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1

Broad-band lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper using synchronous filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a broad-band lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper (LSFS) that uses synchronous filtering. We control the center frequency of the bandpass filter (BPF) in the LSFS so that it tracks the frequency of the circulating pulse. In the first half of this paper, we numerically simulate the accumulation of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise in the LSFS and confirm the

Hiroki Takesue; Tsuneo Horiguchi

2004-01-01

2

Chromatic dispersion measurement of optical components using lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a chromatic dispersion (CD) measurement method that uses a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper (LSFS), which generates a frequency swept output with very good linearity. With the LSFS, we can measure the CD of optical components in a very short time. Moreover, the employment of a lock-in detection with phase diversity technique makes it possible to fully utilize the

Hiroki Takesue; Tsuneo Horiguchi

2002-01-01

3

Stable lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper for the 1.5 ?m band  

Microsoft Academic Search

We realized a stable lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper for the 1.5 ?m band by using a Fabry-Perot cavity composed of two Faraday rotator mirrors. We show its high stability of the frequency sweep span which is very important for WDM networks

H. Takesue; F. Yamamoto; T. Horiguchi

1998-01-01

4

Very fast chromatic dispersion measurement using lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper and lock-in detection with phase diversity technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a chromatic dispersion measurement method that uses a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. This method features a very fast measurement time and good wavelength accuracy when measuring group delay.

Hiroki Takesue; Tsuneo Horiguchi

2001-01-01

5

Fine Transmittance\\/Reflectivity Measurement System Using Single-Sideband Frequency Sweeper with Ultra-Wideband Hilbert Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wideband transmittance\\/reflectivity measurement system for fine-structured components is proposed. The optical single-sideband frequency sweeper with an ultra wideband Hilbert transformer enables excellent frequency sweep range between 2GHz-30GHz. Frequency resolution of 4.7MHz is experimentally obtained.

Tetsuya Kawanishi; Takahide Sakamoto; Daniel Fonseca; Adolfo Cartaxo; Paulo Monteiro; Masayuki Izutsu

2006-01-01

6

Numerical Simulation of a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper incorporating an optical SSB Modulator composed of four optical phase Modulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the numerical analysis of a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper (LSFS) that uses an optical single-sideband (SSB) modulator composed of four optical phase modulators. The SSB modulator realizes a large frequency shift in the LSFS. This means that we can reduce the number of pulse circulations in the LSFS cavity to cover a given frequency sweep range. We propose

Hiroki Takesue; Tsuneo Horiguchi; Tetsuro Kobayashi

2002-01-01

7

EUROGRAPHICS 2005 Tutorial Sweepers & Swirling-Sweepers  

E-print Network

EUROGRAPHICS 2005 Tutorial Sweepers & Swirling-Sweepers Alexis Angelidis University of Otago, New Zealand Abstract Sweepers and swirling-sweepers are operations for modeling by space deformation-free', that is parts of deformed space can- not overlap so that the deformations are reversible. Both sweepers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Design, fabrication, installation, and testing of high energy sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A room temperature high-energy sweeper had been designed, fabricated, and installed at the postacceleration section of the Tandem accelerator. The sweeper, a part of the new pulsing system, is being used to inject the bunched beam without dark current into the linear accelerator acting as a booster of the Tandem. The resonance frequency of the sweeper was set at 6.0625

S. Ghosh; A. Sarkar; S. S. K. Sonti; S. Rao; V. V. Sivakumar; A. Rai; P. Barua; S. K. Datta; R. K. Bhowmik; A. Roy

2006-01-01

9

Orbital debris sweeper and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An orbital debris sweeper is provided for removing particles from orbit which otherwise may impact and damage an orbiting spacecraft. The debris sweeper includes a central sweeper core which carries a debris monitoring unit, and a plurality of large area impact panels rotatable about a central sweeper rotational axis. In response to information from the debris monitoring unit, a computer determines whether individual monitored particles preferably impact one of the rotating panels or pass between the rotating panels. A control unit extends or retracts one or more booms which interconnect the sweeper core and the panels to change the moment of inertia of the sweeper and thereby the rotational velocity of the rotating panels. According to the method of the present invention, the change in panel rotational velocity increases the frequency of particles which desirably impact one of the panels and are thereby removed from orbit, while large particles which may damage the impact panels pass between the trailing edge of one panel and the leading edge of the rotationally succeeding panel.

Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

10

Sweepers, Communications and Solar Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweepers, wide-band noise pulses found in the HF range, have been observed at many locations on the globe. They display a changing frequency vs time characteristic. Two types, described as alpha and beta, have been noted. The duration of the beta type is so short that as it sweeps through 500-kc bandwidth its time rate of change of frequency exceeds

N. C. Gerson; W. H. Gossard

1963-01-01

11

A Robotic Road Sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hardware and software design of a robotic road sweeper is presented. The basic vehicle used is the commercial road sweeper KMR 1200 manufactured by Alfred Karcher GmbH, Germany. This vehicle has been re-designed and augmented by mechanical and electronic components to allow automatic control of both the drive system and the cleaning system. The road sweeper has been further

Erwin Prassler; Dirk Schwammkrug; Bertram Rohrmoser; G. Schmidl

2000-01-01

12

Design, fabrication, installation, and testing of high energy sweeper  

SciTech Connect

A room temperature high-energy sweeper had been designed, fabricated, and installed at the postacceleration section of the Tandem accelerator. The sweeper, a part of the new pulsing system, is being used to inject the bunched beam without dark current into the linear accelerator acting as a booster of the Tandem. The resonance frequency of the sweeper was set at 6.0625 MHz and a quality factor of {approx}1300 was achieved. During off-line testing of the sweeper, a deflector voltage of {approx}30 kV had been measured for an input power of 300 W. A pair of indigenously fabricated capacitors is used for fine-tuning of the resonance frequency. The silver plated coil of the tank circuit was fabricated with two concentric copper tubes. During the successful beam test of the sweeper, a peak to dark current ratio of 97% has been achieved.

Ghosh, S.; Sarkar, A.; Sonti, S. S. K.; Rao, S.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Rai, A.; Barua, P.; Datta, S. K.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

2006-07-15

13

Adhesive Contact Sweeper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

Patterson, Jonathan D.

1993-01-01

14

Saturn's sweeper moons predicted  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent observation of the absorption of radiation belts in the vicinity of Saturn's bright rings and historical observations of the ring system make the following related results apparent:- The gaps in the rings are caused by the presence of at least 6 small, extremely dense and probably electrically charged ‘sweeper’ moons which effectively sweep the ring matter clean from

J. M. McCanney

1981-01-01

15

Sweeper Service Level Description I. Standard configuration  

E-print Network

Sweeper Service Level Description I. Standard configuration A. General The Sweeper is a large gap by the Sweeper enter a "focal plane" box similar to that of the S800, containing the same set of position, energy identification and tracking. The maximum nominal magnetic field of the Sweeper is 4 Tesla corresponding

16

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

17

Animated Sweepers: Keyframed Swept Deformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents animated sweepers, a method for an- imating the space deformations called sweepers. This tech- nique allows a user to animate the modeling of a shape, and to edit the animation until it satisfies the user's require- ments. To place this method in the more general frame- work of animation with space deformation, we propose an overview of

Alexis Angelidis; Geoff Wyvill

2004-01-01

18

Plasma sweeper. [Patents  

DOEpatents

A device is described for coupling RF power (a plasma sweeper) from RF power introducing means to a plasma having a magnetic field associated therewith comprises at least one electrode positioned near the plasma and near the RF power introducing means. Means are described for generating a static electric field at the electrode directed into the plasma and having a component substantially perpendicular to the plasma magnetic field such that a non-zero vector cross-product of the electric and magnetic fields exerts a force on the plasma causing the plasma to drift.

