Science.gov

Sample records for frequency sinusoidal voltage

  1. Self-mixing vibration measurement using emission frequency sinusoidal modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yufeng; Wang, Ming; Guo, Dongmei; Hao, Hui; Liu, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a simplified phase demodulation scheme is applied to recover vibration trail on a laser self-mixing interferometer for noncontact vibration measurement. The emission of semiconductor laser diode is modulated by injecting sinusoidal wave, and corresponding interference signal is a quasi-sinusoid wave. The vibration mathematical model for semiconductor laser diode is theoretically educed from basic self-mixing theory, the variation of target is converted into phase information. The simulation of demodulation algorithm and standard deviation are presented and the reconstructed waveform displays a desirable consistence with various moving trails. Following the principle, a minimum experimental system is established and position variation of the target mirror driven by voltage signal is translated into phase shifts, feedback is controlled at weak level during experiment, Fourier transform is implemented to analyze phase information. The comparisons of both amplitude and velocity with a Germany Doppler vibrometer are performed to testify vibration model, the error of proposed demodulation method is less than 30 nm and achieve a high accuracy in vibration frequency. The experimental results indicate the traditional phase technology can be applied on complex optical power signal after adaption providing a feasible application prospects in industrial and scientific situation with an inexpensive semiconductor laser.

  2. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  3. Comparison of atmospheric air plasmas excited by high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge and sinusoidal alternating current discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Wen-chun; Jiang, Peng-chao; Yang, De-zheng; Jia, Li; Wang, Sen

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure air discharge plasma in quartz tube is excited by 15 ns high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge (HVNPD) and sinusoidal alternating current discharge (SACD), respectively, and a comparison study of these two kinds of discharges is made through visual imaging, electrical characterization, optical detection of active species, and plasma gas temperature. The peak voltage of the power supplies is kept at 16 kV while the pulse repetition rate of nanosecond pulse power supply is 100 Hz, and the frequency of sinusoidal power supply is 10 kHz. Results show that the HVNPD is uniform while the SACD presents filamentary mode. For exciting the same cycles of discharge, the average energy consumption in HVNPD is about 1/13 of the SACD. However, the chemical active species generated by the HVNPD is about 2-9 times than that excited by the SACD. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures have been obtained via fitting the simulated spectrum of N2 (C3?u ? B3?g, 0-2) with the measured one, and the results show that the plasma gas temperature in the HVNPD remains close to room temperature whereas the plasma gas temperature in the SACD is about 200 K higher than that in HVNPD in the initial phase and continually increases as discharge exposure time goes on.

  4. Genetic algorithms based robust frequency estimation of sinusoidal signals with stationary errors

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Debasis

    of the sinusoidal model with high degree of accuracy. Among the proposed methods, the genetic algorithm based leastGenetic algorithms based robust frequency estimation of sinusoidal signals with stationary errors July 2009 Keywords: Genetic algorithms L1-norm estimator Least median estimator Least square estimator

  5. Blocking central pathways in the primate motor system using high-frequency sinusoidal current

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Karen M.; Jillani, Ngalla E.; Oluoch, George O.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation with high-frequency (2–10 kHz) sinusoidal currents has previously been shown to produce a transient and complete nerve block in the peripheral nervous system. Modeling and in vitro studies suggest that this is due to a prolonged local depolarization across a broad section of membrane underlying the blocking electrode. Previous work has used cuff electrodes wrapped around the peripheral nerve to deliver the blocking stimulus. We extended this technique to central motor pathways, using a single metal microelectrode to deliver focal sinusoidal currents to the corticospinal tract at the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized adult baboons. The extent of conduction block was assessed by stimulating a second electrode caudal to the blocking site and recording the antidromic field potential over contralateral primary motor cortex. The maximal block achieved was 99.6%, similar to findings of previous work in peripheral fibers, and the optimal frequency for blocking was 2 kHz. Block had a rapid onset, being complete as soon as the transient activation associated with the start of the sinusoidal current was over. High-frequency block was also successfully applied to the pyramidal tract at the medulla, ascending sensory pathways in the dorsal columns, and the descending systems of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. High-frequency sinusoidal stimulation produces transient, reversible lesions in specific target locations and therefore could be a useful alternative to permanent tissue transection in some experimental paradigms. It also could help to control or prevent some of the hyperactivity associated with chronic neurological disorders. PMID:25475345

  6. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.; Griffin, John C.

    2015-07-01

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. Using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  7. An amorphous alloy core medium frequency magnetic-link for medium voltage photovoltaic inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiul Islam, Md.; Guo, Youguang; Wei Lin, Zhi; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-05-01

    The advanced magnetic materials with high saturation flux density and low specific core loss have led to the development of an efficient, compact, and lightweight multiple-input multiple-output medium frequency magnetic-link. It offers a new route to eliminate some critical limitations of recently proposed medium voltage photovoltaic inverters. In this paper, a medium frequency magnetic-link is developed with Metglas amorphous alloy 2605S3A. The common magnetic-link generates isolated and balanced multiple DC supplies for all of the H-bridge inverter cells of the medium voltage inverter. The design and implementation of the prototype, test platform, and the experimental test results are analyzed and discussed. The medium frequency non-sinusoidal excitation electromagnetic characteristics of alloy 2605S3A are also compared with that of alloy 2605SA1. It is expected that the proposed new technology will have great potential for future renewable power generation systems and smart grid applications.

  8. 46 CFR 111.01-17 - Voltage and frequency variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-17 Voltage and frequency variations. Unless otherwise stated,...

  9. Quartz crystal microbalance based on passive frequency to voltage converter

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, Ioan; Tunyagi, Arthur

    2012-02-15

    In dynamics of evaporation or drying of microdrops from a solid surface, a faster and precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is needed. The fast QCM based on frequency to voltage converter is an attractive and powerful tool in the investigation of the dynamic regime of evaporation to translate the frequency shift in terms of a continuous voltage change. The frequency shift monitoring in fast QCM applications is a real challenge for electronic processing interface. Originally developed as a frequency shift processing interface, this novel passive frequency to voltage converter can produce faster, stable, and accurate results in regard to the QCM sensor behavior. In this article, the concept and circuit of passive frequency to voltage converter will be explained followed by static and dynamic characterization. Experimental results of microdrops evaporation will be given.

  10. Time- and spatially resolved emission spectroscopy of the dielectric barrier discharge for soft ionization sustained by a quasi-sinusoidal high voltage.

    PubMed

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Michels, Antje; Ahlmann, Norman; Jestel, Günter; Veza, Damir; Vadla, Cedomil; Franzke, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    A helium capillary dielectric barrier discharge was investigated by means of time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy with the aim of elucidating the process of the formation of the plasma jet. The helium emission line at 706 nm was utilized to monitor spatial and temporal propagation of the excitation of helium atoms. The discharge was sustained with quasi-sinusoidal high voltage, and the temporal evolution of the helium atomic emission was measured simultaneously with the discharge current. The spatial development of the plasma was investigated along the discharge axis in the whole region, which covers the positions in the capillary between the electrodes as well as the plasma jet outside the capillary. The high voltage electrode was placed 2 mm from the capillary orifice, and the distance between the ground and high voltage electrode was 10 mm. The complete spatiotemporal grid of the development of the helium excitation has shown that during the positive half-period of the applied voltage, two independent plasmas, separated in time, are formed. First, the early plasma that constitutes the plasma jet is formed, while the discharge in the capillary follows subsequently. In the early plasma, the helium atom excitation propagation starts in the vicinity of the high voltage electrode and departs from the capillary towards the ground electrode as well as several millimeters outside of the capillary in the form of the plasma jet. After relatively slow propagation of the early plasma in the capillary and the jet, the second plasma starts between the electrodes. During the negative voltage period, only the plasma in the capillary between the electrodes occurs. PMID:26077750

  11. High frequency AC power converter for low voltage circuits

    E-print Network

    Salazar, Nathaniel Jay Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel AC power delivery architecture that is suitable for VHF frequency (50-100MHz) polyphase AC/DC power conversion in low voltage integrated circuits. A complete AC power delivery architecture was ...

  12. BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES OF LOW-FREQUENCY SINUSOIDAL ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS ALONE AND SUPERIMPOSED ON RF CARRIER WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes in a historical context the experiments that have been performed to examine the biological responses caused by exposure to low frequency electromagnetic radiation directly or as modulation of RF carrier waves. A detailed review is provided of the independentl...

  13. The influence of carrier level and frequency on modulation and beat-detection thresholds for sinusoidal carriers

    PubMed

    Kohlrausch; Fassel; Dau

    2000-08-01

    This paper is concerned with modulation and beat detection for sinusoidal carriers. In the first experiment, temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) were measured for carrier frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz. Modulation rates covered the range from 10 Hz to about the rate equaling the critical bandwidth at the carrier frequency. In experiment 2, TMTFs for three carrier frequencies were obtained as a function of the carrier level. In the final experiment, thresholds for the detection of either the lower or the upper modulation sideband (beat detection) were measured for "carrier" frequencies of 5 and 10 kHz, using the same range of modulation rates as in experiment 1. The TMTFs for carrier frequencies of 2 kHz and higher remained flat up to a modulation rate of about 100-130 Hz and had similar values across carrier frequencies. For higher rates, modulation thresholds initially increased and then decreased rapidly, reflecting the subjects' ability to resolve the sidebands spectrally. Detection thresholds generally improved with increasing carrier level, but large variations in the exact level dependence were observed, across subjects as well as across carrier frequencies. For beat rates up to about 70 Hz (at 5 kHz) and 100 Hz (at 10 kHz), beat detection thresholds were the same for the upper and the lower sidebands and were about 6 dB higher than the level per sideband at the modulation-detection threshold. At higher rates the threshold for both sidebands increased, but the increase was larger for the lower sideband. This reflects an asymmetry in masking with more masking towards lower frequencies. Only at rates well beyond the maximum of the TMTF did detection for the lower sideband start to be better than that for the upper sideband. The asymmetry at intermediate frequency separations can be explained by assuming that detection always takes place in filters centered above the stimulus spectrum. The shape of the TMTF and the beat-detection data reflects a limitation in resolving fast amplitude variations, which must occur central to the inner-ear filtering. Its characteristic resembles that of a first-order low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of about 150 Hz. PMID:10955639

  14. Silver nanoparticles increase cytotoxicity induced by intermediate frequency low voltages.

    PubMed

    Yadegari-Dehkordi, Sajedeh; Sadeghi, Hamid Reza; Attaran-Kakhki, Neda; Shokouhi, Mahin; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Electrical properties of the cells play a key role in biological processes. Intermediate frequencies of electrical fields influence the cells proliferation without heat generation and electrical stimulation. Silver nanoparticle (SNP) as a metallic agent can change the electrical characteristics of the cells. We study the effect of low voltages at an intermediate frequency (300 kHz) on a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7) in the presence of SNPs. At first, cell toxicity of SNPs was determined at different concentrations. Then three different voltages were applied to the cells for 15?min, both in the presence and absence of SNPs. The treatments efficiency was evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that the intermediate frequency-low voltages with SNPs not only provide an additive efficacy on cytotoxicity, but also a synergism was observed between these factors. By increasing the voltage from 3 to 9?V, a rising synergistic rate was observed. It seems that the synergistic effect between SNPs and the 300?kHz low voltages can inhibit cell proliferation and/or increases cell death of MCF-7, and hence increases treatment efficiency of SNPs, effectively. PMID:24901460

  15. Memory Power Management via Dynamic Voltage/Frequency Scaling

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Onur

    . INTRODUCTION Power management has become a critical component of both mobile and enterprise systems in recent years. In the data center environment, thermal management and power budgeting have become significantMemory Power Management via Dynamic Voltage/Frequency Scaling Howard David, Chris Fallin§, Eugene

  16. Calibration of inductive voltage dividers at extremely low frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Tarach, D.; Trenkler, G.

    1994-12-31

    A measuring arrangement based on digital compensators is described which can be used to determine the complex division factor 12 of inductive voltage dividers (IVD) atextremely low frequencies. The error of division at 1Hz, related to the division factor 12 at 32 Hz, was evaluated as 18.7 ppm {+-} 3.3 ppm (1{sigma}) in magnitude and -4.5 m{degrees} {+-} 0.42 m{degrees} (1{sigma}) in phase for an IVD selected as an example.

  17. A high voltage nanosecond pulser with independently adjustable output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Carscadden, John; Slobodov, Ilia

    2014-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT) is developing a high voltage nanosecond pulser capable of generating microwaves and non-equilibrium plasmas for plasma medicine, material science, enhanced combustion, drag reduction, and other research applications. The EHT nanosecond pulser technology is capable of producing high voltage (up to 60 kV) pulses (width 20-500 ns) with fast rise times (<10 ns) at high pulse repetition frequency (adjustable up to 100 kHz) for CW operation. The pulser does not require the use of saturable core magnetics, which allows for the output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency to be fully adjustable, enabling researchers to explore non-equilibrium plasmas over a wide range of parameters. A magnetic compression stage can be added to improve the rise time and drive lower impedance loads without sacrificing high pulse repetition frequency operation. Work supported in part by the US Navy under Contract Number N00014-14-P-1055 and the US Air Force under Contract Number FA9550-14-C-0006.

  18. Analytical and computational investigations of airfoils undergoing high-frequency sinusoidal pitch and plunge motions at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Gregory Z.

    Current interests in Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technologies call for the development of aerodynamic-design tools that will aid in the design of more efficient platforms that will also have adequate stability and control for flight in gusty environments. Influenced largely by nature MAVs tend to be very small, have low flight speeds, and utilize flapping motions for propulsion. For these reasons the focus is, specifically, on high-frequency motions at low Reynolds numbers. Toward the goal of developing design tools, it is of interest to explore the use of elementary flow solutions for simple motions such as pitch and plunge oscillations to predict aerodynamic performance for more complex motions. In the early part of this research, a validation effort was undertaken. Computations from the current effort were compared with experiments conducted in a parallel, collaborative effort at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). A set of pure-pitch and pure-plunge sinusoidal oscillations of the SD7003 airfoil were examined. Phase-averaged measurements using particle image velocimetry in a water tunnel were compared with computations using two flow solvers: (i) an incompressible Navier-Stokes Immersed Boundary Method and (ii) an unsteady compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The motions were at a reduced frequency of k = 3.93, and pitch-angle amplitudes were chosen such that a kinematic equivalence in amplitudes of effective angle of attack (from plunge) was obtained. Plunge cases showed good qualitative agreement between computation and experiment, but in the pitch cases, the wake vorticity in the experiment was substantially different from that predicted by both computations. Further, equivalence between the pure-pitch and pure-plunge motions was not attained through matching effective angle of attack. With the failure of pitch/plunge equivalence using equivalent amplitudes of effective angle of attack, the effort shifted to include pitch-rate and wake-effect terms through the use of analytical methods including quasi-steady thin-airfoil theory (QSTAT) and Theodorsen's theory. These theories were used to develop three analytical approaches for determining pitch motions equivalent to plunge motions. A study of variation in plunge height was then examined and followed by a study of the effect of rotation point using the RANS solver. For the range of plunge heights studied, it was observed that kinematic matching between plunge and pitch using QSTAT gave outstanding similarities in flow field, while the matching performed using Theodorsen's theory gave the best equivalence in lift coefficients for all cases. The variation of rotation point revealed that, for the given plunge height, with rotation point in front of the mid-chord location, all three schemes matched flow-field vorticity well, and with rotation point aft of the mid-chord no scheme matched vorticity fields. However, for all rotation points (except for the mid-chord location), CFD prediction of lift coefficients from the Theodorsen matching scheme matched the lift time histories closely to CFD predictions for pure-pitch. Combined pitch and plunge motions were then examined using kinematic parameters obtained from the three schemes. The results showed that QSTAT nearly cancels the vortices emanating from the trailing edge. Theodorsen's matching approach was successful in generating a lift that was close to constant over the entire cycle. Additionally this approach showed the presence of the reverse Karman vortex sheet through the wake. Combined pitch/plunge motions were then analyzed, computationally and experimentally, with a non-zero mean angle of attack. All computational results compared excellently with experiments, capturing vorticity production on the airfoil's surface and through the wake. Lift coefficient through a cycle was shown to tend toward a constant using Theodorsen's parameters, with the constant being dependent on the initial angle of attack. This result points to the possibility of designing an unsteady motion to match a given flig

  19. High-frequency voltage oscillations in cultured astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Wiebke; Theiss, Stephan; Slotta, Johannes; Holland, Christine; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Because of their close interaction with neuronal physiology, astrocytes can modulate brain function in multiple ways. Here, we demonstrate a yet unknown astrocytic phenomenon: Astrocytes cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) exhibited extracellular voltage fluctuations in a broad frequency spectrum (100–600 Hz) after electrical stimulation. These aperiodic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) could last several seconds and did not spread across the MEA. The voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist cilnidipine dose-dependently decreased the power of the oscillations. While intracellular calcium was pivotal, incubation with bafilomycin A1 showed that vesicular release of transmitters played only a minor role in the emergence of HFOs. Gap junctions and volume-regulated anionic channels had just as little functional impact, which was demonstrated by the addition of carbenoxolone (100 ?mol/L) and NPPB (100 ?mol/L). Hyperpolarization with low potassium in the extracellular solution (2 mmol/L) dramatically raised oscillation power. A similar effect was seen when we added extra sodium (+50 mmol/L) or if we replaced it with NMDG+ (50 mmol/L). The purinergic receptor antagonist PPADS suppressed the oscillation power, while the agonist ATP (100 ?mol/L) had only an increasing effect when the bath solution pH was slightly lowered to pH 7.2. From these observations, we conclude that astrocytic voltage oscillations are triggered by activation of voltage-gated calcium channels and driven by a downstream influx of cations through channels that are permeable for large ions such as NMDG+. Most likely candidates are subtypes of pore-forming P2X channels with a low affinity for ATP. PMID:25969464

  20. Aalborg Universitet Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via Distributed

    E-print Network

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    we present new distributed controllers for secondary frequency and voltage control in islanded micro- grids. Inspired by techniques from cooperative control, the pro- posed controllers use localized provide a voltage stability analysis and present extensive experimental results validating our designs

  1. Systems and methods for process and user driven dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    DOEpatents

    Mallik, Arindam (Evanston, IL); Lin, Bin (Hillsboro, OR); Memik, Gokhan (Evanston, IL); Dinda, Peter (Evanston, IL); Dick, Robert (Evanston, IL)

    2011-03-22

    Certain embodiments of the present invention provide a method for power management including determining at least one of an operating frequency and an operating voltage for a processor and configuring the processor based on the determined at least one of the operating frequency and the operating voltage. The operating frequency is determined based at least in part on direct user input. The operating voltage is determined based at least in part on an individual profile for processor.

  2. Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Qinru

    Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting}@binghamton.edu Abstract In this paper, an energy aware dynamic voltage and frequency selection (EA-DVFS) algorithm energy and the harvested energy in a future duration. Specifically, if the system has sufficient energy

  3. Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Dorman, Daniel B; Bulka, Ben A; Shivers, Bethany L; Chancey, Valeta C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-10-01

    Whole body vibration has been postulated to contribute to the onset of back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and corresponding muscle responses of seated male volunteers during whole body vibration exposures along the vertical and anteroposterior directions to define the transmissibility and associated muscle activation responses for relevant whole body vibration exposures. Seated human male volunteers underwent separate whole body vibration exposures in the vertical (Z-direction) and anteroposterior (X-direction) directions using sinusoidal sweeps ranging from 2 to 18?Hz, with a constant amplitude of 0.4?g. For each vibration exposure, the accelerations and displacements of the seat and lumbar and thoracic spines were recorded. In addition, muscle activity in the lumbar and thoracic spines was recorded using electromyography (EMG) and surface electrodes in the lumbar and thoracic region. Transmissibility was determined, and peak transmissibility, displacement, and muscle activity were compared in each of the lumbar and thoracic regions. The peak transmissibility for vertical vibrations occurred at 4?Hz for both the lumbar (1.55?±?0.34) and thoracic (1.49?±?0.21) regions. For X-directed seat vibrations, the transmissibility ratio in both spinal regions was highest at 2?Hz but never exceeded a value of 1. The peak muscle response in both spinal regions occurred at frequencies corresponding to the peak transmissibility, regardless of the direction of imposed seat vibration: 4?Hz for the Z-direction and 2-3?Hz for the X-direction. In both vibration directions, spinal displacements occurred primarily in the direction of seat vibration, with little off-axis motion. The occurrence of peak muscle responses at frequencies of peak transmissibility suggests that such frequencies may induce greater muscle activity, leading to muscle fatigue, which could be a contributing mechanism of back pain. PMID:25010637

  4. Current mode integrators and their applications in low-voltage high frequency CMOS signal processing 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Sterling Lane

    1993-01-01

    Low voltage CMOS fully differential integrators for high frequency continuous-time filters using current-mode techniques are presented.. Current mode techniques are employed to avoid the use of the floating differential ...

  5. The role of the relative voltage and phase for frequency coupling in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Semmler, E.; Awakowicz, P.

    2008-08-25

    Frequency coupling in multifrequency discharges is a complex nonlinear interaction of the different frequency components. An alpha-mode low pressure rf capacitively coupled plasma operated simultaneously with two frequencies is investigated and the coupling of the two frequencies is observed to greatly influence the excitation and ionization within the discharge. Through this, plasma production and sustainment are dictated by the corresponding electron dynamics and can be manipulated through the dual-frequency sheath. These mechanisms are influenced by the relative voltage and also the relative phase of the two frequencies.

  6. Stabilization of Gyrotron Frequency by PID Feedback Control on the Acceleration Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-12-01

    The results of frequency stabilization by proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control of acceleration voltage in the 460-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GVI (the official name in Osaka University is Gyrotron FU CW GOI) are presented. The experiment was organized on the basis of the frequency modulation by modulation of acceleration voltage of beam electrons. The frequency stabilization during 10 h experiment was better than 10-6, which is compared with the results of the frequency deviation in free-running gyrotron operation.

  7. Improvement of neurofeedback therapy for improved attention through facilitation of brain activity using local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Zandi Mehran, Yasaman; Firoozabadi, Mohammad; Rostami, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Traditional neurofeedback (NF) is a training approach aimed at altering brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms as feedback. In NF training, external factors such as the subjects' intelligence can have an effect. In contrast, a low-energy NF system (LENS) does not require conscious effort from the subject, which results in fewer attendance sessions. However, eliminating the subject role seems to eliminate an important part of the NF system. This study investigated the facilitating effect on the theta-to-beta ratio from NF training, using a local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field (LSELF-MF) versus traditional NF. Twenty-four healthy, intelligent subjects underwent 10 training sessions to enhance beta (15-18 Hz), and simultaneously inhibit theta (4-7 Hz) and high beta (22-30 Hz) activity, at the Cz point in a 3-boat-race video game. Each session consisted of 3 statuses, PRE, DURING, and POST. In the DURING status, the NF training procedure lasted 10 minutes. Subjects were led to believe that they would be exposed to a magnetic field during NF training; however, 16 of the subjects who were assigned to the experimental group were really exposed to 45 Hz-360 µT LSELF-MF at Cz. For the 8 other subjects, only the coil was located at the Cz point with no exposure. The duty cycle of exposure was 40% (2-second exposure and 3-second pause). The results show that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of each group differs significantly from the PRE and POST statuses. Between-group analysis shows that the theta-to-beta ratio in the DURING status of the experimental group is significantly (P < .001) lower than in the sham group. The result shows the effect of LSELF-MF on NF training. PMID:24939868

  8. Electron heating of voltage-driven and matched dual frequency discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    In a dual frequency capacitive sheath, a high frequency uniform sheath motion is coupled with a low frequency Child law sheath motion. For current-driven high and low frequency sheaths, the high frequency sheath motion generates most of the ohmic and stochastic heating of the discharge electrons. The low frequency motion, in addition to its primary purpose of establishing the ion bombarding energy, also increases the heating by widening the sheath width and transporting the oscillating electrons to regions of lower plasma density, and hence higher sheath velocity. In this work, we show that for voltage-driven high and low frequency sheaths, increasing the low frequency voltage reduces the heating, due to the reduced high frequency current that flows through the sheath under voltage-driven conditions. We determine the dependence of the heating on various parameters and compare the results with the current-driven case. Particle-in-cell simulations are used to confirm this result. Discharges generally employ a matching network to maximize the power transmitted to the plasma. We obtain analytic expressions for the effect of the low frequency source under matched conditions and, again, find that the low frequency source reduces the heating.

  9. A unifying explanation of complex frequency spectra of gamma Dor, SPB and Be stars: combination frequencies and highly non-sinusoidal light curves

    E-print Network

    Kurtz, Donald W; Murphy, Simon J; Bedding, Timothy R; Bowman, Dominic M

    2015-01-01

    There are many Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) stars and gamma Dor stars in the Kepler Mission data set. The light curves of these pulsating stars have been classified phenomenologically into stars with symmetric light curves and with asymmetric light curves. In the same effective temperature ranges as the gamma Dor and SPB stars, there are variable stars with downward light curves that have been conjectured to be caused by spots. Among these phenomenological classes of stars, some show `frequency groups' in their amplitude spectra that have not previously been understood. While it has been recognised that nonlinear pulsation gives rise to combination frequencies in a Fourier description of the light curves of these stars, such combination frequencies have been considered to be a only a minor constituent of the amplitude spectra. In this paper we unify the Fourier description of the light curves of these groups of stars, showing that many of them can be understood in terms of only a few base frequencies, which we at...

  10. Dependence of error sensitivity of frequency on bias voltage in force-balanced micro accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lili; Zhou, Wu

    2013-06-01

    To predict more precisely the frequency of force-balanced micro accelerometer with different bias voltages, the effects of bias voltages on error sensitivity of frequency is studied. The resonance frequency of accelerometer under closed loop control is derived according to its operation principle, and its error sensitivity is derived and analyzed under over etching structure according to the characteristics of Deep Reaction Ion Etching (DRIE). Based on the theoretical results, micro accelerometer is fabricated and tested to study the influences of AC bias voltage and DC bias voltage on sensitivity, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the relative errors between test data and theory data are less than 7%, and the fluctuating value of error sensitivity under the range of voltage adjustment is less than 0.01 ?m-1. It is concluded that the error sensitivity with designed parameters of structure, circuit and process error can be used to predict the frequency of accelerometer with no need to consider the influence of bias voltage.

  11. Low-frequency switching voltage regulators for terrestrial photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    The photovoltaic technology project and the stand alone applications project are discussed. Two types of low frequency switching type regulators were investigated. The design, operating characteristics and field application of these regulators is described. The regulators are small in size, low in cost, very low in power dissipation, reliable and allow considerable flexibility in system design.

  12. Development of Low-Frequency AC Voltage Measurement System Using Single-Junction Thermal Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amagai, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    Accurate measurement of low-frequency AC voltage using a digital multimeter at frequencies of 4-200Hz is a challenge in the mechanical engineering industry. At the National Metrology Institute of Japan, we developed a low-frequency AC voltage measurement system for calibrating digital multimeters operating at frequencies down to 1 Hz. The system uses a single-junction thermal converter and employs a theoretical model and a three-parameter sine wave fitting algorithm based on the least-square (LS) method. We calibrated the AC voltage down to 1Hz using our measurement system and reduced the measurement time compared with that using thin-film thermal converters. Our measurement results are verified by comparison with those of a digital sampling method using a high-resolution analog-to-digital converter; our data are in agreement to within a few parts in 105. Our proposed method enables us to measure AC voltage with an uncertainty of 25 ?V/V (k = 1) at frequencies down to 4 Hz and a voltage of 10 V.

  13. The coefficient of the voltage induced frequency shift measurement on a quartz tuning fork.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the coefficient of the voltage induced frequency shift (VIFS) of a 32.768 KHz quartz tuning fork. Three vibration modes were studied: one prong oscillating, two prongs oscillating in the same direction, and two prongs oscillating in opposite directions. They all showed a parabolic dependence of the eigen-frequency shift on the bias voltage applied across the fork, due to the voltage-induced internal stress, which varies as the fork oscillates. The average coefficient of the VIFS effect is as low as several hundred nano-Hz per millivolt, implying that fast-response voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-locked loops with nano-Hz resolution can be built. PMID:25414971

  14. Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Skowro?ski, Witold Frankowski, Marek; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Wrona, Jerzy; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Barna?, Józef

    2014-08-18

    We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.

  15. Power supply and impedance matching to drive technological radio-frequency plasmas with customized voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franek, James; Brandt, Steven; Berger, Birk; Liese, Martin; Barthel, Matthias; Schüngel, Edmund; Schulze, Julian

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel radio-frequency (RF) power supply and impedance matching to drive technological plasmas with customized voltage waveforms. It is based on a system of phase-locked RF generators that output single frequency voltage waveforms corresponding to multiple consecutive harmonics of a fundamental frequency. These signals are matched individually and combined to drive a RF plasma. Electrical filters are used to prevent parasitic interactions between the matching branches. By adjusting the harmonics' phases and voltage amplitudes individually, any voltage waveform can be approximated as a customized finite Fourier series. This RF supply system is easily adaptable to any technological plasma for industrial applications and allows the commercial utilization of process optimization based on voltage waveform tailoring for the first time. Here, this system is tested on a capacitive discharge based on three consecutive harmonics of 13.56 MHz. According to the Electrical Asymmetry Effect, tuning the phases between the applied harmonics results in an electrical control of the DC self-bias and the mean ion energy at almost constant ion flux. A comparison with the reference case of an electrically asymmetric dual-frequency discharge reveals that the control range of the mean ion energy can be significantly enlarged by using more than two consecutive harmonics.

  16. Sinusoidal Current-Tracking Control for Utility Interactive Inverter with an LCL Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Toshiji; Inoue, Kaoru; Donomoto, Yoshihisa

    A voltage source inverter with an LCL filter is often used for a utility interface to control its output current to a grid side because of its harmonic reduction advantages. The integral compensator is often used to reduce the steady-state errors. However, there is always a control delay due to sinusoidal variations. This paper proposes a digital sinusoidal compensator which is based on the internal model principle to realize a fast sinusoidal response with no delay. It is based on the internal model principle to realize a response with no deviation for a periodic sinusoidal reference input. It has a simple numerator and a denominator z2-2zcos?T +1 of a transfer function which is equal to the z function of a sinusoidal waveform of the angular frequency ? and the sample time T. Compensator and feedback gains of the inverter are determined by the dead-beat or the optimal control principle. The proposed method is investigated for performances and it is validated through simulation and experimental results by a DSP control system.

  17. Zero Voltage Soft Switching Duty Cycle Pulse Modulated High Frequency Inverter-Fed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitobi, Manabu; Matsushige, Takayuki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo; Bessyo, Daisuke; Omori, Hideki; Terai, Haruo

    The utility grid voltage of commercial AC power source in Japan and USA is 100V, but in other Asian and European countries, it is 220V. In recent years, in Japan 200V outputted single-phase three-wire system begins to be used for high power applications. In 100V utility AC power applications and systems, an active voltage clamped quasi-resonant inverter circuit topology sing IGBTs has been effectively used so far for the consumer microwave oven. In this paper, presented is a half bridge type voltage-clamped asymmetrical soft switching PWM high-frequency inverter type AC-DC converter using IGBTs which is designed for consumer magnetron drive used as the consumer microwave oven in 200V utility AC power system. The zero voltage soft switching inverter treated here can use the same power rated switching semiconductor devices and three-winding high frequency transformer as those of the active voltage clamped quasi-resonant inverter using the IGBTs that has already been used for 100V utility AC power source. The operating performances of the voltage source single ended push pull (SEPP) type soft switching PWM inverter are evaluated and discussed for 100V and 200V common use consumer microwave oven. The harmonic line current components in the utility AC power side of the AC-DC power converter with ZVS-PWM SEPP inverter are reduced and improved on the basis of sine wave like pulse frequency modulation and sine wave like pulse width modulation for the utility AC voltage source.

  18. Voltage Stability and Frequency Synchronization of Weak Power Distribution Networks with Inverter-Based

    E-print Network

    Lemmon, Michael

    between a bus' short-circuit power and its coupled generator's power rating. As a consequence this perspective, a network weakness parameter called short-circuit ra- tio (SCR) is defined in [18], as the ratioVoltage Stability and Frequency Synchronization of Weak Power Distribution Networks with Inverter

  19. Static current-voltage characteristics for radio-frequency induction discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Budyansky, A.; Zykov, A.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this work was to obtain experimentally such characteristic of Radio-Frequency Induction Discharge (RFID) that can play the role of its current-voltage characteristic (CVC) and to explain the nature of current and voltage jumps arising in RF coils at exciting of discharge. Experiments were made in quartz 5.5, 11, 20 cm diam tubes with outer RF coil at pressures 10--100 mTorr, at frequency 13.56 MHz and discharge power to 500 W. In case of outer coil as analogue of discharge voltage it`s convenient to use the value of the RF voltage U{sub R}, induced around outer perimeter of discharge tube. It is evident that current and voltage jumps arising at exciting of discharge are due to low output resistance of standard generators and negative slope of initial part of CVC. Three sets of such dependencies for different pressures were obtained for each diameter of tubes. The influence of different metal electrodes placed into discharge volume on CVC`s shape has been studied also. Experimental results can explain the behavior of HFI discharge as a load of RF generator and give data for calculation of RF circuit.

  20. Low noise frequency synthesizer with self-calibrated voltage controlled oscillator and accurate AFC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qin; Jinbo, Li; Jian, Kang; Xiaoyong, Li; Jianjun, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    A low noise phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology is introduced. A VCO noise reduction method suited for short channel design is proposed to minimize PLL output phase noise. A self-calibrated voltage controlled oscillator is proposed in cooperation with the automatic frequency calibration circuit, whose accurate binary search algorithm helps reduce the VCO tuning curve coverage, which reduces the VCO noise contribution at PLL output phase noise. A low noise, charge pump is also introduced to extend the tuning voltage range of the proposed VCO, which further reduces its phase noise contribution. The frequency synthesizer generates 9.75-11.5 GHz high frequency wide band local oscillator (LO) carriers. Tested 11.5 GHz LO bears a phase noise of-104 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The total power dissipation of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 48 mW. The area of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 0.3 mm2, including bias circuits and buffers.

  1. High voltage pulse power supply of piezoelectric transformer based on adaptive frequency tracking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ze-rong; Bai, Chun-yu; Li, Hua-bo

    2010-07-01

    The damage capacity of weapon systems is enhanced when all-electronic safety and arming device (ESAD) is applied, so that ESAD has been favored by the military power. ESAD must ensure the normal work in the stipulation of -40 °C ~ +60°C temperature. When high voltage pulse power supply of piezoelectric transformer (PT) is used in ESAD the charging time has the large dispersion and affects the striking capability of weapon systems. In order to control the inconsistency charging time due to environment temperature change the adaptive frequency tracking control system for high-voltage pulse power supply of PT is designed. Theoretical calculation of current lag angle under zero voltage switching condition for resonant current is derived. Sampling circuit and control circuit are designed by applying the phase-locked loop (PLL) control technology. Experiment results have proved that this control can ensure the consistency of converter output under different environment.

  2. Tuning of liquid-crystal birefringence using a square ac variable frequency voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Rachid; Falih Bendimerad, Djalal; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine; Vinouze, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that the birefringence of the liquid-crystal cell (LCC) can be varied by applying different frequency values of a single applied ac square voltage. For the experimental evaluation of the birefringence, associated with a certain wavelength ?, as a function of the frequency F LCC of the electrical signal applied to the LCC, we use, for the first time to our knowledge, what we call here a frequency-dependent transmission technique. It consists in measuring the transmission responses between crossed and parallel polarizers as a function of the frequency F LCC. Experimental tests were carried out using a 7 ?m-thick E63 nematic LCC and a laser source emitting at ? = 1.55 ?m with a launch power of -3 dBm. The tuning voltage V LCC applied to the LCC is an alternative square wave electrical signal whose frequency ranges from 0.5 to 15 kHz. The peak to peak amplitude of the electrical signal is 5 V. The curve of the measured variations of the optical path difference of the LCC versus the frequency F LCC has a positive slope. Application to the tuning of the center wavelength of the transmission response of a one stage hybrid birefringent filter is shown as a proof-of-principle test.

  3. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Karen Kristine; Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; McCuskey, Robert S; Smedsrød, Bård

    2015-01-01

    The liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) forms the fenestrated wall of the hepatic sinusoid and functions as a control post regulating and surveying the trafficking of molecules and cells between the liver parenchyma and the blood. The cell acts as a scavenger cell responsible for removal of potential dangerous macromolecules from blood, and is increasingly acknowledged as an important player in liver immunity. This review provides an update of the major functions of the LSEC, including its role in plasma ultrafiltration and regulation of the hepatic microcirculation, scavenger functions, immune functions, and role in liver aging, as well as issues that are either undercommunicated or confusingly dealt with in the literature. These include metabolic functions, including energy metabolic interplay between the LSEC and the hepatocyte, and adequate ways of identifying and distinguishing the cells. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1751-1774, 2015. PMID:26426467

  4. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  5. Fast optical frequency sweeping using voltage controlled oscillator driven single sideband modulation combined with injection locking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Wei, Fang; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-03-23

    An ultrafast optical frequency sweeping technique for narrow linewidth lasers is reported. This technique exploits the large frequency modulation bandwidth of a wideband voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) which works on the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation(CS-SSB). Optical frequency sweeping of a narrow linewidth fiber laser with 3.85 GHz sweeping range and 80 GHz/?s tuning speed is demonstrated, which is an extremely high tuning speed for frequency sweeping of narrow linewidth lasers. In addition, injection locking technique is adopted to improve the sweeper's low optical power output and small side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). PMID:25837048

  6. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.

  7. Procrastinating Voltage Scheduling with Discrete Frequency Sets Zhijian Lu, Yan Zhang, Mircea Stan, John Lach, Kevin Skadron

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    Procrastinating Voltage Scheduling with Discrete Frequency Sets Zhijian Lu, Yan Zhang, Mircea Stan in the worst-case. In other words, high voltage (power) operat- ing points are procrastinated during task of the paper. Jejurikar et al. [4] intro- duce the concept of "procrastination scheduling" which is different

  8. Effect of driving voltages in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma: A study by nonlinear global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, B.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of nonlinear global model, a dual frequency capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma driven by 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz has been studied to investigate the influences of driving voltages on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. Fluid equations for the ions inside the plasma sheath have been considered to determine the voltage-charge relations of the plasma sheath. Geometrically symmetric as well as asymmetric cases with finite geometrical asymmetry of 1.2 (ratio of electrodes area) have been considered to make the study more reasonable to experiment. The electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) and finite geometrical asymmetry is found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. The amount of EAE has been primarily controlled by the phase angle between the two consecutive harmonics waveforms. The incorporation of the finite geometrical asymmetry in the calculations shift the dc self-bias towards negative polarity direction while increasing the amount of EAE is found to increase the dc self-bias in either direction. For phase angle between the two waveforms ? = 0 and ? = ?/2, the amount of EAE increases significantly with increasing the low frequency voltage, whereas no such increase in the amount of EAE is found with increasing high frequency voltage. In contrast to the geometrically symmetric case, where the variation of the dc self-bias with driving voltages for phase angle ? = 0 and ?/2 are just opposite in polarity, the variation for the geometrically asymmetric case is different for ? = 0 and ?/2. In asymmetric case, for ? = 0, the dc self-bias increases towards the negative direction with increasing both the low and high frequency voltages, but for the ? = ?/2, the dc-self bias is increased towards positive direction with increasing low frequency voltage while dc self-bias increases towards negative direction with increasing high frequency voltage.

  9. Mechanism of voltage production and frequency dependence of the ultrasonic vibration potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Cuong K.; Wang, Shougang; Diebold, Gerald

    2009-05-01

    Imaging with the ultrasonic vibration potential is based on voltage generation by a colloidal or ionic suspension in response to the passage of ultrasound. The polarization within a body arising from the oscillatory displacement in the ultrasonic field produces a current in a pair of external electrodes that is measured as a function of time or frequency. Existing theory gives the current in the electrodes as arising from both a time varying polarization and ionic conduction. Here, experiments are reported that show the production of the polarization current is the dominant mechanism for current generation in soft tissue. Experiments are also reported giving the frequency dependence of the ultrasonic vibration current in canine blood and in several dilutions of aqueous silica suspensions.

  10. A High Frequency Active Voltage Doubler in Standard CMOS Using Offset-Controlled Comparators for Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated active voltage doubler in CMOS technology using offset-controlled high speed comparators for extending the range of inductive power transmission to implantable microelectronic devices (IMD) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. This active voltage doubler provides considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and lower dropout voltage compared to its passive counterpart and requires lower input voltage than active rectifiers, leading to reliable and efficient operation with weakly coupled inductive links. The offset-controlled functions in the comparators compensate for turn-on and turn-off delays to not only maximize the forward charging current to the load but also minimize the back current, optimizing PCE in the high frequency (HF) band. We fabricated the active voltage doubler in a 0.5-?m 3M2P std. CMOS process, occupying 0.144 mm2 of chip area. With 1.46 V peak AC input at 13.56 MHz, the active voltage doubler provides 2.4 V DC output across a 1 k? load, achieving the highest PCE = 79% ever reported at this frequency. In addition, the built-in start-up circuit ensures a reliable operation at lower voltages. PMID:23853321

  11. A high frequency active voltage doubler in standard CMOS using offset-controlled comparators for inductive power transmission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated active voltage doubler in CMOS technology using offset-controlled high speed comparators for extending the range of inductive power transmission to implantable microelectronic devices (IMD) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. This active voltage doubler provides considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and lower dropout voltage compared to its passive counterpart and requires lower input voltage than active rectifiers, leading to reliable and efficient operation with weakly coupled inductive links. The offset-controlled functions in the comparators compensate for turn-on and turn-off delays to not only maximize the forward charging current to the load but also minimize the back current, optimizing PCE in the high frequency (HF) band. We fabricated the active voltage doubler in a 0.5-?m 3M2P std . CMOS process, occupying 0.144 mm(2) of chip area. With 1.46 V peak AC input at 13.56 MHz, the active voltage doubler provides 2.4 V DC output across a 1 k? load, achieving the highest PCE = 79% ever reported at this frequency. In addition, the built-in start-up circuit ensures a reliable operation at lower voltages. PMID:23853321

  12. Lightning-induced voltages caused by lighting strike to tall objects considering the effect of frequency dependent soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qilin; Chen, Yuan; Hou, Wenhao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we have analyzed the effect of frequency dependent soil (FDS) on the lightning-induced voltages caused by lightning subsequent return stroke for strike to tall objects ranging from 100 m to 300 m. It is found that the effect of FDS on the induced voltages peak can be approximately ignored when the low frequency conductivity (LFC) is equal to or larger than 0.01 S/m, and with the decrease of LFC, the effect of FDS on the lightning induced voltages is more obvious. Compared with the constant LFC, the induced voltage peak becomes less for FDS. For example, for a constant LFC of 0.001 S/m, the ratio of the induced voltages peak value for FDS to that for LFC is 83.2% at the line center and 66.8% at the line end for strike to 300-m-tall object, respectively. By using the decomposition method, we divide the lightning induced voltages into two components named by the incident induced waves (Vi) related with the vertical field and scattered induced waves (Vs) related with horizontal field, and it is found that FDS results into a less initial peak of tangential horizontal field along the overhead line and further results into a less induced voltage. Also, compared FDS with LFC, the FDS reduces the disparity of lightning induced voltages caused by different tall objects. For example, for the constant LFC, the induced voltage peak for strike to 300-m-tall object is 1.69 times larger than that for strike to 50-m-tall object. However, for the case of FDS, the corresponding ratio is about 1.2.

  13. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  14. Sinusoidal-pressure generator for testing dynamic pressure probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, R., Jr.; Gebben, V. D.; Myland, T. W.

    1970-01-01

    Generator can produce sinusoidal pressures at frequencies from 300 to 5000 Hz and peak-to-peak amplitudes up to 5.6 lbs/sq in. Amplitude and phase-angle measurements made at various frequencies are compared with measurements from a piezoelectric transducer mounted flush with the resonant tube wall.

  15. Dead-Space Theory Predictions of Excess-Noise Factor, Breakdown Voltage, and Frequency Response for Thin Avalanche Photodiodes

    E-print Network

    Teich, Malvin C.

    Dead-Space Theory Predictions of Excess-Noise Factor, Breakdown Voltage, and Frequency Response of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA ABSTRACT The dead-space carrier multiplication theory, the dead-space multiplication theory predicts a reduction in the mean bandwidth as well

  16. Cell property determination from the acoustic microscope generated voltage versus frequency curves.

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, T; Bereiter-Hahn, J; Karl, I

    2000-01-01

    Among the methods for the determination of mechanical properties of living cells acoustic microscopy provides some extraordinary advantages. It is relatively fast, of excellent spatial resolution and of minimal invasiveness. Sound velocity is a measure of the stiffness or Young's modulus of the cell. Attenuation of cytoplasm is a measure of supramolecular interactions. These parameters are of crucial interest for studies of cell motility, volume regulations and to establish the functional role of the various elements of the cytoskeleton. Using a phase and amplitude sensitive modulation of a scanning acoustic microscope (Hillman et al., 1994, J. Alloys Compounds. 211/212:625-627) longitudinal wave speed, attenuation and thickness profile of a biological cell are obtained from the voltage versus frequency or V(f) curves. A series of pictures, for instance in the frequency range 980-1100 MHz with an increment of 20 MHz, allows the experimental generation of V(f) curves for each pixel while keeping the lens-specimen distance unchanged. Both amplitude and phase values of the V(f) curves are used for obtaining the cell properties and the cell thickness profile. The theoretical analysis shows that the thin liquid layer, between the cell and the substrate, has a strong influence on the reflection coefficient and should not be ignored during the analysis. Cell properties, cell profile and the thickness of the thin liquid layer are obtained from the V(f) curves by the simplex inversion algorithm. The main advantages of this new method are that imaging can be done near the focal plane, therefore an optimal signal to noise ratio is achieved, no interference with Rayleigh waves occurs, and the method requires only an approximate estimate of the material properties of the solid substratum where the cells are growing on. PMID:10777725

  17. Dust charge and ion drag forces in a high-voltage, capacitive radio frequency sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Denysenko, I.; Azarenkov, N. A.; Ostrikov, K.

