad frequency range from 5 to 10 MHz in typical QCM sensors, which introduces an additional difficulty. A new frequency-voltage conversion system based on a double tuning analog-digital phase-locked loop is proposed. The reported electronic characterization and experimental results obtained with conducting polymers prove its reliability for ac-electrogravimetry measurements and, in general, for fast QCM applications.

  20. Frequency dependence of the onset voltage of electroconvection in the nematic liquid crystal N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochao; Bowers, Steve; Bajaj, Kapil; Ahlers, Guenter

    2003-03-01

    Onset voltages Vc of electroconvection in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell were measured as a function of the drive frequency ?/ 2 ?. The cell (from E.H.C Co, Ltd Japan) had a nominal spacing of 25 ?m and planar alignment. It was filled with the NLC Merck phase IV (N4). The NLC was doped with 0.1% by weight of tetra butylammonium bromide(TBAB) and the conductivity was near 1.0 10-6 (? m)-1 at 30^oC. At low frequencies (15 to 80Hz) the onset voltage dropped as the frequency increased. This is contrary to the usual interpretation of the standard model which yields Vc (1+?^2 ?^2)/[?^2-(1+?^2 ?^2)] (? is related to NLC material properities), with the charge relaxation time ?=?/ ( 4? ?) assumed to be independent of ?. Measurements at higher frequencies agreed reasonably with the standard model prediction. Further measurements using an AC bridge revealed that the dielectric constant ? is strongly frequency dependent at low frequencies, whereas the conductivity ? was roughly constant. Taking into account the frequency dependence of ? (and thus of ?), the onset-voltage measurements agreed fairly well with the standard-model prediction.

  1. High-frequency high-voltage high-power DC-to-DC converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    The current and voltage waveshapes associated with the power transitor and the power diode in an example current-or-voltage step-up (buck-boost) converter were analyzed to highlight the problems and possible tradeoffs involved in the design of high voltage high power converters operating at switching frequencies in the range of 100 Khz. Although the fast switching speeds of currently available power diodes and transistors permit converter operation at high switching frequencies, the resulting time rates of changes of current coupled with parasitic inductances in series with the semiconductor switches, produce large repetitive voltage transients across the semiconductor switches, potentially far in excess of the device voltage ratings. The need is established for semiconductor switch protection circuitry to control the peak voltages appearing across the semiconductor switches, as well as to provide the waveshaping action require for a given semiconductor device. The possible tradeoffs, as well as the factors affecting the tradeoffs that must be considered in order to maximize the efficiency of the converters are enumerated.

  2. On the profile of frequency and voltage dependent interface states and series resistance in MIS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dökme, İlbilge; Altındal, Şemsettin

    2007-04-01

    The variation in the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and conductance-voltage ( G/ ω- V) characteristics of Au/SiO 2/n-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure have been systematically investigated as a function of frequencies in the frequency range 0.5 kHz-10 MHz at room temperature. In addition, the forward and reverse bias current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of this structure were measured at room temperature. The high value of ideality factor was attributed to the high density of interface states localized at Si/SiO 2 interface and interfacial oxide layer. The density of interface states ( Nss) and the series resistance ( Rss) were calculated from I- V and C- V measurements using different methods and the effect of them on C- V and G/ω- V characteristics were deeply researched. At the same energy position near the top of valance band, the calculated Nss values, obtained without taking into account the series resistance of the devices almost one order of magnitude larger than Nss values obtained by taking into account Rss values. It is found that the C- V and G/ω- V curves exhibit a peak at low frequencies and the peak values of C and G/ ω decrease with increasing frequency. Also, the plots of Rs as a function of bias give two peaks in the certain voltage range at low frequencies. These observations indicate that at low frequencies, the charges at interface states can easily follow an AC signal and the number of them increases with decreasing frequency. The I- V, C- V and G/ ω- V characteristics of the MIS structure are affected not only with Rs but also Nss. Experimental results show that both the Rs and Co values should be taken into account in determining frequency-dependent electrical characteristics.

  3. Fast adaptive schemes for tracking voltage phasor and local frequency in power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kamwa, I.; Grondin, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Real-time measurements of voltage phasor and local frequency deviation find applications in computer-based relaying, static state estimation, disturbance monitoring and control. This paper proposes two learning schemes for fast estimation of these basic quantities. We attacked the problem from a system identification perspective, in opposition to the well-established Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) technique. It is shown that, from a simple non-linear model of the system voltage which involves only two parameters, the Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and the Least Means Squares (LMS) algorithms can each provide dynamic estimates of the voltage phasor. The finite derivative of the phase deviation, followed by a moving-average filter, then leads to the local frequency deviation. A constant forgetting factor included in these algorithms provides both fast adaptation in time-varying situations and good smoothing of the estimates when necessary.

  4. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Srensen, Karen Kristine; Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; McCuskey, Robert S; Smedsrd, Brd

    2015-01-01

    The liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) forms the fenestrated wall of the hepatic sinusoid and functions as a control post regulating and surveying the trafficking of molecules and cells between the liver parenchyma and the blood. The cell acts as a scavenger cell responsible for removal of potential dangerous macromolecules from blood, and is increasingly acknowledged as an important player in liver immunity. This review provides an update of the major functions of the LSEC, including its role in plasma ultrafiltration and regulation of the hepatic microcirculation, scavenger functions, immune functions, and role in liver aging, as well as issues that are either undercommunicated or confusingly dealt with in the literature. These include metabolic functions, including energy metabolic interplay between the LSEC and the hepatocyte, and adequate ways of identifying and distinguishing the cells. 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1751-1774, 2015. PMID:26426467

  5. Static current-voltage characteristics for radio-frequency induction discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Budyansky, A.; Zykov, A.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this work was to obtain experimentally such characteristic of Radio-Frequency Induction Discharge (RFID) that can play the role of its current-voltage characteristic (CVC) and to explain the nature of current and voltage jumps arising in RF coils at exciting of discharge. Experiments were made in quartz 5.5, 11, 20 cm diam tubes with outer RF coil at pressures 10--100 mTorr, at frequency 13.56 MHz and discharge power to 500 W. In case of outer coil as analogue of discharge voltage it`s convenient to use the value of the RF voltage U{sub R}, induced around outer perimeter of discharge tube. It is evident that current and voltage jumps arising at exciting of discharge are due to low output resistance of standard generators and negative slope of initial part of CVC. Three sets of such dependencies for different pressures were obtained for each diameter of tubes. The influence of different metal electrodes placed into discharge volume on CVC`s shape has been studied also. Experimental results can explain the behavior of HFI discharge as a load of RF generator and give data for calculation of RF circuit.

  6. Low noise frequency synthesizer with self-calibrated voltage controlled oscillator and accurate AFC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qin; Jinbo, Li; Jian, Kang; Xiaoyong, Li; Jianjun, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    A low noise phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology is introduced. A VCO noise reduction method suited for short channel design is proposed to minimize PLL output phase noise. A self-calibrated voltage controlled oscillator is proposed in cooperation with the automatic frequency calibration circuit, whose accurate binary search algorithm helps reduce the VCO tuning curve coverage, which reduces the VCO noise contribution at PLL output phase noise. A low noise, charge pump is also introduced to extend the tuning voltage range of the proposed VCO, which further reduces its phase noise contribution. The frequency synthesizer generates 9.75-11.5 GHz high frequency wide band local oscillator (LO) carriers. Tested 11.5 GHz LO bears a phase noise of-104 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The total power dissipation of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 48 mW. The area of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 0.3 mm2, including bias circuits and buffers.

  7. High voltage pulse power supply of piezoelectric transformer based on adaptive frequency tracking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ze-rong; Bai, Chun-yu; Li, Hua-bo

    2010-07-01

    The damage capacity of weapon systems is enhanced when all-electronic safety and arming device (ESAD) is applied, so that ESAD has been favored by the military power. ESAD must ensure the normal work in the stipulation of -40 °C ~ +60°C temperature. When high voltage pulse power supply of piezoelectric transformer (PT) is used in ESAD the charging time has the large dispersion and affects the striking capability of weapon systems. In order to control the inconsistency charging time due to environment temperature change the adaptive frequency tracking control system for high-voltage pulse power supply of PT is designed. Theoretical calculation of current lag angle under zero voltage switching condition for resonant current is derived. Sampling circuit and control circuit are designed by applying the phase-locked loop (PLL) control technology. Experiment results have proved that this control can ensure the consistency of converter output under different environment.

  8. Tuning of liquid-crystal birefringence using a square ac variable frequency voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Rachid; Falih Bendimerad, Djalal; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine; Vinouze, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that the birefringence of the liquid-crystal cell (LCC) can be varied by applying different frequency values of a single applied ac square voltage. For the experimental evaluation of the birefringence, associated with a certain wavelength ?, as a function of the frequency F LCC of the electrical signal applied to the LCC, we use, for the first time to our knowledge, what we call here a frequency-dependent transmission technique. It consists in measuring the transmission responses between crossed and parallel polarizers as a function of the frequency F LCC. Experimental tests were carried out using a 7 ?m-thick E63 nematic LCC and a laser source emitting at ? = 1.55 ?m with a launch power of -3 dBm. The tuning voltage V LCC applied to the LCC is an alternative square wave electrical signal whose frequency ranges from 0.5 to 15 kHz. The peak to peak amplitude of the electrical signal is 5 V. The curve of the measured variations of the optical path difference of the LCC versus the frequency F LCC has a positive slope. Application to the tuning of the center wavelength of the transmission response of a one stage hybrid birefringent filter is shown as a proof-of-principle test.

  9. Wave amplification by a relativistic electron beam in a planar electrostatic system with sinusoidal-ripple boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shichang

    2009-09-15

    Primary study is devoted to the amplification mechanism of electromagnetic fast wave by a relativistic electron beam in a planar electrostatic system, where the superplate of two parallel metallic plates is corrugated with sinusoidal ripples and connected to a negative voltage, while the subplate is smooth and grounded. In the system the electrostatic field governs the electrons to move along approximately sinusoidal trajectories and pumps the kinetic energy of electrons to the wave. Under exclusion of the space-charge wave effect and the Smith-Purcell effect, the fast wave gets relativistic Doppler upshift frequency and gain by extracting energy from a sheet electron beam, which is very similar to that in a free-electron laser pumped by a magnetostatic wiggler. Formulas derived and numerical analysis indicate that the amplification mechanism of wave pumped by the planar electrostatic system with sinusoidal ripples is favorable for a mildly relativistic electron beam to generate terahertz wave.

  10. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  11. Calcium channel dynamics limit synaptic release in response to prosthetic stimulation with sinusoidal waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Jeng, Jed S.; Kelly, Shawn K.; Hartveit, Espen; Fried, Shelley I.

    2011-08-01

    Extracellular electric stimulation with sinusoidal waveforms has been shown to allow preferential activation of individual types of retinal neurons by varying stimulus frequency. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying this frequency dependence as a step toward improving methods of preferential activation. In order to elucidate these mechanisms, we implemented a morphologically realistic model of a retinal bipolar cell and measured the response to extracellular stimulation with sinusoidal waveforms. We compared the frequency response of a passive membrane model to the kinetics of voltage-gated calcium channels that mediate synaptic release. The passive electrical properties of the membrane exhibited lowpass filtering with a relatively high cutoff frequency (nominal value = 717 Hz). This cutoff frequency was dependent on intra-axonal resistance, with shorter and wider axons yielding higher cutoff frequencies. However, we found that the cutoff frequency of bipolar cell synaptic release was primarily limited by the relatively slow opening kinetics of L- and T-type calcium channels. The cutoff frequency of calcium currents depended nonlinearly on stimulus amplitude, but remained lower than the cutoff frequency of the passive membrane model for a large range of membrane potential fluctuations. These results suggest that while it may be possible to modulate the membrane potential of bipolar cells over a wide range of stimulus frequencies, synaptic release will only be initiated at the lower end of this range.

  12. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.

  13. Fast optical frequency sweeping using voltage controlled oscillator driven single sideband modulation combined with injection locking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Wei, Fang; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-03-23

    An ultrafast optical frequency sweeping technique for narrow linewidth lasers is reported. This technique exploits the large frequency modulation bandwidth of a wideband voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) which works on the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation(CS-SSB). Optical frequency sweeping of a narrow linewidth fiber laser with 3.85 GHz sweeping range and 80 GHz/?s tuning speed is demonstrated, which is an extremely high tuning speed for frequency sweeping of narrow linewidth lasers. In addition, injection locking technique is adopted to improve the sweeper's low optical power output and small side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). PMID:25837048

  14. Effects of voltage errors caused by gap-voltage and automatic-frequency tuning in an alternating-phase-focused linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Y.; Yamada, S.; Murakami, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Fujisawa, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyahara, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Muramatsu, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, T.

    2008-05-01

    A compact injector for a heavy-ion medical-accelerator complex was developed. It consists of an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source (ECRIS) and two linacs, which are a radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac and an Interdigital H-mode drift-tube-linac (IH-DTL). Beam acceleration tests of the compact injector were performed, and the designed beam quality was verified by the measured results, as reported earlier. Because the method of alternating-phase-focusing (APF) was used for beam focusing of the IH-DTL, the motion of beam ions would be sensitive to gap-voltage errors, caused during tuning of the gap-voltage distribution and by automatic-frequency tuning in actual operation. To study the effects of voltage errors to beam quality, further measurements were performed during acceleration tests. In this report, the effects of voltage errors for the APF IH-DTL are discussed.

  15. Investigation of the frequency response of constant voltage anemometers in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi Hassanlouei, Atabak

    A commercially available anemometer system considered as a prototype, the constant voltage anemometer (CVA), is presented and its working principle is studied and analyzed. We detail the different procedures and corrections that have to be applied to voltage signals to deduce corresponding velocity signals, including the effect of the thermal inertia of the sensor. Results are compared to another anemometer system widely used in research and industry, the constant temperature anemometer (CTA), for validation requirements. Measurements are performed in the turbulent region of a subsonic axisymmetric jet and include mean velocities, root-mean-square (rms) values of velocity fluctuations and power spectral densities. In the same range of operation, we show that the two instruments give similar results. The CVA anemometer slightly underestimates the rms velocity values given by the CTA anemometer which is attributed to a non-linear effect. We show that the cut-off frequency of the CVA system is higher than the more commonly used CTA system, and that the electronic noise level is lower. The constant voltage anemometer is thus an excellent alternative to the constant temperature anemometer for low turbulent flows with rich frequency content, such as supersonic and hypersonic flows.

  16. High-frequency stimulation produces a transient blockade of voltage-gated currents in subthalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Beurrier, C; Bioulac, B; Audin, J; Hammond, C

    2001-04-01

    The effect of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was analyzed with patch-clamp techniques (whole cell configuration, current- and voltage-clamp modes) in rat STN slices in vitro. A brief tetanus, consisting of 100-micros bipolar stimuli at a frequency of 100--250 Hz during 1 min, produced a full blockade of ongoing STN activity whether it was in the tonic or bursting mode. This HFS-induced silence lasted around 6 min after the end of stimulation, was frequency dependent, could be repeated without alteration, and was not synaptically induced as it was still observed in the presence of blockers of ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptors or in the presence of cobalt at a concentration (2 mM) that blocks voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and synaptic transmission. During HFS-induced silence, the following alterations were observed: the persistent Na(+) current (I(NaP)) was totally blocked (by 99%), the Ca(2+)-mediated responses were strongly reduced including the posthyperpolarization rebound (-62% in amplitude) and the plateau potential (-76% in duration), suggesting that T- and L-type Ca(2+) currents are transiently depressed by HFS, whereas the Cs(+)-sensitive, hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (I(h)) was little affected. Thus a high-frequency tetanus produces a blockade of the spontaneous activities of STN neurons as a result of a strong depression of intrinsic voltage-gated currents underlying single-spike and bursting modes of discharge. These effects of HFS, which are completely independent of synaptic transmission, provide a mechanism for interrupting ongoing activities of STN neurons. PMID:11287459

  17. High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion technology of oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Yang, Yang; Lopatin, Vladimir; Guo, Wei; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong

    2014-05-01

    With the depletion of conventional energy sources,oil shale has got much attention as a new type of energy resource,which is rich and widespread in the world.The conventional utilization of oil shale is mainly focused on resorting to produce shale oil and fuel gas with low extraction efficiency about one in a million due to many shortcomings and limitations.And the in-situ conversion of oil shale,more environmentally friendly,is still in the experimental stage.High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion of oil shale is a new type of in-situ pyrolysis technology.The main equipment includes a high voltage-power frequency generator and interior reactor. The high voltage-power frequency generator can provide a voltage between 220-8000 V which can be adjusted in real time according to the actual situation.Firstly,high voltage is used to breakdown the oil shale to form a dendritic crack between two electrodes providing a conductive channel inside the oil shale rock.And then the power frequency(220V) is used to generate the electric current for heating the internal surface of conductive channel,so that the energy can be transmitted to the surrounding oil shale.When the temperature reaches 350 degree,the oil shale begins to pyrolysis.In addition,the temperature in the conductive channel can be extremely high with high voltage,which makes the internal surface of conductive channel graphitization and improves its heat conduction performance.This technology can successfully make the oil shale pyrolysis, based on a lot of lab experiments,and also produce the combustible shale oil and fuel gas.Compared to other in-situ conversion technology,this method has the following advantages: high speed of heating oil shale,the equipment underground is simple,and easy to operate;it can proceed without the limitation of shale thickness, and can be used especially in the thin oil shale reservoir;the heating channel is parallel to the oil shale layers,which has more effective area for heating and heat transmitting;it has very good adaptability to the formation,the location and depth of the electrodes which can be adjusted according to the specific stratigraphic depth case;A positive(negative) electrode can be connected to multiple negative(positive) electrodes,and the arrangement of the positive and negative electrodes can be evaluated for improving the extraction efficiency.High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion technology is a very promising in-situ pyrolysis method,which could provide a new way of mining oil shale resources.

  18. Radio-frequency sheath voltages and slow wave electric field spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, Laurent; Lu, Ling-Feng; K?ivsk, Alena; Jacquot, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate theoretically how sheath radio-frequency (RF) oscillations relate to the spatial structure of the RF parallel electric field emitted by Ion Cyclotron (IC) wave launchers, using a simple model of Slow Wave (SW) evanescence coupled with Direct Current (DC) plasma biasing via sheath boundary conditions in a plasma-filled 2-dimensional (parallel, radial) rectangle. Within a "wide sheaths" asymptotic regime, valid for large-amplitude near RF fields, our model becomes partly linear: the sheath oscillating voltage at open field line boundaries is a linear combination of elementary contributions by every source point of the radiated RF field map. These individual contributions are all the more intense as the SW emission point is toroidally nearer to the sheath walls. A limit formula is given for a source infinitely close to the sheaths. The decay of sheath RF voltages with the sheath/source parallel distance is quantified as a function of two characteristic SW evanescence lengths. Decay lengths are smaller than antenna parallel extensions. The sheath RF voltages at an IC antenna side limiter are therefore mainly sensitive to SW emission near this limiter, as recent observations suggest. Toroidal proximity effects could also explain why sheath oscillations persist with antisymmetric strap toroidal phasing, despite the parallel anti-symmetry of the radiated field map. They could also justify current attempts at reducing the RF fields induced near antenna boxes to attenuate sheath oscillations in their vicinity.

  19. All-Polymer modulator for high frequency low drive voltage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, David L. K.; Kozacik, Stephen; Shi, Shouyuan; Olbricht, Benjamin C.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2014-03-01

    Organic electro-optic material based optical modulators have been fervently pursued over the past two decades. The material properties of organic materials over crystalline electro-optic materials such as LiNbO3 have yielded devices with record low drive voltages and significant promise for high frequency operation that are ideal for implementation in many developing telecommunication technologies. This paper will discuss a TM electro-optic phase modulator based on a recently developed material IKD-1-50. A simple fabrication process that is compatible with wafer scale manufacturability using commercially available cladding materials, spin processing, standard photolithography, and dry etching will be presented. Non-centrosymmetric order is induced in the core material via a thermally enabled poling process that was developed based on work in simple slab waveguide material characterization devices, and optimized for polymer stack waveguide architectures. Basic phase modulators are characterized for half wave voltage and optical loss. In device r33 values are estimated from a combination of measured and simulated values. Additional work will be discussed including amplitude modulation and high frequency applications. The design for a Mach-Zehnder interferometer amplitude modulator that implements a multi mode interference cavity splitter will be presented along with plans for a microstrip transmission line traveling wave modulator.

  20. Effect of driving voltages in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma: A study by nonlinear global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, B.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of nonlinear global model, a dual frequency capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma driven by 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz has been studied to investigate the influences of driving voltages on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. Fluid equations for the ions inside the plasma sheath have been considered to determine the voltage-charge relations of the plasma sheath. Geometrically symmetric as well as asymmetric cases with finite geometrical asymmetry of 1.2 (ratio of electrodes area) have been considered to make the study more reasonable to experiment. The electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) and finite geometrical asymmetry is found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. The amount of EAE has been primarily controlled by the phase angle between the two consecutive harmonics waveforms. The incorporation of the finite geometrical asymmetry in the calculations shift the dc self-bias towards negative polarity direction while increasing the amount of EAE is found to increase the dc self-bias in either direction. For phase angle between the two waveforms ϕ = 0 and ϕ = π/2, the amount of EAE increases significantly with increasing the low frequency voltage, whereas no such increase in the amount of EAE is found with increasing high frequency voltage. In contrast to the geometrically symmetric case, where the variation of the dc self-bias with driving voltages for phase angle ϕ = 0 and π/2 are just opposite in polarity, the variation for the geometrically asymmetric case is different for ϕ = 0 and π/2. In asymmetric case, for ϕ = 0, the dc self-bias increases towards the negative direction with increasing both the low and high frequency voltages, but for the ϕ = π/2, the dc-self bias is increased towards positive direction with increasing low frequency voltage while dc self-bias increases towards negative direction with increasing high frequency voltage.

  1. Analysis of transistor and snubber turn-off dynamics in high-frequency high-voltage high-power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P. M.; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Dc to dc converters which operate reliably and efficiently at switching frequencies high enough to effect substantial reductions in the size and weight of converter energy storage elements are studied. A two winding current or voltage stepup (buck boost) dc-to-dc converter power stage submodule designed to operate in the 2.5-kW range, with an input voltage range of 110 to 180 V dc, and an output voltage of 250 V dc is emphasized. In order to assess the limitations of present day component and circuit technologies, a design goal switching frequency of 10 kHz was maintained. The converter design requirements represent a unique combination of high frequency, high voltage, and high power operation. The turn off dynamics of the primary circuit power switching transistor and its associated turn off snubber circuitry are investigated.

  2. A High Frequency Active Voltage Doubler in Standard CMOS Using Offset-Controlled Comparators for Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated active voltage doubler in CMOS technology using offset-controlled high speed comparators for extending the range of inductive power transmission to implantable microelectronic devices (IMD) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. This active voltage doubler provides considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and lower dropout voltage compared to its passive counterpart and requires lower input voltage than active rectifiers, leading to reliable and efficient operation with weakly coupled inductive links. The offset-controlled functions in the comparators compensate for turn-on and turn-off delays to not only maximize the forward charging current to the load but also minimize the back current, optimizing PCE in the high frequency (HF) band. We fabricated the active voltage doubler in a 0.5-μm 3M2P std. CMOS process, occupying 0.144 mm2 of chip area. With 1.46 V peak AC input at 13.56 MHz, the active voltage doubler provides 2.4 V DC output across a 1 kΩ load, achieving the highest PCE = 79% ever reported at this frequency. In addition, the built-in start-up circuit ensures a reliable operation at lower voltages. PMID:23853321

  3. A high frequency active voltage doubler in standard CMOS using offset-controlled comparators for inductive power transmission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated active voltage doubler in CMOS technology using offset-controlled high speed comparators for extending the range of inductive power transmission to implantable microelectronic devices (IMD) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. This active voltage doubler provides considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and lower dropout voltage compared to its passive counterpart and requires lower input voltage than active rectifiers, leading to reliable and efficient operation with weakly coupled inductive links. The offset-controlled functions in the comparators compensate for turn-on and turn-off delays to not only maximize the forward charging current to the load but also minimize the back current, optimizing PCE in the high frequency (HF) band. We fabricated the active voltage doubler in a 0.5-?m 3M2P std . CMOS process, occupying 0.144 mm(2) of chip area. With 1.46 V peak AC input at 13.56 MHz, the active voltage doubler provides 2.4 V DC output across a 1 k? load, achieving the highest PCE = 79% ever reported at this frequency. In addition, the built-in start-up circuit ensures a reliable operation at lower voltages. PMID:23853321

  4. An investigation into a method of detecting the fault induced high frequency voltage signals of EHV transmission lines for protection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a method of detecting the fault induced high frequency voltage signals of the EHV transmission lines for the protection applications. The method is based on the principle of power line carrier communication system using a stack tuner for detecting the high frequency voltage signals in a particular frequency bandwidth. The digitally simulated fault responses of different frequency bandwidths in kilo Hertz range and at different fault inception angles of the voltage waveform have been studied.

  5. Force sensor characterization under sinusoidal excitations.

    PubMed

    Medina, Nieves; de Vicente, Jess

    2014-01-01

    The aim in the current work is the development of a method to characterize force sensors under sinusoidal excitations using a primary standard as the source of traceability. During this work the influence factors have been studied and a method to minimise their contributions, as well as the corrections to be performed under dynamic conditions have been established. These results will allow the realization of an adequate characterization of force sensors under sinusoidal excitations, which will be essential for its further proper use under dynamic conditions. The traceability of the sensor characterization is based in the direct definition of force as mass multiplied by acceleration. To do so, the sensor is loaded with different calibrated loads and is maintained under different sinusoidal accelerations by means of a vibration shaker system that is able to generate accelerations up to 100 m/s2 with frequencies from 5 Hz up to 2400 Hz. The acceleration is measured by means of a laser vibrometer with traceability to the units of time and length. A multiple channel data acquisition system is also required to simultaneously acquire the electrical output signals of the involved instrument in real time. PMID:25290287

  6. Force Sensor Characterization Under Sinusoidal Excitations

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Nieves; de Vicente, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The aim in the current work is the development of a method to characterize force sensors under sinusoidal excitations using a primary standard as the source of traceability. During this work the influence factors have been studied and a method to minimise their contributions, as well as the corrections to be performed under dynamic conditions have been established. These results will allow the realization of an adequate characterization of force sensors under sinusoidal excitations, which will be essential for its further proper use under dynamic conditions. The traceability of the sensor characterization is based in the direct definition of force as mass multiplied by acceleration. To do so, the sensor is loaded with different calibrated loads and is maintained under different sinusoidal accelerations by means of a vibration shaker system that is able to generate accelerations up to 100 m/s2 with frequencies from 5 Hz up to 2400 Hz. The acceleration is measured by means of a laser vibrometer with traceability to the units of time and length. A multiple channel data acquisition system is also required to simultaneously acquire the electrical output signals of the involved instrument in real time. PMID:25290287

  7. Two stability islands of quadrupole mass filter near q = 0.9 created by auxiliary radio frequency voltage.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chan; Jiang, Gongyu; Konenkov, Nikolai V; Ding, Chuanfan

    2009-01-01

    We report the numerical investigations of quadrupole mass filters concerning stability islands created by auxiliary radio frequency (RF) voltage with high and low frequencies near q = 0.9. The islands are located along the q axis near boundary value q = 0.908 with a low a parameter. The analysis is based upon the matrix method for stability diagram calculations and ion trajectory numerical simulation. The trajectory of ion motions is generated using Runge-Kutta-Nystrom-Dormand-Prince (RK-N-DP) order integration. The ion source model with Gaussian distribution of initial positions and transverse velocities is used. In RF-only operation mode, a resolution power of about R(0.1) = 600 without peak tails is achieved with a separation time of about 50 RF cycles. Relatively high resolution power of about 2000-3000 is observed in DC+RF separation mode with a low frequency auxiliary RF signal. The boundaries of stability diagram for additional RF voltage with high frequency are strongly diffused until the separation time is increased up to n = 300 RF cycles. The strong influence of phase shifts between main drive RF voltage and small auxiliary RF voltage on transmission is also examined. In DC + RF mode, the period of transmission varies with phase shift of pi or one period of the main drive RF voltage; and in RF-only mode this period is pi/2. PMID:19940333

  8. Lightning-induced voltages caused by lighting strike to tall objects considering the effect of frequency dependent soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qilin; Chen, Yuan; Hou, Wenhao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we have analyzed the effect of frequency dependent soil (FDS) on the lightning-induced voltages caused by lightning subsequent return stroke for strike to tall objects ranging from 100 m to 300 m. It is found that the effect of FDS on the induced voltages peak can be approximately ignored when the low frequency conductivity (LFC) is equal to or larger than 0.01 S/m, and with the decrease of LFC, the effect of FDS on the lightning induced voltages is more obvious. Compared with the constant LFC, the induced voltage peak becomes less for FDS. For example, for a constant LFC of 0.001 S/m, the ratio of the induced voltages peak value for FDS to that for LFC is 83.2% at the line center and 66.8% at the line end for strike to 300-m-tall object, respectively. By using the decomposition method, we divide the lightning induced voltages into two components named by the incident induced waves (Vi) related with the vertical field and scattered induced waves (Vs) related with horizontal field, and it is found that FDS results into a less initial peak of tangential horizontal field along the overhead line and further results into a less induced voltage. Also, compared FDS with LFC, the FDS reduces the disparity of lightning induced voltages caused by different tall objects. For example, for the constant LFC, the induced voltage peak for strike to 300-m-tall object is 1.69 times larger than that for strike to 50-m-tall object. However, for the case of FDS, the corresponding ratio is about 1.2.

  9. Numerical Circuit Analysis of a Magnetic Oscillation Type Sinusoidal Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okanuma, Shinichi; Ogata, Yoshitomo

    This paper describes a circuit analysis of a magnetic oscillation type sinusoidal inverter. The inverter is connected to an ac voltage source such as the line power, and can supply electric power easily to the ac voltage source. The inverter utilizes a magnetic oscillation circuit constructed with power transistors and a nonlinear magnetic core. In order to quantitative analysis, we present a simulation model of the magnetic oscillation circuit based on a general purpose circuit simulation program SPICE. The simulation results of the oscillation voltage and current waveforms agree well with experimental ones.

  10. Cell property determination from the acoustic microscope generated voltage versus frequency curves.

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, T; Bereiter-Hahn, J; Karl, I

    2000-01-01

    Among the methods for the determination of mechanical properties of living cells acoustic microscopy provides some extraordinary advantages. It is relatively fast, of excellent spatial resolution and of minimal invasiveness. Sound velocity is a measure of the stiffness or Young's modulus of the cell. Attenuation of cytoplasm is a measure of supramolecular interactions. These parameters are of crucial interest for studies of cell motility, volume regulations and to establish the functional role of the various elements of the cytoskeleton. Using a phase and amplitude sensitive modulation of a scanning acoustic microscope (Hillman et al., 1994, J. Alloys Compounds. 211/212:625-627) longitudinal wave speed, attenuation and thickness profile of a biological cell are obtained from the voltage versus frequency or V(f) curves. A series of pictures, for instance in the frequency range 980-1100 MHz with an increment of 20 MHz, allows the experimental generation of V(f) curves for each pixel while keeping the lens-specimen distance unchanged. Both amplitude and phase values of the V(f) curves are used for obtaining the cell properties and the cell thickness profile. The theoretical analysis shows that the thin liquid layer, between the cell and the substrate, has a strong influence on the reflection coefficient and should not be ignored during the analysis. Cell properties, cell profile and the thickness of the thin liquid layer are obtained from the V(f) curves by the simplex inversion algorithm. The main advantages of this new method are that imaging can be done near the focal plane, therefore an optimal signal to noise ratio is achieved, no interference with Rayleigh waves occurs, and the method requires only an approximate estimate of the material properties of the solid substratum where the cells are growing on. PMID:10777725

  11. Surface potential imaging with atomic resolution by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy without bias voltage feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Lili; Ma, Zongmin; Li, Yan Jun; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Komiyama, Masaharu; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the capability of obtaining atomic resolution surface potential images by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy (FM-KPFM) without bias voltage feedback. We theoretically derived equations representing the relationship between the contact potential difference and the frequency shift (?f) of an oscillating cantilever. For the first time, we obtained atomic resolution images and site-dependent spectroscopic curves for ?f and VLCPD on a Si (111)-7 7 surface. FM-KPFM without bias voltage feedback does not involve the influence of the FM-KPFM controller because it has no deviation from a parabolic dependence of ?f on the dc-bias voltage. It is particularly suitable for investigation on molecular electronics and organic photovoltaics, because electron or ion movement induced by dc bias is avoided and the electrochemical reactions are inhibited.

  12. Surface potential imaging with atomic resolution by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy without bias voltage feedback.

    PubMed

    Kou, Lili; Ma, Zongmin; Li, Yan Jun; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Komiyama, Masaharu; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2015-05-15

    We investigated the capability of obtaining atomic resolution surface potential images by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy (FM-KPFM) without bias voltage feedback. We theoretically derived equations representing the relationship between the contact potential difference and the frequency shift (?f) of an oscillating cantilever. For the first time, we obtained atomic resolution images and site-dependent spectroscopic curves for ?f and VLCPD on a Si (111)-7נ7 surface. FM-KPFM without bias voltage feedback does not involve the influence of the FM-KPFM controller because it has no deviation from a parabolic dependence of ?f on the dc-bias voltage. It is particularly suitable for investigation on molecular electronics and organic photovoltaics, because electron or ion movement induced by dc bias is avoided and the electrochemical reactions are inhibited. PMID:25895740

  13. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  14. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and 0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  15. A MEMS Interface IC With Low-Power and Wide-Range Frequency-to-Voltage Converter for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an interface circuit for capacitive and inductive MEMS biosensors using an oscillator and a charge pump based frequency-to-voltage converter. Frequency modulation using a differential crossed coupled oscillator is adopted to sense capacitive and inductive changes. The frequency-to-voltage converter is designed with a negative feedback system and external controlling parameters to adjust the sensitivity, dynamic range, and nominal point for the measurement. The sensitivity of the frequency-to-voltage converter is from 13.28 to 35.96 mV/MHz depending on external voltage and charging current. The sensitivity ranges of the capacitive and inductive interface circuit are 17.08 to 54.4 mV/pF and 32.11 to 82.88 mV/mH, respectively. A capacitive MEMS based pH sensor is also connected with the interface circuit to measure the high acidic gastric acid throughout the digestive tract. The sensitivity for pH from 1 to 3 is 191.4 mV/pH with 550 μ V pp noise. The readout circuit is designed and fabricated using the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It occupies an area of 0.18 mm (2) and consumes 11.8 mW. PMID:26954843

  16. High frequency input impedance modeling of low-voltage residential installations - influence on lightning overvoltage simulations results.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Welson

    2014-01-01

    The overvoltage level of a system is strongly dependent on the connected loads and with more precise models, better and more reliable simulation results are obtained. This paper presents the input impedance characteristics, measured over a wide range of frequencies, of various actual low-voltage residential installations. The measured frequency responses were fitted by effective RLC models and a general model was also developed. The range of frequencies considered in the study, nearly d.c. up to 5 MHz, allows the use of these models for lightning or switching studies. It is also presented overvoltage simulations, using different residential installations models presented in the paper, of a distribution network subjected to lightning surges on the medium voltage circuit. PMID:26034685

  17. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOEpatents

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  18. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOEpatents

    Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  19. The operation of the electrooptical modulator of a magnetograph at low frequencies. I - Control voltage instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, V. S.; Osak, B. F.

    The topology of high-voltage pulse generator (HPG) circuits designed to control electrooptical modulators of polarized radiation in solar magnetographs is examined. A modified HPG circuit with multiple control which has been tested at the Sayan Observatory is described. The modification is based on the use of a high-voltage pulsed transistor.

  20. High frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of thermally grown SiO2 films on beta-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, S. M.; Berry, W. B.; Kwor, R.; Zeller, M. V.; Matus, L. G.

    1990-01-01

    Silicon dioxide films grown under dry and wet oxidation environment on beta-SiC films have been studied. The beta-SiC films had been heteroepitaxially grown on both on-axis and 2-deg off-axis (001) Si substrates. Capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures were measured in a frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. From these measurements, the interface trap density and the effective fixed oxide charge density were observed to be generally lower for off-axis samples.

  1. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed. PMID:23369281

  2. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network causing the bone strength and toughness augmentation, it apparently did not affect the mineral phase of the cortical bone material. The results also confirmed that the indirect application of high power pulsed electric field at 500 V and 10 kHz through capacitive coupling method was safe and did not destroy the bone tissue construction. PMID:24761375

  3. The Effect of High Voltage, High Frequency Pulsed Electric Field on Slain Ovine Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-01-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network causing the bone strength and toughness augmentation, it apparently did not affect the mineral phase of the cortical bone material. The results also confirmed that the indirect application of high power pulsed electric field at 500 V and 10 kHz through capacitive coupling method was safe and did not destroy the bone tissue construction. PMID:24761375

  4. The Digital Simulation of Synchronous Motors Fed by Voltage-Source Inverters Over Wide Speed and Frequency Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowihal, Said Soliman

    Both voltage-source and current-source inverters are widely used for supplying three-phase power to induction motor drives, each having their advantages and disadvantages. For high power drives and applications requiring accurate speed and tracking coordination, the synchronous motors are the optimum choice. For constant speed applications of synchronous motor drives, current-source inverters tend to be favored as the motor can usually be operated in the overexcited leading power factor region, thus providing the inverter with sufficient electro-motive force to allow natural commutation. Generally speaking low speed operation of synchronous motors is not satisfactory from naturally commutated current-source inverters. To provide a dynamic range of speed and frequency would require expensive control circuitry and complicates the performance of the drive. The advantage of the voltage-source inverter for the wide range of speed and frequency control herein envisaged is that forced commutation is employed throughout the range and the commutating circuits have been well developed and established. On balance, voltage-source inverters represent a viable compromise for variable-speed three -phase synchronous motor drives including start-up. To investigate the transient response of the voltage -source fed-synchronous motor drives, a digital computer program is developed. The program is based on two models --machine model and inverter model. The machine is represented by a detailed two-axis model which includes the effects due to saliency, damper windings, and machine resistances. The inverter model represents a forced-commutated voltage-source inverter assuming ideal switching devices (thyristors and diodes). To cope with the wide variations of power factor during start-up, a thyristor with a reverse connected parallel diode are integrated as a bidirectional switch. The digital program provides the machine variables of interest (phase currents, field current, damper winding currents, and electromagnetic torque). Two start-up techniques are investigated: fixed-frequency fixed-voltage start-up and variable-frequency start-up with constant voltage per Hertz ratio (v/f) control. The second technique has valuable consequences because it relieves the stresses imposed on the inverter and the motor due to inrush currents encountered when the first technique is employed. Simulation results are obtained for both start-up techniques. To check the validity of the inverter model, the results are compared with those obtained when the motor is started from a conventional three-phase supply. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  5. Extremely-low-frequency magnetic field exposure of children at schools near high voltage transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Fu-Li; Lee, Pei-Chen; Silva, Michael; Mezei, Gabor

    2007-04-15

    Many epidemiological studies have investigated residential exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) for children, but exposure at schools where children may stay up to 8 h every weekday was rarely considered. Between March and June 2004, we carried out a field study in Taipei City and County of northern Taiwan to explore ELF-MF exposure pattern among children at schools with high voltage transmission lines (HVTL) running through the campuses. One hundred and one children attending 14 schools with nearby HVTL (exposed group) and 123 children of 18 schools at least 100 m away from HVTL (unexposed group) were monitored for 24-hour personal ELF-MF exposure. Selected classrooms and playgrounds within the buffer regions (i.e., within 30 m of HVTL) and those away from the buffer regions were also assessed, using spot measurements, to determine the extent to which HVTL may contribute to the environmental exposure on campuses. Results show that the two groups didn't differ significantly for both mean exposure and proportion of exposure greater than 0.4 micro-Tesla (microT) estimated for 24 h. However, we noted that 17.8% of the exposed children had a personal mean exposure greater than 0.4 microT during school hours, significantly (p=0.011) higher than that (6.5%) estimated for the unexposed children. An even higher percentage (27.3%) was observed for 11 students with their classrooms intersecting the buffer regions. Playgrounds near buffer regions showed a significantly higher ELF-MF than the other areas of the exposed schools (0.70 vs 0.18 microT, p=0.043). The study demonstrates a wide range of exposures to ELF-MF among school children at campuses adjacent to HVTL. Children attending the exposed schools may have a higher chance of experiencing a mean exposure greater than 0.4 microT during school hours. PMID:17316772

  6. Current-voltage characteristics and low-frequency noise in carbon nanotube thin films with disordered networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisyan, Vardan; Makaryan, Taron; Chen, Gugang; Harutyunyan, Avetik; Makaryan, Armen

    2015-03-01

    Efficient exploitation of carbon nanotubes in electronics requires knowledge of their current-voltage (I-V) and noise parameters. We studied the dependence of these parameters for two single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films with different thicknesses in the voltage range of 0-130 V and frequency range of 0-160 kHz. Hidden nonlinear I-V dependence in the range of 10 to 120 V was detected by carrying out transient measurements with minimized heat-induced effect. The thinner film demonstrates enhanced non-linear characteristics, which suggests its potential application in pulse-pumped THz generation. We also distinct a 1/f and a shot type noise in the low-frequency range up to 20 kHz and in the frequency range up to 160 kHz, respectively. Based on the noise dispersion dependence on applied voltage and film thicknesses we attribute its origin to charge carrier tunneling through tube-tube contacts. These findings can be valuable for controlling the noise for efficient vertical downscaling of conventional electronics systems. Second Affiliation: Instutute of Radiophysics and Electronics, 0203 Ashtarak, Armenia.

  7. A medium frequency transformer with multiple secondary windings for medium voltage converter based wind turbine power generating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    Recent advances in magnetic materials have led to the development of compact and light weight, medium and high frequency transformers, which would be a possible solution to reducing the size and weight of wind turbine power generating systems. This paper presents the overall design and analysis of a Metglas amorphous alloy 2605SA1 based medium frequency transformer to generate the isolated balanced multiple DC supplies for medium voltage converter systems. A comprehensive electromagnetic analysis is conducted on the proposed design based on experimental results. The test stand, data analysis, and test results are discussed.

  8. Design and fabrication of sinusoidal spectral filters for multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chuan; Jia, Jie; Hirakawa, Keigo; Sarangan, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Multispectral imaging beyond the three RGB colors still remains a challenge, especially in portable inexpensive systems. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of broadband multichroic filters that have a sinusoidal transmission spectra to utilize a novel methodology based on the Fourier spectral reconstruction in the frequency domain. Since the spectral filters are posed as an optimal sampling of hyperspectral images, they also allow for the reconstruction of the full spectrum from subsequent demosaicking algorithms. Unlike conventional Color Filter Arrays (CFA) which utilizes absorption dyes embedded in a polymeric material, the sinusoidal multichroic filters require an all-dielectric interference filter design. However, the goal of most dielectric filter designs is to achieve sharp transitions with high-contrast. A smoothly varying sinusoidal transition is more difficult with conventional approaches. However, this can be achieved by trading off the contrast. Following the principles of a simple Fabry-Perot cavity, we have designed and built interference filters from 0.5 sinusoidal periods to 3 sinusoidal periods from 450nm to 900nm spectral range. Also, in order to maintain a uniform period across the entire spectrum, the material must have a very low dispersion. In this design, we have used ZnS as the cavity material. The six filters have been used in a multispectral imaging test bed.

  9. A Current-Mode Buck DC-DC Converter with Frequency Characteristics Independent of Input and Output Voltages Using a Quadratic Compensation Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Toru; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    By using a quadratic compensation slope, a CMOS current-mode buck DC-DC converter with constant frequency characteristics over wide input and output voltage ranges has been developed. The use of a quadratic slope instead of a conventional linear slope makes both the damping factor in the transfer function and the frequency bandwidth of the current feedback loop independent of the converter's output voltage settings. When the coefficient of the quadratic slope is chosen to be dependent on the input voltage settings, the damping factor in the transfer function and the frequency bandwidth of the current feedback loop both become independent of the input voltage settings. Thus, both the input and output voltage dependences in the current feedback loop are eliminated, the frequency characteristics become constant, and the frequency bandwidth is maximized. To verify the effectiveness of a quadratic compensation slope with a coefficient that is dependent on the input voltage in a buck DC-DC converter, we fabricated a test chip using a 0.18m high-voltage CMOS process. The evaluation results show that the frequency characteristics of both the total feedback loop and the current feedback loop are constant even when the input and output voltages are changed from 2.5V to 7V and from 0.5V to 5.6V, respectively, using a 3MHz clock.

  10. High frequency capacitor-diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    A power conditioner was developed which used a capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide a high voltage without the use of a step-up transformer. The power conditioner delivered 1200 Vdc at 100 watts and was operated from a 120 Vdc line. The efficiency was in excess of 90 percent. The component weight was 197 grams. A modified boost-add circuit was used for the regulation. A short circuit protection circuit was used which turns off the drive circuit upon a fault condition, and recovers within 5 ms after removal of the short. High energy density polysulfone capacitors and high speed diodes were used in the multiplier circuit.

  11. Induction generator produces constant-frequency voltage from variable-speed drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riaz, M.

    1970-01-01

    Two-stage polyphase generator is usable as induction motor operable over range of speeds while powered from constant frequency source. It requires neither slip rings nor special adjustable-frequency power supplies or external reactive sources.