Motley, R.W.; Glanz, J.

1982-10-25

19

Microcomputer-controlled YIG sweeper for a laser heterodyne spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a local oscillator designed for a low resolution RF spectrum analyser. By combining a YIG oscillator, a frequency meter and a microcomputer, a digitally controlled sweeper was obtained. The smallest step size is 80 kHz. The short term frequency stability in the time domain is 30 kHz (standard deviation). The step time is adjusted from 50 ms

A. Thiebeaux; D. Courtois; A. Delahaigue; E. Merienne

1984-01-01

20

The Quantum Sweeper Effect  

E-print Network

We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments, there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below $a\\lesssim10^{-4}$, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are characterized by the bunching together of low counting rate particles within very narrow spatial domains. We employ a "superclassical" modeling procedure which we have previously shown to produce predictions identical with those of standard quantum theory. Thus it is demonstrated that in reaching down to ever weaker channel intensities, the nonlinear nature of the probability density currents becomes ever more important. We finally show that the resulting unexpected effects nevertheless implicitly also exist in standard quantum mechanics.

Gerhard Groessing; Siegfried Fussy; Johannes Mesa Pascasio; Herbert Schwabl

2015-02-13

21

Swirling-Sweepers: Constant-Volume Modeling  

E-print Network

Swirling-Sweepers: Constant-Volume Modeling Alexis Angelidis University of Otago Marie-Paule Cani Laboratoire GRAVIR Geoff Wyvill§ University of Otago Scott King¶ University of Otago Abstract Swirling-sweepers to shapes whose volume can be computed. 1.2. Overview This paper presents swirling-sweepers, a new method

Toronto, University of

22

Performance evaluation of an improved street sweeper  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of an evaluation of the performance of an improved street sweeper (ISS) and conventional sweepers. Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban airborne particles. These emissions can be controlled by street cleaning, but commonly used sweepers were not designed for fine particle collection. A sweeper was modified to improve its ability to remove fine particles from streets and to contain its dust dispersions. Performance was measured by sampling street solids with a vacuum system before and after sweeping. Sieve analyses were made on these samples. During sampling, cascade impactor subsamples were collected to measure the finer particles. Also, dust dispersions were measured.

Duncan, M.W.; Jain, R.C.; Yung, S.C.; Patterson, R.G.

1985-10-01

23

Oil sweeper method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Oil sweeper method and apparatus including an elongated structural framework adapted to be towed transversely across the surface of water bearing an oil film contaminant, the framework supporting a pair of longitudinally extending, parallel vertical screens, wherein the forwardmost screen relative to the direction of sweeping motion is constituted of multiple panels pivotally attached to the framework for swinging movement about vertical swinging axes, and the rearward screen is water impervious. When the panels of the forwardmost screen are pivoted they define channels therebetween for diverting surface water and floating contamination such as oil in a lateral direction towards a skimmer disposed at one end of the sweeper apparatus. The rearward screen assists in further deflecting the water and oil towards the skimmer after they have traversed the channels between the pivotable panels.

De V. A.; Van W. P.

1982-04-20

24

Swirling-Sweepers: Constant Volume Modeling Alexis Angelidis  

E-print Network

Swirling-Sweepers: Constant Volume Modeling Alexis Angelidis University of Otago Marie-Paule Cani Laboratoire GRAVIR Geoff Wyvill§ University of Otago Scott King¶ University of Otago Swirling-sweepers point. 2 Principle of Swirling-Sweepers A Swirling-Sweeper is a new space deformation based on our

Boyer, Edmond

25

Sweepers: Swept User-Defined Tools for Modeling by Deformation.  

E-print Network

Sweepers: Swept User-Defined Tools for Modeling by Deformation. Alexis Angelidis University Laboratoire GRAVIR Marie-Paule.Cani@imag.fr Abstract We present sweepers, a new class of space deforma- tions

Boyer, Edmond

26

Sweeper’s lung disease: a cross-sectional study of an overlooked illness among sweepers of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Sweepers are prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease even without tobacco smoking. Purpose To investigate roadside dust as a cause of air flow obstruction among sweepers, and the role of spirometry in its preclinical diagnosis. Material and methods One-hundred nonsmoking sweepers (aged 30–60 years) of both sexes sweeping on roads for 8–12 hours a day for the Capital Development Authority of Islamabad, Pakistan were used as study participants (Group A). One-hundred healthy nonsmokers (aged 30–60 years) in the same socioeconomic group and living in the same environment represented the nonsweeper group (Group B). After proper clinical evaluation and chest X-rays, spirometric evaluation was carried out in both groups. Comparisons were drawn between various spirometric parameters. Results Pulmonary function tests showed that the mean forced vital capacity was 78 ± 1.40 in the sweeper group (Group A) and 83 ± 0.86 in the nonsweeper group (Group B). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 66 ± 1.67 in Group A and 85 ± 0.85 in Group B (P < 0.05), a difference of 19%. The forced midexpiratory flow was 41% lower in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.0001). The pattern of pulmonary function obstruction was shown to be proportional to the duration of exposure to dust caused by sweeping. Conclusion Occupational exposure to dust leads to an obstructive pattern among sweepers. Spirometry is the simplest, noninvasive technique to detect preclinical disease. PMID:23626464

Anwar, Shaikh Khurshid; Mehmood, Naeem; Nasim, Nasir; Khurshid, Maryam; Khurshid, Bilal

2013-01-01

27

Swirling-sweepers: Constant-volume modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Swirling-sweepers is a new method for modeling shapes while preserving volume. The artist describes a deforma- tion by dragging a point along a path. The method is in- dependent of the geometric representation of the shape. It preserves volume and avoids self-intersections, both lo- cal and global. It is capable of unlimited stretching and the deformation can be constrained

Alexis Angelidis; Marie-paule Cani; Geoff Wyvill; Scott A. King

2006-01-01

28

Dust Exposure in Mechanical Street Sweepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements in three Alberta cities have shown that drivers of mechanical street sweepers can be exposed to excessive concentrations of silica-bearing dust. The provision of an enclosed cab pressurized with a filtered air supply appears to be the best solution to this situation. Care must be taken to specify a filter unit that will efficiently remove particles of respirable size.

Herbert Buchwald; Kenneth R. Schrag

1967-01-01

29

Swirling-sweepers: constant-volume modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swirling-sweepers is a new method for modeling shapes while preserving volume. The artist describes a deformation by dragging a point along a path. The method is independent of the geometric representation of the shape. It preserves volume and avoids self-intersections, both local and global. It is capable of unlimited stretching and the deformation can be constrained to affect only apart

A. Angelidi; M. P. Canif; G. Wyvill; S. King

2004-01-01

30

Sweepers: Swept deformation defined by gesture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweepers is a framework for defining space deformation operations for interactive shape modeling. The artist describes a basic deformation as a path through which a tool is moved. Our tools are simply shapes. So we can use shapes already created as customized tools to make more complex shapes or to simplify the modeling process. When a tool is moved, it

Alexis Angelidis; Geoff Wyvill; Marie-paule Cani

2006-01-01

31

Swirling-Sweepers: Constant-Volume Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swirling-sweepers is a new method for modeling shapes while preserving volume. The artist describes a deforma- tion by dragging a point along a path. The method is in- dependent of the geometric representation of the shape. It preserves volume and avoids self-intersections, both lo- cal and global. It is capable of unlimited stretching and the deformation can be constrained to

Alexis Angelidis; Marie-paule Cani; Geoff Wyvill; Scott A. King

2004-01-01

32

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE DIPERNA SWEEPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The DiPerna Sweeper, a partial-vacuum oil skimmer, was tested in a two-week test program conducted at the U.S. Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) in Leonardo, New Jersey. Forty-three oil recovery tests were run. The object of the program was to establish a range of best performanc...