    2009-11-15

    The charge of an isolated dust grain and ion drag forces on the grain in a collisionless, high-voltage, capacitive rf sheath are studied theoretically. The studies are carried out assuming that the positive ions are monoenergetic, as well as in more realistic approximation, assuming that the time-averaged energy distribution of ions impinging on the dust grain has a double-peaked hollow profile. For the nonmonoenergetic case, an analytical expression for the ion flux to the dust grain is obtained. It is studied how the dust charge and ion drag forces depend on the rf frequency, electron density at plasma-sheath boundary, electron temperature and ratio of the effective oscillation amplitude of rf current to the electron Debye length. It is shown that the dust charge and ion drag forces obtained in the monoenergetic ion approximation may differ from those calculated assuming that the ions are nonmonoenergetic. The difference increases with increasing the width of the ion energy spread in the ion distribution.

  18. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOEpatents

    Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  19. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOEpatents

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  20. The Effect of High Voltage, High Frequency Pulsed Electric Field on Slain Ovine Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-01-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network causing the bone strength and toughness augmentation, it apparently did not affect the mineral phase of the cortical bone material. The results also confirmed that the indirect application of high power pulsed electric field at 500 V and 10 kHz through capacitive coupling method was safe and did not destroy the bone tissue construction. PMID:24761375

  1. A medium frequency transformer with multiple secondary windings for medium voltage converter based wind turbine power generating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    Recent advances in magnetic materials have led to the development of compact and light weight, medium and high frequency transformers, which would be a possible solution to reducing the size and weight of wind turbine power generating systems. This paper presents the overall design and analysis of a Metglas amorphous alloy 2605SA1 based medium frequency transformer to generate the isolated balanced multiple DC supplies for medium voltage converter systems. A comprehensive electromagnetic analysis is conducted on the proposed design based on experimental results. The test stand, data analysis, and test results are discussed.

  2. The piezoelectronic stress transduction switch for very large-scale integration, low voltage sensor computation, and radio frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magd?u, I.-B.; Liu, X.-H.; Kuroda, M. A.; Shaw, T. M.; Crain, J.; Solomon, P. M.; Newns, D. M.; Martyna, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    The piezoelectronic transduction switch is a device with potential as a post-CMOS transistor due to its predicted multi-GHz, low voltage performance on the VLSI-scale. However, the operating principle of the switch has wider applicability. We use theory and simulation to optimize the device across a wide range of length scales and application spaces and to understand the physics underlying its behavior. We show that the four-terminal VLSI-scale switch can operate at a line voltage of 115 mV while as a low voltage-large area device, ?200 mV operation at clock speeds of ?2 GHz can be achieved with a desirable 104 On/Off ratio—ideal for on-board computing in sensors. At yet larger scales, the device is predicted to operate as a fast (?250 ps) radio frequency (RF) switch exhibiting high cyclability, low On resistance and low Off capacitance, resulting in a robust switch with a RF figure of merit of ?4 fs. These performance benchmarks cannot be approached with CMOS which has reached fundamental limits. In detail, a combination of finite element modeling and ab initio calculations enables prediction of switching voltages for a given design. A multivariate search method then establishes a set of physics-based design rules, discovering the key factors for each application. The results demonstrate that the piezoelectronic transduction switch can offer fast, low power applications spanning several domains of the information technology infrastructure.

  3. Challenges and opportunities for multi-functional oxide thin films for voltage tunable radio frequency/microwave components

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, Guru; Cole, M. W.; Sun, Nian X.; Kalkur, Thottam S.; Sbrockey, Nick M.; Tompa, Gary S.; Guo, Xiaomei; Chen, Chonglin; Alpay, S. P.; Rossetti, G. A.; Dayal, Kaushik; Chen, Long-Qing; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2013-11-21

    There has been significant progress on the fundamental science and technological applications of complex oxides and multiferroics. Among complex oxide thin films, barium strontium titanate (BST) has become the material of choice for room-temperature-based voltage-tunable dielectric thin films, due to its large dielectric tunability and low microwave loss at room temperature. BST thin film varactor technology based reconfigurable radio frequency (RF)/microwave components have been demonstrated with the potential to lower the size, weight, and power needs of a future generation of communication and radar systems. Low-power multiferroic devices have also been recently demonstrated. Strong magneto-electric coupling has also been demonstrated in different multiferroic heterostructures, which show giant voltage control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of more than two octaves. This manuscript reviews recent advances in the processing, and application development for the complex oxides and multiferroics, with the focus on voltage tunable RF/microwave components. The over-arching goal of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state-of the-art of complex oxide and multiferroic thin film materials and devices, identify technical issues and technical challenges that need to be overcome for successful insertion of the technology for both military and commercial applications, and provide mitigation strategies to address these technical challenges.

  4. Challenges and opportunities for multi-functional oxide thin films for voltage tunable radio frequency/microwave components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Guru; Cole, M. W.; Sun, Nian X.; Kalkur, Thottam S.; Sbrockey, Nick M.; Tompa, Gary S.; Guo, Xiaomei; Chen, Chonglin; Alpay, S. P.; Rossetti, G. A.; Dayal, Kaushik; Chen, Long-Qing; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2013-11-01

    There has been significant progress on the fundamental science and technological applications of complex oxides and multiferroics. Among complex oxide thin films, barium strontium titanate (BST) has become the material of choice for room-temperature-based voltage-tunable dielectric thin films, due to its large dielectric tunability and low microwave loss at room temperature. BST thin film varactor technology based reconfigurable radio frequency (RF)/microwave components have been demonstrated with the potential to lower the size, weight, and power needs of a future generation of communication and radar systems. Low-power multiferroic devices have also been recently demonstrated. Strong magneto-electric coupling has also been demonstrated in different multiferroic heterostructures, which show giant voltage control of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of more than two octaves. This manuscript reviews recent advances in the processing, and application development for the complex oxides and multiferroics, with the focus on voltage tunable RF/microwave components. The over-arching goal of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state-of the-art of complex oxide and multiferroic thin film materials and devices, identify technical issues and technical challenges that need to be overcome for successful insertion of the technology for both military and commercial applications, and provide mitigation strategies to address these technical challenges.

  5. Design and fabrication of sinusoidal spectral filters for multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chuan; Jia, Jie; Hirakawa, Keigo; Sarangan, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Multispectral imaging beyond the three RGB colors still remains a challenge, especially in portable inexpensive systems. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of broadband multichroic filters that have a sinusoidal transmission spectra to utilize a novel methodology based on the Fourier spectral reconstruction in the frequency domain. Since the spectral filters are posed as an optimal sampling of hyperspectral images, they also allow for the reconstruction of the full spectrum from subsequent demosaicking algorithms. Unlike conventional Color Filter Arrays (CFA) which utilizes absorption dyes embedded in a polymeric material, the sinusoidal multichroic filters require an all-dielectric interference filter design. However, the goal of most dielectric filter designs is to achieve sharp transitions with high-contrast. A smoothly varying sinusoidal transition is more difficult with conventional approaches. However, this can be achieved by trading off the contrast. Following the principles of a simple Fabry-Perot cavity, we have designed and built interference filters from 0.5 sinusoidal periods to 3 sinusoidal periods from 450nm to 900nm spectral range. Also, in order to maintain a uniform period across the entire spectrum, the material must have a very low dispersion. In this design, we have used ZnS as the cavity material. The six filters have been used in a multispectral imaging test bed.

  6. High frequency capacitor-diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    A power conditioner was developed which used a capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide a high voltage without the use of a step-up transformer. The power conditioner delivered 1200 Vdc at 100 watts and was operated from a 120 Vdc line. The efficiency was in excess of 90 percent. The component weight was 197 grams. A modified boost-add circuit was used for the regulation. A short circuit protection circuit was used which turns off the drive circuit upon a fault condition, and recovers within 5 ms after removal of the short. High energy density polysulfone capacitors and high speed diodes were used in the multiplier circuit.

  7. Fractionally Injection-Locked Frequency Multiplication Technique with Multi-Phase Ring Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Sho; Lee, Sang-yeop; Kamimura, Tatsuya; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a fractionally injection-locked frequency multiplication technique that can solve the tradeoff between the selectable frequency step and phase noise of injection-locked frequency multipliers (ILFMs). For a given output frequency step, the phase noise of the proposed ILFM is lower than that of conventional ILFMs because higher-frequency signals can be injected. The proposed ILFM was fabricated using a 180 nm Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. 1/2-, 1/3-, 1/4-, and 1/6-integral frequency multiplications were realized, which means that the output frequency resolution is 6 times as high as that of conventional ILFM. When the reference frequency was 100 MHz, the measured phase noise at 725 (= 100×29/4) MHz was -120 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset, and that at 767 (= 100×23/3) MHz was -119 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset.

  8. Strong Ionization Asymmetry in a Geometrically Symmetric Radio Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma Induced by Sawtooth Voltage Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneau, Bastien; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah; Greb, Arthur; Johnson, Erik V.; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-01

    The ionization dynamics in geometrically symmetric parallel plate capacitively coupled plasmas driven by radio frequency tailored voltage waveforms is investigated using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy (PROES) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Temporally asymmetric waveforms induce spatial asymmetries and offer control of the spatiotemporal dynamics of electron heating and associated ionization structures. Sawtooth waveforms with different rise and fall rates are employed using truncated Fourier series approximations of an ideal sawtooth. Experimental PROES results obtained in argon plasmas are compared with PIC simulations, showing excellent agreement. With waveforms comprising a fast voltage drop followed by a slower rise, the faster sheath expansion in front of the powered electrode causes strongly enhanced ionization in this region. The complementary waveform causes an analogous effect in front of the grounded electrode.

  9. Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    ], adaptive lens [4­8], and tunable photonic devices [9,10]. The applied voltage can be either a square, sinusoidal or saw-tooth wave and the frequency can range from tens to a few kilo-hertz. To achieve grays

  10. Action potential patterns of isolated frog muscle spindle in response to sinusoidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Querfurth, H

    1985-01-01

    Signal transfer in the isolated frog muscle spindle is investigated using the linear frequency domain analysis technique. Sinusoidal stretches of different amplitudes (20-120 micron) and frequencies (0.1-120 Hz) were applied at different levels of static prestretch, ranging from resting length (L0) up to L0 + 400 micron, so that the frequency-response characteristics were measured at different operating points within the dynamic range. The neuronal responses were recorded from the first node of the afferent stem fiber with a modified air-gap technique. By this means, subthreshold receptor potentials, prepotentials preceding the impulse, and the propagated action potentials were recorded simultaneously, thus providing a detailed insight into the encoding process. There is a well-defined dynamic range of receptor responses. At L0, the encoding site is depolarized to its firing level and discharges spontaneous stimulus-independent impulses. The upper limit is given by the saturation of the receptor potential, which keeps the depolarization maximum below the level of sodium inactivation. Therefore a "depolarization block" or "overstretch" does not exist in the muscle spindle; i.e., the receptor retains its ability to encode information over a large range of dynamic and static displacements. Since the dynamic curves of the receptor potential are not symmetrical about their static operating point, the impulse pattern remains modulated throughout the dynamic range, even if small sinusoids are superimposed on a large static prestretch. The afferent discharge pattern is mainly regulated by the modulated AC component of the receptor potential. At low stimulus frequencies (less than 1 Hz) the receptor potential modulates almost linearly about the mean membrane voltage, so that the evoked discharge pattern displays a smooth analog signal, which is close to sinusoidal. Increasing the static prestretch increases both the peak response and the modulation depth of the impulse pattern. In the intermediate frequency range (1-10 Hz), the cycle histogram disintegrates into discrete peaks separated by empty bins, because the nonlinear receptor potential elicites firmly phase-locked action potentials during its fast depolarization transient. Raising the prestretch level improves the precision of phase locking and increases the number of spikes elicited per cycle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3156217

  11. Verification of voltage/frequency requirement for emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant using dynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Jin-Suk; Roh, Myung- Sub

    2014-02-12

    One major cause of the plant shutdown is the loss of electrical power. The study is to comprehend the coping action against station blackout including emergency diesel generator, sequential loading of safety system and to ensure that the emergency diesel generator should meet requirements, especially voltage and frequency criteria using modeling tool. This paper also considered the change of the sequencing time and load capacity only for finding electrical design margin. However, the revision of load list must be verified with safety analysis. From this study, it is discovered that new load calculation is a key factor in EDG localization and in-house capability increase.

  12. Flexible low-voltage organic integrated circuits with megahertz switching frequencies (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschieschang, Ute; Takimiya, Kazuo; Zaki, Tarek; Letzkus, Florian; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-09-01

    A process for the fabrication of integrated circuits based on bottom-gate, top-contact organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) with channel lengths as short as 1 µm on flexible plastic substrates has been developed. In this process, all TFT layers (gate electrodes, organic semiconductors, source/drain contacts) are patterned with the help of high-resolution silicon stencil masks, thus eliminating the need for subtractive patterning and avoiding the exposure of the organic semiconductors to potentially harmful organic solvents or resists. The TFTs employ a low-temperature-processed gate dielectric that is sufficiently thin to allow the TFTs and circuits to operate with voltages of about 3 V. Using the vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic semiconductor 2,9-didecyl-dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (C10 DNTT), TFTs with an effective field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of 107, a width-normalized transconductance of 1.2 S/m (with a standard deviation of 6%), and a signal propagation delay (measured in 11-stage ring oscillators) of 420 nsec per stage at a supply voltage of 3 V have been obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first time that megahertz operation has been achieved in flexible organic transistors at supply voltages of less than 10 V. In addition to flexible ring oscillators, we have also demonstrated a 6-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in a binary-weighted current-steering architecture, based on TFTs with a channel length of 4 µm and fabricated on a glass substrate. This DAC has a supply voltage of 3.3 V, a circuit area of 2.6 × 4.6 mm2, and a maximum sampling rate of 100 kS/s.

  13. Measurement of Radiated Electromagnetic Field due to Low Voltage ESD with Spherical Electrode in 1-3GHz Frequency Bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamata, Ken; Minegishi, Shigeki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    The micro-gap discharge as the low voltage ESD shows very fast transition-duration of about 32 ps or less. Furthermore, the breakdown field strength in the gap was very high of about 80 MV/m in low voltage discharging of below 400V. The relationship between the breakdown field strength in the gap and the amplitude of radiated electromagnetic field was examined in experimental study. The amplitude of radiated electromagnetic field was proportion to the breakdown field strength at the gap in the resonance experimental system using the discharge electrode with dipole configuration. In this time, we present an improved experimental system to measure the amplitude of radiated electromagnetic filed in more wideband region using spherical electrodes and a horn antenna. As a result, the amplitude of radiated electromagnetic field is proportion to the discharge voltage from 300V to 620V, and the amplitude of radiated electromagnetic field was according to the diameter of spherical electrode in 1-3GHz frequency bandwidth.

  14. Random telegraph signals and low-frequency voltage noise in Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, G.; Vitale, S.; Konopka, J. ); Bonaldi, M. )

    1991-11-15

    Excess low-frequency noise extending to MHz frequencies was observed in dc current biased granular high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} thin films. At particular bias conditions random telegraph signal produced by a single, fast two-level fluctuator dominated the noise properties of the sample. Lifetimes of the low- and high-voltage states of the fluctuating system were found to be exponentially distributed. Power spectra of the excess noise signal could be well fitted with a single Lorentzian contribution. Duty cycle dependence of the random telegraph signal on bias conditions was used to get an insight into physical mechanism causing the fluctuations. Charge trapping events in the intergranular intrinsic Josephson junctions and trapped flux hopping were identified as possible alternative sources of the observed noise.

  15. Collector optimization for improving the product of the breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency in SiGe HBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Fu; Wanrong, Zhang; Dongyue, Jin; Yanxiao, Zhao; Lianghao, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Compared with BVCEO, BVCES is more related to collector optimization and more practical significance, so that BVCES × fT rather than BVCEO × fT is employed in representing the limit of the product of the breakdown voltage-cutoff frequency in SiGe HBT for collector engineering design. Instead of a single decrease in collector doping to improve BVCES × fT and BVCEO × fT, a novel thin composite of N- and P+ doping layers inside the CB SCR is presented to improve the well-known tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and cut-off frequency in SiGe HBT, and BVCES and BVCEO are improved respectively with slight degradation in fT. As a result, the BVCES × fT product is improved from 537.57 to 556.4 GHz·V, and the BVCEO × fT product is improved from 309.51 to 326.35 GHz·V. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60776051, 61006059, 61006044), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 4082007, 4143059, 4142007, 4122014), and the Beijing Municipal Education Committee (Nos. KM200710005015, KM200910005001).

  16. High-frequency voltage-controlled-oscillator for use with inverted- mesa quartz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, K.O.

    1996-08-01

    An oscillator circuit has been developed that uses inverted mesa resonators, in a high precision VCO application, at frequencies historically dominated by SAW designs. This design incorporates a frequency tripler that provides a 600 MHz output capability using a 200 MHz 3{sup rd} overtone resonator. This design has advantages over equivalent SAW alternatives: lower power consumption, superior aging characteristics, linear frequency pulling and low frequency versus temperature sensitivity. The VCO presented demonstrates {gt} +/- 60 ppm pullability (0 to 7V control), tuning linearity better than +/- 5% with phase noise at 1 kHz {lt} -110 DBc/Hz. this oscillator- tripler exploits the nonlinear characteristics of an emitter-coupled pair differential amplifier to obtain a high performance oscillator design.

  17. Frequency-dependent reduction of voltage-gated sodium current modulates retinal ganglion cell response rate to electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, David; Morley, John W.; Suaning, Gregg J.; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2011-10-01

    The ability to elicit visual percepts through electrical stimulation of the retina has prompted numerous investigations examining the feasibility of restoring sight to the blind with retinal implants. The therapeutic efficacy of these devices will be strongly influenced by their ability to elicit neural responses that approximate those of normal vision. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can fire spikes at frequencies greater than 200 Hz when driven by light. However, several studies using isolated retinas have found a decline in RGC spiking response rate when these cells were stimulated at greater than 50 Hz. It is possible that the mechanism responsible for this decline also contributes to the frequency-dependent 'fading' of electrically evoked percepts recently reported in human patients. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings of rabbit RGCs, we investigated the causes for the spiking response depression during direct subretinal stimulation of these cells at 50-200 Hz. The response depression was not caused by inhibition arising from the retinal network but, instead, by a stimulus-frequency-dependent decline of RGC voltage-gated sodium current. Under identical experimental conditions, however, RGCs were able to spike at high frequency when driven by light stimuli and intracellular depolarization. Based on these observations, we demonstrated a technique to prevent the spiking response depression.

  18. Low Actuation Voltage RF MEMS SwitchesWith Signal Frequencies From 0.25GHz to 40GHz

    E-print Network

    Shen, Shyh-Chiang

    voltages. The actuation voltage provides an electrostatic force to make the conductive pad move up and down in a single-pole-double-throw configuration. When a voltage is applied on the bottom electrodes, the pad

  19. Propulsion by sinusoidal locomotion: A motion inspired by Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Xialing

    Sinusoidal locomotion is commonly seen in snakes, fish, nematodes, or even the wings of some birds and insects. This doctoral thesis presents the study of sinusoidal locomotion of the nematode C. elegans in experiments and the application of the state-space airloads theory to the theoretical forces of sinusoidal motion. An original MATLAB program has been developed to analyze the video records of C. elegans' movement in different fluids, including Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The experimental and numerical studies of swimming C. elegans has revealed three conclusions. First, though the amplitude and wavelength are varying with time, the motion of swimming C. elegans can still be viewed as sinusoidal locomotion with slips. The average normalized wavelength is a conserved character of the locomotion for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Second, fluid viscosity affects the frequency but not the moving speed of C. elegans, while fluid elasticity affects the moving speed but not the frequency. Third, by the resistive force theory, for more elastic fluids the ratio of resistive coefficients becomes smaller. Inspired by the motion of C. elegans and other animals performing sinusoidal motion, we investigated the sinusoidal motion of a thin flexible wing in theory. Given the equation of the motion, we have derived the closed forms of propulsive force, lift and other generalized forces applying on the wing. We also calculated the power required to perform the motion, the power lost due to the shed vortices and the propulsive efficiency. These forces and powers are given as functions of reduced frequency k, dimensionless wavelength z, dimensionless amplitude A/b, and time. Our results show that a positive, time-averaged propulsive force is produced for all k>k0=pi/ z. At k=k0, which implies the moment when the moving speed of the wing is the same as the wave speed of its undulation, the motion reaches a steady state with all forces being zero. If there were no shed vorticity effects, the propulsive force would be zero at z = 0.569 and z = 1.3 for all k, and for a fixed k the wing would gain the optimal propulsive force when z = 0.82. With the effects of shed vorticity, the propulsive efficiency decreases from 1.0 to 0.5 as k goes to infinity, and the propulsive efficiency increases almost in a linear relationship with k0.

  20. A Voltage Controlled Oscillator for a Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer in a Silicon-on-Sapphire Process

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Sean

    2009-05-21

    Engineers from a government-owned engineering and manufacturing facility were contracted by government-owned research laboratory to design and build an S-band telemetry transmitter using Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) technology packaged in a Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) Multi-Chip Module. The integrated circuit technology chosen for the Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer portion of the telemetry transmitter was a 0.25 um CMOS process that utilizes a sapphire substrate and is fabricated by Peregrine Semiconductor corporation. This thesis work details the design of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) portion of the PLL frequency synthesizer and constitutes an fully integrated VCO core circuit and a high-isolation buffer amplifier. The high-isolation buffer amplifier was designed to provide 16 dB of gain for 2200-3495 MHz as well as 60 dB of isolation for the oscillator core to provide immunity to frequency pulling due to RF load mismatch. Actual measurements of the amplifier gain and isolation showed the gain was approximately 5 dB lower than the simulated gain when all bond-wire and test substrate parasitics were taken into account. The isolation measurements were shown to be 28 dB at the high end of the frequency band but the measurement was more than likely compromised due to the aforementioned bond-wire and test substrate parasitics. The S-band oscillator discussed in this work was designed to operate over a frequency range of 2200 to 2300 MHz with a minimum output power of 0 dBm with a phase-noise of -92 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier. The tuning range was measured to be from 2215 MHz to 2330 MHz with a minimum output power of -7 dBm over the measured frequency range. A phase-noise of -90 dBc was measured at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier.

  1. A plasma aerodynamic actuator supplied by a multilevel generator operating with different voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Carlo A.; Cristofolini, Andrea; Grandi, Gabriele; Neretti, Gabriele; Seri, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    In this work a high voltage—high frequency generator for the power supply of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator for the aerodynamic control obtained by the electro-hydro-dynamic (EHD) interaction is described and tested. The generator can produce different voltage waveforms. The operating frequency is independent of the load characteristics and does not require impedance matching. The peak-to-peak voltage is 30?kV at a frequency up to 20?kHz and time variation rates up to 60?kV??s-1. The performance of the actuator when supplied by several voltage waveforms is investigated. The tests have been performed in still air at atmospheric pressure. Voltage and current time behaviors have been measured. The evaluation of the energy delivered to the actuator allowed the estimation of the periods in which the plasma was ignited. Vibrational and rotational temperatures of the plasma have been estimated through spectroscopic acquisitions. The flow field induced in the region above the surface of the DBD actuator has been studied and the EHD conversion efficiency has been evaluated for the voltage waveforms investigated. The nearly sinusoidal multilevel voltage of the proposed generator and the sinusoidal voltage waveform of a conventional ac generator obtain comparable plasma features, EHD effects, and efficiencies. Inverse saw tooth waveform presents the highest effects and efficiency. The rectangular waveform generates suitable EHD effects but with the lowest efficiency. The voltage waveforms that induce plasmas with higher rotational temperatures are less efficient for the conversion of the electric into kinetic energy.

  2. Modeling and simulation of high voltage and radio-frequency transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Andrés O.; Barbosa, Giancarlos C.; Vieira, Madson A. A.; Quintaes, Filipe de O.; da Silva, Jacimário R.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a methodology for designing a 50 kW RF transformer operating at a frequency of 400 kHz with a view to operation with minimal magnetic losses used in the project experimental treatment of industrial wastes and effluents of petrochemical thermal plasma. This innovator model of a RF transformer offers many advantages over traditional transformers, the main ones being their small size for this power level, high power density, low electromagnetic radiation level, and easy and economic manufacturing. The equivalent circuit was obtained practically and theoretically at the university lab. From the project, simulations are made to evaluate the performance of different parameters as a function of magnetic induction, current density, and temperature.

  3. Dependence of sinusoidal electric field effect on neuronal morphological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Yin, Xiaowei; Lu, Meili; Yi, Guosheng; Wang, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the neuronal firing patterns under extracellular sinusoidal electric field (EF) are investigated based on a reduced two-compartment model with focus on the effects of morphological and internal coupling parameters. We observe that the neuron can exhibit bursting, synchronous firing and subthreshold oscillation depending on EF amplitude A and frequency f. Furthermore, neuronal firing properties change obviously over a range of morphological parameter p. As p increases, the firing region expands first and then diminishes gradually until it disappears in the observed (A, f) parameter space and the transition from bursting to synchronous firing is also markedly distinct. Meanwhile, the morphological parameter also has significant effects on the EF threshold for triggering neuronal spikes. Unlike morphological parameter, though the internal coupling conductance gc can also induce some changes in firing behavior and EF threshold, it cannot qualitatively change neuronal dynamical properties. All these results demonstrate that neuronal morphology plays a crucial role in neuronal responses to sinusoidal EF.

  4. Simulation of temperature field for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation using a hyperbolic bioheat equation and temperature-varied voltage calibration: a liver-mimicking phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Lin, Lan; Gao, Hongjian; Feng, Yusheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aims at improving the accuracy of temperature simulation for temperature-controlled radio frequency ablation (RFA). We proposed a new voltage-calibration method in the simulation and investigated the feasibility of a hyperbolic bioheat equation (HBE) in the RFA simulation with longer durations and higher power. A total of 40 RFA experiments was conducted in a liver-mimicking phantom. Four mathematical models with multipolar electrodes were developed by the finite element method in COMSOL software: HBE with/without voltage calibration, and the Pennes bioheat equation (PBE) with/without voltage calibration. The temperature-varied voltage calibration used in the simulation was calculated from an experimental power output and temperature-dependent resistance of liver tissue. We employed the HBE in simulation by considering the delay time ? of 16?s. First, for simulations by each kind of bioheat equation (PBE or HBE), we compared the differences between the temperature-varied voltage-calibration and the fixed-voltage values used in the simulations. Then, the comparisons were conducted between the PBE and the HBE in the simulations with temperature-varied voltage calibration. We verified the simulation results by experimental temperature measurements on nine specific points of the tissue phantom. The results showed that: (1) the proposed voltage-calibration method improved the simulation accuracy of temperature-controlled RFA for both the PBE and the HBE, and (2) for temperature-controlled RFA simulation with the temperature-varied voltage calibration, the HBE method was 0.55 °C more accurate than the PBE method. The proposed temperature-varied voltage calibration may be useful in temperature field simulations of temperature-controlled RFA. Besides, the HBE may be used as an alternative in the simulation of long-duration high-power RFA.

  5. The Application of Auto-Disturbance Rejection Control Optimized by Least Squares Support Vector Machines Method and Time-Frequency Representation in Voltage Source Converter-High Voltage Direct Current System

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of voltage source converter-high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) system, we propose an improved auto-disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method based on least squares support vector machines (LSSVM) in the rectifier side. Firstly, we deduce the high frequency transient mathematical model of VSC-HVDC system. Then we investigate the ADRC and LSSVM principles. We ignore the tracking differentiator in the ADRC controller aiming to improve the system dynamic response speed. On this basis, we derive the mathematical model of ADRC controller optimized by LSSVM for direct current voltage loop. Finally we carry out simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed control method. In addition, we employ the time-frequency representation methods, i.e., Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and adaptive optimal kernel (AOK) time-frequency representation, to demonstrate our proposed method performs better than the traditional method from the perspective of energy distribution in time and frequency plane. PMID:26098556

  6. Parametric Estimation of Harmonically Related Sinusoids 

    E-print Network

    Dixit, Richa

    2010-04-01

    the signal, the noise parameters have to be tracked accurately in real time. There are well established parametric estimation techniques for determining various parameters of independent sinusoids. The iterative methods based on the linear prediction...

  7. Characteristics of temperature rise in variable inductor employing magnetorheological fluid driven by a high-frequency pulsed voltage source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Young; Kang, In Man; Shon, Chae-Hwa; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-05-01

    A variable inductor with magnetorheological (MR) fluid has been successfully applied to power electronics applications; however, its thermal characteristics have not been investigated. To evaluate the performance of the variable inductor with respect to temperature, we measured the characteristics of temperature rise and developed a numerical analysis technique. The characteristics of temperature rise were determined experimentally and verified numerically by adopting a multiphysics analysis technique. In order to accurately estimate the temperature distribution in a variable inductor with an MR fluid-gap, the thermal solver should import the heat source from the electromagnetic solver to solve the eddy current problem. To improve accuracy, the B-H curves of the MR fluid under operating temperature were obtained using the magnetic property measurement system. In addition, the Steinmetz equation was applied to evaluate the core loss in a ferrite core. The predicted temperature rise for a variable inductor showed good agreement with the experimental data and the developed numerical technique can be employed to design a variable inductor with a high-frequency pulsed voltage source.

  8. False Operation of Static Random Access Memory Cells under Alternating Current Power Supply Voltage Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Takuya; Takata, Hidehiro; Nii, Koji; Nagata, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) cores exhibit susceptibility against power supply voltage variation. False operation is investigated among SRAM cells under sinusoidal voltage variation on power lines introduced by direct RF power injection. A standard SRAM core of 16 kbyte in a 90 nm 1.5 V technology is diagnosed with built-in self test and on-die noise monitor techniques. The sensitivity of bit error rate is shown to be high against the frequency of injected voltage variation, while it is not greatly influenced by the difference in frequency and phase against SRAM clocking. It is also observed that the distribution of false bits is substantially random in a cell array.

  9. Analysis of a modular generator for high-voltage, high-frequency pulsed applications, using low voltage semiconductors (<1 kV) and series connected step-up (1:10) transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, L. M.; Fernando Silva, J.; Margato, E.

    2007-03-01

    This article discusses the operation of a modular generator topology, which has been developed for high-frequency (kHz), high-voltage (kV) pulsed applications. The proposed generator uses individual modules, each one consisting of a pulse circuit based on a modified forward converter, which takes advantage of the required low duty cycle to operate with a low voltage clamp reset circuit for the step-up transformer. This reduces the maximum voltage on the semiconductor devices of both primary and secondary transformer sides. The secondary winding of each step-up transformer is series connected, delivering a fraction of the total voltage. Each individual pulsed module is supplied via an isolation transformer. The assembled modular laboratorial prototype, with three 5kV modules, 800V semiconductor switches, and 1:10 step-up transformers, has 80% efficiency, and is capable of delivering, into resistive loads, -15kV/1A pulses with 5?s width, 10kHz repetition rate, with less than 1?s pulse rise time. Experimental results for resistive loads are presented and discussed.

  10. Frequency and voltage-dependent electrical and dielectric properties of Al/Co-doped PVA/p-Si structures at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Yüceda?; Ahmet, Kaya; ?emsettin, Alt?ndal; Ibrahim, Uslu

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate of cobalt-doped interfacial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) layer and interface trap (Dit) effects, Al/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are fabricated, and their electrical and dielectric properties are investigated at room temperature. The forward and reverse admittance measurements are carried out in the frequency and voltage ranges of 30 kHz-300 kHz and -5 V-6 V, respectively. C-V or ?'-V plots exhibit two distinct peaks corresponding to inversion and accumulation regions. The first peak is attributed to the existence of Dit, the other to the series resistance (Rs), and interfacial layer. Both the real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant (?' and ??) and electric modulus (M' and M?), loss tangent (tan ?), and AC electrical conductivity (?ac) are investigated, each as a function of frequency and applied bias voltage. Each of the M' versus V and M? versus V plots shows a peak and the magnitude of peak increases with the increasing of frequency. Especially due to the Dit and interfacial PVA layer, both capacitance (C) and conductance (G/w) values are strongly affected, which consequently contributes to deviation from both the electrical and dielectric properties of Al/Co-doped PVA/p-Si (MPS) type SBD. In addition, the voltage-dependent profile of Dit is obtained from the low-high frequency capacitance (CLF-CHF) method.

  11. Voltage induced intensity changes in surface raman bands from a 2-chromophore probe, 4-benzyl pyridine adsorbed on roughened silver electrodes and their variation with excitation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, C. C.

    1984-05-01

    Voltage induced intensity changes in the surface enhanced Raman bands of 4-benzyl pyridine adsorbed on variously roughened silver electrode surfaces peak at different voltages for different excitation wavelengths. This behaviour, which is known to occur for pyridine and the picolines, is shown to occur for both the pyridyl and benzyl residues, though benzene itself does not exhibit enhancement under the same conditions. Results obtained on conventionally prepared, anodised electrodes are compared with those from novel magic array electrodes and results are consistent with the hypothesis that these latter electrodes are more suited for Raman studies of adsorbates in electrochemical systems. This is because they do not have the excess quantities of surface complexes present on them: these are probably responsible for much of the signal from the anodised electrodes. Explanations for the excitation frequency dependence of the voltage/intensity curves are discussed in relation to electrode specific effects as well as to charge transfer.

  12. Transient visually evoked potentials to sinusoidal gratings in optic neuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, G T

    1983-01-01

    Transient visually evoked potentials (VEPs) to sinusoidal gratings over a range of spatial frequencies have been recorded in cases of optic neuritis. The use of the response to pattern onset in addition to the response to pattern reversal extended the range to higher spatial frequencies by up to two octaves. There was an increase in VEP delay and a greater degree of discrimination from a control group at higher spatial frequencies. This finding is discussed in the light of previous reports of luminance and checkerboard VEPs in demyelinating optic nerve disease. An attempt is made to relate amplitude changes in various VEP components to contrast sensitivity measurements in this group of patients. PMID:6663312

  13. Wideband bio-impedance spectroscopy using voltage source and tetra-polar electrode configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Pil Joong; Lee, Dae Hyun; In Oh, Tong; Woo, Eung Je

    2010-04-01

    Most bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) systems inject sinusoidal current with a variable frequency into a sample with a known geometry through a pair of electrodes. Adopting the so-called tetra-polar configuration, it measures induced voltage data on a separate pair of electrodes. Impedance spectra are plotted in a certain range of frequency. We found that its accuracy decreases at high frequencies primarily due to the deteriorated performance of the constant current source at high frequencies. Using a previous BIS system we developed, we found that the overall performance can be kept high up to several hundred kHz. In this study, we propose a design of a wideband BIS system using a constant voltage source. It is based on the simple voltage division between an internal resistor and an external sample or load. We switch the value of the internal resistor (Rs) so that the source voltage is divided more or less equally. Two pairs of electrodes are attached to the sample. Two independent voltmeters are used to separately measure two voltages across the chosen internal resistor and the sample. The voltage measurement across the sample is done between the second electrode pair only. This enables us to adopt the tetra-polar configuration to avoid the problem related with contact impedances. We describe the design, construction and performance of the new BIS system with 468 Hz to 2.2 MHz bandwidth. We will compare the results with those using the impedance analyzer.

  14. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  15. Effective transformation of the energy of high-voltage pulses into high-frequency oscillations using a saturated-ferrite-loaded transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanov, V. P.; Gunin, A. V.; Koval'Chuk, O. B.; Kutenkov, V. O.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Rostov, V. V.

    2009-07-01

    A new method of converting a high-voltage video pulse into high-frequency oscillations using a nonlinear transmission line with temporal dispersion has been studied. The dispersion was provided by pulsed magnetization reversal in a ferrite, which was initially magnetized to saturation in an external magnetic field. For a 9-ns pulse, an average energy conversion efficiency of about 10% was achieved. It is demonstrated that oscillations at frequencies within 600 MHz-1.1 GHz with a spectral width of about 15% (at a -3 dB level) can be excited using voltage pulses with an amplitude of 110-290 kV. The optimum bias magnetization fields are within 20-40 kA/m.

  16. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  17. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  18. Studies on frequency and gate voltage effects on the dielectric properties of Au/n-Si (110) structure with PVA-nickel acetate composite film interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunç, T.; Gökçen, M.; Uslu, ?.

    2012-11-01

    The admittance technique was used in order to investigate the frequency dependence of dielectric constant ( ?'), dielectric loss ( ??), dielectric loss tangent (tan ?), the ac electrical conductivity ( ? ac), and the electric modulus of PVA (Ni-doped) structure. Experimental results revealed that the values of ?' , ??, (tan ?), ? ac and the electric modulus show fairly large frequency and gate bias dispersion due to the interface charges and polarization. The ? ac is found to increase with both increasing frequency and voltage. It can be concluded that the interface charges and interfacial polarization have strong influence on the dielectric properties of metal-polymer-semiconductor (MIS) structures especially at low frequencies and in depletion and accumulation regions. The results of this study indicate that the ?' values of Au/PVA/n-Si with Nickel-doped PVA interfacial layer are quite higher compared to those with pure and other dopant/mixture's of PVA.

  19. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  20. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  1. Admittance-voltage profiling of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures: Frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, K.; Pletschen, W.; Godejohann, B.; Müller, S.; Menner, H. P.; Ambacher, O.

    2015-11-01

    Admittance-voltage profiling of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures was used to determine the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of FET devices in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. The nominally undoped low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy structures were grown with an Al-content of 30%. An additional 1 nm thick AlN interlayer was placed in one structure before the Al0.3Ga0.7N layer growth. For frequencies below 108 Hz it is convenient to use equivalent circuits to represent electric or dielectric properties of a material, a method widely used, for example, in impedance spectroscopy. We want to emphasize the relation between frequency dependent admittance-voltage profiling and the corresponding equivalent circuits to the complex dielectric function. Debye and Drude models are used for the description of the frequency dependent admittance profiles in a range of depletion onset of the two-dimensional electron gas. Capacitance- and conductance-frequency profiles are fitted in the entire measured range by combining both models. Based on our results, we see contributions to the two-dimensional electron gas for our samples from surface states (80%) as well as from background doping in the Al0.3Ga0.7N barriers (20%). The specific resistance of the layers below the gate is above 105 ? cm for both samples and increases with increasing negative bias, i.e., the layers below the gate are essentially depleted. We propose that the resistance due to free charge carriers, determined by the Drude model, is located between gate and drain and, because of the AlN interlayer, the resistance is lowered by a factor of about 30 if compared to the sample without an AlN layer.

  2. Attenuation of intense sinusoidal waves in air-saturated, bulk porous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Herbert L.; Blackstock, David T.

    1987-01-01

    As intense, initially sinusoidal waves propagate in fluids, shocks form and excess attenuation of the wave occurs. Data are presented indicating that shock formation is not necessary for the occurrence of excess attenuation in nonlinear, lossy media, i.e., air-saturated, porous materials. An empirical equation is used to describe the excess attenuation of intense sinusoids in porous materials. The acoustic nonlinearity of and the excess attenuation in porous materials may be predicted directly from dc flow resistivity data. An empirical relationship is used to relate an acoustic nonlinearity parameter to the fundamental frequency and relative dc nonlinearity of two structurally different materials.

  3. Optimal control based on a modified quadratic performance index for systems disturbed by sinusoidal signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibielak, Marek; Raczka, Waldemar; Konieczny, Jaros?aw; Kowal, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    The problem of optimal control of systems disturbed by sinusoidal signals for infinite control time is considered. To evaluate the control laws, a modified mean-square performance index with an infinite control time was proposed. It is based on the proposed method for the decomposition of control signals on the interval from zero to infinity into the sum of sinusoidal components with selected frequencies and an additional auxiliary signal. The performance index was formulated in such a way that each sinusoidal component corresponds to a separate weight matrix. It was shown that there are infinitely many solutions for these optimization problems. Optimal control was selected in such a way that it should be independent of the state vector, and should depend only on the disturbance signal vector. The controller was synthesized for vibration reduction system. The paper presents results of numerical and laboratory studies of the designed vehicle active suspension system.

  4. Interplay between low threshold voltage-gated K(+) channels and synaptic inhibition in neurons of the chicken nucleus laminaris along its frequency axis.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, William R; Liu, Yu-Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Central auditory neurons that localize sound in horizontal space have specialized intrinsic and synaptic cellular mechanisms to tightly control the threshold and timing for action potential generation. However, the critical interplay between intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and extrinsic synaptic conductances in determining neuronal output are not well understood. In chicken, neurons in the nucleus laminaris (NL) encode sound location using interaural time difference (ITD) as a cue. Along the tonotopic axis of NL, there exist robust differences among low, middle, and high frequency (LF, MF, and HF, respectively) neurons in a variety of neuronal properties such as low threshold voltage-gated K(+) (LTK) channels and depolarizing inhibition. This establishes NL as an ideal model to examine the interactions between LTK currents and synaptic inhibition across the tonotopic axis. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings prepared from chicken embryos (E17-E18), we found that LTK currents were larger in MF and HF neurons than in LF neurons. Kinetic analysis revealed that LTK currents in MF neurons activated at lower voltages than in LF and HF neurons, whereas the inactivation of the currents was similar across the tonotopic axis. Surprisingly, blockade of LTK currents using dendrotoxin-I (DTX) tended to broaden the duration and increase the amplitude of the depolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in NL neurons without dependence on coding frequency regions. Analyses of the effects of DTX on inhibitory postsynaptic currents led us to interpret this unexpected observation as a result of primarily postsynaptic effects of LTK currents on MF and HF neurons, and combined presynaptic and postsynaptic effects in LF neurons. Furthermore, DTX transferred subthreshold IPSPs to spikes. Taken together, the results suggest a critical role for LTK currents in regulating inhibitory synaptic strength in ITD-coding neurons at various frequencies. PMID:24904297

  5. Response of a radial-bladed centrifugal pump to sinusoidal disturbances for noncavitating flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. A.; Blade, R. J.; Stevans, W.

    1971-01-01

    A radial-bladed centrifugal pump was run in water with sinusoidal fluctuations of pressure and flow rate imposed at the pump inlet. Since the flow was noncavitating, zero gain was assumed in computing pump impedance. The inertive reactance became greater than the resistance at relatively low frequencies. An electric circuit model was developed in order to explain the trends of inertance and resistance with frequency.

  6. Infinite potential well with a sinusoidal bottom

    E-print Network

    A. D. Alhaidari; H. Bahlouli

    2008-08-07

    We construct a tridiagonal matrix representation of the wave operator that maps the wave equation into a three-term recursion relation for the expansion coefficients of the wavefunction. Finding a solution of the recursion relation is equivalent to solving the original problem. Consequently, a larger class of solvable potentials is obtained. The usual diagonal representation constraint results in a reduction to the conventional class of solvable potentials. To exhibit the power of this approach, we give an exact solution for the infinite potential well with sinusoidal bottom.

  7. Improvement of flatness of optical frequency comb based on nonlinear effect of intensity modulator.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yujie; Zhang, Hongming; Yao, Minyu

    2011-07-15

    Optical frequency comb (OFC) generated using cascaded intensity and phase modulators was experimentally demonstrated. Very flat OFC can be achieved by cascading intensity and phase modulators driven directly by sinusoidal waveform, where chirped fiber Bragg grating or specially tailored radio frequency waveforms are not required. It is found that the spectral flatness of OFC is related to direct current (DC) bias of intensity modulator and the optimum ratio of DC bias to half-wave voltage is 0.35. In the experiment, 15 comb lines within 1 dB spectral power variation are obtained at 10 GHz microwave frequency. The experimental results agree well with the simulation. PMID:21765530

  8. Potential damage to DC superconducting magnets due to the high frequency electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data are presented in support of the hypothesis that a dc superconducting magnet coil does not behave strictly as an inductor, but as a complicated electrodynamic device capable of supporting electromagnetic waves. Travel times of nanosecond pulses and evidence of sinusoidal standing waves were observed on a prototype four-layer solenoidal coil at room temperature. Ringing observed during switching transients appears as a sequence of multiple reflected square pulses whose durations are related to the layer lengths. With sinusoidal excitation of the coil, the voltage amplitude between a pair of points on the coil exhibits maxima at those frequencies such that the distance between these points is an odd multiple of half wavelength in free space. Evidence indicates that any disturbance, such as that resulting from switching or sudden fault, initiates multiple reflections between layers, thus raising the possibility for sufficiently high voltages to cause breakdown.