  12. The piezoelectronic stress transduction switch for very large-scale integration, low voltage sensor computation, and radio frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magd?u, I.-B.; Liu, X.-H.; Kuroda, M. A.; Shaw, T. M.; Crain, J.; Solomon, P. M.; Newns, D. M.; Martyna, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    The piezoelectronic transduction switch is a device with potential as a post-CMOS transistor due to its predicted multi-GHz, low voltage performance on the VLSI-scale. However, the operating principle of the switch has wider applicability. We use theory and simulation to optimize the device across a wide range of length scales and application spaces and to understand the physics underlying its behavior. We show that the four-terminal VLSI-scale switch can operate at a line voltage of 115 mV while as a low voltage-large area device, ?200 mV operation at clock speeds of ?2 GHz can be achieved with a desirable 104 On/Off ratioideal for on-board computing in sensors. At yet larger scales, the device is predicted to operate as a fast (?250 ps) radio frequency (RF) switch exhibiting high cyclability, low On resistance and low Off capacitance, resulting in a robust switch with a RF figure of merit of ?4 fs. These performance benchmarks cannot be approached with CMOS which has reached fundamental limits. In detail, a combination of finite element modeling and ab initio calculations enables prediction of switching voltages for a given design. A multivariate search method then establishes a set of physics-based design rules, discovering the key factors for each application. The results demonstrate that the piezoelectronic transduction switch can offer fast, low power applications spanning several domains of the information technology infrastructure.

  13. Design of a constant-voltage and constant-current controller with dual-loop and adaptive switching frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingping, Chen; Zhiqian, Li

    2015-05-01

    A 5.0-V 2.0-A flyback power supply controller providing constant-voltage (CV) and constant-current (CC) output regulation without the use of an optical coupler is presented. Dual-close-loop control is proposed here due to its better regulation performance of tolerance over process and temperature compared with open loop control used in common. At the same time, the two modes, CC and CV, could switch to each other automatically and smoothly according to the output voltage level not sacrificing the regulation accuracy at the switching phase, which overcomes the drawback of the digital control scheme depending on a hysteresis comparator to change the mode. On-chip compensation using active capacitor multiplier technique is applied to stabilize the voltage loop, eliminate an additional package pin, and save on the die area. The system consumes as little as 100 mW at no-load condition without degrading the transient response performance by utilizing the adaptive switching frequency control mode. The proposed controller has been implemented in a commercial 0.35-μm 40-V BCD process, and the active chip area is 1.5 × 1.0 mm2. The total error of the output voltage due to line and load variations is less than ±1.7%.

  14. Challenges and opportunities for multi-functional oxide thin films for voltage tunable radio frequency/microwave components

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, Guru; Cole, M. W.; Sun, Nian X.; Kalkur, Thottam S.; Sbrockey, Nick M.; Tompa, Gary S.; Guo, Xiaomei; Chen, Chonglin; Alpay, S. P.; Rossetti, G. A.; Dayal, Kaushik; Chen, Long-Qing; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2013-11-21

    There has been significant progress on the fundamental science and technological applications of complex oxides and multiferroics. Among complex oxide thin films, barium strontium titanate (BST) has become the material of choice for room-temperature-based voltage-tunable dielectric thin films, due to its large dielectric tunability and low microwave loss at room temperature. BST thin film varactor technology based reconfigurable radio frequency (RF)/microwave components have been demonstrated with the potential to lower the size, weight, and power needs of a future generation of communication and radar systems. Low-power multiferroic devices have also been recently demonstrated. Strong magneto-electric coupling has also been demonstrated in different multiferroic heterostructures, which show giant voltage control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of more than two octaves. This manuscript reviews recent advances in the processing, and application development for the complex oxides and multiferroics, with the focus on voltage tunable RF/microwave components. The over-arching goal of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state-of the-art of complex oxide and multiferroic thin film materials and devices, identify technical issues and technical challenges that need to be overcome for successful insertion of the technology for both military and commercial applications, and provide mitigation strategies to address these technical challenges.

  15. Control of plasma process by use of harmonic frequency components of voltage and current

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Kamon, Mattan (Cambridge, MA)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides for a technique for taking advantage of the intrinsic electrical non-linearity of processing plasmas to add additional control variables that affect process performance. The technique provides for the adjustment of the electrical coupling circuitry, as well as the electrical excitation level, in response to measurements of the reactor voltage and current and to use that capability to modify the plasma characteristics to obtain the desired performance.

  16. Flexible low-voltage organic integrated circuits with megahertz switching frequencies (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschieschang, Ute; Takimiya, Kazuo; Zaki, Tarek; Letzkus, Florian; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-09-01

    A process for the fabrication of integrated circuits based on bottom-gate, top-contact organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) with channel lengths as short as 1 µm on flexible plastic substrates has been developed. In this process, all TFT layers (gate electrodes, organic semiconductors, source/drain contacts) are patterned with the help of high-resolution silicon stencil masks, thus eliminating the need for subtractive patterning and avoiding the exposure of the organic semiconductors to potentially harmful organic solvents or resists. The TFTs employ a low-temperature-processed gate dielectric that is sufficiently thin to allow the TFTs and circuits to operate with voltages of about 3 V. Using the vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic semiconductor 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10 DNTT), TFTs with an effective field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of 107, a width-normalized transconductance of 1.2 S/m (with a standard deviation of 6%), and a signal propagation delay (measured in 11-stage ring oscillators) of 420 nsec per stage at a supply voltage of 3 V have been obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first time that megahertz operation has been achieved in flexible organic transistors at supply voltages of less than 10 V. In addition to flexible ring oscillators, we have also demonstrated a 6-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in a binary-weighted current-steering architecture, based on TFTs with a channel length of 4 µm and fabricated on a glass substrate. This DAC has a supply voltage of 3.3 V, a circuit area of 2.6 × 4.6 mm2, and a maximum sampling rate of 100 kS/s.

  17. Verification of voltage/frequency requirement for emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant using dynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Jin-Suk; Roh, Myung-Sub

    2014-02-01

    One major cause of the plant shutdown is the loss of electrical power. The study is to comprehend the coping action against station blackout including emergency diesel generator, sequential loading of safety system and to ensure that the emergency diesel generator should meet requirements, especially voltage and frequency criteria using modeling tool. This paper also considered the change of the sequencing time and load capacity only for finding electrical design margin. However, the revision of load list must be verified with safety analysis. From this study, it is discovered that new load calculation is a key factor in EDG localization and in-house capability increase.

  18. Verification of voltage/frequency requirement for emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant using dynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Jin-Suk; Roh, Myung- Sub

    2014-02-12

    One major cause of the plant shutdown is the loss of electrical power. The study is to comprehend the coping action against station blackout including emergency diesel generator, sequential loading of safety system and to ensure that the emergency diesel generator should meet requirements, especially voltage and frequency criteria using modeling tool. This paper also considered the change of the sequencing time and load capacity only for finding electrical design margin. However, the revision of load list must be verified with safety analysis. From this study, it is discovered that new load calculation is a key factor in EDG localization and in-house capability increase.

  19. High-frequency voltage-controlled-oscillator for use with inverted- mesa quartz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, K.O.

    1996-08-01

    An oscillator circuit has been developed that uses inverted mesa resonators, in a high precision VCO application, at frequencies historically dominated by SAW designs. This design incorporates a frequency tripler that provides a 600 MHz output capability using a 200 MHz 3{sup rd} overtone resonator. This design has advantages over equivalent SAW alternatives: lower power consumption, superior aging characteristics, linear frequency pulling and low frequency versus temperature sensitivity. The VCO presented demonstrates {gt} +/- 60 ppm pullability (0 to 7V control), tuning linearity better than +/- 5% with phase noise at 1 kHz {lt} -110 DBc/Hz. this oscillator- tripler exploits the nonlinear characteristics of an emitter-coupled pair differential amplifier to obtain a high performance oscillator design.

  20. Voltage dependence of subthreshold resonance frequency in layer II of medial entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Christopher F.; Boardman, Ian S.; James, Nicholas M.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The resonance properties of individual neurons in entorhinal cortex may contribute to their functional properties in awake, behaving rats. Models propose that entorhinal grid cells could arise from shifts in the intrinsic frequency of neurons caused by changes in membrane potential due to depolarizing input from neurons coding velocity. To test for potential changes in intrinsic frequency we measured the resonance properties of neurons at different membrane potentials in neurons in medial and lateral entorhinal cortex. In medial entorhinal neurons the resonant frequency of individual neurons decreased in a linear manner as the membrane potential was depolarized between ?70 and ?55 mV. At more hyperpolarized membrane potentials, cells asymptotically approached a maximum resonance frequency. Consistent with previous studies, near resting potential the cells of the medial EC possessed a decreasing gradient of resonance frequency along the dorsal to ventral axis, and cells of the lateral EC lacked resonant properties regardless of membrane potential or position along the medial to lateral axis within lateral EC. Application of 10 M ZD7288, the H-channel blocker, abolished all resonant properties in MEC cells, and resulted in physiological properties very similar to lateral EC cells. These results on resonant properties show a clear change in frequency response with depolarization that could contribute to generation of grid cell firing properties in the medial entorhinal cortex. PMID:22368047

  1. Frequency and gate voltage effects on the dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of Al∕SiO2∕p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky diodes

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, D. E.; Dökme, İ.

    2011-01-01

    The dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of Al∕SiO2∕p-Si (MIS) Schottky diodes (SDs) in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 10 MHz and the gate voltage range of −2 to 6 V have been investigated in detail using experimental C-V and G∕w-V measurements. Experimental results indicated that the voltage dependence of the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ′) and loss tangent (tan δ) characteristics have a peak at each frequency. The values of ɛ′ increase with decreasing frequency and tend to be frequency independent in the negative voltage region. However, the values of the dielectric loss (ɛ″) increase with decreasing frequency at each voltage. In contrast, ɛ′ and ɛ″ are almost found to decrease, and the ac electrical conductivity (σac) and the real part of the electric modulus (M′) increase, with increasing frequency. In addition, the imaginary part of the electric modulus (M″) showed a peak that shifts to a higher frequency with increasing applied voltage. It can be concluded that interfacial polarization can more easily occur at low frequencies, and consequently the majority of interface states at the Si–SiO2 interface contribute to the deviation of the dielectric properties of Al∕SiO2∕p-Si (MIS) SDs. PMID:21808425

  2. Collector optimization for improving the product of the breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency in SiGe HBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Fu; Wanrong, Zhang; Dongyue, Jin; Yanxiao, Zhao; Lianghao, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Compared with BVCEO, BVCES is more related to collector optimization and more practical significance, so that BVCES fT rather than BVCEO fT is employed in representing the limit of the product of the breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency in SiGe HBT for collector engineering design. Instead of a single decrease in collector doping to improve BVCES fT and BVCEO fT, a novel thin composite of N- and P+ doping layers inside the CB SCR is presented to improve the well-known tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and cut-off frequency in SiGe HBT, and BVCES and BVCEO are improved respectively with slight degradation in fT. As a result, the BVCES fT product is improved from 537.57 to 556.4 GHzV, and the BVCEO fT product is improved from 309.51 to 326.35 GHzV. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60776051, 61006059, 61006044), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 4082007, 4143059, 4142007, 4122014), and the Beijing Municipal Education Committee (Nos. KM200710005015, KM200910005001).

  3. Design of a pulsewidth-modulated resonant converter for a high-output-voltage power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Fred G.; Tompkins, Russell E.

    1987-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a parallel resonant converter circuit and a high-frequency step-up transformer used to supply an adjustable dc voltage to a load is described. The 500-W system is operated from 115/230 V single-phase 60Hz power, which is rectified and filtered to form a 310-V dc link. A two-transistor half-bridge circuit operating at a fixed frequency above the ciruits resonant frequency converts the dc voltage to an ac voltage at approximately 20 kHx. This high-frequency voltage is transformed with a low-capacitance oil-impregnated ferrite transformer. The output voltage is rectified to form a dc voltage with a maximum value of 90-kV peak. The output voltage is adjustable using pulsewidth modulation of the conduction time of the two transistors in the power circuit. The energy stored in the resonant circuit provides a sinusoidal transformer voltage at fixed frequency over a wide range of control. The system is provided with a closed-loop peak-voltage regulator and an on-off capability from the control electronics. The transformer is designed for a specific value of inductance and capacitance to operate at the desired resonant frequency and characteristic impedance.

  4. Frequency-dependent reduction of voltage-gated sodium current modulates retinal ganglion cell response rate to electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, David; Morley, John W; Suaning, Gregg J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2011-12-01

    The ability to elicit visual percepts through electrical stimulation of the retina has prompted numerous investigations examining the feasibility of restoring sight to the blind with retinal implants. The therapeutic efficacy of these devices will be strongly influenced by their ability to elicit neural responses that approximate those of normal vision. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can fire spikes at frequencies greater than 200 Hz when driven by light. However, several studies using isolated retinas have found a decline in RGC spiking response rate when these cells were stimulated at greater than 50 Hz. It is possible that the mechanism responsible for this decline also contributes to the frequency-dependent 'fading' of electrically evoked percepts recently reported in human patients. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings of rabbit RGCs, we investigated the causes for the spiking response depression during direct subretinal stimulation of these cells at 50-200 Hz. The response depression was not caused by inhibition arising from the retinal network but, instead, by a stimulus-frequency-dependent decline of RGC voltage-gated sodium current. Under identical experimental conditions, however, RGCs were able to spike at high frequency when driven by light stimuli and intracellular depolarization. Based on these observations, we demonstrated a technique to prevent the spiking response depression. PMID:22027396

  5. Frequency-dependent reduction of voltage-gated sodium current modulates retinal ganglion cell response rate to electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, David; Morley, John W.; Suaning, Gregg J.; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2011-10-01

    The ability to elicit visual percepts through electrical stimulation of the retina has prompted numerous investigations examining the feasibility of restoring sight to the blind with retinal implants. The therapeutic efficacy of these devices will be strongly influenced by their ability to elicit neural responses that approximate those of normal vision. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can fire spikes at frequencies greater than 200 Hz when driven by light. However, several studies using isolated retinas have found a decline in RGC spiking response rate when these cells were stimulated at greater than 50 Hz. It is possible that the mechanism responsible for this decline also contributes to the frequency-dependent 'fading' of electrically evoked percepts recently reported in human patients. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings of rabbit RGCs, we investigated the causes for the spiking response depression during direct subretinal stimulation of these cells at 50-200 Hz. The response depression was not caused by inhibition arising from the retinal network but, instead, by a stimulus-frequency-dependent decline of RGC voltage-gated sodium current. Under identical experimental conditions, however, RGCs were able to spike at high frequency when driven by light stimuli and intracellular depolarization. Based on these observations, we demonstrated a technique to prevent the spiking response depression.

  6. Propulsion by sinusoidal locomotion: A motion inspired by Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Xialing

    Sinusoidal locomotion is commonly seen in snakes, fish, nematodes, or even the wings of some birds and insects. This doctoral thesis presents the study of sinusoidal locomotion of the nematode C. elegans in experiments and the application of the state-space airloads theory to the theoretical forces of sinusoidal motion. An original MATLAB program has been developed to analyze the video records of C. elegans' movement in different fluids, including Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The experimental and numerical studies of swimming C. elegans has revealed three conclusions. First, though the amplitude and wavelength are varying with time, the motion of swimming C. elegans can still be viewed as sinusoidal locomotion with slips. The average normalized wavelength is a conserved character of the locomotion for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Second, fluid viscosity affects the frequency but not the moving speed of C. elegans, while fluid elasticity affects the moving speed but not the frequency. Third, by the resistive force theory, for more elastic fluids the ratio of resistive coefficients becomes smaller. Inspired by the motion of C. elegans and other animals performing sinusoidal motion, we investigated the sinusoidal motion of a thin flexible wing in theory. Given the equation of the motion, we have derived the closed forms of propulsive force, lift and other generalized forces applying on the wing. We also calculated the power required to perform the motion, the power lost due to the shed vortices and the propulsive efficiency. These forces and powers are given as functions of reduced frequency k, dimensionless wavelength z, dimensionless amplitude A/b, and time. Our results show that a positive, time-averaged propulsive force is produced for all k>k0=pi/ z. At k=k0, which implies the moment when the moving speed of the wing is the same as the wave speed of its undulation, the motion reaches a steady state with all forces being zero. If there were no shed vorticity effects, the propulsive force would be zero at z = 0.569 and z = 1.3 for all k, and for a fixed k the wing would gain the optimal propulsive force when z = 0.82. With the effects of shed vorticity, the propulsive efficiency decreases from 1.0 to 0.5 as k goes to infinity, and the propulsive efficiency increases almost in a linear relationship with k0.

  7. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, R T; MacAskill, J A; Mojarradi, M; Chutjian, A; Darrach, M R; Madzunkov, S M; Shortt, B J

    2008-09-01

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware. PMID:19044454

  8. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R. T.; Mojarradi, M.; MacAskill, J. A.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Shortt, B. J.

    2008-09-15

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware.

  9. Sinusoidal analysis of electroretinogram of squid and octopus.

    PubMed

    Hartline, P H; Lange, G D

    1977-01-01

    1. An isolated eye or eye plus optic lobe preparation (in oxygenated chilled seawater) from Loligo opalescens, Octopus bimaculata, and O. bimaculoides was used to study the electroretinogram (ERG) for small signal intensity-modulated stationary spots of light. 2. If light intensity was modulated sinusoidally (modulation depth 0-50%) the ERG response is sinusoidal with less than 2% of the power present in the next five harmonics compared to the fundamental. Bode plots, amplitude and phase shift plotted against frequency, were constructed from these sinusoidal input-output experiments. 3. Linearity and time invariance were tested: a) an increase in amplitude of sinusoidal modulation by a constant factor caused an increase in response amplitude by the same factor but caused no change in shape of the Bode plot gain or phase curves; b) the transfer function represented by the Bode plot could be used to predict waveshape of the response to a brief flash (Green's or impulse-response function); c) the Fourier transformed square-wave response could be used to obtain a Bode plot which coincided with that obtained by sinusoidal input-output experiments. 4. The Bode plot can be fit by the transfer function of 5-12 (depending on conditions and on the preparations) series cascaded low-pass filters whose corner frequences are distributed between 0.2 and 40 Hz. Alternatively, 3-7 filters plus a delay of 25-130 ms fits the Bode plots equally well. The series filter model is compatible with a simply physical model consisting of cascaded chemical reactions whose forward rate constants are reciprocals of the filter time constants, whose reverse rate constants are negligible, and in which the concentration of an intermediate product controls membrane current. 5. As mean intensity is increased, the gain decreases. This effect is more pronounced at low frequencies than at high frequencies. Thus, the system is nonlinear for large intensity changes. The process of adaptation involves not only a change in gain, but a change in shape of the Bode plot, i.e., change in filter corner frequencies. In terms of the reaction chain model, this means that some rate constants change as the state of adaptation is changed. PMID:833626

  10. A Voltage Controlled Oscillator for a Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer in a Silicon-on-Sapphire Process

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Sean

    2009-05-21

    Engineers from a government-owned engineering and manufacturing facility were contracted by government-owned research laboratory to design and build an S-band telemetry transmitter using Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) technology packaged in a Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) Multi-Chip Module. The integrated circuit technology chosen for the Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer portion of the telemetry transmitter was a 0.25 um CMOS process that utilizes a sapphire substrate and is fabricated by Peregrine Semiconductor corporation. This thesis work details the design of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) portion of the PLL frequency synthesizer and constitutes an fully integrated VCO core circuit and a high-isolation buffer amplifier. The high-isolation buffer amplifier was designed to provide 16 dB of gain for 2200-3495 MHz as well as 60 dB of isolation for the oscillator core to provide immunity to frequency pulling due to RF load mismatch. Actual measurements of the amplifier gain and isolation showed the gain was approximately 5 dB lower than the simulated gain when all bond-wire and test substrate parasitics were taken into account. The isolation measurements were shown to be 28 dB at the high end of the frequency band but the measurement was more than likely compromised due to the aforementioned bond-wire and test substrate parasitics. The S-band oscillator discussed in this work was designed to operate over a frequency range of 2200 to 2300 MHz with a minimum output power of 0 dBm with a phase-noise of -92 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier. The tuning range was measured to be from 2215 MHz to 2330 MHz with a minimum output power of -7 dBm over the measured frequency range. A phase-noise of -90 dBc was measured at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier.

  11. Self-mixing interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming; Tan, Suqing

    2005-03-01

    A new self-mixing interferometry based on sinusoidal phase modulating technique is presented. Self-mixing interference occurs in the laser cavity by reflecting the light from a mirror-like target in front of the laser. Sinusoidal phase modulation of the beam is obtained by an electro-optic modulator (EOM) in the external cavity. The phase of the interference signal is calculated by Fourier analysis method. The interferometer is applied to measure the displacement of a high-precision commercial PZT with an accuracy of <10nm. The measurement range of the system mainly depends on the maximum operating frequency of EOM and the maximum sampling rate of A/D converter.

  12. Self-mixing interferometer based on sinusoidal phase modulating technique.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming; Tan, Suqing

    2005-03-01

    A new self-mixing interferometry based on sinusoidal phase modulating technique is presented. Self-mixing interference occurs in the laser cavity by reflecting the light from a mirror-like target in front of the laser. Sinusoidal phase modulation of the beam is obtained by an electro-optic modulator (EOM) in the external cavity. The phase of the interference signal is calculated by Fourier analysis method. The interferometer is applied to measure the displacement of a high-precision commercial PZT with an accuracy of <10nm. The measurement range of the system mainly depends on the maximum operating frequency of EOM and the maximum sampling rate of A/D converter. PMID:19495029

  13. Dependence of sinusoidal electric field effect on neuronal morphological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Yin, Xiaowei; Lu, Meili; Yi, Guosheng; Wang, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the neuronal firing patterns under extracellular sinusoidal electric field (EF) are investigated based on a reduced two-compartment model with focus on the effects of morphological and internal coupling parameters. We observe that the neuron can exhibit bursting, synchronous firing and subthreshold oscillation depending on EF amplitude A and frequency f. Furthermore, neuronal firing properties change obviously over a range of morphological parameter p. As p increases, the firing region expands first and then diminishes gradually until it disappears in the observed (A, f) parameter space and the transition from bursting to synchronous firing is also markedly distinct. Meanwhile, the morphological parameter also has significant effects on the EF threshold for triggering neuronal spikes. Unlike morphological parameter, though the internal coupling conductance gc can also induce some changes in firing behavior and EF threshold, it cannot qualitatively change neuronal dynamical properties. All these results demonstrate that neuronal morphology plays a crucial role in neuronal responses to sinusoidal EF.

  14. Effects of electrical stunning frequency and voltage combinations on the presence of engorged blood vessels in goose liver.

    PubMed

    Turcsn, Zs; Varga, L; Szigeti, J; Turcsn, J; Csurk, I; Szalai, M

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nine electrical stunning methods using various frequency and voltage combinations on the occurrence of engorged blood vessels in goose liver. Two hundred seventy Gourmaud geese (liver-type line SI 14) were slaughtered at 12 wk of age, in groups of 90 at three different times. Thirty birds each were subjected to one of the nine stunning methods. Neck cutting was performed immediately after stunning. The duration of exsanguination was 11 min. After completion of bleeding, the birds were scalded, defeathered manually, and kept refrigerated. At 1 d postmortem, the carcasses were eviscerated and cut up. From the slaughterhouse, the livers chilled in ice were transported to the cannery where they were weighed and graded at 2 d postmortem and were further processed. All of the veins and capillaries full of blood were removed from livers, because their presence was a hazard to product quality by causing discoloration of the canned liver, and the percentage of liver weight loss was then determined. The loss in liver weight due to removal of engorged blood vessels was reduced (P < 0.05) at 350 Hz, 70 to 90 V, and 80 to 85 mA when compared to the results obtained with any other stunning method tested. It was concluded that the use of high-frequency currents for electrical stunning of liver geese might have considerable commercial advantages. PMID:14653479

  15. Dilatation of sinusoidal capillary and swelling of sinusoidal fenestration in obesity: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Tanaka-Nakadate, Sawako

    2015-02-01

    Obesity, which is one of the causes of the lifestyle-related disease, is a hepatopathic exacerbation factor that causes a chronic hepatic disorder. In this study, we examined the pathological changes in the liver in mice with obesity induced by monosodium glutamate administration. Pathological analysis revealed the deposition of many lipid droplets in hepatocytes and sinusoidal dilatation in obese mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of sinusoidal dilatation, and the fenestrations of the sinusoid were significantly swollen in obese mice. These results suggest that a dysfunction of the sinusoidal endothelium occurs in chronic obesity. PMID:25192055

  16. One-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with sinusoidal densities

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, L. Shang, L.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-15

    Properties of electromagnetic waves with normal and oblique incidence have been studied for one-dimensional plasma layers with sinusoidal densities. Wave transmittance as a function of wave frequency exhibits photonic band gaps characteristic of photonic crystals. For periodic structures, increasing collision frequency is demonstrated to lead to greater absorption, increasing the modulation factor enlarges the gap width, and increasing incidence angle can change the gap locations of the two polarizations. If a defect layer is introduced by inserting a new plasma layer in the center, a defect mode may appear within the gap. Periodic number, collision frequency, and modulation factor can affect magnitude of the defect mode. The incidence angle enables the frequency to be tuned. Defect layer thickness affects both frequency and number of defect modes. These results may provide theoretical guidance in designing tunable narrow-band filters.

  17. Simulation of temperature field for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation using a hyperbolic bioheat equation and temperature-varied voltage calibration: a liver-mimicking phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Lin, Lan; Gao, Hongjian; Feng, Yusheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aims at improving the accuracy of temperature simulation for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation (RFA). We proposed a new voltage-calibration method in the simulation and investigated the feasibility of a hyperbolic bioheat equation (HBE) in the RFA simulation with longer durations and higher power. A total of 40 RFA experiments was conducted in a liver-mimicking phantom. Four mathematical models with multipolar electrodes were developed by the finite element method in COMSOL software: HBE with/without voltage calibration, and the Pennes bioheat equation (PBE) with/without voltage calibration. The temperature-varied voltage calibration used in the simulation was calculated from an experimental power output and temperature-dependent resistance of liver tissue. We employed the HBE in simulation by considering the delay time ? of 16?s. First, for simulations by each kind of bioheat equation (PBE or HBE), we compared the differences between the temperature-varied voltage-calibration and the fixed-voltage values used in the simulations. Then, the comparisons were conducted between the PBE and the HBE in the simulations with temperature-varied voltage calibration. We verified the simulation results by experimental temperature measurements on nine specific points of the tissue phantom. The results showed that: (1) the proposed voltage-calibration method improved the simulation accuracy of temperature-controlled RFA for both the PBE and the HBE, and (2) for temperature-controlled RFA simulation with the temperature-varied voltage calibration, the HBE method was 0.55 C more accurate than the PBE method. The proposed temperature-varied voltage calibration may be useful in temperature field simulations of temperature-controlled RFA. Besides, the HBE may be used as an alternative in the simulation of long-duration high-power RFA.

  18. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Pei; Liang, Hai-Ping; Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane. PMID:26098556

  19. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane. PMID:26098556

  20. Collector optimization for tradeoff between breakdown voltage and cut-off frequency in SiGe HBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Wan-Rong; Jin, Dong-Yue; Ding, Chun-Bao; Zhao, Yan-Xiao; Lu, Dong

    2014-11-01

    As is well known, there exists a tradeoff between the breakdown voltage BVCEO and the cut-off frequency fT for a standard heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). In this paper, this tradeoff is alleviated by collector doping engineering in the SiGe HBT by utilizing a novel composite of P+ and N- doping layers inside the collector-base (CB) space-charge region (SCR). Compared with the single N-type collector, the introduction of the thin P+ layers provides a reverse electric field weakening the electric field near the CB metallurgical junction without changing the field direction, and the thin N- layer further effectively lowers the electric field near the CB metallurgical junction. As a result, the electron temperature near the CB metallurgical junction is lowered, consequently suppressing the impact ionization, thus BVCEO is improved with a slight degradation in fT. The results show that the product of fT BVCEO is improved from 309.51 GHzV to 326.35 GHzV.

  1. Characteristics of temperature rise in variable inductor employing magnetorheological fluid driven by a high-frequency pulsed voltage source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho-Young; Kang, In Man; Shon, Chae-Hwa; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-05-07

    A variable inductor with magnetorheological (MR) fluid has been successfully applied to power electronics applications; however, its thermal characteristics have not been investigated. To evaluate the performance of the variable inductor with respect to temperature, we measured the characteristics of temperature rise and developed a numerical analysis technique. The characteristics of temperature rise were determined experimentally and verified numerically by adopting a multiphysics analysis technique. In order to accurately estimate the temperature distribution in a variable inductor with an MR fluid-gap, the thermal solver should import the heat source from the electromagnetic solver to solve the eddy current problem. To improve accuracy, the B–H curves of the MR fluid under operating temperature were obtained using the magnetic property measurement system. In addition, the Steinmetz equation was applied to evaluate the core loss in a ferrite core. The predicted temperature rise for a variable inductor showed good agreement with the experimental data and the developed numerical technique can be employed to design a variable inductor with a high-frequency pulsed voltage source.

  2. Characteristics of temperature rise in variable inductor employing magnetorheological fluid driven by a high-frequency pulsed voltage source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Kang, In Man; Shon, Chae-Hwa; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-05-01

    A variable inductor with magnetorheological (MR) fluid has been successfully applied to power electronics applications; however, its thermal characteristics have not been investigated. To evaluate the performance of the variable inductor with respect to temperature, we measured the characteristics of temperature rise and developed a numerical analysis technique. The characteristics of temperature rise were determined experimentally and verified numerically by adopting a multiphysics analysis technique. In order to accurately estimate the temperature distribution in a variable inductor with an MR fluid-gap, the thermal solver should import the heat source from the electromagnetic solver to solve the eddy current problem. To improve accuracy, the B-H curves of the MR fluid under operating temperature were obtained using the magnetic property measurement system. In addition, the Steinmetz equation was applied to evaluate the core loss in a ferrite core. The predicted temperature rise for a variable inductor showed good agreement with the experimental data and the developed numerical technique can be employed to design a variable inductor with a high-frequency pulsed voltage source.

  3. A plasma aerodynamic actuator supplied by a multilevel generator operating with different voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Carlo A.; Cristofolini, Andrea; Grandi, Gabriele; Neretti, Gabriele; Seri, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    In this work a high voltagehigh frequency generator for the power supply of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator for the aerodynamic control obtained by the electro-hydro-dynamic (EHD) interaction is described and tested. The generator can produce different voltage waveforms. The operating frequency is independent of the load characteristics and does not require impedance matching. The peak-to-peak voltage is 30?kV at a frequency up to 20?kHz and time variation rates up to 60?kV??s-1. The performance of the actuator when supplied by several voltage waveforms is investigated. The tests have been performed in still air at atmospheric pressure. Voltage and current time behaviors have been measured. The evaluation of the energy delivered to the actuator allowed the estimation of the periods in which the plasma was ignited. Vibrational and rotational temperatures of the plasma have been estimated through spectroscopic acquisitions. The flow field induced in the region above the surface of the DBD actuator has been studied and the EHD conversion efficiency has been evaluated for the voltage waveforms investigated. The nearly sinusoidal multilevel voltage of the proposed generator and the sinusoidal voltage waveform of a conventional ac generator obtain comparable plasma features, EHD effects, and efficiencies. Inverse saw tooth waveform presents the highest effects and efficiency. The rectangular waveform generates suitable EHD effects but with the lowest efficiency. The voltage waveforms that induce plasmas with higher rotational temperatures are less efficient for the conversion of the electric into kinetic energy.

  4. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the

  5. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  6. Transient visually evoked potentials to sinusoidal gratings in optic neuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, G T

    1983-01-01

    Transient visually evoked potentials (VEPs) to sinusoidal gratings over a range of spatial frequencies have been recorded in cases of optic neuritis. The use of the response to pattern onset in addition to the response to pattern reversal extended the range to higher spatial frequencies by up to two octaves. There was an increase in VEP delay and a greater degree of discrimination from a control group at higher spatial frequencies. This finding is discussed in the light of previous reports of luminance and checkerboard VEPs in demyelinating optic nerve disease. An attempt is made to relate amplitude changes in various VEP components to contrast sensitivity measurements in this group of patients. PMID:6663312

  7. Analysis of a modular generator for high-voltage, high-frequency pulsed applications, using low voltage semiconductors (<1 kV) and series connected step-up (1:10) transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, L. M.; Fernando Silva, J.; Margato, E.

    2007-03-01

    This article discusses the operation of a modular generator topology, which has been developed for high-frequency (kHz), high-voltage (kV) pulsed applications. The proposed generator uses individual modules, each one consisting of a pulse circuit based on a modified forward converter, which takes advantage of the required low duty cycle to operate with a low voltage clamp reset circuit for the step-up transformer. This reduces the maximum voltage on the semiconductor devices of both primary and secondary transformer sides. The secondary winding of each step-up transformer is series connected, delivering a fraction of the total voltage. Each individual pulsed module is supplied via an isolation transformer. The assembled modular laboratorial prototype, with three 5kV modules, 800V semiconductor switches, and 1:10 step-up transformers, has 80% efficiency, and is capable of delivering, into resistive loads, -15kV/1A pulses with 5?s width, 10kHz repetition rate, with less than 1?s pulse rise time. Experimental results for resistive loads are presented and discussed.

  8. Frequency and voltage-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of Al/Co-doped PVA/p-Si structures at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Yücedağ; Ahmet, Kaya; Şemsettin, Altındal; Ibrahim, Uslu

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate of cobalt-doped interfacial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) layer and interface trap (Dit) effects, Al/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are fabricated, and their electrical and dielectric properties are investigated at room temperature. The forward and reverse admittance measurements are carried out in the frequency and voltage ranges of 30 kHz-300 kHz and -5 V-6 V, respectively. C-V or ɛ'-V plots exhibit two distinct peaks corresponding to inversion and accumulation regions. The first peak is attributed to the existence of Dit, the other to the series resistance (Rs), and interfacial layer. Both the real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant (ɛ' and ɛ″) and electric modulus (M' and M″), loss tangent (tan δ), and AC electrical conductivity (σac) are investigated, each as a function of frequency and applied bias voltage. Each of the M' versus V and M″ versus V plots shows a peak and the magnitude of peak increases with the increasing of frequency. Especially due to the Dit and interfacial PVA layer, both capacitance (C) and conductance (G/w) values are strongly affected, which consequently contributes to deviation from both the electrical and dielectric properties of Al/Co-doped PVA/p-Si (MPS) type SBD. In addition, the voltage-dependent profile of Dit is obtained from the low-high frequency capacitance (CLF-CHF) method.

  9. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  10. Voltage induced intensity changes in surface raman bands from a 2-chromophore probe, 4-benzyl pyridine adsorbed on roughened silver electrodes and their variation with excitation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, C. C.

    1984-05-01

    Voltage induced intensity changes in the surface enhanced Raman bands of 4-benzyl pyridine adsorbed on variously roughened silver electrode surfaces peak at different voltages for different excitation wavelengths. This behaviour, which is known to occur for pyridine and the picolines, is shown to occur for both the pyridyl and benzyl residues, though benzene itself does not exhibit enhancement under the same conditions. Results obtained on conventionally prepared, anodised electrodes are compared with those from novel magic array electrodes and results are consistent with the hypothesis that these latter electrodes are more suited for Raman studies of adsorbates in electrochemical systems. This is because they do not have the excess quantities of surface complexes present on them: these are probably responsible for much of the signal from the anodised electrodes. Explanations for the excitation frequency dependence of the voltage/intensity curves are discussed in relation to electrode specific effects as well as to charge transfer.

  11. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  12. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  13. Effective transformation of the energy of high-voltage pulses into high-frequency oscillations using a saturated-ferrite-loaded transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanov, V. P.; Gunin, A. V.; Koval'Chuk, O. B.; Kutenkov, V. O.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Rostov, V. V.

    2009-07-01

    A new method of converting a high-voltage video pulse into high-frequency oscillations using a nonlinear transmission line with temporal dispersion has been studied. The dispersion was provided by pulsed magnetization reversal in a ferrite, which was initially magnetized to saturation in an external magnetic field. For a 9-ns pulse, an average energy conversion efficiency of about 10% was achieved. It is demonstrated that oscillations at frequencies within 600 MHz-1.1 GHz with a spectral width of about 15% (at a -3 dB level) can be excited using voltage pulses with an amplitude of 110-290 kV. The optimum bias magnetization fields are within 20-40 kA/m.

  14. Intramuscular sinusoidal haemangioma with secondary Masson's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Konda, Paremala; Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas (IMHs) are rare benign vascular neoplasms that account for approximately 0.8% of all haemangiomas. The histology of IMHs can reveal cavernous dilated spaces. We report an interesting case of haemangioma in the deep skeletal muscle of the right labial mucosa in a young man involving the orbicularis oris muscle which showed additional features of sinusoidal arrangement with a secondary Masson's phenomenon. PMID:26729822

  15. Studies on frequency and gate voltage effects on the dielectric properties of Au/n-Si (110) structure with PVA-nickel acetate composite film interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun, T.; Gken, M.; Uslu, ?.

    2012-11-01

    The admittance technique was used in order to investigate the frequency dependence of dielectric constant ( ?'), dielectric loss ( ??), dielectric loss tangent (tan ?), the ac electrical conductivity ( ? ac), and the electric modulus of PVA (Ni-doped) structure. Experimental results revealed that the values of ?' , ??, (tan ?), ? ac and the electric modulus show fairly large frequency and gate bias dispersion due to the interface charges and polarization. The ? ac is found to increase with both increasing frequency and voltage. It can be concluded that the interface charges and interfacial polarization have strong influence on the dielectric properties of metal-polymer-semiconductor (MIS) structures especially at low frequencies and in depletion and accumulation regions. The results of this study indicate that the ?' values of Au/PVA/n-Si with Nickel-doped PVA interfacial layer are quite higher compared to those with pure and other dopant/mixture's of PVA.

  16. Fundamental analysis and development of the current and voltage control method by changing the driving frequency for the transcutaneous energy transmission system.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hidekazu; Yamada, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    We have been developing transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) for a ventricular assist device, shape memory alloy (SMA) fibered artificial organs and so on, the system has high efficiency and a compact size. In this paper, we summarize the development, design method and characteristics of the TETS. New control methods for stabilizing output voltage or current of the TETS are proposed. These methods are primary side, are outside of the body, not depending on a communication system from the inside the body. Basically, the TETS operates at the fixed frequency with a suitable compensation capacitor so that the internal impedance is minimalized and a flat load characteristic is obtained. However, when the coil shifted from the optimal position, the coupling factor changes and the output is fluctuated. TETS has a resonant property; its output can be controlled by changing the driving frequency. The continuous current to continuous voltage driving method was implemented by changing driving frequency and setting of limitation of low side frequency. This method is useful for battery charging system for electrically driven artificial hearts and also useful for SMA fibered artificial organs which need intermittent high peak power comsumption. In this system, the internal storage capacitor is charged slowly while the fibers are turned off and discharge the energy when the fibers are turned on. We examined the effect of the system. It was found that the size and maximum output of the TETS would able to be reduced. PMID:26736511

  17. Optimal control based on a modified quadratic performance index for systems disturbed by sinusoidal signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibielak, Marek; Raczka, Waldemar; Konieczny, Jaros?aw; Kowal, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    The problem of optimal control of systems disturbed by sinusoidal signals for infinite control time is considered. To evaluate the control laws, a modified mean-square performance index with an infinite control time was proposed. It is based on the proposed method for the decomposition of control signals on the interval from zero to infinity into the sum of sinusoidal components with selected frequencies and an additional auxiliary signal. The performance index was formulated in such a way that each sinusoidal component corresponds to a separate weight matrix. It was shown that there are infinitely many solutions for these optimization problems. Optimal control was selected in such a way that it should be independent of the state vector, and should depend only on the disturbance signal vector. The controller was synthesized for vibration reduction system. The paper presents results of numerical and laboratory studies of the designed vehicle active suspension system.

  18. Skin Sympathetic Nerve Activity is Modulated during Slow Sinusoidal Linear Displacements in Supine Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Philip S.; Hammam, Elie; Kwok, Kenny; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency sinusoidal linear acceleration (0.08 Hz, ±4 mG) modulates skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) in seated subjects (head vertical), suggesting that activation of the utricle in the peripheral vestibular labyrinth modulates SSNA. The aim of the current study was to determine whether SSNA is also modulated by input from the saccule. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve to record oligounitary SSNA in 8 subjects laying supine on a motorized platform with the head aligned with the longitudinal axis of the body. Slow sinusoidal (0.08 Hz, 100 cycles) linear acceleration-decelerations (peak ±4 mG) were applied rostrocaudally to predominately activate the saccules, or mediolaterally to predominately activate the utricles. Cross-correlation histograms were constructed between the negative-going sympathetic spikes and the positive peaks of the sinusoidal stimuli. Sinusoidal linear acceleration along the rostrocaudal axis or mediolateral axis both resulted in sinusoidal modulation of SSNA (Median, IQR 27.0, 22–33% and 24.8, 17–39%, respectively). This suggests that both otolith organs act on sympathetic outflow to skin and muscle in a similar manner during supine displacements. PMID:26909019

  19. Admittance-voltage profiling of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures: Frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khler, K.; Pletschen, W.; Godejohann, B.; Mller, S.; Menner, H. P.; Ambacher, O.

    2015-11-01

    Admittance-voltage profiling of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures was used to determine the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of FET devices in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. The nominally undoped low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy structures were grown with an Al-content of 30%. An additional 1 nm thick AlN interlayer was placed in one structure before the Al0.3Ga0.7N layer growth. For frequencies below 108 Hz it is convenient to use equivalent circuits to represent electric or dielectric properties of a material, a method widely used, for example, in impedance spectroscopy. We want to emphasize the relation between frequency dependent admittance-voltage profiling and the corresponding equivalent circuits to the complex dielectric function. Debye and Drude models are used for the description of the frequency dependent admittance profiles in a range of depletion onset of the two-dimensional electron gas. Capacitance- and conductance-frequency profiles are fitted in the entire measured range by combining both models. Based on our results, we see contributions to the two-dimensional electron gas for our samples from surface states (80%) as well as from background doping in the Al0.3Ga0.7N barriers (20%). The specific resistance of the layers below the gate is above 105 ? cm for both samples and increases with increasing negative bias, i.e., the layers below the gate are essentially depleted. We propose that the resistance due to free charge carriers, determined by the Drude model, is located between gate and drain and, because of the AlN interlayer, the resistance is lowered by a factor of about 30 if compared to the sample without an AlN layer.

  20. Response of a radial-bladed centrifugal pump to sinusoidal disturbances for noncavitating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. A.; Blade, R. J.; Stevans, W.

    1971-01-01

    A radial-bladed centrifugal pump was run in water with sinusoidal fluctuations of pressure and flow rate imposed at the pump inlet. Since the flow was noncavitating, zero gain was assumed in computing pump impedance. The inertive reactance became greater than the resistance at relatively low frequencies. An electric circuit model was developed in order to explain the trends of inertance and resistance with frequency.

  1. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  2. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  3. Interplay between low threshold voltage-gated K(+) channels and synaptic inhibition in neurons of the chicken nucleus laminaris along its frequency axis.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, William R; Liu, Yu-Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Central auditory neurons that localize sound in horizontal space have specialized intrinsic and synaptic cellular mechanisms to tightly control the threshold and timing for action potential generation. However, the critical interplay between intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and extrinsic synaptic conductances in determining neuronal output are not well understood. In chicken, neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) encode sound location using interaural time difference (ITD) as a cue. Along the tonotopic axis of NL, there exist robust differences among low, middle, and high frequency (LF, MF, and HF, respectively) neurons in a variety of neuronal properties such as low threshold voltage-gated K(+) (LTK) channels and depolarizing inhibition. This establishes NL as an ideal model to examine the interactions between LTK currents and synaptic inhibition across the tonotopic axis. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings prepared from chicken embryos (E17-E18), we found that LTK currents were larger in MF and HF neurons than in LF neurons. Kinetic analysis revealed that LTK currents in MF neurons activated at lower voltages than in LF and HF neurons, whereas the inactivation of the currents was similar across the tonotopic axis. Surprisingly, blockade of LTK currents using dendrotoxin-I (DTX) tended to broaden the duration and increase the amplitude of the depolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in NL neurons without dependence on coding frequency regions. Analyses of the effects of DTX on inhibitory postsynaptic currents led us to interpret this unexpected observation as a result of primarily postsynaptic effects of LTK currents on MF and HF neurons, and combined presynaptic and postsynaptic effects in LF neurons. Furthermore, DTX transferred subthreshold IPSPs to spikes. Taken together, the results suggest a critical role for LTK currents in regulating inhibitory synaptic strength in ITD-coding neurons at various frequencies. PMID:24904297

  4. Interplay between low threshold voltage-gated K+ channels and synaptic inhibition in neurons of the chicken nucleus laminaris along its frequency axis

    PubMed Central

    Hamlet, William R.; Liu, Yu-Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Central auditory neurons that localize sound in horizontal space have specialized intrinsic and synaptic cellular mechanisms to tightly control the threshold and timing for action potential generation. However, the critical interplay between intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and extrinsic synaptic conductances in determining neuronal output are not well understood. In chicken, neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) encode sound location using interaural time difference (ITD) as a cue. Along the tonotopic axis of NL, there exist robust differences among low, middle, and high frequency (LF, MF, and HF, respectively) neurons in a variety of neuronal properties such as low threshold voltage-gated K+ (LTK) channels and depolarizing inhibition. This establishes NL as an ideal model to examine the interactions between LTK currents and synaptic inhibition across the tonotopic axis. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings prepared from chicken embryos (E17–E18), we found that LTK currents were larger in MF and HF neurons than in LF neurons. Kinetic analysis revealed that LTK currents in MF neurons activated at lower voltages than in LF and HF neurons, whereas the inactivation of the currents was similar across the tonotopic axis. Surprisingly, blockade of LTK currents using dendrotoxin-I (DTX) tended to broaden the duration and increase the amplitude of the depolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in NL neurons without dependence on coding frequency regions. Analyses of the effects of DTX on inhibitory postsynaptic currents led us to interpret this unexpected observation as a result of primarily postsynaptic effects of LTK currents on MF and HF neurons, and combined presynaptic and postsynaptic effects in LF neurons. Furthermore, DTX transferred subthreshold IPSPs to spikes. Taken together, the results suggest a critical role for LTK currents in regulating inhibitory synaptic strength in ITD-coding neurons at various frequencies. PMID:24904297

  5. High-Efficient High Frequency Linked Zero Voltage Soft Switching PWM DC/DC Power Converter with ON/OFF-Assisted Synchronous Rectifier Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shinji; Moisseev, Serguei; Ishitobi, Manabu; Hiraki, Eiji; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    Advanced development of the high frequency pulse modulated DC/DC power converters are indispensable in order to achieve smaller size, higher performances of the power supplies. In resent years the problems of the electromagnetic noise generation caused by the hard-switching pulse width modulation (PWM)based high frequency operation of the switching power devices have been significant, including switching losses and switching surges. As result a variety of soft-switching power conversion circuit technologies have been attracted special interests for reducing switching power losses and minimizing electromagnetic interference. The soft-switching pulse modulation of DC/DC power circuit topologies can be divided into continuous current mode resonant type and quasi-resonant voltage mode type. The soft-switching DC/DC converters, a continuous current mode zero current soft-switching (ZCS) DC/DC converter with pulse frequency modulation (PFM) has been already put into a practical use. In this sort of power converters soft-switching commutation can be achieved over wide load variation ranges and high stability can be also performed, but high current peak stress through power semiconductor devices arises, however, and it causes relatively large increase of conduction power losses in the power semiconductor devices, high frequency transformers as well as rectifier diodes. As a result, the problem of a high efficiency for DC/DC power converter could not still unsolved. Thereupon, in this paper, quasi-resonant voltage mode based soft-switching PWM DC/DC power converter with a high frequency transformer link is presented, which has on/off assisted synchronous rectifier in its secondary side. The PWM operation of this converter is described in comparison with conventional one. Due to using power MOSFET as on/off assisted synchronous rectifier in the secondary side of the high frequency isolated transformer, it is possible to achieve stable zero voltage soft-switching (ZVS) conditions from no load to the rated load for minimum requirement of a magnetizing current. As result of a high value of the magnetizing inductance design, the power converter actual efficiency of this converter can be designed so as to above 97% in experiment. Moreover, results of a switching losses analysis are discussed from an experimental point of views in this paper. The effectiveness of the power converter treated hare is proved from a practical point of view by using 32kHz-2.5kW breadboard setup.