33

Environment-Adaptive Antipersonnel Mine Detection System - Advanced Mine Sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an environment-adaptive antipersonnel mine detection system called Advanced Mine Sweeper. Advanced Mine Sweeper is developed based on sensing technologies, access-control technologies and system integration technologies for safe and effective demining procedure after the Level II survey. Advanced Mine Sweeper consists of a sensing vehicle\\/unit, an access vehicle, and an assist vehicle. The sensing vehicle\\/unit is

Toshio Fukuda; Yasuhisa Hasegawa; Kazuhiro Kosuge; Kiyoshi Komoriya; Fumihisa Kitagawa; Tomohiro Ikegami

2006-01-01

34

Parametric seeding of a microresonator optical frequency comb.  

PubMed

We have investigated parametric seeding of a microresonator frequency comb (microcomb) by way of a pump laser with two electro-optic-modulation sidebands. We show that the pump-sideband spacing is precisely replicated throughout the microcomb's optical spectrum, and we demonstrate a record absolute line-spacing stability for microcombs of 1.6 × 10(-13) at 1 s. The spectrum of a microcomb is complex, and often non-equidistant subcombs are observed. Our results demonstrate that parametric seeding can not only control the subcombs, but can lead to the generation of a strictly equidistant microcomb spectrum. PMID:23938634

Papp, Scott B; Del'Haye, Pascal; Diddams, Scott A

2013-07-29

35

Narrowband alexandrite laser injection seeded with frequency dithered diode laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Narrowband radiation is produced from a pulsed alexandrite laser when injection seeded with the output of a low power, tunable, continuous wave single mode diode laser. Injection seeded power oscillators are easier to frequency stabilize than etalon narrowed lasers, are more efficient and less prone to optical damage. AlGaAs diode lasers are available with wavelengths from 760 to 770 nm in the oxygen A band that can be used for differential absorption lidar remote sensing of atmospheric pressure and temperature. Diodes with room temperature output at 740 nm may be cooled sufficiently to emit in the water vapor absorption band at 720-730 nm for humidity remote sensing. The diode laser linewidth of 200 MHz is sufficient to seed 2 or 3 longitudinal modes of the multi-transverse mode alexandrite laser, giving the pulsed laser a bandwidth of 0.007 to 0.014/cm.

Schwemmer, Geary; Lee, H. S.; Prasad, Coorg

1991-01-01

36

Sweeper: A Lightweight End-to-End System for Defending Against Fast Joseph Tucek  

E-print Network

Sweeper: A Lightweight End-to-End System for Defending Against Fast Worms Joseph Tucek Shan Lu recovery to provide contin- uous service after an attack. We propose a solution, called Sweeper overhead. Sweeper combines several techniques. (1) Sweeper uses lightweight monitoring techniques to detect

Song, Dawn

37

Sweeper: A Lightweight End-to-End System for Defending Against Fast Worms  

E-print Network

Sweeper: A Lightweight End-to-End System for Defending Against Fast Worms Joseph Tucek Shan Lu recovery to provide continuous service after an attack. We propose a novel solution called Sweeper overhead. Sweeper in- novatively combines several techniques: (1) Sweeper uses lightweight monitoring

Brumley, David

38

A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs.

Bogaty, J.M.

1989-01-01

39

Nuclear-powered space debris sweeper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future spacecraft design will be affected by collisions with man-made debris orbiting the earth. Most of this orbital space debris comes from spent rocket stages. It is projected that the source of future debris will be the result of fragmentation of large objects through hypervelocity collisions. Orbiting spacecraft will have to be protected from hypervelocity debris in orbit. The options are to armor the spacecraft, resulting in increased mass, or actively removing the debris from orbit. An active space debris sweeper is described which will utilize momentum transfer to the debris through laser-induced ablation to alter its orbital parameters to reduce orbital lifetime with eventual entry into the earth's atmosphere where it will burn. The paper describes the concept, estimates the amount of velocity change (Delta V) that can be imparted to an object through laser-induced ablation, and investigates the use of a neutral particle beam for the momentum transfer. The space sweeper concept could also be extended to provide a collision avoidance system for the space station and satellites, or could be used for collision protection during interplanetary travel.

Metzger, John D.; Leclaire, Rene J., Jr.; Howe, Steven D.; Burgin, Karen C.

1989-01-01

40

Slippage effect on energy modulation in seeded free-electron lasers with frequency chirped seed laser pulses  

DOE PAGESBeta

Free-electron lasers (FELs) seeded with external lasers hold great promise for generating high power radiation with nearly transform-limited bandwidth in the soft x-ray region. However, it has been pointed out that the initial seed laser phase error will be amplified by the frequency up-conversion process, which may degrade the quality of the output radiation produced by a harmonic generation scheme. In this paper, theoretical and simulation studies on frequency chirp amplification in seeded FEL schemes with slippage effect taken into account are presented. It is found that the seed laser imperfection experienced by the electron beam can be significantly smoothed by the slippage effect in the modulator when the slippage length is comparable to the seed laser pulse length. This smoothing effect allows one to preserve the excellent temporal coherence of seeded FELs in the presence of large frequency chirp in the seed laser. Our studies show that the tolerance on frequency chirp in the seed laser for generating nearly transform-limited soft x-ray pulses in seeded FELs is much looser than previously thought and fully coherent radiation at nanometer wavelength may be reached with current technologies.

Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao; Wang, Guanglei; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Zhentang; Xiang, Dao

2013-06-01

41

Determination of PM10 emission rates from street sweepers.  

PubMed

The use of street sweepers to clean paved roads, particularly after high-wind events, has been proposed as a PM10 control method. Using an artificial tunnel, the emission rates for several street sweepers were quantified under actual operating conditions. The tunnel was a tent enclosure, 6.1 x 4.3 x 73 m, open on both ends. PM10 concentrations were measured at the inlet and outlet while a sweeper removed sand deposited along the length. Measurements were made using a specialized low-volume filter sampler and an integrating nephelometer. The volume of air passing through the tunnel was measured by releasing an inert tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, at the inlet and measuring its concentration at the outlet. A large difference in emission rates between vacuum-type sweepers was observed, with rates varying from 5 to 100 mg m-1 swept. For the cleanest sweepers, the background rates (collected by sweeping clean pavement) were about half of the total PM10 emission rate. These background emission rates likely were from diesel exhaust; background rates for the single gasoline-powered sweeper were below detection. Particle light scattering data confirmed the filter collection results. The artificial tunnel approach would be useful in measuring total emissions from other mobile and stationary sources. PMID:10680347

Fitz, D R; Bumiller, K

2000-02-01

42

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STREET SWEEPERS IN REMOVING POLLUTANTS FROM ROAD SURFACES IN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effectiveness of street sweepers in the sandy-surfaced, subtropical Florida Peninsula, a controlled experiment was set up to compare the effectiveness of two different sweeper types in removing sediments, heavy metals, and organic constituents from a paved surface. Both a rotary brush and a regenerative air sweeper were tested on an asphalt roadway. The results indicate that rotary

Graham A. Tobin; Robert Brinkmann

2002-01-01

43

The effectiveness of street sweepers in removing pollutants from road surfaces in Florida.  