  9. Facilitation effect of auxiliary noise stimuli on response of isolated frog muscle spindle to sinusoidal movements.

    PubMed

    Querfurth, H; Grüsser, O J

    1986-01-01

    Receptor potentials and impulse patterns were recorded from isolated frog muscle spindles using sinusoidal and superimposed random stretches as stimuli with different sinus-to-noise ratios. The entire dynamic amplitude range of the spindle receptor was evaluated by measuring the sensory response at different levels of static stretch. Auxiliary random stimuli provoked rectified fast depolarizing receptor potential transients; their amplitude and slope grew larger with increasing intensity of the noise stimulus and with increasing prestretch level. Due to this strongly nonlinear behavior of the transducing site the frequency and size of the receptor potentials evoked by the auxiliary input signal increased during the stretching phase of the sinusoidal movement. Since the fast depolarizing receptor potential transients provided a powerful trigger for the action potential encoding site, auxiliary random stimuli effectively enhanced the afferent discharge rate, especially during the stretching phase of the sinusoidal movement. Auxiliary noise stimuli could even activate the afferent discharge to an otherwise subthreshold sinusoidal stretch. It is assumed that by the same mechanism the transfer characteristic of the receptor is broadened towards higher frequencies. Since auxiliary random stimuli increased the nonlinear properties of all receptor response components, a "linearizing" approximation technique only partially describes the receptor's transfer properties. The facilitation effect recorded in the differentiated muscle spindle when random stimuli were superimposed on sinusoidal displacements closely resembled the excitation of afferent firing when passive stretching interacted with active fusimotor innervation. A hypothesis is proposed to explain both effects by the same mechanism acting upon the transducing sensory endings: Since passive random stretches as well as active twitching of the intrafusal muscle fibers exhibited almost the same range of frequency components, we propose that both stimuli also generate the same kind of receptor potentials; namely, those fast-rising depolarization transients of the receptor potential, which vigorously drive the encoding site. In general, these experiments explain how the specific response of a neuron can be facilitated by an additional unspecific (noisy) input. PMID:3485188

  10. The response of muscle spindle primary afferents to simultaneously presented sinusoidal and ramp-and-hold stretches.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, S S; Schuppan, O; Dadfar, F

    1999-02-20

    Fifteen primary (Ia) muscle spindle afferents from the tibial anterior muscle of the cat were subjected to a ramp-and-hold stretch (stretch rate 10 mm/s, stretch amplitude 8.5 or 7 mm) of the muscle, upon which was superimposed a sinusoidal stretch (10 Hz) of five different amplitudes (50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 microm peak to peak). The response of the Ia afferents to the sinusoidally overlaid ramp-and-hold stretch was subjected to computer analysis, by means of which the response to the superimposed sinusoids and the response to the underlying ramp-and-hold stretch were each obtained separately. Four basic discharge frequencies were determined from the response to the underlying ramp-and-hold stretch (obtained after elimination of the response to the concomitant sinusoidal stretch). The evaluation yielded the result that the concomitant sinusoidal stretch affected the response to the underlying ramp-and-hold stretch: the level of discharge of the Ia afferent was significantly increased and the dynamic and static indices were significantly diminished. These two effects intensified with increasing amplitude of the concomitant sinusoids. From among the oscillatory responses of the Ia afferent to the concomitant sinusoidal stretch (obtained after elimination of the response to the underlying ramp-and-hold stretch) the amplitudes of four selected responses were determined. These four oscillatory responses occurred during four time spans during which the four basic discharge frequencies were read. Evaluation showed that the response to the underlying ramp-and-hold stretch affected the modulation depth of the oscillatory responses, which decreased during the ramp and increased again during the plateau. The absolute amount of the change was independent of the amplitude of the sinusoids. The effect of the sinusoids on the response to the underlying ramp-and-hold stretch and that of the underlying ramp-and-hold stretch on the response to the sinusoidal stretches are interpreted in terms of ion currents occurring at the Ia sensory terminals. It is assumed that the probability of the stretch activated (SA) channels opening is increased by a stretching of the sensory terminals. A depolarizing Na+ and Ca++ inward current due to the activation of the SA channels in its turn activates a Ca++-activated and/or a potential-dependent K+ outward current which has a repolarizing effect. Ideas are put forward in the discussion as to how the inward and outward currents that are sinusoid-related and those that are ramp-and-hold-stretch related interact. PMID:10082865

  11. A Voltage Controlled Oscillator for a Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer in a Silicon-on-Sapphire Process

    E-print Network

    Garrison, Sean Michael

    2009-05-22

    in a Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) Multi-Chip Module. The integrated circuit technology chosen for the Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer portion of the telemetry transmitter was a 0.25 um CMOS process that utilizes a sapphire substrate...

  12. Direct Estimation of Noisy Sinusoids Using Abductive Networks

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    Physical Sciences, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi of additive Gaussian noise. Models synthesized by training on 1000 representative simulated sinusoids were

  13. Multifunction Current Differencing Cascaded Transconductance Amplifier (MCDCTA) and Its Application to Current-Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhua; Lin, Hairong

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new versatile active element, namely multifunction current differencing cascaded transconductance amplifier (MCDCTA), is proposed. This device which adopts a simple configuration enjoys the performances of low-voltage, low-input and high-output impedance, wide bandwidth etc. It simplifies the design of the current-mode analog signal processing circuit greatly, especially the design of high-order filter and oscillator circuits. Moreover, an example as a new current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO) using MCDCTA is described in this paper. The proposed oscillator, which employs only one MCDCTA and minimum grounded passive elements, is easy to be realized. It can provide random n (n being odd or even) output current signals and these output currents are equally spaced in phase all at high output impedance terminals. Its oscillation condition and the oscillation frequency can be adjusted independently, linearly and electronically by controlling the bias currents of MCDCTA. The operation of the proposed oscillator has been testified through PSPICE simulation and experimental results.

  14. Attenuation of Sinusoidal Perturbations Superimposed on Laminar Flow of a Liquid in a Long Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Carl M.; Blade, Robert J.; Dorsch, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The attenuation constant for sinusoidal pressure and flow perturbations superimposed on the laminar flow of a viscous liquid was measured in a system consisting of a long, straight, cylindrical hydraulic line. The upstream and downstream ends of the line were securely fastened t o the ground. A sinusoidal perturbation was imposed on the mean flow at the upstream end by means of a s m a l l oscillation of a throttle valve abmt a partly open mean position. The downstream end was terminated in a restricting orifice. Pressure perturbations were measured at three locations along the line for frequencies from 15 t o 100 cps. These pressure measurements were reduced by use of a pair of complex damped acoustic one-dimensional wave equations to obtain the attenuation constant along with the phase constant and the dimensionless downstream admittance. For the range of frequencies investigated, the experimental values of the attenuation constant are in good agreement with classical theory.

  15. High frequency, high temperature specific core loss and dynamic B-H hysteresis loop characteristics of soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loops for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loop characteristics of Supermalloy and Metglas 2605SC over the frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz and temperature range of 23 to 300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The experimental setup used to conduct the investigation is described. The effects of the maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined.

  16. High frequency, high temperature specific core loss and dynamic B-H hysteresis loop characteristics of soft magnetic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Limited experimental data exists for the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loop for soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high frequency and high temperature. This experimental study investigates the specific core loss and dynamic B-H loop characteristics of Supermalloy and Metglas 2605SC over the frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz and temperature range of 23 to 300 C under sinusoidal voltage excitation. The experimental setup used to conduct the investigation is described. The effects of the maximum magnetic flux density, frequency, and temperature on the specific core loss and on the size and shape of the B-H loops are examined.

  17. Improved temporal coding of sinusoids in electric stimulation of the auditory nerve using desynchronizing pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Leonid M; Delgutte, Bertrand; Eddington, Donald K

    2003-10-01

    Rubinstein et al. [Hearing Res. 127, 108-118 (1999)] suggested that the representation of electric stimulus waveforms in the temporal discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fiber (ANF) might be improved by introducing an ongoing, high-rate, desynchronizing pulse train (DPT). To test this hypothesis, activity of ANFs was studied in acutely deafened, anesthetized cats in response to 10-min-long, 5-kpps electric pulse trains that were sinusoidally modulated for 400 ms every second. Two classes of responses to sinusoidal modulations of the DPT were observed. Fibers that only responded transiently to the unmodulated DPT showed hyper synchronization and narrow dynamic ranges to sinusoidal modulators, much as responses to electric sinusoids presented without a DPT. In contrast, fibers that exhibited sustained responses to the DPT were sensitive to modulation depths as low as 0.25% for a modulation frequency of 417 Hz. Over a 20-dB range of modulation depths, responses of these fibers resembled responses to tones in a healthy ear in both discharge rate and synchronization index. This range is much wider than the dynamic range typically found with electrical stimulation without a DPT, and comparable to the dynamic range for acoustic stimulation. These results suggest that a stimulation strategy that uses small signals superimposed upon a large DPT to encode sounds may evoke temporal discharge patterns in some ANFs that resemble responses to sound in a healthy ear. PMID:14587607

  18. Perceived temporal asynchrony between sinusoidally modulated luminance and depth.

    PubMed

    Žaric, Gojko; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Nishina, Shigeaki; De Weerd, Peter; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneously presented visual events lead to temporally asynchronous percepts. This has led some researchers to conclude that the asynchronous experience is a manifestation of differences in neural processing time for different visual attributes. Others, however, have suggested that the asynchronous experience is due to differences in temporal markers for changes of different visual attributes. Here, two sets of bars were presented, one to each eye. Either the bars were moving or their luminance was gradually changing. Bars moved horizontally in counterphase at low frequencies along short trajectories and were presented stereoscopically, such that the horizontal movements were perceived as back-and-forth motion on a sagittal plane, or monocularly to a dominant eye, preserving a perception of the horizontal movements on a frontal plane. In a control condition, bars were stationary and their luminance was modulated. The changes in stimulus speed or luminance occurred sinusoidally. When asked to adjust the phase of one stimulus to the other to achieve synchronous perception, participants showed a constant phase offset at the lowest frequencies used. Given the absence of abrupt transitions and the presence of similar gradual turning points in our stimuli to control for attentional effects, it can be concluded that asynchronous percepts in multimodal stimuli may at least in part be a manifestation of difference in neural processing time of visual attributes rather than solely a difference in the temporal markers (transitions versus turning points). PMID:26605842

  19. MULTICHANNEL AUDIO CODING USING SINUSOIDAL MODELLING AND COMPRESSED SENSING

    E-print Network

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    the sinusoidal part of an audio signal pro- vides sufficient quality. It is shown here that, except from oneMULTICHANNEL AUDIO CODING USING SINUSOIDAL MODELLING AND COMPRESSED SENSING Anthony Griffin, Toni the potential of applying com- pressed sensing (CS) to multichannel audio coding. In this context, we consider

  20. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2013-11-15

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of ? mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation.

  1. Frequency and voltage dependence of electric and dielectric properties of Au/TiO2/n-4H-SiC (metal-insulator-semiconductor) type Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanr?kulu, E. E.; Y?ld?z, D. E.; Günen, A.; Alt?ndal, ?.

    2015-09-01

    The main electrical and dielectric properties of Au/TiO2/n-4H-SiC (MIS) type Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have been investigated as functions of frequency and applied bias voltage. We believe that the use of high dielectric interfacial layer between metal and semiconductor can improve the performance of Schottky diodes. From the experimental data, both electrical and dielectric parameters were found as strong function of frequency and applied bias voltage. The Fermi energy level (EF), the concentration of doping donor atoms (P), barrier height (?B) and series resistance (Rs) values were obtained from reverse and forward bias C-V characteristics. The changes in EF and ND with frequency are considerably low. Therefore, their values were taken at about constant. The real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant (\\varepsilon \\prime , \\varepsilon \\prime\\prime ), tangent loss (tan?), ac electrical conductivity (?ac), and real and imaginary parts of electric modulus (M? and M?) values were also obtained from reverse and forward bias C-V and G/?-V characteristics. In addition, the voltage dependent profiles of all these electrical and dielectric parameters were drawn for each frequency. These results confirmed that both electrical and dielectric properties of Au/TiO2/n-4H-SiC (MIS) type SBD are quite sensitive to both the frequency and applied bias voltage due to surface polarization, density distribution of interface traps (Dit), and interfacial layer.

  2. System and component design and test of a 10 hp, 18,000 rpm AC dynamometer utilizing a high frequency AC voltage link, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, Thomas A.; Alan, Irfan

    1991-01-01

    Hard and soft switching test results conducted with one of the samples of first generation MOS-controlled thyristor (MCTs) and similar test results with several different samples of second generation MCT's are reported. A simple chopper circuit is used to investigate the basic switching characteristics of MCT under hard switching and various types of resonant circuits are used to determine soft switching characteristics of MCT under both zero voltage and zero current switching. Next, operation principles of a pulse density modulated converter (PDMC) for three phase (3F) to 3F two-step power conversion via parallel resonant high frequency (HF) AC link are reviewed. The details for the selection of power switches and other power components required for the construction of the power circuit for the second generation 3F to 3F converter system are discussed. The problems encountered in the first generation system are considered. Design and performance of the first generation 3F to 3F power converter system and field oriented induction moter drive based upon a 3 kVA, 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link are described. Low harmonic current at the input and output, unity power factor operation of input, and bidirectional flow capability of the system are shown via both computer and experimental results. The work completed on the construction and testing of the second generation converter and field oriented induction motor drive based upon specifications for a 10 hp squirrel cage dynamometer and a 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link is discussed. The induction machine is designed to deliver 10 hp or 7.46 kW when operated as an AC-dynamo with power fed back to the source through the converter. Results presented reveal that the proposed power level requires additional energy storage elements to overcome difficulties with a peak link voltage variation problem that limits reaching to the desired power level. The power level test of the second generation converter after the addition of extra energy storage elements to the HF link are described. The importance of the source voltage level to achieve a better current regulation for the source side PDMC is also briefly discussed. The power levels achieved in the motoring mode of operation show that the proposed power levels achieved in the generating mode of operation can also be easily achieved provided that no mechanical speed limitation were present to drive the induction machine at the proposed power level.

  3. Computer Program for Thin Wire Antenna over a Perfectly Conducting Ground Plane. [using Galerkins method and sinusoidal bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for a thin-wire antenna over a perfect ground plane. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain, and the exterior medium is free space. The antenna may have finite conductivity and lumped loads. The output data includes the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, and gain. The program uses sinusoidal bases and Galerkin's method.

  4. Sinusoidal synchronization of a Duffing oscillator with a chaotic pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Fuhong; Luo, Albert C. J.

    2011-08-01

    In this Letter, analytical conditions for the sinusoidal synchronization of the pendulum and Duffing oscillator are presented. From the analytical conditions, the invariant domain of such sinusoidal synchronization is determined, and the control parameter map of the synchronicity is achieved. Under specific parameters, numerical illustrations of the partial and full sinusoidal synchronizations of the controlled Duffing oscillator with the pendulum are carried out for a better understanding of such synchronization under specific function constraints. The methodology presented in this Letter is applicable to synchronizations with any specific function constraints.

  5. Digital state feedback control of a three phase sinusoidal PWM inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Matin, Md.A.; Divsalar, D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper proposes a method of three phase voltage control sinusoidal PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) inverter. The state equation of the inverter main circuit has been derived and transformed to the d-q frame. Afterwards, an algorithm of dead-beat control has been developed by considering only the load current as disturbing variable. The advantage of dead-beat control is that it can control very fast within short time (sampling period) comparing to other methods. The main objective of the controller design is to get the sinusoidal voltage at inverter`s output with low harmonic distortions. To compensate the calculation delay and to realize physically, a 3d order prediction method has been adopted. A new switching technique has been developed. This switching technique can reduce unnecessary switching so that switching loss can be minimized. Finally, simulations has been done under a typical load condition (rectifier with capacitor load) and harmonic analysis has also been done. Throughout all simulations, very good results have been found where total harmonic distortions (THD) is less than 5%.

  6. Eye movements during afterimage tracking under sinusoidal and random vestibular stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, S.; Young, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The smooth portion of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex was analyzed in terms of the frequency response, relating slow-phase eye velocity to angular velocity of a rotating chair under four different cases: sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis in total darkness, sinusoidal rotation during afterimage tracking, pseudorandom head rotation in total darkness, and pseudorandom head rotation during afterimage tracking. Eye movements were recorded using a photoelectric limbus tracking method. The observation that the presence of an afterimage during vestibular stimulation increases the velocity of slow-phase eye movements is in support of the theory that such slow-phase movements are generated, at least in part, by the perceived velocity of the target. Since the target is immobilized on the retina, this perceived velocity is clearly not generated by retinal slip, but rather by a mechanism related to the eye movement such as corollary discharge.

  7. High-Voltage, Asymmetric-Waveform Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Vu A.; Kanik, Isik

    2008-01-01

    The shapes of waveforms generated by commercially available analytical separation devices, such as some types of mass spectrometers and differential mobility spectrometers are, in general, inadequate and result in resolution degradation in output spectra. A waveform generator was designed that would be able to circumvent these shortcomings. It is capable of generating an asymmetric waveform, having a peak amplitude as large as 2 kV and frequency of several megahertz, which can be applied to a capacitive load. In the original intended application, the capacitive load would consist of the drift plates in a differential-mobility spectrometer. The main advantage to be gained by developing the proposed generator is that the shape of the waveform is made nearly optimum for various analytical devices requiring asymmetric-waveform such as differential-mobility spectrometers. In addition, this waveform generator could easily be adjusted to modify the waveform in accordance with changed operational requirements for differential-mobility spectrometers. The capacitive nature of the load is an important consideration in the design of the proposed waveform generator. For example, the design provision for shaping the output waveform is based partly on the principle that (1) the potential (V) on a capacitor is given by V=q/C, where C is the capacitance and q is the charge stored in the capacitor; and, hence (2) the rate of increase or decrease of the potential is similarly proportional to the charging or discharging current. The proposed waveform generator would comprise four functional blocks: a sine-wave generator, a buffer, a voltage shifter, and a high-voltage switch (see Figure 1). The sine-wave generator would include a pair of operational amplifiers in a feedback configuration, the parameters of which would be chosen to obtain a sinusoidal timing signal of the desired frequency. The buffer would introduce a slight delay (approximately equal to 20 ns) but would otherwise leave the fundamental timing signal unchanged. The buffered timing signal would be fed as input to the level shifter. The output of the level shifter would serve as a timing and control signal for the high-voltage switch, causing the switch to alternately be (1) opened, allowing the capacitive load to be charged from a high-voltage DC power supply; then (2) closed to discharge the capacitive load to ground. Hence, the output waveform would closely approximate a series of exponential charging and discharging curves (see Figure 2).

  8. Signal Analysis Algorithms for Optimized Fitting of Nonresonant Laser Induced Thermal Acoustics Damped Sinusoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Miller, Corey A.

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks a numerical algorithm which optimizes frequency precision for the damped sinusoids generated by the nonresonant LITA technique. It compares computed frequencies, frequency errors, and fit errors obtained using five primary signal analysis methods. Using variations on different algorithms within each primary method, results from 73 fits are presented. Best results are obtained using an AutoRegressive method. Compared to previous results using Prony s method, single shot waveform frequencies are reduced approx.0.4% and frequency errors are reduced by a factor of approx.20 at 303K to approx. 0.1%. We explore the advantages of high waveform sample rates and potential for measurements in low density gases.

  9. Microenvironmental regulation of the sinusoidal endothelial cell phenotype in vitro

    E-print Network

    March, Sandra

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) differ, both structurally and functionally, from endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessels of other tissues. For example, in contrast to other ECs, LSECs possess fenestrations, ...

  10. Receptor potentials of isolated frog muscle spindle evoked by sinusoidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Querfurth, H

    1985-01-01

    Receptor potentials in response to sinusoidal stimulation have been recorded from isolated muscle spindles of the frog. Sinusoidal displacements of different amplitudes (20-120 micron) and frequencies (0.1-100 Hz) were used. The mean static stretch level was adjusted between resting length (L0) and L0 + 400 micron, so that the amplitude and phase-response characteristics were measured at different operating points. Depending on the amount of static prestretch, there is a well-defined dynamic range, which limits the receptor potential by nonlinear compression of either its positive or negative half-cycle. For each point on the static operating curve there exists a dynamic operating curve with a sigmoidal shape. The range of each dynamic curve is approximately 80 micron, independent of the static displacement, and the maxima of all dynamic curves are the same. Therefore the dynamic curves are not symmetrical about their static operating point. The slope of the steepest portion is 10% of the maximum elicitable receptor potential per 10-micron dynamic displacement. For stimulus frequencies greater than 2 Hz the receptor potential deviates from a sinusoidal waveform, exhibiting a fast depolarization transient during stretch and a prolonged repolarization transient during release of stretch. The steepness of the depolarization transient increases with increasing stimulus frequency, amplitude, and prestretch level. As a result, the interval from trough to peak of the receptor potential shortens to less than 90 degrees instead of half a cycle. The repolarization transient has an exponential decay with a time constant of approximately 40 ms that remains constant during the various stimulus conditions. As a result of this slow decay time, individual receptor potentials summate, so that the response divides into a modulated receptor potential (AC component) and a maintained depolarization (DC component). The amplitude response characteristic of the stationary AC component increases with increasing stimulus frequencies up to a peak at 2 Hz, after which it declines with a slope of -3 dB/octave. Provided large sinusoidal stretches and/or extended prestretch levels are used, this high-frequency decline of the AC component is compensated for by the proportional increase of the DC component, so that the peak depolarization values remain constant from 2 to 100 Hz. Stimulus and response are in phase for stimulus frequencies less than 2 Hz and reverse to phase lag at higher stimulus frequencies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3156216

  11. Thresholds for the perception of whole-body linear sinusoidal motion in the horizontal plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Young, Laurence R.; Steele, Charles R.; Schubert, Earl D.

    1989-01-01

    An improved linear sled has been developed to provide precise motion stimuli without generating perceptible extraneous motion cues (a noiseless environment). A modified adaptive forced-choice method was employed to determine perceptual thresholds to whole-body linear sinusoidal motion in 25 subjects. Thresholds for the detection of movement in the horizontal plane were found to be lower than those reported previously. At frequencies of 0.2 to 0.5 Hz, thresholds were shown to be independent of frequency, while at frequencies of 1.0 to 3.0 Hz, thresholds showed a decreasing sensitivity with increasing frequency, indicating that the perceptual process is not sensitive to the rate change of acceleration of the motion stimulus. The results suggest that the perception of motion behaves as an integrating accelerometer with a bandwidth of at least 3 Hz.

  12. High frequency pressure oscillator for microcryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanapalli, S.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Jansen, H. V.; Zhao, Y.; Holland, H. J.; Burger, J. F.; Elwenspoek, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    Microminiature pulse tube cryocoolers should operate at a frequency of an order higher than the conventional macro ones because the pulse tube cryocooler operating frequency scales inversely with the square of the pulse tube diameter. In this paper, the design and experiments of a high frequency pressure oscillator is presented with the aim to power a micropulse tube cryocooler operating between 300 and 80K, delivering a cooling power of 10mW. Piezoelectric actuators operate efficiently at high frequencies and have high power density making them good candidates as drivers for high frequency pressure oscillator. The pressure oscillator described in this work consists of a membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator. A pressure ratio of about 1.11 was achieved with a filling pressure of 2.5MPa and compression volume of about 22.6mm3 when operating the actuator with a peak-to-peak sinusoidal voltage of 100V at a frequency of 1kHz. The electrical power input was 2.73W. The high pressure ratio and low electrical input power at high frequencies would herald development of microminiature cryocoolers.

  13. Phase and amplitude retrieval of objects embedded in a sinusoidal background from its diffraction pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chu; Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Efforts of phase and amplitude retrieval from diffraction patterns have almost exclusively been applied for nonperiodic objects. We investigated the quality of retrieval of nonperiodic objects embedded in a sinusoidal background, using the approach of iterative hybrid input-output with oversampling. Two strategies were employed; one by filtering in the frequency domain prior to phase retrieval, and the other by filtering the phase or amplitude image after retrieval. Results obtained indicate better outcomes with the latter approach provided detector noise is not excessive.

  14. Full-spectrum nonlinear response of a sinusoidally modulated rotating disk electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jamie R.; Adler, Stuart B.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2005-06-01

    The nonlinear behavior of a sinusoidally modulated rotating disk electrode (RDE) is analyzed to identify the flow and concentration field interactions that lead to resonance and nullification conditions in the electrochemical response of the system. Steady periodic solutions to the von Kármán self-similar form of the Navier-Stokes equations and convective diffusion equation are examined using a combined Fourier transform/perturbation approach that yields a set of frequency dispersion equations solved using the finite element method. Experimental measurements using a RDE with sinusoidal angular velocity waveform ? =?0+??cos(?0t) are compared to theory for modulation amplitudes ?? /?0<1 and electrolyte Schmidt number of 1680. The modulation frequency ?0 is varied from the quasisteady to high-frequency limits to obtain the phase and amplitude of the mean, fundamental, and higher-harmonic limiting current. We show that distinct features (resonances and nullifications) in the nonlinear mean and higher harmonic components of limiting current result from constructive and destructive (in phase and 180° out of phase, respectively) interactions between cross terms of the oscillating components in the axial flow and concentration fields near the disk surface.

  15. Frequency of collisions between ion and neutral particles from the cloning characteristics of filamentary currents in an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bing; Zhang, Mengdie; Pan, Lizhu; Zhou, Qiujiao; Huang, Jianjun; Liu, Ying

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a cold He atmospheric pressure plasma jet that is generated using a dielectric barrier discharge configuration device is presented. This device is equipped with double-grounded ring electrodes that are driven by a sinusoidal excitation voltage. The properties of the cloning of filamentous current are studied. The frequency of the collisions between the ion and the neutral particles is calculated by measuring the current phase difference between the filamentous current and its corresponding clone. The frequency of the collisions between the ion and the neutral particles is of the order of 108 Hz.

  16. Measurement of micromovements with the help of a nonlinear sinusoidal oscillator and an inductive sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Bayard, J.

    2005-03-01

    Proximity magnetic sensors are based on an induction coil that creates a magnetic field. The presence of a metal target in the vicinity of this coil modifies the properties of the field created by the coil and consequently the value of its equivalent R/L circuit. The sensor is usually used as a coil to fix the frequency value of a sinusoidal oscillator. The types of oscillators used (and the suggested linear analysis) do not make it possible to determine the oscillation amplitude value. So, designers of such sensors have to connect the distance target/sensor only to the variation of the oscillation frequency value. We propose the development of a nonlinear oscillator that allows linking oscillation amplitude and parallel resistance of the sensor. One can thus connect the distance target/sensor to the amplitude and/or the frequency of the oscillation.

  17. Improvement of a large-amplitude sinusoidal pressure generator for dynamic calibration of pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results of research on the improvement of a sinusoidal pressure generator are presented. The generator is an inlet-area-modulated, gas-flow-through device (siren type) which was developed to dynamically calibrate pressure transducers and pressure probes. Tests were performed over a frequency range of 100 Hz to 20 kHz at average chamber pressures (bias pressure) between 30 and 50 psia (21 and 35 N/sq cm abs) and between 150 and 300 psia (104 and 207 N/sq cm abs). Significant improvements in oscillation pressure waveform were obtained but with reduction in available generator oscillation pressure amplitude range. Oscillation pressure amplitude, waveform, and waveform spectral content are given as functions of frequency for the two bias pressure conditions. The generator and instrumentation for frequency, amplitude, and spectrum measurements are described.

  18. Sinusoidal Regge Oscillations from Short Lived Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2007-06-01

    It is well known that a resonance with a large angular life can produce sharp Breit-Wigner peaks in the energy dependence of integral cross sections [1,2]. Here we show that a short-lived resonance whose angular life is of order of one full rotation may produce a different kind of contribution to the integral cross section. This contribution has a sinousoidal form and its frequency is determined by the rotational constant of the complex. As one of the examples, we analyze the Regge oscillations observed in numerical simulations of the F+H2(v=0,j=0,?=0) ->FH(v'=2,j'=0,?'=0) + H reaction. In particular, we show that these oscillations are produced by two overlapping resonances located near the transition state and the van der Waals well, respectively [3]. [1] J. H. Macek, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 183202, (2004). [2] Z. Felfli et al., J. Phys. B 39, L353 (2006) [3] D. Sokolovski, D. De Fazio, S. Cavalli and V. Aquilanti, J. Chem. Phys. (2007) (submitted).

  19. Sinusoidal reaction formulation for radiation and scattering from conducting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Wang, N.

    1974-01-01

    A piecewise-sinusoidal reaction technique is developed for scattering and radiation from perfectly conducting bodies of arbitrary shape. The theory and numerical results for scattering patterns of rectangular plates and radiation patterns of corner-reflector antennas are presented. Experimental measurements are included for comparison with the calculated data.

  20. Using Antenna Arrays to Motivate the Study of Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Educational activities involving antenna arrays to motivate the study of sinusoids are described. Specifically, using fundamental concepts related to phase and simple geometric arguments, students are asked to predict the location of interference nulls in the radiation pattern of two-element phased array antennas. The location of the radiation…

  1. Estimating Sinusoidal Pressure Waves In A Pump Volute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Roland J.; Chon, Juliet T.

    1994-01-01

    Closed-form equation approximates principal traveling-wave sinusoidal components of fluctuations of pressure in volute of centrifugal pump. Equation incorporated into Blade Vane Interaction Code (BVIC) computer program, which produces estimates for various pump speeds and various locations in volute. Intended use of BVIC in analysis of undesired interactions between pressure field and pump structure.

  2. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  3. Frequency modulation television analysis: Threshold impulse analysis. [with computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is developed to calculate the FM threshold impulse rates as a function of the carrier-to-noise ratio for a specified FM system. The system parameters and a vector of 1024 integers, representing the probability density of the modulating voltage, are required as input parameters. The computer program is utilized to calculate threshold impulse rates for twenty-four sets of measured probability data supplied by NASA and for sinusoidal and Gaussian modulating waveforms. As a result of the analysis several conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of preemphasis in an FM television system improves the threshold by reducing the impulse rate. (2) Sinusoidal modulation produces a total impulse rate which is a practical upper bound for the impulse rates of TV signals providing the same peak deviations. (3) As the moment of the FM spectrum about the center frequency of the predetection filter increases, the impulse rate tends to increase. (4) A spectrum having an expected frequency above (below) the center frequency of the predetection filter produces a higher negative (positive) than positive (negative) impulse rate.

  4. 3D reconstruction for sinusoidal motion based on different feature detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Huaxia; Yu, Liandong

    2015-02-01

    The dynamic testing of structures and components is an important area of research. Extensive researches on the methods of using sensors for vibration parameters have been studied for years. With the rapid development of industrial high-speed camera and computer hardware, the method of using stereo vision for dynamic testing has been the focus of the research since the advantages of non-contact, full-field, high resolution and high accuracy. But in the country there is not much research about the dynamic testing based on stereo vision, and yet few people publish articles about the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of feature points in the case of dynamic. It is essential to the following analysis whether it can obtain accurate movement of target objects. In this paper, an object with sinusoidal motion is detected by stereo vision and the accuracy with different feature detection algorithms is investigated. Three different marks including dot, square and circle are stuck on the object and the object is doing sinusoidal motion by vibration table. Then use feature detection algorithm speed-up robust feature (SURF) to detect point, detect square corners by Harris and position the center by Hough transform. After obtaining the pixel coordinate values of the feature point, the stereo calibration parameters are used to achieve three-dimensional reconstruction through triangulation principle. The trajectories of the specific direction according to the vibration frequency and the frequency camera acquisition are obtained. At last, the reconstruction accuracy of different feature detection algorithms is compared.

  5. High-Speed Frequency Modulation of a 460-GHz Gyrotron for Enhancement of 700-MHz DNP-NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idehara, T.; Khutoryan, E. M.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Dumbrajs, O.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-09-01

    The high-speed frequency modulation of a 460-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GVI (the official name in Osaka University is Gyrotron FU CW GOI) was achieved by modulation of acceleration voltage of beam electrons. The modulation speed f m can be increased up to 10 kHz without decreasing the modulation amplitude ? f of frequency. The amplitude ? f was increased almost linearly with the modulation amplitude of acceleration voltage ? V a. At the ? V a = 1 kV, frequency spectrum width df was 50 MHz in the case of f m < 10 kHz. The frequency modulation was observed as both the variation of the IF frequency in the heterodyne detection system measured by a high-speed oscilloscope and the widths of frequency spectra df measured on a frequency spectrum analyzer. Both results well agree reasonably. When f m exceeds 10 kHz, the amplitude ? f is decreased gradually with increasing f m because of the degradation of the used amplifier in response for high-speed modulation. The experiment was performed successfully for both a sinusoidal wave and triangle wave modulations. We can use the high-speed frequency modulation for increasing the enhancement factor of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which is one of effective and attractive methods for the high-frequency DNP-NMR spectroscopy, for example, at 700 MHz. Because the sensitivity of NMR is inversely proportional to the frequency, high-speed frequency modulation can compensate the decreasing the enhancement factor in the high-frequency DNP-NMR spectroscopy and keep the factor at high value. In addition, the high-speed frequency modulation is useful for frequency stabilization by a PID control of an acceleration voltage by feeding back of the fluctuation of frequency. The frequency stabilization in long time is also useful for application of a DNP-NMR spectroscopy to the analysis of complicated protein molecules.

  6. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. PMID:26172686

  7. A Framework of Concurrent Task Scheduling and Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling in Real-Time Embedded Systems with Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    harvesting module is comprised of a Photovoltaic (PV) panel for harvesting energy and a supercapacitor panel, state-of- charge management for the supercapacitor, and energy-harvesting- aware real-time task-leakage of the supercapacitor, and power losses in voltage converters, employs a cascaded feedback control structure

  8. Sinusoidal phase modulation as a gate for FROG N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Sinusoidal phase modulation as a gate for FROG N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, B. H-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (PM- FROG) is demonstrated. This low-loss, linear gating technique can be used without separate gate characteri- zation via a blind FROG algorithm with a simple intensity

  9. Sinusoidal modulation control method in a chaotic neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qihanyue; Xie, Xiaoping; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Hongping; He, Guoguang

    2014-08-01

    Chaotic neural networks (CNNs) have chaotic dynamic associative memory properties: The memory states appear non-periodically, and cannot be converged to a stored pattern. Thus, it is necessary to control chaos in a CNN in order to recognize associative memory. In this paper, a novel control method, the sinusoidal modulation control method, has been proposed to control chaos in a CNN. In this method, a sinusoidal wave simplified from brain waves is used as a control signal to modulate a parameter of the CNN. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this control method. The controlled CNN can be applied to information processing. Moreover, the method provides a way to associate brain waves by controlling CNNs.

  10. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  11. Normal seasonal variations for atmospheric radon concentration: a sinusoidal model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Koseki; Yasuoka, Yumi; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Homma, Yoshimi; Mukai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous radon readings in air have been reported before an earthquake activity. However, careful measurements of atmospheric radon concentrations during a normal period are required to identify anomalous variations in a precursor period. In this study, we obtained radon concentration data for 5 years (2003-2007) that can be considered a normal period and compared it with data from the precursory period of 2008 until March 2011, when the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake occurred. Then, we established a model for seasonal variation by fitting a sinusoidal model to the radon concentration data during the normal period, considering that the seasonal variation was affected by atmospheric turbulence. By determining the amplitude in the sinusoidal model, the normal variation of the radon concentration can be estimated. Thus, the results of this method can be applied to identify anomalous radon variations before an earthquake. PMID:25464051

  12. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-05-28

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  13. The physical basis of perceived roughness in virtual sinusoidal textures.

    PubMed

    Unger, Bertram; Klatzky, Roberta; Hollis, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Using a high-fidelity haptic interface based on magnetic levitation, subjects explored virtual sinusoidal textures with a frictionless probe and reported the subjective magnitude of perceived roughness. A psychophysical function was obtained spanning 33 levels of spatial periods from 0.025 to 6.00 mm. Kinematic and dynamic variables were recorded at 1,000 Hz and used to derive a set of variables to correlate with the psychophysical outcome. These included position, velocity, kinetic energy, instantaneous force (based on acceleration), mean force, and variability of the z-axis force signal from the power spectral density. The analysis implicates power of the force signal as the physical correlate of perceived roughness of sinusoidal textures. The relationship between power and roughness held across the range of spatial periods examined. PMID:24808401

  14. Sinusoidal input describing function for hysteresis followed by elementary backlash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author proposes a new sinusoidal input describing function which accounts for the serial combination of hysteresis followed by elementary backlash in a single nonlinear element. The output of the hysteresis element drives the elementary backlash element. Various analytical forms of the describing function are given, depending on the a/A ratio, where a is the half width of the hysteresis band or backlash gap, and A is the amplitude of the assumed input sinusoid, and on the value of the parameter representing the fraction of a attributed to the backlash characteristic. The negative inverse describing function is plotted on a gain-phase plot, and it is seen that a relatively small amount of backlash leads to domination of the backlash character in the describing function. The extent of the region of the gain-phase plane covered by the describing function is such as to guarantee some form of limit cycle behavior in most closed-loop systems.

  15. Study of the generator/motor operation of induction machines in a high frequency link space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, Thomas A.; Sood, Pradeep K.

    1987-01-01

    Static power conversion systems have traditionally utilized dc current or voltage source links for converting power from one ac or dc form to another since it readily achieves the temporary energy storage required to decouple the input from the output. Such links, however, result in bulky dc capacitors and/or inductors and lead to relatively high losses in the converters due to stresses on the semiconductor switches. The feasibility of utilizing a high frequency sinusoidal voltage link to accomplish the energy storage and decoupling function is examined. In particular, a type of resonant six pulse bridge interface converter is proposed which utilizes zero voltage switching principles to minimize switching losses and uses an easy to implement technique for pulse density modulation to control the amplitude, frequency, and the waveshape of the synthesized low frequency voltage or current. Adaptation of the proposed topology for power conversion to single-phase ac and dc voltage or current outputs is shown to be straight forward. The feasibility of the proposed power circuit and control technique for both active and passive loads are verified by means of simulation and experiment.

  16. The sinusoidal probe: a new approach to improve electrode longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sohal, Harbaljit S.; Jackson, Andrew; Jackson, Richard; Clowry, Gavin J.; Vassilevski, Konstantin; O’Neill, Anthony; Baker, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    Micromotion between the brain and implanted electrodes is a major contributor to the failure of invasive brain–machine interfaces. Movements of the electrode tip cause recording instabilities while spike amplitudes decline over the weeks/months post-implantation due to glial cell activation caused by sustained mechanical trauma. We have designed a sinusoidal probe in order to reduce movement of the recording tip relative to the surrounding neural tissue. The probe was microfabricated from flexible materials and incorporated a sinusoidal shaft to minimize tethering forces and a 3D spheroid tip to anchor the recording site within the brain. Compared to standard microwire electrodes, the signal-to-noise ratio and local field potential power of sinusoidal probe recordings from rabbits was more stable across recording periods up to 678 days. Histological quantification of microglia and astrocytes showed reduced neuronal tissue damage especially for the tip region between 6 and 24 months post-implantation. We suggest that the micromotion-reducing measures incorporated into our design, at least partially, decreased the magnitude of gliosis, resulting in enhanced longevity of recording. PMID:24808859

  17. Fourier Analysis of Sinusoidally Driven Thalamocortical Relay Neurons and a Minimal Integrate-and-Fire-or-Burst Model

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    Fourier Analysis of Sinusoidally Driven Thalamocortical Relay Neurons and a Minimal Integrate. Fourier analysis of sinusoidally driven thalamocortical relay neurons and a minimal integrate and burst firing modes to sinusoidal current injection and performed Fourier analysis on these responses

  18. Measuring the 3D shape of high temperature objects using blue sinusoidal structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xianling; Liu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Yingchun

    2015-12-01

    The visible light radiated by some high temperature objects (less than 1200 °C) almost lies in the red and infrared waves. It will interfere with structured light projected on a forging surface if phase measurement profilometry (PMP) is used to measure the shapes of objects. In order to obtain a clear deformed pattern image, a 3D measurement method based on blue sinusoidal structured light is proposed in this present work. Moreover, a method for filtering deformed pattern images is presented for correction of the unwrapping phase. Blue sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe pattern images are projected on the surface by a digital light processing (DLP) projector, and then the deformed patterns are captured by a 3-CCD camera. The deformed pattern images are separated into R, G and B color components by the software. The B color images filtered by a low-pass filter are used to calculate the fringe order. Consequently, the 3D shape of a high temperature object is obtained by the unwrapping phase and the calibration parameter matrixes of the DLP projector and 3-CCD camera. The experimental results show that the unwrapping phase is completely corrected with the filtering method by removing the high frequency noise from the first harmonic of the B color images. The measurement system can complete the measurement in a few seconds with a relative error of less than 1?:?1000.

  19. Estimating Transmissivity from the Water Level Fluctuations of a Sinusoidally Forced Well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, E.; Valocchi, A.J.; Heidari, M.; Kapoor, S.G.; Kumar, P.

    1999-01-01

    The water levels in wells are known to fluctuate in response to earth tides and changes in atmospheric pressure. These water level fluctuations can be analyzed to estimate transmissivity (T). A new method to estimate transmissivity, which assumes that the atmospheric pressure varies in a sinusoidal fashion, is presented. Data analysis for this simplified method involves using a set of type curves and estimating the ratio of the amplitudes of the well response over the atmospheric pressure. Type curves for this new method were generated based on a model for ground water flow between the well and aquifer developed by Cooper et al. (1965). Data analysis with this method confirmed these published results: (1) the amplitude ratio is a function of transmissivity, the well radius, and the frequency of the sinusoidal oscillation; and (2) the amplitude ratio is a weak function of storativity. Compared to other methods, the developed method involves simpler, more intuitive data analysis and allows shorter data sets to be analyzed. The effect of noise on estimating the amplitude ratio was evaluated and found to be more significant at lower T. For aquifers with low T, noise was shown to mask the water level fluctuations induced by atmospheric pressure changes. In addition, reducing the length of the data series did not affect the estimate of T, but the variance of the estimate was higher for the shorter series of noisy data.

  20. Subthreshold delta-frequency resonance in thalamic reticular neurons.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRt) is an assembly of GABAergic projection neurons that participate in the generation of brain rhythms during synchronous sleep and absence epilepsy. NRt cells receive inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs, and are endowed with an intricate set of intrinsic conductances. However, little is known about how intrinsic and synaptic properties interact to generate rhythmic discharges in these neurons. In order to better understand this interaction, I studied the subthreshold responses of nRt cells to time-varying inputs. Patch-clamp recordings were performed in acute slices of rat thalamus (postnatal days 12-21). Sinusoidal current waveforms of linearly changing frequencies were injected into the soma, and the resulting voltage oscillations were recorded. At the resting membrane potential, the impedance profile showed a characteristic resonance at 1.7 Hz. The relative strength of the resonance was 1.2, and increased with membrane hyperpolarization. Small suprathreshold current injections led to preferred spike generation at the resonance frequency. Bath application of ZD7288 or Cs(+) , inhibitors of the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih ), transformed the resonance into low-pass behaviour, whereas the T-channel blockers mibefradil and Ni(2+) decreased the strength of the resonance. It is concluded that nRt cells have an Ih -mediated intrinsic frequency preference in the subthreshold voltage range that favours action potential generation in the delta-frequency band. PMID:24891125

  1. Response Linearity of Alert Monkey Non-Eye Movement Vestibular Nucleus Neurons During Sinusoidal Yaw Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Newlands, Shawn D.; Lin, Nan; Wei, Min

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular afferents display linear responses over a range of amplitudes and frequencies, but comparable data for central vestibular neurons are lacking. To examine the effect of stimulus frequency and magnitude on the response sensitivity and linearity of non-eye movement central vestibular neurons, we recorded from the vestibular nuclei in awake rhesus macaques during sinusoidal yaw rotation at frequencies between 0.1 and 2 Hz and between 7.5 and 210°/s peak velocity. The dynamics of the neurons' responses across frequencies, while holding peak velocity constant, was consistent with previous studies. However, as the peak velocity was varied, while holding the frequency constant, neurons demonstrated lower sensitivities with increasing peak velocity, even at the lowest peak velocities tested. With increasing peak velocity, the proportion of neurons that silenced during a portion of the response increased. However, the decrease in sensitivity of these neurons with higher peak velocities of rotation was not due to increased silencing during the inhibitory portion of the cycle. Rather the neurons displayed peak firing rates that did not increase in proportion to head velocity as the peak velocity of rotation increased. These data suggest that, unlike vestibular afferents, the central vestibular neurons without eye movement sensitivity examined in this study do not follow linear systems principles even at low velocities. PMID:19553479

  2. Voltage-dependent capacitance of human embryonic kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Brenda; Shope, Cythnia Do; Brownell, William E.