  6. Outer Solar System and the Sinusoidal Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2003-12-01

    At recent meetings of the AAS I have presented posters defending a new, sinusoidal gravitational potential. Here the customary numerator in Newton's law is replaced by GM cos(2? r/? o) where ? o is a universal constant, 425 pc. Because there are 20 oscillations of the potential between the sun and the center of the Milky Way, galactic tidal forces should be about 120 times as strong as normally believed. Such a large tidal force is needed if the global galactic potential is to explain the surprisingly large modulation in the galactic longitude of the perihelia of comets teased from the Oort cloud. (A modulation with prominent peaks at longitudes of 45,135, degrees was first observed by Matese and Whitmire (1996). They now feel that an impactor is the culprit, but it could instead be the sinusoidal potential (Bartlett, AAS-199)). Here I discuss how the same large tidal force might be responsible for two more observations in our solar system. Recently, Shaviv and Veizer (2003) have found a periodicity of about 140 Myrs in the observed isotopic fraction of heavy oxygen (O-18) in terrestrial calcite. They ascribe the period to variations in the cosmic ray rate caused by the revolution of the solar system through 4 rotating spiral arms. I find it rather to be the effect of variations in the strength of the galactic tidal force as the sun rotates in the nearly stationary quadrupole field of the central bar. There is increasing evidence that the Kuiper belt really ends at about 50 AU. (Donnes 1997; Allen, Bernstein, and Molhotra 2001). The cause for this cut-off is unknown, but galactic tidal forces are dismissed. I will show how the new, stronger forces can be effective.

  7. Wind turbines using self-excited three-phase induction generators: an innovative solution for voltage-frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudny, J. F.; Pusca, R.; Roisse, H.

    2008-08-01

    A considerable number of communities throughout the world, most of them isolated, need hybrid energy solutions either for rural electrification or for the reduction of diesel use. Despite several research projects and demonstrations which have been conducted in recent years, wind-diesel technology remains complex and much too costly. Induction generators are the most robust and common for wind energy systems but this option is a serious challenge for electrical regulation. When a wind turbine is used in an off-grid configuration, either continuously or intermittently, precise and robust regulation is difficult to attain. The voltage parameter regulation option, as was experienced at several remote sites (on islands and in the arctic for example), is a safe, reliable and relatively simple technology, but does not optimize the wave quality and creates instabilities. These difficulties are due to the fact that no theory is available to describe the system, due to the inverse nature of the problem. In order to address and solve the problem of the unstable operation of this wind turbine generator, an innovative approach is described, based on a different induction generator single phase equivalent circuit.

  8. Perceived temporal asynchrony between sinusoidally modulated luminance and depth.

    PubMed

    aric, Gojko; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Nishina, Shigeaki; De Weerd, Peter; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneously presented visual events lead to temporally asynchronous percepts. This has led some researchers to conclude that the asynchronous experience is a manifestation of differences in neural processing time for different visual attributes. Others, however, have suggested that the asynchronous experience is due to differences in temporal markers for changes of different visual attributes. Here, two sets of bars were presented, one to each eye. Either the bars were moving or their luminance was gradually changing. Bars moved horizontally in counterphase at low frequencies along short trajectories and were presented stereoscopically, such that the horizontal movements were perceived as back-and-forth motion on a sagittal plane, or monocularly to a dominant eye, preserving a perception of the horizontal movements on a frontal plane. In a control condition, bars were stationary and their luminance was modulated. The changes in stimulus speed or luminance occurred sinusoidally. When asked to adjust the phase of one stimulus to the other to achieve synchronous perception, participants showed a constant phase offset at the lowest frequencies used. Given the absence of abrupt transitions and the presence of similar gradual turning points in our stimuli to control for attentional effects, it can be concluded that asynchronous percepts in multimodal stimuli may at least in part be a manifestation of difference in neural processing time of visual attributes rather than solely a difference in the temporal markers (transitions versus turning points). PMID:26605842

  9. Potential damage to DC superconducting magnets due to the high frequency electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data are presented in support of the hypothesis that a dc superconducting magnet coil does not behave strictly as an inductor, but as a complicated electrodynamic device capable of supporting electromagnetic waves. Travel times of nanosecond pulses and evidence of sinusoidal standing waves were observed on a prototype four-layer solenoidal coil at room temperature. Ringing observed during switching transients appears as a sequence of multiple reflected square pulses whose durations are related to the layer lengths. With sinusoidal excitation of the coil, the voltage amplitude between a pair of points on the coil exhibits maxima at those frequencies such that the distance between these points is an odd multiple of half wavelength in free space. Evidence indicates that any disturbance, such as that resulting from switching or sudden fault, initiates multiple reflections between layers, thus raising the possibility for sufficiently high voltages to cause breakdown.

  10. Simultaneous powerline interference and baseline wander removal from ECG and EMG signals by sinusoidal modeling.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Miroslav; Gonzlez-Izal, Miriam

    2013-10-01

    We present a compact approach to joint modeling of powerline interference (PLI) and baseline wonder (BW) for denoising of biopotential signals. Both PLI and BW are modeled by a set of harmonically related sinusoids modulated by low-order time polynomials. The sinusoids account on the harmonicity and mean instantaneous frequency of the PLI in the analysis window, while the polynomials capture the frequency and amplitude deviations from their nominal values and characterize the BW at the same time. The resulting model is linear-in-parameters and the solution to the corresponding linear system is estimated in a simple and efficient way through linear least-squares. The proposed modeling method was evaluated on real electrocardiographic (ECG) and electromyographic (EMG) signals against three reference methods for different analysis scenarios. The comparative study suggests that the proposed method outperforms the reference methods in terms of residual interference energy in the denoised biopotential signals. PMID:23608299

  11. Attenuation of Sinusoidal Perturbations Superimposed on Laminar Flow of a Liquid in a Long Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Carl M.; Blade, Robert J.; Dorsch, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The attenuation constant for sinusoidal pressure and flow perturbations superimposed on the laminar flow of a viscous liquid was measured in a system consisting of a long, straight, cylindrical hydraulic line. The upstream and downstream ends of the line were securely fastened t o the ground. A sinusoidal perturbation was imposed on the mean flow at the upstream end by means of a s m a l l oscillation of a throttle valve abmt a partly open mean position. The downstream end was terminated in a restricting orifice. Pressure perturbations were measured at three locations along the line for frequencies from 15 t o 100 cps. These pressure measurements were reduced by use of a pair of complex damped acoustic one-dimensional wave equations to obtain the attenuation constant along with the phase constant and the dimensionless downstream admittance. For the range of frequencies investigated, the experimental values of the attenuation constant are in good agreement with classical theory.

  12. Improvement of flatness of optical frequency comb based on nonlinear effect of intensity modulator.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yujie; Zhang, Hongming; Yao, Minyu

    2011-07-15

    Optical frequency comb (OFC) generated using cascaded intensity and phase modulators was experimentally demonstrated. Very flat OFC can be achieved by cascading intensity and phase modulators driven directly by sinusoidal waveform, where chirped fiber Bragg grating or specially tailored radio frequency waveforms are not required. It is found that the spectral flatness of OFC is related to direct current (DC) bias of intensity modulator and the optimum ratio of DC bias to half-wave voltage is 0.35. In the experiment, 15 comb lines within 1 dB spectral power variation are obtained at 10 GHz microwave frequency. The experimental results agree well with the simulation. PMID:21765530

  13. Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.

  14. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Pierre; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam

    2005-12-01

    We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  15. Design and implementation of a new modified sliding mode controller for grid-connected inverter to controlling the voltage and frequency.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Mohammad Mehdi; Nayeripour, Majid; Rajaei, Amirhossein; Mansouri, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-03-01

    As the output power of a microgrid with renewable energy sources should be regulated based on the grid conditions, using robust controllers to share and balance the power in order to regulate the voltage and frequency of microgrid is critical. Therefore a proper control system is necessary for updating the reference signals and determining the proportion of each inverter in the microgrid control. This paper proposes a new adaptive method which is robust while the conditions are changing. This controller is based on a modified sliding mode controller which provides adapting conditions in linear and nonlinear loads. The performance of the proposed method is validated by representing the simulation results and experimental lab results. PMID:26704720

  16. Multifunction Current Differencing Cascaded Transconductance Amplifier (MCDCTA) and Its Application to Current-Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhua; Lin, Hairong

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new versatile active element, namely multifunction current differencing cascaded transconductance amplifier (MCDCTA), is proposed. This device which adopts a simple configuration enjoys the performances of low-voltage, low-input and high-output impedance, wide bandwidth etc. It simplifies the design of the current-mode analog signal processing circuit greatly, especially the design of high-order filter and oscillator circuits. Moreover, an example as a new current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO) using MCDCTA is described in this paper. The proposed oscillator, which employs only one MCDCTA and minimum grounded passive elements, is easy to be realized. It can provide random n (n being odd or even) output current signals and these output currents are equally spaced in phase all at high output impedance terminals. Its oscillation condition and the oscillation frequency can be adjusted independently, linearly and electronically by controlling the bias currents of MCDCTA. The operation of the proposed oscillator has been testified through PSPICE simulation and experimental results.

  17. Energy harvesting under excitations of time-varying frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuaciuc-Osrio, Thiago; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2010-06-01

    The design and optimization of energy harvesters capable of scavenging energy efficiently from realistic environments require a deep understanding of their transduction under non-stationary and random excitations. Otherwise, their small energy outputs can be further decreased lowering their efficiency and rendering many critical and possibly life saving technologies inefficient. As a first step towards this critical understanding, this effort investigates the response of energy harvesters to harmonic excitations of time-varying frequency. Such excitations can be used to represent the behavior of realistic vibratory environments whose frequency varies or drifts with time. Specifically, we consider a piezoelectric stack-type harvester subjected to a harmonic excitation of constant amplitude and a sinusoidally varying frequency. We analyze the response of the harvester in the fixed-frequency scenario then use the Jacobi-Anger's expansion to analyze the response in the time-varying case. We obtain analytical expressions for the harvester's response, output voltage, and power. In-depth analysis of the attained results reveals that the solution to the more complex time-varying frequency can be understood through a process which "samples" the fixed-frequency response curve at a discrete and fixed frequency interval then multiplies the response by proper weights. Extensive discussions addressing the effect of the excitation parameters on the output power is presented leading to some initial suggestions pertinent to the harvester's design and optimization in the sinusoidally varying frequency case.

  18. Superimposing noise linearizes the responses of primary muscle spindle afferents to sinusoidal muscle stretch.

    PubMed

    Krller, J; Grsser, O J; Weiss, L R

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in anaesthetized and spinalized cats to measure the extent to which the non-linear response of Ia afferent fibers to sinusoidal muscle stretch as expressed by the peristimulus-time-histograms, PSTHs, can be transformed into a linear one by means of the superposition of random stretch ("mechanical noise"). The gastrocnemius muscles of one hind leg were stretched and the response to sinewave muscle stretch (amplitudes between 0.01 and 4.0 mm, frequencies between 0.1 and 20 Hz) were investigated while band-limited mechanical noise was superimposed on the sinewave stretch. The random stretch upper cut-off frequency was varied between 60 and 300 Hz; the displacements were normally distributed. The noise amplitude sigma, i.e. the standard deviation of the displacement distributions, was varied systematically between 0.002 and 0.4 mm. Mechanical noise was very effective in raising the mean discharge rate. Added to the sinusoidal stretch it prevented the cessation of firing during the release phase of the stretch cycle, or at least reduced the duration of discharge pauses, i.e., a linearization occurred. In general, the larger the noise amplitude, the more the amplitude of the fundamental harmonic component was attenuated and the phase lead reduced. Apart from this rule the particular combination of superimposing small noise (sigma less than 0.02 mm) on small sinewave stretch (A less than 0.02 mm) could enhance the depth of sinusoidal modulation of cycle histograms (compared with responses to pure sinusoids). Linearizing the sinewave response by additional noise allowed the estimation of frequency response characteristics in the otherwise non-linear range of amplitudes (sinewave amplitude 0.5-1.0 mm).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2976279

  19. Suppression of axonal conduction by sinusoidal stimulation in rat hippocampus in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, A. L.; Durand, D. M.

    2007-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS), also known as high frequency stimulation (HFS), is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, and shows promise for the therapeutic control of epilepsy. However, the direct effect of DBS on neural elements close to the stimulating electrode remains an important unanswered question. Computational studies have suggested that HFS has a dual effect on neural elements inhibiting cell bodies, while exciting axons. Prior experiments have shown that sinusoidal HFS (50 Hz) can suppress synaptic and non-synaptic cellular activity in several in vitro epilepsy models, in all layers of the hippocampus. However, the effects of HFS on axons near the electrode are still unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that HFS suppresses axonal conduction in vitro. Sinusoidal HFS was applied to the alvear axon field of transverse rat hippocampal slices. The results show that HFS suppresses the alvear compound action potential (CAP) as well as the CA1 antidromic evoked potential (AEP). Complete suppression was observed as a 100% reduction in the amplitude of the evoked field potential for the duration of the stimulus. Evoked potential width and latency were not significantly affected by sinusoidal HFS. Suppression was dependent on HFS amplitude and frequency, but independent of stimulus duration and synaptic transmission. The frequency dependence of sinusoidal HFS is similar to that observed in clinical DBS, with maximal suppression between 50 and 200 Hz. HFS produced not only suppression of axonal conduction but also a correlated rise in extracellular potassium. These data provide new insights into the effects of HFS on neuronal elements, and show that HFS can block axonal activity through non-synaptic mechanisms.

  20. Optical frequency comb generation based on chirping of Mach-Zehnder Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmood, Jassim K.; Emami, Siamak D.; Noordin, Kamarul A.; Ahmad, Harith; Harun, Sulaiman W.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.

    2015-06-01

    A new approach for the generation of an optical frequency comb, based on chirping of modulators, is proposed and numerically demonstrated. The setup includes two cascaded Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZMs), a sinusoidal wave oscillator, and an electrical time delay. The first MZM is driven directly by a sinusoidal wave, while the second MZM is driven by a delayed replica of the sinusoidal wave. A mathematical model of the proposed system is formulated and modeled using the Matlab software. It is shown that the number of the frequency lines is directly proportional to the chirp factor. In order to achieve the highest number of frequency comb lines with the best flatness, the time delay between the driving voltages of the two MZMs is optimized. Our results reveal that at least 51 frequency lines can be observed at the output spectrum. In addition, 27 of these lines have power fluctuations of less than 1 dB. The performance of the proposed system is also simulated using a split-step numerical analysis. An optical frequency comb, with tunable frequency spacing ranging from 5 to 40 GHz, is successfully generated.

  1. Computer Program for Thin Wire Antenna over a Perfectly Conducting Ground Plane. [using Galerkins method and sinusoidal bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for a thin-wire antenna over a perfect ground plane. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain, and the exterior medium is free space. The antenna may have finite conductivity and lumped loads. The output data includes the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, and gain. The program uses sinusoidal bases and Galerkin's method.

  2. Spoof plasmon radiation using sinusoidally modulated corrugated reactance surfaces.

    PubMed

    Panaretos, Anastasios H; Werner, Douglas H

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the feasibility of creating leaky wave antennas capable of converting spoof plasmons to radiating modes. Spoof plasmons are surface waves excited along metallic corrugated surfaces and they are considered the microwave and THz equivalent of optical surface plasmon polaritons. Given that a corrugated surface is essentially a reactance surface, the proposed design methodology relies on engineering a corrugated surface so that it exhibits a sinusoidally modulated reactance profile. Through such non-uniform periodic reactance surfaces, guided surface waves can efficiently couple into free-space radiating modes. This requires the development of a realistic methodology that effectively maps the necessary sinusoidal reactance variation to a sinusoidal variation corresponding to the depth of the grooves. Both planar and cylindrical corrugated surfaces are examined and it is numerically demonstrated that the corresponding sinusoidally modulated leaky wave structures can very efficiently convert guided spoof plasmons to radiating modes. PMID:26906820

  3. System and component design and test of a 10 hp, 18,000 rpm AC dynamometer utilizing a high frequency AC voltage link, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, Thomas A.; Alan, Irfan

    1991-06-01

    Hard and soft switching test results conducted with one of the samples of first generation MOS-controlled thyristor (MCTs) and similar test results with several different samples of second generation MCT's are reported. A simple chopper circuit is used to investigate the basic switching characteristics of MCT under hard switching and various types of resonant circuits are used to determine soft switching characteristics of MCT under both zero voltage and zero current switching. Next, operation principles of a pulse density modulated converter (PDMC) for three phase (3F) to 3F two-step power conversion via parallel resonant high frequency (HF) AC link are reviewed. The details for the selection of power switches and other power components required for the construction of the power circuit for the second generation 3F to 3F converter system are discussed. The problems encountered in the first generation system are considered. Design and performance of the first generation 3F to 3F power converter system and field oriented induction moter drive based upon a 3 kVA, 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link are described. Low harmonic current at the input and output, unity power factor operation of input, and bidirectional flow capability of the system are shown via both computer and experimental results. The work completed on the construction and testing of the second generation converter and field oriented induction motor drive based upon specifications for a 10 hp squirrel cage dynamometer and a 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link is discussed. The induction machine is designed to deliver 10 hp or 7.46 kW when operated as an AC-dynamo with power fed back to the source through the converter. Results presented reveal that the proposed power level requires additional energy storage elements to overcome difficulties with a peak link voltage variation problem that limits reaching to the desired power level. The power level test of the second generation converter after the addition of extra energy storage elements to the HF link are described. The importance of the source voltage level to achieve a better current regulation for the source side PDMC is also briefly discussed. The power levels achieved in the motoring mode of operation show that the proposed power levels achieved in the generating mode of operation can also be easily achieved provided that no mechanical speed limitation were present to drive the induction machine at the proposed power level.

  4. System and component design and test of a 10 hp, 18,000 rpm AC dynamometer utilizing a high frequency AC voltage link, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, Thomas A.; Alan, Irfan

    1991-01-01

    Hard and soft switching test results conducted with one of the samples of first generation MOS-controlled thyristor (MCTs) and similar test results with several different samples of second generation MCT's are reported. A simple chopper circuit is used to investigate the basic switching characteristics of MCT under hard switching and various types of resonant circuits are used to determine soft switching characteristics of MCT under both zero voltage and zero current switching. Next, operation principles of a pulse density modulated converter (PDMC) for three phase (3F) to 3F two-step power conversion via parallel resonant high frequency (HF) AC link are reviewed. The details for the selection of power switches and other power components required for the construction of the power circuit for the second generation 3F to 3F converter system are discussed. The problems encountered in the first generation system are considered. Design and performance of the first generation 3F to 3F power converter system and field oriented induction moter drive based upon a 3 kVA, 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link are described. Low harmonic current at the input and output, unity power factor operation of input, and bidirectional flow capability of the system are shown via both computer and experimental results. The work completed on the construction and testing of the second generation converter and field oriented induction motor drive based upon specifications for a 10 hp squirrel cage dynamometer and a 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link is discussed. The induction machine is designed to deliver 10 hp or 7.46 kW when operated as an AC-dynamo with power fed back to the source through the converter. Results presented reveal that the proposed power level requires additional energy storage elements to overcome difficulties with a peak link voltage variation problem that limits reaching to the desired power level. The power level test of the second generation converter after the addition of extra energy storage elements to the HF link are described. The importance of the source voltage level to achieve a better current regulation for the source side PDMC is also briefly discussed. The power levels achieved in the motoring mode of operation show that the proposed power levels achieved in the generating mode of operation can also be easily achieved provided that no mechanical speed limitation were present to drive the induction machine at the proposed power level.

  5. A variable step-size gradient adaptive lattice algorithm for multiple sinusoidal interference cancelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-woo; Park, Young-cheol; Youn, Dae Hee

    2013-12-01

    In passive sonar, adaptive algorithms can be used to cancel strong sinusoidal self-interferences. In order to correctly recover low-power target signals during the early stages of processing, these adaptive algorithms must provide fast convergence and, at the same time, narrow notches at the frequencies of the sinusoids. In this respect, the gradient adaptive lattice (GAL) algorithm is a very attractive choice. However, the GAL algorithm with a constant step-size parameter has to compromise between the convergence rate and notch bandwidths. Therefore, in this article, we propose a variable step-size scheme for the GAL algorithm that can achieve both a fast convergence rate and narrow notches. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm compared to both the conventional GAL algorithm and transversal adaptive filter combined with the variable step-size scheme.

  6. Research on Coherent Laser Warning Receiver Based Sinusoidal Transmission Grating Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. L.; Tian, E. M.; Wang, Z. B.

    2006-10-01

    A measurement method for the wavelength and incident angle of narrow pulsed laser based on sinusoidal Transmission Grating and Digital Signal Processor has been proposed in this paper, and the corresponding principle prototype of laser warning receiver has been designed, this instrument consists of a sinusoidal transmission amplitude grating, a plantconvex cylinder lens, a linear CCD with 50MHz driving frequency made by ATMEL Company, a High speed DSP TMS320VC5509 and a liquid Crystal Screen. our experiment results show that this instrument has the following technical characteristics: measurement wavelength range(span) is from 500 to 1100nm, wavelength resolution is less than or equal to 10nm, the Field of View is 22.5 in latitude or longitude, the incident angle resolution is about 1, the responding time to laser threat is less than 0.1s, the detecting sensitivity is less than 10mW/cm2.

  7. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    The mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles is presented as a summation of several exponential integrals with complex arguments. Mathematical models are developed to show the near-zone field of the sinusoidal dipole. The mutual impedance of coupled dipoles is expressed as the sum of four monopole-mobopole impedances to simplify the analysis procedure. The subroutines for solving the parameters of the dipoles are discussed.

  8. High frequency, high temperature specific core loss and dynamic B-H hysteresis loop characteristics of soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loops for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loop characteristics of Supermalloy and Metglas 2605SC over the frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz and temperature range of 23 to 300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The experimental setup used to conduct the investigation is described. The effects of the maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined.

  9. High frequency, high temperature specific core loss and dynamic B-H hysteresis loop characteristics of soft magnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wieserman, W.R.; Schwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loops for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loop characteristics of Supermalloy and Metglass 2605SC over the frequency range of 1-50 kHz and temperature range of 23-300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The experimental setup used to conduct the investigation is described. The effects of the maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined.

  10. Role of sinusoidal heparan sulfate proteoglycan in liver metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Tvri, J; Paku, S; Rs, E; Pogny, G; Kovalszky, I; Ladnyi, A; Lapis, K; Tmr, J

    1997-05-29

    Previous studies have indicated that the predominant sites of tumor cell extravasation in the liver are the sinusoidal vessels, where tumor cells contact the sinusoidal endothelium and the subendothelial extracellular matrix containing the basic components of the basement membrane. We studied the role of sinusoidal extracellular matrix in metastatsis formation by 3LL-HH murine tumor cells selected for their preferential liver colonization. 3LL-HH tumor cells did not efficiently adhere to cryosections of the liver, but they recognized the sinusoids and vessel walls. Pre-treatment of the mice with polyclonal anti-basement membrane antibodies [anti-laminin, anti-fibronectin and anti-heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)] significantly modulated the organ distribution of tumor cell colonies following intracardial injection: all 3 antibodies inhibited kidney colonization; anti-laminin and anti-fibronectin antibodies inhibited lung colonization; and only anti-HSPG antibody inhibited liver colonization. In several organs such as the heart, stomach, pancreas and bladder, anti-basement membrane antibody treatment did not alter the process of colonization. Immunofluorescence studies showed that anti-HSPG antibody recognized the basement membranes of sinusoids and blood vessels. Our data suggest a specific involvement of sinusoidal HSPG in the liver colonization of 3LL-HH cells. PMID:9180152

  11. Coherent Voltage Oscillations in Superconducting Polycrystalline Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinkok, A.; Yetiş, H.; Olutaş, M.; Kiliç, K.; Kiliç, A.; Çetin, O.

    2006-06-01

    We have investigated the voltage response of superconducting polycrystalline bulk Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) material to a bidirectional square wave current with long periods and dc current by means of the evolution of the voltage-time (V-t) curves near the critical temperature. In a well-defined range of amplitudes and periods of driving current, and temperatures, it was observed that a non-linear response to bidirectional square wave current rides on a time independent background voltage value and manifests itself as regular sinusoidal-like voltage oscillations. It was found that the non-linear response disappears when the bidirectional current was switched to dc current. The spectral content of the voltage oscillations analyzed by the Fast Fourier Transform of the corresponding V-t curves revealed that the fundamental harmonics is comparable to the frequency of bidirectional square wave current. The coherent voltage oscillations were discussed mainly in terms of the dynamic competition between pinning and depinning together with the disorder in the coupling strength between the superconducting grains (i.e Josephson coupling effects). The density fluctuations and semi-elastic coupling of the flux lines with the pinning centers were also considered as possible physical mechanisms in the interpretation of the experimental results.

  12. Signal Analysis Algorithms for Optimized Fitting of Nonresonant Laser Induced Thermal Acoustics Damped Sinusoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Miller, Corey A.

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks a numerical algorithm which optimizes frequency precision for the damped sinusoids generated by the nonresonant LITA technique. It compares computed frequencies, frequency errors, and fit errors obtained using five primary signal analysis methods. Using variations on different algorithms within each primary method, results from 73 fits are presented. Best results are obtained using an AutoRegressive method. Compared to previous results using Prony s method, single shot waveform frequencies are reduced approx.0.4% and frequency errors are reduced by a factor of approx.20 at 303K to approx. 0.1%. We explore the advantages of high waveform sample rates and potential for measurements in low density gases.

  13. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2013-11-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation.

  14. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2013-11-15

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation.

  15. Quantal Fluctuation Limitations on Reaction Time to Sinusoidal Gratings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Michael Eugene

    1987-09-01

    Because of the fundamentally stochastic nature of photon emissions from many natural light sources, the visibility of patterns of illumination incident on the human eye can be analyzed from the standpoint of statistical decision theory (Rose, 1942, 1948; De Vries, 1943). The illuminance in the neighborbood of any particular point on the retina and any given moment in time will typically be a Poisson point process, with a variance equal to the mean. An ideal observer is defined as one who makes statistical discriminations between patterns of light on the retina with constant reliability. Previously, the theory of such an ideal observer has been applied to the analysis of the dependency of threshold patch illuminances on background illuminances. Here the theory is generalized to the discrimination of arbitrary illuminance patterns, on the assumption that the observer bases his statistical judgments on the outputs of illuminance summation mechanisms which are ideally matched to the contrast, mean illuminance, and scale of the patterns being discriminated. It is shown that, in order to discriminate a family of sinusoidal gratings of fixed physical contrast from blank fields at the same mean illuminances, the ideal observer will increase her latencies in proportion to the square of the stimulus frequency, and in inverse proportion to the mean grating illuminance. The results of a two-response forced-choice reaction time experiment designed to test these predictions of the ideal observer model are reported. The independent variables: grating spatial frequency and mean illuminance were varied factorially. In general, the magnitudes of the observed reaction time differences across levels of the independent variables were not found to be as great as those predicted by the ideal observer model. At any particular level of mean grating illuminance, the reaction time vs. spatial frequency data is well-described by the model RT = 1 + bn^{1.6}. Similarly, the reaction time vs. mean illuminance data is well-described by the model RT = a + bI^{-0.45} . Similar results were obtained for each of three subjects.

  16. Low-frequency noise reduction in vertical MOSFETs having tunable threshold voltage fabricated with 60 nm CMOS technology on 300 mm wafer process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamoto, Takuya; Ma, Yitao; Muraguchi, Masakazu; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, DC and low-frequency noise (LFN) characteristics have been investigated with actual measurement data in both n- and p-type vertical MOSFETs (V-MOSFETs) for the first time. The V-MOSFETs which was fabricated on 300 mm bulk silicon wafer process have realized excellent DC performance and a significant reduction of flicker (1/f) noise. The measurement results show that the fabricated V-MOSFETs with 60 nm silicon pillar and 100 nm gate length achieve excellent steep sub-threshold swing (69 mV/decade for n-type and 66 mV/decade for p-type), good on-current (281 A/m for n-type 149 A/m for p-type), low off-leakage current (28.1 pA/m for n-type and 79.6 pA/m for p-type), and excellent on-off ratio (1 107 for n-type and 2 106 for p-type). In addition, it is demonstrated that our fabricated V-MOSFETs can control the threshold voltage (Vth) by changing the channel doping condition, which is the useful and low-cost technique as it has been widely used in the conventional bulk planar MOSFET. This result indicates that V-MOSFETs can control Vth more finely and flexibly by the combined the use of the doping technique with other techniques such as work function engineering of metal-gate. Moreover, it is also shown that V-MOSFETs can suppress 1/f noise (L\\text{gate}WS\\text{Id}/I\\text{d}2 of 10-13-10-11 m2/Hz for n-type and 10-12-10-10 m2/Hz for p-type) to one or two order lower level than previously reported nanowire type MOSFET, FinFET, Tri-Gate, and planar MOSFETs. The results have also proved that both DC and 1/f noise performances are independent from the bias voltage which is applied to substrate or well layer. Therefore, it is verified that V-MOSFETs can eliminate the effects from substrate or well layer, which always adversely affects the circuit performances due to this serial connection.

  17. High-Voltage, Asymmetric-Waveform Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Vu A.; Kanik, Isik

    2008-01-01

    The shapes of waveforms generated by commercially available analytical separation devices, such as some types of mass spectrometers and differential mobility spectrometers are, in general, inadequate and result in resolution degradation in output spectra. A waveform generator was designed that would be able to circumvent these shortcomings. It is capable of generating an asymmetric waveform, having a peak amplitude as large as 2 kV and frequency of several megahertz, which can be applied to a capacitive load. In the original intended application, the capacitive load would consist of the drift plates in a differential-mobility spectrometer. The main advantage to be gained by developing the proposed generator is that the shape of the waveform is made nearly optimum for various analytical devices requiring asymmetric-waveform such as differential-mobility spectrometers. In addition, this waveform generator could easily be adjusted to modify the waveform in accordance with changed operational requirements for differential-mobility spectrometers. The capacitive nature of the load is an important consideration in the design of the proposed waveform generator. For example, the design provision for shaping the output waveform is based partly on the principle that (1) the potential (V) on a capacitor is given by V=q/C, where C is the capacitance and q is the charge stored in the capacitor; and, hence (2) the rate of increase or decrease of the potential is similarly proportional to the charging or discharging current. The proposed waveform generator would comprise four functional blocks: a sine-wave generator, a buffer, a voltage shifter, and a high-voltage switch (see Figure 1). The sine-wave generator would include a pair of operational amplifiers in a feedback configuration, the parameters of which would be chosen to obtain a sinusoidal timing signal of the desired frequency. The buffer would introduce a slight delay (approximately equal to 20 ns) but would otherwise leave the fundamental timing signal unchanged. The buffered timing signal would be fed as input to the level shifter. The output of the level shifter would serve as a timing and control signal for the high-voltage switch, causing the switch to alternately be (1) opened, allowing the capacitive load to be charged from a high-voltage DC power supply; then (2) closed to discharge the capacitive load to ground. Hence, the output waveform would closely approximate a series of exponential charging and discharging curves (see Figure 2).

  18. Phase and amplitude retrieval of objects embedded in a sinusoidal background from its diffraction pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chu; Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Efforts of phase and amplitude retrieval from diffraction patterns have almost exclusively been applied for nonperiodic objects. We investigated the quality of retrieval of nonperiodic objects embedded in a sinusoidal background, using the approach of iterative hybrid input-output with oversampling. Two strategies were employed; one by filtering in the frequency domain prior to phase retrieval, and the other by filtering the phase or amplitude image after retrieval. Results obtained indicate better outcomes with the latter approach provided detector noise is not excessive.

  19. Time-dependent perturbation of a two-state quantum system by a sinusoidal field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, D. R.; Hirschfelder, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    Different methods for solving the 'two-level problem' are discussed, namely, the problem of what happens to a material system having only two nondegenerate energy levels when it is perturbed by an electromagnetic field that varies with time in a monochromatic sinusoidal fashion. The various methods discussed include: (1) the Sen Gupta technique using nondegenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, (2) the Salwen-Winter-Shirley partitioning perturbation technique, (3) the Shirley and series degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger expansion, (4) the degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger technique for considering high frequency fields, and (5) the singular perturbation expansion technique.

  20. Sinusoidal Regge Oscillations from Short Lived Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2007-06-01

    It is well known that a resonance with a large angular life can produce sharp Breit-Wigner peaks in the energy dependence of integral cross sections [1,2]. Here we show that a short-lived resonance whose angular life is of order of one full rotation may produce a different kind of contribution to the integral cross section. This contribution has a sinousoidal form and its frequency is determined by the rotational constant of the complex. As one of the examples, we analyze the Regge oscillations observed in numerical simulations of the F+H2(v=0,j=0,φ=0) ->FH(v'=2,j'=0,φ'=0) + H reaction. In particular, we show that these oscillations are produced by two overlapping resonances located near the transition state and the van der Waals well, respectively [3]. [1] J. H. Macek, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 183202, (2004). [2] Z. Felfli et al., J. Phys. B 39, L353 (2006) [3] D. Sokolovski, D. De Fazio, S. Cavalli and V. Aquilanti, J. Chem. Phys. (2007) (submitted).

  1. Voltage Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Lewis Research Center Small Business Innovation Research contract, SRICO, Inc. developed a fiber optic voltage sensor to measure voltage in electronic systems in spacecraft. The sensor uses glass and light to sense and transmit electricity, and is relatively safe and accurate. SRICO then commercialized the sensor for measurement of electric field and voltage in applications such as electric power systems and hazardous environments, lightning detection, and fiber optic communication systems.

  2. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  3. Full-spectrum nonlinear response of a sinusoidally modulated rotating disk electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jamie R.; Adler, Stuart B.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2005-06-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a sinusoidally modulated rotating disk electrode (RDE) is analyzed to identify the flow and concentration field interactions that lead to resonance and nullification conditions in the electrochemical response of the system. Steady periodic solutions to the von Krmn self-similar form of the Navier-Stokes equations and convective diffusion equation are examined using a combined Fourier transform/perturbation approach that yields a set of frequency dispersion equations solved using the finite element method. Experimental measurements using a RDE with sinusoidal angular velocity waveform ? =?0+??cos(?0t) are compared to theory for modulation amplitudes ?? /?0<1 and electrolyte Schmidt number of 1680. The modulation frequency ?0 is varied from the quasisteady to high-frequency limits to obtain the phase and amplitude of the mean, fundamental, and higher-harmonic limiting current. We show that distinct features (resonances and nullifications) in the nonlinear mean and higher harmonic components of limiting current result from constructive and destructive (in phase and 180 out of phase, respectively) interactions between cross terms of the oscillating components in the axial flow and concentration fields near the disk surface.

  4. Compressed Sensing Of Complex Sinusoids Off The Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Cheng; Liu, Shi; Jiaqun, Zhao

    2015-07-01

    To solve off-grid problem in compressed sensing, a new reconstruction algorithm for complex sinusoids is proposed. The compressed sensing reconstruction problem is transformed into a joint optimized problem. Based on coordinate descent approach and linear estimator, a new iteration algorithm is proposed. The results of experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Using Antenna Arrays to Motivate the Study of Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Educational activities involving antenna arrays to motivate the study of sinusoids are described. Specifically, using fundamental concepts related to phase and simple geometric arguments, students are asked to predict the location of interference nulls in the radiation pattern of two-element phased array antennas. The location of the radiation

  6. Chronic ethanol consumption enhances endotoxin induced hepatic sinusoidal leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ohki, E; Kato, S; Horie, Y; Mizukami, T; Tamai, H; Yokoyama, H; Ito, D; Fukuda, M; Suzuki, H; Kurose, I; Ishii, H

    1996-12-01

    In alcoholic liver disease, endotoxin has been postulated to play an important role in its pathogenesis. Endotoxin is known to lead to impediment of hepatic microcirculation, including the adhesion of leukocytes to sinusoidal endothelial cells. In this study, the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the leukocyte adhesion elicited by endotoxin was examined. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed with a liquid diet containing ethanol or an isocaloric control diet for 6 weeks. The liver of anesthetized rats were placed on the nonfluorescent cover-glass for observation by an intravital inverted microscope equipped with a silicon intensified target camera. The red blood cell (RBC) velocity in hepatic sinusoids was measured by an off-line temporal correlation velocimeter (Capiflow, Sweden) after intravenous injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rat RBC. RBC velocity in sinusoids was more severely disturbed in ethanol fed rats than in controls. Leukocytes were stained by the intravenous injection of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester for a fluorographic observation of leukocyte adhesion. After lipopolysaccharide injection, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly greater in ethanol-fed rats than in controls. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were also higher in ethanol-fed rats than in controls. These results suggest that chronic ethanol consumption aggravates endotoxin induced leukocytes adhesion that may result in hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Leukocyte adhesion to the sinusoidal wall may be associated with increased in tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. PMID:8986236

  7. Estimating Sinusoidal Pressure Waves In A Pump Volute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Roland J.; Chon, Juliet T.

    1994-01-01

    Closed-form equation approximates principal traveling-wave sinusoidal components of fluctuations of pressure in volute of centrifugal pump. Equation incorporated into Blade Vane Interaction Code (BVIC) computer program, which produces estimates for various pump speeds and various locations in volute. Intended use of BVIC in analysis of undesired interactions between pressure field and pump structure.

  8. Highly stretchable gold nanobelts with sinusoidal structures for recording electrocorticograms.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Mei; Liu, Yan; Tang, Yuxin; Lv, Junhui; Li, Yuchun; Wei, Jun; Liedberg, Bo; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-05-27

    Rationally designed sinusoidal gold nanobelts are fabricated as stretchable electrodes, and they do not show obvious change of resistance under large deformation after 10,000 cyclic stretching/relaxing processes. As a proof of concept, they are successfully used to record intracranial electroencephalogram or electrocorticogram signals from rats. PMID:25865755

  9. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  10. Using Antenna Arrays to Motivate the Study of Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Educational activities involving antenna arrays to motivate the study of sinusoids are described. Specifically, using fundamental concepts related to phase and simple geometric arguments, students are asked to predict the location of interference nulls in the radiation pattern of two-element phased array antennas. The location of the radiation…

  11. Measurement of micromovements with the help of a nonlinear sinusoidal oscillator and an inductive sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bayard, J.

    2005-03-01

    Proximity magnetic sensors are based on an induction coil that creates a magnetic field. The presence of a metal target in the vicinity of this coil modifies the properties of the field created by the coil and consequently the value of its equivalent R/L circuit. The sensor is usually used as a coil to fix the frequency value of a sinusoidal oscillator. The types of oscillators used (and the suggested linear analysis) do not make it possible to determine the oscillation amplitude value. So, designers of such sensors have to connect the distance target/sensor only to the variation of the oscillation frequency value. We propose the development of a nonlinear oscillator that allows linking oscillation amplitude and parallel resistance of the sensor. One can thus connect the distance target/sensor to the amplitude and/or the frequency of the oscillation.

  12. Improvement of a large-amplitude sinusoidal pressure generator for dynamic calibration of pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of research on the improvement of a sinusoidal pressure generator are presented. The generator is an inlet-area-modulated, gas-flow-through device (siren type) which was developed to dynamically calibrate pressure transducers and pressure probes. Tests were performed over a frequency range of 100 Hz to 20 kHz at average chamber pressures (bias pressure) between 30 and 50 psia (21 and 35 N/sq cm abs) and between 150 and 300 psia (104 and 207 N/sq cm abs). Significant improvements in oscillation pressure waveform were obtained but with reduction in available generator oscillation pressure amplitude range. Oscillation pressure amplitude, waveform, and waveform spectral content are given as functions of frequency for the two bias pressure conditions. The generator and instrumentation for frequency, amplitude, and spectrum measurements are described.

  13. Incidence of the dynamic behaviour of the domain walls on the iron losses in grain-oriented Si?Fe sheets using sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal wafeform induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradi, T.; Mailfert, A.

    1992-07-01

    The dynamic behaviour of domain walls and wall segments is exploited in order to predict theoretical power losses with both sinusoidal and trapezoidal waveforms of the flux density. The statistical data, deduced from the domain wall velocity histograms, are injected into a theoretical formalism of iron losses which takes into account the dispersion of the length and the velocity of the domain walls. The influence of the rise time and frequency on the theoretical and experimental losses is reported.

  14. What is new in the liver sinusoids? meeting report, 16th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid (ISCHS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The 16th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid (ISCHS) took place in Florence, Italy on 22-24 September 2011. This symposium is a multidisciplinary meeting where new and important findings on the biology of liver cells are presented and discussed. PMID:22166123

  15. The physical basis of perceived roughness in virtual sinusoidal textures.

    PubMed

    Unger, Bertram; Klatzky, Roberta; Hollis, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Using a high-fidelity haptic interface based on magnetic levitation, subjects explored virtual sinusoidal textures with a frictionless probe and reported the subjective magnitude of perceived roughness. A psychophysical function was obtained spanning 33 levels of spatial periods from 0.025 to 6.00 mm. Kinematic and dynamic variables were recorded at 1,000 Hz and used to derive a set of variables to correlate with the psychophysical outcome. These included position, velocity, kinetic energy, instantaneous force (based on acceleration), mean force, and variability of the z-axis force signal from the power spectral density. The analysis implicates power of the force signal as the physical correlate of perceived roughness of sinusoidal textures. The relationship between power and roughness held across the range of spatial periods examined. PMID:24808401

  16. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-05-28

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  17. Sinusoidal modulation control method in a chaotic neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qihanyue; Xie, Xiaoping; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Hongping; He, Guoguang

    2014-08-01

    Chaotic neural networks (CNNs) have chaotic dynamic associative memory properties: The memory states appear non-periodically, and cannot be converged to a stored pattern. Thus, it is necessary to control chaos in a CNN in order to recognize associative memory. In this paper, a novel control method, the sinusoidal modulation control method, has been proposed to control chaos in a CNN. In this method, a sinusoidal wave simplified from brain waves is used as a control signal to modulate a parameter of the CNN. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this control method. The controlled CNN can be applied to information processing. Moreover, the method provides a way to associate brain waves by controlling CNNs.

  18. Thermal conductivity measurements using 1ω and 3ω methods revisited for voltage-driven setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimling, J.; Martens, S.; Nielsch, K.

    2011-07-01

    1ω and 3ω methods are widely established transient measurement techniques for the characterization of thermal transport in bulk-materials, thin films, and 1D nano-objects. These methods are based on resistance oscillations of a heater caused by Joule-heating from a sinusoidal current at frequency 1ω which lead to changes in the 1ω voltage and produce a voltage component at 3ω. Although the usual formalism for analyzing the measurement data assumes an ideal current source, voltage-driven measurement setups are employed in many cases. In this context, we find that there has been lack of clarity if a correction generally has to be considered when analyzing the measurement data from voltage driven setups. In this work, Fourier-analysis is employed to show that a correction is not required for 1ω methods and for 3ω measurements that use common-mode-subtraction. Experimental results are presented for a line heater on a fused silica substrate with known thermal properties, and for an individual nickel wire with diameter of 150 nm.

  19. Nonlinear propagation of sinusoidal pulse laser beam in homogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Raj, Gaurav; Mishra, Rohit K.; Malviya, Amita; Jha, Pallavi

    2007-09-15

    The propagation of an intense laser beam, having a sinusoidal pulse profile, in underdense plasma, is analyzed. Applying variational technique and using a standard trial function for the laser pulse amplitude, simultaneous equations describing the evolution of pulse length and spot size are obtained. Relativistic nonlinearity, finite pulse length, and group velocity dispersion effects have been taken into account. Using numerical methods, a graphical analysis of simultaneous evolution of laser spot size and pulse length is presented.

  20. Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.

    1975-01-01

    The mutual impedance expressions for parallel dipoles in terms of sine-integrals and cosine-integrals have been published by King (1957). The investigation reported provides analogous expressions for nonparallel dipoles. The expressions presented are most useful when the monopoles are close together. The theory of moment methods shows an approach for employing the mutual impedance of filamentary sinusoidal dipoles to calculate the impedance and scattering properties of straight and bent wires with small but finite diameter.