PubMed

To test the effectiveness of street sweepers in the sandy-surfaced, subtropical Florida Peninsula, a controlled experiment was set up to compare the effectiveness of two different sweeper types in removing sediments, heavy metals, and organic constituents from a paved surface. Both a rotary brush and a regenerative air sweeper were tested on an asphalt roadway. The results indicate that rotary brush sweepers are more effective in removing total sediment loads from roads in this type of environment. However, the chemical analyses proved somewhat inconclusive. Each sweeper was effective in removing particular chemicals off streets, but neither sweeper proved better in all categories. Nevertheless, the rotary brush sweeper was most effective in removing the total sediment load off streets and is therefore recommended for use in areas covered with coarse sediments in the local drainage basin. PMID:12403017

Tobin, Graham A; Brinkmann, Robert

2002-10-01

44

Frequency of Alternaria brassicicola in commercial cabbage seeds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug seedlings, widely used in cabbage cultivation in Japan, are often infected by seed-borne pathogens, especially the serious\\u000a pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. Because information on seed infestation is scant in Japan, we investigated fungal infestation in commercial batches of cabbage\\u000a seeds produced between 1984 and 2001. A total of 123 lots were divided into six groups by production period (1984–1989, 1994–1998,

Masaharu Kubota; Kazuo Abiko; Yukio Yanagisawa; Kazufumi Nishi

2006-01-01

45

[Characteristics of low frequency magnetic field effect on swelling of wheat seeds at various stages].  

PubMed

Low-frequency magnetic field treatment (50 Hz, 30 mT, 15 min) of wheat seeds with a 50% germination efficiency during imbibition at the stage of root formation leads to a statistically significant increase in the number of seeds having sprouts, a still greater increase in the number of seeds having roots, and to an increase in the length of sprouts compared with the control and the seeds treated several hours later. In the last case, an increase in the germinating capacity with a considerably lesser effect on the number of seeds with roots was also observed. Prolonged treatment with the field during the second day of imbibition decreased reliably the length of sprouts with a weaker influence on the number of seeds with sprouts and roots. These data suggest the principal possibility of the effect of electromagnetic fields on the realization of the genetic program during the germination of wheat seeds. PMID:11771291

Aksenov, S I; Grunina, T Iu; Goriachev, S N

2001-01-01

46

High Neotyphodium infection frequencies in tillers and seed of infected tall fescue plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research quantified frequencies of Neotyphodium infected (E+) tillers and mature seed from field-grown E+ plants of two wild tall fescue accessions from Morocco and Sardinia, Italy. Tiller infection rates were 100% (n = 50 from 10 E+ plants/accession) for each accession and over 99% of the seed...

47

IMPROVED STREET SWEEPERS FOR CONTROLLING URBAN INHALABLE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an experimental program to develop design modifications that can be used to improve the ability of municipal street sweepers to remove inhalable dust particles from streets. (Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban inhalable particu...

48

Sweepers: swept user-defined tools for modeling by deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Sweepers, a new class of space deformations suitable for interactive virtual sculpture. The artist describes a basic deformation as a path through which a tool is moved. Our tools are simply shapes, subsets of 3D space. So we can use shapes already created as customized tools to make more complex shapes or to simplify the modeling process. When

Alexis Angelidis; Geoff Wyvill; Marie-Paule Cani

2004-01-01

49

Sweepers: Swept User-Defined Tools for Modeling by Deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present sweepers, a new class of space deforma- tions suitable for interactive virtual sculpture. The artist describes a basic deformation as a path through which a tool is moved. Our tools are simply shapes, subsets of 3D space. So we can use shapes already created as customized tools to make more complex shapes or to simplify the mod- eling

Alexis Angelidis; Geoff Wyvill; Marie-paule Cani

2004-01-01

50

Commissioning of the MSU\\/FSU Sweeper Magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of neutron rich nuclei near the neutron dripline involves the detection of the decay products - the charged fragment and neutron(s) - following a break-up reaction. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at FSU built a sweeper magnet that has been recently installed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The magnet bends the charged particles by up

N. Frank; M. Thoennessen; W. A. Peters; T. Baumann; D. Bazin; J. Dekamp; L. Morris; D. Sanderson; A. Schiller; J. Yurkon; A. Zeller; R. Zink; M. Bird; S. Kinney

2004-01-01

51

Sweeper-Agent Recommendations-Tree Early Scheme  

E-print Network

-friendly agents-based mobile technique, which is carried out within the activities of BlueAgents, a newly-formed research project focusing on the integration of mobile Bluetooth communications and Agent the Sweeper-Agent framework that uses Agent-Based Recommendations-Tree for mobile application, and how

52

Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser.  

PubMed

This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto- optical modulators and forward propagating Brillouin scattering appear in the spectrum. PMID:23546253

Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

2013-04-01

53

Environment-adaptive Anti-personnel Mine Detection System: Advanced Mine Sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we introduce an environment-adaptive anti-personnel mine detection system called the advanced mine sweeper\\u000a (AMS). The advanced mine sweeper is based on sensing technologies, access-control technologies and system integration technologies\\u000a for safe and effective demining procedures after the Level II survey. advanced mine sweeper consists of a sensing vehicle\\/unit,\\u000a an access vehicle, and an assist vehicle. The sensing

Toshio Fukuda; Yasuhisa Hasegawa; Kazuhiro Kosuge; Kiyoshi Komoriya; Fumihisa Kitagawa; Tomohiro Ikegami

54

Final design of a compact sweeper magnet for nuclear physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superconducting dipole, designed for use as a sweeper magnet for nuclear physics experiments, is being constructed by the NHMFL for operation at the NSCL. The magnet operates at a peak mid-plane field of 3.8 T in a 140 mm gap. A multi-particle beam enters the magnet from the upstream side. The neutrons continue straight through to a neutron detector.

J. Toth; M. D. Bird; J. R. Miller; S. Prestemon; J. C. DeKamp; L. Morris; M. Thoennessen; A. Zeller

2002-01-01

55

Bucket testing of a compact sweeper magnet for nuclear physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superconducting dipole, designed for use as a sweeper magnet for nuclear physics experiments, is being constructed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory for operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The magnet consists of two D-shaped NbTi coils and will operate at at a peak mid-plane field of 3.95 T in a gap of 140 mm. Peak

Mark D. Bird; Iain R. Dixon; Andrew V. Gavrilin; Jack Toth; A. Zeller

2003-01-01

56

Maintenance of living space by sweeper tentacles of Montastrea cavernosa , a caribbean reef coral  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reef-building coral Montastrea cavernosa Linnaeus possesses sweeper tentacles which have enlarged nematocyst batteries. Sweeper tentacles appear to be used in defense of the coral's living space and may successfully deter mesenterial filament attacks from the more aggressive coral M. annularis. M. cavernosa therefore possesses a specialized defensive strategy that has not been taken into account by present models describing

C. A. Richardson; P. Dustan; J. C. Lang

1979-01-01

57

INDUCED DEVELOPMENT OF SWEEPER TENTACLES ON THE REEF CORAL AGARICIA AGARICITES: A RESPONSE TO DIRECT COMPETITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scleractinian coral Agaricia agaricites often has elongate sweeper tentacles on colony margins close to other sessile animals. Sweeper tentacles can damage tissues of opponents and are probably used in direct competition for substrate space. Fur thermore, contact with tissues or mesenterial filaments of other corals, or with tissues of the gorgonian Erythropodium caribaeorum or the zooanthid Palythoa caribbea can