    2009-01-01

    We determine membrane capacitance, C as a function of dc voltage for the human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell. C was calculated from the admittance, Y, obtained during a voltage ramp when the HEK cell was held in whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. Y was determined at frequencies of 390.625 and 781.25 Hz from the measured current, i obtained with a dual-sinusoidal stimulus. We find that the fractional increase in the capacitance, C is small (<1%) and grows with the square of the voltage, ?. C can be described by: C = C(0) (1+?(?+ ?s)2) [where C(0): Capacitance at 0 volts, ?s: Difference in surface potential between cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflets and ?: Proportionality constant]. We find that ? and ?s are 0.120 (±0.01) V?2 and ?0.073 (±0.017) V in solutions that contain ion channel blockers and 0.108 (±0.29) V?2 and ?0.023 (±0.009) V when 10 mM sodium salicylate was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests that salicylate does not affect the rate at which C grows with ?, but reduces the charge asymmetry of the membrane. We also observe an additional linear differential capacitance of about (?46 fFV?1) in about 60% of the cells, this additional component acts simultaneously with the quadratic component and was not observed when salicylate was added to the solution. We suggest that the voltage dependent capacitance originates from electromechanical coupling either by electrostriction and/or Maxwell stress effects and estimate that a small electromechanical force (?1 pN) acts at physiological potentials. These results are relevant to understand the electromechanical coupling in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea, where an asymmetric bell-shaped C versus ? relationship is observed upon application of a similar field. Prestin, a membrane protein expressed in OHCs is required to observe this function. When we compare the total charge contributions from HEK cell membrane (7×104 electrons, 10 pF cell) with that determined for prestin transfected cells (up to 5×106 electrons) we conclude that the charge contributions from the collective motion of membrane proteins and lipids in the field is dwarfed relative to that when prestin is present. We suggest that the capacitance-voltage relationships should be similar to that observed for HEK cells for OHCs that do not express prestin in their membranes. PMID:16711859

  3. Construction of a low-frequency high-power piezoelectric transformer with a specified step-up voltage transformation ratio using two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kazunari; Konno, Takuma; Kosugi, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a low-frequency piezoelectric transformer comprising two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers (BLTs) and a stepped horn with a half-wavelength straight extension. The transformer can realize a specified step-up voltage transformation ratio as determined by the cross-sectional area ratio of the horn whose both ends the two BLTs are connected to, and the driving frequency at which the specified transformation ratio is realized can be set near its mechanical resonance. Thus, it can be mechanically held firmly at its vibratory node without affecting the mechanical vibration mode or resulting in a loss of energy. After relevant finite-element simulations, experiments were conducted for a trial-fabricated transformer of the above type. As a result, the experimental results predicted by the simulations were obtained in step-up operation. The influence of the load resistance on the deviation of the driving frequency from its total mechanical resonance of 53.1 kHz was found to be less than 130 Hz (0.24% of the resonance frequency) only. High-power performance of the piezoelectric transformer was also demonstrated.

  4. Measurement of n-type Dry Thermally Oxidized 6H-SiC Metal-oxide Semiconductor Diodes by Quasistatic and High-Frequency Capacitance Versus Voltage and Capacitance Transient Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, P.; Kang, S.; Petit, J.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    1994-01-01

    Dry-oxidized n-type 6H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are investigated using quasistatic capacitance versus voltage (C-V), high-frequency C-V, and pulsed high-frequency capacitance transient (C-t) analysis over the temperature range from 297 to 573 K. The quasistatic C - V characteristics presented are the first reported for 6H-SiC MOS capacitors, and exhibit startling nonidealities due to nonequilibrium conditions that arise from the fact that the recombination/generation process in 6H-SiC is extraordinarily slow even at the highest measurement temperature employed. The high-frequency dark C-V characteristics all showed deep depletion with no observable hysteresis. The recovery of the high-frequency capacitance from deep depletion to inversion was used to characterize the minority-carrier generation process as a function of temperature. Zerbst analysis conducted on the resulting C-t transients, which were longer than 1000 s at 573 K, showed a generation lifetime thermal activation energy of 0.49 eV.

  5. Enhancement of antireflection characteristic of resonant sinusoidal grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huihui; Jing, Xufeng; Chen, Liang; Tian, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Broadband antireflective characteristic is frequently achieved by sinusoidal grating in the sub-wavelength domain. Also, in the resonance domain the enhancement of antireflection for broadband spectrum and wide-angle spectrum can be obtained. For external reflection grating, the total transmittance can reach to 99.9% when the aspect ratio is larger than 1.5 for both incident polarization states. For internal reflection grating, the antireflective property in relatively narrow broadband spectrum is revealed for TE polarization. But for TM polarization, broadband antireflection at appropriate grating period and groove depth is shown. It is found that the aspect ratio of grating is a significant parameter for improving antireflection performance.

  6. Estimation of the sinusoidal oscillation parameters in the adaptive optics system based on the example of the photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2015-05-01

    In adaptive optics systems, there is a problem of a sinusoidal oscillations rejection. This paper presents the estimation method that can be used to reject these oscillations on the example of the photovoltaic system. In such a system, photovoltaic panels generate the DC signal converted by the inverter to the AC signal with specified parameters. This paper focuses on the fast and accurate estimation of these parameters taking into account the presence of harmonics in the sinusoidal signal. The estimation method is based on using maximum decay sidelobes windows and the Fast Fourier Transform procedure. In reality, the AC signal is not a pure sinusoid and it is often distorted in a deterministic manner by harmonics, and in a random manner by white, "colored" or quantization noise. The estimation error depends on the systematic error, i.e. the error caused by the quantization noise and the error caused by harmonic components. Several parameters determine which error component is dominant in the estimation results. The value of the error caused by harmonic components depends mainly on the distance between the harmonic component and the fundamental component in a frequency domain and the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) ratio of the signal. The level of this maximum relative error is approximately 10-3 for the tested signal with THD=50%. It is important to use a filter that reduces unwanted harmonics before the data processing. The information provided in this paper can be used to determine the approximate level of estimation error before starting the estimation process.

  7. The forces generated at the human elbow joint in response to imposed sinusoidal movements of the forearm

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, G. C.; Rack, Peter M. H.; Ross, H. F.

    1974-01-01

    1. The mechanical resistance of the human forearm has been measured during imposed sinusoidal flexion-extension movements of the elbow joint. 2. The force required to move the limb can be divided into components required to move the mass, and components required to overcome the resistance offered by elastic and frictional properties of the muscles and other soft tissues. 3. When during a vigorous flexing effort the limb was subjected to a small amplitude sinusoidal movement each extension was followed by a considerable reflex contraction of the flexor muscles. At low frequencies of movement this reflex provided an added resistance to extension, but at 8-12 Hz the delay in the reflex pathway was such that the reflex response to extension occurred after the extension phase of the movement was over and during the subsequent flexion movement. The reflex activity then assisted the movement whereas at other frequencies it impeded it. 4. The reflex response to movement increased as the subject exerted a greater flexing force. 5. Small movements generated a relatively larger reflex response than big ones. 6. Even with large amplitudes of movement when the reflex activity was relatively small, the limb resisted extension with a high level of stiffness; this was comparable with the short range stiffness of muscles in experimental animals. 7. The fact that at some frequencies the reflex response assisted the movement implies that with appropriate loading the limb could undergo a self-sustaining oscillation at those frequencies. PMID:4420490

  8. The forces generated at the human elbow joint in response to imposed sinusoidal movements of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Joyce, G C; Rack, P M; Ross, H F

    1974-07-01

    1. The mechanical resistance of the human forearm has been measured during imposed sinusoidal flexion-extension movements of the elbow joint.2. The force required to move the limb can be divided into components required to move the mass, and components required to overcome the resistance offered by elastic and frictional properties of the muscles and other soft tissues.3. When during a vigorous flexing effort the limb was subjected to a small amplitude sinusoidal movement each extension was followed by a considerable reflex contraction of the flexor muscles. At low frequencies of movement this reflex provided an added resistance to extension, but at 8-12 Hz the delay in the reflex pathway was such that the reflex response to extension occurred after the extension phase of the movement was over and during the subsequent flexion movement. The reflex activity then assisted the movement whereas at other frequencies it impeded it.4. The reflex response to movement increased as the subject exerted a greater flexing force.5. Small movements generated a relatively larger reflex response than big ones.6. Even with large amplitudes of movement when the reflex activity was relatively small, the limb resisted extension with a high level of stiffness; this was comparable with the short range stiffness of muscles in experimental animals.7. The fact that at some frequencies the reflex response assisted the movement implies that with appropriate loading the limb could undergo a self-sustaining oscillation at those frequencies. PMID:4420490

  9. Sinusoidal calibration technique for Large Binocular Telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieralli, F.; Puglisi, A.; Quiros Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2008-07-01

    Telescopes of 8 meter class, like Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), are based on the concept of Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM); in order to calculate the best DSM shape that correct the measured aberrations we need to calibrate the AO system, so we need a correlation between the DSM and the wave front sensor (WFS), i.e. we need the Interaction Matrix (IM). Usually we obtain the IM in laboratory or at the telescope using as source a reference fiber that illuminates both the deformable mirror and wave front sensor. But in case of LBT and all large telescopes, this technique can be very difficult or sometimes impossible, and calibration may be required to be performed on sky. So we need new calibration techniques, and we investigate about sinusoidal modulation one for LBT case. In the Arcetri solar tower (inside Arcetri Observatory) we recreated a set up environment similar to the telescope, and thanks to that we can test the calibration system in the same condition of the LBT. In preparation for the test some simulations of this sinusoidal modulation technique were needed, in order to choose the best parameters that increased SNR and reduced integration time. The paper will detail the simulation results of the calibration LBT system made with this new technique, and these results will be used to drive our tests in the tower.

  10. Method and apparatus for spur-reduced digital sinusoid synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, George A. (inventor); Flanagan, Michael J. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A technique for reducing the spurious signal content in digital sinusoid synthesis is presented. Spur reduction is accomplished through dithering both amplitude and phase values prior to word-length reduction. The analytical approach developed for analog quantization is used to produce new bounds on spur performance in these dithered systems. Amplitude dithering allows output word-length reduction without introducing additional spurs. Effects of periodic dither similar to that produced by a pseudo-noise (PN) generator are analyzed. This phase dithering method provides a spur reduction of 6(M + 1) dB per phase bit when the dither consists of M uniform variates. While the spur reduction is at the expense of an increase in system noise, the noise power can be made white, making the power spectral density small. This technique permits the use of a smaller number of phase bits addressing sinusoid look-up tables, resulting in an exponential decrease in system complexity. Amplitude dithering allows the use of less complicated multipliers and narrower data paths in purely digital applications, as well as the use of coarse-resolution, highly-linear digital-to-analog converters (DAC's) to obtain spur performance limited by the DAC linearity rather than its resolution.

  11. Stream Segregation in the Perception of Sinusoidally Amplitude-Modulated Tones

    PubMed Central

    Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M.

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation can serve as a cue for segregating streams of sounds from different sources. Here we evaluate stream segregation in humans using ABA- sequences of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. A and B represent SAM tones with the same carrier frequency (1000, 4000 Hz) and modulation depth (30, 100%). The modulation frequency of the A signals (fmodA) was 30, 100 or 300 Hz, respectively. The modulation frequency of the B signals was up to four octaves higher (?fmod). Three different ABA- tone patterns varying in tone duration and stimulus onset asynchrony were presented to evaluate the effect of forward suppression. Subjects indicated their 1- or 2-stream percept on a touch screen at the end of each ABA- sequence (presentation time 5 or 15 s). Tone pattern, fmodA, ?fmod, carrier frequency, modulation depth and presentation time significantly affected the percentage of a 2-stream percept. The human psychophysical results are compared to responses of avian forebrain neurons evoked by different ABA- SAM tone conditions [1] that were broadly overlapping those of the present study. The neurons also showed significant effects of tone pattern and ?fmod that were comparable to effects observed in the present psychophysical study. Depending on the carrier frequency, modulation frequency, modulation depth and the width of the auditory filters, SAM tones may provide mainly temporal cues (sidebands fall within the range of the filter), spectral cues (sidebands fall outside the range of the filter) or possibly both. A computational model based on excitation pattern differences was used to predict the 50% threshold of 2-stream responses. In conditions for which the model predicts a considerably larger 50% threshold of 2-stream responses (i.e., larger ?fmod at threshold) than was observed, it is unlikely that spectral cues can provide an explanation of stream segregation by SAM. PMID:22984436

  12. Resonant circuit which provides dual-frequency excitation for rapid cycling of an electromagnet

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1982-03-09

    Disclosed is a novel ring-magnet control circuit that permits synchrotron repetition rates much higher than the frequency of the sinusoidal guide field of the ring magnet during particle acceleration. The control circuit generates sinusoidal excitation currents of different frequencies in the half waves. During radio-frequency acceleration of the synchrotron, the control circuit operates with a lower frequency sine wave and, thereafter, the electromagnets are reset with a higher-frequency half sine wave.

  13. Characterization of combined power plasma jet using AC high voltage and nanosecond pulse for reactive species composition control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kato, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    In the application studies for both bio-medical and agricultural applications, the roles of the reactive oxide and/or nitride species generated in the plasma has been reported as a key to control the effects and ill-effects on the living organism. The correlation between total OH radical exposure from an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet and the sterilization threshold on Botrytis cinerea is presented. With the increase of the OH radical exposure to the Botrytis cinerea, the probability of sterilization is increased. In this study, to resolve the roles of reactive species including OH radicals, a combined power plasma jet using nanosecond pulses and low-frequency sinusoidal AC high voltage (a few kHz) is studied for controlling the composition of the reactive species. The nanosecond pulses are superimposed on the AC voltage which is in synchronization with the AC phase. The undergoing work to characterize the combined power discharge with electric charge and voltage cycle on the plasma jet will also be presented to discuss the discharge characteristics to control the composition of the reactive species.

  14. A Novel Flexible Sinusoidal Probe for Chronic Extracellular Brain Recording

    E-print Network

    Sohal, Harbaljit S; Jackson, Andrew; Baker, Stuart N; O'Neill, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Current microelectrodes designed to record chronic neural activity suffer from recording instabilities due to the modulus mismatch between the electrode materials and the brain. We sought to address this by microfabricating a novel flexible neural probe. Our probe was fabricated from parylene-C with a WTi metal, using contact photolithography and reactive ion etching, with three design features to address this modulus mismatch: a sinusoidal shaft, a rounded tip and a polyimide anchoring ball. The anchor restricts movement of the electrode recording sites and the shaft accommodates the brain motion. We successfully patterned thick metal and parylene-C layers, with a reliable device release process leading to high functional yield and were able to sample stable neural activity for over 2 years with this probe. We have successfully optimized the fabrication process to produce a reliable probe with high functional yield. This novel reliably microfabricated probe can record stable neural activity for up to two yea...

  15. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cathy Q.; Crawford, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is an obliterative venulitis of the terminal hepatic venules, which in its more severe forms imparts a high risk of mortality. SOS, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), occurs as a result of cytoreductive therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), following oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver and treated by partial hepatectomy, in patients taking pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing herbal remedies, and in other particular settings such as the autosomal recessive condition of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI). A central pathogenic event is toxic destruction of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC), with sloughing and downstream occlusion of terminal hepatic venules. Contributing factors are SEC glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, increased intrahepatic expression of matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activation of clotting factors. The clinical presentation of SOS includes jaundice, development of right upper-quadrant pain and tender hepatomegaly, ascites, and unexplained weight gain. Owing to the potentially critical condition of these patients, transjugular biopsy may be the preferred route for liver biopsy to exclude other potential causes of liver dysfunction and to establish a diagnosis of SOS. Treatment includes rigorous fluid management so as to avoid excessive fluid overload while avoiding too rapid diuresis or pericentesis, potential use of pharmaceutics such as defibrotide, coagulolytic agents, or methylprednisolone, and liver transplantation. Proposed strategies for prevention and prophylaxis include reduced-intensity conditioning radiation for HSCT, treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, and inclusion of bevacizumab with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimes. While significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of SOS and in mitigating against its adverse outcomes, this condition remains a serious complication of a selective group of medical treatments. PMID:25755580

  16. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Schwen, Lars Ole; Schenk, Arne; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María Matilde; Kuepfer, Lars; Preusser, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale. PMID:26222615

  17. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Schwen, Lars Ole; Schenk, Arne; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Bartolomé Rodríguez, María Matilde; Kuepfer, Lars; Preusser, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale. PMID:26222615

  18. A voltmeter for remotely sensing high voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, H. W.; Holder, J. D.; Roberts, T. G.

    1984-03-01

    A passive voltmeter that measures pulses of high voltage by periodically discharging a condensor through a spark gap is presented. The frequency at which the spark gap breaks down is a function of the voltage being measured and is detected and displayed in volts. Radioactive material within the chamber is used to insure a constant breakdown voltage by supplying the necessary free electrons. This insures constant breakdown time for the arc with minimum jitter.

  19. Pupillary responses to single and sinusoidal light stimuli in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zangemeister, Wolfgang H; Gronow, Thilo; Grzyska, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Phasic pupillary response to a single light stimulus (200 ms) (pPLR) and to continuous sinusoidal stimuli with four different frequencies (0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3Hz) (cPLR) were examined in 52 DM patients and 21 control subjects. We asked: does recording and frequency analysis of cPLR together with short time fourier [STFT] analysis of pPLR differentiate better between DM patients and normal subjects than pPLR only?Initial pupil diameter was significantly decreased in the DM group. For pPLR. maximal contraction velocity (Vmax), Vmax of redilation 1, reflex-amplitude and pPLR latency were significantly reduced in those patients who also showed signs of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DNP). Tests of dynamic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) revealed that all DM patients had a significantly reduced gain at lower frequencies. Pupil phase lag was greater at 0.1 and 0.3Hz and smaller at 0.7 and 1.3 Hz in the DNP group (p<0.001). Comparison of single pPLR recordings of 5 DNP patients with 5 subjects using short time fast fourier (STFT) analysis revealed a characteristic change from low frequency content in healthy subjects to high frequency content in DNP patients.Significant changes in the PLR in DM can be found only when symptoms of autonomic neuropathy have been shown. Both sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems are affected by diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Only recording of cPLR, together with STFT of pPLR can identify significant pathological deficits of pupillary control in single cases. PMID:21577356

  20. Factors influencing threshold of the fundamental electrical response to sinusoidal excitation of human photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, F A; Alpern, M

    1984-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of the fundamental Fourier component of the electroretinogram (e.r.g.) in response to sinusoidally modulated light were studied in the range 7-50 Hz. Sensitivity was best at the lowest frequency. The threshold-frequency relationship divided into two parts. A weak steady background depressed sensitivity of the low, but increased sensitivity of the high, frequency component. At 8 Hz a small test spot was 0.7 log10 units more effective on the most sensitive part of the retina than on the optic disk. On the fovea, it was 0.1-0.2 log10 units less effective than on the disk. The fovea was 0.7 log10 units more sensitive to 25 Hz than the blind spot. Psychophysical and e.r.g. dark-adaptation curves were similar, but the former was 10(4) times more sensitive than the latter. Four sets of experiments examined the possibility that the Fourier component of the e.r.g. response at the modulation frequency of 8 Hz during the 'rod' phase of the e.r.g. dark-adaptation curve arose from excitation of rods alone. The only hint of a possible cone contribution was a very small but systematic increase in phase delay with increase in background wave number found while measuring the field sensitivity action spectrum. No suggestion was found that the fundamental Fourier component of threshold e.r.g. responses at the modulation frequency of 25 Hz was influenced by photons absorbed in rods. PMID:6512688

  1. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  2. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  4. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  5. Structural damage detection using auto correlation functions of vibration response under sinusoidal excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Muyu; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Markert, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Structural damage detection using time domain vibration responses has attracted more and more researchers in recent years because of its simplicity in calculation and no requirement of a finite element model. This paper proposes a new approach to locate the damage using the auto correlation function of vibration response signals under sinusoidal excitation from different measurement points of the structure, based on which a vector named Auto Correlation Function at Maximum Point Value Vector (AMV) is formulated. A sensitivity analysis of the normalized AMV with respect to the local stiffness shows that under several specific frequency excitations, the normalized AMV has a sharp change around the local stiffness change location, which means that even when the damage is very small, the normalized AMV is a good indicator for the damage. In order to locate the damage, a damage index is defined as the relative change of the normalized AMV before and after damage. Several example cases in stiffness reduction detection of a frame structure valid the results of the sensitivity analysis, demonstrate the efficiency of the normalized AMV in damage localization and the effect of the excitation frequency on its detectability.

  6. Experimental studies for determining human discomfort response to vertical sinusoidal vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate several problems related to methodology and design of experiments to obtain human comfort response to vertical sinusoidal vibration. Specifically, the studies were directed to the determination of (1) the adequacy of frequency averaging of vibration data to obtain discomfort predictors, (2) the effect of practice on subject ratings, (3) the effect of the demographic factors of age, sex, and weight, and (4) the relative importance of seat and floor vibrations in the determination of measurement and criteria specification location. Results indicate that accurate prediction of discomfort requires knowledge of both the acceleration level and frequency content of the vibration stimuli. More importantly, the prediction of discomfort was shown to be equally good based upon either floor accelerations or seat accelerations. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the discomfort levels in different seats resulting from similar vibratory imputs were equal. Therefore, it was recommended that criteria specifications and acceleration measurements be made at the floor location. The results also indicated that practice did not systematically influence discomfort responses nor did the demographic factors of age, weight, and sex contribute to the discomfort response variation.

  7. Ultrafast 2D NMR Spectroscopy Using Sinusoidal Gradients: Principles and Ex Vivo Brain Investigations

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    Ultrafast 2D NMR Spectroscopy Using Sinusoidal Gradients: Principles and Ex Vivo Brain TOCSY spectra; sinusoidal gradi- ents NMR spectroscopy has become an increasingly common toolD NMR spectra within a single scan was recently introduced. The re- sulting potential gain in time

  8. DISPLAY OF PIXEL LOSS AND REPLICATION IN REPROJECTING RASTER DATA FROM THE SINUSOIDAL PROJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies show the sinusoidal projection to be a superior planar projection for representing global raster datasets. This study uses the sinusoidal projection as a basis for evaluating pixel loss and replication in eight other planar map projections. The percent of pixels ...

  9. "The Sinusoid" in the Liver: Lessons Learned from the Original Definition by Charles Sedgwick Minot (1900).

    PubMed

    Wake, Kenjiro; Sato, Tetsuji

    2015-12-01

    The hepatic sinusoid with its associated sinusoidal cells is a multifunctional cell-complex in the liver. Despite recent advances in research on the hepatic sinusoid, no investigator has played a more basic role in its characterization than Charles Sedgwick Minot (1852-1914), a pioneer who distinguished the sinusoid from the blood-capillary as early as 1900. According to Minot, sinusoids are typically larger in diameter than capillaries, particularly at the early embryonic stage. They closely approach the parenchymal tissue, are formed passively by the adjacent parenchymal tissue, and are on rare occasion surrounded with connective tissue. Sinusoids (sinus-like) are small blood-channels formed by subdivision of the lumen of large blood vessels (sinuses) by the invasion of developing parenchymal cell-cords. Although some of Minot's definitions may no longer be accepted, he described some fundamental and interesting characteristics of sinusoids, to which we have not paid much attention. Here, we have attempted to illustrate lessons we have learned from Minot's view point of sinusoids at this occasion of centenary of his death. Anat Rec, 298:2071-2080, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332299

  10. Temperature distribution in an oscillatory flow with a sinusoidal wall temperature

    E-print Network

    Temperature distribution in an oscillatory flow with a sinusoidal wall temperature Eduardo Ramos a­­UNAM, Ap. P. 34, Temixco Morelos 62580, Mexico Received 18 October 2002 Abstract The temperature field generated by an oscillatory boundary layer flow in the presence of a wall with a sinusoidal temperature

  11. Sinusoidal vessels in the periodontal ligament of hamster incisors: their distribution, structure and possible function.

    PubMed

    Kannari, K; Maeda, T; Takano, Y

    1993-03-01

    Vascular architecture in the periodontal ligament of hamster incisors was investigated by use of vascular casts under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition to ordinary nutrient blood vessels, anastomosing vessels of large caliber developed, surrounding the incisor. From their characteristic configuration, these vessels were regarded as "sinusoids". The plexus of sinusoidal vessels was connected with capillaries in the papillary layer of the enamel organ at the labial periodontal ligament, and with veins penetrating into the alveolar bone on the lingual side. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation showed that the sinusoidal wall was composed of only a thin layer of endothelial cells, lacking a smooth muscular element, and surrounded by densely arranged collagen fibers. Although the frequent association of Ruffini-type nerve endings with sinusoidal vessels was noted, neither direct contact nor specialized structures between these was recognizable. A possible function of the periodontal sinusoids is discussed on the basis of their distribution and ultrastructural evidence. PMID:8499129

  12. Investigation of voltage swell mitigation using STATCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, N. A. Abdul; >S Jaafar, I. S.

    2013-06-01

    STATCOM is one of the best applications of a self commutated FACTS device to control power quality problems in the distribution system. This project proposed a STATCOM model with voltage control mechanism. DQ transformation was implemented in the controller system to achieve better estimation. Then, the model was used to investigate and analyse voltage swell problem in distribution system. The simulation results show that voltage swell could contaminate distribution network with unwanted harmonic frequencies. Negative sequence frequencies give harmful effects to the network. System connected with proposed STATCOM model illustrates that it could mitigate this problems efficiently.

  13. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of a 2V-49Fe-49Co and a grain oriented 3Si-Fe alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieserman, W. R.; Schwarze, G. E.; Niedra, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of power magnetic components such as transformers, inductors, motors, and generators, requires specific knowledge about the magnetic and electrical characteristics of the magnetic materials used in these components. Limited experimental data exists that characterizes the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency over a wide flux density range. An experimental investigation of a 2V-49-Fe-49Co (Supermendur) and a grain oriented 3 Si-Fe (Magnesil) alloy was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 0.1 to 10 kHz. The effects of temperature, frequency, and maximum flux density on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops for sinusoidal voltage excitation conditions are examined for each of these materials. A comparison of the core loss of these two materials is also made over the temperature and frequency range investigated.

  14. Spontaneous immortalization of mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIUHUA; ZHAO, QIAN; LUO, ZHEN; YU, YAN; XIAO, NA; SUN, XUAN; CHENG, LAMEI

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneous immortalization of cells in vitro is a rare event requiring genomic instability, such as alterations in chromosomes and mutations in genes. In the present study, we report a spontaneously immortalized liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) line generated from mouse liver. These immortalized LSECs showed typical LSEC characteristics with the structure of transcellular fenestrations, the expression of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the ability to uptake DiI-acetylated-low density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL). However, these immortalized LSECs lost the ability to form capillary-like structures, and showed clonal and multilayer growth without contact inhibition. Moreover, their proliferation rate increased with the increase in the number of passages. In addition, these cells obained the expression of CD31 and desmin, and showed an upregulation of p53 protein expression; however, their karyotype was normal, and they could not form colonies in soft agar or tumors in SCID mice. In conclusion, in the present study, we successfully established a spontaneously immortalized LSEC line. PMID:25585915

  15. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences.

    PubMed

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the  cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  16. The analysis of indexed astronomical time series - XII. The statistics of oversampled Fourier spectra of noise plus a single sinusoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2015-10-01

    With few exceptions, theoretical studies of periodogram properties focus on pure noise time series. This paper considers the case in which the time series consists of noise together with a single sinusoid, observed at regularly spaced time points. The distribution of the periodogram ordinates in this case is shown to be of exponentially modified Gaussian form. Simulations are used to demonstrate that if the periodogram is substantially oversampled (i.e. calculated in a dense grid of frequencies), then the distribution of the periodogram maxima can be accurately approximated by a simple form (at least at moderate signal-to-noise ratios). This result can be used to derive a calculation formula for the probability of correct signal frequency identification at given values of the time series length and (true) signal-to-noise ratio. A set of curves is presented which can be used to apply the theory to, for example, asteroseismic data. An illustrative application to Kepler data is given.

  17. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  18. Peliosis hepatis and sinusoidal dilation during infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Scoazec, J. Y.; Marche, C.; Girard, P. M.; Houtmann, J.; Durand-Schneider, A. M.; Saimot, A. G.; Benhamou, J. P.; Feldmann, G.

    1988-01-01

    The description of hepatic sinusoidal lesions in a significant number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients prompted the authors to undertake an ultrastructural study of the sinusoidal barrier abnormalities during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in order to compare these lesions with those described in other conditions and to discuss their possible origin. In a series of 29 patients with serologic evidence of HIV infection and liver abnormalities, 8 (28%) had sinusoidal lesions. Peliosis hepatis was present in 2 cases, and sinusoidal dilatation in 6. These patients were classified as follows: 3 AIDS, 4 AIDS-related complex, 1 unclassifiable. Ultrastructural lesions of the sinusoidal barrier were observed in all the cases. They closely mimicked the changes previously reported in peliotic and peliotic-like changes of various origins. A striking particularity was, however, the presence of numerous and hyperplastic sinusoidal macrophages. This work suggests that an injury of the endothelial cells, directly or indirectly related to the presence of HIV, may be incriminated in the pathogenesis of sinusoidal lesions during HIV infection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3354642

  19. Flexural vibration of rectangular plates subjected to sinusoidally distributed compressive loading on two opposite sides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, K. K. V.; Bert, C. W.

    2005-05-01

    Natural frequencies and mode shapes of rectangular plates subjected to sinusoidally distributed in-plane compressive loading on two opposite edges were considered in this work. Although vibration analysis of rectangular plates was investigated by numerous authors, flexural vibration of plates with nonlinearly distributed in-plane loading received much less attention. However, certain problems involving thermal stresses may have such nonlinear loading conditions in the plane of the plate. The analysis procedure for the title problem involves first finding a plane elasticity solution for the in-plane problem satisfying all boundary conditions. Then using this in- plane solution, flexural vibration analysis has to be carried out. In a related work investigated recently by the present authors, an in-plane elasticity solution was developed and was compared with existing analytical solutions in the literature and with the finite element method. One aspect of this study was the stress diffusion (i.e., reduction of stress) phenomenon along the length of the plate as well as the presence of all three in-plane stress components. Using this in-plane solution, vibration analysis of rectangular plates was carried out for various plate aspect ratios and the results were compared with corresponding values from finite element analysis.

  20. Reliability and bifurcation in neurons driven by multiple sinusoids.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter J; Tiesinga, Paul H E; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2003-06-01

    The brain produces dynamical rhythms at many frequencies that shift in amplitude and phase. To understand the functional consequences of mixtures of oscillations at the single cell level, we recorded the spike trains from single rat cortical neurons in vitro in response to two mixed sine wave currents. The reliability of spike timing was measured as a function of the relative power, phase and frequencies of the sine wave mixture. Peaks in the reliability were observed at a preferred phase difference, frequency and relative power. These results have a natural interpretation in terms of spike train attractors and bifurcations. PMID:20871737

  1. Human smooth pursuit tracking eye movement analysis in the frequency domain 

    E-print Network

    Sa, Zhijun

    1995-01-01

    Human smooth pursuit tracking eye movements were analyzed in the frequency domain. The stimulus used was a sum of sinusoids, in lieu of white Gaussian noise. The feasibility of the nonlinear analysis by a sum of sinusoids consisting of only 6...

  2. Procedure for Deconvolution of Time-Dependent Signals with Sinusoidal Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, M. D.; Djulgerova, R.; Mihailov, V.; Koperski, J.

    2008-10-30

    The present paper deals with development of the deconvolution procedure of two time-dependent signals with sinusoidal shape in order to extract the genuine optogalvanic signal from the registered one in hollow cathode glow discharge.

  3. Lipids promote survival, proliferation, and maintenance of differentiation of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in vitro

    E-print Network

    Hang, Ta-Chun

    Primary rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) are difficult to maintain in a differentiated state in culture for scientific studies or technological applications. Relatively little is known about molecular regulatory ...

  4. Design of error-compensating algorithms for sinusoidal phase shifting interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Groot, Peter de

    2009-12-10

    An improved approach to interferometry using sinusoidal phase shifting balances several harmonic components in the interference signal against each other. The resulting computationally efficient phase-estimation algorithms have low sensitivity to errors such as spurious intensity noise, vibration, and errors in the phase shift pattern. Specific example algorithms employing 8 and 12 camera frames illustrate design principles that are extendable to algorithms of any length for applications that would benefit from a simplified, sinusoidal phase shift.

  5. Substation voltage upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, J.; Elahi, H.; Lux, A.; Imece, A.F. . Power Systems Engineering Dept.); LaPanse, R.A.; Stewart, J.R. )

    1992-04-01

    This report addresses specific issues to support sound yet not unduly conservative uprating practices for substations. The main parts of the report cover the insulation withstand and overvoltage protection aspects, environmental measurements, reliability criteria, and industry experience. First the insulation design concerns are addressed. Substation stress by a backflashover of the line insulation due to lightning in the vicinity of the substation is recognized as a critical stress. A representative part of a 550 kV BIL substation was erected at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center, where also a special test circuit was assembled to produce a fast front, slow tail (0.2/200 {mu}s) wave. The substation as well as some special configurations were tested for line-to-ground and line-to-line withstand. Computer studies were performed to complement the test results. A number of important conclusions was reached. The most prominent result in that the high frequency oscillations, as caused by reflections within the substation, do not effect the Critical Flashover Voltage (CFO). The present practice, based on the highest peak is therefore very conservative. The slow tail of the wave appears to dictate the CFO. An arrester model for computer studies to represent very fast as well as slow phenomena was derived. It is based on full scale arrester test data, made available in this project. The computer program to calculate arrester model parameters is also a part of the report. The electric environmental measurements are reported for the tested substation at the HVTRC and for the uprated substation of Public Service Company of Colorado, both before and after the uprating. The performance is satisfactory when corona free hardware is used. Insulation design criteria are analyzed based on substation reliability, the system viewpoint and consequences of the failure. Utility experience with uprated substations is reviewed.

  6. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOEpatents

    Bobbett, Ronald E. (Los Alamos, NM); McCormick, J. Byron (Los Alamos, NM); Kerwin, William J. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  7. Time-resolved spectroscopy of a homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge for soft ionization driven by square wave high voltage.

    PubMed

    Horvatic, Vlasta; Michels, Antje; Ahlmann, Norman; Jestel, Günter; Veza, Damir; Vadla, Cedomil; Franzke, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Helium capillary dielectric barrier discharge driven by the square wave-shaped high voltage was investigated spatially and temporally by means of optical emission spectroscopy. The finding of the previous investigation conducted with the sinusoidal-like high voltage was confirmed, i.e., the plasma in the jet and the plasma in the capillary constitute two temporally separated events. The plasma in the jet occurs prior to the discharge in the capillary and exists only during the positive half period of the applied high voltage. The time delay of the capillary discharge with respect to the discharge in the jet depended on the high voltage, and it was between 2.4 and 8.4 ?s for the voltage amplitude change in the range from 1.96 to 2.31 kV, respectively. It was found that, compared to sinusoidal-like voltage, application of the square wave high voltage results with stronger (~6 times) He line emission in the jet, which makes the latter more favorable for efficient soft ionization. The use of the square wave high voltage enabled comparison of the currents (~1 mA) flowing in the capillary during the positive and negative high voltage periods, which yielded the estimation for the charge dissipated in the atmosphere ((4?±?20 %)?×?10(-11) C) through the plasma jet. PMID:26297466

  8. High Voltage SPT Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Jacobson, David; Jankovsky, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A 2.3 kW stationary plasma thruster designed to operate at high voltage was tested at discharge voltages between 300 and 1250 V. Discharge specific impulses between 1600 and 3700 sec were demonstrated with thrust between 40 and 145 mN. Test data indicated that discharge voltage can be optimized for maximum discharge efficiency. The optimum discharge voltage was between 500 and 700 V for the various anode mass flow rates considered. The effect of operating voltage on optimal magnet field strength was investigated. The effect of cathode flow rate on thruster efficiency was considered for an 800 V discharge.

  9. Microwave integrated circuit for Josephson voltage standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Toots, J.; Chang, C. C. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A microwave integrated circuit comprised of one or more Josephson junctions and short sections of microstrip or stripline transmission line is fabricated from thin layers of superconducting metal on a dielectric substrate. The short sections of transmission are combined to form the elements of the circuit and particularly, two microwave resonators. The Josephson junctions are located between the resonators and the impedance of the Josephson junctions forms part of the circuitry that couples the two resonators. The microwave integrated circuit has an application in Josephson voltage standards. In this application, the device is asymmetrically driven at a selected frequency (approximately equal to the resonance frequency of the resonators), and a d.c. bias is applied to the junction. By observing the current voltage characteristic of the junction, a precise voltage, proportional to the frequency of the microwave drive signal, is obtained.

  10. Analytical Investigation of an Adaptive Flight-Control System Using a Sinusoidal Test Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jack E.

    1961-01-01

    An analytical study was made of an adaptive flight-control system which measures vehicle response to small-amplitude control-surface deflections produced by a sinusoidal test signal. Changes in the response to this signal are related to environmental changes,, and the system is continuously altered to maintain this response equal to a preselected value. The system is suitable for use in high-performance aircraft and missiles and requires only the addition of a signal generator and a logic circuit consisting of a filter-rectifier network and a comparator-integrator network to a basic command-control system. Thus, it presents a relatively simple approach to the problem. The effects on system performance of variation in flight condition, system-gain level, test-signal frequency, and sensor location are included in the analysis. Longitudinal control of a high-performance research aircraft over flight conditions ranging from landing approach to a Mach number of 5.8 at an altitude of 150,000 feet, and longitudinal control of a four-stage solid-fuel missile including the first bending mode over the atmospheric portion of a launch trajectory constituted the basis for the analytical study. Results of an analog-computer study using time-varying coefficients are presented to compare the control obtained with the adaptive system with-that obtained with a fixed-gain system during the atmospheric portion of a missile launch trajectory. The system has demonstrated an ability to maintain satisfactory vehicle control-system stability over wide ranges of environmental change.

  11. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells Are a Site of Murine Cytomegalovirus Latency and Reactivation?

    PubMed Central

    Seckert, Christof K.; Renzaho, Angélique; Tervo, Hanna-Mari; Krause, Claudia; Deegen, Petra; Kühnapfel, Birgit; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Grzimek, Natascha K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently transmitted by organ transplantation, and its reactivation under conditions of immunosuppressive prophylaxis against graft rejection by host-versus-graft disease bears a risk of graft failure due to viral pathogenesis. CMV is the most common cause of infection following liver transplantation. Although hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage are a recognized source of latent CMV, the cellular sites of latency in the liver are not comprehensively typed. Here we have used the BALB/c mouse model of murine CMV infection to identify latently infected hepatic cell types. We performed sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation with male donors and female recipients to generate latently infected sex chromosome chimeras, allowing us to distinguish between Y-chromosome (gene sry or tdy)-positive donor-derived hematopoietic descendants and Y-chromosome-negative cells of recipients' tissues. The viral genome was found to localize primarily to sry-negative CD11b? CD11c? CD31+ CD146+ cells lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (MHC-II) but expressing murine L-SIGN. This cell surface phenotype is typical of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Notably, sry-positive CD146+ cells were distinguished by the expression of MHC-II and did not harbor latent viral DNA. In this model, the frequency of latently infected cells was found to be 1 to 2 per 104 LSECs, with an average copy number of 9 (range, 4 to 17) viral genomes. Ex vivo-isolated, latently infected LSECs expressed the viral genes m123/ie1 and M122/ie3 but not M112-M113/e1, M55/gB, or M86/MCP. Importantly, in an LSEC transfer model, infectious virus reactivated from recipients' tissue explants with an incidence of one reactivation per 1,000 viral-genome-carrying LSECs. These findings identified LSECs as the main cellular site of murine CMV latency and reactivation in the liver. PMID:19535440

  12. Control Strategy of a Parallel System Using Both Matrix Converter and Voltage Type Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Tamura, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a control strategy for a matrix converter and voltage type inverter in a parallel system that does not require of interconnection reactors. The proposed control strategy is to divide the operation time between a matrix converter and a voltage type inverter. The operation time of each converter is divided in every carrier cycle. As a result, interconnection reactors are not required and the sinusoidal input current waveform of a matrix converter can be obtained. The total output voltage of the proposed system and the output power division ratio for a matrix converter and a voltage type inverter are controlled by the time division ratio of each converter. Furthermore, the voltage error resulting from the operation of time division control was analyzed and compensated. The availability of the proposed system and the validity of the proposed control method are confirmed by experimental results.

  13. Estimating the effects of stationary noise on power spectral density function measurements: frequency, phase, and amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, George D.

    1998-06-01

    The effects of noise modulation on the power spectral density functions of a sinusoidal wave are calculated in closed form. Frequency, phase, and amplitude modulation are considered. Noise processes are modeled using Butterworth filters of various integer orders. Increasing the order of the Butterworth filter increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the modulated sinusoidal wave.

  14. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.

    PubMed

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/?_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, ?_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer. PMID:26465471

  15. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /?DL , where D is the ion diffusivity, ?D is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  16. A projector-camera setup for geometry-invariant frequency demultiplexing

    E-print Network

    Raskar, Ramesh

    Consider a projector-camera setup where a sinusoidal pattern is projected onto the scene, and an image of the objects imprinted with the pattern is captured by the camera. In this configuration, the local frequency of the ...

  17. Selective and localized radiofrequency heating of skin and fat by controlling surface distributions of the applied voltage: analytical study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Lozano, Joel; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Anderson, R Rox; Franco, Walfre

    2012-11-21

    At low frequencies (hundreds of kHz to a few MHz), local energy absorption is proportional to the conductivity of tissue and the intensity of the internal electric field. At 1 MHz, the electric conductivity ratio between skin and fat is approximately 10; hence, skin would heat more provided the intensity of the electric field is similar in both tissues. It follows that selective and localized heat deposition is only feasible by varying electric fields locally. In this study, we vary local intensities of the internal electric field in skin, fat and muscle by altering its direction through modifying surface distributions of the applied voltage. In addition, we assess the long-term effects of these variations on tissue thermal transport. To this end, analytical solutions of the electric and bioheat equations were obtained using a regular perturbation method. For voltage distributions given by second- and eight-degree functions, the power absorption in fat is much greater than in skin by the electrode center while the opposite is true by the electrode edge. For a sinusoidal function, the absorption in fat varies laterally from greater to lower than in skin, and then this trend repeats from the center to the edge of the electrode. Consequently, zones of thermal confinement selectively develop in the fat layer. Generalizing these functions by parametrization, it is shown that radiofrequency (RF) heating of layered tissues can be selective and precisely localized by controlling the spatial decay, extent and repetition of the surface distribution of the applied voltage. The clinical relevance of our study is to provide a simple, non-invasive method to spatially control the heat deposition in layered tissues. By knowing and controlling the internal electric field, different therapeutic strategies can be developed and implemented. PMID:23104083

  18. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, Glenn F. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  19. [The effect of the use of sinusoidal modulated currents on the recovery of athletes].

    PubMed

    Ghighineishvili, G R; Dombrovskaja, I I; Sirtori, P G; Balsamo, V; Franceschini, R; Miani, A; Solimene, U

    1992-08-01

    Modular sinusoidal currents were used to optimize the recovery process of the force of athletes' muscles. 113 elite athletes were analyzed. They were participants in rowing, cycling, tennis and Greco-Roman wrestling. In all cases the modular sinusoidal currents were applied to the dorso-cervical and lumbar regions. It was found that applications to the dorso-cervical regions normalize the altered parameters of the cardiovascular system and increase the capacity of the humeral muscles to contract. Furthermore they stabilize the adrenergic sympathetic zone and stimulate the immune system. PMID:1395452

  20. Zero order synthetic hologram with a sinusoidal phase carrier for generation of multiple beams.

    PubMed

    Arrizón, V; Ruiz, U; Mendez, G; Apolinar-Iribe, A

    2009-02-16

    We discuss a phase synthetic hologram, for encoding arbitrary complex fields, whose design is based on a sinusoidal phase grating with a spatially modulated phase depth. An important feature of the hologram is that it encodes the complex field at the zero diffraction order of the carrier grating. The smoothness of this sinusoidal carrier grating facilitates the implementation of the hologram with a pixelated spatial light modulator. We take advantage of the hologram reconstruction at the zero-diffraction order for the simultaneous generation of a collection of complex beams. PMID:19219171

  1. Voltage Effects on a Commercial Plasma Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, G. G.; Saucedo, L.; Burin, M. J.; Nagy, A.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Filamentary structures have been observed in both atmospheric and industrial dielectric barrier discharges, yet various physical aspects of filament formation remain unclear. An example of filament formation can be found in commercial plasma globes. These globes typically contain Neon/Xenon at a pressure near 740 Torr, and are supplied with high voltage (5-10kV) near 25 kHz. The reason why these conditions are optimal for filamentary structures is unknown. This work analyzes the effects of voltage amplitude and frequency on a plasma globe using a programmable high voltage supply. We find that increasing voltage amplitude generally increases the drawn current and the number of filaments, but does not significantly affect filament structure. Changing the AC voltage frequency on the other hand significantly affects filament structure, with higher frequencies generally resulting in more focused (smaller average diameter) filaments. These trends are discussed along with their physics and possible applications. Research supported by the U.S. DOE (DE-SC0006876) and the MARC grant (GM-08807).

  2. Large endolymphatic potentials from low-frequency and infrasonic tones in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alec N; Lichtenhan, Jeffery T; Gill, Ruth M; Hartsock, Jared J

    2013-03-01

    Responses of the ear to low-frequency and infrasonic sounds have not been extensively studied. Understanding how the ear responds to low frequencies is increasingly important as environmental infrasounds are becoming more pervasive from sources such as wind turbines. This study shows endolymphatic potentials in the third cochlear turn from acoustic infrasound (5?Hz) are larger than from tones in the audible range (e.g., 50 and 500?Hz), in some cases with peak-to-peak amplitude greater than 20?mV. These large potentials were suppressed by higher-frequency tones and were rapidly abolished by perilymphatic injection of KCl at the cochlear apex, demonstrating their third-turn origins. Endolymphatic iso-potentials from 5 to 500?Hz were enhanced relative to perilymphatic potentials as frequency was lowered. Probe and infrasonic bias tones were used to study the origin of the enhanced potentials. Potentials were best explained as a saturating response summed with a sinusoidal voltage (Vo), that was phase delayed by an average of 60° relative to the biasing effects of the infrasound. Vo is thought to arise indirectly from hair cell activity, such as from strial potential changes caused by sustained current changes through the hair cells in each half cycle of the infrasound. PMID:23464026

  3. Investigating the dependence of the temperature of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp electrodes on the operating frequency by pyrometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinelt, J.; Westermeier, M.; Ruhrmann, C.; Bergner, A.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.