  1. Phase extraction based on sinusoidal extreme strip phase shifting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple synthetic aperture imaging can enlarge pupil diameter of optical systems, and increase system resolution. Multiple synthetic aperture imaging is a cutting-edge topic and research focus in recent years, which is prospectively widely applied in fields like astronomical observations and aerospace remote sensing. In order to achieve good imaging quality, synthetic aperture imaging system requires phase extraction of each sub-aperture and co-phasing of whole aperture. In the project, an in-depth study about basic principles and methods of segments phase extraction was done. The study includes: application of sinusoidal extreme strip light irradiation phase shift method to extract the central dividing line to get segment phase extraction information, and the use of interference measurement to get the aperture phase extraction calibration coefficients of spherical surface. Study about influence of sinusoidal extreme strip phase shift on phase extraction, and based on sinusoidal stripe phase shift from multiple linear light sources of the illumination reflected image, to carry out the phase shift error for inhibiting the effect in the phase extracted frame.

  2. The sinusoidal probe: a new approach to improve electrode longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Harbaljit S.; Jackson, Andrew; Jackson, Richard; Clowry, Gavin J.; Vassilevski, Konstantin; ONeill, Anthony; Baker, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    Micromotion between the brain and implanted electrodes is a major contributor to the failure of invasive brainmachine interfaces. Movements of the electrode tip cause recording instabilities while spike amplitudes decline over the weeks/months post-implantation due to glial cell activation caused by sustained mechanical trauma. We have designed a sinusoidal probe in order to reduce movement of the recording tip relative to the surrounding neural tissue. The probe was microfabricated from flexible materials and incorporated a sinusoidal shaft to minimize tethering forces and a 3D spheroid tip to anchor the recording site within the brain. Compared to standard microwire electrodes, the signal-to-noise ratio and local field potential power of sinusoidal probe recordings from rabbits was more stable across recording periods up to 678 days. Histological quantification of microglia and astrocytes showed reduced neuronal tissue damage especially for the tip region between 6 and 24 months post-implantation. We suggest that the micromotion-reducing measures incorporated into our design, at least partially, decreased the magnitude of gliosis, resulting in enhanced longevity of recording. PMID:24808859

  3. Frequency analysis of DC tolerant current transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlejnek, P.; Kaspar, P.

    2013-09-01

    This article deals with wide frequency range behaviour of DC tolerant current transformers that are usually used in modern static energy meters. In this application current transformers must comply with European and International Standards in their accuracy and DC tolerance. Therefore, the linear DC tolerant current transformers and double core current transformers are used in this field. More details about the problems of these particular types of transformers can be found in our previous works. Although these transformers are designed mainly for power distribution network frequency (50/60 Hz), it can be interesting to understand their behaviour in wider frequency range. Based on this knowledge the new generations of energy meters with measuring quality of electric energy will be produced. This solution brings better measurement of consumption of nonlinear loads or measurement of non-sinusoidal voltage and current sources such as solar cells or fuel cells. The determination of actual power consumption in such energy meters is done using particular harmonics component of current and voltage. We measured the phase and ratio errors that are the most important parameters of current transformers, to characterize several samples of current transformers of both types.

  4. Frequency of collisions between ion and neutral particles from the cloning characteristics of filamentary currents in an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bing; Zhang, Mengdie; Pan, Lizhu; Zhou, Qiujiao; Huang, Jianjun; Liu, Ying

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a cold He atmospheric pressure plasma jet that is generated using a dielectric barrier discharge configuration device is presented. This device is equipped with double-grounded ring electrodes that are driven by a sinusoidal excitation voltage. The properties of the cloning of filamentous current are studied. The frequency of the collisions between the ion and the neutral particles is calculated by measuring the current phase difference between the filamentous current and its corresponding clone. The frequency of the collisions between the ion and the neutral particles is of the order of 108 Hz.

  5. Frequency modulation television analysis: Threshold impulse analysis. [with computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is developed to calculate the FM threshold impulse rates as a function of the carrier-to-noise ratio for a specified FM system. The system parameters and a vector of 1024 integers, representing the probability density of the modulating voltage, are required as input parameters. The computer program is utilized to calculate threshold impulse rates for twenty-four sets of measured probability data supplied by NASA and for sinusoidal and Gaussian modulating waveforms. As a result of the analysis several conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of preemphasis in an FM television system improves the threshold by reducing the impulse rate. (2) Sinusoidal modulation produces a total impulse rate which is a practical upper bound for the impulse rates of TV signals providing the same peak deviations. (3) As the moment of the FM spectrum about the center frequency of the predetection filter increases, the impulse rate tends to increase. (4) A spectrum having an expected frequency above (below) the center frequency of the predetection filter produces a higher negative (positive) than positive (negative) impulse rate.

  6. Experimental observation of two microwave radiation mechanisms with widely separated frequencies during the output pulse of a high-voltage virtual cathode oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, M.; Adler, R.; Anderson, B.; Connaughton, B.; Dungan, W.

    1991-07-01

    Results from two 4-MV, 100-kA coaxial magnetically insulated transmission line virtual cathode oscillator experiments are presented. In both experiments, two distinct microwave pulses with vastly different frequencies were generated during the beam current pulse. The first, lower frequency pulse was found to be produced by an electron reflexing process, while the second, higher frequency pulse was due to the virtual cathode oscillation mechanism.

  7. Estimating Transmissivity from the Water Level Fluctuations of a Sinusoidally Forced Well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, E.; Valocchi, A.J.; Heidari, M.; Kapoor, S.G.; Kumar, P.

    1999-01-01

    The water levels in wells are known to fluctuate in response to earth tides and changes in atmospheric pressure. These water level fluctuations can be analyzed to estimate transmissivity (T). A new method to estimate transmissivity, which assumes that the atmospheric pressure varies in a sinusoidal fashion, is presented. Data analysis for this simplified method involves using a set of type curves and estimating the ratio of the amplitudes of the well response over the atmospheric pressure. Type curves for this new method were generated based on a model for ground water flow between the well and aquifer developed by Cooper et al. (1965). Data analysis with this method confirmed these published results: (1) the amplitude ratio is a function of transmissivity, the well radius, and the frequency of the sinusoidal oscillation; and (2) the amplitude ratio is a weak function of storativity. Compared to other methods, the developed method involves simpler, more intuitive data analysis and allows shorter data sets to be analyzed. The effect of noise on estimating the amplitude ratio was evaluated and found to be more significant at lower T. For aquifers with low T, noise was shown to mask the water level fluctuations induced by atmospheric pressure changes. In addition, reducing the length of the data series did not affect the estimate of T, but the variance of the estimate was higher for the shorter series of noisy data.

  8. Measuring the 3D shape of high temperature objects using blue sinusoidal structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xianling; Liu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Yingchun

    2015-12-01

    The visible light radiated by some high temperature objects (less than 1200 °C) almost lies in the red and infrared waves. It will interfere with structured light projected on a forging surface if phase measurement profilometry (PMP) is used to measure the shapes of objects. In order to obtain a clear deformed pattern image, a 3D measurement method based on blue sinusoidal structured light is proposed in this present work. Moreover, a method for filtering deformed pattern images is presented for correction of the unwrapping phase. Blue sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe pattern images are projected on the surface by a digital light processing (DLP) projector, and then the deformed patterns are captured by a 3-CCD camera. The deformed pattern images are separated into R, G and B color components by the software. The B color images filtered by a low-pass filter are used to calculate the fringe order. Consequently, the 3D shape of a high temperature object is obtained by the unwrapping phase and the calibration parameter matrixes of the DLP projector and 3-CCD camera. The experimental results show that the unwrapping phase is completely corrected with the filtering method by removing the high frequency noise from the first harmonic of the B color images. The measurement system can complete the measurement in a few seconds with a relative error of less than 1 : 1000.

  9. Development of a sinusoidal phase-shifting self-mixing interferometer for real-time displacement measurement with nanometer accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wei; Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Ming; Hao, Hui; Guo, Dongmei

    2013-05-01

    By combining the principles of sinusoidal phase-shifting technique and self-mixing interferometry, a novel instrument has been developed for real-time displacement measurement with nanometer accuracy. The sinusoidal phase shifting is introduced by an electro-optic modulator and the displacement of the object is measured by analyzing the harmonic components in the interference signal during each phase-shifting period. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are presented and some error sources are discussed in detail. The displacement measurement experiments by using a high precision nano-positioning stage and a long-range linear stage are performed to verify the performance of the interferometer. The measurement results of the interferometer are in good agreement with the data from a commercial dual-frequency interferometer, showing that the development of the interferometer is feasible for implementation in a real-time displacement sensor with high accuracy.

  10. Optical characterization of a dual-frequency hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, S. A.; Sambles, J. R.

    2005-04-01

    The dielectric anisotropy of a highly dispersive dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal (MDA-00-3969 (Merck KGa)) has been determined using the optical fully-leaky guided-mode technique. A 4Vrms sinusoidal voltage was applied across a 5m hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) cell at various frequencies in both the positive and negative dielectric anisotropy regime. Optical data was collected at each frequency enabling the director profile in each case to be determined using a multi-layer optics model in combination with a liquid crystal free-energy minimization routine. The thresholdless response of the HAN cell combined with the extreme sensitivity of the optical characterization technique has allowed subtle changes in dielectric permittivity with frequency to be observed. The resulting measured dispersion shows excellent agreement with a single Debye-type relaxation model.

  11. Constant-amplitude, frequency- independent phase shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Electronic circuit using operational amplifiers provides output with constant phase shift amplitude, with respect to sinusoidal input, over wide range of frequencies. New circuit includes field effect transistor, Q, operational amplifiers, A1 and A2, and phase detector.

  12. Enhancement of antireflection characteristic of resonant sinusoidal grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huihui; Jing, Xufeng; Chen, Liang; Tian, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Broadband antireflective characteristic is frequently achieved by sinusoidal grating in the sub-wavelength domain. Also, in the resonance domain the enhancement of antireflection for broadband spectrum and wide-angle spectrum can be obtained. For external reflection grating, the total transmittance can reach to 99.9% when the aspect ratio is larger than 1.5 for both incident polarization states. For internal reflection grating, the antireflective property in relatively narrow broadband spectrum is revealed for TE polarization. But for TM polarization, broadband antireflection at appropriate grating period and groove depth is shown. It is found that the aspect ratio of grating is a significant parameter for improving antireflection performance.

  13. Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome with hypereosinophilia successfully treated with prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Yamaga, Yuichi; Tsugihashi, Yukio; Nakamura, Takefumi; Taniguchi, Takanori; Honjou, Gen; Kage, Masayoshi

    2012-02-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to Tenri Hospital complaining of erythema and abdominal distention. There were marked liver damage and hypereosinophilia. The patient was suffering from portal hypertension and coagulation disorder. We diagnosed the patient clinically as suffering from veno-occlusive disease, or sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS). The pathological finding of the liver biopsy specimen was compatible with SOS. All of the manifestations, liver function test, and hemodynamics subsided shortly after administration of steroid treatment and ursodeoxycholic acid. The pathogenesis was not identified but some allergic reaction was suspected. PMID:26181871

  14. Determination of the magnetic losses in laminated cores under pulse width modulation voltage supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, N.; Gandarias, K.; Almandoz, G.; Poza, J.

    2015-08-01

    In the laminated ferromagnetic cores employed in transformers and electrical machines energy losses occur resulting in a warming effect and efficiency decrease. Normally, manufacturers only provide iron losses data when a sinusoidal voltage supply is applied, but the actual operating characteristics of electrical machines include non-sinusoidal supplies, in particular pulse-width modulation (PWM). This information can be experimentally obtained, but only measuring systems that have function generators with arbitrarily programmable waveforms allow measurements in the presence of higher harmonics. Therefore, having an analytical tool to obtain the most accurate estimation of the magnetic losses is of great interest in addressing the design of electric machines. This paper validates an analytical-expression-based procedure, which delivers results with acceptable accuracy under all operating conditions for the estimation of losses in laminated cores. In addition, it investigates the influence of the modulation amplitude and the switching frequency of the PWM signals in the magnetic losses of soft magnetic materials. For this purpose, non-oriented fully processed electrical steel strips have been measured in a commercial AC permeameter using a single strip tester.

  15. Thixotropy and Rheopexy of Muscle Fibers Probed Using Sinusoidal Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Altman, David; Minozzo, Fabio C.; Rassier, Dilson E.

    2015-01-01

    Length changes of muscle fibers have previously been shown to result in a temporary reduction in fiber stiffness that is referred to as thixotropy. Understanding the mechanism of this thixotropy is important to our understanding of muscle function since there are many instances in which muscle is subjected to repeated patterns of lengthening and shortening. By applying sinusoidal length changes to one end of single permeabilized muscle fibers and measuring the force response at the opposite end, we studied the history-dependent stiffness of both relaxed and activated muscle fibers. For length change oscillations greater than 1 Hz, we observed thixotropic behavior of activated fibers. Treatment of these fibers with EDTA and blebbistatin, which inhibits myosin-actin interactions, quashed this effect, suggesting that the mechanism of muscle fiber thixotropy is cross-bridge dependent. We modeled a half-sarcomere experiencing sinusoidal length changes, and our simulations suggest that thixotropy could arise from force-dependent cross-bridge kinetics. Surprisingly, we also observed that, for length change oscillations less than 1 Hz, the muscle fiber exhibited rheopexy. In other words, the stiffness of the fiber increased in response to the length changes. Blebbistatin and EDTA did not disrupt the rheopectic behavior, suggesting that a non-cross-bridge mechanism contributes to this phenomenon. PMID:25880774

  16. Design and fabrication of nano-sinusoid LSPR devices.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Daryoush; Kouzani, Abbas; Kalani, Mahshid

    2014-08-11

    Applications of LSPR nano-particles in various areas of solar cells, LSPR biosensors, and SERS biosensors, based on interaction of light with noble metal nano-particles is increasing. Therefore, design and nano-fabrication of the LSPR devices is a key step in developing such applications. Design of nano-structures with desirable spectral properties using numerical techniques such as finite difference time domain (FDTD) is the first step in this work. A new structure called nano-sinusoid, satisfying the some desirable LSPR characteristics, is designed and simulated using the FDTD method. In the next stage, analytical method of electro static eigen mode method is used to validate the simulation results. The, nano-fabrications method of electron beam lithography (EBL) is implemented to fabricate the proposed profile with high precision. Finally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to investigate the shape of the fabricated nano-particles, and the dark field microscopy is employed to demonstrate the particular spectral characteristics of the proposed nano-sinusoids. PMID:25320975

  17. Molecular regulation of sinusoidal liver bile acid transporters during cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gartung, C.; Matern, S.

    1997-01-01

    Impairment of the hepatic transport of bile acids and other organic anions will result in the clinically important syndrome of cholestasis. Cloning of a number of specific hepatic organic anion transporters has enabled studies of their molecular regulation during cholestasis. The best characterized transport system is a 50-51 kDa sodium-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp), which mediates the sodium-dependent uptake of conjugated bile acids at the sinusoidal plasma membrane of hepatocytes. Under physiologic conditions and after depletion of biliary constituents, ntcp remains constitutively expressed throughout the liver acinus. However, both function and expression of ntcp are rapidly down-regulated in rat liver in various models of experimental cholestasis, such as cholestasis induced by common bile duct ligation, estrogen, endotoxin or cytokine treatment. In addition to ntcp, the sinusoidal organic anion transporting polypeptide oatp-1 is also down-regulated at the protein and steady-state mRNA levels in estrogen-cholestasis, but does not affect sodium-independent uptake of taurocholate. The regulation of a recently cloned member of the organic anion transporter family (oatp-2), which is highly expressed in liver, remains to be studied under cholestatic conditions. PMID:9626756

  18. Method and apparatus for spur-reduced digital sinusoid synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, George A. (inventor); Flanagan, Michael J. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A technique for reducing the spurious signal content in digital sinusoid synthesis is presented. Spur reduction is accomplished through dithering both amplitude and phase values prior to word-length reduction. The analytical approach developed for analog quantization is used to produce new bounds on spur performance in these dithered systems. Amplitude dithering allows output word-length reduction without introducing additional spurs. Effects of periodic dither similar to that produced by a pseudo-noise (PN) generator are analyzed. This phase dithering method provides a spur reduction of 6(M + 1) dB per phase bit when the dither consists of M uniform variates. While the spur reduction is at the expense of an increase in system noise, the noise power can be made white, making the power spectral density small. This technique permits the use of a smaller number of phase bits addressing sinusoid look-up tables, resulting in an exponential decrease in system complexity. Amplitude dithering allows the use of less complicated multipliers and narrower data paths in purely digital applications, as well as the use of coarse-resolution, highly-linear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's) to obtain spur performance limited by the DAC linearity rather than its resolution.

  19. High-Speed Frequency Modulation of a 460-GHz Gyrotron for Enhancement of 700-MHz DNP-NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idehara, T.; Khutoryan, E. M.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Dumbrajs, O.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-09-01

    The high-speed frequency modulation of a 460-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GVI (the official name in Osaka University is Gyrotron FU CW GOI) was achieved by modulation of acceleration voltage of beam electrons. The modulation speed f m can be increased up to 10 kHz without decreasing the modulation amplitude δ f of frequency. The amplitude δ f was increased almost linearly with the modulation amplitude of acceleration voltage Δ V a. At the Δ V a = 1 kV, frequency spectrum width df was 50 MHz in the case of f m < 10 kHz. The frequency modulation was observed as both the variation of the IF frequency in the heterodyne detection system measured by a high-speed oscilloscope and the widths of frequency spectra df measured on a frequency spectrum analyzer. Both results well agree reasonably. When f m exceeds 10 kHz, the amplitude δ f is decreased gradually with increasing f m because of the degradation of the used amplifier in response for high-speed modulation. The experiment was performed successfully for both a sinusoidal wave and triangle wave modulations. We can use the high-speed frequency modulation for increasing the enhancement factor of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which is one of effective and attractive methods for the high-frequency DNP-NMR spectroscopy, for example, at 700 MHz. Because the sensitivity of NMR is inversely proportional to the frequency, high-speed frequency modulation can compensate the decreasing the enhancement factor in the high-frequency DNP-NMR spectroscopy and keep the factor at high value. In addition, the high-speed frequency modulation is useful for frequency stabilization by a PID control of an acceleration voltage by feeding back of the fluctuation of frequency. The frequency stabilization in long time is also useful for application of a DNP-NMR spectroscopy to the analysis of complicated protein molecules.

  20. The influence of anatomical and physiological parameters on the interference voltage at the input of unipolar cardiac pacemakers in low frequency electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, S.; Pammler, K.; Silny, J.

    2009-02-01

    The problem of electromagnetic interference of electronic implants such as cardiac pacemakers has been well known for many years. An increasing number of field sources in everyday life and occupational environment leads unavoidably to an increased risk for patients with electronic implants. However, no obligatory national or international safety regulations exist for the protection of this patient group. The aim of this study is to find out the anatomical and physiological worst-case conditions for patients with an implanted pacemaker adjusted to unipolar sensing in external time-varying electric fields. The results of this study with 15 volunteers show that, in electric fields, variation of the interference voltage at the input of a cardiac pacemaker adds up to 200% only because of individual factors. These factors should be considered in human studies and in the setting of safety regulations.

  1. The influence of anatomical and physiological parameters on the interference voltage at the input of unipolar cardiac pacemakers in low frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Joosten, S; Pammler, K; Silny, J

    2009-02-01

    The problem of electromagnetic interference of electronic implants such as cardiac pacemakers has been well known for many years. An increasing number of field sources in everyday life and occupational environment leads unavoidably to an increased risk for patients with electronic implants. However, no obligatory national or international safety regulations exist for the protection of this patient group. The aim of this study is to find out the anatomical and physiological worst-case conditions for patients with an implanted pacemaker adjusted to unipolar sensing in external time-varying electric fields. The results of this study with 15 volunteers show that, in electric fields, variation of the interference voltage at the input of a cardiac pacemaker adds up to 200% only because of individual factors. These factors should be considered in human studies and in the setting of safety regulations. PMID:19124951

  2. Estimation of the sinusoidal oscillation parameters in the adaptive optics system based on the example of the photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2015-05-01

    In adaptive optics systems, there is a problem of a sinusoidal oscillations rejection. This paper presents the estimation method that can be used to reject these oscillations on the example of the photovoltaic system. In such a system, photovoltaic panels generate the DC signal converted by the inverter to the AC signal with specified parameters. This paper focuses on the fast and accurate estimation of these parameters taking into account the presence of harmonics in the sinusoidal signal. The estimation method is based on using maximum decay sidelobes windows and the Fast Fourier Transform procedure. In reality, the AC signal is not a pure sinusoid and it is often distorted in a deterministic manner by harmonics, and in a random manner by white, "colored" or quantization noise. The estimation error depends on the systematic error, i.e. the error caused by the quantization noise and the error caused by harmonic components. Several parameters determine which error component is dominant in the estimation results. The value of the error caused by harmonic components depends mainly on the distance between the harmonic component and the fundamental component in a frequency domain and the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) ratio of the signal. The level of this maximum relative error is approximately 10-3 for the tested signal with THD=50%. It is important to use a filter that reduces unwanted harmonics before the data processing. The information provided in this paper can be used to determine the approximate level of estimation error before starting the estimation process.

  3. Evaluation of DMD-based high-precision beam shaper using sinusoidal-flattop beam profile generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jinyang; Kohn, Rudolph N., Jr.; Becker, Michael F.; Heinzen, Daniel J.

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate system performance of a high-precision beam shaper using a digital micromirror device (DMD) followed by a telescope with an adjustable pinhole low-pass filter. Beam shaping quality was measured by comparing the intensity and wave-front conformity with respect to the target image, and by the energy conversion efficiency. We previously demonstrated various flattop beams with high-precision intensity and a nearly uniform wave-front by using both coherent and incoherent light sources at visible and infrared wavelengths. The diffraction efficiency analysis determined optimized operation wavelengths for different diffraction orders. This paper extends beam shaping experiments to target images of a series of 2-D sinusoidal functions. An iterative pattern refinement process, based on the point spread function (PSF) of a single DMD pixel, was used to improve the image quality and to seek the optimized DMD binary pattern. Sinusoidal-flattop profiles with different spatial carrier frequencies were chosen for the purpose of system evaluation. Experiments demonstrated RMS error ranging from 0.95% to 11.87% in the raw camera image as the sinusoidal period was decreased. The DMD-based beam shaper achieved 1% RMS error level at low system bandwidth (large sinusoid period) and maintained 5% RMS error performance for a wide bandwidth range. We analyzed the relationship between spatial intensity error and system bandwidth. The ultimate system performance had amplitude error of +/-1 to +/-1.5 PSFs. Iterative refinement made a significant improvement in error for low system bandwidth as compared to the simulation of a DMD pattern designed by the error diffusion algorithm.

  4. The forces generated at the human elbow joint in response to imposed sinusoidal movements of the forearm

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, G. C.; Rack, Peter M. H.; Ross, H. F.

    1974-01-01

    1. The mechanical resistance of the human forearm has been measured during imposed sinusoidal flexion-extension movements of the elbow joint. 2. The force required to move the limb can be divided into components required to move the mass, and components required to overcome the resistance offered by elastic and frictional properties of the muscles and other soft tissues. 3. When during a vigorous flexing effort the limb was subjected to a small amplitude sinusoidal movement each extension was followed by a considerable reflex contraction of the flexor muscles. At low frequencies of movement this reflex provided an added resistance to extension, but at 8-12 Hz the delay in the reflex pathway was such that the reflex response to extension occurred after the extension phase of the movement was over and during the subsequent flexion movement. The reflex activity then assisted the movement whereas at other frequencies it impeded it. 4. The reflex response to movement increased as the subject exerted a greater flexing force. 5. Small movements generated a relatively larger reflex response than big ones. 6. Even with large amplitudes of movement when the reflex activity was relatively small, the limb resisted extension with a high level of stiffness; this was comparable with the short range stiffness of muscles in experimental animals. 7. The fact that at some frequencies the reflex response assisted the movement implies that with appropriate loading the limb could undergo a self-sustaining oscillation at those frequencies. PMID:4420490

  5. The forces generated at the human elbow joint in response to imposed sinusoidal movements of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Joyce, G C; Rack, P M; Ross, H F

    1974-07-01

    1. The mechanical resistance of the human forearm has been measured during imposed sinusoidal flexion-extension movements of the elbow joint.2. The force required to move the limb can be divided into components required to move the mass, and components required to overcome the resistance offered by elastic and frictional properties of the muscles and other soft tissues.3. When during a vigorous flexing effort the limb was subjected to a small amplitude sinusoidal movement each extension was followed by a considerable reflex contraction of the flexor muscles. At low frequencies of movement this reflex provided an added resistance to extension, but at 8-12 Hz the delay in the reflex pathway was such that the reflex response to extension occurred after the extension phase of the movement was over and during the subsequent flexion movement. The reflex activity then assisted the movement whereas at other frequencies it impeded it.4. The reflex response to movement increased as the subject exerted a greater flexing force.5. Small movements generated a relatively larger reflex response than big ones.6. Even with large amplitudes of movement when the reflex activity was relatively small, the limb resisted extension with a high level of stiffness; this was comparable with the short range stiffness of muscles in experimental animals.7. The fact that at some frequencies the reflex response assisted the movement implies that with appropriate loading the limb could undergo a self-sustaining oscillation at those frequencies. PMID:4420490

  6. Construction of a low-frequency high-power piezoelectric transformer with a specified step-up voltage transformation ratio using two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kazunari; Konno, Takuma; Kosugi, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a low-frequency piezoelectric transformer comprising two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers (BLTs) and a stepped horn with a half-wavelength straight extension. The transformer can realize a specified step-up voltage transformation ratio as determined by the cross-sectional area ratio of the horn whose both ends the two BLTs are connected to, and the driving frequency at which the specified transformation ratio is realized can be set near its mechanical resonance. Thus, it can be mechanically held firmly at its vibratory node without affecting the mechanical vibration mode or resulting in a loss of energy. After relevant finite-element simulations, experiments were conducted for a trial-fabricated transformer of the above type. As a result, the experimental results predicted by the simulations were obtained in step-up operation. The influence of the load resistance on the deviation of the driving frequency from its total mechanical resonance of 53.1 kHz was found to be less than 130 Hz (0.24% of the resonance frequency) only. High-power performance of the piezoelectric transformer was also demonstrated.

  7. Measurement of n-type Dry Thermally Oxidized 6H-SiC Metal-oxide Semiconductor Diodes by Quasistatic and High-Frequency Capacitance Versus Voltage and Capacitance Transient Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, P.; Kang, S.; Petit, J.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    1994-01-01

    Dry-oxidized n-type 6H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are investigated using quasistatic capacitance versus voltage (C-V), high-frequency C-V, and pulsed high-frequency capacitance transient (C-t) analysis over the temperature range from 297 to 573 K. The quasistatic C - V characteristics presented are the first reported for 6H-SiC MOS capacitors, and exhibit startling nonidealities due to nonequilibrium conditions that arise from the fact that the recombination/generation process in 6H-SiC is extraordinarily slow even at the highest measurement temperature employed. The high-frequency dark C-V characteristics all showed deep depletion with no observable hysteresis. The recovery of the high-frequency capacitance from deep depletion to inversion was used to characterize the minority-carrier generation process as a function of temperature. Zerbst analysis conducted on the resulting C-t transients, which were longer than 1000 s at 573 K, showed a generation lifetime thermal activation energy of 0.49 eV.

  8. Study of the generator/motor operation of induction machines in a high frequency link space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, Thomas A.; Sood, Pradeep K.

    1987-01-01

    Static power conversion systems have traditionally utilized dc current or voltage source links for converting power from one ac or dc form to another since it readily achieves the temporary energy storage required to decouple the input from the output. Such links, however, result in bulky dc capacitors and/or inductors and lead to relatively high losses in the converters due to stresses on the semiconductor switches. The feasibility of utilizing a high frequency sinusoidal voltage link to accomplish the energy storage and decoupling function is examined. In particular, a type of resonant six pulse bridge interface converter is proposed which utilizes zero voltage switching principles to minimize switching losses and uses an easy to implement technique for pulse density modulation to control the amplitude, frequency, and the waveshape of the synthesized low frequency voltage or current. Adaptation of the proposed topology for power conversion to single-phase ac and dc voltage or current outputs is shown to be straight forward. The feasibility of the proposed power circuit and control technique for both active and passive loads are verified by means of simulation and experiment.

  9. Subthreshold delta-frequency resonance in thalamic reticular neurons.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRt) is an assembly of GABAergic projection neurons that participate in the generation of brain rhythms during synchronous sleep and absence epilepsy. NRt cells receive inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs, and are endowed with an intricate set of intrinsic conductances. However, little is known about how intrinsic and synaptic properties interact to generate rhythmic discharges in these neurons. In order to better understand this interaction, I studied the subthreshold responses of nRt cells to time-varying inputs. Patch-clamp recordings were performed in acute slices of rat thalamus (postnatal days 12-21). Sinusoidal current waveforms of linearly changing frequencies were injected into the soma, and the resulting voltage oscillations were recorded. At the resting membrane potential, the impedance profile showed a characteristic resonance at 1.7Hz. The relative strength of the resonance was 1.2, and increased with membrane hyperpolarization. Small suprathreshold current injections led to preferred spike generation at the resonance frequency. Bath application of ZD7288 or Cs(+) , inhibitors of the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih ), transformed the resonance into low-pass behaviour, whereas the T-channel blockers mibefradil and Ni(2+) decreased the strength of the resonance. It is concluded that nRt cells have an Ih -mediated intrinsic frequency preference in the subthreshold voltage range that favours action potential generation in the delta-frequency band. PMID:24891125

  10. Voltage-dependent capacitance of human embryonic kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Brenda; Shope, Cythnia Do; Brownell, William E.

    2009-01-01

    We determine membrane capacitance, C as a function of dc voltage for the human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell. C was calculated from the admittance, Y, obtained during a voltage ramp when the HEK cell was held in whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. Y was determined at frequencies of 390.625 and 781.25 Hz from the measured current, i obtained with a dual-sinusoidal stimulus. We find that the fractional increase in the capacitance, C is small (<1%) and grows with the square of the voltage, ?. C can be described by: C = C(0) (1+?(?+ ?s)2) [where C(0): Capacitance at 0 volts, ?s: Difference in surface potential between cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflets and ?: Proportionality constant]. We find that ? and ?s are 0.120 (0.01) V?2 and ?0.073 (0.017) V in solutions that contain ion channel blockers and 0.108 (0.29) V?2 and ?0.023 (0.009) V when 10 mM sodium salicylate was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests that salicylate does not affect the rate at which C grows with ?, but reduces the charge asymmetry of the membrane. We also observe an additional linear differential capacitance of about (?46 fFV?1) in about 60% of the cells, this additional component acts simultaneously with the quadratic component and was not observed when salicylate was added to the solution. We suggest that the voltage dependent capacitance originates from electromechanical coupling either by electrostriction and/or Maxwell stress effects and estimate that a small electromechanical force (?1 pN) acts at physiological potentials. These results are relevant to understand the electromechanical coupling in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea, where an asymmetric bell-shaped C versus ? relationship is observed upon application of a similar field. Prestin, a membrane protein expressed in OHCs is required to observe this function. When we compare the total charge contributions from HEK cell membrane (7104 electrons, 10 pF cell) with that determined for prestin transfected cells (up to 5106 electrons) we conclude that the charge contributions from the collective motion of membrane proteins and lipids in the field is dwarfed relative to that when prestin is present. We suggest that the capacitance-voltage relationships should be similar to that observed for HEK cells for OHCs that do not express prestin in their membranes. PMID:16711859

  11. Voltage-dependent capacitance of human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Brenda; Do Shope, Cythnia; Brownell, William E.

    2006-04-01

    We determine membrane capacitance, C as a function of dc voltage for the human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell. C was calculated from the admittance, Y , obtained during a voltage ramp when the HEK cell was held in whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. Y was determined at frequencies of 390.625 and 781.25Hz from the measured current, i obtained with a dual-sinusoidal stimulus. We find that the fractional increase in the capacitance, C is small (<1%) and grows with the square of the voltage, ? . C can be described by: C=C(0)(1+?(?+?s)2) [where C(0) : Capacitance at 0volts , ?s : Difference in surface potential between cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflets and ? : Proportionality constant]. We find that ? and ?s are 0.120 (0.01)V-2 and -0.073 (0.017)V in solutions that contain ion channel blockers and 0.108 (0.29)V-2 and -0.023 (0.009)V when 10mM sodium salicylate was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests that salicylate does not affect the rate at which C grows with ? , but reduces the charge asymmetry of the membrane. We also observe an additional linear differential capacitance of about (-46fFV-1) in about 60% of the cells, this additional component acts simultaneously with the quadratic component and was not observed when salicylate was added to the solution. We suggest that the voltage dependent capacitance originates from electromechanical coupling either by electrostriction and/or Maxwell stress effects and estimate that a small electromechanical force (?1pN) acts at physiological potentials. These results are relevant to understand the electromechanical coupling in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea, where an asymmetric bell-shaped C versus ? relationship is observed upon application of a similar field. Prestin, a membrane protein expressed in OHCs is required to observe this function. When we compare the total charge contributions from HEK cell membrane ( 7104 electrons, 10pF cell) with that determined for prestin transfected cells (up to 5106 electrons) we conclude that the charge contributions from the collective motion of membrane proteins and lipids in the field is dwarfed relative to that when prestin is present. We suggest that the capacitance-voltage relationships should be similar to that observed for HEK cells for OHCs that do not express prestin in their membranes.

  12. Electronic Shore Power Station Based on Matrix-style Frequency Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia-sheng, Li; Lian-jun, Jiang; Biao, Qiu; Wu-mei, Yang

    The current port power supply to foreign ships, there are two ways power-type for owned diesel-powered and frequency conversion unit,In this paper,Proposed electronic shore power station, put forward electronic shore power station's concepts, and gives a whole building program of electronic shore power station based on matrix conversion algorithm, It will change 10 kV/50 Hz (35Kv/50 Hz) input voltage into 440 V/60 Hz low-voltage, not only eliminating intermediate links, but also simplify the hardware circuit and reduce the production cost and improve the competitiveness of enterprises. Simulation and experimental results show that this program has a built shore power station of high power factor, sinusoidal effective, low distortion, environmental pollution and the advantages,It will be very definite practical significance.

  13. Reversible sinusoidal obstruction syndrome associated with tacrolimus following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tian; Feng, Xiao-Wen; Geng, Lei; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), previously known as hepatic veno-occlusive disease, is a rare disorder in solid organ transplant patients, and is an uncommon complication after liver transplantation. Severe SOS with hepatic failure causes considerable mortality. Tacrolimus has been reported to be an offending agent, which potentially plays a role in the pathophysiological process of SOS. SOS due to tacrolimus has been reported in lung and pancreatic transplantations, but has never been described in a liver transplant recipient. Herein, we present a case of SOS after liver transplantation, which was possibly related to tacrolimus. A 27-year-old man developed typical symptoms of SOS with painful hepatomegaly, ascites and jaundice after liver transplantation, which regressed following withdrawal of tacrolimus. By excluding other possible predisposing factors, we concluded that tacrolimus was the most likely cause of SOS. PMID:26034381

  14. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Schwen, Lars Ole; Schenk, Arne; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María Matilde; Kuepfer, Lars; Preusser, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale. PMID:26222615

  15. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cathy Q.; Crawford, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is an obliterative venulitis of the terminal hepatic venules, which in its more severe forms imparts a high risk of mortality. SOS, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), occurs as a result of cytoreductive therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), following oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver and treated by partial hepatectomy, in patients taking pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing herbal remedies, and in other particular settings such as the autosomal recessive condition of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI). A central pathogenic event is toxic destruction of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC), with sloughing and downstream occlusion of terminal hepatic venules. Contributing factors are SEC glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, increased intrahepatic expression of matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activation of clotting factors. The clinical presentation of SOS includes jaundice, development of right upper-quadrant pain and tender hepatomegaly, ascites, and unexplained weight gain. Owing to the potentially critical condition of these patients, transjugular biopsy may be the preferred route for liver biopsy to exclude other potential causes of liver dysfunction and to establish a diagnosis of SOS. Treatment includes rigorous fluid management so as to avoid excessive fluid overload while avoiding too rapid diuresis or pericentesis, potential use of pharmaceutics such as defibrotide, coagulolytic agents, or methylprednisolone, and liver transplantation. Proposed strategies for prevention and prophylaxis include reduced-intensity conditioning radiation for HSCT, treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, and inclusion of bevacizumab with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimes. While significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of SOS and in mitigating against its adverse outcomes, this condition remains a serious complication of a selective group of medical treatments. PMID:25755580

  16. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (hepatic veno-occlusive disease).

    PubMed

    Fan, Cathy Q; Crawford, James M

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is an obliterative venulitis of the terminal hepatic venules, which in its more severe forms imparts a high risk of mortality. SOS, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), occurs as a result of cytoreductive therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), following oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver and treated by partial hepatectomy, in patients taking pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing herbal remedies, and in other particular settings such as the autosomal recessive condition of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI). A central pathogenic event is toxic destruction of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC), with sloughing and downstream occlusion of terminal hepatic venules. Contributing factors are SEC glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, increased intrahepatic expression of matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activation of clotting factors. The clinical presentation of SOS includes jaundice, development of right upper-quadrant pain and tender hepatomegaly, ascites, and unexplained weight gain. Owing to the potentially critical condition of these patients, transjugular biopsy may be the preferred route for liver biopsy to exclude other potential causes of liver dysfunction and to establish a diagnosis of SOS. Treatment includes rigorous fluid management so as to avoid excessive fluid overload while avoiding too rapid diuresis or pericentesis, potential use of pharmaceutics such as defibrotide, coagulolytic agents, or methylprednisolone, and liver transplantation. Proposed strategies for prevention and prophylaxis include reduced-intensity conditioning radiation for HSCT, treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, and inclusion of bevacizumab with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimes. While significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of SOS and in mitigating against its adverse outcomes, this condition remains a serious complication of a selective group of medical treatments. PMID:25755580

  17. Contrast sensitivity measurement in retinal diseases by laser generated sinusoidal grating.

    PubMed

    Kayazawa, F; Yamamoto, T; Itoi, M

    1982-08-01

    The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of 83 patients with retinal diseases was measured by laser-generated sinusoidal grating pattern, which enables the direct measurement of the CSF between the retina and the brain. The CSF abnormality in various retinal diseases was not specific to each disease, and the severity may determine the pattern. The abnormal patterns and rough correlation with visual acuity (V.A.) are: (1) attenuation at high frequency ranges (V.A. greater than 0.8), (2) attenuation at intermediate and high frequency ranges (0.4 less than V.A. less than 0.7), (3) attenuation at all frequency ranges (V.A. less than 0.3). Some cases, however, showed discrepancy between visual acuity and CSF. At the recovery stage of central serous retinopathy and retinal branch vein occlusion, CSF showed delayed recovery or attenuated sensitivity even when visual acuity was restored to 1.0 or more. In retinitis pigmentosa and pre-retinal macular fibrosis, CSF showed more sensitive detection of abnormal macular function than visual acuity measurement. At the post-corticosteroid therapy of Harada's disease and Sympathetic Ophthalmia, CSF recovered more rapidly than visual acuity when retinal detachment was absorbed. Those discrepancies suggest that CSF measurement may be useful for evaluating progression or regression of these diseases. PMID:7158316

  18. Stream segregation in the perception of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones.

    PubMed

    Dolleal, Lena-Vanessa; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation can serve as a cue for segregating streams of sounds from different sources. Here we evaluate stream segregation in humans using ABA- sequences of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. A and B represent SAM tones with the same carrier frequency (1000, 4000 Hz) and modulation depth (30, 100%). The modulation frequency of the A signals (f(modA)) was 30, 100 or 300 Hz, respectively. The modulation frequency of the B signals was up to four octaves higher (?f(mod)). Three different ABA- tone patterns varying in tone duration and stimulus onset asynchrony were presented to evaluate the effect of forward suppression. Subjects indicated their 1- or 2-stream percept on a touch screen at the end of each ABA- sequence (presentation time 5 or 15 s). Tone pattern, f(modA), ?f(mod), carrier frequency, modulation depth and presentation time significantly affected the percentage of a 2-stream percept. The human psychophysical results are compared to responses of avian forebrain neurons evoked by different ABA- SAM tone conditions [1] that were broadly overlapping those of the present study. The neurons also showed significant effects of tone pattern and ?f(mod) that were comparable to effects observed in the present psychophysical study. Depending on the carrier frequency, modulation frequency, modulation depth and the width of the auditory filters, SAM tones may provide mainly temporal cues (sidebands fall within the range of the filter), spectral cues (sidebands fall outside the range of the filter) or possibly both. A computational model based on excitation pattern differences was used to predict the 50% threshold of 2-stream responses. In conditions for which the model predicts a considerably larger 50% threshold of 2-stream responses (i.e., larger ?f(mod) at threshold) than was observed, it is unlikely that spectral cues can provide an explanation of stream segregation by SAM. PMID:22984436

  19. Ultradian rhythmicity of tyrosine aminotransferase activity in Euglena gracillis: Analysis by cosine and non-sinusoidal fitting procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus-Steinmetz, Ulrich; Balzer, Ivonne; Hardeland, Rüdiger

    1990-03-01

    Although the geophysical periodicity of the earth's rotation corresponds to a biological cyclicity of ca. 24 h, cellular temporal organization comprises a multifrequency time structure, in which ultradian rhythms may be regarded as subelements of the circadian oscillator. In Euglena gracilis kept under conditons in which various cellular functions oscillate with a circadian period, tyrosine aminotransferase activity exhibited predominantly an ultradian cycle, whereas its circadian frequency was only weakly expressed. Ultradian period lengths were in the range of 4 5 h, as demonstrated by least squares fitting of cosines and of a non-sinusoidal regression function.

  20. Energy-transfer efficiency in the Er/Yb-codoped waveguide ring laser under sinusoidally modulated pump.

    PubMed

    Valls, J A; Rebolledo, M A; Corts, J; Used, J

    2007-12-10

    The response of an Er/Yb-codoped waveguide ring laser to a sinusoidally modulated pump power is studied. Experimentally, resonance peaks are observed and their dependences on the average pump power and the modulation index are analyzed. For high modulation indexes bistable behaviour is found. Numerically, a good agreement is obtained for the resonance peak frequencies by using a straightforward approximate model and assuming a dependence on the average pump power of the macroscopic Yb ? Er energy-transfer coefficient. This dependence can be related to these mechanisms' performance for high doping and pump levels when examined in a microscopic statistical formalism. PMID:19550965

  1. Factors influencing threshold of the fundamental electrical response to sinusoidal excitation of human photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, F A; Alpern, M

    1984-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of the fundamental Fourier component of the electroretinogram (e.r.g.) in response to sinusoidally modulated light were studied in the range 7-50 Hz. Sensitivity was best at the lowest frequency. The threshold-frequency relationship divided into two parts. A weak steady background depressed sensitivity of the low, but increased sensitivity of the high, frequency component. At 8 Hz a small test spot was 0.7 log10 units more effective on the most sensitive part of the retina than on the optic disk. On the fovea, it was 0.1-0.2 log10 units less effective than on the disk. The fovea was 0.7 log10 units more sensitive to 25 Hz than the blind spot. Psychophysical and e.r.g. dark-adaptation curves were similar, but the former was 10(4) times more sensitive than the latter. Four sets of experiments examined the possibility that the Fourier component of the e.r.g. response at the modulation frequency of 8 Hz during the 'rod' phase of the e.r.g. dark-adaptation curve arose from excitation of rods alone. The only hint of a possible cone contribution was a very small but systematic increase in phase delay with increase in background wave number found while measuring the field sensitivity action spectrum. No suggestion was found that the fundamental Fourier component of threshold e.r.g. responses at the modulation frequency of 25 Hz was influenced by photons absorbed in rods. PMID:6512688

  2. Pupillary responses to single and sinusoidal light stimuli in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zangemeister, Wolfgang H; Gronow, Thilo; Grzyska, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Phasic pupillary response to a single light stimulus (200 ms) (pPLR) and to continuous sinusoidal stimuli with four different frequencies (0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3Hz) (cPLR) were examined in 52 DM patients and 21 control subjects. We asked: does recording and frequency analysis of cPLR together with short time fourier [STFT] analysis of pPLR differentiate better between DM patients and normal subjects than pPLR only?Initial pupil diameter was significantly decreased in the DM group. For pPLR. maximal contraction velocity (Vmax), Vmax of redilation 1, reflex-amplitude and pPLR latency were significantly reduced in those patients who also showed signs of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DNP). Tests of dynamic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) revealed that all DM patients had a significantly reduced gain at lower frequencies. Pupil phase lag was greater at 0.1 and 0.3Hz and smaller at 0.7 and 1.3 Hz in the DNP group (p<0.001). Comparison of single pPLR recordings of 5 DNP patients with 5 subjects using short time fast fourier (STFT) analysis revealed a characteristic change from low frequency content in healthy subjects to high frequency content in DNP patients.Significant changes in the PLR in DM can be found only when symptoms of autonomic neuropathy have been shown. Both sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems are affected by diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Only recording of cPLR, together with STFT of pPLR can identify significant pathological deficits of pupillary control in single cases. PMID:21577356

  3. Comparison of high frequency, high temperature core loss and B-H loop characteristics of an 80 Ni-Fe crystalline alloy and two iron-based amorphous alloys. [Ni; Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Wieserman, W.R. ); Schwarze, G.E. ); Niedra, J.M. )

    1991-01-10

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loops for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H characteristics of a nickel-iron crystalline magnetic alloy (Supermalloy) and two-iron-based amorphous magnetic materials (Metglas 2605S-3A and Metglas 2605SC) over the frequency range of 1--50 kHz and temperature range of 23--300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The effects of maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined. The Supermalloy and Metglas 2605S-3A and 2605SC data are used to compare the core loss of transformers with identical kVA and voltage ratings.