ELIZABETH A. CHORNESKY

58

Structural analysis and topology optimization design for a sweeper vehicle frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the mechanical performance and reduce the weight of a sweeper vehicle frame, a finite element model for a dump sweeper vehicle frame is established to analyze strength stiffness and modal of vehicle. By using Ls-dyna software, displacement and time curve for vehicle rectangular frame under external force incentives is solved. Based on the analysis results, topological optimization is

Zhou Bing; Wu Chonghui; Wei-ping Li

2010-01-01

59

Injection seeding of a Q-switched alexandrite laser: Study of frequency stabilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AlGaAs diode lasers were used to injection seed a pulsed Q-switched alexandrite laser which produces a narrowband of radiation. Injection seeding is a method for achieving linewidths of less than 500 mega-Hz in the output of the broadband, tunable solid state laser. When the laser was set at a current of 59.8 milli-A and a temperature of 14.04 C, the wavelength was 767.6 nano-m. The Q-switched alexandrite laser was injection seeded and frequency stabilization was studied. The linewidth requirement was met, but the stability requirement was not due to drifting in the feedback voltage. Improvements on injection seeding should focus on increasing the feedback voltage to the laser diode, filtering the laser diode by using temperature controlled narrowband filters, and the use of diamond (SiC) grating placed inside the alexandrite laser's resonator cavity.

Brown, Lamarr A.

1992-01-01

60

Effect of Finite Pulse Length and Laser Frequency Chirp on HGHG and EEHG Seeding  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical studies of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) often start from a simplified model in which the beam is assumed infinitely long and longitudinally uniform and the laser induced energy modulation is perfectly sinusoidal and of infinite duration. In such a model the resulting seed has a spectrum consisting of a collection of delta-functions (of zero width) located at the harmonics of the laser frequency. Being a useful tool for study of the seed bunching amplitudes, such a model cannot be used for realistic analysis the spectral properties of the seed. In this paper we take into account the finite duration of the laser pulse as well as some possible laser phase errors to study their effect on the spectrum of the seed.

Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

2011-11-18

61

Self-seeded single-frequency laser peening method  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a laser to obtain an output pulse having a single wavelength, comprises inducing an intracavity loss into a laser resonator having an amount that prevents oscillation during a time that energy from the pump source is being stored in the gain medium. Gain is built up in the gain medium with energy from the pump source until formation of a single-frequency relaxation oscillation pulse in the resonator. Upon detection of the onset of the relaxation oscillation pulse, the intracavity loss is reduced, such as by Q-switching, so that the built-up gain stored in the gain medium is output from the resonator in the form of an output pulse at a single frequency. An electronically controllable output coupler is controlled to affect output pulse characteristics. The laser acts a master oscillator in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration. The laser is used for laser peening.

Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz B. (Rocklin, CA)

2009-08-11

62

Self-seeded single-frequency laser peening method  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a laser to obtain an output pulse having a single wavelength, comprises inducing an intracavity loss into a laser resonator having an amount that prevents oscillation during a time that energy from the pump source is being stored in the gain medium. Gain is built up in the gain medium with energy from the pump source until formation of a single-frequency relaxation oscillation pulse in the resonator. Upon detection of the onset of the relaxation oscillation pulse, the intracavity loss is reduced, such as by Q-switching, so that the built-up gain stored in the gain medium is output from the resonator in the form of an output pulse at a single frequency. An electronically controllable output coupler is controlled to affect output pulse characteristics. The laser acts a master oscillator in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration. The laser is used for laser peening.

DAne, C.Brent; Hackey, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz B.

2012-06-26

63

Injection seeded single frequency Nd:YAG MOPA Q-switched laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the realization of an injection-seeded single frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG ring laser with pulse width adjustability from several nanoseconds to 20 ns and an output energy in excess of 100 mJ from a ring cavity slave oscillator. In the cavity configuration under study, the slave ring oscillator was injected by a pulse formed from a CW single frequency non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO) Nd:YAG laser with a Pockels cell modulator. The injected pulse duration is slightly shorter than the emission round trip time inside the slave laser cavity. The use of this injection seeding results in unidirectional Q-switched laser oscillation with suppression of bidirectional Q-switched oscillation that otherwise may be initiated from spontaneous emission. The advantage of these regime is in stable laser operation with no need in adjustment of the seeded light wavelength and the mode of the cavity because there are never two waves of the same polarization existing inside the cavity at the same location and the same time. The cavity contains two Pockels-cells, in which the first cell serves to open the oscillator cavity and the second one performs cavity dumping, generating a pulse with optimized characteristics and enables variation of the duration of the Q-switched output pulse. Proper selection of the pump parameters and Pockels-cell gating enables further operation of the system in a mode when the Q-switched pulse can be formed only under the seeding conditions. It is found that the wavelength of the Q-switched laser radiation matches well to the injected seed NPRO laser longitudinal mode. By using two-stage amplifiers, an output energy better than 300 mJ has been achieved in a MOPA configuration without active control of the cavity.

Wu, Frank F.; Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

2009-02-01

64

Intraspecific interactions in a scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis : Induced formation of sweeper tentacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweeper tentacles of Galaxea fascicularis have a different nematocyst composition than do ordinary tentacles. The sweeper tentacles contain many large microbasic b-mastigophores (MbM) instead of the microbasic p-mastigophores (MpM) which are abundant in the acrospheres of ordinary tentacles. There is, however, an intermediate type of tentacle which has both large MbM and MpM. These tentacles may represent those undergoing transformation

Michio Hidaka; Kiyoshi Yamazato

1984-01-01

65

Wavemeter measurements of frequency stability of an injection seeded alexandrite laser for pressure and temperature lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GSFC pressure-temperature lidar is a differential absorption lidar operating in the oxygen A band absorption region (760 to 770 nm), and utilizes two tunable pulsed alexandrite lasers. For obtaining temperature measurements with an accuracy of less than or = 1 K, it has been determined that the stability of the online laser frequency over a period of time corresponding to a set of measurements, 0.1 to 30 min, has to be better than +/- 0.002/cm. In addition, the requirements on laser spectral bandwidth and spectral purity are less than or = 0.02/cm and greater than or = 99.9 percent, respectively. Injection seeding with a stabilized AlGaAs diode laser was used to achieve the required frequency stability and spectral bandwidth. A high resolution Fizeau wavemeter was employed to determine the frequency stability of the pulsed alexandrite laser and determine its bandwidth, mode structure. We present the results of measurements of the frequency stability and the spectrum of the injection seeded alexandrite laser.

Prasad, C. R.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Korb, C. L.

1992-01-01

66

Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal with multiple poling periods is used to generate tunable narrow-bandwidth THz pulses for injection seeding a quantum cascade laser (QCL). We demonstrate that longitudinal modes of the quantum cascade laser close to the gain maximum can be selected or suppressed according to the seed spectrum. The QCL emission spectra obtained by electro-optic sampling from the quantum cascade laser, in the most favorable case, shows high selectivity and amplification of the longitudinal modes that overlap the frequency of the narrow-band seed. Proper selection of the narrow-band THz seed from the PPLN crystal discretely tunes the longitudinal mode emission of the quantum cascade laser. Moreover, the THz wave build-up within the laser cavity is studied as a function of the round-trip time. When the seed frequency is outside the maximum of the gain spectrum the laser emission shifts to the preferential longitudinal mode.