    2011-03-01

    Phase-resolved temperature distributions are determined along a rod-shaped tungsten electrode, by which an ac arc is operated within a model lamp filled with argon. Switched dc and sinusoidal currents are applied with amplitudes of several amperes and operating frequencies being varied between 10 Hz and 10 kHz. The temperature is deduced from the grey body radiation of the electrode being recorded with a spectroscopic measuring system. Phase-resolved values of the electrode tip temperature Ttip and of the power input Pin are determined comparing the measured temperature distributions with the integral of the one-dimensional heat balance with these parameters as integration constants. They are supplemented by phase-resolved measurements of the sum of cathode and anode fall called the electrode sheath voltage. If a switched dc current is applied it is found that both quantities are within the cathodic phase only marginally higher than for a cathode being operated with a dc current. Ttip and Pin start to decrease for low currents and to increase for high currents at the beginning of the anodic phase. But with increasing operating frequency the deviations from the cathodic phase are reduced until they cannot be resolved for frequencies of several kHz. A more pronounced modulation, but the same tendencies, is observed with a sinusoidal current waveform. For 10 kHz a diffuse arc attachment with an almost phase-independent electrode tip temperature, which deviates only marginally from that of a dc cathode, and an electrode sheath voltage proportional to the arc current is established with both current waveforms.

  4. Voltage verification unit

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  5. SINUSOIDAL MODELING OF SPOT MICROPHONE SIGNALS BASED ON NOISE TRANSPLANTATION FOR MULTICHANNEL AUDIO CODING

    E-print Network

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    -known sinu- soidal plus noise model (SNM). Sinusoids cannot be used per se for high-quality audio modeling AUDIO CODING Christos Tzagkarakis, Athanasios Mouchtaris, and Panagiotis Tsakalides Department focuses on high-fidelity multichannel audio model- ing based on an enhanced adaptation of the well

  6. EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS-WAVE, PULSED, AND SINUSOIDAL-AMPLITUDE-MODULATED MICROWAVES ON BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of the effects of continuous wave, sinusoidal-amplitude modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague Dawley rats (175-225g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adensine triphosphate (ATP) concentrat...

  7. Direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with non-sinusoidal back-EMF 

    E-print Network

    Ozturk, Salih Baris

    2009-05-15

    torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with sinusoidal back-EMF is discussed in detail. Secondly, the proposed two-phase conduction mode for DTC of BLDC motors is introduced in the constant torque region. In this control scheme, only...

  8. Influence of fog parameters on withstand voltage of contaminated insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, K.; Ito, M.; Katsukawa, H.; Kawaguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    1983-03-01

    This paper describes the investigation results of fog parameters which affect the withstand voltage of contaminated insulators. As a result, the guideline is proposed on fog conditions such as density, droplet size distribution, temperature rise in the fog room, and so on, basing upon the comparison between natural and artificial fog conditions and the relation between fog condition and power-frequency withstand voltage.

  9. A neural mechanism of phase-locked responses to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated signals in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takayuki; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki

    2015-08-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) is an auditory region that receives convergent inputs from a large number of lower auditory nuclei. ICc neurons phase-lock to low frequencies of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) signals but have a different mechanism in the phase-locking from that in neurons of lower nuclei. In the mustached bat, the phase-locking ability in lower nuclei is created by the coincidence of phase-locked excitatory and inhibitory inputs that have slightly different latencies. In contrast, the phase-locking property of ICc neurons is little influenced by the blocking of inhibitory synapses. Moreover, ICc neurons exhibit different characteristics in the spike patterns and synchronicity, classified here by three types of ICc neurons, or sustained, onset, and non-onset phase-locking neurons. However it remains unclear how ICc neurons create the phase-locking ability and the different characteristics. To address this issue, we developed a model of ICc neuronal population. Using this model, we show that the phase-locking ability of ICc neurons to low SAM frequencies is created by an intrinsic membrane property of ICc neuron, limited by inhibitory ion channels. We also show that response characteristics of the three types of neurons arise from the difference in an inhibitory effect sensitive to SAM frequencies. Our model reproduces well the experimental results observed in the mustached bat. These findings provide necessary conditions of how ICc neurons can give rise to the phase-locking ability and characteristic responses to low SAM frequencies. PMID:26032987

  10. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a site of murine cytomegalovirus latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Seckert, Christof K; Renzaho, Angélique; Tervo, Hanna-Mari; Krause, Claudia; Deegen, Petra; Kühnapfel, Birgit; Reddehase, Matthias J; Grzimek, Natascha K A

    2009-09-01

    Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently transmitted by organ transplantation, and its reactivation under conditions of immunosuppressive prophylaxis against graft rejection by host-versus-graft disease bears a risk of graft failure due to viral pathogenesis. CMV is the most common cause of infection following liver transplantation. Although hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage are a recognized source of latent CMV, the cellular sites of latency in the liver are not comprehensively typed. Here we have used the BALB/c mouse model of murine CMV infection to identify latently infected hepatic cell types. We performed sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation with male donors and female recipients to generate latently infected sex chromosome chimeras, allowing us to distinguish between Y-chromosome (gene sry or tdy)-positive donor-derived hematopoietic descendants and Y-chromosome-negative cells of recipients' tissues. The viral genome was found to localize primarily to sry-negative CD11b(-) CD11c(-) CD31(+) CD146(+) cells lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (MHC-II) but expressing murine L-SIGN. This cell surface phenotype is typical of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Notably, sry-positive CD146(+) cells were distinguished by the expression of MHC-II and did not harbor latent viral DNA. In this model, the frequency of latently infected cells was found to be 1 to 2 per 10(4) LSECs, with an average copy number of 9 (range, 4 to 17) viral genomes. Ex vivo-isolated, latently infected LSECs expressed the viral genes m123/ie1 and M122/ie3 but not M112-M113/e1, M55/gB, or M86/MCP. Importantly, in an LSEC transfer model, infectious virus reactivated from recipients' tissue explants with an incidence of one reactivation per 1,000 viral-genome-carrying LSECs. These findings identified LSECs as the main cellular site of murine CMV latency and reactivation in the liver. PMID:19535440

  11. Single Event Transients in Low Voltage Dropout (LVDO) Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, K.; Karsh, J.; Pursley, S.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.; Poivey, C.; Kim, H.; Seidleck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Low Voltage Dropout (LVDO) Voltage Regulators in environments where heavy ion induced Single Event Transients are a concern to the designers.Included in the presentation are results of tests of voltage regulators.

  12. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  13. Age and Individual Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in controlled force exertion by emulating sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 222 right-handed female adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength by the dominant hand to changing demand values displayed as either a sinusoidal or a quasi-random…

  14. Gravity current flow over sinusoidal topography in a two-layer ambient Mitchell Nicholson and Morris R. Flynn

    E-print Network

    Flynn, Morris R.

    Gravity current flow over sinusoidal topography in a two-layer ambient Mitchell Nicholson to IP: 142.244.179.59 On: Wed, 23 Sep 2015 15:10:24 #12;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 27, 096603 (2015) Gravity released gravity currents propagating through a two-layer ambient and over sinusoidal topography

  15. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources for static var generation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng |; Lai, Jih-Sheng; McKeever, J.; VanCoevering, J.

    1995-09-01

    A new multilevel voltage-source inverter with a separate dc sources is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications, such as flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle as the number of levels increases. It can solve the problems of conventional transformer-based multipulse inverters and the problems of the multilevel diode-clamped inverter and the multilevel flying capacitor inverter. To demonstrate the superiority of the new inverter, a SVG system using the new inverter topology is discussed through analysis, simulation and experiment.

  16. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    E-print Network

    Hojgaard Olesen, Laurits

    We study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider the simplest possible model of a ...

  17. Silicon-Germanium Voltage-Controlled Oscillator at 105 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Alden; Larocca, Tim; Chang, M. Frank; Samoska, Lorene A.

    2011-01-01

    A group at UCLA, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has designed a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) created specifically for a compact, integrated, electronically tunable frequency generator useable for submillimeter- wave science instruments operating in extreme cold environments.

  18. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  19. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  20. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  1. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  2. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-print Network

    Shariatpanahi, S P; Abdollahzadeh, I; Shirsavar, R; Bonn, D; Ejtehadi, R

    2011-01-01

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  3. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-print Network

    S. P. Shariatpanahi; A. Iraji zad; I. Abdollahzadeh; R. Shirsavar; D. Bonn; R. Ejtehadi

    2011-09-12

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  4. Threshold voltage extraction circuit 

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  5. High Voltage TAL Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Manzella, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a two-stage, anode layer Hall thruster was evaluated. Experiments were conducted in single and two-stage configurations. In single-stage configuration, the thruster was operated with discharge voltages ranging from 300 to 1700 V. Discharge specific impulses ranged from 1630 to 4140 sec. Thruster investigations were conducted with input power ranging from 1 to 8.7 kW, corresponding to power throttling of nearly 9: 1. An extensive two-stage performance map was generated. Data taken with total voltage (sum of discharge and accelerating voltage) constant revealed a decrease in thruster efficiency as the discharge voltage was increased. Anode specific impulse values were comparable in the single and two-stage configurations showing no strong advantage for two-stage operation.

  6. High-voltage distributors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcchesney, J. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Two distributors reduce high-voltage breakdowns and corona discharges. Both distributors are constructed to prevent air traps and facilitate servicing without soldering. Occurrence of coronas is also minimized due to smooth surfaces of device.

  7. Imaging voltage in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Takahashi, Hiroto; Yuste, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, imaging membrane potential has become a fruitful approach to study neural circuits, especially in invertebrate preparations with large, resilient neurons. At the same time, particularly in mammalian preparations, voltage imaging methods suffer from poor signal to noise and secondary side effects, and they fall short of providing single-cell resolution when imaging of the activity of neuronal populations. As an introduction to these techniques, we briefly review different voltage imaging methods (including organic fluorophores, SHG chromophores, genetic indicators, hybrid, nanoparticles and intrinsic approaches), and illustrate some of their applications to neuronal biophysics and mammalian circuit analysis. We discuss their mechanisms of voltage sensitivity, from reorientation, electrochromic or electro-optical phenomena, to interaction among chromophores or membrane scattering, and highlight their advantages and shortcomings, commenting on the outlook for development of novel voltage imaging methods. PMID:21220095

  8. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-03-15

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  9. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOEpatents

    Doepke, Matthias (Garbsen, DE); Eisermann, Henning (Edermissen, DE)

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  10. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100 cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130 cm was obtained by only 4 kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  11. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-15

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100?cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130?cm was obtained by only 4?kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  12. Bone marrow long label-retaining cells reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiaki; Takubo, Keiyo; Suda, Toshio

    2008-02-08

    In response to changing signals, quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be induced to an activated cycling state and provide multi-lineage hematopoietic cells to the whole body via blood vessels. However, the precise localization of quiescent HSCs in bone marrow microenvironment is not fully characterized. Here, we performed whole-mount immunostaining of bone marrow and found that BrdU label-retaining cells (LRCs) definitively reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic zone distant from the 'vascular niche'. Although LRCs expressed very low level of a well-known HSC marker, c-kit in normal circumstances, myeloablation by 5-FU treatment caused LRCs to abundantly express c-kit and proliferate actively. These results demonstrate that bone marrow LRCs reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche, and function as a regenerative cell pool of HSCs.

  13. Scavenger receptor for malondialdehyde-modified high density lipoprotein on rat sinusoidal liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M.; Horiuchi, S.; Takata, K.; Morino, Y.

    1986-05-29

    The presence of a membrane-associated receptor which mediates endocytic uptake of malondialydehyde-modified high density lipoprotein (MDA-HDL) on sinusoidal liver cells is reported. Binding of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL to the cells was followed by internalization and degradation in lysosomes. The binding and lysomal degradation of (/sup 125/I)MDA-HDL were effectively inhibited by unlabeled MDA-HDL and acetyl-HDL. However, formaldehyde-treated serum albumin or low density lipoprotein modified either by acetylation or malondialdehyde, ligands known to undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal liver cells, did not affect the binding of (/sup 175/I)MDA-HDL to the cells. These results indicate that a receptor for MDA-HDL is described as a distinct member among the scavenger receptors for chemically modified proteins.

  14. Differential influence of sinusoidal and noisy inputs on synaptic connections in a network with STDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J.; Schuster, H. G.; Ngo, H.-V. V.; Mölle, M.; Born, J.

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesize that the type of cortical network activation influences synaptic connectivity in the network, eventually expressed in an altered responsiveness to external stimuli. Our predictions are based on a time discrete canonical model of spike-time-dependent plasticity. The results show that, at a given synaptic connection strength in the network, sinusoidal input to the network can decrease synaptic potentiation whereas uncorrelated noise increases synaptic potentiation, implying that these opposing effects manifest themselves in respective decreases and increases of the network response to an external stimulus. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with visually evoked responses obtained in humans after 9 hour periods of visual deprivation (used to increase sinusoidal EEG alpha-activity in cortical networks) or normal daytime vision (as an approximate of noise input).

  15. Nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic fields as a noninvasive strategy in bone repair: the effect on human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Mario; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Marchese, Rodolfo; Foletti, Alberto; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2015-02-01

    In vivo control of osteoblast differentiation is an important process needed to maintain the continuous supply of mature osteoblast cells for growth, repair, and remodeling of bones. The regulation of this process has also an important and significant impact on the clinical strategies and future applications of cell therapy. In this article, we studied the effect of nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic field radiation tuned at calcium-ion cyclotron frequency of 50?Hz exposure treatment for bone differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) alone or in synergy with dexamethasone, their canonical chemical differentiation agent. Five days of continuous exposure to calcium-ion cyclotron resonance affect hMSC proliferation, morphology, and cytoskeletal actin reorganization. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed an increase of osteoblast differentiation marker expression such as Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and osteopontin (OPN) together with the osteoprotegerin mRNA modulation. Moreover, in these cells, the increase of the protein expression of OPN and ALP was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate bone commitment of hMSCs through a noninvasive and biocompatible differentiating physical agent treatment and highlight possible applications in new regenerative medicine protocols. PMID:25087470

  16. Bouncing ball dynamics: Simple model of motion of the table and sinusoidal motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okni?ski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Bogus?aw

    2014-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of a bouncing ball moving vertically in a gravitational field and colliding with a moving limiter is considered and the Poincar\\'e map, describing evolution from an impact to the next impact, is described. Displacement of the table is approximated in one period by four cubic polynomials. Results obtained for this model are used to elucidate dynamics of the standard model of bouncing ball with sinusoidal motion of the limiter.

  17. Bouncing ball dynamics: simple model of motion of the table and sinusoidal motion

    E-print Network

    Andrzej Okni?ski; Bogus?aw Radziszewski

    2013-02-02

    Nonlinear dynamics of a bouncing ball moving vertically in a gravitational field and colliding with a moving limiter is considered and the Poincar\\'e map, describing evolution from an impact to the next impact, is described. Displacement of the table is approximated in one period by four cubic polynomials. Results obtained for this model are used to elucidate dynamics of the standard model of bouncing ball with sinusoidal motion of the limiter.

  18. High-frequency ac power distribution in Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    A utility-type 20-kHz ac power distribution system for the Space Station, employing resonant power-conversion techniques, is presented. The system converts raw dc voltage from photovoltaic cells or three-phase LF ac voltage from a solar dynamic generator into a regulated 20-kHz ac voltage for distribution among various loads. The results of EASY5 computer simulations of the local and global performance show that the system has fast response and good transient behavior. The ac bus voltage is effectively regulated using the phase-control scheme, which is demonstrated with both line and load variations. The feasibility of paralleling the driver-module outputs is illustrated with the driver modules synchronized and sharing a common feedback loop. An HF sinusoidal ac voltage is generated in the three-phase ac input case, when the driver modules are phased 120 deg away from one another and their outputs are connected in series.

  19. Motion stability analysis of non-sinusoidal oscillation of mold driven by servomotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yunfeng; Li, Junxia; Fang, Yiming

    2015-10-01

    The investments of the electro-hydraulic servo system of the mold non-sinusoidal oscillator are great, the modification ratio of the mechanical type is unable to be adjusted online, and some continuous casters suffer from server resonance during the casting. A mold non-sinusoidal oscillation mechanism driven by servomotor is proposed and the prototype is produced in the lab, the investment is low and the modification ratio is can be adjusted online, and the stability problem is studied. At first the dynamics model of the servomotor non-sinusoidal oscillation is established, and the kinematics differential function is deduced. Furthermore, based on the harmonic balance method, the eigenvalues of the system are solved; the criterion of the stability of the system is put forward. In addition, the eigenvalues and harmonic with different oscillating parameters are analyzed. Analytical results show that the real parts of the eigenvalues are positive, the system will be unstable, and the resonance will occur when the positive real parts of the eigenvalues are extremum. A foundation is established for solving the running smooth problem and next application of this mechanism.

  20. Sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Chern, Tzuen-Lih; Pan, Ping-Lung; Huang, Tsung-Mou; Tsay, Der-Min; Kuang, Jao-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    The precise rotor-position information is required for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor (BLACM) drive. In the conventional sinusoidal drive method, either an encoder or a resolver is usually employed. For position sensor-less vector control schemes, the rotor flux estimation and torque components are obtained by complicated coordinate transformations. These computational intensive methods are susceptible to current distortions and parameter variations. To simplify the method complexity, this work presents a sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive scheme with speed control for a three-phase BLACM. Based on the sinusoidal drive scheme, a floating period of each phase current is inserted for back electromotive force detection. The zero-crossing point is determined directly by the proposed scheme, and the rotor magnetic position and rotor speed can be estimated simultaneously. Several experiments for various active angle periods are undertaken. Furthermore, a current feedback control is included to minimize and compensate the torque fluctuation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a competitive performance compared with the conventional drive manners for BLACM. The proposed scheme is straightforward, bringing the benefits of sensor-less drive and negating the need for coordinate transformations in the operating process.

  1. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  2. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  3. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  4. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  5. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM); Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  6. Geomagnetism and induced voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-07-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of conceptual integrated science over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is initiated by the change in the magnetic flux due to the Earth's magnetic field and movement. This simple and enjoyable experiment will demonstrate how basic concepts in physics and geology can help us think about possible health effects due to the induced voltage.

  7. Electro-optic control of a PPLN-unpoled LiNbO3 boundary for low-voltage Q switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd3+:YVO4 laser.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Pereda, J A; Capmany, J

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple technique to integrate an electro-optic Q switch in a periodically poled bulk lithium niobate crystal bounded by two unpoled (monodomain) regions. The technique exploits the high sensitivity to low applied electric fields of the total internal reflection condition in the periodic poled-unpoled boundary for the small grazing incidence angles associated with the diffraction of a focused Gaussian beam that propagates in the periodically poled region with its axis parallel to the boundary. When the arrangement is placed intracavity to a 1064 nm diode-pumped Nd(3+):YVO(4) laser, it performs simultaneously as a Q switch and as a second-harmonic generator, with Q switching starting at applied voltages as low as 1 V over a 500 microm thickness and with no additional optical elements. PMID:19649073

  8. Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Integrated Component Systems, Inc. incorporated information from a NASA Tech Briefs article into a voltage-controlled oscillator it designed for a customer. The company then applied the technology to its series of phase-locked loop synthesizers, which offer superior phase noise performance.

  9. Improving membrane voltage measurements

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor and acceptor to develop a voltage sensor, named Mermaid of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) emitting blue, cyan and yellow and the discovery of GFP have been developed for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) applications2. Unimolecular

  10. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is…

  11. A simple method for the estimation of power losses in silicon iron sheets under alternating pulse voltage excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Amar, M.; Protat, F.

    1994-03-01

    The prediction of iron losses in magnetic steels submitted to alternating pulse voltages is studied and an efficient method is proposed. It is developed by coupling the pulse voltage form factor and the loss separation model. Prediction of iron losses becomes possible directly from the loss model corresponding to the sinusoidal flux density. This method is validated on silicon iron grain-oriented and nonoriented magnetic steels. The predetermined iron losses are coherent with those measured and this approach allows both simplicity and precision well appreciated by industry.

  12. Adaptive instrumental variable methods for frequency estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Ari; Stoica, Petre; Soderstrom, Torsten

    1992-09-01

    This paper considers adaptive instrumental variable methods (IVMs) for estimating the frequencies of noise-corrupted sinusoidal signals. Adaptive implementations of both the unweighted and the optimally weighted IVMs are given. Since the optimal weighting matrix depends on the (unknown) signal parameters, we examine ways to estimate this quantity on-line. A theoretical and an experimental study show that the optimally weighted IVM gives more accurate and less biased estimates than the unweighted IVM. The improved accuracy is obtained at the expense of increasing computational complexity. The IVMs determine the AR part of an exactly parametrized ARMA description of the sinusoids-in-noise process. A fast, adaptive algorithm to estimate the frequencies from the AR coefficients is proposed. The method is based on simultaneous estimation of all roots of the AR polynomial.

  13. VOLTAGE-TUNABLE PIEZOELECTRICALLY-TRANSDUCED SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON RESONATORS ON SOI SUBSTRATE

    E-print Network

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    VOLTAGE-TUNABLE PIEZOELECTRICALLY-TRANSDUCED SINGLE-CRYSTAL SILICON RESONATORS ON SOI SUBSTRATE) resonators that are piezoelectrically actuated and sensed, and have voltage-tunable center frequencies blocks for on-chip integrated filter and frequency references to replace bulky, off-chip ceramic and SAW

  14. Seizure entrainment with polarizing low-frequency electric fields in a chronic animal epilepsy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Chernyy, Nick; Peixoto, Nathalia; Mason, Jonathan P.; Weinstein, Steven L.; Schiff, Steven J.; Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2009-08-01

    Neural activity can be modulated by applying a polarizing low-frequency (Lt100 Hz) electric field (PLEF). Unlike conventional pulsed stimulation, PLEF stimulation has a graded, modulatory effect on neuronal excitability, and permits the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity during stimulation suitable for continuous feedback control. We tested a prototype system that allows for simultaneous PLEF stimulation with minimal recording artifact in a chronic tetanus toxin animal model (rat) of hippocampal epilepsy with spontaneous seizures. Depth electrode local field potentials recorded during seizures revealed a characteristic pattern of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs). Sinusoidal voltage-controlled PLEF stimulation (0.5-25 Hz) was applied in open-loop cycles radially across the CA3 of ventral hippocampus. For stimulated seizures, fPSPs were transiently entrained with the PLEF waveform. Statistical significance of entrainment was assessed with Thomson's harmonic F-test, with 45/132 stimulated seizures in four animals individually demonstrating significant entrainment (p < 0.04). Significant entrainment for multiple presentations at the same frequency (p < 0.01) was observed in three of four animals in 42/64 stimulated seizures. This is the first demonstration in chronically implanted freely behaving animals of PLEF modulation of neural activity with simultaneous recording.

  15. Limits in high efficiency quantum frequency conversion

    E-print Network

    Nicolás Quesada; J. E. Sipe

    2015-08-13

    Frequency conversion is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. In this letter we study fundamental limits to high efficiency frequency conversion imposed by time ordering corrections. Using the Magnus expansion, we argue that these corrections, which are usually considered detrimental, can be used to increase the efficiency of conversion under certain circumstances. The corrections induce a nonlinear behaviour in the probability of upconversion as a function of the pump intensity, significantly modifying the sinusoidal Rabi oscillations that are otherwise expected. Finally, by using a simple scaling argument, we explain why cascaded frequency conversion devices attenuate time ordering corrections, allowing the construction of near ideal quantum pulse gates.

  16. Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometer using an acousto-optic tunable filter with double feedback control for real-time distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Osami; Matsubara, Daiki; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2008-12-01

    Optical path difference (OPD) and amplitude of a sinusoidal wavelength-scanning (SWS) are controlled with double feedback control system in an SWS interferometer, so that a ruler marking every wavelength and a ruler with scales smaller than a wavelength are generated. These two rulers enable us to measure an OPD longer than a wavelength. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is adopted as a wavelength-scanning device. The frequency of the SWS is 10 KHZ, and the measurement time required to reach a stable point of the control system is about 7ms. The measurement range is from 65 m to 190 m with the measurement error less than 4nm.

  17. Frequency selectivity of synaptic exocytosis in frog saccular hair cells

    E-print Network

    Lin, Kevin K.

    Frequency selectivity of synaptic exocytosis in frog saccular hair cells Mark A. Rutherford is fundamental to signal processing in the ear. The frog (Rana pipiens) sacculus, which is used for social sinusoidal-stimuli- evoked Ca2 currents. We conclude that frog saccular hair cells possess an intrinsic

  18. Arsenic Stimulates Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell Capillarization and Vessel Remodeling in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Adam C.; Stolz, Donna B.; Ross, Mark A.; Hernández-Zavala, Araceli; Soucy, Nicole V.; Klei, Linda R.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Trivalent arsenic [As(III)] is a well-known environmental toxicant that causes a wide range of organ-specific diseases and cancers. In the human liver, As(III) promotes vascular remodeling, portal fibrosis, and hypertension, but the pathogenesis of these As(III)-induced vascular changes is unknown. To investigate the hypothesis that As(III) targets the hepatic endothelium to initiate pathogenic change, mice were exposed to 0 or 250 parts per billion (ppb) of As(III) in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Arsenic(III) exposure did not affect the overall health of the animals, the general structure of the liver, or hepatocyte morphology. There was no change in the total tissue arsenic levels, indicating that arsenic does not accumulate in the liver at this level of exposure. However, there was significant vascular remodeling with increased sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) capillarization, vascularization of the peribiliary vascular plexus (PBVP), and constriction of hepatic arterioles in As(III)-exposed mice. In addition to ultrastructural demonstration of SEC defenestration and capillarization, quantitative immunofluorescence analysis revealed increased sinusoidal PECAM-1 and laminin-1 protein expression, suggesting gain of adherens junctions and a basement membrane. Conversion of SECs to a capillarized, dedifferentiated endothelium was confirmed at the cellular level with demonstration of increased caveolin-1 expression and SEC caveolae, as well as increased membrane-bound Rac1-GTPase. Conclusion These data demonstrate that exposure to As(III) causes functional changes in SEC signaling for sinusoidal capillarization that may be initial events in pathogenic changes in the liver. PMID:17187425

  19. The critical modulation frequency and its relationship to auditory filtering at low frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sek, A; Moore, B C

    1994-05-01

    If the thresholds for detecting sinusoidal amplitude or frequency modulation of a sinusoidal carrier with frequency fc are expressed in terms of the respective modulation indices, m and beta, the ratio beta/m decreases as the modulation frequency increases, and approaches an asymptotic value of unity. The modulation frequency at which the ratio first becomes unity is called the critical modulation frequency (CMF). It has been suggested that the CMF is reached when the spectral sidebands in the stimulus first become detectable and that the CMF corresponds to half the value of the critical bandwidth (CB) at fc. In this paper it is demonstrated that the CMF is confounded as a measure of frequency selectivity at low frequencies, since, for modulation frequencies around the CMF, the sideband that is most detectable changes with fc. For values of fc above 250 Hz, the lower sideband is most detectable. For values of fc below 200 Hz, the upper sideband is most detectable. These findings can account for the fact that the CMF flattens off at low carrier frequencies, reaching an asymptotic value of about 40 Hz, whereas the auditory filter bandwidth continues to decrease down to very low center frequencies. PMID:8207132

  20. Sinusoidally Modulated Vacuum Rabi Oscillation of a Two-Level Atom in an Optomechanical Cavity

    E-print Network

    Zhenshan Yang; Chenglin Bai; Xiangguo Meng; Minghong Wang

    2015-07-20

    We study the coherent dynamics of an excited two-level atom in a vacuum optomechanical cavity and find that the original atom-cavity Rabi oscillation is sinusoidally modulated by the light-mechanics coupling as the Rabi splitting is on resonance with the mechanical mode. We develop an analytic model in a three-dimensional Hilbert subspace to explain this phenomenon and employ numerical simulations of the density-matrix master equation to confirm our analysis. We also show that the modulated Rabi oscillation survives in presence of dissipations and other non-ideal factors.

  1. Investigation of phase error correction for digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Quan, C.; Zhu, R.; Tay, C. J.

    2012-08-01

    Digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (DSPFPP) is a powerful tool to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) surface of diffuse objects. However, a highly accurate profile is often hindered by nonlinear response, color crosstalk and imbalance of a pair of digital projector and CCD/CMOS camera. In this paper, several phase error correction methods, such as Look-Up-Table (LUT) compensation, intensity correction, gamma correction, LUT-based hybrid method and blind phase error suppression for gray and color-encoded DSPFPP are described. Experimental results are also demonstrated to evaluate the effectiveness of each method.

  2. Single step measurement of optical transmitters Henry factor using sinusoidal optical phase modulations.

    PubMed

    Provost, J-G; Martinez, A; Shen, A; Ramdane, A

    2011-10-24

    Measurement of the Henry factor over large optical bandwidth is carried out in a single step without any filtering, using a technique based on the sinusoidal phase modulation method. This fast technique was successfully applied to a directly modulated Fabry Perot laser to obtain simultaneously the linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) of 14 longitudinal modes. It is also well suited for electro-absorption modulators (EAM) for which the ?-factor is determined over 15 nm optical bandwidth. A very good agreement is found with the well established fiber transfer function method. PMID:22108989

  3. Efficacy of an AC sinusoidal electric field for apoptosis induction in lung carcinoma cells (A549)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Lee, Seung S.; Hoon Lee, Dae

    2012-08-01

    An AC sinusoidal electric field was applied to lung carcinoma cells for the induction of apoptosis. The occurrence of apoptosis was determined by analysis of Annexin V/PI and DNA fragmentation. Additional evidence of apoptosis was confirmed by caspase-3 cleavage and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated that the expression of apoptosis can be controlled by varying the magnitude and the duration of the field, and that the application of an AC electric field can stimulate the apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  4. Simulation of residual oil displacement in a sinusoidal channel with the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otomo, Hiroshi; Fan, Hongli; Hazlett, Randy; Li, Yong; Staroselsky, Ilya; Zhang, Raoyang; Chen, Hudong

    2015-10-01

    We simulate oil slug displacement in a sinusoidal channel in order to validate computational models and algorithms for multi-component flow. This case fits in the gap between fully realistic cases characterized by complicated geometry and academic cases with simplistic geometry. Our computational model is based on the lattice Boltzmann method and allows for variation of physical parameters such as wettability and viscosity. The effect of variation of model parameters is analyzed, in particular via comparison with analytical solutions. We discuss the requirements for accurate solution of the oil slug displacement problem.

  5. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cell injury by neutrophils in rats with acute obstructive cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian-Ping; Wu, Chuan-Xin; Liu, Chang-An; Li, Sheng-Wei; Shi, Yu-Jun; Li, Xu-Hong; Peng, Yong

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The objective of this study is to elucidate the potential role of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the development of such a sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) injury during early acute obstructive cholangitis (AOC) in rats. METHODS: Twenty one Wistar rats were divided into three groups: the AOC group, the bile duct ligated group (BDL group), and the sham operation group (SO group). The common bile duct (CBD) of rats in AOC group was dually ligated and 0.2 mL of the E. coli O111 B4 (5 × 109 cfu/mL) suspension was injected into the upper segment, in BDL group, only the CBD was ligated and in SO group, neither injection of E. coli suspension nor CBD ligation was done, but the same operative procedure. Such group consisted of seven rats, all animals were killed 6 h after the operation. Morphological changes of the liver were observed under light and electron microscope. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in hepatic tissue was determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined with anutoanalyger and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Neutrophils was accumulated in the hepatic sinusoids and sinusoidal endothelial cell injury existed in AOC group. In contrast, in rats of BDL group, all the features of SEC damage were greatly reduced. Expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in hepatic tissue in three groups were 7.54 ± 0.82, 2.87 ± 0.34, and 1.01 ± 0.12, respectively. There were significant differences among three groups (P < 0.05). The serum CINC levels in the three groups were 188 ± 21 ng•L?¹, 94 ± 11 ng•L?¹, and 57 ± 8 ng•L?¹, respectively. There were also significant differences among the three groups (P < 0.05). Activity of the serum ALT was 917 ± 167 nkat•L?¹, 901 ± 171 nkat•L?¹, and 908 ± 164 nkat•L?¹, respectively, (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hepatic SEC injury occurs earlier than hepatic parenchymal cells during AOC. Recruitments of circulating neutrophils in the hepatic sinusoidal space might mediate the SEC injury, and ICAM-1 in the liver may modulate the PMN of accumulation. PMID:11925621

  6. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  7. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  8. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  9. Insulators for high voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Looms, J.S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes electrical insulators for high voltage applications. Topics considered include the insulating materials, the manufacture of wet process porcelain, the manufacture of tempered glass, the glass-fibre core, the polymeric housing, the common problem - terminating an insulator, mechanical constraints, the physics of pollution flashover, the physics of contamination, testing of insulators, conclusions from testing, remedies for flashover, insulators for special cases, interference and noise, and the insulator of the future.

  10. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes constructed device very mobile. The project is still developing.

  11. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  12. High Voltage Connector

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-06

    The originally designed high voltage connectors were to be made of brass. However, if treated like a Bellevile spring with the initially given dimensions, the stresses of the connector when crimped were calculated to be much higher than the yield stress of brass. Since the flange and outer diameters of the connector are to remain small, it was necessary to alter the other dimensions and choice of material in order to bring down the stresses applied to the connector.

  13. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L. (Martinez, CA); Pike, Chester D. (Pinole, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  14. Large-signal characterizations of DDR IMPATT devices based on group III-V semiconductors at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, Aritra; Mallik, Aliva; Banerjee, Debopriya; Ganguli, Suman; Das, Arindam; Dasgupta, Sudeepto; Banerjee, J. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-signal (L-S) characterizations of double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices based on group III-V semiconductors such as wurtzite (Wz) GaN, GaAs and InP have been carried out at both millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and terahertz (THz) frequency bands. A L-S simulation technique based on a non-sinusoidal voltage excitation (NSVE) model developed by the authors has been used to obtain the high frequency properties of the above mentioned devices. The effect of band-to-band tunneling on the L-S properties of the device at different mm-wave and THz frequencies are also investigated. Similar studies are also carried out for DDR IMPATTs based on the most popular semiconductor material, i.e. Si, for the sake of comparison. A comparative study of the devices based on conventional semiconductor materials (i.e. GaAs, InP and Si) with those based on Wz-GaN shows significantly better performance capabilities of the latter at both mm-wave and THz frequencies.

  15. Species differences in sinusoidal and canalicular efflux transport of mycophenolic acid 7-O-glucuronide in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tetsuka, Kazuhiro; Gerst, Nicolas; Tamura, Kouichi; Masters, Jeffrey N

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism and sinusoidal/canalicular efflux of mycophenolic acid (MPA) was investigated using sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs). After applying MPA to SCHs from humans, wild-type rats, and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2-deficient rats, the MPA metabolites 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) and acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) were detected in the intracellular compartment of the SCHs. Sinusoidal efflux of MPAG was detected in all SCH preparations including Mrp2-deficient rat SCHs, whereas canalicular efflux of MPAG was observed in wild-type rat and human SCHs but not in Mrp2-deficient rat SCHs. The ratio of canalicular efflux to net (canalicular plus sinusoidal) efflux was 37 ± 8% in wild-type rat SCHs, while the ratio in human SCHs was significantly lower (20 ± 2%, P < 0.05), indicating species differences in the direction of hepatic MPAG transport. This 20% ratio in human SCHs corresponds to a high sinusoidal MPAG efflux (80%) that can in part account for the urine-dominated recovery of MPAG in humans. Both sinusoidal and canalicular MPAG efflux in rat SCHs shows a good correspondence to urinary and biliary recovery of MPAG after MPA dosing. The sinusoidal efflux of AcMPAG in human SCHs was detected from one out of three donors, suggesting donor-to-donor variation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the predictive value of SCHs for elucidating the interplay of metabolism and efflux transport, in addition to demonstrating a species difference between rat and human in sinusoidal and canalicular efflux of MPAG. PMID:25505584

  16. Species differences in sinusoidal and canalicular efflux transport of mycophenolic acid 7-O-glucuronide in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Kazuhiro; Gerst, Nicolas; Tamura, Kouichi; Masters, Jeffrey N

    2014-04-01

    Metabolism and sinusoidal/canalicular efflux of mycophenolic acid (MPA) was investigated using sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs). After applying MPA to SCHs from humans, wild-type rats, and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2-deficient rats, the MPA metabolites 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) and acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) were detected in the intracellular compartment of the SCHs. Sinusoidal efflux of MPAG was detected in all SCH preparations including Mrp2-deficient rat SCHs, whereas canalicular efflux of MPAG was observed in wild-type rat and human SCHs but not in Mrp2-deficient rat SCHs. The ratio of canalicular efflux to net (canalicular plus sinusoidal) efflux was 37 ± 8% in wild-type rat SCHs, while the ratio in human SCHs was significantly lower (20 ± 2%, P < 0.05), indicating species differences in the direction of hepatic MPAG transport. This 20% ratio in human SCHs corresponds to a high sinusoidal MPAG efflux (80%) that can in part account for the urine-dominated recovery of MPAG in humans. Both sinusoidal and canalicular MPAG efflux in rat SCHs shows a good correspondence to urinary and biliary recovery of MPAG after MPA dosing. The sinusoidal efflux of AcMPAG in human SCHs was detected from one out of three donors, suggesting donor-to-donor variation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the predictive value of SCHs for elucidating the interplay of metabolism and efflux transport, in addition to demonstrating a species difference between rat and human in sinusoidal and canalicular efflux of MPAG. PMID:25505584

  17. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  18. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  19. The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2006-12-01

    In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy.

  20. Amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microchannels for observing adaptability in C. elegans locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Archana; Lycke, Roy; Carr, John A.; Pandey, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a movement-based assay to observe adaptability in Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion behavior. The assay comprises a series of sinusoidal microchannels with a fixed wavelength and modulating (increasing or decreasing) amplitude. The channel width is comparable to the body diameter of the organism. Worms are allowed to enter the channel from the input port and migrate toward the output port. Within channel sections that closely match the worm’s natural undulations, the worm movement is relatively quick and steady. As the channel amplitude increases or decreases along the device, the worm faces difficulty in generating the propulsive thrust, begins to slow down and eventually fails to move forward. A set of locomotion parameters (i.e., average forward velocity, number and duration of stops, range of contact angle, and cut-off region) is defined for worm locomotion in modulated sinusoidal channels and extracted from the recorded videos. The device is tested on wild-type C. elegans (N2) and two mutants (lev-8 and unc-38). We anticipate this passive, movement-based assay can be used to screen nematodes showing difference in locomotion phenotype. PMID:21772935

  1. Biliary obstruction dissipates bioelectric sinusoidal-canalicular barrier without altering taurocholate uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Cotting, J.; Zysset, T.; Reichen, J.

    1989-02-01

    To study immediate events during extrahepatic cholestasis, we investigated the effect of short-term biliary obstruction on the bioelectrical sinusoidal-canalicular barrier in the rat using molecular weight-matched uncharged and negatively charged inert solute pairs. The bioelectrical barrier averaged -22 +/- 5 and -18 +/- 4 mV (NS) using the pair carboxy-/methoxyinulin and ferrocyanide/sucrose, respectively. After a 20-min biliary obstruction both decreased by 61 and 11%, respectively, but only the large molecular weight pair (the inulins) returned to base line after release of the obstruction. Inert solute clearances were increased after short biliary obstruction depending on molecular size and negative charge (ferrocyanide greater than sucrose greater than carboxyinulin greater than inulin), suggesting that both permeability and bioelectrical barriers were affected by obstruction. The hepatic extraction in vivo of a passively transported drug not excreted into bile (D-propranolol) was not affected by obstruction, whereas that of an actively transported drug (glycocholate) decreased from 66 +/- 8 to 41 +/- 20% during biliary obstruction (P less than 0.01). Unidirectional transfer of glycocholate was not affected by short-term biliary obstruction in the situ perfused rat liver; however, 2 min after (14C)glycocholate administration, increased return was observed in hepatic venous effluent in obstructed animals. Our findings demonstrate a loss of the bioelectrical barrier immediately after short-term biliary obstruction. Decreased hepatic extraction in the view of unaltered sinusoidal uptake demonstrates regurgitation of bile into blood during short-term biliary obstruction.

  2. Vestibular modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during sinusoidal linear acceleration in supine humans

    PubMed Central

    Hammam, Elie; Bolton, Philip S.; Kwok, Kenny; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2014-01-01

    The utricle and saccular components of the vestibular apparatus preferentially detect linear displacements of the head in the horizontal and vertical planes, respectively. We previously showed that sinusoidal linear acceleration in the horizontal plane of seated humans causes a pronounced modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), supporting a significant role for the utricular component of the otolithic organs in the control of blood pressure. Here we tested the hypothesis that the saccule can also play a role in blood pressure regulation by modulating lower limb MSNA. Oligounitary MSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 12 subjects, laying supine on a motorized platform with the head aligned with the longitudinal axis of the body. Slow sinusoidal linear accelerations-decelerations (peak acceleration ±4 mG) were applied in the rostrocaudal axis (which predominantly stimulates the saccule) and in the mediolateral axis (which also engages the utricle) at 0.08 Hz. The modulation of MSNA in the rostrocaudal axis (29.4 ± 3.4%) was similar to that in the mediolateral axis (32.0 ± 3.9%), and comparable to that obtained by stimulation of the utricle alone in seated subjects with the head vertical. We conclude that both the saccular and utricular components of the otolithic organs play a role in the control of arterial pressure during postural challenges. PMID:25346657

  3. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis.

  4. On shock driven jetting of liquid from non-sinusoidal surfaces into a vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherne, F. J.; Hammerberg, J. E.; Andrews, M. J.; Karkhanis, V.; Ramaprabhu, P.

    2015-11-01

    Previous work employed Richtmyer-Meshkov theory to describe the development of spikes and bubbles from shocked sinusoidal surfaces. Here, we discuss the effects of machining different two-dimensional shaped grooves in copper and examine the resulting flow of the material after being shocked into liquid on release. For these simulations, a high performance molecular dynamics code, SPaSM, was used with machined grooves of kh0 = 1 and kh0 = 1/8, where 2h0 is the peak-to-valley height of the perturbation with wavelength ?, and k = 2?/?. The surface morphologies studied include a Chevron, a Fly-Cut, a Square-Wave, and a Gaussian. We describe extensions to an existing ejecta source model that better captures the mass ejected from these surfaces. We also investigate the same profiles at length scales of order 1 cm for an idealized fluid equation of state using the FLASH continuum hydrodynamics code. Our findings indicate that the resulting mass can be scaled by the missing area of a sinusoidal curve with an effective wavelength, ?eff, that has the same missing area. Our extended ejecta mass formula works well for all the shapes considered and captures the corresponding time evolution and total mass.

  5. Lensing Effects on the Brightness of SN Ia, When Using the Sinusoidal Potential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadras, M. J.; Bartlett, D. F.; Motl, P.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper the effects of gravitational lensing of SN Ia are studied, for the case when the Newtonian potential is replaced by the sinusoidal potential (GM/r -> (GM cos[kr])/r). First we treat the point-mass case, then move on to the instance of a diffuse mass. As one might guess, with this new potential, the plot of the bending angle (? ) with respect to impact parameter (b) goes from dropping off as b-1, to having oscillations that die off as the b-1/2. This in turn will cause dramatic effects on magnification and brightness. In principle the value of the cosmological deceleration parameter (q0), can be determined by a measurement of the ratio of ? to b. Wambsganss et al (1997) and Holz (1998) discussed the effects of weak gravitational lensing from large-scale structure on determining q0 within standard cosmology. Following their reasoning, we extend that work to the case of the sinusoidal potential.