  4. Maximum group velocity in a one-dimensional model with a sinusoidally varying staggered potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Tanay; Sen, Diptiman; Dutta, Amit

    2015-06-01

    We use Floquet theory to study the maximum value of the stroboscopic group velocity in a one-dimensional tight-binding model subjected to an on-site staggered potential varying sinusoidally in time. The results obtained by numerically diagonalizing the Floquet operator are analyzed using a variety of analytical schemes. In the low-frequency limit we use adiabatic theory, while in the high-frequency limit the Magnus expansion of the Floquet Hamiltonian turns out to be appropriate. When the magnitude of the staggered potential is much greater or much less than the hopping, we use degenerate Floquet perturbation theory; we find that dynamical localization occurs in the former case when the maximum group velocity vanishes. Finally, starting from an "engineered" initial state where the particles (taken to be hard-core bosons) are localized in one part of the chain, we demonstrate that the existence of a maximum stroboscopic group velocity manifests in a light-cone-like spreading of the particles in real space.

  5. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    PubMed

    Petrinovi?, Davor; Brezovi?, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. PMID:21507749

  6. Experimental studies for determining human discomfort response to vertical sinusoidal vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate several problems related to methodology and design of experiments to obtain human comfort response to vertical sinusoidal vibration. Specifically, the studies were directed to the determination of (1) the adequacy of frequency averaging of vibration data to obtain discomfort predictors, (2) the effect of practice on subject ratings, (3) the effect of the demographic factors of age, sex, and weight, and (4) the relative importance of seat and floor vibrations in the determination of measurement and criteria specification location. Results indicate that accurate prediction of discomfort requires knowledge of both the acceleration level and frequency content of the vibration stimuli. More importantly, the prediction of discomfort was shown to be equally good based upon either floor accelerations or seat accelerations. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the discomfort levels in different seats resulting from similar vibratory imputs were equal. Therefore, it was recommended that criteria specifications and acceleration measurements be made at the floor location. The results also indicated that practice did not systematically influence discomfort responses nor did the demographic factors of age, weight, and sex contribute to the discomfort response variation.

  7. "The Sinusoid" in the Liver: Lessons Learned from the Original Definition by Charles Sedgwick Minot (1900).

    PubMed

    Wake, Kenjiro; Sato, Tetsuji

    2015-12-01

    The hepatic sinusoid with its associated sinusoidal cells is a multifunctional cell-complex in the liver. Despite recent advances in research on the hepatic sinusoid, no investigator has played a more basic role in its characterization than Charles Sedgwick Minot (1852-1914), a pioneer who distinguished the sinusoid from the blood-capillary as early as 1900. According to Minot, sinusoids are typically larger in diameter than capillaries, particularly at the early embryonic stage. They closely approach the parenchymal tissue, are formed passively by the adjacent parenchymal tissue, and are on rare occasion surrounded with connective tissue. Sinusoids (sinus-like) are small blood-channels formed by subdivision of the lumen of large blood vessels (sinuses) by the invasion of developing parenchymal cell-cords. Although some of Minot's definitions may no longer be accepted, he described some fundamental and interesting characteristics of sinusoids, to which we have not paid much attention. Here, we have attempted to illustrate lessons we have learned from Minot's view point of sinusoids at this occasion of centenary of his death. Anat Rec, 298:2071-2080, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332299

  8. DISPLAY OF PIXEL LOSS AND REPLICATION IN REPROJECTING RASTER DATA FROM THE SINUSOIDAL PROJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies show the sinusoidal projection to be a superior planar projection for representing global raster datasets. This study uses the sinusoidal projection as a basis for evaluating pixel loss and replication in eight other planar map projections. The percent of pixels ...

  9. Spontaneous immortalization of mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIUHUA; ZHAO, QIAN; LUO, ZHEN; YU, YAN; XIAO, NA; SUN, XUAN; CHENG, LAMEI

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneous immortalization of cells in vitro is a rare event requiring genomic instability, such as alterations in chromosomes and mutations in genes. In the present study, we report a spontaneously immortalized liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) line generated from mouse liver. These immortalized LSECs showed typical LSEC characteristics with the structure of transcellular fenestrations, the expression of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the ability to uptake DiI-acetylated-low density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL). However, these immortalized LSECs lost the ability to form capillary-like structures, and showed clonal and multilayer growth without contact inhibition. Moreover, their proliferation rate increased with the increase in the number of passages. In addition, these cells obained the expression of CD31 and desmin, and showed an upregulation of p53 protein expression; however, their karyotype was normal, and they could not form colonies in soft agar or tumors in SCID mice. In conclusion, in the present study, we successfully established a spontaneously immortalized LSEC line. PMID:25585915

  10. How I manage sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after haematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Enric

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), also called veno-occlusive disease of the liver, is one of the most relevant complications of endothelial origin that appears early after haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Despite its relatively low incidence and the fact that most cases of SOS resolve spontaneously, the cases that evolve to multi-organ failure (MOF; severe SOS) have a mortality rate higher than 80% and represent one of the major clinical problems after HCT. For this reason, transplantation teams must have a pre-established policy regarding preventive measures in high-risk patients, strict daily control of weight and fluid balance during HCT, homogeneous diagnostic criteria, appropriate complementary studies for a correct differential diagnosis and measures to prevent and manage hepatorenal syndrome; in addition they must also be ready to start early treatment with defibrotide in patients with a possible severe SOS. Due to the lack of definitive evidence to enable the establishment of general recommendations in the management of SOS, this review analyses all of these aspects based on the author's personal experience. PMID:25401997

  11. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences.

    PubMed

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  12. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  13. Resonant circuit which provides dual-frequency excitation for rapid cycling of an electromagnet

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1982-03-09

    Disclosed is a novel ring-magnet control circuit that permits synchrotron repetition rates much higher than the frequency of the sinusoidal guide field of the ring magnet during particle acceleration. The control circuit generates sinusoidal excitation currents of different frequencies in the half waves. During radio-frequency acceleration of the synchrotron, the control circuit operates with a lower frequency sine wave and, thereafter, the electromagnets are reset with a higher-frequency half sine wave.

  14. Characterization of combined power plasma jet using AC high voltage and nanosecond pulse for reactive species composition control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kato, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    In the application studies for both bio-medical and agricultural applications, the roles of the reactive oxide and/or nitride species generated in the plasma has been reported as a key to control the effects and ill-effects on the living organism. The correlation between total OH radical exposure from an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet and the sterilization threshold on Botrytis cinerea is presented. With the increase of the OH radical exposure to the Botrytis cinerea, the probability of sterilization is increased. In this study, to resolve the roles of reactive species including OH radicals, a combined power plasma jet using nanosecond pulses and low-frequency sinusoidal AC high voltage (a few kHz) is studied for controlling the composition of the reactive species. The nanosecond pulses are superimposed on the AC voltage which is in synchronization with the AC phase. The undergoing work to characterize the combined power discharge with electric charge and voltage cycle on the plasma jet will also be presented to discuss the discharge characteristics to control the composition of the reactive species.

  15. Tusanqi-Related Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Qi, Xingshun; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In West, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is often complicated with hemopoietic stem cell transplantation. By comparison, in China, SOS is frequently caused by Tusanqi-containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. A systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical profiles, diagnostic workup, treatment, and outcomes of Tusanqi-related SOS in China. All relevant articles were searched via PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, VIP, and Wanfang databases. Case reports were defined, as the data were available in every individual patient. Otherwise, case series were defined. Overall, 106 articles were eligible. Fifty-six case reports included 84 individual patients with SOS secondary to Tusanqi alone. All of them presented with ascites, but only 1 patient presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The 1-, 3-, and 6-month cumulative survival rate was 98%, 87%, and 76%, respectively. Increased bilirubin and aspartate transaminase levels were significantly associated with poor outcome. Thirty-one case series included 402 patients with SOS secondary to Tusanqi alone. Ascites was observed in 94% of patients, but upper gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in 40% of patients. Recovery, stabilization, progression, and death were observed in 41%, 30%, 14%, and 16% of patients, respectively. Nineteen case series included 281 patients with SOS secondary to mixed etiologies. The pooled proportion of Tusanqi-related SOS was 66% (95% confidence interval: 56%–75%). Tusanqi is a major cause of SOS in China. Ascites is the most common clinical presentation of Tusanqi-related SOS. Despite a relatively good short-term outcome, further studies should be necessary to explore the long-term outcome and refine the treatment strategy. PMID:26061322

  16. The analysis of indexed astronomical time series - XII. The statistics of oversampled Fourier spectra of noise plus a single sinusoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2015-10-01

    With few exceptions, theoretical studies of periodogram properties focus on pure noise time series. This paper considers the case in which the time series consists of noise together with a single sinusoid, observed at regularly spaced time points. The distribution of the periodogram ordinates in this case is shown to be of exponentially modified Gaussian form. Simulations are used to demonstrate that if the periodogram is substantially oversampled (i.e. calculated in a dense grid of frequencies), then the distribution of the periodogram maxima can be accurately approximated by a simple form (at least at moderate signal-to-noise ratios). This result can be used to derive a calculation formula for the probability of correct signal frequency identification at given values of the time series length and (true) signal-to-noise ratio. A set of curves is presented which can be used to apply the theory to, for example, asteroseismic data. An illustrative application to Kepler data is given.

  17. Peliosis hepatis and sinusoidal dilation during infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Scoazec, J. Y.; Marche, C.; Girard, P. M.; Houtmann, J.; Durand-Schneider, A. M.; Saimot, A. G.; Benhamou, J. P.; Feldmann, G.

    1988-01-01

    The description of hepatic sinusoidal lesions in a significant number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients prompted the authors to undertake an ultrastructural study of the sinusoidal barrier abnormalities during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in order to compare these lesions with those described in other conditions and to discuss their possible origin. In a series of 29 patients with serologic evidence of HIV infection and liver abnormalities, 8 (28%) had sinusoidal lesions. Peliosis hepatis was present in 2 cases, and sinusoidal dilatation in 6. These patients were classified as follows: 3 AIDS, 4 AIDS-related complex, 1 unclassifiable. Ultrastructural lesions of the sinusoidal barrier were observed in all the cases. They closely mimicked the changes previously reported in peliotic and peliotic-like changes of various origins. A striking particularity was, however, the presence of numerous and hyperplastic sinusoidal macrophages. This work suggests that an injury of the endothelial cells, directly or indirectly related to the presence of HIV, may be incriminated in the pathogenesis of sinusoidal lesions during HIV infection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3354642

  18. Single-Phase Voltage-Quadrupler Rectifier Using Only One Dual-Switch Power Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Ryozo; Ishizaka, Kouichi; Neba, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Haraguchi, Takahiro

    A single-phase voltage-quadrupler rectifier using only one dual-switch power module is presented. This is based on the half-bridge converter and the higher output voltage can easily be obtained by introducing the pumping action. The prototype, employing a power module with two insulated-gate bipolar transistors, is implemented. The experimental results under the current-mode control confirm that the input current can be wave-shaped sinusoidally with a near-unity power factor.

  19. Dynamic changes of capillarization and peri-sinusoid fibrosis in alcoholic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-Fu; Wang, Xin-Yue; Ge, Gui-Ling; Li, Peng-Tao; Jia, Xu; Tian, De-Lu; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Yang, Jin-Xiang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dynamic changes of capillarization and peri-sinusoid fibrosis in an alcoholic liver disease model induced by a new method. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely normal, 4 d, 2 w, 4 w, 9 w and 11 w groups. The animals were fed with a mixture of alcohol for designated days and then decollated, and their livers were harvested to examine the pathological changes of hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, sinusoid, peri-sinusoid. The generation of three kinds of extra cellular matrix was also observed. RESULTS: The injury of hepatocytes became severer as modeling going on. Under electronic microscope, fatty vesicles and swollen mitochondria in hepatocytes, activated hepatic stellate cells with fibrils could been seen near or around it. Fenestrae of sinusoidal endothelial cells were decreased or disappeared, sinusoidal basement was formed. Under light microscopy typical peri-sinusoid fibrosis, gridding-like fibrosis, broaden portal areas, hepatocytes fatty and balloon denaturation, iron sediment, dot necrosis, congregated lymphatic cells and leukocytes were observed. Type I collagen showed an increasing trend as modeling going on, slightly recovered when modeling stopped for 2 weeks. Meanwhile, type IV collagen decreased rapidly when modeling began and recovered after modeling stopped for 2 weeks. Laminin increased as soon as modeling began and did not recover when modeling stopped for 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: The pathological changes of the model were similar to that of human ALD, but mild in degree. It had typical peri-sinusoid fibrosis, however, capillarization seemed to be instable. It may be related with the reduction of type IV collagen in the basement of sinusoid during modeling. PMID:14716831

  20. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  1. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  2. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  4. Green's functions of the scalar model of electromagnetic fields in sinusoidal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatchenko, V. A.; Tsikalov, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of obtaining Green's function and using it for studying the structure of scalar electromagnetic fields in a sinusoidal superlattice are considered. An analytical solution of equation in the k-space for Green's function is found. Green's function in the r-space is obtained by both the numerical and the approximate analytical Fourier transformation of that solution. It is shown, that from the experimental study of Green's function in the k-space the position of the plane radiation source relative to the extremes of the dielectric permittivity ε(z) can be determined. The relief map of Green's function in the r-space shows that the structure of the field takes the form of chains of islets in the plane ωz, the number of which increases with increasing the distance from a radiation source. This effect leads to different frequency dependences of Green's function at different distances from the radiation source and can be used to measure the distance to the internal source. The real component of Green's function and its spatial decay in the forbidden zones in the near field is investigated. The local density of states, depending on the position of the source in the superlattice, is calculated.

  5. High Voltage Lines: Hazard at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Andrew A.; Becker, Robert O.

    1978-01-01

    It appears that a variety of biological organisms, including man, are sensitive to both long and short-term exposure to the extra low frequency electric and magnetic fields produced by high voltage lines. (BB)

  6. An experimental distribution of analog and digital information in a hybrid wireless visible light communication system based on acousto-optic modulation and sinusoidal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Colín, R.; García Juárez, A.; Zaldívar Huerta, I. E.; Marquina, A. Vera; García Delgado, L. A.; Leal Cruz, A. L.; Gómez Fuentes, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a photonic architecture as an alternative tool to distribute point to multipoint analog and digital information over a hybrid wireless visible optical communication system. The experimental set-up is composed of a red laser pointer, an acousto-optic modulator, a sinusoidal grating and a photo-detector array. By using a simple and variable interferometric system, diffraction gratings with different spatial frequencies are generated and recorded on a photoemulsion which is composed of vanilla with dichromate gelatin. Analog video and digital information are first transmitted and recovered over a wireless communication system using a microwave carrier at 4.52 GHz which is generated by distributed feedback lasers operating in the low laser threshold current region. Separately, the recovered video information and digital data are combined with a radio frequency signal of 80 MHz, obtaining a subcarrier of information that is imposed on the optical carrier of the pointer laser using an acousto-optic modulator which is operated with an angle of incident light that satisfies the Bragg condition. The modulated optical carrier is sent to a sinusoidal grating, the diffraction pattern is photo-detected using an array of PIN photo-detectors. The use of sinusoidal gratings with acousto-optic modulators allows that number of channels to be increased when both components are placed in cascade.

  7. Procedure for Deconvolution of Time-Dependent Signals with Sinusoidal Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, M. D.; Djulgerova, R.; Mihailov, V.; Koperski, J.

    2008-10-30

    The present paper deals with development of the deconvolution procedure of two time-dependent signals with sinusoidal shape in order to extract the genuine optogalvanic signal from the registered one in hollow cathode glow discharge.

  8. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the treatment of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in a liver transplant recipient and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Campos-Varela, Isabel; Castells, Llus; Dopazo, Cristina; Prez-Lafuente, Mercedes; Allende, Helena; Len, Oscar; Llopart, Llus; Vargas, Victor; Charco, Ramn

    2012-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a rare, life-threatening clinical syndrome resulting from sinusoidal congestion, and it is characterized by hepatomegaly, ascites, weight gain, and jaundice. The frequency of this condition after liver transplantation (LT) is low, but when SOS is severe and refractory to medical therapy, the ultimate solution is retransplantation. We describe a patient with SOS after LT who was successfully treated by the placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Although information on this approach is scarce because of the low incidence of SOS in LT patients, we review the available literature on treating this condition with a TIPS. On the basis of the reported information and our patient's outcome, we suggest that prompt TIPS placement can be considered for SOS when medical treatment fails. Nonetheless, a formal assessment and prospective studies are needed to confidently indicate TIPS placement in this situation. PMID:21656652

  9. Scintillations associated with bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    SciTech Connect

    Valladares, C.E.; DasGupta, A.; Whitney, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    A new category of equatorial F region plasma irregularities characterized by nearly sinusoidal wave forms in the ion number density N/sub i/ was observed by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites. Multisatellite scintillation observations made at Huancayo, Peru and spaced-receiver drive measurements made at Ancon, Peru are associated with such irregularities observed by AE-E on a few nights in December 1979. The scintillations continue for a period of almost 6 hours, at a level that varies from moderate to fairly intense (S4 = 0.1-0.8 at 250 MHz), and these S4 fluctuations are quite well correlated, even over a distance of 1000 km. The irregularities constituting the large patch are found to drift eastward at a velocity of approximately 140 m/s. This and other such events are accompanied by the frequency spread signatures on Huancayo ionograms, as previously reported. The unique feature of the Fourier spectra associated with such bottomside sinusiodal (BSS) irregularities is the presence of Fresnel oscillations, which allow a determination of the velocity of the diffraction pattern perpendicular to the direction of the ray from the satellite to the ground station. The velocity so determined agrees well with the results of simultaneously performed spaced-receiver drift measurements. The presence of Fresnel oscillations indicates that the BSS irregularities occur in a relatively thin layer. However, while the scintillation data indicate a high frequency, roll off with a spectral index of the order of -3 to -4, the in-situ data tend to indicate that the index is of the order -5 to -6. Modeling studies are necessary to resolve this difference.

  10. Design of error-compensating algorithms for sinusoidal phase shifting interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Groot, Peter de

    2009-12-10

    An improved approach to interferometry using sinusoidal phase shifting balances several harmonic components in the interference signal against each other. The resulting computationally efficient phase-estimation algorithms have low sensitivity to errors such as spurious intensity noise, vibration, and errors in the phase shift pattern. Specific example algorithms employing 8 and 12 camera frames illustrate design principles that are extendable to algorithms of any length for applications that would benefit from a simplified, sinusoidal phase shift.

  11. Ultrastructural study of the endothelial cells in teleost liver sinusoids under normal and experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Sesso, A

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endothelial cells of liver sinusoids was studied in the teleost, Pimelodus maculatus. These cells have the ability to form pinocytotic vacuoles, starting with the formation of marginal folds. The latter occur in many cells after stimulation by India ink injections and ink particles are ingested by pinocytosis and by micropinocytosis. Desmosomes, structures rarely described between liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, are present in this species. PMID:7273119

  12. Controlling the shape of the ion energy distribution at constant ion flux and constant mean ion energy with tailored voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneau, Bastien; Lafleur, Trevor; Booth, Jean-Paul; Johnson, Erik

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the excitation of a capacitively coupled plasma using a non-sinusoidal voltage waveform whose amplitude- and slope-asymmetry varies continuously with a period which is a multiple of the fundamental RF period. We call this period the ‘beating’ period. Through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that such waveforms cause oscillation of the self-bias at this beating frequency, corresponding to the charging and discharging of the external capacitor. The amplitude of this self-bias oscillation depends on the beating period, the value of the external capacitor, and the ion flux to the electrodes. This self-bias oscillation causes temporal modulation of the ion flux distribution function (IFDF), albeit at a constant ion flux and constant mean ion energy, and allows the energy width of the IFDF (averaged over the beating period) to be varied in a controlled fashion.

  13. Investigation of voltage swell mitigation using STATCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, N. A. Abdul; >S Jaafar, I. S.

    2013-06-01

    STATCOM is one of the best applications of a self commutated FACTS device to control power quality problems in the distribution system. This project proposed a STATCOM model with voltage control mechanism. DQ transformation was implemented in the controller system to achieve better estimation. Then, the model was used to investigate and analyse voltage swell problem in distribution system. The simulation results show that voltage swell could contaminate distribution network with unwanted harmonic frequencies. Negative sequence frequencies give harmful effects to the network. System connected with proposed STATCOM model illustrates that it could mitigate this problems efficiently.

  14. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of a 2V-49Fe-49Co and a grain oriented 3Si-Fe alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of power magnetic components such as transformers, inductors, motors, and generators, requires specific knowledge about the magnetic and electrical characteristics of the magnetic materials used in these components. Limited experimental data exists that characterizes the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency over a wide flux density range. An experimental investigation of a 2V-49-Fe-49Co (Supermendur) and a grain oriented 3 Si-Fe (Magnesil) alloy was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 0.1 to 10 kHz. The effects of temperature, frequency, and maximum flux density on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops for sinusoidal voltage excitation conditions are examined for each of these materials. A comparison of the core loss of these two materials is also made over the temperature and frequency range investigated.

  15. Electromagnetic environment and interference transmission characteristics of a TEM waveguide for transient signals by the use of a damped sinusoidal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briest, N.; Garbe, H.; Potthast, S.

    2015-11-01

    This article broaches the issue of the propagation of transient signals in gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cells. As a representative for transient signals a damped sinusoidal (DS) is used with three different mid-band frequencies. The signal transmission of the DS in the GTEM1250 is qualified and discussed on the basis of the Pearson correlation coefficient (Pcc). The Pcc gives an overview of the signal transmission quality for all measuring points within the testvolume and signal distortions can be identified. A 100 MHz DS is weakly distorted in several measuring points. The Pcc at those points decreases and a signal shape variance can be assumed. Furthermore inhomogeneities of the GTEM1250 caused by the cell door can be identified.

  16. Three dimensional dynamic study of a metal halide thallium iodine discharge plasma powered by a sinusoidal and square signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechir Ben Hamida, Mohamed; Charrada, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic of a metal halide thallium iodine discharge lamp fed by a sinusoidal and square power supply. For this, a chemical model under Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium conditions has been developed to compute the plasma composition and transport coefficients such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and electric conductivity. This is then coupled with a three-dimensional time-dependent code that solves the system of the mass, energy and momentum equations, as well as the Laplace equation for the plasma using Comsol Multiphysics with Matlab. After validation with the experimental results, this model was applied to analyze the influence of the key parameters on the discharge behavior such as frequency for an AC arc current and the atomic ratio for square arc-current wave form on the convective process.

  17. Transient Voltage Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Simpson, Howard J.

    2002-09-01

    A voltage transient recorder can detect lightning induced transient voltages. The recorder detects a lightning induced transient voltage and adjusts input amplifiers to accurately record transient voltage magnitudes. The recorder stores voltage data from numerous monitored channels, or devices. The data is time stamped and can be output in real time, or stored for later retrieval. The transient recorder, in one embodiment, includes an analog-to-digital converter and a voltage threshold detector. When an input voltage exceeds a pre-determined voltage threshold, the recorder stores the incoming voltage magnitude and time of arrival. The recorder also determines if its input amplifier circuits clip the incoming signal or if the incoming signal is too low. If the input data is clipped or too low, the recorder adjusts the gain of the amplifier circuits to accurately acquire subsequent components of the lightning induced transients.

  18. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  19. VEGFR1-Positive Macrophages Facilitate Liver Repair and Sinusoidal Reconstruction after Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, Hirotoki; Ito, Yoshiya; Minamino, Tsutomu; Eshima, Koji; Kojo, Ken; Okizaki, Shin-ichiro; Hirata, Mitsuhiro; Shibuya, Masabumi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Liver repair after acute liver injury is characterized by hepatocyte proliferation, removal of necrotic tissue, and restoration of hepatocellular and hepatic microvascular architecture. Macrophage recruitment is essential for liver tissue repair and recovery from injury; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Signaling through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) is suggested to play a role in macrophage migration and angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of VEGFR1 in liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). VEGFR1 tyrosine kinase knockout mice (VEGFR1 TK-/- mice) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to hepatic warm I/R, and the processes of liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction were examined. Compared with WT mice, VEGFR1 TK-/- mice exhibited delayed liver repair after hepatic I/R. VEGFR1-expressing macrophages recruited to the injured liver showed reduced expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF). VEGFR1 TK-/- mice also showed evidence of sustained sinusoidal functional and structural damage, and reduced expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Treatment of VEGFR1 TK-/- mice with EGF attenuated hepatoceullar and sinusoidal injury during hepatic I/R. VEGFR1 TK-/- bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice showed impaired liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction, and reduced recruitment of VEGFR1-expressing macrophages to the injured liver. VEGFR1-macrophages recruited to the liver during hepatic I/R contribute to liver repair and sinusoidal reconstruction. VEGFR1 activation is a potential therapeutic strategy for promoting liver repair and sinusoidal restoration after acute liver injury. PMID:25162491

  20. Analytical Investigation of an Adaptive Flight-Control System Using a Sinusoidal Test Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jack E.

    1961-01-01

    An analytical study was made of an adaptive flight-control system which measures vehicle response to small-amplitude control-surface deflections produced by a sinusoidal test signal. Changes in the response to this signal are related to environmental changes,, and the system is continuously altered to maintain this response equal to a preselected value. The system is suitable for use in high-performance aircraft and missiles and requires only the addition of a signal generator and a logic circuit consisting of a filter-rectifier network and a comparator-integrator network to a basic command-control system. Thus, it presents a relatively simple approach to the problem. The effects on system performance of variation in flight condition, system-gain level, test-signal frequency, and sensor location are included in the analysis. Longitudinal control of a high-performance research aircraft over flight conditions ranging from landing approach to a Mach number of 5.8 at an altitude of 150,000 feet, and longitudinal control of a four-stage solid-fuel missile including the first bending mode over the atmospheric portion of a launch trajectory constituted the basis for the analytical study. Results of an analog-computer study using time-varying coefficients are presented to compare the control obtained with the adaptive system with-that obtained with a fixed-gain system during the atmospheric portion of a missile launch trajectory. The system has demonstrated an ability to maintain satisfactory vehicle control-system stability over wide ranges of environmental change.

  1. Detection of temporal gaps in sinusoids by normally hearing and hearing-impaired subjects.

    PubMed

    Moore, B C; Glasberg, B R; Donaldson, E; McPherson, T; Plack, C J

    1989-03-01

    A two-alternative forced-choice task was used to measure psychometric functions for the detection of temporal gaps in a 1-kHz, 400-ms sinusoidal signal. The signal always started and finished at a positive-going zero crossing, and the gap duration was varied from 0.5 to 6.0 ms in 0.5-ms steps. The signal level was 80 dB SPL, and a spectrally shaped noise was used to mask splatter associated with the abrupt onset and offset of the signal. Two subjects with normal hearing, two subjects with unilateral cochlear hearing loss, and two subjects with bilateral cochlear hearing loss were tested. The impaired ears had confirmed reductions in frequency selectivity at 1 kHz. For the normal ears, the psychometric functions were nonmonotonic, showing minima for gap durations corresponding to integer multiples of the signal period (n ms, where n is a positive integer) and maxima for durations corresponding to (n - 0.5) ms. For the impaired ears, the psychometric functions showed only small (nonsignificant) nonmonotonicities. Performance overall was slightly worse for the impaired than for the normal ears. The main features of the results could be accounted for using a model consisting of a bandpass filter (the auditory filter), a square-law device, and a sliding temporal integrator. Consistent with the data, the model demonstrates that, although a broader auditory filter has a faster transient response, this does not necessarily lead to improved performance in a gap detection task. The model also indicates that gap thresholds do not provide a direct measure of temporal resolution, since they depend at least partly on intensity resolution. PMID:2708669

  2. Dynamical Coulomb blockade of tunnel junctions driven by alternating voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabert, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    The theory of the dynamical Coulomb blockade is extended to tunneling elements driven by a time-dependent voltage. It is shown that, for standard setups where an external voltage is applied to a tunnel junction via an impedance, time-dependent driving entails an excitation of the modes of the electromagnetic environment by the applied voltage. Previous approaches for ac driven circuits need to be extended to account for the driven bath modes. A unitary transformation involving also the variables of the electromagnetic environment is introduced which allows us to split off the time dependence from the Hamiltonian in the absence of tunneling. This greatly simplifies perturbation-theoretical calculations based on treating the tunneling Hamiltonian as a perturbation. In particular, the average current flowing in the leads of the tunnel junction is studied. Explicit results are given for the case of an applied voltage with a constant dc part and a sinusoidal ac part. The connection with standard dynamical Coulomb blockade theory for constant applied voltage is established. It is shown that an alternating voltage source reveals significant additional effects caused by the electromagnetic environment. The hallmark of the dynamical Coulomb blockade in ac driven devices is a suppression of higher harmonics of the current by the electromagnetic environment. The theory presented basically applies to all tunneling devices driven by alternating voltages.

  3. VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Scheele, P.F.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to transistor oscillators and in particular to those transistor oscillators whose frequencies vary according to controlling voltages. A principal feature of the disclosed transistor oscillator circuit resides in the temperature compensation of the frequency modulating stage by the use of a resistorthermistor network. The resistor-thermistor network components are selected to have the network resistance, which is in series with the modulator transistor emitter circuit, vary with temperature to compensate for variation in the parameters of the transistor due to temperature change.

  4. High frequency excitation waveform for efficient operation of a xenon excimer dielectric barrier discharge lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beleznai, Sz; Mihajlik, G.; Maros, I.; Balzs, L.; Richter, P.

    2010-01-01

    The application of a high frequency (~2.5 MHz) burst (amplitude-modulated sinusoidal) excitation voltage waveform is investigated for driving a fluorescent dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source. The excitation waveform presents a novel method for generating spatially stable homogeneous Xe DBD possessing a high conversion efficiency from electrical energy to VUV Xe_{2}^{\\ast} excimer radiation (~172 nm), even at a significantly higher electrical energy deposition than realized by pulsed excitation. Simulation and experimental results predict discharge efficiencies around 60%. Lamp efficacy above 74 lm W-1 has been achieved. VUV emission and loss mechanisms are investigated extensively and the performance of burst and pulsed waveforms is compared both theoretically and experimentally.

  5. Vortex structures for flow over a delta wing with sinusoidal leading edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The idea of using sinusoidal leading edge as a kind of passive flow control method was inspired by observing the flipper movement of the humpback whale. It was believed that the protuberances along the whale's pectoral fin could delay stall, thus would enhance the maneuverability of the whale. It has also been shown that when equipped with sinusoidal leading edges, the stall of a delta wing could be delayed. In this paper, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was adopted to study the vortex structures for the flow over a 52° swept delta wing with sinusoidal leading edges. A direct comparison with the flow over a baseline delta wing was made to illustrate the different vortex structures of these two kinds of models. Results have shown that the flow over the baseline delta wing was dominated by dual leading-edge vortices (LEVs), a structure that only existed for flow over nonslender delta wing at certain Reynolds number. On the other hand, the flow over the one with sinusoidal leading edge showed a very different pattern. It has been found in this paper that there were several pairs of LEVs existed on the leeward side of the wing, which might explain the stall-delaying effect of the delta wing with sinusoidal leading edges.

  6. Subthreshold oscillations and resonant frequency in guinea-pig cortical neurons: physiology and modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Gutfreund, Y; yarom, Y; Segev, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from neurons in slices from guinea-pig frontal cortex. In 50% of the cells, sustained subthreshold voltage oscillations were evoked by long (> 6 s) depolarizing pulses. The peak-to-peak amplitude of these oscillations was less than 5 mV and the frequency was voltage dependent, increasing with depolarization from 4 (near rest) to 20 Hz (at 30 mV depolarization). 2. The impedance-frequency relationship of both oscillating and non-oscillating cells was studied by intracellular injection of sinusoidal current with linearly changing frequency. In most cells, a peak in the impedance magnitude (resonant behaviour) was observed at depolarized levels. The frequency of the peak impedance (peak frequency) increased with depolarization from 3 (near rest) to 15 Hz (at 30 mV depolarization). 3. Application of TTX (10(-6) M) significantly decreased the impedance magnitude near the peak frequency. The subthreshold oscillations, however, as well as the action potentials, were fully blocked by TTX. On the other hand, TEA (15 mM) and Cs+ (5 mM) abolished both the subthreshold oscillations and the resonant behaviour. Replacing Ca2+ with Co2+ (5 mM) or Ni2+ (1 mM) did not abolish the subthreshold oscillations. The peak in the frequency-response curve was only slightly reduced. 4. An isopotential membrane model, consisting of a leak current, a fast persistent sodium current, a slow non-inactivating potassium current (with the kinetics of the M-current) and membrane capacitance, is sufficient to produce both voltage oscillations and resonant behaviour. The kinetics of the K+ current by itself is sufficient to produce resonance behaviour. The Na+ current amplifies the peak impedance magnitude and is essential for the generation of subthreshold oscillation. The model correctly predicted the behaviour of the frequency response before and after TTX and TEA application, as well as the relation between the expected passive impedance and the experimental impedance. 5. We speculate that the tendency of the neurons to generate voltage signals at a certain frequency (as a result of the subthreshold oscillations) and to preferentially respond to inputs arriving at the same frequency (the resonance behaviour) promotes population activity at that preferred frequency. Images Figure 10 PMID:7776248

  7. Substation voltage upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, J.; Elahi, H.; Lux, A.; Imece, A.F. . Power Systems Engineering Dept.); LaPanse, R.A.; Stewart, J.R. )

    1992-04-01

    This report addresses specific issues to support sound yet not unduly conservative uprating practices for substations. The main parts of the report cover the insulation withstand and overvoltage protection aspects, environmental measurements, reliability criteria, and industry experience. First the insulation design concerns are addressed. Substation stress by a backflashover of the line insulation due to lightning in the vicinity of the substation is recognized as a critical stress. A representative part of a 550 kV BIL substation was erected at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center, where also a special test circuit was assembled to produce a fast front, slow tail (0.2/200 {mu}s) wave. The substation as well as some special configurations were tested for line-to-ground and line-to-line withstand. Computer studies were performed to complement the test results. A number of important conclusions was reached. The most prominent result in that the high frequency oscillations, as caused by reflections within the substation, do not effect the Critical Flashover Voltage (CFO). The present practice, based on the highest peak is therefore very conservative. The slow tail of the wave appears to dictate the CFO. An arrester model for computer studies to represent very fast as well as slow phenomena was derived. It is based on full scale arrester test data, made available in this project. The computer program to calculate arrester model parameters is also a part of the report. The electric environmental measurements are reported for the tested substation at the HVTRC and for the uprated substation of Public Service Company of Colorado, both before and after the uprating. The performance is satisfactory when corona free hardware is used. Insulation design criteria are analyzed based on substation reliability, the system viewpoint and consequences of the failure. Utility experience with uprated substations is reviewed.

  8. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOEpatents

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  9. Experimental comparison of aperiodic sinusoidal fringes and phase-shifted sinusoidal fringes for high-speed three-dimensional shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heist, Stefan; Kühmstedt, Peter; Tünnermann, Andreas; Notni, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    Stereo vision-based triangulation systems are commonly used to reconstruct the three-dimensional surface shape of objects. In order to increase accuracy, they typically contain a projector which projects a sequence of patterns onto the object's surface. However, in spite of a considerable demand to measure dynamic processes, such systems are often limited to static objects. In order to enhance their speed, apart from fast cameras and projection systems, it is useful to use pattern sequences as short as possible. In this contribution, we experimentally compare two different illumination approaches, aperiodic sinusoidal fringes and phase-shifted sinusoidal fringes, with regard to the achievable point cloud completeness and accuracy depending on the pattern parameters and sequence length.

  10. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  11. In situ analysis of texture development from sinusoidal stress at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Weidner, Donald J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we present a new experimental protocol to investigate the relationship between texture, plastic strain, and the mechanisms of plastic deformation at high pressure and temperature. The method utilizes synchrotron X-ray radiation as the probing tool, coupled with a large-volume high pressure deformation device (D-DIA). The intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks within the spectrum of the sample is used for sampling texture development in situ. The unique feature of this study is given by the sinusoidal variation of the intensity when a sinusoidal strain is applied to the sample. For a sample of magnesium oxide at elevated pressure and temperature, we demonstrate observations that are consistent with elasto-plastic models for texture development and for diffraction-peak measurements of apparent stress. The sinusoidal strain magnitude was 3%.

  12. The Integrity bare-metal stent made by continuous sinusoid technology.

    PubMed

    Turco, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    The Integrity Coronary Stent System (Medtronic Vascular, CA, USA) is a low-profile, open-cell, cobalt-chromium-alloy advanced bare-metal iteration of the well-known Driver/Micro-Driver Coronary Stent System (Medtronic Vascular). The Integrity stent is made with a process called continuous sinusoid technology. This process allows stent construction via wrapping a single thin strand of wire around a mandrel in a sinusoid configuration, with laser fusion of adjacent crowns. The wire-forming process and fusion pattern provide the stent with a continuous preferential bending plane, intended to allow easier access to, and smoother tracking within, distal and tortuous vessels while radial strength is maintained. Continuous sinusoid technology represents innovation in the design of stent platforms and will provide a future stent platform for newer technology, including drug-eluting stent platforms, drug-filled stents and core wire stents. PMID:21542702

  13. Low distortion automatic phase control circuit. [voltage controlled phase shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, G.; Pederson, C. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A voltage controlled phase shifter is rendered substantially harmonic distortion free over a large dynamic input range by employing two oppositely poled, equally biased varactor diodes as the voltage controlled elements which adjust the phase shift. Control voltages which affect the bias of both diodes equally are used to adjust the phase shift without increasing distortion. A feedback stabilized phase shifter is rendered substantially frequency independent by employing a phase detector to control the phase shift of the voltage controlled phase shifter.

  14. Voltage monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canicatti, C. L. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a system for monitoring the voltage at a remote location and determining when the voltage exceeds upper and lower levels. The system includes transmission lines for transmitting the voltage back to a central station and applying such to an amplifier having a pair of outputs. One of the outputs of the amplifier is applied to an oscillograph. The other output is fed through an isolation transformer, a full wave rectifier, to a pair of unijunctional transistor circuits for producing pulses when the voltage exceeds or drops below a predetermined level. These pulses, in turn, energize a relay which turns on the oscillograph for recording the voltages being monitored.

  15. Comparison between LCOS projector and DLP projector in generating digital sinusoidal fringe patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Beiwen; Gibson, John; Middendorf, Jill; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song

    2013-09-01

    Digital-light-processing (DLP) and liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) are two digital projection technologies which enjoy great popularity. This paper will demonstrate the performance of the two technologies in generating digital sinusoidal fringe patterns in the two following ways: focused-sinusoidal-patterns (FSP) method and defocused-binary-patterns (DBP) method. Experiment shows that for the FSP method, LCOS projector is a better choice since nonlinear gamma effect is less significant and there is no need for precise synchronization; While for the DBP method, DLP projector has the advantage over LCOS projector since the generated images have higher contrast ratio.

  16. Effects of digital filtering on the parameters of sinusoidal tracking eye movements.

    PubMed

    Juhola, M

    1995-08-01

    In the present study linear nonrecursive (FIR) filters designed with the Hamming window and hybrid median filters were examined in connection with computer analysis of sinusoidal tracking eye movements. It is important that digital filters which do not distort sensitive properties of eye movement signals are employed in order to prevent changes caused by too strict filtering in average parameter values of eye movement signals, indicators of some otoneurological disorders. It turned out that within reasonable limits these filters are valid in filtering of sinusoidal tracking eye movement signals. PMID:8549120

  17. Performance improvement of plasma actuators using asymmetric high voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsonis, M.; Ghaemi, S.

    2012-02-01

    An experimental study is conducted on high voltage waveforms used to power plasma actuators. Shapes that present an asymmetry between the two half cycles are investigated by means of induced thrust and velocity measurements. A parametric study is performed based on thrust measurements in order to find the optimum shape within the tested range. An asymmetric waveform which is made as a combination of sinusoidal and square shapes is found to increase produced thrust by almost 30% compared with the conventional sinusoidal waveform. The asymmetric waveform is further analysed using time-resolved particle image velocimetry in order to reveal the forcing mechanism governed by the shape differences. It is shown that the shape of the waveform has a significant effect on the performance of the actuator. Push and pull events occur within the actuation period and their respective strength and duration closely correlates with the shape of the waveform. It is found that the pull event is significantly weakened for the case of the optimized asymmetric waveform in comparison with the sinusoidal shape. This effectively increases the net momentum transfer and an improvement of approximately 40% in maximum induced velocity is achieved compared with sine waveform. Power consumption due to the asymmetric waveform is marginally increased which provides a significant increase in the actuator's relative efficiency.

  18. Graded boosting of synaptic signals by low-threshold voltage-activated calcium conductance.

    PubMed

    Carb Tano, Martn; Vilarchao, Mara Eugenia; Szczupak, Lidia

    2015-07-01

    Low-threshold voltage-activated calcium conductances (LT-VACCs) play a substantial role in shaping the electrophysiological attributes of neurites. We have investigated how these conductances affect synaptic integration in a premotor nonspiking (NS) neuron of the leech nervous system. These cells exhibit an extensive neuritic tree, do not fire Na(+)-dependent spikes, but express an LT-VACC that was sensitive to 250 ?M Ni(2+) and 100 ?M NNC 55-0396 (NNC). NS neurons responded to excitation of mechanosensory pressure neurons with depolarizing responses for which amplitude was a linear function of the presynaptic firing frequency. NNC decreased these synaptic responses and abolished the concomitant widespread Ca(2+) signals. Coherent with the interpretation that the LT-VACC amplified signals at the postsynaptic level, this conductance also amplified the responses of NS neurons to direct injection of sinusoidal current. Synaptic amplification thus is achieved via a positive feedback in which depolarizing signals activate an LT-VACC that, in turn, boosts these signals. The wide distribution of LT-VACC could support the active propagation of depolarizing signals, turning the complex NS neuritic tree into a relatively compact electrical compartment. PMID:25972583

  19. Dynamic optical frequency domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Arbel, Dror; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-04-21

    We describe a dynamic Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) system which enables real time, long range, acoustic sensing at high sampling rate. The system is based on a fast scanning laser and coherent detection scheme. Distributed sensing is obtained by probing the Rayleigh backscattered light. The system was tested by interrogation of a 10 km communication type single mode fiber and successfully detected localized impulse and sinusoidal excitations. PMID:24787772

  20. Time-resolved spectroscopy of a homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge for soft ionization driven by square wave high voltage.

    PubMed

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Michels, Antje; Ahlmann, Norman; Jestel, Günter; Veza, Damir; Vadla, Cedomil; Franzke, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Helium capillary dielectric barrier discharge driven by the square wave-shaped high voltage was investigated spatially and temporally by means of optical emission spectroscopy. The finding of the previous investigation conducted with the sinusoidal-like high voltage was confirmed, i.e., the plasma in the jet and the plasma in the capillary constitute two temporally separated events. The plasma in the jet occurs prior to the discharge in the capillary and exists only during the positive half period of the applied high voltage. The time delay of the capillary discharge with respect to the discharge in the jet depended on the high voltage, and it was between 2.4 and 8.4 μs for the voltage amplitude change in the range from 1.96 to 2.31 kV, respectively. It was found that, compared to sinusoidal-like voltage, application of the square wave high voltage results with stronger (~6 times) He line emission in the jet, which makes the latter more favorable for efficient soft ionization. The use of the square wave high voltage enabled comparison of the currents (~1 mA) flowing in the capillary during the positive and negative high voltage periods, which yielded the estimation for the charge dissipated in the atmosphere ((4 ± 20 %) × 10(-11) C) through the plasma jet. PMID:26297466

  1. Estimating the effects of stationary noise on power spectral density function measurements: frequency, phase, and amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, George D.

    1998-06-01

    The effects of noise modulation on the power spectral density functions of a sinusoidal wave are calculated in closed form. Frequency, phase, and amplitude modulation are considered. Noise processes are modeled using Butterworth filters of various integer orders. Increasing the order of the Butterworth filter increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the modulated sinusoidal wave.

  2. Microwave integrated circuit for Josephson voltage standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Toots, J.; Chang, C. C. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A microwave integrated circuit comprised of one or more Josephson junctions and short sections of microstrip or stripline transmission line is fabricated from thin layers of superconducting metal on a dielectric substrate. The short sections of transmission are combined to form the elements of the circuit and particularly, two microwave resonators. The Josephson junctions are located between the resonators and the impedance of the Josephson junctions forms part of the circuitry that couples the two resonators. The microwave integrated circuit has an application in Josephson voltage standards. In this application, the device is asymmetrically driven at a selected frequency (approximately equal to the resonance frequency of the resonators), and a d.c. bias is applied to the junction. By observing the current voltage characteristic of the junction, a precise voltage, proportional to the frequency of the microwave drive signal, is obtained.

  3. EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS-WAVE, PULSED, AND SINUSOIDAL-AMPLITUDE-MODULATED MICROWAVES ON BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of the effects of continuous wave, sinusoidal-amplitude modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague Dawley rats (175-225g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adensine triphosphate (ATP) concentrat...

  4. Experimental study on drag-reduction effect due to sinusoidal riblets in turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasamori, M.; Mamori, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Murata, A.

    2014-10-01

    The drag-reduction effect of a three-dimensional sinusoidal riblet surface is experimentally evaluated in a fully developed turbulent channel flow. The lateral spacing of the adjacent walls of the riblet is varied sinusoidally in the streamwise direction. The obtained maximum total drag-reduction rate is approximately 12 % at a bulk Reynolds number of 3,400. The flow structure over the sinusoidal riblet surface is also analyzed in the velocity field by using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry. The velocity field is compared with the corresponding flow over a flat surface. It is found through pathlines and Reynolds shear stress analyses that the drag-reduction mechanism is similar to those of two-dimensional riblets. A different point is that the present riblet respectively induces a downward and upward flows in the expanded and contracted regions, which prevent vortices from hitting the bottom wall with wider lateral spacing of the riblet. In consequence, the wetted area of the present sinusoidal riblet is smaller than those of two-dimensional riblets, resulting in the high drag-reduction effect.