Nong, Hanond; Pal, Shovon; Markmann, Sergej; Hekmat, Negar; Mohandas, Reshma A.; Dean, Paul; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A.; Wieck, Andreas D.; Jukam, Nathan

2014-09-01

67

Narrow-band injection seeding of a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser: Selection and suppression of longitudinal modes  

SciTech Connect

A periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal with multiple poling periods is used to generate tunable narrow-bandwidth THz pulses for injection seeding a quantum cascade laser (QCL). We demonstrate that longitudinal modes of the quantum cascade laser close to the gain maximum can be selected or suppressed according to the seed spectrum. The QCL emission spectra obtained by electro-optic sampling from the quantum cascade laser, in the most favorable case, shows high selectivity and amplification of the longitudinal modes that overlap the frequency of the narrow-band seed. Proper selection of the narrow-band THz seed from the PPLN crystal discretely tunes the longitudinal mode emission of the quantum cascade laser. Moreover, the THz wave build-up within the laser cavity is studied as a function of the round-trip time. When the seed frequency is outside the maximum of the gain spectrum the laser emission shifts to the preferential longitudinal mode.

Nong, Hanond, E-mail: Nong.Hanond@rub.de; Markmann, Sergej; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan, E-mail: Nathan.Jukam@rub.de [Arbeitsgruppe Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Pal, Shovon [Arbeitsgruppe Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Mohandas, Reshma A.; Dean, Paul; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

2014-09-15

68

Spectral linewidth preservation in parametric frequency combs seeded by dual pumps.  

PubMed

We demonstrate new technique for generation of programmable-pitch, wideband frequency combs with low phase noise. The comb generation was achieved using cavity-less, multistage mixer driven by two tunable continuous-wave pump seeds. The approach relies on phase-correlated continuous-wave pumps in order to cancel spectral linewidth broadening inherent to parametric comb generation. Parametric combs with over 200-nm bandwidth were obtained and characterized with respect to phase noise scaling to demonstrate linewidth preservation over 100 generated tones. PMID:23038314

Tong, Zhi; Wiberg, Andreas O J; Myslivets, Evgeny; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

2012-07-30

69

Frequency mixing in accelerator based sources and application to tunable seeded free-electron lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we address the problem of tunability of seeded free-electron lasers (FELs), working typically in the domain of the vacuum ultraviolet. The seeding of FELs with an external laser permits us to obtain FEL pulses with both good longitudinal coherence and good stability properties (contrary to an amplification starting from noise). However, with a fixed external laser wavelength, only amplification at harmonics of this wavelength is possible. If full tunability is wanted, it is necessary to have a tunable external source; but this type of source has much less power, hence it is much harder to reach high harmonics numbers. Here we propose the so-called frequency mixing scheme (from its analogy with the similar process in nonlinear optics), based on two laser/electron interactions. Numerical and analytic studies show that it permits to increase significantly the tunability at short wavelengths using a low-energy tunable source. Numerical simulations are made with the parameters of FERMI-FEL 1, the first seeded FEL for user operation.

Evain, C.; Roussel, E.; Szwaj, C.; Bielawski, S.

2014-12-01

70

Study of Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Properties of Bound Water in Grain and Seed at Microwave Frequencies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of temperature on dielectric properties of bound water in grain and seed was investigated through measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies over a wide temperature range between –80 oC and +24 oC. Free–space measurements were performed between 2 and 18 GHz on...

71

Cryostat design and fabrication for the NHMFL\\/NSCL sweeper magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Florida and the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory in East Lansing, Michigan have been collaborating on the design and construction of a large-gap, compact superconducting sweeper magnet for nuclear physics experiments. The magnet consists of two NbTi D-shaped coils and 20 tons of magnet iron in a \\

Mark D. Bird; Scott Bole; Scott Gundlach; Steve Kenney; John Miller; Jack Toth; A. Zeller

2004-01-01

72

Numerical study on particle removal performance of pickup head for a street vacuum sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the particle removal performance of pickup head for a street vacuum sweeper numerically. An integrated 3D numerical model was constructed based on particle suction process in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The airflow through the pickup head was treated as a continuum, while particles were modeled as dispersed phase. The Reynolds stress

Bofu Wu; Jinlai Men; Jie Chen

2010-01-01

73

Reversal of digestive interactions between Pacific reef corals: Mediation by sweeper tentacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive interactions among reef corals involving direct interference through extracoelenteric digestion has previously been considered as a potential mechanism for the maintenance of high species diversity. In this report I show that induced development of sweeper tentacles can reverse initial digestive interactions. In the eastern Pacific these reversals contribute to resource monopolization by fast growing pocilloporid corals. This suggests that

Gerard M. Wellington

1980-01-01

74

Sectoral sweepers for sensor node management and location estimation in adhoc sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the sectoral sweeper scheme is introduced where a central node that has a directional antenna broadcasts tasks. Nodes which receive a task start sensing and generating reports. Hence nodes at a specified region can be activated or deactivated at any time. Tasks are also associated with a unique identification for each region. Sensor nodes include related task

Ayhan Erdogan; Erdal Cayirci; Vedat Coskun

2003-01-01

75

NEMATOCYST DISCHARGE, HISTOINCOMPATIBILITY, AND THE FORMATION OF SWEEPER TENTACLES IN THE CORAL GALAXEA FASCICULARIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of nematocyst discharge of ordinary tentacles and histoincompatibiity responses in the formation of sweeper tentacles in the coral Galaxea fascicularis were examined. Colonies of G. fascicularis could be divided into several groups according to whether their ordinary tentacles discharge nematocysts against each other. Polyps isolated from colonies of the same or different groups were set about 5 mm

MICHIO HIDAKA

1985-01-01

76

Acrorhagi, catch tentacles and sweeper tentacles: a synopsis of ‘aggression’ of actiniarian and scleractinian Cnidaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of organ (acrorhagi and catch tentacles in sea anemones, and sweeper tentacles in corals) are described with regard to both morphology and ‘aggressive’ function. Species known to possess such organs are listed. Research on the functions of these particular organs is reviewed and some exceptions to their usual behaviour patterns are highlighted. Further research on allogeneic recognition might

R. B. Williams

1991-01-01

77

Structural design and analysis of a compact sweeper magnet for nuclear physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superconducting dipole, designed for use as a sweeper magnet in nuclear physics experiments, is being constructed by the NHMFL for operation at the NSCL. The magnet operates at a peak field of 3.8 T in a 140 mm gap. A multi-particle beam enters the magnet from the upstream side. The neutrons continue straight through to a neutron detector. The

S. Prestemon; M. D. Bird; D. G. Crook; J. C. DeKamp; Y. M. Eyssa; L. Morris; M. Thoennessen; A. Zeller

2001-01-01

78

System testing and installation of the NHMFL\\/NSCL sweeper magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superconducting dipole, designed for use as a sweeper magnet in nuclear physics experiments, has been designed and built by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory for operation at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The magnet operates at a peak field of 3.8 T in a 140 mm gap. A secondary beam enters the magnet from the upstream side before

Mark D. Bird; Steven J. Kenney; Jack Toth; Hubertus W. Weijers; Jon C. DeKamp; Mike Thoennessen; Al F. Zeller

2005-01-01

79

Focal Plane Detector System for the MSU\\/FSU Sweeper Magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of nuclei close to, or even beyond, the neutron dripline involves the reconstruction of the decay products - the charged fragment and neutron(s) - following a break-up reaction. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at FSU is building a sweeper magnet, which will bend the charged particles by up to 40 degrees, separating them from the neutrons, which

Nathan Frank; Michael Thoennessen; Chris Freigang; John Yurkon; Daniel Bazin; Ryan Clement; Wes Hitt

2002-01-01

80

RADIO-FREQUENCY HEATING OF ALFALFA SEED FOR REDUCING HUMAN PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The problem of bacterial contamination of vegetable seed sprouts produced for human consumption is reviewed briefly. The potential for controlling human bacterial pathogens alfalfa seed used in the production of sprouts by dielectric heating was studied by experimental exposure of alfalfa seed arti...