  6. Long-term maintenance of a microfluidic 3D human liver sinusoid.

    PubMed

    Prodanov, Ljupcho; Jindal, Rohit; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Hegde, Manjunath; McCarty, William J; Golberg, Inna; Bhushan, Abhinav; Yarmush, Martin L; Usta, Osman Berk

    2016-01-01

    The development of long-term human organotypic liver-on-a-chip models for successful prediction of toxic response is one of the most important and urgent goals of the NIH/DARPA's initiative to replicate and replace chronic and acute drug testing in animals. For this purpose, we developed a microfluidic chip that consists of two microfluidic chambers separated by a porous membrane. The aim of this communication is to demonstrate the recapitulation of a liver sinusoid-on-a-chip, using human cells only for a period of 28 days. Using a step-by-step method for building a 3D microtissue on-a-chip, we demonstrate that an organotypic in vitro model that reassembles the liver sinusoid microarchitecture can be maintained successfully for a period of 28 days. In addition, higher albumin synthesis (synthetic) and urea excretion (detoxification) were observed under flow compared to static cultures. This human liver-on-a-chip should be further evaluated in drug-related studies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 241-246. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26152452

  7. Measurement and mathematical modelling of elastic and resistive lung mechanical properties studied at sinusoidal expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Bitzén, Ulrika; Niklason, Lisbet; Göransson, Ingegerd; Jonson, Björn

    2010-11-01

    Elastic pressure/volume (P(el) /V) and elastic pressure/resistance (P(el) /R) diagrams reflect parenchymal and bronchial properties, respectively. The objective was to develop a method for determination and mathematical characterization of P(el) /V and P(el) /R relationships, simultaneously studied at sinusoidal flow-modulated vital capacity expirations in a body plethysmograph. Analysis was carried out by iterative parameter estimation based on a composite mathematical model describing a three-segment P(el) /V curve and a hyperbolic P(el) /R curve. The hypothesis was tested that the sigmoid P(el) /V curve is non-symmetric. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. The hypothesis of a non-symmetric P(el) /V curve was verified. Its upper volume asymptote was nearly equal to total lung capacity (TLC), indicating lung stiffness increasing at high lung volume as the main factor limiting TLC at health. The asymptotic minimal resistance of the hyperbolic P(el) /R relationship reflected lung size. A detailed description of both P(el) /V and P(el) /R relationships was simultaneously derived from sinusoidal flow-modulated vital capacity expirations. The nature of the P(el) /V curve merits the use of a non-symmetric P(el) /V model. PMID:20726995

  8. A Novel Modular Bioreactor to In Vitro Study the Hepatic Sinusoid

    PubMed Central

    Illa, Xavi; Vila, Sergi; Yeste, Jose; Peralta, Carmen; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Villa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We describe a unique, versatile bioreactor consisting of two plates and a modified commercial porous membrane suitable for in vitro analysis of the liver sinusoid. The modular bioreactor allows i) excellent control of the cell seeding process; ii) cell culture under controlled shear stress stimulus, and; iii) individual analysis of each cell type upon completion of the experiment. The advantages of the bioreactor detailed here are derived from the modification of a commercial porous membrane with an elastomeric wall specifically moulded in order to define the cell culture area, to act as a gasket that will fit into the bioreactor, and to provide improved mechanical robustness. The device presented herein has been designed to simulate the in vivo organization of a liver sinusoid and tested by co-culturing endothelial cells (EC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). The results show both an optimal morphology of the endothelial cells as well as an improvement in the phenotype of stellate cells, most probably due to paracrine factors released from endothelial cells. This device is proposed as a versatile, easy-to-use co-culture system that can be applied to biomedical research of vascular systems, including the liver. PMID:25375141

  9. Controlled generation of nonlinear resonances through sinusoidal lattice modes in Bose–Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Priyam; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2015-12-01

    We study Bose–Einstein condensate in the combined presence of time modulated optical lattice and harmonic trap in the mean-field approach. Through the self-similar method, we show the existence of sinusoidal lattice modes in this inhomogeneous system, commensurate with the lattice potential. A significant advantage of this system is wide tunability of the parameters through chirp management. The combined effect of the interaction, harmonic trap and lattice potential leads to the generation of nonlinear resonances, exactly where the matter wave changes its direction. When the harmonic trap is switched off, the BEC undergoes a nonlinear compression for the static optical lattice potential. For better understanding of chirp management and the nature of the sinusoidal excitation, we investigate the energy spectrum of the condensate, which clearly reveals the generation of nonlinear resonances in the appropriate regime. We have also identified a classical dynamical phase transition occurring in the system, where loss of superfluidity takes the superfluid phase to an insulating state.

  10. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells Escape Senescence by Loss of p19ARF

    PubMed Central

    Koudelkova, Petra; Weber, Gerhard; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) represent a highly differentiated cell type that lines hepatic sinusoids. LSECs form a discontinuous endothelium due to fenestrations under physiological conditions, which are reduced upon chronic liver injury. Cultivation of rodent LSECs associates with a rapid onset of stress-induced senescence a few days post isolation, which limits genetic and biochemical studies ex vivo. Here we show the establishment of LSECs isolated from p19ARF-/- mice which undergo more than 50 cell doublings in the absence of senescence. Isolated p19ARF-/- LSECs display a cobblestone-like morphology and show the ability of tube formation. Analysis of DNA content revealed a stable diploid phenotype after long-term passaging without a gain of aneuploidy. Notably, p19ARF-/- LSECs express the endothelial markers CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, VE-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, stabilin-2 and CD146 suggesting that these cells harbor and maintain an endothelial phenotype. In line, treatment with small molecule inhibitors against VEGFR-2 caused cell death, demonstrating the sustained ability of p19ARF-/- LSECs to respond to anti-angiogenic therapeutics. From these data we conclude that loss of p19ARF overcomes senescence of LSECs, allowing immortalization of cells without losing endothelial characteristics. Thus, p19ARF-/- LSECs provide a novel cellular model to study endothelial cell biology. PMID:26528722

  11. High-voltage virtual-cathode microwave simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, L.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential is sufficiently large to cause electron reflection. The region associated with electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and by reflexing electrons trapped in the potential well formed between the real and virtual cathodes. A virtual-cathode device based on the first mechanism is a vircator while one based on latter mechanism is a reflex diode. A large number of low-voltage virtual-cathode microwave configurations have been investigated. Initial simulations of a high-voltage virtual-cathode device using a self-consistent particle-in-cell code indicated reasonable conversion efficiency with no frequency chirping. The nonchirping character of the high-voltage virtual-cathode device lead to the interesting possibility of locking four very-high-power microwave devices together using the four transmission lines available at Aurora. Subsequently, in support of two high-voltage experiments, simulations were used to investigate the effect of field-emission threshold and velvet position on the cathode; anode and cathode shape; anode-cathode gap spacing; output waveguide radius; diode voltage; a cathode-coaxial-cavity resonator; a high-frequency ac-voltage drive; anode foil scattering and energy loss; and ion emission on the microwave frequency and power. Microwave

  12. The effects of acceleration on precision frequency sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, John R.; Audoin, Claude; Cutler, Leonard S.; Driscoll, Michael M.; Eernisse, Errol P.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of acceleration on quartz and atomic frequency sources are reviewed. Guidelines are provided for the specification and testing of oscillator acceleration sensitivities. The discussion includes: steady-state acceleration effects, gravity change effects, shock effects, and vibration effects. The vibration effects section includes: sinusoidal vibration, random vibration, acoustic noise, the effects on short term stability, and spectral responses at other than the vibration frequency.

  13. Spatial frequency doubling - Retinal or central. [visual illusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W.; Felton, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    When a wide field is sinusoidally modulated both in space and in time, the spatial frequency of the pattern will appear doubled at high rates of modulation. Kelly (1966) proposed that this illusion is due to temporal integration of the nonlinear brightness response of the visual system. The anatomical locus of this temporal integrator is uncertain, and could be subcortical. Results indicate that spatial frequency doubling follows binocular disparity detection and is thus a cortical phenomenon.

  14. Present Status of Josephson Voltage Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, J.; Grimm, L.

    1988-01-01

    A description of the development and practical use of large Josephson series arrays for precision voltage measurements is given. The design and the measurement uncertainty of a standard instrument is described. The frequency stability is directly controlled by a radio signal of the long-wave transmitter DCF 77. The voltage standard does not need a screened room, and therefore it is ready for use independent of time and locality. It is shown that in 6 minutes a calibration of a Weston cell can be carried out with a total relative uncertainty (1 ?) of 12 × 10-10 at 0.1 Hz bandwidth. By decreasing the bandwidth a value of 6.5 × 10-10 is the ultimate limit for a single calibration.

  15. Electronic Voltage and Current Transformers Testing Device

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware. PMID:22368510

  16. Dynamic response of a turbulent cylinder wake to sinusoidal inflow perturbations across the vortex lock-on range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, Efstathios; Liang, Chunlei

    2011-07-01

    Large-eddy simulations are employed to investigate the dynamic response of the turbulent wake of a circular cylinder to sinusoidal perturbations in the inflow velocity superposed on a mean component. The perturbation frequency is varied across the vortex lock-on range at a constant amplitude of 5% of the mean velocity corresponding to a Reynolds number of 2580. The effect on the instantaneous, time-averaged and phase-averaged characteristics of the near-wake flow and fluid forces on the cylinder is reported. Comparisons of the present simulations to experimental realizations show that the physics of the unsteady three-dimensional separated flow are well reproduced. The simulations capture the modification of the wake structure including the shrinking of the recirculation bubble and vortex-formation region and the enhancement of the wake fluctuations and vortex strength in the lock-on regime. These wake effects are accompanied by an increase in the steady and unsteady drag and the unsteady lift acting on the cylinder. An empirical formula for the amplification of the mean drag coefficient due to inflow perturbations and equivalent oscillations of the cylinder in a steady flow is provided from compilation of available data. Particular attention is given to the change in the timing of vortex shedding with respect to the imposed perturbation across the lock-on range in order to reveal the link between the vortex dynamics and the fluid-induced forces on the cylinder. It is shown that the phase at which vortices are shed from the cylinder shifts monotonically as a function of the perturbation frequency resulting in corresponding changes in the phase of the unsteady forces. It is further shown that the phase of the lift is directly linked to that of vortex shedding but the phase of the drag is biased by inertial forces due to added mass and induced pressure waves. Decomposition of the total in-line force to inviscid "potential-flow" and viscous "vortex-drag" components indicates that the latter exhibits a behavior which is not physically consistent. The stochastic character of vortex synchronization in turbulent wakes and the implications of the present findings for vortex-induced free in-line vibrations are also discussed.

  17. Effects of combining static and dynamic fusimotor stimulation on the response of the muscle spindle primary ending to sinusoidal stretching.

    PubMed

    Hulliger, M; Matthews, P B; Noth, J

    1977-06-01

    1. A pair of fusimotor fibres, one static and the other dynamic, were stimulated simultaneously to test their combined action on the response of muscle spindle primary endings in the cat soleus to sinusoidal stretching. A frequency of 1 Hz was chiefly used, with a wide range of amplitudes (10 micronm-2 mm). The response of the ending was assessed from the parameters of the sine fitted to its firing averaged throughout the course of the cycle; this was felt useful even though the responses to the larger stretches showed certain non-linear features. 2. With small stretches (up to about 50 micronm amplitude) static action dominated, and the modulation of firing during conbined stimulation was little or no larger than that found during the static stimulation on its own, and much smaller than that found during the static stimulation on its own, and much smaller than that found during the dynamic stimulation. The phase of the response was, however, much the same for all three conditions. 3. With larger stretches the modulation with combined stimulation was intermediate between the values found on stimulating either fusimotor fibre on its own; the dynamic contribution increased progressively with the amplitude of stretching. 4. With larger stretches the phase of the response during combined stimulation was appreciably closer to that for static action than to that for dynamic action. But the differences between the various conditions were small (below 20 degrees) and seem attributable to various distortions of the response wave from away from a true sinusoid, rather than betokening a difference in the ratio of velocity to length sensitivity under the various conditions. This view was supported by the effects on phase of grading the rate of stimulation of one fusimotor fibre while holding that of the other constant. 5. Detailed comparison of the cycle histograms obtained under different conditions showed an interestingly asymmetrical pattern of summation and occlusion of the effects of the two kinds of fusimotor fibre. At the peak of the response to a large stretch static action summed with dynamic action, which was here the stronger, so that at this phase of the cycle the firing was greater with the combined stimulation than with either fibre on its own. But, in the trough of the response to the same stretch static action occluded any dynamic action, which was now the weaker, so that at this phase of the cycle the firing with combined stimulation was virtually the same as that with static stimulation on its own. With a small stretch, static action normally occluded dynamic action throughout the cycle; this is in line with the firing during static action now usually being greater than that during dynamic action for all phases of the cycle. PMID:141498

  18. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  19. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  20. Note: Improving low-light-level image detection sensitivity with higher speed using auxiliary sinusoidal light signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongying; Yu, Zhengtao

    2015-06-01

    An improved active imaging method, which upgraded the detection sensitivity by applying an auxiliary sawtooth wave light signal, was reported. Nevertheless, such method sacrificed the imaging speed. To speed up imaging, a sinusoidal light signal is used instead and superposed with the undetectable low-light-level signal on the image sensor. After acquiring a superimposed image set in one sine wave cycle, an unbiased low-light-level image estimation is obtained by using least-square optimization. Through probabilistic analysis and experimental study, we demonstrate that the sinusoidal signal could improve the detection sensitivity 1/3 faster than the sawtooth wave signal.

  1. Single-shot calibration of soft x-ray mirrors using a sinusoidal transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilman, Z.; Ehrlich, Y.; Maman, S.; Levy, I.; Shussman, T.; Oren, G.; Zakosky Nueberger, I.; Hurvitz, G.

    2014-11-01

    Calibration of soft x-ray diagnostics is a challenge due to the lack of laboratory-size calibrated sources. An in situ calibration method for newly developed x-ray mirrors, is presented. The x-ray source is produced by laser-matter interaction, and twin transmission gratings which create two identical dispersion lines. The gratings have a sinusoidal transmission function, which produces a highly precise high-orders free spectrum. An x-ray mirror interacts with one of the dispersion lines, and the mirror efficiency curve as a function of wavelength is extracted. Mirror efficiency shows good agreement with the literature, and evidence of water layer may justify the need of in situ calibration.

  2. El Perfil Sinusoidal del Jet HH 31 en la Protoestrella IRAS 042482612

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this contribution we study the HH 31 jet; associated with the Class I proto-star; IRAS 042482612 (age 10 yrs); in the Taurus molecular cloud. We use mid-infrared images; taken by Spitzer and WISE; to analyze the sinusoidal or S-shape chain of knots (or EGOs) that delineate the jet. The binarity of the central source naturally explains the wiggling jet. The orbital period is 2.7 times the estimated dynamical time of the jet. The spatial difference between knots agrees with time elapse expected between quasi-periodic FU Orionis events; suggesting that central star might have experimented this type of events several times since its birth. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. New internal multi-range resistors for ac voltage calibration by using TVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Rasha S. M.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate calibration of ac voltages up to 1000?V by using thermal converters requires range resistors connected in series with the converter. The combination of a thermal converter and range resistor is known as the thermal voltage converter. In this paper, multi-range internal range resistors are designed and implemented in the National Institute for Standards (NIS), Egypt to cover the ac voltage ranges from 10?V to 750?V. The range resistor values are 2 k?, 10 k?, 20 k?, 40 k?, 100 k?, and 150 k? to cover the voltage ranges 10?V, 50?V, 100?V, 200?V, 500?V, and 750?V, respectively. The six range resistors are mounted in series with a single-junction thermo-element in the same box to provide a new thermal voltage converter. The required range resistor is selected by using a six-pin selector switch. Each resistor is connected to a selector pin. The new thermal voltage converter ranges are automatically calibrated against other standard thermal voltage converters at different frequencies by using a LabVIEW program to determine their ac-dc transfer difference at each range. The expanded uncertainties are estimated according to the GUM for all ranges at different frequencies. The performance of the new thermal voltage converter is also evaluated by comparing its ac-dc differences and its accuracy in measuring the ac voltage at different frequencies with a traditional thermal voltage converter.

  4. Fiber Optic High Voltage Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew J. Heino

    1999-08-01

    We developed a fiber coupled sensor to measure High Voltage directly using only light as the probe. We use the Pockles effect in lithium niobate crystal which will induce a phase shift in a laser beam that varies according to applied voltage. This can then be transformed into a modulation of beam intensity by polarizers, interferometery, or waveguide coupling. No voltage dividers are necessary, nor is any physical connection. This is accompanied by taking advantage of the structure of the power system itself, using voltage planes and dielectric insulation already present as the capacitive voltage divider. We hypothesize a bandwidth from GHz to DC. Such a system could be used in any application that calls for isolated and unobtrusive voltage sensing.

  5. Voltage reduction cuts appliance loads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    An analysis of the effect of circuit-voltage reduction on individual appliances shows that, for most appliances, there is a definite reduction in load when voltage is reduced. Depending on the type of appliance, there may be a reduction in energy usage. Data are graphically shown for a television, clothes washer, toaster oven, and refrigerators. Additional data are presented on the efficiencies of some small induction motors as a function of voltage and load.

  6. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, John P. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  7. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  8. Oscillator Architectures and Enhanced Frequency Synthesizer 

    E-print Network

    Park, Sang Wook

    2009-11-16

    A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), that generates a periodic signal whose frequency is tuned by a voltage, is a key building block in any integrated circuit systems. A sine wave oscillator can be used for a built-in self testing where high...

  9. Influence of the applied voltage shape on the barrier discharge operation modes in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaczyk, Marc; Sretenovi?, Goran B.; Wagner, Hans-Erich

    2013-10-01

    For the investigation of a barrier discharge (BD) operated in helium, a discharge cell configuration was used which allows an electrical characterization and simultaneous measurements of volume processes as well as the interaction of the BD with a dielectric surface. The emission development in the volume has been recorded spatio-temporally and spectrally resolved by the established cross-correlation spectroscopy (CCS) operating in the PPG mode. The phase resolved measurement (over one discharge period) of surface charges deposited on a BSO crystal was realized by the utilization of the electro-optic Pockels effect in combination with a high-speed camera. Depending on the gap distance, the dielectrics, and the shape of feeding voltage, the BD can operate either in the diffuse Townsend-like or glow-like mode. The emission is localized near the anode and cathode for the Townsend-like mode and glow-like mode, respectively. In small gaps (distance about 1 mm), a sinusoidal feeding voltage leads to the unusual Townsend-like mode in helium. But, a square wave voltage shape induces the glow-like mode, probably due to the fast rise and fall time of the applied voltage slopes. A sawtooth voltage generates both discharge modes over one period. The presented results show clearly the correlation of the emission development with electrical measurements, and deposited surface charge and transported charges.

  10. Nonlinear transmission spectroscopy with dual frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Rachel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-08-01

    We show how two frequency combs E1, E2 can be used to measure single-photon, two-photon absorption (TPA), and Raman resonances in a molecule with three electronic bands, by detecting the radio frequency modulation of the nonlinear transmission signal. Some peaks are independent of the carrier frequency of the comb and others shift with that frequency and have a width close to the comb width. TPA and Raman resonances independent of the carrier frequency are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E12E22 and the single-photon resonances are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E13E2. Sinusoidal spectral phase shaping strongly affects the TPA, but not the Raman resonances.

  11. Nonlinear transmission spectroscopy with dual frequency combs

    E-print Network

    Glenn, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    We show how two frequency combs $\\mathcal{E}_1$, $\\mathcal{E}_2$ can be used to measure single-photon, two-photon absorption (TPA), and Raman resonances in a molecule with three electronic bands, by detecting the radio frequency modulation of the nonlinear transmission signal. Some peaks are independent of the carrier frequency of the comb and others shift with that frequency and have a width close to the comb width. TPA and Raman resonances independent of the carrier frequency are selected by measuring the transmission signal $\\sim\\mathcal{E}_1^2 \\mathcal{E}_2^2$ and the single-photon resonances are selected by measuring the transmission signal $\\sim\\mathcal{E}_1^3\\mathcal{E}_2$. Sinusoidal spectral phase shaping strongly affects the TPA, but not the Raman resonances.

  12. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  13. Voltage Regulator Chip: Power Supplies on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: CPES at Virginia Tech is finding ways to save real estate on a computer's motherboard that could be used for other critical functions. Every computer processor today contains a voltage regulator that automatically maintains a constant level of electricity entering the device. These regulators contain bulky components and take up about 30% of a computer's motherboard. CPES at Virginia Tech is developing a voltage regulator that uses semiconductors made of gallium nitride on silicon (GaN-on-Si) and high-frequency soft magnetic material. These materials are integrated on a small, 3D chip that can handle the same amount of power as traditional voltage regulators at 1/10 the size and with improved efficiency. The small size also frees up to 90% of the motherboard space occupied by current voltage regulators.

  14. Two-channel Separation of Speech Using Direction-of-arrival Estimation And Sinusoids Plus Transients Modeling

    E-print Network

    Virtanen, Tuomas

    Two-channel Separation of Speech Using Direction-of-arrival Estimation And Sinusoids Plus@cs.tut.fi Abstract: In this paper a sound source separation system operating in real-world acoustic environments is proposed. Two signals are recorded using sensors which are placed close to each other. The separation

  15. Age-Related Pseudocapillarization of the Liver Sinusoidal Endothelium Impairs the Hepatic Clearance of Acetaminophen in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; Cogger, Victoria C.; McLachlan, Andrew J.; Le Couteur, David G.; Jones, Brett; de Cabo, Rafael; Hilmer, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of age-related pseudocapillarization of the liver sinusoidal endothelium on the hepatic disposition of acetaminophen. The multiple indicator dilution technique assessed the hepatic disposition of tracer 14C-acetaminophen and reference markers in isolated perfused livers of young (n = 11) and old (n = 12) rats. Electron microscopy confirmed defenestration of the sinusoidal endothelium in old rats compared with young rats. Acetaminophen recovery following a single pass through the liver was significantly increased in old rats (0.64 ± 0.04, old; 0.59 ± 0.05, young; p < .05). In old age, there was significant reduction of the intercompartmental rate constant k1 (0.34 ± 0.10s-1, old; 0.61 ± 0.38s-1, young; p < .05) and the permeability-surface area product for the transfer of acetaminophen across the sinusoidal endothelium (0.034 ± 0.006 mL/s/g, old; 0.048 ± 0.014 mL/s/g, young; p < .005). There was no difference in k3, the measure of sequestration of acetaminophen that reflects enzyme activity. Age-related pseudocapillarization of the liver sinusoid resulted in increased acetaminophen recovery and decreased transfer of acetaminophen into the liver. PMID:21300741

  16. Analytical Study of Optimal Layout of Permanent Magnets in IPMSM for Generating Sinusoidal Flux-Density Distribution in Air Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Minoru

    This paper analytically demonstrates the optimal layout of permanent magnets for generating a sinusoidal flux density distribution in the air gap of the interior permanent-magnet synchronous machines with multiple flux barriers. In addition, practical design methods for realizing the optimal layout are proposed, and the designs are verified by conducting finite element analysis.

  17. Excitation of Modes During the Voltage Rise of a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tax, David S.; Guss, William C.; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.

    2011-10-01

    We report measurement of the modes excited during the voltage rise of a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz pulse gyrotron operating in the TE22,6 mode. The gyrotron operates at 96 kV and 40 A with a voltage rise time of less than 1 ?s and a flat-top of 2 to 3 ?s. Theoretical analysis predicts that competing higher frequency modes are excited during the voltage rise, possibly leading to operation in unwanted modes or the generation of unwanted spurious frequencies. A heterodyne receiver system with 20 ns time resolution was used to measure the frequency as a function of time during the voltage rise. We observed a lower frequency mode, the TE21,6 mode near 108 GHz, at voltages up to 70 kV. Data were taken at different values of the magnetic field and operating voltage. The results confirm that low frequency modes are excited during the voltage rise, not high frequency modes. Analysis shows that these modes are backward wave oscillations excited far from cutoff, indicating that they would have a higher order axial field distribution. Additional theoretical research using the code MAGY is underway to explain these latest results. This research was supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences.

  18. Load insensitive electrical device. [power converters for supplying direct current at one voltage from a source at another voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A class of power converters is described for supplying direct current at one voltage from a source at another voltage. It includes a simple passive circuit arrangement of solid-state switches, inductors, and capacitors by which the output voltage of the converter tends to remain constant in spite of changes in load. The switches are sensitive to the current flowing in the circuit and are employed to permit the charging of capacitance devices in accordance with the load requirements. Because solid-state switches (such as SCR's) may be used with relatively high voltage and because of the inherent efficiency of the invention that permits relatively high switching frequencies, power supplies built in accordance with the invention, together with their associated cabling, can be substantially lighter in weight for a given output power level and efficiency of operation than systems of the prior art.

  19. Strain-optic voltage monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    A voltage monitor which uses the shift in absorption edge of crystalline material to measure strain resulting from electric field-induced deformation of piezoelectric or electrostrictive material, providing a simple and accurate means for measuring voltage applied either by direct contact with the crystalline material or by subjecting the material to an electric field.

  20. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  1. Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers One question continuously troubles the analog design engi- neer: 'Which amplifier topology is better for my application, current feedback or voltage feedback) are not apparent. Today's CFB and VFB amplifiers have comparable performance, but there are cer- tain unique

  2. Skylab high voltage electrical/electronic systems corona assessment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    Six significant design parameters which must be considered in the corona assessment include the operating voltage, radio frequency power, the 'pressure times spacing' relation, operating temperature, gases and contaminants in the environment, and configuration and field gradients. An equipment and experiments survey is presented, giving attention to corona-free equipment and equipment requiring detailed investigations.

  3. Modeling With Sinusoidal Functions Math 111 1. The Pendulum Problem: If a pendulum is pulled back and released, it will swing back and forth over time

    E-print Network

    Fatkullin, Ibrahim

    Modeling With Sinusoidal Functions Math 111 1. The Pendulum Problem: If a pendulum is pulled back. If the pendulum swings over a relatively small time interval its motion can be modeled by a sinusoidal function. Suppose a pendulum is swinging in front of a motion detector, which measures and calculates the distance

  4. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. II. Sinusoidally driven shear and multisinusoidal inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Benjamin A; Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-07-01

    We use molecular-dynamics computer simulations to investigate the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure responses of a simple model atomic fluid to transverse and longitudinal external forces. We have previously introduced a response function formalism for describing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in an atomic fluid when it is perturbed by a combination of longitudinal and transverse external forces that are independent of time and have a simple sinusoidal spatial variation. In this paper, we extend the application of the previously introduced formalism to consider the case of a longitudinal force composed of multiple sinusoidal components in combination with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We find that additional harmonics are excited in the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles due to couplings between the force components. By analyzing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in Fourier space, we are able to evaluate the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, which now have additional components describing the coupling relationships. Having evaluated the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, we are then able to accurately predict the density, velocity, and shear-pressure profiles for fluids that are under the influence of a longitudinal force composed of two or three sinusoidal components combined with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We also find that in the case of a multisinusoidal longitudinal force, it is sufficient to include only pairwise couplings between different longitudinal force components. This means that it is unnecessary to include couplings between three or more force components in the case of a longitudinal force composed of many Fourier components, and this paves the way for a highly accurate but tractable treatment of nonlocal transport phenomena in fluids with density and strain-rate inhomogeneities on the molecular length scale. PMID:26274126

  5. Long-term coculture strategies for primary hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Golberg, Inna; Jindal, Rohit; McCarty, William J; Luitje, Martha; Hegde, Manjunath; Bhushan, Abhinav; Usta, Osman Berk; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocytes and their in vitro models are essential tools for preclinical screening studies for drugs that affect the liver. Most of the current models primarily focus on hepatocytes alone and lack the contribution of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs), which are significant through both molecular and the response of the NPCs themselves. Models that incorporate NPCs alongside hepatocytes hold the power to enable more realistic recapitulation and elucidation of cell interactions and cumulative drug response. Hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) account for ? 80% of the liver mass where the LSECs line the walls of blood vessels, and act as a barrier between hepatocytes and blood. Culturing LSECs with hepatocytes to generate multicellular physiologically relevant in vitro liver models has been a major hurdle since LSECs lose their phenotype rapidly after isolation. To this end, we describe the application of collagen gel (1) in a sandwich and (2) as an intervening extracellular matrix layer to coculture hepatocytes with LSECs for extended periods. These coculture configurations provide environments wherein hepatocyte and LSECs, through cell-cell contacts and/or secretion factors, lead to enhanced function and stability of the cocultures. Our results show that in these configurations, hepatocytes and LSECs maintained their phenotypes when cultured together as a mixture, and showed stable secretion and metabolic activity for up to 4 weeks. Immunostaining for sinusoidal endothelial 1 (SE-1) antibody demonstrated retention of LSEC phenotype during the culture period. In addition, LSECs cultured alone maintained high viability and SE-1 expression when cultured within a collagen sandwich configuration up to 4 weeks. Albumin production of the cocultures was 10-15 times higher when LSECs were cultured as a bottom layer (with an intervening collagen layer) and as a mixture in a sandwich configuration, and native CYP 1A1/2 activity was at least 20 times higher than monoculture controls. Together, these data suggest that collagen gel-based hepatocyte-LSEC cocultures are highly suitable models for stabilization and long-term culture of both cell types. In summary, these results indicate that collagen gel-based hepatocyte-LSEC coculture models are promising for in vitro toxicity testing, and liver model development studies. PMID:25233394

  6. Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we consider a sinusoidal-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re=449 for which unsteady flow was observed. The longitudinal dispersion observed for the flow was computed using a random walk particle tracking method, and this was compared to the longitudinal dispersion predicted from a volume-averaged macroscopic mass balance using the method of volume averaging; the results of the two methods were consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for both the low-Re, Stokes flow regime and for values of Re representing the steady inertial regime. In the steady inertial regime, a power-law increase in the effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re was found, and this is consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). One unsteady (but non-turbulent) flow case (Re=449) was also examined. For this case, the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion. The observed tailing was further explored through analysis of concentration skewness (third moment) and its assymptotic convergence to conventional advection-dispersion behavior (skewness = 0). The method of volume averaging was applied to develop a skewness model, and demonstrated that the skewness decreases as a function of inverse square root of time. Our particle tracking simulation results were shown to conform to this theoretical result in most of the cases considered.

  7. High-Resolution Micro-CT for Morphologic and Quantitative Assessment of the Sinusoid in Human Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jinghao; Hu, Chunhong; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoid plays a vital role in human cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL), and its morphologic investigation facilitates the understanding of microcirculation mechanism and pathological change of CHL. However, precise anatomical view of the hepatic sinusoid has been limited by the resolution and contrast available from existing imaging techniques. While liver biopsy has traditionally been the reliable method for the assessment of hepatic sinusoids, the invasiveness and sampling error are its inherent limitations. In this study, imaging of CHL samples was performed using in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation. ILPCI allowed clear visualization of soft tissues and revealed structural details that were invisible to conventional radiography. Combining the computed tomography (CT) technique, ILPCI-CT was used to acquire the high-resolution micro-CT images of CHL, and three dimensional (3D) microstructures of hepatic sinusoids were provided for the morphologic depiction and quantitative assessment. Our study demonstrated that ILPCI-CT could substantially improve the radiographic contrast of CHL tissues in vitro with no contrast agent. ILPCI-CT yielded high-resolution micro-CT image of CHL sample at the micron scale, corresponding to information on actual structures revealed at histological section. The 3D visualization provided an excellent view of the hepatic sinusoid. The accurate view of individual hepatic sinusoid was achieved. The valuable morphological parameters of hepatic sinusoids, such as thrombi, diameters, surface areas and volumes, were measured. These parameters were of great importance in the evaluation of CHL, and they provided quantitative descriptors that characterized anatomical properties and pathological features of hepatic sinusoids. The results highlight the high degree of sensitivity of the ILPCI-CT technique and demonstrate the feasibility of accurate visualization of hepatic sinusoids. Moreover, there is a correlation between the CHL and the size or morphology of hepatic sinusoids, which offers a potential use in noninvasive study and analysis of CHL. PMID:23308240

  8. The effects of acceleration on precision frequency sources (proposed for IEEE standards project p1193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, John R.; Audoin, Claude; Driscoll, Michael M.; Eernisse, Erroll P.; Filler, Raymond L.

    1991-03-01

    The effects of acceleration on quartz and atomic frequency sources are reviewed. The discussion includes: steady-state acceleration effects, gravity change effects, shock effects, and vibration effects. The vibration effects section includes: sinusoidal vibration, random vibration, acoustic noise, the effects of frequency multiplication, small and large modulation indexes, the effects on short term stability, and spectral responses at other than the vibration frequency. Guidelines are provided for the specification and testing of oscillator acceleration sensitivities.

  9. Arc voltage behavior as indication of different operating modes in a plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Z.; Wittmann, K.; Heberlein, J.; Coudert, J.F.; Fauchais, P.

    1999-07-01

    An uncontrolled plasma instability is a phenomenon that most processes try to avoid. In plasma spraying, such an instability can lead to a deterioration of the coating quality. In the investigation, the voltage fluctuations on a subsonic DC plasma torch have been analyzed and correlated with appearance of plasma jet instabilities. The torch has a straight bore anode nozzle and a button shape cathode. The arc gas can be injected forming either a straight flow or a swirling flow. Three arc operating modes have been found: the restrike mode which is characterized by a saw-tooth shape voltage waveform and a large fluctuating amplitude, the take-over mode which is represented with a more or less sinusoidal or triangle shape waveform with a varying amplitude, and the steady mode which shows a nearly flat voltage profile with a low mean voltage. In addition to the analysis of the voltage waveform, analysis of high speed video images obtained from end-on observation of the arc in the anode nozzle has been used as diagnostics. The occurrence of these different operating modes can be related to the changes in the thickness of the cold gas boundary layer between the arc column and the anode surface. A thick boundary layer will require a higher voltage drop and is associated with the restrike mode. A thin boundary layer will reduce the breakdown voltage and randomize the attachment resulting in the take-over mode. A very thin boundary layer would reduce the insulating properties of the cold gas boundary layer to an extent that no breakdown is required and the arc assumes an attachment close to the anode channel entrance with little movement, and the steady mode is the consequence. This mode, although stable, leads to poor gas heating efficiencies and rapid anode stable, leads to poor gas heating efficiencies and rapid anode erosion. The regions in the operating parameter space in which the different modes are dominant are presented.

  10. Design optimization of sinusoidal glass honeycomb for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurrin, J. C.; Buchberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design of honeycomb made of sinusoidally corrugated glass strips was optimized for use in water-cooled, single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with non-selective black absorbers. Cell diameter (d), cell height (L), and pitch/diameter ratio (P/d) maximizing solar collector performance and cost effectiveness for given cell wall thickness (t sub w) and optical properties of glass were determined from radiative and convective honeycomb characteristics and collector performance all calculated with experimentally validated algorithms. Relative lifetime values were estimated from present materials costs and postulated production methods for corrugated glass honeycomb cover assemblies. A honeycomb with P/d = 1.05, d = 17.4 mm, L = 146 mm and t sub w = 0.15 mm would provide near-optimal performance over the range delta T sub C greater than or equal to 0 C and less than or equal to 80 C and be superior in performance and cost effectiveness to a non-honeycomb collector with a 0.92/0.12 selective black absorber.

  11. In-vitro study on haemodiluted blood flow in a sinusoidal microstenosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, M J; Ji, H-S; Lee, S J

    2010-01-01

    In-vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the haemodynamic and haemorheological behaviours of haemodiluted blood flow through a microstenosis using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The micro-PIV system employed in this study consisted of a two-head neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a cooled charge-coupled device camera, and a delay generator. To simulate blood flow in a stenosed vascular vessel, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel with a sinusoidal throat of 80 per cent severity was employed. The width and depth of the microchannel were 100 microm and 50 microm, respectively. To compare the flow characteristics in the microstenosis, the same experiments were repeated in a straight microchannel under the same flow conditions. Using a syringe pump, human blood with 5 per cent haematocrit was supplied into the microstenosis channel. The flow characteristics and transport of blood cells through the microstenosis were investigated with various flowrates. The mean velocity fields were nearly symmetric with respect to the channel centreline. In the contraction section, the oncoming blood flow was accelerated rapidly, and the maximum velocity at the throat was almost 4.99 times faster than that of the straight microchannel without stenosis. In the diffusion section, the blood cells show rolling, deformation, twisting, and tumbling motion due to the flow-choking characteristics at the stenotic region. The results from this study will provide useful basic data for comparison with those obtained by clinical researchers. PMID:20225454

  12. New drug delivery system for liver sinusoidal endothelial cells for ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Naoki; Tamura, Takafumi; Toriyabe, Naoyuki; Nowatari, Takeshi; Nakayama, Ken; Tanoi, Tomohito; Murata, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yu; Hyodo, Mamoru; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cytoprotective effects in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, we developed a new formulation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sphingosine 1-phophate. METHODS: We divided Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: control, HA, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and HA-S1P. After the administration of each agent, we subjected the rat livers to total ischemia followed by reperfusion. After reperfusion, we performed the following investigations: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), histological findings, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also investigated the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis, hepatoprotection, and S1P accumulation. RESULTS: S1P accumulated in the HA-S1P group livers more than S1P group livers. Serum ALT levels, TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, and expression of cleaved caspase-3 expression, were significantly decreased in the HA-S1P group. TEM revealed that the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) lining was preserved in the HA-S1P group. Moreover, the HA-S1P group showed a greater increase in the HO-1 protein levels compared to the S1P group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HA-S1P exhibits cytoprotective effects in the liver through the inhibition of LSEC apoptosis. HA-S1P is an effective agent for hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26668502

  13. Stimulation of regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve by 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rusovan, A.; Kanje, M. )

    1991-06-01

    The effect of sinusoidal magnetic field stimulation on regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Rats were exposed, after crush lesioning of the nerve, between a pair of Helmholtz coils to a 50 Hz magnetic field of 0.2 mT or 0.4 mT, respectively. Regeneration of the sciatic nerve was measured by the 'pinch test,' or by immunocytochemical staining for neurofilaments 1 to 6 days after the crush lesion. Intermittent stimulation (4 h/day) at 0.2 mT did not affect regeneration, while continuous stimulation with the same field enhanced regeneration distances measured at Days 1, 2, and 3. Intermittent stimulation with 0.4 mT increased regeneration distances in 3-day regenerated nerves. In the rats exposed continuously to 0.4 mT regeneration was higher in all groups (1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days). This field enhanced the regeneration velocity by 21%. Pretreatment for 7 days with continuous stimulation either at 0.2 mT or at 0.4 mT did not affect regeneration of the sciatic nerve after a crush lesion.

  14. Does the Newton's gravitational constant vary sinusoidally with time? An independent test with planetary orbital motions

    E-print Network

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidally time-varying pattern for the values of the Newton's constant of gravitation $G$ measured in Earth-based laboratories over the latest decades has been recently reported in the literature. Its amplitude and period amount to $A_G=1.619\\times 10^{-14} \\textrm{kg}^{-1} \\textrm{m}^3 \\textrm{s}^{-2}, P_G=5.899 \\textrm{yr}$, respectively. Given the fundamental role played by $G$ in the currently accepted theory of gravitation and the attempts to merge it with quantum mechanics, it is important to put to the test the hypothesis that the aforementioned harmonic variation may pertain $G$ itself in a direct and independent way. The bounds on $\\dot G/G$ existing in the literature may not be extended straightforwardly to the present case since they were inferred by considering just secular variations. Thus, we numerically integrated the ad-hoc modified equations of motion of the major bodies of the Solar System by finding that the orbits of the planets would be altered by an unacceptably larger amount in vie...

  15. Age-related changes in human vestibulo-ocular reflexes: Sinusoidal rotation and caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.; Schoenhoff, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were characterized in 216 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. The object of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of aging on VOR dynamics, and to identify the distributions of parameters which describe VOR responses to caloric and to sinusoidal rotational stimuli in a putatively normal population. Caloric test parameters showed no consistent trend with age. Rotation test parameters showed declining response amplitude and slightly less compensatory response phase with increasing age. The magnitudes of these changes were not large relative to the variability within the population. The age-related trends in VOR were not consistent with the anatomic changes in the periphery reported by others which showed an increasing rate of peripheral hair cell and nerve fiber loss in subjects over 55 years. The poor correlation between physiological and anatomical data suggest that adaptive mechanisms in the central nervous system are important in maintaining the VOR.

  16. Does the Newton's gravitational constant vary sinusoidally with time? An independent test with planetary orbital motions

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2015-04-27

    A sinusoidally time-varying pattern for the values of the Newton's constant of gravitation $G$ measured in Earth-based laboratories over the latest decades has been recently reported in the literature. Its amplitude and period amount to $A_G=1.619\\times 10^{-14} \\textrm{kg}^{-1} \\textrm{m}^3 \\textrm{s}^{-2}, P_G=5.899 \\textrm{yr}$, respectively. Given the fundamental role played by $G$ in the currently accepted theory of gravitation and the attempts to merge it with quantum mechanics, it is important to put to the test the hypothesis that the aforementioned harmonic variation may pertain $G$ itself in a direct and independent way. The bounds on $\\dot G/G$ existing in the literature may not be extended straightforwardly to the present case since they were inferred by considering just secular variations. Thus, we numerically integrated the ad-hoc modified equations of motion of the major bodies of the Solar System by finding that the orbits of the planets would be altered by an unacceptably larger amount in view of the present-day high accuracy astrometric measurements. In the case of Saturn, its geocentric right ascension $\\alpha$, declination $\\delta$ and range $\\rho$ would be affected up to $10^4-10^5$ milliarcseconds and $10^5$ km, respectively; the present-day residuals of such observables are as little as about $4$ milliarcseconds and $10^{-1}$ km, respectively.

  17. Modeling of a sinusoidal lobed injector: Vorticity and concentration fields for a cold flow

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, we present a simple and somewhat preliminary numerical model of a sinusoidal lobed injector. The lobed (corrugated) injector is being considered by several investigators as a potentially efficient device to mix fuel and air for combustion purposes. In this configuration, air flows parallel to the troughs and valleys of corrugations which grow in amplitude in the stream-wise direction. These ramped corrugations produce stream-wise vortices which enhance the downstream mixing. For the lobed injector, the corrugations are actually double walled which allows one to inject fuel through the space between them into the flow downstream of the ramp. The simulation model presented herein is based on a vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations and is solved using an unsteady viscous vortex method. In order to demonstrate the utility of this method we have simulated the three-dimensional cold mixing process for injection of methane gas into air. The vorticity and fuel concentration field downstream of the injector are simulated for two different injector geometries. We observe from these two simulations that variation of the amplitude of the corrugations can be used to achieve considerably different mixing patterns downstream of the injector.

  18. Design optimization of sinusoidal glass honeycomb for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurrin, J. C.; Buchberg, H.

    1980-08-01

    The design of honeycomb made of sinusoidally corrugated glass strips was optimized for use in water-cooled, single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with non-selective black absorbers. Cell diameter (d), cell height (L), and pitch/diameter ratio (P/d) maximizing solar collector performance and cost effectiveness for given cell wall thickness (t sub w) and optical properties of glass were determined from radiative and convective honeycomb characteristics and collector performance all calculated with experimentally validated algorithms. Relative lifetime values were estimated from present materials costs and postulated production methods for corrugated glass honeycomb cover assemblies. A honeycomb with P/d = 1.05, d = 17.4 mm, L = 146 mm and t sub w = 0.15 mm would provide near-optimal performance over the range delta T sub C greater than or equal to 0 C and less than or equal to 80 C and be superior in performance and cost effectiveness to a non-honeycomb collector with a 0.92/0.12 selective black absorber.

  19. Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akil, Ayman; Zhang, Qing; Mumaw, Christen L; Raiker, Nisha; Yu, Jeffrey; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; Haneline, Laura S; Robertson, Kent A; Skiles, Jodi; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Carreras, Enric; Renbarger, Jamie; Hanash, Samir; Bies, Robert R; Paczesny, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Reliable, noninvasive methods for diagnosing and prognosing sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) early after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are needed. We used a quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify candidate biomarkers of SOS by comparing plasma pooled from 20 patients with and 20 patients without SOS. Of 494 proteins quantified, we selected 6 proteins (L-Ficolin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM1], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and CD97) based on a differential heavy/light isotope ratio of at least 2 fold, information from the literature, and immunoassay availability. Next, we evaluated the diagnostic potential of these 6 proteins and 5 selected from the literature (suppression of tumorigenicity-2 [ST2], angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), hyaluronic acid [HA], thrombomodulin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) in samples from 80 patients. The results demonstrate that together ST2, ANG2, L-Ficolin, HA, and VCAM1 compose a biomarker panel for diagnosis of SOS. L-Ficolin, HA, and VCAM1 also stratified patients at risk for SOS as early as the day of HCT. Prognostic Bayesian modeling for SOS onset based on L-Ficolin, HA, and VCAM1 levels on the day of HCT and clinical characteristics showed >80% correct prognosis of SOS onset. These biomarkers may provide opportunities for preemptive intervention to minimize SOS incidence and/or severity. PMID:26172478

  20. Leaf Carbon Metabolism and Metabolite Levels during a Period of Sinusoidal Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Servaites, Jerome C.; Geiger, Donald R.; Tucci, Michelle A.; Fondy, Bernadette R.