  5. Time-frequency signature sparse reconstruction using chirp dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Yen T. H.; Amin, Moeness G.; Ghogho, Mounir; McLernon, Des

    2015-05-01

    This paper considers local sparse reconstruction of time-frequency signatures of windowed non-stationary radar returns. These signals can be considered instantaneously narrow-band, thus the local time-frequency behavior can be recovered accurately with incomplete observations. The typically employed sinusoidal dictionary induces competing requirements on window length. It confronts converse requests on the number of measurements for exact recovery, and sparsity. In this paper, we use chirp dictionary for each window position to determine the signal instantaneous frequency laws. This approach can considerably mitigate the problems of sinusoidal dictionary, and enable the utilization of longer windows for accurate time-frequency representations. It also reduces the picket fence by introducing a new factor, the chirp rate ?. Simulation examples are provided, demonstrating the superior performance of local chirp dictionary over its sinusoidal counterpart.

  6. Age and Individual Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in controlled force exertion by emulating sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 222 right-handed female adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength by the dominant hand to changing demand values displayed as either a sinusoidal or a quasi-random

  7. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, Glenn F. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  8. A neural mechanism of phase-locked responses to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated signals in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takayuki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki

    2015-08-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) is an auditory region that receives convergent inputs from a large number of lower auditory nuclei. ICc neurons phase-lock to low frequencies of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) signals but have a different mechanism in the phase-locking from that in neurons of lower nuclei. In the mustached bat, the phase-locking ability in lower nuclei is created by the coincidence of phase-locked excitatory and inhibitory inputs that have slightly different latencies. In contrast, the phase-locking property of ICc neurons is little influenced by the blocking of inhibitory synapses. Moreover, ICc neurons exhibit different characteristics in the spike patterns and synchronicity, classified here by three types of ICc neurons, or sustained, onset, and non-onset phase-locking neurons. However it remains unclear how ICc neurons create the phase-locking ability and the different characteristics. To address this issue, we developed a model of ICc neuronal population. Using this model, we show that the phase-locking ability of ICc neurons to low SAM frequencies is created by an intrinsic membrane property of ICc neuron, limited by inhibitory ion channels. We also show that response characteristics of the three types of neurons arise from the difference in an inhibitory effect sensitive to SAM frequencies. Our model reproduces well the experimental results observed in the mustached bat. These findings provide necessary conditions of how ICc neurons can give rise to the phase-locking ability and characteristic responses to low SAM frequencies. PMID:26032987

  9. Induction motor control system with voltage controlled oscillator circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.; Currie, J. R.; Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A voltage controlled oscillator circuit is reported in which there are employed first and second differential amplifiers. The first differential amplifier, being employed as an integrator, develops equal and opposite slopes proportional to an input voltage, and the second differential amplifier functions as a comparator to detect equal amplitude positive and negative selected limits and provides switching signals which gate a transistor switch. The integrating differential amplifier is switched between charging and discharging modes to provide an output of the first differential amplifier which upon the application of wave shaping provides a substantially sinusoidal output signal. A two phased version with a second integrator provides a second 90 deg phase shifted output for induction motor control.

  10. Selective and localized radiofrequency heating of skin and fat by controlling surface distributions of the applied voltage: analytical study.

    PubMed

    Jimnez-Lozano, Joel; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Anderson, R Rox; Franco, Walfre

    2012-11-21

    At low frequencies (hundreds of kHz to a few MHz), local energy absorption is proportional to the conductivity of tissue and the intensity of the internal electric field. At 1MHz, the electric conductivity ratio between skin and fat is approximately 10; hence, skin would heat more provided the intensity of the electric field is similar in both tissues. It follows that selective and localized heat deposition is only feasible by varying electric fields locally. In this study, we vary local intensities of the internal electric field in skin, fat and muscle by altering its direction through modifying surface distributions of the applied voltage. In addition, we assess the long-term effects of these variations on tissue thermal transport. To this end, analytical solutions of the electric and bioheat equations were obtained using a regular perturbation method. For voltage distributions given by second- and eight-degree functions, the power absorption in fat is much greater than in skin by the electrode center while the opposite is true by the electrode edge. For a sinusoidal function, the absorption in fat varies laterally from greater to lower than in skin, and then this trend repeats from the center to the edge of the electrode. Consequently, zones of thermal confinement selectively develop in the fat layer. Generalizing these functions by parametrization, it is shown that radiofrequency (RF) heating of layered tissues can be selective and precisely localized by controlling the spatial decay, extent and repetition of the surface distribution of the applied voltage. The clinical relevance of our study is to provide a simple, non-invasive method to spatially control the heat deposition in layered tissues. By knowing and controlling the internal electric field, different therapeutic strategies can be developed and implemented. PMID:23104083

  11. Voltage verification unit

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  12. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.

    PubMed

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/?_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, ?_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer. PMID:26465471

  13. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /λDL , where D is the ion diffusivity, λD is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  14. Voltage Effects on a Commercial Plasma Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, G. G.; Saucedo, L.; Burin, M. J.; Nagy, A.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Filamentary structures have been observed in both atmospheric and industrial dielectric barrier discharges, yet various physical aspects of filament formation remain unclear. An example of filament formation can be found in commercial plasma globes. These globes typically contain Neon/Xenon at a pressure near 740 Torr, and are supplied with high voltage (5-10kV) near 25 kHz. The reason why these conditions are optimal for filamentary structures is unknown. This work analyzes the effects of voltage amplitude and frequency on a plasma globe using a programmable high voltage supply. We find that increasing voltage amplitude generally increases the drawn current and the number of filaments, but does not significantly affect filament structure. Changing the AC voltage frequency on the other hand significantly affects filament structure, with higher frequencies generally resulting in more focused (smaller average diameter) filaments. These trends are discussed along with their physics and possible applications. Research supported by the U.S. DOE (DE-SC0006876) and the MARC grant (GM-08807).

  15. Operating stability of a self-breakdown spark-gap frequency switch rated at a voltage of 300 kV and a switched power of up to 450 J

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval'chuk, B. M.; Korolev, Yu. D.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Frants, O. B.; Shemyakin, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    A test bench for studying two-electrode spark gaps rated at a voltage of 300 kV and a pulse repetition rate of up to 10 Hz and operating in air at elevated pressure. The typical time of pulse charging of a capacitive storage in the bench equals about 100 μs. The object of investigation is a spark gap the operating stability of which at a level of 10% of the rate voltage is achieved by initiating a corona discharge at the prebreakdown stage. It is shown that unstable operation is due to the accumulation of nitrogen oxides in the gap. To maintain the oxide content at an acceptable level, continuous gas purging is applied and necessary gas flow rates are estimated.

  16. Large endolymphatic potentials from low-frequency and infrasonic tones in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alec N; Lichtenhan, Jeffery T; Gill, Ruth M; Hartsock, Jared J

    2013-03-01

    Responses of the ear to low-frequency and infrasonic sounds have not been extensively studied. Understanding how the ear responds to low frequencies is increasingly important as environmental infrasounds are becoming more pervasive from sources such as wind turbines. This study shows endolymphatic potentials in the third cochlear turn from acoustic infrasound (5?Hz) are larger than from tones in the audible range (e.g., 50 and 500?Hz), in some cases with peak-to-peak amplitude greater than 20?mV. These large potentials were suppressed by higher-frequency tones and were rapidly abolished by perilymphatic injection of KCl at the cochlear apex, demonstrating their third-turn origins. Endolymphatic iso-potentials from 5 to 500?Hz were enhanced relative to perilymphatic potentials as frequency was lowered. Probe and infrasonic bias tones were used to study the origin of the enhanced potentials. Potentials were best explained as a saturating response summed with a sinusoidal voltage (Vo), that was phase delayed by an average of 60 relative to the biasing effects of the infrasound. Vo is thought to arise indirectly from hair cell activity, such as from strial potential changes caused by sustained current changes through the hair cells in each half cycle of the infrasound. PMID:23464026

  17. Building Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Mara G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the development and implementation of a measurement-based group activity designed to support students in understanding the connection between angle magnitude and the shape of the sine function. She explains that the benefit of this activity is that it allows students to build their trigonometric knowledge

  18. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  19. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  20. Investigating the dependence of the temperature of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp electrodes on the operating frequency by pyrometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinelt, J.; Westermeier, M.; Ruhrmann, C.; Bergner, A.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.

    2011-03-01

    Phase-resolved temperature distributions are determined along a rod-shaped tungsten electrode, by which an ac arc is operated within a model lamp filled with argon. Switched dc and sinusoidal currents are applied with amplitudes of several amperes and operating frequencies being varied between 10 Hz and 10 kHz. The temperature is deduced from the grey body radiation of the electrode being recorded with a spectroscopic measuring system. Phase-resolved values of the electrode tip temperature Ttip and of the power input Pin are determined comparing the measured temperature distributions with the integral of the one-dimensional heat balance with these parameters as integration constants. They are supplemented by phase-resolved measurements of the sum of cathode and anode fall called the electrode sheath voltage. If a switched dc current is applied it is found that both quantities are within the cathodic phase only marginally higher than for a cathode being operated with a dc current. Ttip and Pin start to decrease for low currents and to increase for high currents at the beginning of the anodic phase. But with increasing operating frequency the deviations from the cathodic phase are reduced until they cannot be resolved for frequencies of several kHz. A more pronounced modulation, but the same tendencies, is observed with a sinusoidal current waveform. For 10 kHz a diffuse arc attachment with an almost phase-independent electrode tip temperature, which deviates only marginally from that of a dc cathode, and an electrode sheath voltage proportional to the arc current is established with both current waveforms.

  1. Differential influence of sinusoidal and noisy inputs on synaptic connections in a network with STDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J.; Schuster, H. G.; Ngo, H.-V. V.; Mlle, M.; Born, J.

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesize that the type of cortical network activation influences synaptic connectivity in the network, eventually expressed in an altered responsiveness to external stimuli. Our predictions are based on a time discrete canonical model of spike-time-dependent plasticity. The results show that, at a given synaptic connection strength in the network, sinusoidal input to the network can decrease synaptic potentiation whereas uncorrelated noise increases synaptic potentiation, implying that these opposing effects manifest themselves in respective decreases and increases of the network response to an external stimulus. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with visually evoked responses obtained in humans after 9 hour periods of visual deprivation (used to increase sinusoidal EEG alpha-activity in cortical networks) or normal daytime vision (as an approximate of noise input).

  2. Bone marrow long label-retaining cells reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiaki; Takubo, Keiyo; Suda, Toshio

    2008-02-08

    In response to changing signals, quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be induced to an activated cycling state and provide multi-lineage hematopoietic cells to the whole body via blood vessels. However, the precise localization of quiescent HSCs in bone marrow microenvironment is not fully characterized. Here, we performed whole-mount immunostaining of bone marrow and found that BrdU label-retaining cells (LRCs) definitively reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic zone distant from the 'vascular niche'. Although LRCs expressed very low level of a well-known HSC marker, c-kit in normal circumstances, myeloablation by 5-FU treatment caused LRCs to abundantly express c-kit and proliferate actively. These results demonstrate that bone marrow LRCs reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche, and function as a regenerative cell pool of HSCs.

  3. Full-range Fourier domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography using sinusoidal phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Zhongliang; Nan, Nan; Guo, Xin

    2014-09-01

    We present a full-range Fourier domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography technique which is able to obtain images of retardance, fast optical axis and intensity of sample. In this technique, the sinusoidal phase modulation is introduced into the spectral interferograms while the probe beam scans over the sample (B-scan). Then the complex horizontal and vertical signals are reconstructed by demodulation. By the Fourier transformation of the two interferograms, the full range images are obtained. Herein, the typical linear phase modulation is modified to sinusoidal phase modulation, which improves the system tolerance of sample movements and avoids sensitivity fall-off along the transverse scan. Furthermore, the images are obtained through the recombination of the horizontal and vertical polarization beam components acquired by a single camera, which avoids the problems of synchronous control and alignments in the situation of two cameras.

  4. Scavenger receptor for malondialdehyde-modified high density lipoprotein on rat sinusoidal liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M.; Horiuchi, S.; Takata, K.; Morino, Y.

    1986-05-29

    The presence of a membrane-associated receptor which mediates endocytic uptake of malondialydehyde-modified high density lipoprotein (MDA-HDL) on sinusoidal liver cells is reported. Binding of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL to the cells was followed by internalization and degradation in lysosomes. The binding and lysomal degradation of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL were effectively inhibited by unlabeled MDA-HDL and acetyl-HDL. However, formaldehyde-treated serum albumin or low density lipoprotein modified either by acetylation or malondialdehyde, ligands known to undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal liver cells, did not affect the binding of (/sup 175/I)MDA-HDL to the cells. These results indicate that a receptor for MDA-HDL is described as a distinct member among the scavenger receptors for chemically modified proteins.

  5. Highly enhanced avalanche probability using sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shingo; Namekata, Naoto Inoue, Shuichiro; Tsujino, Kenji

    2014-01-27

    We report on visible light single photon detection using a sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode. Detection efficiency of 70.6% was achieved at a wavelength of 520?nm when an electrically cooled silicon avalanche photodiode with a quantum efficiency of 72.4% was used, which implies that a photo-excited single charge carrier in a silicon avalanche photodiode can trigger a detectable avalanche (charge) signal with a probability of 97.6%.

  6. 15th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, 2010

    PubMed Central

    DeLeve, Laurie D.; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kalra, Vijay K.; Asahina, Kinji; Brenner, David A.; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    This is a meeting report of the presentations given at the 15th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, held in 2010. The areas covered include the contributions of the various liver cell populations to liver disease, molecular and cellular targets involved in steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cancer and regenerative medicine. In addition to a review of the science presented at the meeting, this report provides references to recent literature on the topics covered at the meeting. PMID:21645207

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietins regulate sinusoidal regeneration and remodeling after partial hepatectomy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hiroaki; Mitsuhashi, Noboru; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Kimura, Fumio; Ambiru, Satoshi; Togawa, Akira; Yoshidome, Hiroyuki; Kato, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the regulatory mechanisms of sinusoidal regeneration after partial hepatectomy. METHODS: We investigated the expression of angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, Tie-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in regenerating liver tissue by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using a LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics) and also immunohistochemical staining after 70% hepatectomy in rats. In the next step, we isolated liver cells (hepatocytes, sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC), Kupffer cell, and hepatic stellate cells (HSC)) from regenerating liver tissue by in situ collagenase perfusion and counterflow elutriation, to determine potential cellular sources of these angiogenic factors after hepatectomy. Proliferation and apoptosis of SECs were also evaluated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase d-uridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. RESULTS: VEGF mRNA expression increased with a peak at 72 h after hepatectomy, decreasing thereafter. The expression of Ang-1 mRNA was present at detectable levels before hepatectomy and increased slowly with a peak at 96 h. Meanwhile, Ang-2 mRNA was hardly detected before hepatectomy, but was remarkably induced at 120 and 144 h. In isolated cells, VEGF mRNA expression was found mainly in the hepatocyte fraction. Meanwhile, mRNA for Ang-1 and Ang-2 was found in the SEC and HSC fractions, but was more prominent in the latter. The PCNA labeling index of SECs increased slowly, reaching a peak at 72 h, whereas apoptotic SECs were detected between 120 h and 144 h. CONCLUSION: Ang-Tie system, together with VEGF, plays a critical role in regulating balance between SEC proliferation and apoptosis during sinusoidal regeneration after hepatectomy. However, the VEGF system plays a more important role in the early phase of sinusoidal regeneration than angiopoietin/Tie system. PMID:16437624

  8. Improved sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP Single Photon Avalanche Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiwen; Sun, Wenlu; Zhou, Qiugui; Campbell, Joe; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A

    2013-07-15

    We report balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) operated in sinusoidal gating mode with a tunable phase shifter to reduce common mode noise. This technique enables detection of small avalanche pulses, which results in reduced afterpulsing. For laser repletion rate of 20 MHz at 240 K, the dark count rate for photon detection efficiency of 10% is 8.9 kHz. PMID:23938523

  9. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  10. Discrimination of real and virtual surfaces with sinusoidal and triangular gratings using the fingertip and stylus.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, M B; Cholewiak, S A; Traylor, R M; Adelstein, B D; Hirleman, E Daniel; Tan, H Z

    2013-01-01

    Two-interval two-alternative forced-choice discrimination experiments were conducted separately for sinusoidal and triangular textured surface gratings from which amplitude (i.e., height) discrimination thresholds were estimated. Participants (group sizes: n = 4 to 7) explored one of these texture types either by fingertip on real gratings (Finger real), by stylus on real gratings (Stylus real), or by stylus on virtual gratings (Stylus virtual). The real gratings were fabricated from stainless steel by an electrical discharge machining process while the virtual gratings were rendered via a programmable force-feedback device. All gratings had a 2.5-mm spatial period. On each trial, participants compared test gratings with 55, 60, 65, or 70 μm amplitudes against a 50-μm reference. The results indicate that discrimination thresholds did not differ significantly between sinusoidal and triangular gratings. With sinusoidal and triangular data combined, the average (mean + standard error) for the Stylus-real threshold (2.5 ± 0.2 μm) was significantly smaller (p <; 0.01) than that for the Stylus-virtual condition (4.9 ± 0.2 μm). Differences between the Finger-real threshold (3.8 ± 0.2 μm) and those from the other two conditions were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to better understand the differences in perceptual cues resulting from interactions with real and virtual gratings. PMID:24808302

  11. Sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Chern, Tzuen-Lih; Pan, Ping-Lung; Huang, Tsung-Mou; Tsay, Der-Min; Kuang, Jao-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    The precise rotor-position information is required for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor (BLACM) drive. In the conventional sinusoidal drive method, either an encoder or a resolver is usually employed. For position sensor-less vector control schemes, the rotor flux estimation and torque components are obtained by complicated coordinate transformations. These computational intensive methods are susceptible to current distortions and parameter variations. To simplify the method complexity, this work presents a sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive scheme with speed control for a three-phase BLACM. Based on the sinusoidal drive scheme, a floating period of each phase current is inserted for back electromotive force detection. The zero-crossing point is determined directly by the proposed scheme, and the rotor magnetic position and rotor speed can be estimated simultaneously. Several experiments for various active angle periods are undertaken. Furthermore, a current feedback control is included to minimize and compensate the torque fluctuation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a competitive performance compared with the conventional drive manners for BLACM. The proposed scheme is straightforward, bringing the benefits of sensor-less drive and negating the need for coordinate transformations in the operating process.

  12. Motion stability analysis of non-sinusoidal oscillation of mold driven by servomotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunfeng; Li, Junxia; Fang, Yiming

    2015-11-01

    The investments of the electro-hydraulic servo system of the mold non-sinusoidal oscillator are great, the modification ratio of the mechanical type is unable to be adjusted online, and some continuous casters suffer from server resonance during the casting. A mold non-sinusoidal oscillation mechanism driven by servomotor is proposed and the prototype is produced in the lab, the investment is low and the modification ratio is can be adjusted online, and the stability problem is studied. At first the dynamics model of the servomotor non-sinusoidal oscillation is established, and the kinematics differential function is deduced. Furthermore, based on the harmonic balance method, the eigenvalues of the system are solved; the criterion of the stability of the system is put forward. In addition, the eigenvalues and harmonic with different oscillating parameters are analyzed. Analytical results show that the real parts of the eigenvalues are positive, the system will be unstable, and the resonance will occur when the positive real parts of the eigenvalues are extremum. A foundation is established for solving the running smooth problem and next application of this mechanism.

  13. High Voltage TAL Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Manzella, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a two-stage, anode layer Hall thruster was evaluated. Experiments were conducted in single and two-stage configurations. In single-stage configuration, the thruster was operated with discharge voltages ranging from 300 to 1700 V. Discharge specific impulses ranged from 1630 to 4140 sec. Thruster investigations were conducted with input power ranging from 1 to 8.7 kW, corresponding to power throttling of nearly 9: 1. An extensive two-stage performance map was generated. Data taken with total voltage (sum of discharge and accelerating voltage) constant revealed a decrease in thruster efficiency as the discharge voltage was increased. Anode specific impulse values were comparable in the single and two-stage configurations showing no strong advantage for two-stage operation.

  14. High-voltage distributors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcchesney, J. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Two distributors reduce high-voltage breakdowns and corona discharges. Both distributors are constructed to prevent air traps and facilitate servicing without soldering. Occurrence of coronas is also minimized due to smooth surfaces of device.

  15. Imaging voltage in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Takahashi, Hiroto; Yuste, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, imaging membrane potential has become a fruitful approach to study neural circuits, especially in invertebrate preparations with large, resilient neurons. At the same time, particularly in mammalian preparations, voltage imaging methods suffer from poor signal to noise and secondary side effects, and they fall short of providing single-cell resolution when imaging of the activity of neuronal populations. As an introduction to these techniques, we briefly review different voltage imaging methods (including organic fluorophores, SHG chromophores, genetic indicators, hybrid, nanoparticles and intrinsic approaches), and illustrate some of their applications to neuronal biophysics and mammalian circuit analysis. We discuss their mechanisms of voltage sensitivity, from reorientation, electrochromic or electro-optical phenomena, to interaction among chromophores or membrane scattering, and highlight their advantages and shortcomings, commenting on the outlook for development of novel voltage imaging methods. PMID:21220095

  16. Effects of 60?Hz sinusoidal magnetic field on in vitro establishment, multiplication, and acclimatization phases of Coffea arabica seedlings.

    PubMed

    Isaac Alemn, Elizabeth; Oliveira Moreira, Rafael; Almeida Lima, Andre; Chaves Silva, Samuel; Gonzlez-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on net photosynthesis, transpiration, photosynthetic pigment concentration, and gene expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS1), during in vitro establishment, in vitro multiplication and acclimatization phases of coffee seedlings were investigated. Untreated coffee plants were considered as control, whereas treated plants were exposed to a 60?Hz sinusoidal magnetic field of 2?mT of magnetic induction during 3?min. This magnetic field was generated by an electromagnet, connected to a wave generator. The results revealed that magnetically treated plants showed a significant increase in net photosynthesis (85.4% and 117.9%, in multiplication and acclimatization phases, respectively), and in photosynthetic pigment concentration (66.6% for establishment phase, 79.9% for multiplication phase, and 43.8% for acclimatization phase). They also showed a differential RBCS1 gene expression (approximately twofold) and a decrease of transpiration rates in regard to their control plants. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the application of 60?Hz magnetic field to in vitro coffee plants may improve the seedlings quality by modifying some photosynthetic physiological and molecular processes, increasing their vigor, and ensuring better plant development in later stages. PMID:25043829

  17. Nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic fields as a noninvasive strategy in bone repair: the effect on human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Mario; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Marchese, Rodolfo; Foletti, Alberto; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2015-02-01

    In vivo control of osteoblast differentiation is an important process needed to maintain the continuous supply of mature osteoblast cells for growth, repair, and remodeling of bones. The regulation of this process has also an important and significant impact on the clinical strategies and future applications of cell therapy. In this article, we studied the effect of nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic field radiation tuned at calcium-ion cyclotron frequency of 50?Hz exposure treatment for bone differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) alone or in synergy with dexamethasone, their canonical chemical differentiation agent. Five days of continuous exposure to calcium-ion cyclotron resonance affect hMSC proliferation, morphology, and cytoskeletal actin reorganization. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed an increase of osteoblast differentiation marker expression such as Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and osteopontin (OPN) together with the osteoprotegerin mRNA modulation. Moreover, in these cells, the increase of the protein expression of OPN and ALP was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate bone commitment of hMSCs through a noninvasive and biocompatible differentiating physical agent treatment and highlight possible applications in new regenerative medicine protocols. PMID:25087470

  18. Automatic ac/dc thermal voltage converter and ac voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1984-11-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  19. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-03-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  20. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  1. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  2. Modelling electroluminescence in insulating polymers under ac stress: effect of voltage offset and pre-stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudoin, F.; Mills, D. H.; Lewin, P. L.; Le Roy, S.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.; Clain, S.

    2012-08-01

    Ac electroluminescence (EL) in polyethylene films is well documented on experimental grounds but a detailed model encompassing injection and transport is still to be strengthened. In particular, different papers report that the EL under ac sinusoidal voltage for both divergent and uniform field configurations is independent of a superimposed dc voltage offset, which is confirmed by our own measurements. Based on modelling, we show that the dc offset voltage induces a transient behaviour of the ac EL; where the symmetry between the EL peaks occurring during each half cycle of the ac voltage is broken but the same steady state is reached for any value of dc offset. The transient duration is short relative to the timescale of a typical EL measurement explaining why it has not been reported experimentally. It depends on the injection level, charge mobility and recombination efficiency. The model also explains the dependence of ac EL on the presence of homo-space charge near the electrodes.

  3. Analytical model for the radio-frequency sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    A simple analytical model for the planar radio-frequency (rf) sheath in capacitive discharges is developed that is based on the assumptions of a step profile for the electron front, charge exchange collisions with constant cross sections, negligible ionization within the sheath, and negligible ion dynamics. The continuity, momentum conservation, and Poisson equations are combined in a single integro-differential equation for the square of the ion drift velocity, the so called sheath equation. Starting from the kinetic Boltzmann equation, special attention is paid to the derivation and the validity of the approximate fluid equation for momentum balance. The integrals in the sheath equation appear in the screening function which considers the relative contribution of the temporal mean of the electron density to the space charge in the sheath. It is shown that the screening function is quite insensitive to variations of the effective sheath parameters. The two parameters defining the solution are the ratios of the maximum sheath extension to the ion mean free path and the Debye length, respectively. A simple general analytic expression for the screening function is introduced. By means of this expression approximate analytical solutions are obtained for the collisionless as well as the highly collisional case that compare well with the exact numerical solution. A simple transition formula allows application to all degrees of collisionality. In addition, the solutions are used to calculate all static and dynamic quantities of the sheath, e.g., the ion density, fields, and currents. Further, the rf Child-Langmuir laws for the collisionless as well as the collisional case are derived. An essential part of the model is the a priori knowledge of the wave form of the sheath voltage. This wave form is derived on the basis of a cubic charge-voltage relation for individual sheaths, considering both sheaths and the self-consistent self-bias in a discharge with arbitrary symmetry. The externally applied rf voltage is assumed to be sinusoidal, although the model can be extended to arbitrary wave forms, e.g., for dual-frequency discharges. The model calculates explicitly the cubic correction parameter in the charge-voltage relation for the case of highly asymmetric discharges. It is shown that the cubic correction is generally moderate but more pronounced in the collisionless case. The analytical results are compared to experimental data from the literature obtained by laser electric field measurements of the mean and dynamic fields in the capacitive sheath for various gases and pressures. Very good agreement is found throughout.

  4. Circuit engineering for transformerless converters of feed-voltage level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriunov, A. E.

    1985-08-01

    The design principle is presented for transformerless voltage converters with automatic setting of the optimal frequency of voltage conversion. It is noted that the proposed circuit-engineering technology is compatible with integrated-circuit fabrication techniques and provides for a high efficiency. The possible use of such devices in aircraft power supply systems is noted.

  5. Influence of fog parameters on withstand voltage of contaminated insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, K.; Ito, M.; Katsukawa, H.; Kawaguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    1983-03-01

    This paper describes the investigation results of fog parameters which affect the withstand voltage of contaminated insulators. As a result, the guideline is proposed on fog conditions such as density, droplet size distribution, temperature rise in the fog room, and so on, basing upon the comparison between natural and artificial fog conditions and the relation between fog condition and power-frequency withstand voltage.

  6. An Ultra-Low Voltage Analog Front End for Strain Gauge Sensory System Application in 0.18µm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Alexander; Chan, Pak Kwong

    This paper presents analysis and design of a new ultra-low voltage analog front end (AFE) dedicated to strain sensor applications. The AFE, designed in 0.18µm CMOS process, features a chopper-stabilized instrumentation amplifier (IA), a balanced active MOSFET-C 2nd order low pass filter (LPF), a clock generator and a voltage booster which operate at supply voltage (Vdd) of 0.6V. The designed IA achieves 30dB of closed-loop gain, 101dB of common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) at 50Hz, 80dB of power-supply rejection ratio (PSRR) at 50Hz, thermal noise floor of 53.4 nV/√Hz, current consumption of 14µA, and noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 9.7. The high CMRR and rail-to-rail output swing capability is attributed to a new low voltage realization of the active-bootstrapped technique using a pseudo-differential gain-boosting operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) and proposed current-driven bulk (CDB) biasing technique. An output capacitor-less low-dropout regulator (LDO), with a new fast start-up LPF technique, is used to regulate this 0.6V supply from a 0.8-1.0V energy harvesting power source. It achieves power supply rejection (PSR) of 42dB at frequency of 1MHz. A cascode compensated pseudo differential amplifier is used as the filter's building block for low power design. The filter's single-ended-to-balanced converter is implemented using a new low voltage amplifier with two-stage common-mode cancellation. The overall AFE was simulated to have 65.6dB of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), total harmonic distortion (THD) of less than 0.9% for a 100Hz sinusoidal maximum input signal, bandwidth of 2kHz, and power consumption of 51.2µW. Spectre RF simulations were performed to validate the design using BSIM3V3 transistor models provided by GLOBALFOUNDRIES 0.18µm CMOS process.

  7. High voltage pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  8. Silicon-Germanium Voltage-Controlled Oscillator at 105 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Alden; Larocca, Tim; Chang, M. Frank; Samoska, Lorene A.

    2011-01-01

    A group at UCLA, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has designed a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) created specifically for a compact, integrated, electronically tunable frequency generator useable for submillimeter- wave science instruments operating in extreme cold environments.

  9. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOEpatents

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  10. Voltage clamp simulation.

    PubMed

    Kootsey, J M

    1975-04-01

    The voltage clamp experiment on the squid giant axon is successful because of the special characteristics of the preparation: cylindrical shape, large diameter, and so on. The method is much more difficult to apply to small cells and to networks of cells because voltage gradients and unwanted stray impedances are not readily eliminated. Simulation of the voltage clamp experiment is proposed as a method for determining when these factors and the characteristics of the clamp electronics affect the experimental results, for evaluating experimental techniques for improving the quality of the clamp, and as a possible method of learning something about the membrane when no experimental improvement is feasible. The numerical methods for including one spatial variable in the analysis are reviewed briefly. Several examples of voltage clamp simulations are discussed: double sucrose gap clamp of axons, clamp of the giant synapse, single sucrose gap clamp of cardiac muscle bundles, point clamp of the end of a fiber bundle, and the steady-state three-microelectrode clamp of a cable with nonlinear membrane. The results indicate that the quality of a clamp cannot be evaluated from the voltage and current records as commonly measured. PMID:1123090

  11. Effects of ramped amplitude waveforms on the onset response of high-frequency mammalian nerve block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, J. D.; Kilgore, K. L.; Bhadra, N.; Lahowetz, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    Though high-frequency alternating current (HFAC) can block nerve conduction, the block is invariably preceded by an onset response which is a period of repetitive nerve firing. We tested the hypothesis that slowly ramping up the amplitude of the HFAC waveform could produce block without this initial onset response. Computer simulations were performed, using the McIntyre-Richardson-Grill (MRG) model of myelinated mammalian axon. A ramped-amplitude HFAC was applied to axons of diameters ranging from 7.3 m to 16 m and at frequencies ranging from 3125 Hz to 40 kHz. The ramped-amplitude HFAC was also investigated in vivo in preparations of rat sciatic nerve. Sinusoidal voltage-regulated waveforms, at frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 kHz, were applied with initial amplitudes of 0 V, linearly increasing with time to 10 V. Ramp durations ranged from 0 s to 60 s. In both the MRG model simulations and the experiments, ramping the HFAC waveform did not eliminate the onset response. In the rat experiments, the peak amplitude of the onset response was lessened by ramping the amplitude, but both the onset response duration and the amount of onset activity as measured by the force-time integral were increased.

  12. Fundamental Frequency Switching Control of Seven-Level Hybrid Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhong; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter that can be implemented using only a single dc power source and capacitors. Standard cascaded multilevel inverters require n dc sources for 2n + 1 levels. Without requiring transformers, the scheme proposed here allows the use of a single dc power source (e.g., a battery or a fuel cell stack) with the remaining n-1 dc sources being capacitors, which is referred to as hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (HCMLI) in this paper. It is shown that the inverter can simultaneously maintain the dc voltage level of the capacitors and choose a fundamental frequency switching pattern to produce a nearly sinusoidal output. HCMLI using only a single dc source for each phase is promising for high-power motor drive applications as it significantly decreases the number of required dc power supplies, provides high-quality output power due to its high number of output levels, and results in high conversion efficiency and low thermal stress as it uses a fundamental frequency switching scheme. This paper mainly discusses control of seven-level HCMLI with fundamental frequency switching control and how its modulation index range can be extended using triplen harmonic compensation.

  13. An experimental investigation on the airside performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers having sinusoidal wave fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, B.; Kim, N. H.

    2007-10-01

    The heat transfer and friction characteristics of the heat exchangers having sinusoidal wave fins were experimentally investigated. Twenty-nine samples having different waffle heights (1.5 and 2.0 mm), fin pitches (1.3 1.7 mm) and tube rows (1 3) were tested. Focus was given to the effect of waffle configuration (herringbone or sinusoidal) on the heat transfer and friction characteristics. Results show that the sinusoidal wave geometry provides higher heat transfer coefficients and friction factors than the herringbone wave geometry, and the difference increases as the number of row increases. The j/ f ratios of the herringbone wave geometry, however, are larger than those of the sinusoidal wave geometry. Compared with the herringbone wave geometry, the sinusoidal wave geometry yielded a weak row effect, which suggests a superior heat transfer performance at the fully developed flow region for the sinusoidal wave geometry. Possible reasoning is provided considering the flow characteristics in wavy channels. Within the present geometric variations, the effect of waffle height on the heat transfer coefficient was not prominent. The effect of fin pitch was also negligible. Existing correlations highly overpredicted both the heat transfer coefficients and friction factors. A new correlation was developed based on the present data.

  14. Electro-optic control of a PPLN-unpoled LiNbO3 boundary for low-voltage Q switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd3+:YVO4 laser.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Fernndez-Pousa, C R; Pereda, J A; Capmany, J

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple technique to integrate an electro-optic Q switch in a periodically poled bulk lithium niobate crystal bounded by two unpoled (monodomain) regions. The technique exploits the high sensitivity to low applied electric fields of the total internal reflection condition in the periodic poled-unpoled boundary for the small grazing incidence angles associated with the diffraction of a focused Gaussian beam that propagates in the periodically poled region with its axis parallel to the boundary. When the arrangement is placed intracavity to a 1064 nm diode-pumped Nd(3+):YVO(4) laser, it performs simultaneously as a Q switch and as a second-harmonic generator, with Q switching starting at applied voltages as low as 1 V over a 500 microm thickness and with no additional optical elements. PMID:19649073

  15. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  16. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  17. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  18. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM); Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  19. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  20. Expression of MMP-9 in hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome induced by Gynura segetum *

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xia-zhen; Ji, Tao; Bai, Xue-li; Liang, Liang; Wang, Lin-yan; Chen, Wei; Liang, Ting-bo

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) is characterized by painful hepatomegaly, ascites, increased body weight, and jaundice. Gynura segetum (Compositae), a plant widely used in Chinese traditional medicine, often leads to the development of HSOS. However, the mechanism is unclear. The aim was to study the role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the onset of HSOS induced by Gynura segetum. Methods: Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Twenty were exposed to 600 mg/kg daily Gynura segetum extract solution for three weeks; five control rats were exposed to tap water alone. Liver sections were evaluated by light microscopy with a modified scoring system. Routine transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods were used to evaluate the ultrastructual features of fixed liver tissue, and blood samples were collected to determine liver enzyme concentrations. MMP-9 expression was assessed by both immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Results: A stable and reproducible rat model of HSOS was achieved by long-term exposure to Gynura segetum extract. The treated rats presented clinical symptoms and the histopathological manifestation of HSOS, including abnormal liver enzyme concentrations (alanine aminotransferase (ALT): (84.813.62) vs. (167.072.63) U/L, P<0.05; aspartate aminotransferase (AST): (27.66.31) vs. (232.8108.58) U/L, P<0.05). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and TEM together revealed deposition of red blood cells, the damage and destruction of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, collapse of hepatic sinusoids, hemorrhage of subendothelial cells, atrophy and destruction of hepatocytes, etc. Compared with controls, the expression of MMP-9 in the blood sample, the lung and liver tissues of HSOS rats was increased. Conclusions: MMP-9 may have an important role in early pathological changes of HSOS, and thus the onset of the disease. PMID:23303633

  1. 3D Hepatic Cultures Simultaneously Maintain Primary Hepatocyte and Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonhee; Rajagopalan, Padmavathy

    2010-01-01

    Developing in vitro engineered hepatic tissues that exhibit stable phenotype is a major challenge in the field of hepatic tissue engineering. However, the rapid dedifferentiation of hepatic parenchymal (hepatocytes) and non-parenchymal (liver sinusoidal endothelial, LSEC) cell types when removed from their natural environment in vivo remains a major obstacle. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate that hepatic cells cultured in layered architectures could preserve or potentially enhance liver-specific behavior of both cell types. Primary rat hepatocytes and rat LSECs (rLSECs) were cultured in a layered three-dimensional (3D) configuration. The cell layers were separated by a chitosan-hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM), which served to mimic the Space of Disse. Hepatocytes and rLSECs exhibited several key phenotypic characteristics over a twelve day culture period. Immunostaining for the sinusoidal endothelial 1 antibody (SE-1) demonstrated that rLSECs cultured in the 3D hepatic model maintained this unique feature over twelve days. In contrast, rLSECs cultured in monolayers lost their phenotype within three days. The unique stratified structure of the 3D culture resulted in enhanced heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which led to improvements in hepatocyte functions. Albumin production increased three to six fold in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Only rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures exhibited increasing CYP1A1/2 and CYP3A activity. Well-defined bile canaliculi were observed only in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Together, these data suggest that rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures are highly suitable models to monitor the transformation of toxins in the liver and their transport out of this organ. In summary, these results indicate that the layered rLSEC-PEM-hepatocyte model, which recapitulates key features of hepatic sinusoids, is a potentially powerful medium for obtaining comprehensive knowledge on liver metabolism, detoxification and signaling pathways in vitro. PMID:21103392

  2. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    PubMed

    Géraud, Cyrill; Evdokimov, Konstantin; Straub, Beate K; Peitsch, Wiebke K; Demory, Alexandra; Dörflinger, Yvette; Schledzewski, Kai; Schmieder, Astrid; Schemmer, Peter; Augustin, Hellmut G; Schirmacher, Peter; Goerdt, Sergij

    2012-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ), i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ) transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis. PMID:22509281

  3. Geomagnetism and induced voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-07-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of conceptual integrated science over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is initiated by the change in the magnetic flux due to the Earth's magnetic field and movement. This simple and enjoyable experiment will demonstrate how basic concepts in physics and geology can help us think about possible health effects due to the induced voltage.

  4. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  5. High-Voltage Digital-To-Analog Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    High-voltage 10-bit digital-to-analog converter operates under computer control to put out voltages up to 500 V at currents up to 35 mA. Circuit includes high-voltage power supply used to generate high-voltage square wave at frequency set by computer at value between 0.2 Hz and 10 Hz. Used to drive 0.02-microfarad, 1-kV capacitor at slewing rate of 1 V/microsecond to provide signal for robotic imaging system.

  6. Efficacy of an AC sinusoidal electric field for apoptosis induction in lung carcinoma cells (A549)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Lee, Seung S.; Hoon Lee, Dae

    2012-08-01

    An AC sinusoidal electric field was applied to lung carcinoma cells for the induction of apoptosis. The occurrence of apoptosis was determined by analysis of Annexin V/PI and DNA fragmentation. Additional evidence of apoptosis was confirmed by caspase-3 cleavage and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated that the expression of apoptosis can be controlled by varying the magnitude and the duration of the field, and that the application of an AC electric field can stimulate the apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  7. Scintillations associated with bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Multisatellite scintillation observations and spaced receiver drift measurements are presented for a category of equatorial F region plasma irregularities characterized by nearly sinusoidal waveforms in the ion number density. The observations were made at Huancayo, Peru, and the measurements at Ancon, Peru, associated with irregularities observed by the Atmospheric-Explorer-E satellite on a few nights in December 1979. Utilizing ray paths to various geostationary satellites, it was found that the irregularities grow and decay almost simultaneously in long-lived patches extending at least 1000 km in the east-west direction.

  8. Investigation of phase error correction for digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Quan, C.; Zhu, R.; Tay, C. J.

    2012-08-01

    Digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (DSPFPP) is a powerful tool to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) surface of diffuse objects. However, a highly accurate profile is often hindered by nonlinear response, color crosstalk and imbalance of a pair of digital projector and CCD/CMOS camera. In this paper, several phase error correction methods, such as Look-Up-Table (LUT) compensation, intensity correction, gamma correction, LUT-based hybrid method and blind phase error suppression for gray and color-encoded DSPFPP are described. Experimental results are also demonstrated to evaluate the effectiveness of each method.

  9. Self-mixing interferometry based on sinusoidal phase modulation and integrating-bucket method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2010-05-01

    In order to realize real-time displacement measurement with high resolution, sinusoidal phase modulation and integrating-bucket method are introduced in the self-mixing interference (SMI) system firstly. The phase of the laser beam is modulated by an electro-optic modulator (EOM) in the external cavity. Theoretical analysis, simulation results and error evaluation are presented. Experimentally, the micro-displacement of a high-precision commercial PZT is reconstructed and the reconstruction accuracy is on the order of nanometers for displacements of a few micrometers.

  10. Electromagnetic characterization of current transformer with toroidal core under sinusoidal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Branko; Milovanovic, Alenka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new procedure for the electromagnetic analysis of a measuring current transformer under sinusoidal conditions in its electrical and magnetic circuit. The influence of the magnetic hysteresis has been taken into account using the measured inverse magnetization curve and phase lag between the time waveforms of the magnetic field and the magnetic induction. Using the proposed analysis, ratio and phase errors of the current transformer have been calculated. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental results and a good agreement has been found.

  11. Low-voltage thin-film electroluminescent devices with low-resistivity stacked insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Yu; Gu, Pei-Fu; Liu, Xu; Tang, Jin-Fa

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics and mechanism of low-voltage-driven thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices with low-resistivity (10 6 10 7 - cm) SiO 2 Ta 2 O 5 and Al 2 O 3 Ta 2 O 5 stacked insulating films have been studied. At 50-Hz sinusoidal wave voltage excitation, the threshold voltage of devices with a ZnS:Mn emitting layer is below 40 V, and the brightness and luminous efficiency are above 1000 cd m 2 and 4 lm W, respectively, with 60 V voltage. The characteristics of brightness versus voltage ( B V ) curves, integrated charge versus voltage ( Q V ) figures, and luminous efficiency versus voltage ( V ) characteristics are different from conventional devices. The study of a special semiconductor layer a thin probe-doped layer located at a different part of the pure ZnS layer-has proved that the excitation efficiency is not homogeneous across the emitting layer in this kind of device, and its value decreases from the anode toward the cathode, which is opposite of that made with TFEL devices with high-resistivity insulators. By offering a model of space-charge-limited current, the mechanism of low-voltage-driven thin-film electroluminescence, its optoelectronic characteristics, and the distribution characteristics of excitation efficiency across the emitting layer can be thoroughly explained.

  12. High-frequency ac power distribution in Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    A utility-type 20-kHz ac power distribution system for the Space Station, employing resonant power-conversion techniques, is presented. The system converts raw dc voltage from photovoltaic cells or three-phase LF ac voltage from a solar dynamic generator into a regulated 20-kHz ac voltage for distribution among various loads. The results of EASY5 computer simulations of the local and global performance show that the system has fast response and good transient behavior. The ac bus voltage is effectively regulated using the phase-control scheme, which is demonstrated with both line and load variations. The feasibility of paralleling the driver-module outputs is illustrated with the driver modules synchronized and sharing a common feedback loop. An HF sinusoidal ac voltage is generated in the three-phase ac input case, when the driver modules are phased 120 deg away from one another and their outputs are connected in series.

  13. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-15

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100 cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130 cm was obtained by only 4 kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  14. Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Integrated Component Systems, Inc. incorporated information from a NASA Tech Briefs article into a voltage-controlled oscillator it designed for a customer. The company then applied the technology to its series of phase-locked loop synthesizers, which offer superior phase noise performance.

  15. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is…

  16. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is

  17. Measuring Breakdown Voltage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Herbert J.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses an aspect of conductivity, one of the electrical properties subdivisions, and describes a tester that can be shop-built. Breakdown voltage of an insulation material is specifically examined. Test procedures, parts lists, diagrams, and test data form are included. (MF)

  18. An automatic AC/DC thermal voltage converter and AC voltage calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentner, K. J.; Flach, D. R.; Bell, B. A.

    1985-10-01

    An automatic ac/dc difference calibration system is described which uses direct measurement of thermoelement emfs. In addition to ac/dc difference testing, the system can be used to measure some important characteristics of thermoelements, as well as to calibrate ac voltage calibrators and precision voltmeters. The system operates over a frquency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the voltage range from 0.5 V to 1 kv. For all voltages the total measurement uncertainties expected (including the uncertainty of the specific reference thermal converters used) were 50 parts per million (ppm) at frequencies from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, inclusive, and 100 ppm at higher frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  19. Vibration control and sinusoidal external force estimation of a flexible shaft using piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kagawa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the balancing of a flexible rotor, insufficient damping for a rotor-bearing system may cause excessive vibrations in trial runs. In addition, conventional modal balancing methods are generally time-consuming because they try to balance the rotor one mode at a time. To overcome these issues, we developed a control system using multilayer piezoelectric actuators in order to suppress the vibration of a flexible rotor and to estimate its modal unbalances simultaneously. The H-infinity controller was designed to achieve robust performance for an uncertainty of the system, and its damping ability was examined in free and forced vibration tests. Large reductions were observed in the response near resonance. Then, steady-state responses of the system excited by sinusoidal forces were measured to investigate the estimation accuracy of sinusoidal external forces, and good agreement was observed between the estimated and the experimental results. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that feedforward plus feedback control using the estimated modal force significantly improved the performance of suppression of flexible shaft vibrations compared with simple feedback control.