81

RADIO-FREQUENCY DIELECTRIC HEATING OF ALFALFA SEED FOR REDUCTION OF HUMAN PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The problem of bacterial contamination of vegetable seed sprouts produced for human consumption is reviewed briefly. The potential for controlling human bacterial pathogens on alfalfa seed used in the production of sprouts by dielectric heating was studied by experimental exposure of alfalfa seed a...

82

An injection seeded single frequency Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with precisely controllable laser pulse firing time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have realized a single frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with precisely controllable lasing time and thus enabled synchronization of multi-laser systems. The use of injection seeding to the slave ring oscillator results in unidirectional Q-switched laser oscillation with suppression of bidirectional Q-switched oscillation that otherwise would be initiated from spontaneous emission if the seeding laser is not present. Under normal condition, the cavity is high in loss during the pumping period; then a Pockels cell opens the cavity to form the pulse build up, with a second Pockels cell to perform cavity dumping, generating the Q-switched pulse output with optimized characteristics. The two Pockels cells can be replaced by a single unit if an adjustable gated electrical pulse is applied to the Pockels cell in which the pulse front is used to open the cavity and the falling edge to dump the laser pulse. Proper selection of the pump parameters and Pockels-cell gating enables operation of the system in a mode in which the Q-switched pulse can be formed only under the seeding condition. The advantage of the realized regime is in stable laser operation with no need in adjustment of the seeded light wavelength and the mode of the cavity. It is found that the frequency of the Q-switched laser radiation matches well to the injected seeded laser mode. By using two-stage amplifiers, an output energy better than 300 mJ has been achieved in MOPA configuration without active control of the cavity length and with pulse width adjustability from several nanoseconds to 20 ns. The Q-switched oscillator operates not only at precisely controlled firing time but also can be tuned over wide range. This will enable multi-laser systems synchronization and frequency locking down each other if necessary.

Wu, Frank F.; Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

2010-02-01

83

High-frequency plant regeneration from seed-derived callus cultures of Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot regeneration from seed-derived callus cultures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) was tested on MS basal medium supplemented with four different growth regulators. Regeneration frequencies for medium supplemented with 10 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 60 M 4amino-3, 5,6-picolinic acid (picloram), or 30 M 3,6dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba) ranged from 0.4 to 4%. Medium supplemented with 30 M dicamba plus 10

Jeffrey D. Griffin; Margaret S. Dibble

1995-01-01

84

H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H- beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 1019 m-3 was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H- ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

2012-02-01

85

H{sup -} beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source  

SciTech Connect

H{sup -} beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H{sup -} ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N. [School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2012-02-15

86

Reconstruction of nuclear charged fragment trajectories from a large gap sweeper magnet  

E-print Network

A new method to reconstruct charged fragment four-momentum vectors from measured trajectories behind an open, large gap, magnetic dispersion element (a sweeper magnet) has been developed. In addition to the position and angle behind the magnet it includes the position measurement in the dispersive direction at the target. The method improves the energy and angle resolution of the reconstruction significantly for experiments with fast rare isotopes, where the beam size at the target position is large.

N. Frank; A. Schiller; D. Bazin; W. A. Peters; M. Thoennessen

2007-08-29

87

Reconstruction of nuclear charged fragment trajectories from a large gap sweeper magnet  

E-print Network

A new method to reconstruct charged fragment four-momentum vectors from measured trajectories behind an open, large gap, magnetic dispersion element (a sweeper magnet) has been developed. In addition to the position and angle behind the magnet it includes the position measurement in the dispersive direction at the target. The method improves the energy and angle resolution of the reconstruction significantly for experiments with fast rare isotopes, where the beam size at the target position is large.

Frank, N; Bazin, D; Peters, W A; Thoennessen, M

2007-01-01

88

Bluegrass Residue Management Using a Crew-cut Vacuum Sweeper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed yield of 16 bluegrass cultivars at Moscow averaged across the first crop and three years with crewcut-vacuum sweeping, ranged from 426 to 1084 pounds per acre for Wabash and Argyle, respectively. Second-year yields of most cultivars were either increased or maintained with crewcut-vacuum sweeping compared to first-year yields. Floral induction was initiated by all cultivars by 6 Jan 1994,

Glen A. Murray; Vickie Parker-Clark; Donn Thill; Bill Young

89

Development of narrow-linewidth Yb- and Er- fiber lasers and frequency mixing for ArF excimer laser seeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and report a 193 nm narrow-linewidth light generation by a frequency mixing of Yb and Er-fiber lasers as the seed for an ArF excimer laser. The Yb-fiber laser includes a pulsed distributed feedback (DFB) or external cavity diode laser (ECDL), acousto-optic modulator(AOM), fiber amplifiers and an Yb:YAG single crystal fiber (SCF) power amplifier with more than 7 W output. The Er-fiber laser consists of a continuous-wave (CW) DFB laser, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), and fiber amplifiers. The second harmonic generation (SHG) and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) of Yb laser at 515 nm and 258 nm reach 5 W and 1.5 W, respectively. Two stages of sum-frequency generation (SFG) produce the power of 100 mW for 193 nm laser by use of CLBO crystals.

Xuan, Hongwen; Zhao, Zhigang; Igarashi, Hironori; Ito, Shinji; Kakizaki, Kouji; Kobayashi, Yohei

2014-03-01

90

Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion.  

PubMed

We numerically and experimentally demonstrate efficient generation of an equalized optical comb with 150-nm bandwidth. The comb was generated by low-power, continuous-wave seeds, eliminating the need for pulsed laser sources. The new architecture relies on efficient creation of higher-order mixing tones in phase-matched nonlinear fiber stages separated by a linear compressor. Wideband generation was enabled by precise dispersion engineering of multiple-stage parametric mixers. PMID:22330571

Myslivets, Evgeny; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

2012-01-30

91

LUNG FUNCTION, OXYGEN SATURATION AND SYMPTOMS AMONG STREET SWEEPERS IN CALABAR-NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

control subjects. However, there was also a higher prevalence of back pain (40.5% vs 2.0%; P<0.001), cough (25.5% vs 12.0%; P<0.001), chest pain (13.0% vs 4.0%; P<0.001); Catarrh and sneezing (6.0% vs 0.5%; P<0.01) among the street sweepers than in their control. Lung function values, namely; FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR were not significantly different in the two groups. Street

C. O. NKU; E. J. PETERS; A. I. ESHIET; O. OKU; E. E OSIM

92

Plasma sweeper to control the coupling of RF power to a magnetically confined plasma  

SciTech Connect

A device for coupling RF power (a plasma sweeper) from a phased waveguide array for introducing RF power to a plasma having a magnetic field associated therewith comprises at least one electrode positioned near the plasma and near the phased waveguide array; and a potential source coupled to the electrode for generating a static electric field at the electrode directed into the plasma and having a component substantially perpendicular to the plasma magnetic field such that a non-zero vector cross-product of the electric and magnetic fields exerts a force on the plasma causing the plasma to drift.

Motley, R.W.; Glanz, J.