    1989-01-01

    Photosynthesis rate, internal CO2 concentration, starch, sucrose, and metabolite levels were measured in leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) during a 14-h period of sinusoidal light, which simulated a natural light period. Photosynthesis rate closely followed increasing and decreasing light level. Chloroplast metabolite levels changed in a manner indicating differential activation of enzymes at different light levels. Starch levels declined during the first and last 2 hours of the photoperiod, but increased when photosynthesis rate was greater than 50% of maximal. Sucrose and sucrose phosphate synthase levels were constant during the photoperiod, which is consistent with a relatively steady rate of sucrose synthesis during the day as observed previously (BR Fondy et al. [1989] Plant Physiol 89: 396-402). When starch was being degraded, glucose 1-phosphate level was high and there was a large amount of glucose 6-phosphate above that in equilibrium with fructose 6-phosphate, while fructose 6-phosphate and triose-phosphate levels were very low. Likewise, the regulatory metabolite, fructose, 2,6-bisphosphate was high, indicating that little carbon could move to sucrose from starch by the triose-phosphate pathway. These data cast doubt upon the feasibility of significant carbon flow through the triose-phosphate pathway during starch degradation and support the need for an additional pathway for mobilizing starch carbon to sucrose. PMID:16666556

  1. Electronic and thermal transport study of sinusoidally corrugated nanowires aiming to improve thermoelectric efficiency.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Martin, P N; Ravaioli, U

    2016-01-22

    Improvement of thermoelectric efficiency has been very challenging in the solid-state industry due to the interplay among transport coefficients which measure the efficiency. In this work, we modulate the geometry of nanowires to interrupt thermal transport with causing only a minimal impact on electronic transport properties, thereby maximizing the thermoelectric power generation. As it is essential to scrutinize comprehensively both electronic and thermal transport behaviors for nano-scale thermoelectric devices, we investigate the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductance, and the thermal conductivity of sinusoidally corrugated silicon nanowires and eventually look into an enhancement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit [Formula: see text] from the modulated nanowires over typical straight nanowires. A loss in the electronic transport coefficient is calculated with the recursive Green function along with the Landauer formalism, and the thermal transport is simulated with the molecular dynamics. In contrast to a small influence on the thermopower and the electrical conductance of the geometry-modulated nanowires, a large reduction of the thermal conductivity yields an enhancement of the efficiency by 10% to 35% from the typical nanowires. We find that this approach can be easily extended to various structures and materials as we consider the geometrical modulation as a sole source of perturbation to the system. PMID:26650977

  2. Sparse-view computed laminography with a spherical sinusoidal scan for nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Sajid; Park, Miran; Min, Jonghwan; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Seungryong

    2014-07-28

    X-ray computed laminography is widely used in nondestructive testing of relatively flat objects using an oblique scanning configuration for data acquisition. In this work, a new scanning scheme is proposed in conjunction with the compressive-sensing-based image reconstruction for reducing imaging radiation dose and scanning time. We performed a numerical study comparing image qualities acquired by various scanning configurations that are practically implementable: single-arc, double-arc, oblique, and spherical-sinusoidal trajectories. A compressive-sensing-inspired total-variation (TV) minimization algorithm was used to reconstruct the images from the data acquired at only 40 projection views in those trajectories. It was successfully demonstrated that the proposed scanning scheme outperforms the others in terms of image contrast and spatial resolution, although the oblique scanning scheme showed a comparable resolution property. We believe that the proposed scanning method may provide a solution to fast and low-dose nondestructive testing of radiation-sensitive and highly integrated devices such as multilayer microelectronic circuit boards. PMID:25089394

  3. In situ calibrating optical tweezers with sinusoidal-wave drag force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; Zhou, Jin-Hua; Hu, Xin-Yao; Zhong, Min-Cheng; Gong, Lei; Wang, Zi-Qiang; Wang, Hao-Wei; Li, Yin-Mei

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a corrected sinusoidal-wave drag force method (SDFM) into optical tweezers to calibrate the trapping stiffness of the optical trap and conversion factor (CF) of photodetectors. First, the theoretical analysis and experimental result demonstrate that the correction of SDFM is necessary, especially the error of no correction is up to 11.25% for a bead of 5 ?m in diameter. Second, the simulation results demonstrate that the SDFM has a better performance in the calibration of optical tweezers than the triangular-wave drag force method (TDFM) and power spectrum density method (PSDM) at the same signal-to-noise ratio or trapping stiffness. Third, in experiments, the experimental standard deviations of calibration of trapping stiffness and CF with the SDFM are about less than 50% of TDFM and PSDM especially at low laser power. Finally, the experiments of stretching DNA verify that the in situ calibration with the SDFM improves the measurement stability and accuracy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11302220, 11374292, and 31100555) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB910402).

  4. Analysis of Sinusoidal Drug Uptake Transporter Activities in Primary Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Le Vée, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic drug transporters play an important role in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Among these membrane transporters, the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1), the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 (SLCO1B1), 1B3 (SLCO1B3) and 2B1 (SLCO2B1), the organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2/SLC22A7) and the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1/SLC22A1) are likely major ones, notably mediating sinusoidal uptake of various drugs or endogenous compounds, like bile acids, from blood into hepatocytes. Studying putative interactions of drugs, including those in development processes, with these transporters is an important issue. For this purpose, cultured human hepatocytes, that exhibit functional expression of NTCP, OATPs, OAT2 and OCT1, are considered as a relevant in vitro cellular model. This chapter describes a method allowing to accurately analyze NTCP, OATP, OAT2 and OCT1 transport activities in primary human hepatocyte cultures, which can be applied to the determination of potential interactions of drugs with these hepatic uptake transporters. PMID:26272151

  5. Comments on Landau damping due to synchrotron frequency spread

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    An inductive/space-charge impedance shifts the synchrotron frequency downwards above/below transition, but it is often said that the coherent synchrotron frequency of the bunch is not shifted in the rigid-dipole mode. On the other hand, the incoherent synchrotron frequency due to the sinusoidal rf always spreads in the downward direction. This spread will therefore not be able to cover the coherent synchrotron frequency, implying that there will not be any Landau damping no matter how large the frequency spread is. By studying the dispersion relation, it is shown that the above argument is incorrect, and there will be Landau damping if there is sufficient frequency spread. The main reason is that the coherent frequency of the rigid-dipole mode will no longer remain unshifted in the presence of a synchrotron frequency spread.

  6. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  7. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  8. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  9. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  10. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  11. Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Techniques for Chip Multiprocessor Designs 

    E-print Network

    Won, Jae Yeon

    2015-08-05

    Due to chip power density limitations as well as the recent breakdown of Dennard's Scalingover the past decade, performance growth in microprocessor design has largely been driven by core scaling. These trends have led to ...

  12. Exploiting Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling in Networks on Chip

    E-print Network

    power consumption. I. INTRODUCTION The fast evolution of semi-conductor and silicon technology makes statistical multiplexing and spatial reuse, and are the new frontier in large scale chip network design [1

  13. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOEpatents

    Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  14. Effects of broad frequency vibration on cultured osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Shigeo M.; Li, Jiliang; Duncan, Randall L.; Yokota, Hiroki; Burr, David B.; Turner, Charles H.

    2003-01-01

    Bone is subjected in vivo to both high amplitude, low frequency strain, incurred by locomotion, and to low amplitude, broad frequency strain. The biological effects of low amplitude, broad frequency strain are poorly understood. To evaluate the effects of low amplitude strains ranging in frequency from 0 to 50 Hz on osteoblastic function, we seeded MC3T3-E1 cells into collagen gels and applied the following loading protocols for 3 min per day for either 3 or 7 days: (1) sinusoidal strain at 3 Hz, with 0-3000 microstrain peak-to-peak followed by 0.33 s resting time, (2) "broad frequency vibration" of low amplitude strain (standard deviation of 300 microstrain) including frequency components from 0 to 50 Hz, and (3) sinusoidal strain combined with broad frequency vibration (S + V). The cells were harvested on day 4 or 8. We found that the S + V stimulation significantly repressed cell proliferation by day 8. Osteocalcin mRNA was up-regulated 2.6-fold after 7 days of S + V stimulation, and MMP-9 mRNA was elevated 1.3-fold after 3 days of vibration alone. Sinusoidal stimulation alone did not affect the cell responses. No differences due to loading were observed in alkaline phosphatase activity and in mRNA levels of type I collagen, osteopontin, connexin 43, MMPs-1A, -3, -13. These results suggest that osteoblasts are more sensitive to low amplitude, broad frequency strain, and this kind of strain could sensitize osteoblasts to high amplitude, low frequency strain. This suggestion implies a potential contribution of stochastic resonance to the mechanical sensitivity of osteoblasts. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Voltage-Boosting Driver For Switching Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Driver circuit assures availability of 10- to 15-V gate-to-source voltage needed to turn on n-channel metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) acting as switch in switching voltage regulator. Includes voltage-boosting circuit efficiently providing gate voltage 10 to 15 V above supply voltage. Contains no exotic parts and does not require additional power supply. Consists of NAND gate and dual voltage booster operating in conjunction with pulse-width modulator part of regulator.

  16. Apparatus Characterizes Transient Voltages in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows a prototype of a relatively inexpensive electronic monitoring apparatus that measures and records selected parameters of lightning-induced transient voltages on communication and power cables. The selected parameters, listed below, are those most relevant to the ability of lightning-induced transients to damage electronic equipment. This apparatus bridges a gap between some traditional transient-voltage recorders that record complete waveforms and other traditional transient-voltage recorders that record only peak values: By recording the most relevant parameters and only those parameters this apparatus yields more useful information than does a traditional peak-value (only) recorder while imposing much smaller data-storage and data-transmission burdens than does a traditional complete-waveform recorder. Also, relative to a complete-waveform recorder, this apparatus is more reliable and can be built at lower cost because it contains fewer electronic components. The transients generated by sources other than lightning tend to have frequency components well below 1 MHz. Most commercial transient recorders can detect and record such transients, but cannot respond rapidly enough for recording lightning-induced transient voltage peaks, which can rise from 10 to 90 percent of maximum amplitude in a fraction of a microsecond. Moreover, commercial transient recorders cannot rearm themselves rapidly enough to respond to the multiple transients that occur within milliseconds of each other on some lightning strikes. One transient recorder, designed for Kennedy Space Center earlier [ Fast Transient-Voltage Recorder (KSC- 11991), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10, page 6a (October 1999)], is capable of sampling transient voltages at peak values up to 50 V in four channels at a rate of 20 MHz. That recorder contains a trigger circuit that continuously compares the amplitudes of the signals on four channels to a preset triggering threshold. When a trigger signal is received, a volatile memory is filled with data for a total time of 200 ms. After the data are transferred to nonvolatile memory, the recorder rearms itself within 400 ms to enable recording of subsequent transients. Unfortunately, the recorded data must be retrieved through a serial communication link. Depending on the amount of data recorded, the memory can be filled before retrieval is completed. Although large amounts of data are recorded and retrieved, only a small part of the information (the selected parameters) is usually required. The present transient-voltage recorder provides the required information, without incurring the overhead associated with the recording, storage, and retrieval of complete transient-waveform data. In operation, this apparatus processes transient voltage waveforms in real time to extract and record the selected parameters. An analog-to-digital converter that operates at a speed of as much as 100 mega-samples per second is used to sample a transient waveform. A real-time comparator and peak detector are implemented by use of fast field-programmable gate arrays.

  17. A Matter of Quantum Voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. Electron holography is able to measure the variation of voltages in matter and modern supercomputers allow the calculation of quantum voltages with practically unlimited spatial and temporal resolution of bulk systems. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (Vo) - the spatial average of these voltages. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of Vo for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Furthermore, we predict Vo as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  18. MIF, secreted by human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, promotes chemotaxis and outgrowth of colorectal cancer in liver prometastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chun-Ting; Guo, Li-Li; Feng, Na; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Na; Ma, Li-Li; Shen, Lan; Tong, Gui-Hui; Yan, Qian-Wen; Zhu, Shi-Jie; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Lai, Mao-De; Deng, Yong-Jian; Ding, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Growth and invasion of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in the liver depend on microenvironment. Here, we showed that human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs) induce chemotaxis and outgrowth of CRC cells. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), released by HHSECs, stimulated chemotaxis of CRC cells. MIF secreted by HHSECs, but not by CRC cells themselves, promoted migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and facilitated proliferation and apoptotic resistance of CRC cells. In orthotopic implantation models in nude mice, exogenous MIF stimulated growth of CRC cells and metastasis. Furthermore, MIF accelerated mobility of CRC cells by suppressing F-actin depolymerization and phosphorylating cofilin. Noteworthy, MIF levels were correlated with the size of hepatic metastases. We suggest that HHSECs and paracrine MIF promote initial migration and proliferation of CRC cells in the hepatic sinusoids to generate liver metastases. PMID:26087187

  19. Expression of CD14 protein and its gene in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells during endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian-Ping; Dai, Li-Li; Liu, Chang-An; Wu, Chuan-Xin; Shi, Yu-Jun; Li, Sheng-Wei; Li, Xu-Hong

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To observe expression of CD14 protein and CD14 gene in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) during endotoxemia, and the role of CD14 protein in the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced LSECs. METHODS: Wistar rat endotoxemia model was established first by injection of a dose of LPS (5 mg/kg, Escherichia coli O111:B4) via the tail vein, then sacrificed after 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, respectively. LSECs were isolated from normal and LPS-injected rats by an in situ collagenase perfusion technique. The isolated LSECs were incubated with rabbit anti-rat CD14 polyclonal antibody, then stained with goat anti rabbit IgG conjugated fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and flow cytometric analysis (FCM) was performed. The percentage and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD14-positive cells were taken as the indexes. LSECs were collected to measure the expression of CD14 mRNA by in situ hybridization analysis. The isolated LSECs from normal rats were incubated firstly with anti-CD14 antibody, then stimulated with different concentrations of LPS, and the supernatants of these cells were then collected for measuring the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and Interleukin (IL)-6 with ELISA. RESULTS: In rats with endotoxemia, LSECs displayed a strong MFI distinct from that of control rats. CD14 positive cells in rats with endotoxemia were 54.32%, 65.83%, 85.64%, and 45.65% at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h respectively, there was significant difference when compared to normal group of animals (4.45%) (P < 0.01). The expression of CD14 mRNA in isolated LSECs was stronger than that in control rats. In LPS group, the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 were 54 ± 6 ng·L-1, 85 ± 9 ng·L-1, 206 ± 22 ng·L-1, 350 ± 41 ng·L-1, 366 ± 42 ng. L-1 and 103 ± 11 ng·L-1, 187 ± 20 ng·L-1, 244 ± 26 ng·L-1, 290 ± 31 ng·L-1, and 299 ± 34 ng·L-1, respectively at different concentration points. In anti-CD14 group, the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 were 56 ± 5 ng·L-1, 67 ± 8 ng·L-1, 85 ± 10 ng·L-1, 113 ± 12 ng·L-1, 199 ± 22 ng·L-1 and 104 ± 12 ng·L-1, 125 ± 12 ng·L-1, 165 ± 19 ng·L-1, 185 ± 21 ng·L-1, and 222 ± 23 ng·L-1, respectively at different concentration points. There was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: LSECs can synthesize CD14 protein and express CD14 gene during endotoxemia. CD14 protein plays an important role in the activation of LPS-induced LSECs. This finding has important implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which LPS may injure liver sinusoidal endothelial cells during sepsis. PMID:12046090

  20. Experimental and CFD modeling of fluid mixing in sinusoidal microchannels with different phase shift between side walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi Parsa, Mohsen; Hormozi, Faramarz

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, a passive model of a micromixer with sinusoidal side walls, a convergent-divergent cross section and a T-shape entrance was experimentally fabricated and modeled. The main aim of this modeling was to conduct a study on the Dean and separation vortices created inside the sinusoidal microchannels with a convergent-divergent cross section. To fabricate the microchannels, CO2 laser micromachining was utilized and the fluid mixing pattern is observed using a digital microscope imaging system. Also, computational fluid dynamics was applied with the finite element method to solve Navier-Stokes equations and the diffusion-convection mode in inlet Reynolds numbers of 0.2-75. Numerically obtained results were in reasonable agreement with experimental data. According to the previous studies, phase shift and wavelength of side walls are important parameters in designing sinusoidal microchannels. An increase of phase shift between side walls of microchannels leads the cross section being convergent-divergent. Results also show that at an inlet Reynolds number of <20 the molecular diffusion is the dominant mixing factor and the mixing index extent is nearly identical in all designs. For higher inlet Reynolds numbers (>20), secondary flow is the main factor of mixing. Noticeably, mixing index drastically depends on phase shift (?) and wavelength of side walls (?) such that the best mixing can be observed in ? = 3?/4 and at a wavelength to amplitude ratio of 3.3. Likewise, the maximum pressure drop is reported at ? = ?. Therefore, the sinusoidal microchannel with phase shifts between ?/2 and 3?/4 is the best microchannel for biological and chemical analysis, for which a mixing index value higher than 90% and a pressure drop less than 12 kPa is reported.

  1. von Willebrand Factor-Rich Platelet Thrombi in the Liver Cause Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome following Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nishigori, Naoto; Matsumoto, Masanori; Koyama, Fumikazu; Hayakawa, Masaki; Hatakeyayama, Kinta; Ko, Saiho; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is widely used to treat advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) due to oxaliplatin is a serious type of chemotherapy-associated liver injury (CALI) in CRC patients. SOS is thought to be caused by the sinusoidal endothelial cell damage, which results in the release of unusually-large von Willebrand factor multimers (UL-VWFMs) from endothelial cells. To investigate the pathophysiology of CALI after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, we analyzed plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the distribution of VWFMs in CRC patients. Twenty-three patients with advanced CRC who received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with (n = 6) and without (n = 17) bevacizumab were analyzed. CALI (n = 6) and splenomegaly (n = 9) were found only in patients who did not treated with bevacizumab. Plasma VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels increased after chemotherapy only in patients without bevacizumab. VWFM analysis in patients who did not receive bevacizumab showed the presence of UL-VWFMs and absence of high molecular weight VWFMs during chemotherapy, especially in those with CALI. In addition, plasma VWF:Ag and AST levels increased after chemotherapy in patients with splenomegaly (n = 9), but not in patients without splenomegaly (n = 14). Histological findings in the liver tissue of patients who did not receive bevacizumab included sinusoidal dilatation and microthrombi in the sinusoids. Many microthrombi were positive for both anti-IIb/IIIa and anti-VWF antibodies. Plasma UL-VWFM levels might be increased by damage to endothelial cells as a result of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Bevacizumab could prevent CALI and splenomegaly through inhibition of VWF-rich platelet thrombus formation. PMID:26580395

  2. Formation of Fenestrae in Murine Liver Sinusoids Depends on Plasmalemma Vesicle-Associated Protein and Is Required for Lipoprotein Passage

    PubMed Central

    Herrnberger, Leonie; Hennig, Robert; Kremer, Werner; Hellerbrand, Claus; Goepferich, Achim; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Tamm, Ernst R.

    2014-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) are characterized by the presence of fenestrations that are not bridged by a diaphragm. The molecular mechanisms that control the formation of the fenestrations are largely unclear. Here we report that mice, which are deficient in plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein (PLVAP), develop a distinct phenotype that is caused by the lack of sinusoidal fenestrations. Fenestrations with a diaphragm were not observed in mouse LSEC at three weeks of age, but were present during embryonic life starting from embryonic day 12.5. PLVAP was expressed in LSEC of wild-type mice, but not in that of Plvap-deficient littermates. Plvap-/- LSEC showed a pronounced and highly significant reduction in the number of fenestrations, a finding, which was seen both by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The lack of fenestrations was associated with an impaired passage of macromolecules such as FITC-dextran and quantum dot nanoparticles from the sinusoidal lumen into Disse's space. Plvap-deficient mice suffered from a pronounced hyperlipoproteinemia as evidenced by milky plasma and the presence of lipid granules that occluded kidney and liver capillaries. By NMR spectroscopy of plasma, the nature of hyperlipoproteinemia was identified as massive accumulation of chylomicron remnants. Plasma levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) were also significantly increased as were those of cholesterol and triglycerides. In contrast, plasma levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL), albumin and total protein were reduced. At around three weeks of life, Plvap-deficient livers developed extensive multivesicular steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis. PLVAP is critically required for the formation of fenestrations in LSEC. Lack of fenestrations caused by PLVAP deficiency substantially impairs the passage of chylomicron remnants between liver sinusoids and hepatocytes, and finally leads to liver damage. PMID:25541982

  3. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  4. Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.

    2013-12-01

    Dispersion in porous media flows has been the subject of much experimental, theoretical and numerical study. Here we consider a wavy-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media, where constrictions represent pore throats and expansions pore bodies. A theoretical model for effective (macroscopic) longitudinal dispersion in this system has been developed by volume averaging the microscale velocity field. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re = 449 for which unsteady flow was observed. Dispersion values were computed using both the volume averaging solution and a random walk particle tracking method, and results of the two methods were shown to be consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for the low-Re, Stokes flow regime. In the steady inertial regime we observe an power-law increase in effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re, consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). For the unsteady case (Re = 449), the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion.

  5. Visual evoked responses to sinusoidal gratings presented in central and right visual fields: I

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Flynn, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The present study applies neuromagnetic measurement techniques to probe the neurophysiological processing of spatial frequency (SF) by normal human observers. By exploiting the temporal and spatial resolution of neuromagnetic measurements, we hope to discriminate and characterize underlying neural functions and explore their correlation with perceptual or behavioral performance measures. Spatial frequency analysis has proven a useful paradigm for the study of visual perception and has been applied in psychophysical studies as well as invasive anatomical and physiological studies of experimental animals. These approaches have produced evidence of specialized neural activity and network structure for the analysis of spatial frequency information. Because the encoding of spatial frequency is a function of neuronal receptive-field size and since receptive-field size varies as a function of retinal location, we have also examined effects of visual field on responses to stimuli of defined spatial frequency content. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN); Van Berkel, Gary (Clinton, TN)

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  7. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 ?s voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 ?s voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  8. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Branch, D W; Schamiloglu, E; Cular, S

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 ?s voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 ?s voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment. PMID:26329223

  9. A Compact High-Voltage Pulse Generator for Plasma Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, V. A.; Barroso, J.; Ueda, M.; Guerguiev, L.

    The design and construction of a compact high-voltage pulse generator for providing input electron beam power for the LAP/INPE 32 GHz gyrotron and for treatment of metal and polymer materials by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) are described. The generator was built on a circuit category of Pulse Forming Network (PFN), consisting of nine LC sections with L = 270 muH and C = 2.5 nF. The instrument was designed to produce a flat 30 kV, several Amps pulse in 15 mus pulse length with pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 8 to 100 Hz. By means of a resonant charging inductance it is possible to gain an output voltage with a factor of 1.8 higher than the voltage supplied by the pulse generator. The generator is fed with sine-wave, constant current source, and a 60 kV, 15 mA switching power supply.

  10. Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer The Department-2008DVD-EN Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits 00094-2008DVD-EN Contents Voltage

  11. Alternating gate-voltage effects on photoluminescence of air-suspended carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, M.; Kumamoto, Y.; Ishii, A.; Yoshida, M.; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-03-01

    Gate voltages cause quenching of photoluminescence in carbon nanotubes through phase-space filling and doping-induced exciton relaxation.[2] In this work, we apply square-wave voltages to partially gated nanotubes and find that such quenching can be eliminated at high frequencies. The devices are fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate and we start by etching trenches through the top silicon layer into the buried oxide. The top silicon layer is thermally oxidized for use as the gate and we form an electrode on one side of the trench. From catalyst particles placed on the electrode, nanotubes are grown over the trench onto the gate. For square-wave voltages at low frequencies, photoluminescence quenching occurs as expected. When the frequency becomes higher, we observe that emission increases linearly and saturates above a threshold frequency. Time-averaging of the voltage cannot explain such an increase, as it also occurs when offset voltages are added to the square-wave. Furthermore, the threshold frequency increases as the excitation laser power is turned up. These observations could be explained by a model in which photocarriers are stored by the gate fields and voltage switching induces light emission. Work supported by KAKENHI, SCOPE, and the Photon Frontier Network Program of MEXT, Japan.

  12. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  13. Voltage-time characteristics for steep-front impulse voltages of particle-contaminated spacers in SF sub 6 gas-insulated switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Okabe, S.; Yorozuya, T. ); Endo, F.; Yamagiwa, T.; Iwassa, S. )

    1992-07-01

    In this paper voltage-time characteristics of spacer surfaces for steep-front impulse waves are investigated under a particle-contaminated condition in SF{sub 6} gas. The characteristics are measured as a function of particle length, particle position and spacer shapes. Flashover voltages monotonically increase in the submicrosecond region as time to flashover is shorter, and are a minimum in the 1 {mu}s region. Applicability of the equal voltage-time area criterion for estimating voltage-time characteristics is discussed and the technical meaning of the two parameters used in the estimation is clarified. Moreover, it is demonstrated that an optimized spacer with ribs remarkably improves flashover voltages in the submicrosecond region as well as in the 1 {mu}s and power frequency region.

  14. Frequency curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, H.C.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes graphical and mathematical procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of a frequency curve.

  15. Gravity current flow over sinusoidal topography in a two-layer ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Mitchell; Flynn, Morris R.

    2015-09-01

    We report upon a laboratory experimental study of dense full- and partial-depth locks released gravity currents propagating through a two-layer ambient and over sinusoidal topography of amplitude A and wavelength ?. Attention is restricted to a Boussinesq flow regime and the initial (or slumping) stage of motion. Because of the presence of the topography, the lower layer depth and channel depth vary in the downstream direction by as much as ±52% and ±40%, respectively. Despite such large variations, the instantaneous gravity current front speed typically changes by only a small amount from its average value, U ¯ . We conclude that the reason for this unexpected observation is a counterbalancing between the contraction/expansion of the channel on one hand and along-slope variations of the buoyancy force on the other hand. Compared to the case of gravity current flow over a horizontal surface, the topography has a retarding effect on U ¯ ; we characterize the variation of U ¯ with the following parameters: A, A/?, the interface height, the height of gravity current fluid inside the lock, and the layer densities as characterized by S ? (?1 - ?2)/(?0 - ?2) where ?0 is the gravity current density, ?1 is the lower ambient layer density, and ?2 is the upper ambient layer density. The topography also alters the structure of the gravity current head by inducing large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) vortices directly downstream of regions of significant shear. These vortices are transient flow features; after formation and saturation, they relax at which point gravity current fluid sloshes back and forth in the topographic troughs. A simple geometric model is presented that prescribes the minimum number of topographic peaks a gravity current fluid will overcome. As in the horizontal bottom case, the forward advance of the gravity current can excite a downstream-propagating interfacial disturbance, which is more prominent for larger S. We identify when the gravity current front will travel faster (supercritical flow) or slower (subcritical flow) than the interfacial disturbance based on S and A/?. Unlike in the horizontal-bottom case, however, we typically also observe interfacial oscillations far ahead of the gravity current front. These have wavelength approximately equal to ? and are due to spatial variations in the speed of the ambient return flow.

  16. Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrik, Nickolay V

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a fundamental property that is responsible for numerous physical and biophysical aspects of molecular interactions in water. Peculiar behavior is expected for water in the vicinity of hydrophobic structures, such as nanopores. Indeed, hydrophobic nanopores can be found in two distinct states, dry and wet, even though the latter is thermodynamically unstable. Transitions between these two states are kinetically hindered in long pores but can be much faster in shorter pores. As it is demonstrated for the first time in this paper, these transitions can be induced by applying a voltage across a membrane with a single hydrophobic nanopore. Such voltage-induced gating in single nanopores can be realized in a reversible manner through electrowetting of inner walls of the nanopores. The resulting I-V curves of such artificial hydrophobic nanopores mimic biological voltage-gated channels.

  17. Ancillary service details: Voltage control

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1997-12-01

    Voltage control is accomplished by managing reactive power on an alternating-current power system. Reactive power can be produced and absorbed by both generation and transmission equipment. Reactive-power devices differ substantially in the magnitude and speed of response and in their capital costs. System operators, transmission owners, generators, customers, power marketers, and government regulators need to pay close attention to voltage control as they restructure the U.S. electricity industry. Voltage control can affect reliability and commerce in three ways: (1) Voltages must be maintained within an acceptable range for both customer and power-system equipment to function properly. (2) The movement of reactive power consumes transmission resources, which limits the ability to move real power and worsens congestion. (3) The movement of reactive power results in real-power losses. When generators are required to supply excessive amounts of reactive power, their real-power production must be curtailed. These opportunity costs are not currently compensated for in most regions. Current tariffs are based on embedded costs. These embedded-cost tariffs average about $0.51/MWh, equivalent to $1.5 billion annually for the United States as a whole. Although this cost is low when compared with the cost of energy, it still aggregates to a significant amount of money. This report takes a basic look at why the power system requires reactive power (an appendix explains the fundamentals of real and reactive power). The report then examines the various types of generation and transmission resources used to supply reactive power and to control voltage. Finally it discusses how these resources are deployed and paid for in several reliability regions around the country. As the U.S. electricity industry is restructured, the generation, transmission, and system-control equipment and functions that maintain voltages within the appropriate ranges are being deintegrated.

  18. Low Voltage Spatial Light Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A

    2003-02-19

    This project studied the feasibility of a Low-Voltage actuator technology that promises to reduce the switched voltage requirements and linearize the response of spatial light modulators. We created computer models that demonstrate substantial advantages offered by this technology, and fabricated and tested those devices. SLMs are electro-optic devices for modulating the phase, amplitude or angle of light beams, laser or other. Applications for arrays of SLMs include turbulence correction for high-speed optical communications, imaging through distorting media, input devices for holographic memories, optical manipulation of DNA molecules, and optical computers. Devices based on micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology have recently become of special interest because of their potential for greatly improved performance at a much lower cost than piezoelectric or liquid crystal based devices. The new MEMS-based SLM devices could have important applications in high-speed optical communication and remote optical sensing, in support of DoD and DOE missions. Virtually all previously demonstrated MEMS SLMs are based on parallel-plate capacitors where an applied voltage causes a mirror attached to a suspended electrode to move towards a fixed electrode. They require relatively high voltages, typically on the order of 100 V, resulting in (1) large transistor sizes, available only from specialized foundries at significant cost and limiting the amount/sophistication of electronics under each SLM pixel, and (2) large power dissipation/area, resulting in a heat removal issue because of the optical precision required ({approx} 1/50-th of a wavelength). The actuator described in this process uses an advanced geometry that was invented at LLNL and is currently still proprietary. The new geometry allows the application of a bias voltage. This applied bias voltage results in a reduction of the required switched voltage and a linearization of the response curve. When this advanced actuator is coupled with non-linear springs, the response curve becomes even more linear. The response curve of the springs is tailored to produce an actuator with extremely linear displacement vs. voltage characteristics.

  19. Development of a New Voltage Sag Compensator with a Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaki; Iwata, Akihiko; Hatakeyama, Yoshihiro; Ishii, Yasuhiro

    A new voltage sag compensator with a gradationally controlled voltage inverter which exceeds SEMI F47 standard has been developed. It consists of a gradationally controlled voltage inverter in which inverters are connected in series and are charged at different voltages to each other, and which outputs the sum of each output voltage. This system is small and with an extremely low loss.

  20. Dynamic memory of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel: A stochastic nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kinshuk

    2015-05-14

    In this work, we have studied the stochastic response of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel to a periodic external voltage that keeps the system out-of-equilibrium. The system exhibits memory, resulting from time-dependent driving, that is reflected in terms of dynamic hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. The hysteresis loop area has a maximum at some intermediate voltage frequency and disappears in the limits of low and high frequencies. However, the (average) dissipation at long-time limit increases and finally goes to saturation with rising frequency. This raises the question: how diminishing hysteresis can be associated with growing dissipation? To answer this, we have studied the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the system and analyzed different thermodynamic functions which also exhibit hysteresis. Interestingly, by applying a temporal symmetry analysis in the high-frequency limit, we have analytically shown that hysteresis in some of the periodic responses of the system does not vanish. On the contrary, the rates of free energy and internal energy change of the system as well as the rate of dissipative work done on the system show growing hysteresis with frequency. Hence, although the current-voltage hysteresis disappears in the high-frequency limit, the memory of the ion channel is manifested through its specific nonequilibrium thermodynamic responses.

  1. Dynamic memory of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel: A stochastic nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Kinshuk

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we have studied the stochastic response of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel to a periodic external voltage that keeps the system out-of-equilibrium. The system exhibits memory, resulting from time-dependent driving, that is reflected in terms of dynamic hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. The hysteresis loop area has a maximum at some intermediate voltage frequency and disappears in the limits of low and high frequencies. However, the (average) dissipation at long-time limit increases and finally goes to saturation with rising frequency. This raises the question: how diminishing hysteresis can be associated with growing dissipation? To answer this, we have studied the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the system and analyzed different thermodynamic functions which also exhibit hysteresis. Interestingly, by applying a temporal symmetry analysis in the high-frequency limit, we have analytically shown that hysteresis in some of the periodic responses of the system does not vanish. On the contrary, the rates of free energy and internal energy change of the system as well as the rate of dissipative work done on the system show growing hysteresis with frequency. Hence, although the current-voltage hysteresis disappears in the high-frequency limit, the memory of the ion channel is manifested through its specific nonequilibrium thermodynamic responses.

  2. Multi-frequency scanning interferometry using variable spatial spectral filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Samuel; Sato, Ryoko; Kato, Heiichi; Sasaki, Osami; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a variety of the optical comb-based interferometries has been developed for profilometry and tomography. However the interference amplitude and phase characteristics involving the center frequency and mode spacing of the optical comb have not been sufficiently studied. To investigate these multi-frequency interference characteristics, we proposed a broadband frequency variable quasi-comb generator utilizing 4-f optical system and a spatial spectral filter which can perform unrestricted scanning of the center frequency and mode spacing. By using a sinusoidal phase modulating interferometer with the quasi-comb generator, fundamental proof-of-principle experiments were successfully demonstrated. The interference phase fixation during the symmetrical varying of the mode spacing produced the interference amplitude peak envelope without fringes. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the interference phase was changed linearly without the amplitude change by the center frequency shift of the multi-frequency spectrum.

  3. Application of active electrode compensation to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with sharp microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-González, J. F.; Destexhe, A.; Bal, T.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Electrophysiological recordings of single neurons in brain tissues are very common in neuroscience. Glass microelectrodes filled with an electrolyte are used to impale the cell membrane in order to record the membrane potential or to inject current. Their high resistance induces a high voltage drop when passing current and it is essential to correct the voltage measurements. In particular, for voltage clamping, the traditional alternatives are two-electrode voltage-clamp technique or discontinuous single electrode voltage-clamp (dSEVC). Nevertheless, it is generally difficult to impale two electrodes in a same neuron and the switching frequency is limited to low frequencies in the case of dSEVC. We present a novel fully computer-implemented alternative to perform continuous voltage-clamp recordings with a single sharp-electrode. Approach. To reach such voltage-clamp recordings, we combine an active electrode compensation algorithm (AEC) with a digital controller (AECVC). Main results. We applied two types of control-systems: a linear controller (proportional plus integrative controller) and a model-based controller (optimal control). We compared the performance of the two methods to dSEVC using a dynamic model cell and experiments in brain slices. Significance. The AECVC method provides an entirely digital method to perform continuous recording and smooth switching between voltage-clamp, current clamp or dynamic-clamp configurations without introducing artifacts.

  4. High Voltage Space Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.; Hillard, G. B.; Vayner, B. V.; Galofaro, J. T.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tests performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and elsewhere have shown promise in the design and construction of high voltage (300-1000 V) solar arrays for space applications. Preliminary results and implications for solar array design will be discussed, with application to direct-drive electric propulsion and space solar power.

  5. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  6. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  7. ABBGroup-1-High voltage lab

    E-print Network

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    is designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short-circuit. A circuit in all power systems. They are the final link in protection of the power system from short-circuits. GENERATION System voltage: 12-24 kV Rated current: 6000-24000 A Max. short-circuit current: 50-500 k

  8. ABBGroup-1-High voltage lab

    E-print Network

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    . It is designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short-circuit. A circuit components in all power systems. They are the final link in protection of the power system from short-circuits. GENERATION System voltage: 12-24 kV Rated current: 6000-24000 A Max. short-circuit current: 50-500 k

  9. High-Voltage Droplet Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus that is extremely effective in dispensing a wide range of droplets has been developed. This droplet dispenser is unique in that it utilizes a droplet bias voltage, as well as an ionization pulse, to release a droplet. Apparatuses that deploy individual droplets have been used in many applications, including, notably, study of combustion of liquid fuels. Experiments on isolated droplets are useful in that they enable the study of droplet phenomena under well-controlled and simplified conditions. In this apparatus, a syringe dispenses a known value of liquid, which emerges from, and hangs onto, the outer end of a flat-tipped, stainless steel needle. Somewhat below the needle tip and droplet is a ring electrode. A bias high voltage, followed by a high-voltage pulse, is applied so as to attract the droplet sufficiently to pull it off the needle. The voltages are such that the droplet and needle are negatively charged and the ring electrode is positively charged.

  10. Voltage Fluctuation Compensator for Shinkansen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzuka, Tetsuo; Ikedo, Shouji; Ueda, Keiji; Mochinaga, Yoshifumi; Funahashi, Sadao; Ide, Koiti

    In AC electric Railway, three-phase voltage is changed into the single-phase circuit of two circuits with the Scott-connected transformer. If it becomes large unbalancing of the load between single-phase circuits, voltage fluctuation becomes large on three-phase side. Then, Railway Static Power Conditioner (RPC) was developed for the purpose of controlling voltage fluctuation on three-phase side. An RPC is comprised of a pair of self-commutated PWM inverters. These inverters connect the main phase and teaser feeding buses, coupled with a DC side capacitor such as a Back-To-Back (BTB) converter. In this way, the two self-commutated inverters can act as a static var compensator (SVC) to compensate for the reactive power and as an active power accommodator from one feeding bus to another. 20MVA/60kV RPCs started commercial operation in 2002 at each two substations on the newly extended Tohoku Shinkansen for compensating voltage fluctuation on three-phase side caused by traction loads, absorbing harmonic current. The results of operational testing indicate that an RPC can accommodate single-phase loads such as those of PWM-controlled Shinkansen and thyristor phase-controlled Shinkansen, and handle the exciting rush current of transformers, as well as compensate for harmonics successfully.

  11. Stable low noise voltage source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    Hum and noise on power sources can have a significant effect on system noise. Filtering to achieve low hum and noise is accomplished at low current levels. The diode regulator circuit is described which is ideal for this type of filtering. Hum and noise rejection is achieved with good output voltage stability in a small, low-cost, reliable circuit.

  12. Saving Megawatts with Voltage Optimization 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, T.; Bell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2008, PCS UtiliData commissioned an Industrial Voltage Optimization system at the Plum Creek Timber Medium Density Fiberboard facility in Columbia Falls, Montana. The system was based upon the AdaptiVolt(TM) Volt/VAR Optimization system...

  13. Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender

    E-print Network

    Callender, Craig

    Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender Philosophy of time, as practiced throughout the last hundred venue for attacking questions about the nature of time--in sharp contrast to the primary venue slowly in philosophy of time.1 Since twentieth-century analytic philosophy as a whole often drew

  14. Some space shuttle tile/strain-isolator-pad sinusoidal vibration tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miserentino, R.; Pinson, L. D.; Leadbetter, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Vibration tests were performed on the tile/strain-isolator-pad system used as thermal protection for the space shuttle orbiter. Experimental data on normal and in-plane vibration response and damping properties are presented. Three test specimens exhibited shear type motion during failures that occurred in the tile near the tile/strain-isolator-pad bond-line. A dynamic instability is described which has large in-plane motion at a frequency one-half that of the nominal driving frequency. Analysis shows that this phenomenon is a parametric response.

  15. Dual-frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaojiang; Dai, Lu; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the dual-frequency (DF) glow discharges in atmospheric helium were experimented by electrical and optical measurements in terms of current voltage characteristics and optical emission intensity. It is shown that the waveforms of applied voltages or discharge currents are the results of low frequency (LF) waveforms added to high frequency (HF) waveforms. The HF mainly influences discharge currents, and the LF mainly influences applied voltages. The gas temperatures of DF discharges are mainly affected by HF power rather than LF power.

  16. High voltage battery cell scanner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepisto, J. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

    1983-01-01

    Battery cell voltage scanners have been previously used in low voltage spacecraft applications. In connection with future missions involving an employment of high-power high voltage power subsystems and/or autonomous power subsystem management for unattended operation, it will be necessary to utilize battery cell voltage scanners to provide battery cell voltage information for early detection of impending battery cell degradation/failures. In preparation for such missions, a novel battery cell voltage scanner design has been developed. The novel design makes use of low voltage circuit modules which can be applied to high voltage batteries in a building block fashion. A description is presented of the design concept and test results of the high voltage battery cell scanner, and its operation with an autonomously managed power subsystem is discussed.

  17. System and method for tuning adjusting the central frequency of a laser while maintaining frequency stabilization to an external reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey (Inventor); Thorpe, James I. (Inventor); Numata, Kenji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for stabilizing a laser to a frequency reference with an adjustable offset. The method locks a sideband signal generated by passing an incoming laser beam through the phase modulator to a frequency reference, and adjusts a carrier frequency relative to the locked sideband signal by changing a phase modulation frequency input to the phase modulator. The sideband signal can be a single sideband (SSB), dual sideband (DSB), or an electronic sideband (ESB) signal. Two separate electro-optic modulators can produce the DSB signal. The two electro-optic modulators can be a broadband modulator and a resonant modulator. With a DSB signal, the method can introduce two sinusoidal phase modulations at the phase modulator. With ESB signals, the method can further drive the optical phase modulator with an electrical signal with nominal frequency OMEGA(sub 1) that is phase modulated at a frequency OMEGA(sub 2)

  18. Lightweight, high-frequency transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

  19. Realisation and advanced engineering of true optical rugate filters based on nanoporous anodic alumina by sinusoidal pulse anodisation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Abel; Yoo, Jeong Ha; Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Ye; Losic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic mode is used with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA in a sinusoidal fashion. A precise control over the different anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period, anodisation amplitude, anodisation offset, number of pulses, anodisation temperature and pore widening time) makes it possible to engineer the characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours of NAA-RFs, which can be finely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. The effect of the aforementioned anodisation parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-RFs (i.e. characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours) is systematically assessed in order to establish for the first time a comprehensive rationale towards NAA-RFs with fully controllable photonic properties. The experimental results are correlated with a theoretical model (Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz - LLL), demonstrating that the effective medium of these photonic nanostructures can be precisely described by the effective medium approximation. NAA-RFs are also demonstrated as chemically selective photonic platforms combined with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). The resulting optical sensing system is used to assess the reversible binding affinity between a model drug (i.e. indomethacin) and human serum albumin (HSA) in real-time. Our results demonstrate that this system can be used to determine the overall pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, which is a critical aspect to be considered for the implementation of efficient medical therapies. PMID:26492584

  20. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  1. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  2. On the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio of barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichmann, H.; Nimtz, G.; Bruney, P.

    2015-12-01

    The reflection and thus the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of barriers depend on several barrier properties. Scattering may take place at frequencies below or above the barrier height and may depend on the barrier's capacitive or inductive quality. At frequencies below the barrier height, faster than light (FTL) tunneled signals were observed. This must also occur in optical tunneling couplers presently applied in fiber communications. The tests confirmed the assumption that tunneling waves are virtual, the propagation is FTL, yet causality is nevertheless preserved. It is further noted that FTL propagation with preserved causality has also been measured within the near fields of antennas.

  3. Effects of metastable atoms on breakdown voltage in Argon DBD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, T.; Akashi, H.

    2013-06-01

    A one-dimensional fluid calculation is performed to find out the effects of metastable atoms in alternating-current (AC) driven dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of argon. Dependences of the breakdown voltage and the density of the metastable state atoms on the driving frequency and the pressure are investigated to clarify the importance of the secondary electron emission by metastable atoms and the metastable-metastable ionization reaction. The results suggest that such processes can be significant when the driving frequency becomes several hundred Hz under several Torr.

  4. Voltage-gated proton channels.

    PubMed

    Decoursey, Thomas E

    2012-04-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely, the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance approximately 10(3) times smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ?pH, and potent inhibition by Zn(2+) (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B-lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H(+) for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  5. Quantum-accurate AC voltage synthesis at NIST: Results and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Jason; Rufenacht, Alain; Dresselhaus, Paul; Burroughs, Charles; Benz, Sam

    2014-03-01

    Recent advancements in manufacturing, communications, and electrical power distribution demand increasingly precise electrical measurements of arbitrary waveforms. Representative examples are power factor measurements of 50/60 Hz pure sinusoids for the smart grid industry and spectral purity analysis of RADAR subsystems. To help meet this demand, NIST has developed an intrinsic (quantum-referenced) AC Josephson voltage standard (ACJVS). The ACJVS is capable of synthesizing pure tones with quantum accuracy and with unprecedented low in-band harmonic content. The ACJVS functions as a quantum digital-to-analog converter: driving the system with a high-speed digital pulse train yields perfectly quantized voltage pulses, whose time-integrated areas are exactly h/2 e. We report a doubling of output rms voltage by successfully operating on the n = 2 Shapiro step, in which every Josephson junction produces two quantized pulses for every input pulse,. We also discuss progress toward automating the operation of the ACJVS, with the goal of expanding accessibility to a broader community of users. Finally, we discuss future goals to increase rms output to beyond 1 V, expand bandwidth to 1 MHz, and the development of a bandpass topology for RF output up to 100 MHz.

  6. Modelling of piezoelectric actuator based nano-positioning system under sinusoidal excitation using multi-polynomial regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Tse, S.

    2005-01-01

    For nano-positioning systems with piezoelectric actuators used for dynamic active manufacturing precision control, sinusoidal input signals would be used and would give additional problems in comparison with the commonly used step signals due to the hysteresis effects, which require a good modelling approach. Using six polynomials with zero order continuity between them results in a relative model error of 3.6%, which represents a reduction from 44.5% to 73.1% in the error compared with the single and dual polynomial approaches.

  7. The Cervico-Ocular Reflex of normal human subjects in response to transient and sinusoidal trunk rotations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Robert N., Jr.; Thurston, Stephen E.; Becker, Keith R.; Ackley, Charles V.; Seidman, Scott H.; Leigh, R. John

    1994-01-01

    We used the magnetic search coil technique to measure the horizontal cervico-ocular reflex (COR) of 8 subjects in response to transient or sinusoidal (0.1-1.0 Hz) trunk rotations while their heads were firmly immobilized. Although we were able to resolve eye rotations of less than 0.05 deg, the COR was hardly measurable (gain was always less than 0.07). This finding, made with the most precise measurement technique used to date, suggests that the COR makes a negligible contribution to the stability of gaze in normal subjects during natural activities.

  8. Impact of Basset force on threshold values of particle drag coefficient and density parameter in standing sinusoidal wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubaidullin, D. A.; Osipov, P. P.; Zakirov, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    A one-dimensional drift of spherical particle in standing sinusoidal wave is studied numerically. The impact of stationary and non-stationary forces of viscous drag, as well as Archimedes, added masses and Basset forces on particle drift direction is investigated. For various Reynolds and Strouhal numbers the dependencies of the threshold particle drag coefficient on density parameter have been found. These dependencies show that with increasing Reynolds and Strouhal numbers the threshold value of the squared drag coefficient decreases markedly. Impact of Basset force on threshold values is especially strong for low- density particles.