  20. Measurement and mathematical modelling of elastic and resistive lung mechanical properties studied at sinusoidal expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Bitzén, Ulrika; Niklason, Lisbet; Göransson, Ingegerd; Jonson, Björn

    2010-11-01

    Elastic pressure/volume (P(el) /V) and elastic pressure/resistance (P(el) /R) diagrams reflect parenchymal and bronchial properties, respectively. The objective was to develop a method for determination and mathematical characterization of P(el) /V and P(el) /R relationships, simultaneously studied at sinusoidal flow-modulated vital capacity expirations in a body plethysmograph. Analysis was carried out by iterative parameter estimation based on a composite mathematical model describing a three-segment P(el) /V curve and a hyperbolic P(el) /R curve. The hypothesis was tested that the sigmoid P(el) /V curve is non-symmetric. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. The hypothesis of a non-symmetric P(el) /V curve was verified. Its upper volume asymptote was nearly equal to total lung capacity (TLC), indicating lung stiffness increasing at high lung volume as the main factor limiting TLC at health. The asymptotic minimal resistance of the hyperbolic P(el) /R relationship reflected lung size. A detailed description of both P(el) /V and P(el) /R relationships was simultaneously derived from sinusoidal flow-modulated vital capacity expirations. The nature of the P(el) /V curve merits the use of a non-symmetric P(el) /V model. PMID:20726995

  1. The Relationship between Fenestrations, Sieve Plates and Rafts in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McNerney, Gregory P.; Owen, Dylan M.; Zencak, Dusan; Zykova, Svetlana N.; Crane, Harry; Huser, Thomas; Quinn, Ronald J.; Smedsrd, Brd; Le Couteur, David G.; Cogger, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Fenestrations are transcellular pores in endothelial cells that facilitate transfer of substrates between blood and the extravascular compartment. In order to understand the regulation and formation of fenestrations, the relationship between membrane rafts and fenestrations was investigated in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells where fenestrations are grouped into sieve plates. Three dimensional structured illumination microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to study liver sinusoidal endothelial cells isolated from mice. There was an inverse distribution between sieve plates and membrane rafts visualized by structured illumination microscopy and the fluorescent raft stain, Bodipy FL C5 ganglioside GM1. 7-ketocholesterol and/or cytochalasin D increased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane, while Triton X-100 decreased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane. The effects of cytochalasin D on fenestrations were abrogated by co-administration of Triton X-100, suggesting that actin disruption increases fenestrations by its effects on membrane rafts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) depleted lipid-ordered membrane and increased fenestrations. The results are consistent with a sieve-raft interaction, where fenestrations form in non-raft lipid-disordered regions of endothelial cells once the membrane-stabilizing effects of actin cytoskeleton and membrane rafts are diminished. PMID:23029409

  2. Amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microchannels for observing adaptability in C. elegans locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Archana; Lycke, Roy; Carr, John A.; Pandey, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a movement-based assay to observe adaptability in Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion behavior. The assay comprises a series of sinusoidal microchannels with a fixed wavelength and modulating (increasing or decreasing) amplitude. The channel width is comparable to the body diameter of the organism. Worms are allowed to enter the channel from the input port and migrate toward the output port. Within channel sections that closely match the worms natural undulations, the worm movement is relatively quick and steady. As the channel amplitude increases or decreases along the device, the worm faces difficulty in generating the propulsive thrust, begins to slow down and eventually fails to move forward. A set of locomotion parameters (i.e., average forward velocity, number and duration of stops, range of contact angle, and cut-off region) is defined for worm locomotion in modulated sinusoidal channels and extracted from the recorded videos. The device is tested on wild-type C. elegans (N2) and two mutants (lev-8 and unc-38). We anticipate this passive, movement-based assay can be used to screen nematodes showing difference in locomotion phenotype. PMID:21772935

  3. Age-Related Changes in Scavenger ReceptorMediated Endocytosis in Rat Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; Malovic, Ivana; Warren, Alessandra; Oteiza, Ana; Le Couteur, David; Smedsrd, Brd; McCourt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) play an essential role in systemic waste clearance by effective endocytosis of blood-borne waste macromolecules. We aimed to study LSECs scavenger function during aging, and whether age-related morphological changes (eg, defenestration) affect this function, in F344/BN F1 rats. Endocytosis of the scavenger receptor ligand formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was significantly reduced in LSECs from old rats. Ligand degradation, LSEC protein expression of the major scavenger receptors for formaldehyde-treated serum albumin endocytosis, stabilin-1 and stabilin-2, and their staining patterns along liver sinusoids, was similar at young and old age, suggesting that other parts of the endocytic machinery are affected by aging. Formaldehyde-treated serum albumin uptake per cell, and cell porosity evaluated by electron microscopy, was not correlated, indicating that LSEC defenestration is not linked to impaired endocytosis. We report a significantly reduced LSEC endocytic capacity at old age, which may be especially important in situations with increased circulatory waste loads. PMID:20576648

  4. Biliary obstruction dissipates bioelectric sinusoidal-canalicular barrier without altering taurocholate uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Cotting, J.; Zysset, T.; Reichen, J.

    1989-02-01

    To study immediate events during extrahepatic cholestasis, we investigated the effect of short-term biliary obstruction on the bioelectrical sinusoidal-canalicular barrier in the rat using molecular weight-matched uncharged and negatively charged inert solute pairs. The bioelectrical barrier averaged -22 +/- 5 and -18 +/- 4 mV (NS) using the pair carboxy-/methoxyinulin and ferrocyanide/sucrose, respectively. After a 20-min biliary obstruction both decreased by 61 and 11%, respectively, but only the large molecular weight pair (the inulins) returned to base line after release of the obstruction. Inert solute clearances were increased after short biliary obstruction depending on molecular size and negative charge (ferrocyanide greater than sucrose greater than carboxyinulin greater than inulin), suggesting that both permeability and bioelectrical barriers were affected by obstruction. The hepatic extraction in vivo of a passively transported drug not excreted into bile (D-propranolol) was not affected by obstruction, whereas that of an actively transported drug (glycocholate) decreased from 66 +/- 8 to 41 +/- 20% during biliary obstruction (P less than 0.01). Unidirectional transfer of glycocholate was not affected by short-term biliary obstruction in the situ perfused rat liver; however, 2 min after (14C)glycocholate administration, increased return was observed in hepatic venous effluent in obstructed animals. Our findings demonstrate a loss of the bioelectrical barrier immediately after short-term biliary obstruction. Decreased hepatic extraction in the view of unaltered sinusoidal uptake demonstrates regurgitation of bile into blood during short-term biliary obstruction.

  5. Controlled generation of nonlinear resonances through sinusoidal lattice modes in Bose–Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Priyam; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2015-12-01

    We study Bose–Einstein condensate in the combined presence of time modulated optical lattice and harmonic trap in the mean-field approach. Through the self-similar method, we show the existence of sinusoidal lattice modes in this inhomogeneous system, commensurate with the lattice potential. A significant advantage of this system is wide tunability of the parameters through chirp management. The combined effect of the interaction, harmonic trap and lattice potential leads to the generation of nonlinear resonances, exactly where the matter wave changes its direction. When the harmonic trap is switched off, the BEC undergoes a nonlinear compression for the static optical lattice potential. For better understanding of chirp management and the nature of the sinusoidal excitation, we investigate the energy spectrum of the condensate, which clearly reveals the generation of nonlinear resonances in the appropriate regime. We have also identified a classical dynamical phase transition occurring in the system, where loss of superfluidity takes the superfluid phase to an insulating state.

  6. Lensing Effects on the Brightness of SN Ia, When Using the Sinusoidal Potential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadras, M. J.; Bartlett, D. F.; Motl, P.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper the effects of gravitational lensing of SN Ia are studied, for the case when the Newtonian potential is replaced by the sinusoidal potential (GM/r -> (GM cos[kr])/r). First we treat the point-mass case, then move on to the instance of a diffuse mass. As one might guess, with this new potential, the plot of the bending angle (? ) with respect to impact parameter (b) goes from dropping off as b-1, to having oscillations that die off as the b-1/2. This in turn will cause dramatic effects on magnification and brightness. In principle the value of the cosmological deceleration parameter (q0), can be determined by a measurement of the ratio of ? to b. Wambsganss et al (1997) and Holz (1998) discussed the effects of weak gravitational lensing from large-scale structure on determining q0 within standard cosmology. Following their reasoning, we extend that work to the case of the sinusoidal potential.

  7. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis.

  8. Sinusoidal wavy surfaces for curvature-guided migration of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Park, Sung Jea; Kim, Dong Sung; Doh, Junsang

    2015-05-01

    Micro/nanofabricated surfaces have been widely used for the study of topography-guided migration of cells. While the current studies mostly utilized micro/nanostructures containing sharp edges, internal tissues guiding migration of cells such as blood and lymphatic vessels, bone cavities, perivascular tracks have smooth microscale topographical structures. To overcome these limitations, we fabricated sinusoidal wavy surfaces with various wavelengths by deep X-ray lithography enabling precise and simultaneous control of amplitudes and wavelengths. Using these surfaces, we systematically studied curvature-guided migration of T cells. The majority of T cells migrated along the concave surfaces of sinusoidal wavy structures and as wavelength increased (or curvature decreased), preference to concave surfaces decreased. Integrin-mediated adhesion augmented the tendency of T cells crawling along grooves of highly curved wavy surfaces. To understand mechanisms of curvature-guided migration of T cells, T cells were treated with small molecule drugs such as blebbistatin and CK636, inhibiting myosin II activity and lamellipodia formation, respectively. While lamellipodia-inhibited T cells frequently crossed ridges, myosin II-inhibited T cells were mostly confined within concave surfaces. These results suggest that lamellipodia regulate local actin polymerization in response to surface curvature to maintain T cells within concave surfaces while myosin II-mediated contractile forces push T cells out of concave surfaces to make T cells less sensitive to surface curvature. PMID:25771006

  9. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells Escape Senescence by Loss of p19ARF

    PubMed Central

    Koudelkova, Petra; Weber, Gerhard; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) represent a highly differentiated cell type that lines hepatic sinusoids. LSECs form a discontinuous endothelium due to fenestrations under physiological conditions, which are reduced upon chronic liver injury. Cultivation of rodent LSECs associates with a rapid onset of stress-induced senescence a few days post isolation, which limits genetic and biochemical studies ex vivo. Here we show the establishment of LSECs isolated from p19ARF-/- mice which undergo more than 50 cell doublings in the absence of senescence. Isolated p19ARF-/- LSECs display a cobblestone-like morphology and show the ability of tube formation. Analysis of DNA content revealed a stable diploid phenotype after long-term passaging without a gain of aneuploidy. Notably, p19ARF-/- LSECs express the endothelial markers CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, VE-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, stabilin-2 and CD146 suggesting that these cells harbor and maintain an endothelial phenotype. In line, treatment with small molecule inhibitors against VEGFR-2 caused cell death, demonstrating the sustained ability of p19ARF-/- LSECs to respond to anti-angiogenic therapeutics. From these data we conclude that loss of p19ARF overcomes senescence of LSECs, allowing immortalization of cells without losing endothelial characteristics. Thus, p19ARF-/- LSECs provide a novel cellular model to study endothelial cell biology. PMID:26528722

  10. Chronic Passive Venous Congestion drives Hepatic Fibrogenesis via Sinusoidal Thrombosis and Mechanical Forces

    PubMed Central

    Simonetto, Douglas A; Yang, Hui-yin; Yin, Meng; de Assuncao, Thiago M; Kwon, Jung Hee; Hilsher, Moira; Pan, Shuchong; Yang, Liu; Bi, Yan; Beyder, Arthur; Cao, Sheng; Simari, Robert D; Ehman, Richard; Kamath, Patrick S; Shah, Vijay H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic passive hepatic congestion (congestive hepatopathy) leads to hepatic fibrosis; however the mechanisms involved in this process are not well understood. We developed a murine experimental model of congestive hepatopathy through partial ligation of the inferior vena cava (pIVCL). C57BL/6 and transgenic mice overexpressing tissue factor pathway inhibitor (SM22α -TFPI) were subjected to pIVCL or SHAM. Liver and blood samples were collected and analyzed in immunohistochemical, morphometric, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays. Hepatic fibrosis and portal pressure were significantly increased after pIVCL concurrent with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Liver stiffness, as assessed by magnetic resonance elastography, correlated with portal pressure and preceded fibrosis in our model. Hepatic sinusoidal thrombosis as evidenced by fibrin deposition was demonstrated both in mice after pIVCL as well as in humans with congestive hepatopathy. Warfarin treatment and TFPI overexpression both had a protective effect on fibrosis development and HSC activation after pIVCL. In vitro studies show that congestion stimulates HSC fibronectin (FN) fibril assembly through direct effects of thrombi as well as by virtue of mechanical strain. Pretreatment with either Mab13 or Cytochalasin-D, to inhibit β-integrin or actin polymerization, respectively, significantly reduced fibrin and stretch induced FN fibril assembly. Conclusion Chronic hepatic congestion leads to sinusoidal thrombosis and strain, which in turn promote hepatic fibrosis. These studies mechanistically link congestive hepatopathy to hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25142214

  11. On shock driven jetting of liquid from non-sinusoidal surfaces into a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Cherne, F. J.; Hammerberg, J. E.; Andrews, M. J.; Karkhanis, V.; Ramaprabhu, P.

    2015-11-09

    Other work employed Richtmyer-Meshkov theory to describe the development of spikes and bubblesfrom shocked sinusoidal surfaces. Here, we discuss the effects of machining different two-dimensional shaped grooves in copper and examine the resulting flow of the material after being shocked into liquid on release. For these simulations, a high performance molecular dynamics code, SPaSM, was used with machined grooves of kh 0 = 1 and kh 0 = 1/8, where 2h 0 is the peak-to-valley height of the perturbation with wavelength λ, and k = 2π/λ. The surface morphologies studied include a Chevron, a Fly-Cut, a Square-Wave, and a Gaussian. Furthermore, we describe extensions to an existing ejecta source model that better captures the mass ejected from these surfaces. We also investigate the same profiles at length scales of order 1 cm for an idealized fluid equation of state using the FLASH continuum hydrodynamics code. Our findings indicate that the resulting mass can be scaled by the missing area of a sinusoidal curve with an effective wavelength, λeff , that has the same missing area. Finally, our extended ejecta mass formula works well for all the shapes considered and captures the corresponding time evolution and total mass.

  12. On shock driven jetting of liquid from non-sinusoidal surfaces into a vacuum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cherne, F. J.; Hammerberg, J. E.; Andrews, M. J.; Karkhanis, V.; Ramaprabhu, P.

    2015-11-09

    Other work employed Richtmyer-Meshkov theory to describe the development of spikes and bubblesfrom shocked sinusoidal surfaces. Here, we discuss the effects of machining different two-dimensional shaped grooves in copper and examine the resulting flow of the material after being shocked into liquid on release. For these simulations, a high performance molecular dynamics code, SPaSM, was used with machined grooves of kh 0 = 1 and kh 0 = 1/8, where 2h 0 is the peak-to-valley height of the perturbation with wavelength λ, and k = 2π/λ. The surface morphologies studied include a Chevron, a Fly-Cut, a Square-Wave, and a Gaussian.more » Furthermore, we describe extensions to an existing ejecta source model that better captures the mass ejected from these surfaces. We also investigate the same profiles at length scales of order 1 cm for an idealized fluid equation of state using the FLASH continuum hydrodynamics code. Our findings indicate that the resulting mass can be scaled by the missing area of a sinusoidal curve with an effective wavelength, λeff , that has the same missing area. Finally, our extended ejecta mass formula works well for all the shapes considered and captures the corresponding time evolution and total mass.« less

  13. Long-term maintenance of a microfluidic 3D human liver sinusoid.

    PubMed

    Prodanov, Ljupcho; Jindal, Rohit; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Hegde, Manjunath; McCarty, William J; Golberg, Inna; Bhushan, Abhinav; Yarmush, Martin L; Usta, Osman Berk

    2016-01-01

    The development of long-term human organotypic liver-on-a-chip models for successful prediction of toxic response is one of the most important and urgent goals of the NIH/DARPA's initiative to replicate and replace chronic and acute drug testing in animals. For this purpose, we developed a microfluidic chip that consists of two microfluidic chambers separated by a porous membrane. The aim of this communication is to demonstrate the recapitulation of a liver sinusoid-on-a-chip, using human cells only for a period of 28 days. Using a step-by-step method for building a 3D microtissue on-a-chip, we demonstrate that an organotypic in vitro model that reassembles the liver sinusoid microarchitecture can be maintained successfully for a period of 28 days. In addition, higher albumin synthesis (synthetic) and urea excretion (detoxification) were observed under flow compared to static cultures. This human liver-on-a-chip should be further evaluated in drug-related studies. PMID:26152452

  14. On shock driven jetting of liquid from non-sinusoidal surfaces into a vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherne, F. J.; Hammerberg, J. E.; Andrews, M. J.; Karkhanis, V.; Ramaprabhu, P.

    2015-11-01

    Previous work employed Richtmyer-Meshkov theory to describe the development of spikes and bubbles from shocked sinusoidal surfaces. Here, we discuss the effects of machining different two-dimensional shaped grooves in copper and examine the resulting flow of the material after being shocked into liquid on release. For these simulations, a high performance molecular dynamics code, SPaSM, was used with machined grooves of kh0 = 1 and kh0 = 1/8, where 2h0 is the peak-to-valley height of the perturbation with wavelength λ, and k = 2π/λ. The surface morphologies studied include a Chevron, a Fly-Cut, a Square-Wave, and a Gaussian. We describe extensions to an existing ejecta source model that better captures the mass ejected from these surfaces. We also investigate the same profiles at length scales of order 1 cm for an idealized fluid equation of state using the FLASH continuum hydrodynamics code. Our findings indicate that the resulting mass can be scaled by the missing area of a sinusoidal curve with an effective wavelength, λeff, that has the same missing area. Our extended ejecta mass formula works well for all the shapes considered and captures the corresponding time evolution and total mass.

  15. A Novel Modular Bioreactor to In Vitro Study the Hepatic Sinusoid

    PubMed Central

    Illa, Xavi; Vila, Sergi; Yeste, Jose; Peralta, Carmen; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Villa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We describe a unique, versatile bioreactor consisting of two plates and a modified commercial porous membrane suitable for in vitro analysis of the liver sinusoid. The modular bioreactor allows i) excellent control of the cell seeding process; ii) cell culture under controlled shear stress stimulus, and; iii) individual analysis of each cell type upon completion of the experiment. The advantages of the bioreactor detailed here are derived from the modification of a commercial porous membrane with an elastomeric wall specifically moulded in order to define the cell culture area, to act as a gasket that will fit into the bioreactor, and to provide improved mechanical robustness. The device presented herein has been designed to simulate the in vivo organization of a liver sinusoid and tested by co-culturing endothelial cells (EC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). The results show both an optimal morphology of the endothelial cells as well as an improvement in the phenotype of stellate cells, most probably due to paracrine factors released from endothelial cells. This device is proposed as a versatile, easy-to-use co-culture system that can be applied to biomedical research of vascular systems, including the liver. PMID:25375141

  16. Liver X receptor ? is essential for the capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in liver injury.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan; Zhao, Tingting; Gao, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yuzhang

    2016-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) play essential roles in lipogenesis, anti-inflammatory action and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation in the liver. However, the effects of LXRs on the capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in liver fibrosis remain undetermined. Here, we demonstrated that LXR? plays an important role in LSECs capillarization in a manner that involved Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. We found that LXR? expression in LSECs was increased in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis model. LXR? deletion markedly exacerbated CCl4-induced lesions assessed by histopathology, as well as inflammation and collagen deposition. Furthermore, capillarization of the sinusoids was aggravated in CCl4 -treated LXR?-deficient mice, as evidenced by increased CD34 expression, the formation of continuous basement membranes and aggravation of the loss of fenestrae. In vitro, LXR agonist could maintain freshly isolated LSECs differentiation on day 3. Furthermore, LXR? deletion led to increased expression of Hedgehog (Hh)-regulated gene in LSECs in the injured liver. Conversely, the LXR agonist could inhibit the Hh pathway in cultured LSECs. These responses indicated that LXR? suppressed the process of LSECs capillarization by repressing Hh signaling. Overall, our findings suggest that LXR?, by restoring the differentiation of LSECs, may be critical for the regression of liver fibrosis. PMID:26887957

  17. Tailored Voltage Waveform Capacitively-Coupled Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Jean-Paul; Lafleur, Trevor; Delattre, Pierre-Alexandre; Johnson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    A major limitation of large-area capacitively-coupled plasmas for materials processing is the inability to increase plasma density without increasing ion bombardment energy. Heil et al. (J. Phys. D 41. 165202, (2008)) demonstrated that for a driving voltage comprising one frequency, f, and it's harmonic 2f, the symmetry of the sheaths can be broken (the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, EAE). We have investigated large-area plasmas (50cm dia) in Ar driven by arbitrary voltage waveforms. Specifically we studied waveforms comprising sharp positive pulses (10-20ns wide, 15MHz repetition frequency). The voltage waveform was measured by an HV probe close to the powered electrode edge, the electron density was measured with a microwave hairpin resonator, the ion flux was measured by an array of planar ion flux probes in the grounded counter-electrode, and the power absorbed was determined from the current and voltage waveforms measured by a derivative probe. As well as the expected EAE observed in the electrode self-bias, we were able to demonstrate a dramatic increase in electron density (and concomitant increased power absorption) with reduced pulse-width at constant amplitude, in qualitative agreement with recent PIC simulations (Lafleur et al, APL 100, 194101(2012)).

  18. Development of Automatic Voltage Regulator for Low Voltage Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Katsuhiro; Horikoshi, Kazuhiro; Seto, Toshiyuki; Iyama, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiromu

    This paper presents the development of a new type of voltage regulator that can adequately maintain the voltage supplied to customers, dealing with the problem of voltage control along with the widespread use of photovoltaic power generation systems. The developed equipment is a pole-mounted type voltage regulator consisting of a step-down transformer that converts voltage from high to low and a series transformer for voltage compensation. The demonstration test conducted at the CRIEPI Akagi Test Center confirmed that the voltage control function of the developed voltage regulator is satisfactory based on the proposed control algorism. Also, simulation analysis, on the assumption of the clustered installation of photovoltaic power generation systems, confirmed that the introduction of the developed voltage regulator enables the system voltage to be adequately maintained and full photovoltaic power generation is possible without suppressing the output. It is anticipated that the developed voltage regulator is very effective in adequately regulating the voltage for low voltage distribution systems and gives an effective way for even more widespread photovoltaic power generation.

  19. Parametric instability in a rotating cylinder of gas subject to sinusoidal axial compression. Part 2. Weakly nonlinear theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racz, J.-P.; Scott, J. F.

    A weakly nonlinear analysis is presented of parametric instability in a rotating cylinder subject to periodic axial compression by small sinusoidal oscillations of one of its ends (). Amplitude equations are derived for the pair of parametrically resonant (primary) inertial modes which were found to arise from linear instability in Part 1. These equations introduce an infinity of geostrophic mode amplitudes, representing a nonlinear modification of the mean flow, for which evolution equations are also derived. Consequences of the total system of equations are investigated for axisymmetric modes. Different possible outcomes are found at large times: (a) a fixed point, representing a saturated state in which the oscillatory toroidal vortices of the primary mode are phase-locked to the piston motion with half its frequency; (b) a limit cycle or chaotic attractor, corresponding to slow-time oscillations of the primary mode; or (c) exponential divergence of the amplitudes to infinity. The latter outcome, a necessary condition for which is derived in the form of a threshold piston amplitude for divergence, invalidates the theory, inducing a gross change in the character of the flow and providing a route out of the weakly nonlinear regime. Non-zero fixed-point branches arise via bifurcations from both sides of the linear neutral curve, where the basic flow changes local stability. The lower-amplitude branch is shown to be unstable, while the upper one may lose local stability, resulting in a Hopf bifurcation to a limit cycle, which can subsequently become aperiodic via a series of further bifurcations. Typically, during the resulting oscillations, whether periodic or not, the perturbation first grows from small amplitude owing to basic-flow instability, then nonlinear detuning of the parametric resonance causes decay back to small amplitude in the second half of the cycle, which then restarts.

  20. Basic study of transient breakdown voltage in solid dielectric cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahder, G.; Sosnowski, M.; Katz, C.

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive review of the technical and scientific publications relating to crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated cables revealed that there is very little known with respect to the life expectancy, the final factory voltage test background and the mechanism of voltage breakdown of these cables. A new methodology for the investigation of breakdown voltages of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed which is based on the investigation of breakdown voltages at various voltage transients such as unipolarity pulses and dual-polarity pulses, and a.c. voltage at power and high frequency. Also, a new approach to statistical testing was developed which allows one to establish a correlation among the breakdown voltages obtained with various voltage transients. Finally, a method for the determination of threshold voltage regardless of the magnitude of apparent charge was developed. A model of breakdown and electrical aging of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed as well as life expectancy characteristics for high voltage stress XLPE insulated cables operated in a dry environment at room temperature and at 900 C.

  1. The Continuity of Right and Left Ventricular Myocardial Sinusoidal Spaces and its Relation to Right Ventricular Implants

    PubMed Central

    Vineberg, Arthur; Syed, A. Kadir

    1970-01-01

    Evidence is presented which indicates that blood leaving side branches of an internal mammary artery implanted into the anterior wall of the right ventricle flows from the tunnel in which it lies through myocardial sinusoidal spaces of the anterior right ventricular wall across the midline to fill corresponding spaces in the anterior wall of the left ventricle and thence is carried to the left coronary sinus. The myocardial sinusoidal spaces of right and left ventricles have been well outlined, using injections of polyvinyl acetate and the technique of digestion casts. We have been able to show that there is no barrier between the myocardial sinusoids of the right circulation and those related to the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. In structure, these myocardial sinusoidal spaces are quite different from the intramyocardial coronary arteriolar zones which, in 93% of human hearts, are separated from one another without collateral communication. The continuity of the right and left ventricular myocardial sinusoids explains why implantation of a right internal mammary artery into the anterior wall of the right ventricle combined with a corresponding left implant, epicardiectomy and free omental graft, has been so effective in our hands in the treatment of far-advanced human coronary artery insufficiency. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:5445044

  2. Higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions for the analysis of non-linear systems with harmonic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuij, P. W. J. M.; Bosgra, O. H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-11-01

    For high-precision motion systems, modelling and control design specifically oriented at friction effects is instrumental. The sinusoidal input describing function theory represents an approximative mathematical framework for analysing non-linear system behaviour. This theory, however, limits the description of the non-linear system behaviour to a quasi-linear amplitude-dependent relation between sinusoidal excitation and sinusoidal response. In this paper, an extension to higher-order describing functions is realised by introducing the concept of the harmonics generator. The resulting higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDFs) relate the magnitude and phase of the higher harmonics of the periodic response of the system to the magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal excitation. Based on this extension two techniques to measure HOSIDFs are presented. The first technique is FFT based. The second technique is based on IQ (in-phase/quadrature-phase) demodulation. In a simulation, the measurement techniques have been tested by comparing the simulation results to analytically derived results from a known (backlash) non-linearity. In a subsequent practical case study both techniques are used to measure the changes in dynamic behaviour as a function of drive level due to friction in an electric motor. Both methods prove successful for measuring HOSIDFs.

  3. Encoding frequency contrast in primate auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Semple, Malcolm N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in amplitude and frequency jointly determine much of the communicative significance of complex acoustic signals, including human speech. We have previously described responses of neurons in the core auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques to sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) signals. Here we report a complementary study of sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM) in the same neurons. Responses to SFM were analogous to SAM responses in that changes in multiple parameters defining SFM stimuli (e.g., modulation frequency, modulation depth, carrier frequency) were robustly encoded in the temporal dynamics of the spike trains. For example, changes in the carrier frequency produced highly reproducible changes in shapes of the modulation period histogram, consistent with the notion that the instantaneous probability of discharge mirrors the moment-by-moment spectrum at low modulation rates. The upper limit for phase locking was similar across SAM and SFM within neurons, suggesting shared biophysical constraints on temporal processing. Using spike train classification methods, we found that neural thresholds for modulation depth discrimination are typically far lower than would be predicted from frequency tuning to static tones. This dynamic hyperacuity suggests a substantial central enhancement of the neural representation of frequency changes relative to the auditory periphery. Spike timing information was superior to average rate information when discriminating among SFM signals, and even when discriminating among static tones varying in frequency. This finding held even when differences in total spike count across stimuli were normalized, indicating both the primacy and generality of temporal response dynamics in cortical auditory processing. PMID:24598525

  4. A voltage-mode DCDC buck converter with fast output voltage-tracking speed and wide output voltage range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yang; Baixue, Zhang; Yun, Cao; Fengfeng, Sun; Weifeng, Sun

    2014-05-01

    A high switching frequency voltage-mode buck converter with fast voltage-tracking speed and wide output voltage range has been proposed. A novel error amplifier (EA) is presented to achieve a high DC gain and get high phase margin, including a resistor and capacitor net, a unit gain block and a high gain block. The investigated converter has been fabricated with GF 0.35 ?m CMOS process and can operate at 6 MHz with the output voltage range from 0.6 to 3.4 V. The experimental results show that the voltage-tracking speed can achieve 8.8 ?s/V for up-tracking and 6 ?s/V for down-tracking. Besides, the recovery time is less than 8 ?s while the load current suddenly changes 400 mA.

  5. A low voltage ``railgun''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Stanley O.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Cox, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent advances in solid-state switches and ultra-capacitors, it is now possible to construct a "railgun" that can operate at voltages below 20 V. Railguns typically operate above a thousand volts, generating huge currents for a few milliseconds to provide thousands of g's of acceleration to a small projectile. The low voltage railgun described herein operates for much longer time periods (tenths of seconds to seconds), has far smaller acceleration and speed, but can potentially propel a much larger object. The impetus for this development is to lay the groundwork for a possible ground-based supersonic launch track, but the resulting system may also have applications as a simple linear motor. The system would also be a useful teaching tool, requiring concepts from electrodynamics, mechanics, and electronics for its understanding, and is relatively straightforward to construct.

  6. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes constructed device very mobile. The project is still developing.

  7. Insulators for high voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Looms, J.S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes electrical insulators for high voltage applications. Topics considered include the insulating materials, the manufacture of wet process porcelain, the manufacture of tempered glass, the glass-fibre core, the polymeric housing, the common problem - terminating an insulator, mechanical constraints, the physics of pollution flashover, the physics of contamination, testing of insulators, conclusions from testing, remedies for flashover, insulators for special cases, interference and noise, and the insulator of the future.

  8. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  9. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  10. High Voltage Connector

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-06

    The originally designed high voltage connectors were to be made of brass. However, if treated like a Bellevile spring with the initially given dimensions, the stresses of the connector when crimped were calculated to be much higher than the yield stress of brass. Since the flange and outer diameters of the connector are to remain small, it was necessary to alter the other dimensions and choice of material in order to bring down the stresses applied to the connector.

  11. Low voltage driven dielectric electro active polymer actuator with integrated piezoelectric transformer based driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T.; Rødgaard, M. S.; Thomsen, O. C.; Andersen, M. A. E.

    2011-04-01

    Today's Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) actuators utilize high voltage (HV) in the range of kilo volts to fully stress the actuator. The requirement of HV is a drawback for the general use in the industry due to safety concerns and HV regulations. In order to avoid the HV interface to DEAP actuators, a low voltage solution is developed by integrating the driver electronic into a 110 mm tall cylindrical coreless Push InLastor actuator. To decrease the size of the driver, a piezoelectric transformer (PT) based solution is utilized. The PT is essentially an improved Rosen type PT with interleaved sections. Furthermore, the PT is optimized for an input voltage of 24 V with a gain high enough to achieve a DEAP voltage of 2.5 kV. The PT is simulated and verified through measurements on a working prototype. With the adapted hysteretic based control system; output voltage wave forms of both impulse response and sinusoidal shapes up to 2.5 kV are demonstrated. The control system, together with a carefully designed HV output stage, contributes to low power consumption at a static DEAP force. The HV stage consists of a HV measurement circuit and a triple diode voltage doubler optimized for low leakage current drawn from the DEAP. As a result, a 95 mm x 13 mm x 7 mm driver is integrated in a 110 mm x 32 mm actuator, forming a low voltage interfaced DEAP actuator.

  12. A simple method for the estimation of power losses in silicon iron sheets under alternating pulse voltage excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Amar, M.; Protat, F.

    1994-03-01

    The prediction of iron losses in magnetic steels submitted to alternating pulse voltages is studied and an efficient method is proposed. It is developed by coupling the pulse voltage form factor and the loss separation model. Prediction of iron losses becomes possible directly from the loss model corresponding to the sinusoidal flux density. This method is validated on silicon iron grain-oriented and nonoriented magnetic steels. The predetermined iron losses are coherent with those measured and this approach allows both simplicity and precision well appreciated by industry.

  13. Adaptive filtering for clutter suppression in high frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rafaat H.

    High frequency (HF) radar has the unique potential for over the horizon detection of ocean surface targets. However, ocean waves are also strong reflectors for HF radar and this high clutter level has limited its application for target detection. New results from the time domain analysis of ocean clutter show that it can be modelled as two angle modulated signals. This may be used to selectively suppress the clutter component and enhance the target detection performance. The practical implementation of clutter suppression, based upon this model, involves tracking of multiple time-varying sinusoids. An adaptive filtering technique to track time-varying sinusoids is discussed and initial results are presented.

  14. A comparison of low voltage IGBTs vs. medium voltage IGCTs for hydraulic turbine generator applications

    SciTech Connect

    LeGoy, P.R.

    1999-11-01

    Variable speed hydraulic turbine power generation has become a useful tool in the chemical processing industry. The technology that preceded and led to the use of variable speed hydraulic turbines was Variable Speed Constant Frequency (VSCF) drives for power generation. The current state of the art in the VSCF technology is the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), voltage source, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) drive. A new PWM switch has been created. The new switch is the Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT), PWM device. The drives produced with this technology are current source therefore the operational voltages of the drives are easily configured for medium voltage range. Medium voltage power makes the new drives desirable because of the size of the generators. A common power range for variable speed Hydraulic Power Generation is 1MW and applications for the chemical processing industry have a trend toward higher powers. For this type generator: if the operational voltage falls below 2300V the size of the generator becomes too large, bulky and expensive. Windings are no longer wires; they become bussbars. The current solution to the voltage problem is to include a transformer in the generator/drive connection.

  15. Instantaneous VEP signal frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Shelton, D; Longbotham, H

    1993-01-01

    Various methods have been used in the analysis of visually evoked potential signals. Due to the high noise content of the ssVEP signal, the signal is usually filtered using averaging or an order statistic filter, and then analyzed for frequency content. A frequency analysis technique often employed is the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) which yields information about both the frequency content and the spatial localization simultaneously. In 1946, D. Gabor modified the STFT by using a Gaussian window instead of a Hanning, Hamming, etc. for optimal simultaneous location in time and frequency. The common problem with the windowed DFT/FFT is the ambiguity of the estimate of frequency at a point (frequency localization). This paper will introduce a frequency analysis technique utilizing the WMMR (weighted majority with minimum range) filter, which, while in the time domain, will determine the frequency and spatial properties of a ssVEP signal within one period. This technique has been shown to be robust to impulsive noise of up to 40% and also robust to independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) noise and DC shifts, for frequency content and spatial localization analysis for sinusoidal signals. The WMMR technique will be compared to the Gabor STFT by application to steady state visual evoked potential data. PMID:8329589

  16. Seizure entrainment with polarizing low-frequency electric fields in a chronic animal epilepsy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Chernyy, Nick; Peixoto, Nathalia; Mason, Jonathan P.; Weinstein, Steven L.; Schiff, Steven J.; Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2009-08-01

    Neural activity can be modulated by applying a polarizing low-frequency (Lt100 Hz) electric field (PLEF). Unlike conventional pulsed stimulation, PLEF stimulation has a graded, modulatory effect on neuronal excitability, and permits the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity during stimulation suitable for continuous feedback control. We tested a prototype system that allows for simultaneous PLEF stimulation with minimal recording artifact in a chronic tetanus toxin animal model (rat) of hippocampal epilepsy with spontaneous seizures. Depth electrode local field potentials recorded during seizures revealed a characteristic pattern of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs). Sinusoidal voltage-controlled PLEF stimulation (0.5-25 Hz) was applied in open-loop cycles radially across the CA3 of ventral hippocampus. For stimulated seizures, fPSPs were transiently entrained with the PLEF waveform. Statistical significance of entrainment was assessed with Thomson's harmonic F-test, with 45/132 stimulated seizures in four animals individually demonstrating significant entrainment (p < 0.04). Significant entrainment for multiple presentations at the same frequency (p < 0.01) was observed in three of four animals in 42/64 stimulated seizures. This is the first demonstration in chronically implanted freely behaving animals of PLEF modulation of neural activity with simultaneous recording.

  17. Seizure entrainment with polarizing low frequency electric fields in a chronic animal epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Chernyy, Nick; Peixoto, Nathalia; Mason, Jonathan P.; Weinstein, Steven L.; Schiff, Steven J.; Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Neural activity can be modulated by applying a polarizing low frequency (≪ 100 Hz) electric field (PLEF). Unlike conventional pulsed stimulation, PLEF stimulation has a graded, modulatory effect on neuronal excitability, and permits the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity during stimulation suitable for continuous feedback control. We tested a prototype system that allows for simultaneous PLEF stimulation with minimal recording artifact in a chronic tetanus toxin animal model (rat) of hippocampal epilepsy with spontaneous seizures. Depth electrode local field potentials recorded during seizures revealed a characteristic pattern of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs). Sinusoidal voltage-controlled PLEF stimulation (0.5–25 Hz) was applied in open-loop cycles radially across the CA3 of ventral hippocampus. For stimulated seizures, fPSPs were transiently entrained with the PLEF waveform. Statistical significance of entrainment was assessed with Thomson’s harmonic F-test, with 45/132 stimulated seizures in 4 animals individually demonstrating significant entrainment (p < 0.04). Significant entrainment for multiple presentations at the same frequency (p < 0.01) was observed in 3 of 4 animals in 42/64 stimulated seizures. This is the first demonstration in chronically implanted freely behaving animals of PLEF modulation of neural activity with simultaneous recording. PMID:19602730

  18. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L. (Martinez, CA); Pike, Chester D. (Pinole, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  19. Sinusoidal to helical buckling of a thin rod under a cylindrical constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Lazarus, Arnaud; Wicks, Nathan; Pabon, Jahir; Reis, Pedro

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the buckling and post-buckling behavior of a thin, elastic rod loaded under cylindrical constraint. Our desktop experiments consist of compressing a hyper-elastic rod inside a transparent acrylic pipe with a motorized linear actuator. Under imposed displacement, the initially straight rod first buckles into a sinusoidal mode and eventually undergoes a secondary instability into helical buckling. This buckling and post-buckling behavior is found to be highly dependent on the systems' geometry, namely the rod length and the aspect ratio of the rod to pipe diameter. We quantify the wavelength and pitch of the period patterns through direct digital imaging and record the reaction forces at both end of the pipe. The observed behavior is rationalized through scaling arguments.

  20. Sinusoidal to helical buckling of an elastic rod under a cylindrical constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tianxiang; Miller, James; Lazarus, Arnaud; Wicks, Nathan; Pabon, Jahir; Bertoldi, Katia; Reis, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the buckling and post-buckling behavior of an elastic rod loaded under cylindrical constraint. Our precision desktop-scale experiments comprise of axially compressing a hyper-elastic rod inside a transparent acrylic pipe. These experiments are also modeled using a discrete elastic rod simulation that includes frictional effects. Under imposed displacement, the initially straight rod first buckles into a sinusoidal mode and eventually undergoes a secondary instability into a helical buckling regime. The buckling and post-buckling behavior is found to be highly dependent on the systems' geometry, in particularly the aspect ratio of the rod to pipe diameter. We quantify the wavelength and pitch of the periodic patterns through direct digital imaging and record the reaction forces at both ends of the pipe. The observed behavior is rationalized through scaling arguments and captured by numerical simulations.

  1. Real-time detection of musical onsets with linear prediction and sinusoidal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, John; Lazzarini, Victor; Timoney, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Real-time musical note onset detection plays a vital role in many audio analysis processes, such as score following, beat detection and various sound synthesis by analysis methods. This article provides a review of some of the most commonly used techniques for real-time onset detection. We suggest ways to improve these techniques by incorporating linear prediction as well as presenting a novel algorithm for real-time onset detection using sinusoidal modelling. We provide comprehensive results for both the detection accuracy and the computational performance of all of the described techniques, evaluated using Modal, our new open source library for musical onset detection, which comes with a free database of samples with hand-labelled note onsets.

  2. Single-shot calibration of soft x-ray mirrors using a sinusoidal transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilman, Z.; Ehrlich, Y.; Maman, S.; Levy, I.; Shussman, T.; Oren, G.; Zakosky Nueberger, I.; Hurvitz, G.

    2014-11-01

    Calibration of soft x-ray diagnostics is a challenge due to the lack of laboratory-size calibrated sources. An in situ calibration method for newly developed x-ray mirrors, is presented. The x-ray source is produced by laser-matter interaction, and twin transmission gratings which create two identical dispersion lines. The gratings have a sinusoidal transmission function, which produces a highly precise high-orders free spectrum. An x-ray mirror interacts with one of the dispersion lines, and the mirror efficiency curve as a function of wavelength is extracted. Mirror efficiency shows good agreement with the literature, and evidence of water layer may justify the need of in situ calibration.

  3. El Perfil Sinusoidal del Jet HH 31 en la Protoestrella IRAS 042482612

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this contribution we study the HH 31 jet; associated with the Class I proto-star; IRAS 042482612 (age 10 yrs); in the Taurus molecular cloud. We use mid-infrared images; taken by Spitzer and WISE; to analyze the sinusoidal or S-shape chain of knots (or EGOs) that delineate the jet. The binarity of the central source naturally explains the wiggling jet. The orbital period is 2.7 times the estimated dynamical time of the jet. The spatial difference between knots agrees with time elapse expected between quasi-periodic FU Orionis events; suggesting that central star might have experimented this type of events several times since its birth. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  5. P-selectin expression in a colon tumor model exposed by sinusoidal electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    TUNCEL, HANDAN; SHIMAMOTO, FUMIO; IRAKO?LU, AY?E; KORPINAR, MEHMET ALI; KALKAN, TUNAYA

    2013-01-01

    P-selectin is mainly involved in the initial process of tumor cell adhesion to platelets. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression level of P-selectin in a colon tumor model affected by sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SMF). Male Wistar albino rats aged 2-2.5 months were used. The animals were divided into the I [N-Methyl-N-Nitrosurea (MNU)], II (SMF-MNU), III (SMF) and IV (control) groups. The rats were housed five per polycarbonate cage. Sixty milligrams of MNU was dissolved in 6 ml sterile 0.9% NaCl. Prepared solutions were administered intra rectally (i.r.) to the 1st and 3rd groups as 0.2 ml/per animal. The same procedure was applied to the 2nd and 4th groups, although 0.2 ml/per animal sterile isotonic solution was administered instead. This procedure was repeated once a week for 10 weeks. Following the administration of MNU, the 2nd and 3rd groups were exposed to a sinusoidal magnetic field (SMF, 50 Hz, 5 mT) for 6 h/day for 8 months. P-selectin expression of the four groups of rat colon tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. The labeled streptavidin biotin method was performed. Fishers exact test was used for differences between proportions. Results showed that there was no statistically significant (P>0.05) change in the expression level of P-selectin. However, this result should be verified by both in vivo and in vitro experiments to determine the effects of the magnetic fields on P-selectin. PMID:24648955

  6. Taurine transport across hepatocyte plasma membranes: analysis in isolated rat liver sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Arias, I M

    1988-07-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of taurine transport across the hepatic plasma membranes, rat liver sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles were isolated and the transport process was analyzed. In the presence of a sodium gradient across the membranes (vesicle inside less than vesicle outside), an overshooting uptake of taurine occurred. In the presence of other ion gradients (K+, Li+, and choline+), taurine uptake was very small and no such overshoot was observed. Sodium-dependent uptake of taurine occurred into an osmotically active intravesicular space. Taurine uptake was stimulated by preloading vesicles with unlabeled taurine (transstimulation) in the presence of NaCl, but not in the presence of KCl. Sodium-dependent transport followed saturation kinetics with respect to taurine concentration; double-reciprocal plots of uptake versus taurine concentration gave a straight line from which an apparent Km value of 0.38 mM and Vmax of 0.27 nmol/20 s x mg of protein were obtained. Valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potential failed to enhance the rate of taurine uptake, suggesting that taurine transport does not depend on membrane potential. Taurine transport was inhibited by structurally related omega-amino acids, such as beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid, but not by glycine, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, or other alpha-amino acids, such as L-alanine. These results suggest that Na+-dependent uptake of taurine might occur across the hepatic sinusoidal plasma membranes via a transport system that is specific for omega-amino acids having 2-3 carbon chain length. PMID:3220826

  7. Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels

    SciTech Connect

    Nilpueng, Kitti; Wongwises, Somchai

    2006-06-15

    Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} are investigated. The flow phenomena, which are bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and dispersed bubbly flow are observed and recorded by high-speed camera. When the phase shifts are increased, the onset of the transition from the bubbly flow to the churn flow shifts to a higher value of superficial air velocity, and the regions of the slug flow and the churn flow are smaller. In other words, the regions of the bubbly flow and the dispersed bubbly flow are larger as the phase shift increases. The slug flow pattern is only found in the test sections with phase shifts of 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Recirculating gas bubbles are always found in the troughs of the corrugations. The recirculating is higher when the phase shifts are larger. The relationship between the two-phase multipliers calculated from the measured pressure drops, and the Martinelli parameter is compared with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. The correlation in the case of turbulent-turbulent condition is shown to fit the data very well for the phase shift of 0{sup o} but shows greater deviation when the phase shifts are higher. (author)

  8. Energy stored and dissipated in skeletal muscle basement membranes during sinusoidal oscillations.

    PubMed Central

    Tidball, J G

    1986-01-01

    We subjected single skeletal muscle cells from frog semitendinosus to sinusoidal oscillations that simulated the strain experienced as the cells near the end of passive extension and begin active contraction in slow swimming. Other cells from which the basement membrane was removed by enzymatic and mechanical procedures were tested identically. Effectiveness of the basement membrane removal technique was evaluated by electron microscopy, by an electrophoretic and lectin-binding assay for depletion of cell surface glycoproteins, and by confirmation by means of electrophoretic and immunologic analyses that major intracellular, cytoskeletal proteins were not disrupted. Measurements of maximum stress, maximum strain, and phase lag between these maxima enabled the complex modulus (dynamic stiffness) and loss tangent (relative viscous losses to elastic energy storage) to be calculated for each mechanically tested preparation. We also calculated the amounts of energy stored and dissipated in each preparation. These calculations indicate that cells with intact basement membranes have complex moduli significantly greater than those of cells without basement membranes, and that cells with basement membrane store significantly more elastic energy than basement membrane depleted cells. However, when subjected to identical sinusoidal strains, energy dissipation in cells with intact basement membranes is over three times greater than dissipation in cells without basement membrane. The relative magnitudes of energy losses to energy storage, called the specific loss, is nearly three times greater for intact cells than for basement membrane depleted cells. Basement membranes may thereby serve as a brake for slowing passive extension of muscle before contraction begins. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:3801573

  9. Dynamic response of a turbulent cylinder wake to sinusoidal inflow perturbations across the vortex lock-on range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, Efstathios; Liang, Chunlei

    2011-07-01

    Large-eddy simulations are employed to investigate the dynamic response of the turbulent wake of a circular cylinder to sinusoidal perturbations in the inflow velocity superposed on a mean component. The perturbation frequency is varied across the vortex lock-on range at a constant amplitude of 5% of the mean velocity corresponding to a Reynolds number of 2580. The effect on the instantaneous, time-averaged and phase-averaged characteristics of the near-wake flow and fluid forces on the cylinder is reported. Comparisons of the present simulations to experimental realizations show that the physics of the unsteady three-dimensional separated flow are well reproduced. The simulations capture the modification of the wake structure including the shrinking of the recirculation bubble and vortex-formation region and the enhancement of the wake fluctuations and vortex strength in the lock-on regime. These wake effects are accompanied by an increase in the steady and unsteady drag and the unsteady lift acting on the cylinder. An empirical formula for the amplification of the mean drag coefficient due to inflow perturbations and equivalent oscillations of the cylinder in a steady flow is provided from compilation of available data. Particular attention is given to the change in the timing of vortex shedding with respect to the imposed perturbation across the lock-on range in order to reveal the link between the vortex dynamics and the fluid-induced forces on the cylinder. It is shown that the phase at which vortices are shed from the cylinder shifts monotonically as a function of the perturbation frequency resulting in corresponding changes in the phase of the unsteady forces. It is further shown that the phase of the lift is directly linked to that of vortex shedding but the phase of the drag is biased by inertial forces due to added mass and induced pressure waves. Decomposition of the total in-line force to inviscid "potential-flow" and viscous "vortex-drag" components indicates that the latter exhibits a behavior which is not physically consistent. The stochastic character of vortex synchronization in turbulent wakes and the implications of the present findings for vortex-induced free in-line vibrations are also discussed.