  9. Profile measurement of thin films by backpropagation of multiple-wavelength optical fields with two sinusoidal phase-modulating interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Osami; Xin, Jian; Choi, Samuel; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2015-12-01

    Optical wavelength is scanned linearly with time, and an optical field produced by a thin film on a detection plane is detected with a sinusoidal phase-modulating interferometer. Scanned wavelength is detected with another interferometer. The detected multiple-optical fields are backpropagated along the optical axis in a computer by use of the detected wavelengths. An optical field is reconstructed by summing the backpropagated fields over the multiple wavelengths. The intensity and phase distributions of the reconstructed optical field provide the positions of the thin film surfaces with an accuracy of a few nanometers.

  10. Experimental laboratory system to generate high frequency test environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Paez, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This is an extension of two previous analytical studies to investigate a technique for generating high frequency, high amplitude vibration environments. These environments are created using a device attached to a common vibration exciter that permits multiple metal on metal impacts driving a test surface. These analytical studies predicted that test environments with an energy content exceeding 10 kHz could be achieved using sinusoidal and random shaker excitations. The analysis predicted that chaotic vibrations yielding random like test environments could be generated from sinusoidal inputs. In this study, a much simplified version of the proposed system was fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Experimental measurements demonstrate that even this simplified system, utilizing a single impacting object, can generate environments on the test surface with significant frequency content in excess of 40 kHz. Results for sinusoidal shaker inputs tuned to create chaotic impact response are shown along with the responses due to random vibration shaker inputs. The experiments and results are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Dual radio frequency plasma source: Understanding via electrical asymmetry effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Wong, C. S.

    2013-04-21

    On the basis of the global model, the influences of driving voltage and frequency on electron heating in geometrically symmetrical dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma have been investigated. Consistent with the experimental and simulation results, non-monotonic behavior of dc self bias and plasma heating with increasing high frequency is observed. In addition to the local maxima of plasma parameters for the integer values of the ratio between the frequencies ({xi}), ourstudies also predict local maxima for odd integer values of 2{xi} as a consequence of the electrical asymmetry effect produced by dual frequency voltage sources.

  12. Influence of voltage pulse width on the discharge characteristics in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Takenaka, Kosuke; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    We present here the analysis of the discharge characteristics of a He dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma jet operated in the voltage duty ratio of 20 to 80% under the condition of driving voltage frequency 5 kHz. Discharge strength is sensitive to the voltage pulse width, and the pulse width of 70 µs, which corresponds to the duty ratio of 35%, leads to high O optical emission intensity. We also performed time-resolved optical emission measurements in a transient pulse discharge driven by various voltage duty ratios. Two distinct pulse discharges are observed in the rising and falling periods of the positive rectangular voltage, and the first and second discharges have a peak intensity of optical emission at different duty ratio. The observations indicate that an adequate voltage pulse width could ignite a strong discharge both in the rising and falling period of applied voltage, which could produce a large amount of reactive excited O atoms.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of a Tunable In-plane Resonator with Low Driving Voltage.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pin-Hsu; Dai, Ching-Liang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Chi-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a micromechanical tunable in-plane resonator. The resonator is manufactured using the commercial 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The resonator is made of aluminum, and the sacrificial layer is silicon dioxide. The post-process involves only one maskless etching step using an etchant to remove the sacrificial layer. The resonator includes three parts: a driving part to provide a driving force, a sensing part that is used to detect a change in capacitance when the resonator is vibrating, and a tuning part that changes the resonant frequency of the resonator. The main advantages of the tunable resonator are a low driving voltage and compatibility with the CMOS process. The resonant frequency of the resonator can be changed upon applying a dc voltage to the tuning part. To reduce the driving voltage, the driving part is designed as comb-finger rows. Experimental results show that the resonator has a resonant frequency of about 183 kHz and a driving voltage of 10 V; the resonant frequency increases 14 kHz when a tuning voltage of 30 V is applied. The resonator has a maximum frequency-tuning ratio of 7.6%. PMID:22574000

  14. A multi-band phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer 

    E-print Network

    Palermo, Samuel Michael

    1999-01-01

    A phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer suitable for multi-band transceivers is proposed. The multi-band PLL frequency synthesizer uses a switched tuning voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) that covers a frequency range of 111 to 297MHz...

  15. Vision Res. Vol. 14, pp. 1421-1432. Pergamon Press 1974. Printed in Great Britain. THE SIMULTANEOUS SPATIAL FREQUENCY SHIFT

    E-print Network

    Klein, Stanley

    sinusoidal gratings which were masked by super- posed vertical noise stripes of limited bandwidth. The noise to note that there is a similar frequency shift in hearing (von Bekesy, 1929). Adaptation to a loud tone both reduces the loudness of tones near the adapt- 1 Present address: Joint Science Department

  16. Estimating the effects of stationary and nonstationary noise on power spectral density function measurements: frequency, phase, and amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, George D.

    1998-03-01

    The effects of noise modulation on the power spectral density functions of a sinusoidal wave are calculated in closed form. Frequency, phase, and amplitude modulation are considered. Noise processes are modeled using Butterworth filters of various integer orders. Both stationary and nonstationary noise processes are included with Daubechies wavelet filters used for the nonsteady case.

  17. Effects of helical anisotropy on nonlinear voltage response in amorphous wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buznikov, N. A.; Antonov, A. S.; Rakhmanov, A. A.

    2009-10-01

    The nonlinear voltage response in soft magnetic amorphous wires exciting by an alternating current is studied. The frequency spectrum of the voltage in the pick-up coil wound around the wire with a helical anisotropy is found in the framework of a model based on quasi-static Stoner-Wohlfarth magnetization reversal. The effect of a deviation of the anisotropy axis from the azimuthal direction on the field dependences of amplitudes of voltage harmonics is analyzed. It is shown that the field sensitivity of even harmonics increases with the anisotropy axis deviation angle. The current amplitude range to obtain a maximal field sensitivity of the second harmonic is found. The influence of the skin effect on the frequency spectrum of the pick-up coil voltage is discussed. The results obtained may be of importance for the development of sensors of a weak magnetic field.

  18. Synchronization of a class of master-slave non-autonomous chaotic systems with parameter mismatch via sinusoidal feedback control

    E-print Network

    Jianping Cai; Mihua Ma; Xiaofeng Wu

    2009-08-22

    In this paper we investigate a master-slave synchronization scheme of two n-dimensional non-autonomous chaotic systems coupled by sinusoidal state error feedback control, where parameter mismatch exists between the external harmonic excitation of master system and that of slave one. A concept of synchronization with error bound is introduced due to parameter mismatch, and then the bounds of synchronization error are estimated analytically. Some synchronization criteria are firstly obtained in the form of matrix inequalities by the Lyapunov direct method, and then simplified into some algebraic inequalities by the Gerschgorin disc theorem. The relationship between the estimated synchronization error bound and system parameters reveals that the synchronization error can be controlled as small as possible by increasing the coupling strength or decreasing the magnitude of mismatch. A three-dimensional gyrostat system is chosen as an example to verify the effectiveness of these criteria, and the estimated synchronization error bounds are compared with the numerical error bounds. Both the theoretical and numerical results show that the present sinusoidal state error feedback control is effective for the synchronization. Numerical examples verify that the present control is robust against amplitude or phase mismatch.

  19. Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

  20. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later. PMID:25330605

  1. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOEpatents

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  2. Implications of Pulser Voltage Ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J

    2011-12-21

    In a recent set of measurements obtained by G. Kamin, W. Manning, A. Molvik, and J. Sullivan, the voltage waveform of the diode pulser had a ripple of approximately {+-}1.3% of the 65 kV flattop voltage, and the beam current had a larger corresponding ripple of approximately {+-}8.4% of the 1.5 mA average current at the location of the second Faraday cup, approximately 1.9 m downstream from the ion source. The period of the ripple was about 1 {mu}s. It was initially unclear whether this large current ripple was in fact a true measurement of the current or a spurious measurement of noise produced by the pulser electronics. The purpose of this note is to provide simulations which closely match the experimental results and thereby corroborate the physical nature of those measurements, and to provide predictions of the amplitude of the current ripples as they propagate to the end of linear transport section. Additionally analytic estimates are obtained which lend some insight into the nature of the current fluctuations and to provide an estimate of what the maximum amplitude of the current fluctuations are expected to be, and conversely what initial ripple in the voltage source is allowed, given a smaller acceptable tolerance on the line charge density.

  3. STATCOM Using the New Concept of Inverter System with Controlled Gradational Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Nobuhiko; Kishida, Yukimori; Iwata, Akihiko

    This paper presents the STATCOM using the new concept of inverter system which consists of three inverter units connected in series, and each inverter unit generates a different output voltage such as Vc, 2Vc, 4Vc. This inverter system can output a high quality voltage by a low frequency switching operation. So, it can unite a low loss and a high quality. In this paper, we show the technique to apply STATCOM which uses the inverter system, and examination result.

  4. Production of high voltage by ion bombardment 

    E-print Network

    Phinney, Lucas Carter

    2003-01-01

    A beam of He+ ions was used to bombard a conductive target, allowing the target to build up a voltage. The voltage that built up on the target was measured by using a voltage divider circuit. The target was made out of niobium metal...

  5. SWITCHED-CAPACITOR VOLTAGE CONVERTERS WITH REGULATORS

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    LT1054 SWITCHED-CAPACITOR VOLTAGE CONVERTERS WITH REGULATORS SLVS033E ­ FEBRUARY 1990 ­ REVISED-to-Pin Compatible With the LTC1044/7660 description The LT1054 is a bipolar, switched-capacitor voltage converter regulation, a feature not previously available in switched-capacitor voltage converters. By adding

  6. High Voltage Reed Relays for PCB

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    276 High Voltage Reed Relays for PCB Mounting HE Series MEDER electronic www.meder.com Germany surgery) High voltage Reed Relays for PCB mounting suitable for switching up to 7.5 kVDC and breakdown High Voltage Reed Relays for PCB Mounting www.meder.com Germany # ++49-(0)7733-94870, USA # 800

  7. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  8. Soft switched high frequency ac-link converter 

    E-print Network

    Balakrishnan, Anand Kumar

    2009-05-15

    Variable frequency drives typically have employed dc voltage or current links for power distribution between the input and output converters and as a means to temporarily store energy. The dc link based power conversion systems have several inherent...

  9. Operational Results of Pulse Shaping Techniques for the High Voltage Convertor Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Gunjan P; Anderson, David E; Solley, Dennis J; Wezensky, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCMs) are used to power the RF klystrons used throughout the accelerator systems at Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The output voltage of the HVCM has significant droop and ripple which, combined with low level RF (LLRF) system limitations, affect performance and efficiency of accelerator cavities. In conjunction with the progress in development of the new HVCM controller, different pulse modulation techniques were implemented and studied on the test modulator. This paper discusses the results of implementation of frequency modulation and phase modulation on output voltage. Operational data, including full average power operation, of test modulator is also discussed. Future plans for the new modulation scheme will be presented.

  10. The research of multilevel transistor inverter for converting energy of solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taissariyeva, K. N.; Issembergenov, N. T.

    2015-09-01

    This article considers multilevel transistor inverter for converting energy of solar panels into electroenergy. The output of multilevel transistor inverter produces the voltage of almost sinusoidal form. The primary objective of this inverter is to transform solar energy into electroenergy of industrial frequency. The analysis of received output curves of voltage for sinusoidality has been conducted.

  11. Influence of voltage rise time on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Deng, Yuqun; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua

    2015-10-01

    In relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), although the slow wave structure (SWS) and electron beam determine the main characteristics of beam-wave interaction, many other factors can also significantly affect the microwave generation process. This paper investigates the influence of voltage rise time on beam-wave interaction in RBWOs. Preliminary analysis and PIC simulations demonstrate if the voltage rise time is moderately long, the microwave frequency will gradually increase during the startup process until the voltage reaches its amplitude, which can be explained by the dispersion relation. However, if the voltage rise time is long enough, the longitudinal resonance of the finitely-long SWS will force the RBWO to work with unwanted longitudinal modes for a while and then gradually hop to the wanted longitudinal mode, and this will lead to an impure microwave frequency spectrum. Besides, a longer voltage rise time will delay the startup process and thus lead to a longer microwave saturation time. And if unwanted longitudinal modes are excited due to long voltage rise time, the microwave saturation time will be further lengthened. Therefore, the voltage rise time of accelerators adopted in high power microwave technology should not be too long in case unwanted longitudinal modes are excited.

  12. Ocular following responses of monkeys to the competing motions of two sinusoidal gratings

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, K.; Miura, K.; Taki, M.; Tabata, H.; Inaba, N.; Kawano, K.; Miles, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocular following responses (OFRs) were elicited in monkeys at short latencies (~50ms) by applying motion in the form of successive ¼-wavelength steps to each of two overlapping vertical sine-wave gratings that had different spatial frequencies. In the first experiment, the two sine waves had spatial frequencies in the ratio 3:5 and moved in opposite directions. The initial OFRs showed a highly nonlinear dependence on the relative contrasts of the competing sine waves. On average, when the contrast of one was less than a third of that of the other then the one with the lower contrast became ineffective—as though suppressed—and the OFR was entirely determined by the sine wave of higher contrast: winner-take-all. In a second experiment, the two sine waves had spatial frequencies in the ratio 3:7 and moved in the same direction (though at different speeds). The initial OFRs again showed a highly nonlinear dependence on the relative contrasts of the competing sine waves, with a winner-take-all outcome when the contrasts of the two sine waves were sufficiently different. In both experiments, the nonlinear dependence on the relative contrasts of the competing sine waves was well described by a contrast-weighted-average model with just two free parameters. These findings were very similar to those of Sheliga et al. (2006c) on the human OFR, indicating that the monkey is a good animal model for studying the nonlinear interactions that emerge when competing motions are used. PMID:18316135

  13. The voltage-sensor structure in a voltage-gated channel

    E-print Network

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    The voltage-sensor structure in a voltage-gated channel Francisco Bezanilla Departments in determining the molecular structure of the voltage sensor. The nerve impulse and voltage-dependent channels sensor and the last two of which form the conduction pore, which has been thoroughly characterized after

  14. A multilevel voltage-source converter system with balanced dc voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng; McKeever, J.; VanCoevering, J.

    1995-04-01

    A multilevel voltage-source converter system is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications such as large induction motor drives, back-to-back interconnected power systems, and electrical traction drives. Multilevel voltage-source converters have a voltage unbalance problem in the dc capacitors. The problem may be solved by use of additional voltage regulators or separate dc sources. However, these solutions are found not to be practicable for most applications. The proposed converter system can solve the voltage unbalance problem of the conventional multilevel voltage-source converters, without using any additional voltage balance circuits or separate voltage sources. Mechanism of the voltage unbalance problem is analyzed theoretically in this paper. The validity of the new converter system is demonstrated by simulation and experiment.

  15. A multilevel voltage-source converter system with balanced DC voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng; McKeever, John; Vancoevering, James

    1995-05-01

    A multilevel voltage-source converter system is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications such as large induction motor drives, back-to-back interconnected power systems, and electrical traction drives. Multilevel voltage-source converters have a voltage unbalance problem in the Direct Current (DC) capacitors. The problem may be solved by use of additional voltage regulators or separate dc sources. However, these solutions are found not to be practicable for most applications. The proposed converter system can solve the voltage unbalance problem of the conventional multilevel voltage-source converters, without using any additional voltage balance circuits or separate voltage sources. Mechanism of the voltage unbalance problem is analyzed theoretically in this paper. The validity of the new converter system is demonstrated by simulation and experiment.

  16. Synchronizing carrier frequencies of co-channel amplitude-modulated broadcast

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F. (London, TN); Moore, James A. (Powell, TN)

    2007-05-15

    Systems and methods are described for carrier-frequency synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a reference signal receiver; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  17. Carrier-frequency synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Moore, James A.

    2003-05-13

    Systems and methods are described for carrier-frequency synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a reference signal receiver; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  18. Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signaling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects. Non-VGCC non-thermal mechanisms may occur, but none have been shown to have effects in mammals. Biologically relevant safety standards can be developed through studies of cell lines/cell cultures with high levels of different VGCCs, measuring their responses to different EMF exposures. The 2014 Canadian Report by a panel of experts only recognizes thermal effects regarding safety standards for non-ionizing radiation exposures. Its position is therefore contradicted by each of the observations above. The Report is assessed here in several ways including through Karl Popper's assessment of strength of evidence. Popper argues that the strongest type of evidence is evidence that falsifies a theory; second strongest is a test of "risky prediction"; the weakest confirms a prediction that the theory could be correct but in no way rules out alternative theories. All of the evidence supporting the Report's conclusion that only thermal effects need be considered are of the weakest type, confirming prediction but not ruling out alternatives. In contrast, there are thousands of studies apparently falsifying their position. The Report argues that there are no biophysically viable mechanisms for non-thermal effects (shown to be false, see above). It claims that there are many "inconsistencies" in the literature causing them to throw out large numbers of studies; however, the one area where it apparently documents this claim, that of genotoxicity, shows no inconsistencies; rather it shows that various cell types, fields and end points produce different responses, as should be expected. The Report claims that cataract formation is produced by thermal effects but ignores studies falsifying this claim and also studies showing [Ca2+]i and VGCC roles. It is time for a paradigm shift away from only thermal effects toward VGCC activation and consequent downstream effects. PMID:25879308

  19. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOEpatents

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  20. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    SciTech Connect

    Stamps, James Frederick; Crocker, Robert Ward; Yee, Daniel Dadwa; Dils, David Wright

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  1. Dynamic Voltage Regulation Using Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D

    2007-01-01

    Many distributed energy resources (DE) are near load centres and equipped with power electronics converters to interface with the grid, therefore it is feasible for DE to provide ancillary services such as voltage regulation, nonactive power compensation, and power factor correction. A synchronous condenser and a microturbine with an inverter interface are implemented in parallel in a distribution system to regulate the local voltage. Voltage control schemes of the inverter and the synchronous condenser are developed. The experimental results show that both the inverter and the synchronous condenser can regulate the local voltage instantaneously, while the dynamic response of the inverter is faster than the synchronous condenser; and that integrated voltage regulation (multiple DE perform voltage regulation) can increase the voltage regulation capability, increase the lifetime of the equipment, and reduce the capital and operation costs.

  2. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

  3. The use of sinusoidal and ramp stretch stimuli in characterizing fusimotor effects on cat muscle spindles.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J F; Durbaba, R; Taylor, A; Fowle, A J

    1994-05-01

    Comparisons were made between the results of testing muscle spindle primary afferents with low-frequency, large-amplitude sine waves of muscle stretch and with repeating ramp-and-hold stretches. Three different situations were explored, namely, activation with succinylcholine (SCh), generation of various fusimotor outflow patterns by brainstem stimulation and fusimotor activation by stimulation of single ventral root gamma-axons. With ramp-and-hold stretches the effects of bag1 fibre contraction were thought to be generally better represented by increases in the dynamic response to stretch (delta DD) than by increases in dynamic index. The equivalent effect on the sine wave response was an increase in the magnitude of the fitted sine (delta Mag). Static effects were best measured by increases in the initial frequency for ramps (delta IF) and by increases in the fitted centre frequency (delta CF) for sines. There was good agreement between sine and ramp testing in the case of SCh effects, but much less consistency during brainstem stimulation. Sine wave testing can be regarded as less efficient than ramp testing in distinguishing between static and dynamic actions because dynamic fusimotor stimulation causes equal rises in CF and Mag, but fourfold larger rises in DD than in IF. Ramp responses with combined dynamic and static fusimotor stimulation showed increases of both IF and DD as expected, but whilst sine wave responses always showed increase in CF, they often showed no increase in Mag. Comparisons of the effects of SCh, central stimulation and fusimotor stimulation showed that it is important to recognize the different effects of chain and bag2 intrafusal fibre activation as components of static fusimotor excitation. Stimulation of driving static axons (chain activation) raised the IF and CF often with 1:1 or 1:2 driving during the shortened phase of ramps and sines. However, the stretch response in both cases was either unchanged or reduced. Stimulation of a non-driving static fusimotor axon (bag2 activation) caused a marked rise in CF for sine waves and a fall in Mag, but a modest increase in ramp stretch sensitivity (DD) with no increase in dynamic index. A way is described for measuring flattening of sine wave responses as a possible way of detecting chain fibre activation. The consequences of these findings are discussed in relation to previous reports of the use of sine wave testing for assessing fusimotor mechanisms. PMID:8074847

  4. High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

  5. Prognostic health monitoring in switch-mode power supplies with voltage regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, James P (Inventor); Judkins, Justin B (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The system includes a current injection device in electrical communication with the switch mode power supply. The current injection device is positioned to alter the initial, non-zero load current when activated. A prognostic control is in communication with the current injection device, controlling activation of the current injection device. A frequency detector is positioned to receive an output signal from the switch mode power supply and is able to count cycles in a sinusoidal wave within the output signal. An output device is in communication with the frequency detector. The output device outputs a result of the counted cycles, which are indicative of damage to an a remaining useful life of the switch mode power supply.

  6. Electromagnetic Forces of High- T c Superconducting Coated Conductor Coils Subjected to Sinusoidal Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Yen, Fei; Zheng, Shijun; Wang, Suyu

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimize the structure of high temperature superconducting coils for linear motor applications, three separate coils with different shapes made of Re-BCO coated conductor were studied: circular shaped single pancake, circular shaped double-pancake and racetrack shaped single-pancake. The thrust and vertical forces of the three coils above a conventional flat linear three-phases winding were investigated experimentally. With the aid of the experimentally obtained values, it was found that single-pancake coil in the shape of a racetrack was the best selection for a flat single-sided linear motor system. Studies were also made on the frequency characteristics of the vertical force of the racetrack shaped single-pancake coil.

  7. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-08-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-{mu}s pulse width driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 {Omega}, up to a level of {approximately}650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}.

  8. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-01-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-{mu}s pulse width driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 {Omega}, up to a level of {approximately}650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}.

  9. Dynamic behaviors of semiconductor lasers under strong sinusoidal current modulation; Modeling and experiments at 1. 3. mu. m

    SciTech Connect

    Hemery, E. ); Chusseau, L.; Lourtioz, J.M. )

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the dynamic behaviors of semiconductor lasers under strong sinusoidal modulation is presented. The theoretical analysis is based on rate-equations including gain-compression effects. General criteria are established to predict the existence of irregular behaviors. Experiments are performed on a single-mode buried-heterostructure InGaAsP laser at 1.3 {mu}m. An original method is proposed to evaluate the parameters entering the rate equations. Fully optical measurements are used. The nonlinear gain coefficient and the electrical response of the packaged laser are simultaneously determined from small-signal characteristics. Time-domain measurements show the three behaviors achieved with the studied laser, i.e., simple periodic, periodic with multiple spikes, and period doubling.

  10. A novel ZePoC encoder for sinusoidal signals with a predictable accuracy for an AC power standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennemann, T.; Frye, T.; Liu, Z.; Kahmann, M.; Mathis, W.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present an analytical formulation of a Zero Position Coding (ZePoC) encoder for an AC power standard based on class-D topologies. For controlling a class-D power stage a binary signal with special spectral characteristics will be generated by this ZePoC encoder for sinusoidal signals. These spectral characteristics have a predictable accuracy within a separated baseband to keep the noise floor below a specified level. Simulation results will validate the accuracy of this novel ZePoC encoder. For a real-time implementation of the encoder on a DSP/FPGA hardware architecture a trade-off between accuracy and speed of the ZePoC algorithm has to be made. Therefore the numerical effects of different floating point formats will be analyzed.

  11. Soleus H-reflex excitability changes in response to sinusoidal hip stretches in the injured human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Knikou, Maria; Schmit, Brian D; Chaudhuri, Debjani; Kay, Elizabeth; Rymer, William Zev

    2007-08-01

    Imposed static hip stretches substantially modulate the soleus H-reflex in people with an intact or injured spinal cord while stretch of the hip flexors affect the walking pattern in lower vertebrates and humans. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dynamic hip stretches on the soleus H-reflex in supine spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects. Sinusoidal movements were imposed on the right hip joint at 0.2 Hz by a Biodex system. H-reflexes from the soleus muscle were recorded as the leg moved in flexion or extension. Stimuli were sent only once in every hip movement cycle that each lasted 5 s. Torque responses were recorded at the hip, knee, and ankle joints. A hip phase-dependent soleus H-reflex modulation was present in all subjects. The reflex was facilitated during hip extension and suppressed during hip flexion. There were no significant differences in pre- or post-stimulus soleus background activity between the two conditions. Oscillatory responses were present as the hip was maximally flexed. Sinusoidal hip stretches modulated the soleus H-reflex in a manner similar to that previously observed following static hip stretches. The amount of reflex facilitation depended on the angle of hip extension. Further research is needed on the afferent control of spinal reflex pathways in health and disease in order to better understand the neural control of movement in humans. This will aid in the development of rehabilitation strategies to restore motor function in these patients. PMID:17658691

  12. Weighted frequency-difference EIT measurement of hemisphere phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sujin; In Oh, Tong; Jun, Sung Chan; Lee, Jeehyun; Seo, Jin Keun; Woo, Eung Je

    2010-04-01

    We have proposed a new frequency difference method using a weighted voltage difference (WFD-EIT) between two frequencies [1, 2]. Previous studies demonstrated its feasibility through numerical experiments and two-dimensional phantom experiments. In this study, we validate the WFD-EIT algorithm on a three-dimensional hemisphere phantom using a multi-frequency EIT system KHU Mark1. We built the hemisphere phantom with 17 stainless-steel electrodes on its inner surface. We filled the phantom with a biological material having a frequency-dependent admittivity such as carrot pieces mixed in saline. Using boundary voltage data from the deformed phantom, we reconstructed weighted frequency difference images on the computational model domain with a hemisphere shape. We discuss comparative reconstruction performance results including time difference (TD), simple frequency difference (FD), and weighted frequency difference (WFD). Animal and human head imaging experiments with the weighted frequency-difference EIT method are under investigation.

  13. Low Voltage Electrowetting Optical Deflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hsiang; Fu, Chien-Chung

    2011-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a low-operating-voltage electrowetting optical deflector (EOD) by reducing the interfacial surface tension between the electrolyte and the surrounding ambience. The goal of this study was to explore various approaches to achieving a low operating voltage. First, two kinds of fluoropolymers (Teflon® AF1601 and Cytop® CTL-809M) were utilized to confirm the thickness effect and wettability. Second, three different dielectric layers (SiO2, Si3N4, and Ta2O5) with the same thickness were tested to confirm the dielectric constant effect. Finally, three different surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X100, and Triton X15) were used to confirm the interfacial surface tension effect. In this article, we demonstrate that the contact angle of water can change as much as 70° in a dodecane/water/Cytop®/Ta2O5 system (containing 1% SDS) with 11 V; furthermore, switchable apex angles of ˜±20° and deflection of a beam passing through the meniscus of EOD are presented.

  14. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    Part I: Dynamic Voltage Restorer In the present power grids, voltage sags are recognized as a serious threat and a frequently occurring power-quality problem and have costly consequence such as sensitive loads tripping and production loss. Consequently, the demand for high power quality and voltage stability becomes a pressing issue. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), as a custom power device, is more effective and direct solutions for "restoring" the quality of voltage at its load-side terminals when the quality of voltage at its source-side terminals is disturbed. In the first part of this thesis, a DVR configuration with no need of bulky dc link capacitor or energy storage is proposed. This fact causes to reduce the size of the DVR and increase the reliability of the circuit. In addition, the proposed DVR topology is based on high-frequency isolation transformer resulting in the size reduction of transformer. The proposed DVR circuit, which is suitable for both low- and medium-voltage applications, is based on dc-ac converters connected in series to split the main dc link between the inputs of dc-ac converters. This feature makes it possible to use modular dc-ac converters and utilize low-voltage components in these converters whenever it is required to use DVR in medium-voltage application. The proposed configuration is tested under different conditions of load power factor and grid voltage harmonic. It has been shown that proposed DVR can compensate the voltage sag effectively and protect the sensitive loads. Following the proposition of the DVR topology, a fundamental voltage amplitude detection method which is applicable in both single/three-phase systems for DVR applications is proposed. The advantages of proposed method include application in distorted power grid with no need of any low-pass filter, precise and reliable detection, simple computation and implementation without using a phased locked loop and lookup table. The proposed method has been verified by simulation and experimental tests under various conditions considering all possible cases such as different amounts of voltage sag depth (VSD), different amounts of point-on-wave (POW) at which voltage sag occurs, harmonic distortion, line frequency variation, and phase jump (PJ). Furthermore, the ripple amount of fundamental voltage amplitude calculated by the proposed method and its error is analyzed considering the line frequency variation together with harmonic distortion. The best and worst detection time of proposed method were measured 1ms and 8.8ms, respectively. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other voltage sag detection methods available in literature. Part 2: Power System Modeling for Renewable Energy Integration: As power distribution systems are evolving into more complex networks, electrical engineers have to rely on software tools to perform circuit analysis. There are dozens of powerful software tools available in the market to perform the power system studies. Although their main functions are similar, there are differences in features and formatting structures to suit specific applications. This creates challenges for transferring power system circuit models data (PSCMD) between different software and rebuilding the same circuit in the second software environment. The objective of this part of thesis is to develop a Unified Platform (UP) to facilitate transferring PSCMD among different software packages and relieve the challenges of the circuit model conversion process. UP uses a commonly available spreadsheet file with a defined format, for any home software to write data to and for any destination software to read data from, via a script-based application called PSCMD transfer application. The main considerations in developing the UP are to minimize manual intervention and import a one-line diagram into the destination software or export it from the source software, with all details to allow load flow, short circuit and other analyses. In this study, ETAP, OpenDSS, and GridLab-D are considered, and PSCMD trans

  15. Effects of contrast and spatial frequency on vernier acuity.

    PubMed

    Bradley, A; Skottun, B C

    1987-01-01

    We have examined vernier acuity using sinusoidal luminance gratings. Vernier thresholds were affected by both grating contrast and spatial frequency. With fixed (50%) contrast gratings, vernier thresholds reached minimum values of approximately 10 sec of arc at spatial frequencies between 6 and 16 c/deg. Vernier thresholds for all spatial frequencies are related to contrast by a power law with exponents of approximately -0.8. Thresholds approach half a grating period (180 deg phase shift) as grating contrast approaches detection thresholds. We discuss our results in relation to three models for vernier detection. Most of our data are consistent with the predictions of Wilson's [(1986) Vision Res. 26, 453-469] model. Detection of vernier off-sets at low spatial frequencies may depend on detection of the horizontal border formed between the two halves of the grating. PMID:3445471

  16. Ultrasound Vibrometry Using Orthogonal Frequency Based Vibration Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Yao, Aiping; Chen, Shigao; Urban, Matthew W.; Lin, Haoming; Chen, Xin; Guo, Yanrong; Chen, Ke; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Shiping

    2014-01-01

    New vibration pulses are developed for shear wave generation in a tissue region with preferred spectral distributions for ultrasound vibrometry applications. The primary objective of this work is to increase the frequency range of detectable harmonics of the shear wave. The secondary objective is to reduce the required peak intensity of transmitted pulses that induce the vibrations and shear waves. Unlike the periodic binary vibration pulses, the new vibration pulses have multiple pulses in one fundamental period of the vibration. The pulses are generated from an orthogonal-frequency wave composed of several sinusoidal signals of which the amplitudes increase with frequency to compensate for higher loss at higher frequency in tissues. The new method has been evaluated by studying the shear wave propagation in in vitro chicken and swine liver. The experimental results show that the new vibration pulses significantly increase tissue vibration with a reduced peak ultrasound intensity, compared with the binary vibration pulses. PMID:24158291

  17. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Thomas L. (Kingston, TN)

    1989-01-17

    An improved radio frequency coaxial transmission line vacuum feed-through provided based on the use of a half-wavelength annular dielectric pressure barrier disk, or multiple disks comprising an effective half wavelength structure to eliminate reflections from the barrier surfaces. Gas-tight seals are formed about the outer and inner diameter surfaces of the barrier disk using a sealing technique which generates radial forces sufficient to form seals by forcing the conductor walls against the surfaces of the barrier disks in a manner which does not deform the radii of the inner and outer conductors, thereby preventing enhancement of the electric field at the barrier faces which limits voltage and power handling capabilities of a feedthrough.

  18. Phase-Locked Loop Based Frequency Synthesizer

    E-print Network

    Bibyk, Steven B.

    · Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) · Frequency divider ­ Prescaler ­ Program counter ­ swallow counter Prescalar /7, /8 Program Counter /2400 Swallow Counter /3, /4, /5 433, 432.974, 433.026 MHz Loop Filter On divide ratio: 16803, 16804, 16805 · Prescaler: 7, 8 Program counter: 2400 Swallow counter: 3, 4, 5 #12

  19. Extended linear ion trap frequency standard apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A linear ion trap for frequency standard applications is provided with a plurality of trapping rods equally spaced and applied quadruple rf voltages for radial confinement of atomic ions and biased level pins at each end for axial confinement of the ions. The trapping rods are divided into two linear ion trap regions by a gap in each rod in a common radial plane to provide dc discontinuity, thus dc isolating one region from the other. A first region for ion-loading and preparation fluorescence is biased with a dc voltage to transport ions into a second region for resonance frequency comparison with a local oscillator derived frequency while the second region is held at zero voltage. The dc bias voltage of the regions is reversed for transporting the ions back into the first region for fluorescence measurement. The dual mode cycle is repeated continuously for comparison and feedback control of the local oscillator derived frequency. Only the second region requires magnetic shielding for the resonance function which is sensitive to any ambient magnetic fields.

  20. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  1. Reactor trip control with voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, R.E.; Gutman, J.

    1988-05-31

    A control system for a trip coil in switchgear, the switchgear receiving alternating current power at a first voltage level from a power source and supplying the alternating current power at the first voltage level to a rod positioner for control rods in a pressurized light water nuclear reactor, is described comprising: a potential transformer, rectifier means, trip means; voltage/optical converter means, and optical transmission means.

  2. Femtosecond strong-field quantum control with sinusoidally phase-modulated pulses M. Wollenhaupt, A. Prkelt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, D. Liese, T. Bayer, and T. Baumert

    E-print Network

    Peinke, Joachim

    by the properties of their temporal phase which determines whether the pulse envelope is real or complex valued sinusoidal phase modulation as a prototype for complex shaped pulses to investigate the physical mechanism, it is not always possible to deduce the underlying physical mechanism from the electri- cal fields obtained

  3. The dynamics of certain indicators of nuclein metabolism during hypokinesia in rats of different ages under the influence of sinusoidal modulated currents and measured physical load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolova, Z. A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of sinusoidal modulated currents was studied and physical loads on the nucleic acid content and the nucleotide composition of the total RNA in muscles of rats of various ages under conditions of hypodynamia were measured. Methodology utilized is described and conclusions are presented.

  4. Liver sinusoid on a chip: Long-term layered co-culture of primary rat hepatocytes and endothelial cells in microfluidic platforms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Bok Abraham; Sodunke, Temitope R; Lamontagne, Jason; Cirillo, Joseph; Rajiv, Caroline; Bouchard, Michael J; Noh, Moses

    2015-12-01

    We describe the generation of microfluidic platforms for the co-culture of primary hepatocytes and endothelial cells; these platforms mimic the architecture of a liver sinusoid. This paper describes a progressional study of creating such a liver sinusoid on a chip system. Primary rat hepatocytes (PRHs) were co-cultured with primary or established endothelial cells in layers in single and dual microchannel configurations with or without continuous perfusion. Cell viability and maintenance of hepatocyte functions were monitored and compared for diverse experimental conditions. When primary rat hepatocytes were co-cultured with immortalized bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) in a dual microchannel with continuous perfusion, hepatocytes maintained their normal morphology and continued to produce urea for at least 30 days. In order to demonstrate the utility of our microfluidic liver sinusoid platform, we also performed an analysis of viral replication for the hepatotropic hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV replication, as measured by the presence of cell-secreted HBV DNA, was successfully detected. We believe that our liver model closely mimics the in vivo liver sinusoid and supports long-term primary liver cell culture. This liver model could be extended to diverse liver biology studies and liver-related disease research such as drug induced liver toxicology, cancer research, and analysis of pathological effects and replication strategies of various hepatotropic infectious agents. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2571-2582. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25994312

  5. High voltage load resistor array

    DOEpatents

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  6. Voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsayed, Mena; Sokolov, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by seizures and convulsions. The basis of epilepsy is an increase in neuronal excitability that, in some cases, may be caused by functional defects in neuronal voltage gated sodium channels, Nav1.1 and Nav1.2. The effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as effective therapies for epilepsy have been characterized by extensive research. Most of the classic AEDs targeting Nav share a common mechanism of action by stabilizing the channel’s fast-inactivated state. In contrast, novel AEDs, such as lacosamide, stabilize the slow-inactivated state in neuronal Nav1.1 and Nav1.7 isoforms. This paper reviews the different mechanisms by which this stabilization occurs to determine new methods for treatment. PMID:23531742

  7. 80-GHz MMIC HEMT Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Radisic, Vesna; Micovic, Miro; Hu, Ming; Janke, Paul; Ngo, Catherine; Nguyen, Loi

    2003-01-01

    A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) that operates in the frequency range from 77.5 to 83.5 GHz has been constructed in the form of a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) that includes high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). This circuit is a prototype of electronically tunable signal sources in the 75-to-110-GHz range, needed for communication, imaging, and automotive radar applications, among others. This oscillator (see Figure 1) includes two AlInAs/GaInAs/InP HEMTs. One HEMT serves mainly as an oscillator gain element. The other HEMT serves mainly as a varactor for controlling the frequency: the frequency-control element is its gate-to-source capacitance, which is varied by changing its gate supply voltage. The gain HEMT is biased for class-A operation (meaning that current is conducted throughout the oscillation cycle). Grounded coplanar waveguides are used as impedance-matching transmission lines, the input and output matching being chosen to sustain oscillation and maximize output power. Air bridges are placed at discontinuities to suppress undesired slot electromagnetic modes. A high density of vias is necessary for suppressing a parallel-plate electromagnetic mode that is undesired because it can propagate energy into the MMIC substrate. Previous attempts at constructing HEMT-based oscillators yielded circuits with relatively low levels of output power and narrow tuning ranges. For example, one HEMT VCO reported in the literature had an output power of 7 dBm (.5 mW) and a tuning range 2-GHz wide centered approximately at a nominal frequency of 77 GHz. In contrast, as shown in Figure 2, the present MMIC HEMT VCO puts out a power of 12.5 dBm (.18 mW) or more over the 6-GHz-wide frequency range from 77.5 to 83.5 GHz

  8. Variable frequency inverter for ac induction motors with torque, speed and braking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A variable frequency inverter was designed for driving an ac induction motor which varies the frequency and voltage to the motor windings in response to varying torque requirements for the motor so that the applied voltage amplitude and frequency are of optimal value for any motor load and speed requirement. The slip frequency of the motor is caused to vary proportionally to the torque and feedback is provided so that the most efficient operating voltage is applied to the motor. Winding current surge is limited and a controlled negative slip causes motor braking and return of load energy to a dc power source.

  9. High-voltage R-F feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, G.F.

    1982-09-03

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for transmitting rf energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  10. Active notch filter network with variable notch depth, width and frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An active notch filter having independently adjustable notch frequency, width, and depth is provided by three equal capacitors connected in series with an operational amplifier (connected in a voltage follower configuration), a potentiometer across the series connected capacitors for notch depth adjustment, and a potentiometer (for notch frequency connected across the center capacitor); with its tap connected to receive a voltage feedback signal from a variable voltage divider comprised of another potentiometer for notch width. Adjusting the voltage dividing potentiometer will independently set the notch width, and adjusting the tap on the potentiometer across the center capacitor will independently adjust the notch frequency of the filter. A second operational amplifier connected in a voltage follower configuration may be used to connect the voltage divider output to the adjustable tap of the potentiometer across the center capacitor.

  11. Voltage-mode direct-current magnetoelectric sensor based on piezoelectric-magnetostrictive heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Or, Siu Wing; Leung, Chung Ming

    2015-05-01

    A dc magnetoelectric sensor operating in ac voltage driving mode is developed based on a piezoelectric-magnetostrictive heterostructure having four thickness-polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 piezoelectric plates bonded symmetrically on a length-magnetized Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 magnetostrictive plate to give an electrically parallel input and an electrically series output. The dc magnetic field sensing in the sensor is evaluated theoretically and experimentally and is found to originate from a unique ac voltage-driven, dc magnetic field-tuned resonance dc magnetoelectric effect in the heterostructure. An interestingly high, linear, and negative ac voltage-controlled dc magnetic field sensitivity of -1.3 mV/Oe/V is obtained in a broad range of dc magnetic field of 0-400 Oe by referencing an ac voltage of ?5 V peak amplitude and 116 kHz frequency at the input of the heterostructure.

  12. Dynamic magnetization switching and spin wave excitations by voltage-induced torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Yoichi

    2013-03-01

    The effect of electric fields on ultrathin ferromagnetic metal layer is one of the promising approaches for manipulating the spin direction with low-energy consumption, localization, and coherent behavior. Several experimental approaches to realize it have been investigated using ferromagnetic semiconductors, magnetostriction together with piezo-electric materials, multiferroic materials, and ultrathin ferromagnetic layer. In this talk, we will present a dynamic control of spins by voltage-induced torque. We used the magnetic tunnel junctions with ultrathin ferromagnetic layer, which shows voltage-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy change. By applying the voltage to the junction, the magnetic easy-axis in the ultrathin ferromagnetic layer changes from in-plane to out-of-plane, which causes a precession of the spins. This precession resulted in a two-way toggle switching by determining an appropriate pulse length. On the other hand, an application of rf-voltage causes an excitation of a uniform spin-wave. Since the precession of spin associates with an oscillation in the resistance of the junction, the applied rf-signal is rectified and produces a dc-voltage. From the spectrum of the dc-voltage as a function of frequency, we could estimate the voltage-induced torque. This research was supported by CREST-JST, G-COE program, and JSPS for the fellowship. Collaborators include T. Nozaki, S. Miwa, F. Bonell, N. Mizuochi, T. Shinjo, and Y. Suzuki.

  13. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  14. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore »rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  15. Dynamical thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene in the presence of bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, H.; Yarmohammadi, M.

    2016-01-01

    We study dynamical thermal conductivity of doped biased bilayer graphene for both AA and AB-stacking in the context of tight binding model Hamiltonian. The effects of bias voltage and chemical potential on the behavior of dynamical thermal conductivity are discussed for different stacking of bilayer graphene. Green's function approach has been implemented to find the behavior of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene within linear response theory. We have found that thermal conductivity decreases with chemical potential for different values of temperature and frequency. Also thermal conductivity of AB stacked bilayer graphene versus bias voltage includes a peak for each value of chemical potential. Furthermore we study the frequency dependence of thermal conductivity of AA stacked bilayer graphene for different values of temperature and bias voltage.

  16. A capacitor-free high PSR CMOS low dropout voltage regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhichao, Li; Yuntao, Liu; Zhangqu, Kuang; Jie, Chen

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a capacitor-free CMOS low dropout voltage regulator which has high PSR performance and low chip area. Pole splitting and gm boosting techniques are employed to achieve good stability. The capacitor-free chip LDO was fabricated in commercial 0.18 ?m CMOS technology provided by GSMC (Shanghai, China). Measured results show that the capacitor-free LDO has a stable output voltage 1.79 V, when supply voltage changes from 2.5 to 5 V, and the LDO is capable of driving maximum 100 mA load current. The LDO has high power supply rejection about -79 dB at low frequency and -40 dB at 1 MHz frequency, while sacrifice of the LDO's active chip-area is only smaller than 0.02 mm2.

  17. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Højgaard Olesen, Laurits; Bazant, Martin Z.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-07-01

    We study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a large ac voltage of frequency comparable to the inverse cell relaxation time. To bring out the basic physics, we consider the simplest possible model of a symmetric binary electrolyte confined between parallel-plate blocking electrodes, ignoring any transverse instability or fluid flow. We analyze the resulting one-dimensional problem by matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers and extend previous work into the strongly nonlinear regime, which is characterized by two features—significant salt depletion in the electrolyte near the electrodes and, at very large voltage, the breakdown of the quasiequilibrium structure of the double layers. The former leads to the prediction of “ac capacitive desalination” since there is a time-averaged transfer of salt from the bulk to the double layers, via oscillating diffusion layers. The latter is associated with transient diffusion limitation, which drives the formation and collapse of space-charge layers, even in the absence of any net Faradaic current through the cell. We also predict that steric effects of finite ion sizes (going beyond dilute-solution theory) act to suppress the strongly nonlinear regime in the limit of concentrated electrolytes, ionic liquids, and molten salts. Beyond the model problem, our reduced equations for thin double layers, based on uniformly valid matched asymptotic expansions, provide a useful mathematical framework to describe additional nonlinear responses to large ac voltages, such as Faradaic reactions, electro-osmotic instabilities, and induced-charge electrokinetic phenomena.

  18. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Pitel, Ira J. (Whippany, NJ)

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage.

  19. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Pitel, I.J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage. 19 figs.

  20. The Voltage Sensor in Voltage-Dependent Ion Channels FRANCISCO BEZANILLA

    E-print Network

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    The Voltage Sensor in Voltage-Dependent Ion Channels FRANCISCO BEZANILLA Departments of Physiology. Introduction 556 A. The pore and the voltage sensor 556 II. Theoretical Background 559 A. Electric charge movement reflects the operation of the sensor 559 B. Coupling energetics of the sensor and the pore 559 C