  10. Note: Improving low-light-level image detection sensitivity with higher speed using auxiliary sinusoidal light signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongying; Yu, Zhengtao

    2015-06-01

    An improved active imaging method, which upgraded the detection sensitivity by applying an auxiliary sawtooth wave light signal, was reported. Nevertheless, such method sacrificed the imaging speed. To speed up imaging, a sinusoidal light signal is used instead and superposed with the undetectable low-light-level signal on the image sensor. After acquiring a superimposed image set in one sine wave cycle, an unbiased low-light-level image estimation is obtained by using least-square optimization. Through probabilistic analysis and experimental study, we demonstrate that the sinusoidal signal could improve the detection sensitivity 1/3 faster than the sawtooth wave signal.

  11. Excitation of voltage oscillations in an induction voltage adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Nichelle; Genoni, Thomas; Madrid, Elizabeth; Welch, Dale; Hahn, Kelly; Oliver, Bryan

    2009-07-01

    The induction voltage adder is an accelerator architecture used in recent designs of pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems such as Sandia National Laboratories Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS), the Atomic Weapons Establishments planned Hydrus Facility, and the Naval Research Laboratorys Mercury. Each of these designs relies on magnetic insulation to prevent electron loss across the anode-cathode gap in the vicinity of the adder as well as in the coaxial transmission line. Particle-in-cell simulations of the RITS adder and transmission line show that, as magnetic insulation is being established during a pulse, some electron loss occurs across the gap. Sufficient delay in the cavity pulse timings provides an opportunity for high-momentum electrons to deeply penetrate the cavities of the adder cells where they can excite radio-frequency resonances. These oscillations may be amplified in subsequent gaps, resulting in oscillations in the output power. The specific modes supported by the RITS-6 accelerator and details of the mechanism by which they are excited are presented in this paper.

  12. Development of a fast voltage control method for electrostatic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.; Linardakis, Peter; Tsifakis, Dimitrios

    2014-12-01

    The concept of a novel fast voltage control loop for tandem electrostatic accelerators is described. This control loop utilises high-frequency components of the ion beam current intercepted by the image slits to generate a correction voltage that is applied to the first few gaps of the low- and high-energy acceleration tubes adjoining the high voltage terminal. New techniques for the direct measurement of the transfer function of an ultra-high impedance structure, such as an electrostatic accelerator, have been developed. For the first time, the transfer function for the fast feedback loop has been measured directly. Slow voltage variations are stabilised with common corona control loop and the relationship between transfer functions for the slow and new fast control loops required for optimum operation is discussed. The main source of terminal voltage instabilities, which are due to variation of the charging current caused by mechanical oscillations of charging chains, has been analysed.

  13. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  14. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  15. Spatial frequency doubling - Retinal or central. [visual illusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W.; Felton, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    When a wide field is sinusoidally modulated both in space and in time, the spatial frequency of the pattern will appear doubled at high rates of modulation. Kelly (1966) proposed that this illusion is due to temporal integration of the nonlinear brightness response of the visual system. The anatomical locus of this temporal integrator is uncertain, and could be subcortical. Results indicate that spatial frequency doubling follows binocular disparity detection and is thus a cortical phenomenon.

  16. Experimental Study on DBD Plasma Actuator with Combination of AC and Nanosecond Pulse Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Taichi; Udagawa(Takashima, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki

    In the last decade, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator driven by combination voltage of AC and nanosecond pulse has been studied. The combined-voltage-driven plasma actuator increased the body force effect, which induces wall jet and flow suction, by overlapping nanosecond pulse voltage while DBD plasma actuator driven by nanosecond pulses is a flow control actuator generating compression waves due to pulse heating, which allows us to do active flow control in high speed flow reported up to Mach number 0.7. In this study, DBD plasma actuator driven by combination voltage of sinusoidal AC and nanosecond pulse has been experimentally studied. Time-averaged net thrust and cycle-averaged power consumption of actuator were characterized by electrical weight balance and charge-voltage cycle of DBD plasma actuator, respectively. The plasma actuator thrust driven with the combination voltage enhanced its thrust with pulse repetition rate increase. Energy consumption in the actuator was controlled by varying AC phase when the nanosecond pulse is applied. Therefore, the thrust and power consumption in the actuator was almost independently controlled by pulse repetition rate and pulse imposed phase.

  17. Age-related pseudocapillarization of the liver sinusoidal endothelium impairs the hepatic clearance of acetaminophen in rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; Cogger, Victoria C; McLachlan, Andrew J; Le Couteur, David G; Jones, Brett; de Cabo, Rafael; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effect of age-related pseudocapillarization of the liver sinusoidal endothelium on the hepatic disposition of acetaminophen. The multiple indicator dilution technique assessed the hepatic disposition of tracer (14)C-acetaminophen and reference markers in isolated perfused livers of young (n = 11) and old (n = 12) rats. Electron microscopy confirmed defenestration of the sinusoidal endothelium in old rats compared with young rats. Acetaminophen recovery following a single pass through the liver was significantly increased in old rats (0.64 0.04, old; 0.59 0.05, young; p < .05). In old age, there was significant reduction of the intercompartmental rate constant k(1) (0.34 0.10 s(-1), old; 0.61 0.38 s(-1), young; p < .05) and the permeability-surface area product for the transfer of acetaminophen across the sinusoidal endothelium (0.034 0.006 mL/s/g, old; 0.048 0.014 mL/s/g, young; p < .005). There was no difference in k(3), the measure of sequestration of acetaminophen that reflects enzyme activity. Age-related pseudocapillarization of the liver sinusoid resulted in increased acetaminophen recovery and decreased transfer of acetaminophen into the liver. PMID:21300741

  18. Analytical Study of Optimal Layout of Permanent Magnets in IPMSM for Generating Sinusoidal Flux-Density Distribution in Air Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Minoru

    This paper analytically demonstrates the optimal layout of permanent magnets for generating a sinusoidal flux density distribution in the air gap of the interior permanent-magnet synchronous machines with multiple flux barriers. In addition, practical design methods for realizing the optimal layout are proposed, and the designs are verified by conducting finite element analysis.

  19. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  20. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  1. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  2. High-voltage virtual-cathode microwave simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, L.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential is sufficiently large to cause electron reflection. The region associated with electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and by reflexing electrons trapped in the potential well formed between the real and virtual cathodes. A virtual-cathode device based on the first mechanism is a vircator while one based on latter mechanism is a reflex diode. A large number of low-voltage virtual-cathode microwave configurations have been investigated. Initial simulations of a high-voltage virtual-cathode device using a self-consistent particle-in-cell code indicated reasonable conversion efficiency with no frequency chirping. The nonchirping character of the high-voltage virtual-cathode device lead to the interesting possibility of locking four very-high-power microwave devices together using the four transmission lines available at Aurora. Subsequently, in support of two high-voltage experiments, simulations were used to investigate the effect of field-emission threshold and velvet position on the cathode; anode and cathode shape; anode-cathode gap spacing; output waveguide radius; diode voltage; a cathode-coaxial-cavity resonator; a high-frequency ac-voltage drive; anode foil scattering and energy loss; and ion emission on the microwave frequency and power. Microwave

  3. An expert system to analyze high frequency dependent data for the space shuttle main engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Raul C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The prototype expert system ADDAMX identifies selected sinusoid frequencies from spectral data graphs as speed frequencies and harmonics from each turbopump, frequency feed through from one turbopump to another, frequencies generated by turbopump bearings, pseudo 3N for the phase 2 high pressure fuel turbopump, and electrical noise. ADDAMX does the analysis in an interactive or batch mode and the results can be displayed on the screen or hardcopy.

  4. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  5. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, John P. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  6. Electronic Voltage and Current Transformers Testing Device

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware. PMID:22368510

  7. Electronic voltage and current transformers testing device.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware. PMID:22368510

  8. Basement membrane of mouse bone marrow sinusoids shows distinctive structure and proteoglycan composition: a high resolution ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Osmond, D G

    2001-11-01

    Venous sinusoids in bone marrow are the site of a large-scale traffic of cells between the extravascular hemopoietic compartment and the blood stream. The wall of the sinusoids consists solely of a basement membrane interposed between a layer of endothelial cells and an incomplete covering of adventitial cells. To examine its possible structural specialization, the basement membrane of bone marrow sinusoids has now been examined by high resolution electron microscopy of perfusion-fixed mouse bone marrow. The basement membrane layer was discontinuous, consisting of irregular masses of amorphous material within a uniform 60-nm-wide space between apposing endothelial cells and adventitial cell processes. At maximal magnifications, the material was resolved as a random arrangement of components lacking the "cord network" formation seen in basement membranes elsewhere. Individual components exhibited distinctive ultrastructural features whose molecular identity has previously been established. By these morphological criteria, the basement membrane contained unusually abundant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) revealed by 3-nm-wide "double tracks," and moderate amounts of both laminin as dense irregular coils and type IV collagen as 1-1.5-nm-wide filaments, together with less conspicuous amounts of amyloid P forming pentagonal frames. In contrast, 4.5-5-nm-wide "double tracks" characteristic of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) were absent. The findings demonstrate that, in comparison with "typical" basement membranes in other tissues, the bone marrow sinusoidal basement membrane is uniquely specialized in several respects. Its discontinuous nature, lack of network organization, and absence of HSPG, a molecule that normally helps to maintain membrane integrity, may facilitate disassembly and reassembly of basement membrane material in concert with movements of adventitial cell processes as maturing hemopoietic cells pass through the sinusoidal wall: the exceptionally large quantity of CSPG may represent a reservoir of CD44 receptor for use in hemopoiesis. PMID:11596011

  9. Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we consider a sinusoidal-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re=449 for which unsteady flow was observed. The longitudinal dispersion observed for the flow was computed using a random walk particle tracking method, and this was compared to the longitudinal dispersion predicted from a volume-averaged macroscopic mass balance using the method of volume averaging; the results of the two methods were consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for both the low-Re, Stokes flow regime and for values of Re representing the steady inertial regime. In the steady inertial regime, a power-law increase in the effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re was found, and this is consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). One unsteady (but non-turbulent) flow case (Re=449) was also examined. For this case, the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion. The observed tailing was further explored through analysis of concentration skewness (third moment) and its assymptotic convergence to conventional advection-dispersion behavior (skewness = 0). The method of volume averaging was applied to develop a skewness model, and demonstrated that the skewness decreases as a function of inverse square root of time. Our particle tracking simulation results were shown to conform to this theoretical result in most of the cases considered.

  10. Variation in response dynamics of regular and irregular vestibular-nerve afferents during sinusoidal head rotations and currents in the chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu-Sung; Minor, Lloyd B.; Della Santina, Charles; Lasker, David M.

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, primary vestibular afferents that innervate only type I hair cells (calyx-only afferents) respond nearly in phase with head acceleration for high-frequency motion, whereas afferents that innervate both type I and type II (dimorphic) or only type II (bouton-only) hair cells respond more in phase with head velocity. Afferents that exhibit irregular background firing rates have a larger phase lead re head velocity than those that fire more regularly. We wanted to examine what is the cause of the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents at high frequency head rotations. Under the assumption that externally applied galvanic currents act directly on the nerve, we derived a transfer function describing the dynamics of a semicircular canal and its hair cells through comparison of responses to sinusoidally modulated head velocity and currents. All afferent responses were well fit with a transfer function with one zero (lead term). Best-fit lead terms describing responses to current for each group of afferents were similar to the lead term describing responses to head velocity for regular afferents (0.006s + 1). This shows that the pre synaptic/synaptic inputs to regular afferents are pure velocity transducers. However, the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents cannot be explained solely by the ratio of type I to II hair cells (Baird et al. 1988) suggesting that the variation is caused by a combination of pre- (type of hair cell) and post- synaptic properties. PMID:21369854

  11. Lossless equalization of frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Torres-Company, Vctor; Lancis, Jess; Andrs, Pedro

    2008-08-15

    Frequency combs obtained by sinusoidal phase modulation of narrowband cw lasers are widely used in the field of optical communications. However, the resulting spectral envelope of the comb is not flat. We propose a general and efficient approach to achieve flat frequency combs with tunable bandwidth. The idea is based on a two-step process. First, efficient generation of a train with a temporal flat-top-pulse profile is required. Second, we use large parabolic phase modulation in every train period to map the temporal intensity shape into the spectral domain. In this way the resulting spectral envelope is flat, and the size is tunable with the chirping rate. Two different schemes are proposed and verified through numerical simulations. PMID:18709099

  12. Expression of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins by sinusoidal endothelial cells in the normal and cirrhotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Couvelard, A.; Scoazec, J. Y.; Feldmann, G.

    1993-01-01

    We compared the expression of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins by sinusoidal endothelial cells in normal human liver, in which the endothelial lining of hepatic sinusoids is discontinuous and devoid of basement membrane, and in cirrhosis, during which sinusoids might undergo a process of capillarization and acquire a continuous lining and a typical basement membrane. In normal liver, sinusoidal endothelial cells displayed a very restricted repertory of cell-adhesion molecules: the intercellular adhesion molecules PECAM-1 and CD34 were undetectable and only two integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1, were present, whereas the laminin receptors alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1 were undetectable and the beta 3 integrins were faintly expressed. In capillarized sinusoids, sinusoidal endothelial cells displayed striking changes in their repertory of cell-adhesion molecules, including the expression of PECAM-1 protein and messenger RNAs and the induction of the laminin receptors alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1. Such changes co-localized with subendothelial laminin deposits. In conclusion, normal sinusoidal endothelial cells express a distinctive set of cell-adhesion molecules, adapted to their structural and microenvironmental characteristics, and this repertory is dramatically modified during sinusoidal capillarization, possibly as a consequence of the concomitant matrix changes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8362973

  13. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  14. Mini-Scale Power Distribution Network Feeding Trapezoidal-Wave Voltages to Power Electronic Loads with Diode Rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Toshihiko; Imoto, Masaru; Sato, Yoshikazu

    This paper proposes a novel three-phase power distribution system feeding trapezoidal voltages to various power electronic loads with diode rectifier front-ends. The network distributes trapezoidal voltages generated by synchronous superposition of wave-shaping voltages onto sinusoidal voltages available from a utility power grid. The power distribution by the trapezoidal voltages allows reducing harmonics of the line currents without electronic switching devices because of a spontaneously widened conduction period of the current waveforms. The reduction of the harmonic currents also contributes to improve total power factor at the load input terminals and efficiency of the power transmission cables. Since the diodes of the rectifiers successively commutate the trapezoidal waves during periods of their flat parts, not only total harmonic distortion of the currents is improved, but also voltage ripple across the dc-buses of the rectifiers can effectively be reduced with less filter capacitors. In addition, the system offers an uninterruptible power supply function by immediately changing its outputs from the wave-shaping voltages to the trapezoidal voltages when interruption occurs in the power grid. In this paper, a prototype of the system is experimentally examined from various angles of operating characteristics and test results are presented to prove feasibility of the proposed system.

  15. Pulse-Width-to-Analog-Voltage Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosack, G. S.; Simmons, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Peak output voltage varies linearly with input-pulse duration. Circuit converts pulses of varying widths (as from sound-velocity instrumentation or tachometers) into analog voltages. Peak voltage increases in proportion to pulse width. Voltage used to drive an x-y plotter or storage oscilloscope. Pulse-width-to-voltage converter has peak output voltage that varies with duration of input pulses.

  16. Time-domain Bayesian detection and estimation of noisy damped sinusoidal signals applied to NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, Denis V.; Griffin, Julian L.

    2007-10-01

    The problem of model detection and parameter estimation for noisy signals arises in different areas of science and engineering including audio processing, seismology, electrical engineering, and NMR spectroscopy. We have adopted the Bayesian modeling framework to jointly detect and estimate signal resonances. This considers a model of the time-domain complex free induction decay (FID) signal as a sum of exponentially damped sinusoidal components. The number of model components and component parameters are considered unknown random variables to be estimated. A Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique is used to draw samples from the joint posterior distribution on the subspaces of different dimensions. The proposed algorithm has been tested on synthetic data, the 1H NMR FID of a standard of L-glutamic acid and a blood plasma sample. The detection and estimation performance is compared with Akaike information criterion (AIC), minimum description length (MDL) and the matrix pencil method. The results show the Bayesian algorithm superior in performance especially in difficult cases of detecting low-amplitude and strongly overlapping resonances in noisy signals.

  17. Pivotal role of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in NAFLD/NASH progression.

    PubMed

    Miyao, Masashi; Kotani, Hirokazu; Ishida, Tokiko; Kawai, Chihiro; Manabe, Sho; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2015-10-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are involved in the transport of nutrients, lipids, and lipoproteins, and LSEC injury occurs in various liver diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between LSEC injury and NAFLD progression remains elusive. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the precise role of LSEC in the pathophysiology of NAFLD using two different mouse models, namely the choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined and high-fat diet models. Administration of these diets resulted in liver metabolic dysregulation mimicking human NAFLD, such as steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as central obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. LSEC injury appeared during the simple steatosis phase, and preceded the appearance of activated Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). These results indicate that LSEC injury may have a 'gatekeeper' role in the progression from simple steatosis to the early nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) stage, and LSEC injury may be necessary for the activation of Kupffer cells and HSCs, which in turn results in the development and perpetuation of chronic liver injuries. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the role of LSEC injury in NAFLD/NASH pathogenesis. PMID:26214582

  18. The size of endothelial fenestrae in human liver sinusoids: implications for hepatocyte-directed gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Wisse, E; Jacobs, F; Topal, B; Frederik, P; De Geest, B

    2008-09-01

    Fenestrae allow the passage of gene transfer vectors from the sinusoidal lumen to the surface of hepatocytes. We have previously shown that the diameter of fenestrae correlates with species and strain differences of transgene expression following intravenous adenoviral transfer. In the current study, we demonstrate that the diameter of fenestrae in humans without liver pathology is 107+/-1.5 nm. This is similar to the previously reported diameter in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (103+/-1.3 nm) and is significantly smaller than in C57BL/6 mice (141+/-5.4 nm) and Sprague-Dawley rats (161+/-2.7 nm). We show that the diameter of fenestrae in one male NZW rabbit and its offspring characterized by a more than 50-fold increase of transgene expression after adenoviral gene transfer is significantly (113+/-1.5 nm; P<0.001) larger than in control NZW rabbits. In vitro filtration experiments using polycarbonate filters with increasing pore sizes demonstrate that a relatively small increment of the diameter of pores potently enhances passage of adenoviral vectors, consistent with in vivo data. In conclusion, the small diameter of fenestrae in humans is likely to be a major obstacle for hepatocyte transduction by adenoviral vectors. PMID:18401434

  19. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Incidence, risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yakushijin, K; Atsuta, Y; Doki, N; Yokota, A; Kanamori, H; Miyamoto, T; Ohwada, C; Miyamura, K; Nawa, Y; Kurokawa, M; Mizuno, I; Mori, T; Onizuka, M; Taguchi, J; Ichinohe, T; Yabe, H; Morishima, Y; Kato, K; Suzuki, R; Fukuda, T

    2016-03-01

    This retrospective study was conducted in Japan to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Among 4290 patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT between 1999 and 2010, 462 were diagnosed with SOS according to the Seattle criteria (cumulative incidence, 10.8%). The cumulative incidence of SOS diagnosed by the modified Seattle criteria was 9.3%. Of 462 patients, 107 met the Baltimore criteria and 168 had severe SOS with renal and/or respiratory failure. The median onset for SOS was 12 days after HSCT (range, -2-30). Overall survival at day 100 was 32% for SOS and 15% for severe SOS. Multivariate analyses showed that significant independent risk factors for SOS were the number of HSCTs, age, performance status, hepatitis C virus-seropositivity, advanced disease status and myeloablative regimen. SOS was highly associated with overall mortality (hazard ratio, 2.09; P<0.001). Our retrospective survey showed that the cumulative incidence of SOS in Japan was 10.8%, similar to that previously reported in Western countries, and that the overall survival of patients who developed SOS was low. Furthermore, several risk factors were identified. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for high-risk SOS patients must be established to improve overall survival. PMID:26595082

  20. A metabonomic evaluation of the monocrotaline-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Conotte, R.; Colet, J.-M.

    2014-04-15

    The main curative treatment of colorectal cancer remains the surgery. However, when metastases are suspected, surgery is followed by a preventive chemotherapy using oxaliplatin which, unfortunately, may cause liver sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Such hepatic damage is barely detected during or after chemotherapy due to a lack of effective diagnostic procedures, but liver biopsy. The primary objective of the present study was to identify potential early diagnosis biomarkers of SOS using a metabonomic approach. SOS was induced in rats by monocrotaline, a prototypical toxic substance. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine samples collected from rats treated with monocrotaline showed significant metabolic changes as compared to controls. During a first phase, cellular protective mechanisms such as an increased synthesis of GSH (reduced taurine) and the recruitment of cell osmolytes in the liver (betaine) were seen. In the second phase, the disturbance of the urea cycle (increased ornithine and urea reduction) leading to the depletion of NO, the alteration in the GSH synthesis (increased creatine and GSH precursors (glutamate, dimethylglycine and sarcosine)), and the liver necrosis (decrease taurine and increase creatine) all indicate the development of SOS. - Highlights: • Urine metabonomic profiles of SOS have been identified. • Urine osmoprotectants and anti-oxidants indicated an initial liver protection. • Liver necrosis was demonstrated by increased urine levels of taurine and creatine. • NO depletion was suggested by changes in ornithine and urea.

  1. Scavenger receptor B1, the HDL receptor, is expressed abundantly in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Latha P; Mates, Jessica M; Cheplowitz, Alana M; Avila, Christina L; Zimmerer, Jason M; Yao, Zhili; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Robinson, John M; Anderson, Clark L

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol from peripheral tissue, carried by HDL, is metabolized in the liver after uptake by the HDL receptor, SR-B1. Hepatocytes have long been considered the only liver cells expressing SR-B1; however, in this study we describe two disparate immunofluorescence (IF) experiments that suggest otherwise. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy employing ultrathin (120?nm) sections of mouse liver, improving z-axis resolution, we identified the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), marked by Fc?RIIb, as the cell within the liver expressing abundant SR-B1. In contrast, the hepatocyte, identified with ?-catenin, expressed considerably weaker levels, although optical resolution of SR-B1 was inadequate. Thus, we moved to a different IF strategy, first separating dissociated liver cells by gradient centrifugation into two portions, hepatocytes (parenchymal cells) and LSEC (non-parenchymal cells). Characterizing both portions for the cellular expression of SR-B1 by flow cytometry, we found that LSEC expressed considerable amounts of SR-B1 while in hepatocytes SR-B1 expression was barely perceptible. Assessing mRNA of SR-B1 by real time PCR we found messenger expression in LSEC to be about 5 times higher than in hepatocytes. PMID:26865459

  2. Design optimization of sinusoidal glass honeycomb for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurrin, J. C.; Buchberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design of honeycomb made of sinusoidally corrugated glass strips was optimized for use in water-cooled, single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with non-selective black absorbers. Cell diameter (d), cell height (L), and pitch/diameter ratio (P/d) maximizing solar collector performance and cost effectiveness for given cell wall thickness (t sub w) and optical properties of glass were determined from radiative and convective honeycomb characteristics and collector performance all calculated with experimentally validated algorithms. Relative lifetime values were estimated from present materials costs and postulated production methods for corrugated glass honeycomb cover assemblies. A honeycomb with P/d = 1.05, d = 17.4 mm, L = 146 mm and t sub w = 0.15 mm would provide near-optimal performance over the range delta T sub C greater than or equal to 0 C and less than or equal to 80 C and be superior in performance and cost effectiveness to a non-honeycomb collector with a 0.92/0.12 selective black absorber.

  3. Effects of Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Field on Structure and Function of Different Kinds of Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sul, Ah Ram; Park, Si-Nae

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated that whether a 2 mT, 60 Hz, sinusoidal electromagnetic field (EMF) alters the structure and function of cells. This research compared the effects of EMF on four kinds of cell lines: hFOB 1.19 (fetal osteoblast), T/G HA-VSMC (aortic vascular smooth muscle cell), RPMI 7666 (B lymphoblast), and HCN-2 (cortical neuronal cell). Over 14 days, cells were exposed to EMF for 1, 3, or 6 hours per day (hrs/d). The results pointed to a cell type-specific reaction to EMF exposure. In addition, the cellular responses were dependent on duration of EMF exposure. In the present study, cell proliferation was the trait most sensitive to EMF. EMF treatment promoted growth of hFOB 1.19 and HCN-2 compared with control cells at 7 and 14 days of incubation. When the exposure time was 3 hrs/d, EMF enhanced the proliferation of RPMI 7666 but inhibited that of T/G HA-VSMC. On the other hand, the effects of EMF on cell cycle distribution, cell differentiation, and actin distribution were unclear. Furthermore, we hardly found any correlation between EMF exposure and gap junctional intercellular communication in hFOB 1.19. This study revealed that EMF might serve as a potential tool for manipulating cell proliferation. PMID:17191316

  4. Structure, thermodynamics, and position-dependent diffusivity in fluids with sinusoidal density variations.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Jonathan A; Jain, Avni; Truskett, Thomas M

    2014-07-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic method based on the Fokker-Planck equation are used to explore the consequences of inhomogeneous density profiles on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the hard-sphere fluid and supercooled liquid water. Effects of the inhomogeneity length scale are systematically considered via the imposition of sinusoidal density profiles of various wavelengths. For long-wavelength density profiles, bulk-like relationships between local structure, thermodynamics, and diffusivity are observed as expected. However, for both systems, a crossover in behavior occurs as a function of wavelength, with qualitatively different correlations between the local static and dynamic quantities emerging as density variations approach the scale of a particle diameter. Irrespective of the density variation wavelength, average diffusivities of hard-sphere fluids in the inhomogeneous and homogeneous directions are coupled and approximately correlate with the volume available for insertion of another particle. Unfortunately, a quantitatively reliable static predictor of position-dependent dynamics has yet to be identified for even the simplest of inhomogeneous fluids. PMID:24984592

  5. Electronic and thermal transport study of sinusoidally corrugated nanowires aiming to improve thermoelectric efficiency.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Martin, P N; Ravaioli, U

    2016-01-22

    Improvement of thermoelectric efficiency has been very challenging in the solid-state industry due to the interplay among transport coefficients which measure the efficiency. In this work, we modulate the geometry of nanowires to interrupt thermal transport with causing only a minimal impact on electronic transport properties, thereby maximizing the thermoelectric power generation. As it is essential to scrutinize comprehensively both electronic and thermal transport behaviors for nano-scale thermoelectric devices, we investigate the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductance, and the thermal conductivity of sinusoidally corrugated silicon nanowires and eventually look into an enhancement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit [Formula: see text] from the modulated nanowires over typical straight nanowires. A loss in the electronic transport coefficient is calculated with the recursive Green function along with the Landauer formalism, and the thermal transport is simulated with the molecular dynamics. In contrast to a small influence on the thermopower and the electrical conductance of the geometry-modulated nanowires, a large reduction of the thermal conductivity yields an enhancement of the efficiency by 10% to 35% from the typical nanowires. We find that this approach can be easily extended to various structures and materials as we consider the geometrical modulation as a sole source of perturbation to the system. PMID:26650977

  6. In-vitro study on haemodiluted blood flow in a sinusoidal microstenosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, M J; Ji, H-S; Lee, S J

    2010-01-01

    In-vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the haemodynamic and haemorheological behaviours of haemodiluted blood flow through a microstenosis using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The micro-PIV system employed in this study consisted of a two-head neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a cooled charge-coupled device camera, and a delay generator. To simulate blood flow in a stenosed vascular vessel, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel with a sinusoidal throat of 80 per cent severity was employed. The width and depth of the microchannel were 100 microm and 50 microm, respectively. To compare the flow characteristics in the microstenosis, the same experiments were repeated in a straight microchannel under the same flow conditions. Using a syringe pump, human blood with 5 per cent haematocrit was supplied into the microstenosis channel. The flow characteristics and transport of blood cells through the microstenosis were investigated with various flowrates. The mean velocity fields were nearly symmetric with respect to the channel centreline. In the contraction section, the oncoming blood flow was accelerated rapidly, and the maximum velocity at the throat was almost 4.99 times faster than that of the straight microchannel without stenosis. In the diffusion section, the blood cells show rolling, deformation, twisting, and tumbling motion due to the flow-choking characteristics at the stenotic region. The results from this study will provide useful basic data for comparison with those obtained by clinical researchers. PMID:20225454

  7. Liver sinusoidal endothelial and biliary cell repopulation following irradiation and partial hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Petra; Rave-Frnk, Margret; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Becker, Heinz; Christiansen, Hans; Koenig, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether irradiation (IR) and partial hepatectomy (PH) may prepare the host liver for non-parenchymal cell (NPC) transplantation. METHODS: Livers of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)-deficient rats were pre-conditioned with external beam IR (25 Gy) delivered to two-thirds of the right liver lobules followed by a one-third PH of the untreated lobule. DPPIV-positive liver cells (NPC preparations enriched for liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes) were transplanted via the spleen into the recipient livers. The extent and quality of donor cell engraftment and growth was studied over a long-term interval of 16 wk after transplantation. RESULTS: Host liver staining demonstrated 3 different repopulation types. Well defined clusters of donor-derived hepatocytes with canalicular expression of DPPIV were detectable either adjacent to or in between large areas of donor cells (covering up to 90% of the section plane) co-expressing the endothelial marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. The third type consisted of formations of DPPIV-positive duct-like structures which co-localized with biliary epithelial CD49f. CONCLUSION: Liver IR and PH as a preconditioning stimulus enables multiple cell liver repopulation by donor hepatocytes, LSECs, and bile duct cells. PMID:20712054

  8. Electronic and thermal transport study of sinusoidally corrugated nanowires aiming to improve thermoelectric efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. H.; Martin, P. N.; Ravaioli, U.

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of thermoelectric efficiency has been very challenging in the solid-state industry due to the interplay among transport coefficients which measure the efficiency. In this work, we modulate the geometry of nanowires to interrupt thermal transport with causing only a minimal impact on electronic transport properties, thereby maximizing the thermoelectric power generation. As it is essential to scrutinize comprehensively both electronic and thermal transport behaviors for nano-scale thermoelectric devices, we investigate the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductance, and the thermal conductivity of sinusoidally corrugated silicon nanowires and eventually look into an enhancement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT from the modulated nanowires over typical straight nanowires. A loss in the electronic transport coefficient is calculated with the recursive Green function along with the Landauer formalism, and the thermal transport is simulated with the molecular dynamics. In contrast to a small influence on the thermopower and the electrical conductance of the geometry-modulated nanowires, a large reduction of the thermal conductivity yields an enhancement of the efficiency by 10% to 35% from the typical nanowires. We find that this approach can be easily extended to various structures and materials as we consider the geometrical modulation as a sole source of perturbation to the system.

  9. Modeling of a sinusoidal lobed injector: Vorticity and concentration fields for a cold flow

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, we present a simple and somewhat preliminary numerical model of a sinusoidal lobed injector. The lobed (corrugated) injector is being considered by several investigators as a potentially efficient device to mix fuel and air for combustion purposes. In this configuration, air flows parallel to the troughs and valleys of corrugations which grow in amplitude in the stream-wise direction. These ramped corrugations produce stream-wise vortices which enhance the downstream mixing. For the lobed injector, the corrugations are actually double walled which allows one to inject fuel through the space between them into the flow downstream of the ramp. The simulation model presented herein is based on a vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations and is solved using an unsteady viscous vortex method. In order to demonstrate the utility of this method we have simulated the three-dimensional cold mixing process for injection of methane gas into air. The vorticity and fuel concentration field downstream of the injector are simulated for two different injector geometries. We observe from these two simulations that variation of the amplitude of the corrugations can be used to achieve considerably different mixing patterns downstream of the injector.

  10. Scavenger receptor B1, the HDL receptor, is expressed abundantly in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Latha P.; Mates, Jessica M.; Cheplowitz, Alana M.; Avila, Christina L.; Zimmerer, Jason M.; Yao, Zhili; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Rajaram, Murugesan V. S.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol from peripheral tissue, carried by HDL, is metabolized in the liver after uptake by the HDL receptor, SR-B1. Hepatocytes have long been considered the only liver cells expressing SR-B1; however, in this study we describe two disparate immunofluorescence (IF) experiments that suggest otherwise. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy employing ultrathin (120 nm) sections of mouse liver, improving z-axis resolution, we identified the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), marked by FcγRIIb, as the cell within the liver expressing abundant SR-B1. In contrast, the hepatocyte, identified with β-catenin, expressed considerably weaker levels, although optical resolution of SR-B1 was inadequate. Thus, we moved to a different IF strategy, first separating dissociated liver cells by gradient centrifugation into two portions, hepatocytes (parenchymal cells) and LSEC (non-parenchymal cells). Characterizing both portions for the cellular expression of SR-B1 by flow cytometry, we found that LSEC expressed considerable amounts of SR-B1 while in hepatocytes SR-B1 expression was barely perceptible. Assessing mRNA of SR-B1 by real time PCR we found messenger expression in LSEC to be about 5 times higher than in hepatocytes. PMID:26865459

  11. Psychometric functions for sentence recognition in sinusoidally amplitude-modulated noises.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Manzano, Nicole K; Richards, Virginia M

    2015-12-01

    Listeners' speech reception is better when speech is masked by a modulated masker compared to an unmodulated masker with the same long-term root-mean-square level. It has been suggested that listeners take advantage of brief periods of quiescence in a modulated masker to extract speech information. Two experiments examined the contribution of such "dip-listening" models. The first experiment estimated psychometric functions for speech intelligibility using sentences masked by sinusoidally modulated and unmodulated speech-shaped noises and the second experiment estimated detection thresholds for a tone pip added at the central dip in the masker. Modulation rates ranging from 1 to 64?Hz were tested. In experiment 1 the slopes of the psychometric functions were shallower for lower modulation rates and the pattern of speech reception thresholds as a function of modulation rate was nonmonotonic with a minimum near 16?Hz. In contrast, the detection thresholds from experiment 2 increased monotonically with modulation rate. The results suggest that the benefits of listening to speech in temporally fluctuating maskers cannot be solely ascribed to the temporal acuity of the auditory system. PMID:26723318

  12. Age-related changes in human vestibulo-ocular reflexes: Sinusoidal rotation and caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.; Schoenhoff, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were characterized in 216 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. The object of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of aging on VOR dynamics, and to identify the distributions of parameters which describe VOR responses to caloric and to sinusoidal rotational stimuli in a putatively normal population. Caloric test parameters showed no consistent trend with age. Rotation test parameters showed declining response amplitude and slightly less compensatory response phase with increasing age. The magnitudes of these changes were not large relative to the variability within the population. The age-related trends in VOR were not consistent with the anatomic changes in the periphery reported by others which showed an increasing rate of peripheral hair cell and nerve fiber loss in subjects over 55 years. The poor correlation between physiological and anatomical data suggest that adaptive mechanisms in the central nervous system are important in maintaining the VOR.

  13. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce tolerance of autoreactive CD4+ recent thymic emigrants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xi; Jin, Rong; Li, Mingyang; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Shusong; Hao, Jie; Sun, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hounan; Zhang, Jun; Ge, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a unique lymphoid organ whose microenvironment is biased towards tolerance induction. We previously found that a proportion of CD4+ autoreactive recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) retained in the liver after thymic egress and acquired IL-10 producing capability. To investigate the tolerance of these liver persisting CD4+ RTEs in more detail and to study the liver stromal cell types that facilitate the tolerogenic changes in young T cells, the phenotype and function of liver RTEs were further characterized and the impact of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells on RTEs were examined using an in vitro co-culture system. More than 70% of CD4+ CD44hi RTEs in the liver acquired Foxp3-LAG3+ CD49b? regulatory phenotype and function. But higher ratio of apoptosis with enhanced FasL and Bim expression was also found in these CD4+ liver RTEs when compared to those in the lymph nodes and spleen. LSECs played an important role in RTEs acquisition of tolerogenic and regulatory phenotype. These results indicate an important role of liver microenvironment in enforcing peripheral tolerance to CD4+ thymic emigrants against self- and gut-derived antigens. PMID:26794038

  14. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce tolerance of autoreactive CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi; Jin, Rong; Li, Mingyang; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Shusong; Hao, Jie; Sun, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hounan; Zhang, Jun; Ge, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a unique lymphoid organ whose microenvironment is biased towards tolerance induction. We previously found that a proportion of CD4(+) autoreactive recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) retained in the liver after thymic egress and acquired IL-10 producing capability. To investigate the tolerance of these liver persisting CD4(+) RTEs in more detail and to study the liver stromal cell types that facilitate the tolerogenic changes in young T cells, the phenotype and function of liver RTEs were further characterized and the impact of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells on RTEs were examined using an in vitro co-culture system. More than 70% of CD4(+) CD44(hi) RTEs in the liver acquired Foxp3(-)LAG3(+) CD49b(-) regulatory phenotype and function. But higher ratio of apoptosis with enhanced FasL and Bim expression was also found in these CD4(+) liver RTEs when compared to those in the lymph nodes and spleen. LSECs played an important role in RTEs' acquisition of tolerogenic and regulatory phenotype. These results indicate an important role of liver microenvironment in enforcing peripheral tolerance to CD4(+) thymic emigrants against self- and gut-derived antigens. PMID:26794038

  15. Horizontally propagating quasi-sinusoidal tropospheric waves observed in the lee of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liziola, Luis E.; Balsley, Ben B.

    1997-05-01

    VHF profiler observations of the troposphere obtained over a flat desert in northern Per show the presence of strong, quasi-sinusoidal oscillations in the vertical wind velocity with periods of around 8-18 minutes. These oscillations are a very consistent feature of the vertical velocities over Piura, and are also observed at other profiler locations. This paper presents an overview of the wave characteristics obtained at Piura until this point, including results obtained using a second antenna built a few hundreds meters to the west of the main antenna to measure horizontal wavelengths and phase velocities. Briefly, the Piura waves appear to have horizontal wavelengths in the zonal direction of 5-10 m, with either westward or eastward phase velocities (in a ground-based reference frame) of 5-15 m s-1. Their occurrence appears to be causally related to the magnitude of the easterly wind, which blows over the Andean Cordillera some 60 km to the east of the site.

  16. Geosat crossover analysis in the tropical Pacific. Part 1: Constrained sinusoidal crossover adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Chang-Kou

    1988-01-01

    A new method (constrained sinusoidal crossover adjustment) for removing the orbit error in satellite altimetry is tested (using crossovers accumulated in the first 91 days of the Geosat non-repeat era in the tropical Pacific) and found to have excellent qualities. Two features distinguish the new method from the conventional bias-and-tilt crossover adjustment. First, a sine wave (with wavelength equaling the circumference of the Earth) is used to represent the orbit error for each satellite revolution, instead of the bias-and-tilt (and curvature, if necessary) approach for each segment of the satellite ground track. Secondly, the indeterminacy of the adjustment process is removed by a simple constraint minimizing the amplitudes of the sine waves, rather than by fixing selected tracks. Overall the new method is more accurate, more efficient, and much less cumbersome than the old. The idea of restricting the crossover adjustment to crossovers between tracks that are less than certain days apart in order to preserve the large-scale long-term oceanic variability is also tested with inconclusive results because the orbit error was unusually nonstationary in the initial 91 days of the GEOSAT mission.

  17. Analysis of Sinusoidal Drug Uptake Transporter Activities in Primary Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Le Ve, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic drug transporters play an important role in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Among these membrane transporters, the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1), the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 (SLCO1B1), 1B3 (SLCO1B3) and 2B1 (SLCO2B1), the organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2/SLC22A7) and the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1/SLC22A1) are likely major ones, notably mediating sinusoidal uptake of various drugs or endogenous compounds, like bile acids, from blood into hepatocytes. Studying putative interactions of drugs, including those in development processes, with these transporters is an important issue. For this purpose, cultured human hepatocytes, that exhibit functional expression of NTCP, OATPs, OAT2 and OCT1, are considered as a relevant in vitro cellular model. This chapter describes a method allowing to accurately analyze NTCP, OATP, OAT2 and OCT1 transport activities in primary human hepatocyte cultures, which can be applied to the determination of potential interactions of drugs with these hepatic uptake transporters. PMID:26272151

  18. Engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis is dependent on VEGFR2 mediated regeneration of sinusoidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Andrea T.; Butler, Jason M.; Nolan, Daniel J; Kranz, Andrea; Iida, Kaoruko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Shido, Koji; Petit, Isabelle; Yanger, Kilangsungla; James, Daylon; Witte, Larry; Zhu, Zhenping; Wu, Yan; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Rosenwaks, Zev; Mittal, Vivek; Sato, Thomas N.; Rafii, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The phenotypic attributes and molecular determinants for the regeneration of bone marrow (BM) sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) and their contribution to hematopoiesis are unknown. We show that after myelosuppression VEGFR2 activation promotes reassembly of regressed SECs, reconstituting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 expression are restricted to BM vasculature, demarcating a continuous network of VEGFR2+VEGFR3+Sca1? SECs and VEGFR2+VEGFR3?Sca1+ arterioles. While chemotherapy (5FU) and sublethal irradiation (650 rad) induce minor SEC regression, lethal irradiation (950 rad) induces severe regression of SECs requiring BM transplantation (BMT) for regeneration. Conditional deletion of VEGFR2 in adult mice blocks regeneration of SECs in sublethally irradiated animals, preventing hematopoietic reconstitution. Inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in lethally irradiated wild type mice rescued with BMT severely impairs SEC reconstruction, preventing engraftment and reconstitution of HSPCs. Therefore, activation of VEGFR2 is critical for regeneration of VEGFR3+Sca1? SECs that are essential for engraftment and restoration of HSPCs and hematopoiesis. PMID:19265665

  19. Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome Caused by Herbal Medicine: CT and MRI Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lou, Hai-yan; Xu, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. Materials and Methods The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Results Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Conclusion Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity. PMID:24643319

  20. Studying the Contact Point and Interface Moving in a Sinusoidal Tube with Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hai-Ping; Fan, Le-Wen; Wang, Zuo-Wei; Lin, Zhi-Fang; Qian, Yue-Hong

    The multicomponent nonideal gas lattice Boltzmann model by Shan and Chen (S-C) is used to study the immiscible displacement in a sinusoidal tube. The movement of interface and the contact point (contact line in three-dimension) is studied. Due to the roughness of the boundary, the contact point shows ``stick-slip'' mechanics. The ``stick-slip'' effect decreases as the speed of the interface increases. For fluids that are non-wetting, the interface is almost perpendicular to the boundaries at most time, although its shapes at different position of the tube are rather different. When the tube becomes narrow, the interface turns a complex curves rather than remains simple menisci. The velocity is found to vary considerably between the neighbor nodes close to the contact point, consistent with the experimental observation that the velocity is multi-values on the contact line. Finally, the effect of three boundary conditions is discussed. The average speed is found different for different boundary conditions. The simple bounce-back rule makes the contact point move fastest. Both the simple bounce-back and the no-slip bounce-back rules are more sensitive to the roughness of the boundary in comparison with the half-way bounce-back rule. The simulation results suggest that the S-C model may be a promising tool in simulating the displacement behaviour of two immiscible fluids in complex geometry.