1985-04-16

93

Plasma sweeper to control the coupling of RF power to a magnetically confined plasma  

DOEpatents

A device for coupling RF power (a plasma sweeper) from a phased waveguide array for introducing RF power to a plasma having a magnetic field associated therewith comprises at least one electrode positioned near the plasma and near the phased waveguide array; and a potential source coupled to the electrode for generating a static electric field at the electrode directed into the plasma and having a component substantially perpendicular to the plasma magnetic field such that a non-zero vector cross-product of the electric and magnetic fields exerts a force on the plasma causing the plasma to drift.

Motley, Robert W. (Princeton, NJ); Glanz, James (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1985-01-01

94

A method for eliminating the impact of microwave sweeper power fluctuation in BOTDA system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of microwave sweeper power fluctuation in the BOTDA system has been theoretically analyzed and experimentally tested. And a novel method comparing real-time acquisition of probe wave power with a new algorithm to realize probe wave power normalization for eliminating this impact was proposed. The principle of the proposed method was described theoretically. And the contrast test between our new method and conventional one was carried out. The experiment results indicated that the temperature accuracy was effectively improved from ±5 °C to ±2 °C.

Jiang, Shuo; Chang, Jun; Zhang, Sasa; Wang, Zongliang; Luo, Sha; Sun, Boning; Liu, Xiaohui; Liu, Yongning; Tian, Junqiang; Jia, Chuanwu

2014-03-01

95

The Development of a Frequency Control System of a Seeded Laser for DGV Application  

E-print Network

For an effective Doppler Global Velocimeter (DGV), there is a requirement to accurately record and tune the frequency content of the laser used. The laser used for this experiment was an ND:YAG. Adjusting the mean frequency of the ND...

Nelson, Brent

2010-01-15

96

The Sectoral Sweeper Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks: Adaptive Antenna Array Based Sensor Node Management and Location Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel sensor node management and location estimation method referred as sectoral sweeper (SS) scheme that uses an adaptive antenna array (AAA) at a central node in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). With the SS scheme, the central node can activate or deactivate the nodes in a desired region which is specified by beam direction and beam width of

Ayhan Erdogan; Vedat Coskun; Adnan Kavak

2006-01-01

97

Frequency stabilization and transverse mode discrimination in injection-seeded unstable resonator TEA CO2 lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longitudinal mode selection by injection has been demonstrated as a viable technique for TEA-CO2 lasers with pulse energies of a Joule or greater. Once reliable generation of single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) pulses is obtained, the characteristics and the causes of intrapulse frequency variation can be studied. These include the effect of the decaying plasma, the thermal gradient due to the energy dissipation associated with the laser mechanism itself, and the pressure shift of the center frequency of the laser transition. The use of the positive-branch unstable resonator as an efficient means of coupling a discharge with large spatial dimensions to an optical cavity mode introduces another concern: namely, what can be done to emphasize transverse mode discrimination in an unstable resonator cavity while maintaining high coupling efficiency. These issues are discussed in this paper, and relevant experimental results are included.

Ancellet, G. M.; Menzies, R. T.; Brothers, A. M.

1987-01-01

98

Self-seeded single-frequency solid-state ring laser and system using same  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a laser to obtain an output pulse having a single wavelength, comprises inducing an intracavity loss into a laser resonator having an amount that prevents oscillation during a time that energy from the pump source is being stored in the gain medium. Gain is built up in the gain medium with energy from the pump source until formation of a single-frequency relaxation oscillation pulse in the resonator. Upon detection of the onset of the relaxation oscillation pulse, the intracavity loss is reduced, such as by Q-switching, so that the built-up gain stored in the gain medium is output from the resonator in the form of an output pulse at a single frequency. An electronically controllable output coupler is controlled to affect output pulse characteristics. The laser acts a master oscillator in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration. The laser is used for laser peening.

Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

2007-02-20

99

Broad bandwidth light-wave frequency synthesizer in the 1 1.1-µm range  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel implementation of the lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper (LSFS) based on Ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers. The source can potentially be used for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), which has recently been shown to have an improved signal to noise ratio compared to time domain OCT systems, and development of suitable swept wavelength sources is for this

Frederik D. Nielsen; Lars Thrane; John Black; Anders O. Bjarklev; Peter E. Andersen

2005-01-01

100

Seeding Rangeland.  

E-print Network

by percentage purity of the lot of seed. When hard seed are involved, PLS = (percent germination + percent hard seed ) x percent purity. Recommended seeding rates usually call for 20 live seed per square foot. The number of seed per pound varies.... Know the germination and purity of the seed, since seeding rates are based on pure live seed. HOW TO SEED Seedbed Preparation An ideal seedbed is firm below seeding depth, free from live, resident plant competition and has mod erate amounts...

Welch, Tommy G.; Rector, Barron S.; Alderson, James S.

1993-01-01

101

Multiline short-pulse solid-state seeded carbon dioxide laser for extreme ultraviolet employing multipass radio frequency excited slab amplifier.  

PubMed

In this Letter we describe in more detail a solid-state seeded, nanosecond pulse, multiline CO(2) oscillator designed and built for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced-plasma (LPP) source. Our oscillator featured quantum cascade laser seeders, a diffraction-type seed beam combiner, and a radio-frequency-discharge-excited, diffusion-cooled, slab-waveguide CO(2) gain cell in a compact multipass regenerative amplifier configuration. The oscillator generated pulses of exceptional stability in terms of envelope, energy, and spectrum. Excellent stability of output was achieved without any additional techniques. The output spectrum consisted of two laser lines of a 00(0)1-10(0)0 band of a CO(2) molecule, P20 and P22, with a target of four lines P18-P24. The pulse duration was electronically adjustable between 11 and 35 ns at a repetition frequency from a few hertz to hundreds of kilohertz. Electronic adjustment of the pulse duration was achieved by relative timing offsets of individual seeders, opening an avenue to a range of on-line adjustments of pulse shape and spectral content timing. The jitter-tolerant operation allows for easy synchronization with an external event, such as a droplet target in an EUV LPP source. A resistance to parasitic seeding of more than 40 dB was recorded. The oscillator produced up to 20 W of average output power at a repetition rate of 100 kHz in a near-diffraction-limited beam of M(2)<1.3 and a pointing stability below 50 ?rad. PMID:23503247

Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

2013-03-15

102

Alien dandelion reduces the seed-set of a native congener through frequency-dependent and one-sided effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conservation biology, increasing numbers of studies have focused on reproductive interference (RI) between a native species\\u000a and related aliens. However, few studies have examined the frequency dependence of RI, despite of its key importance to invasiveness.\\u000a Here, we report for the first time frequency-dependent RI in a pair of native and alien dandelions: Taraxacum japonicum and T. officinale, respectively.

Koh-Ichi Takakura; Takayoshi Nishida; Takashi Matsumoto; Sachiko Nishida

2009-01-01

103

Pomegranate seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pomegranate has many seeds inside. These seeds are surrounded individually by red fruit. Some fruits also have many seeds, but all of the seeds are surrounded by the fruit instead of individually, like in an apple.

Peter N/A (None; )

2005-01-01

104

Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser  

SciTech Connect

We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ?E/E = 1.1 ×?10{sup ?4} and wave-number resolution of ?k/k = 3 ×?10{sup ?3}, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/Å in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5??m agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

Zastrau, Ulf, E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Fletcher, Luke B.; Galtier, Eric Ch.; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Heimann, Philipp; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Förster, Eckhart [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Marschner, Heike; Wehrhan, Ortrud [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

2014-09-15

105

Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ?E/E = 1.1 × 10-4 and wave-number resolution of ?k/k = 3 × 10-3, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/Å in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5 ?m agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

Zastrau, Ulf; Fletcher, Luke B.; Förster, Eckhart; Galtier, Eric Ch.; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Heimann, Philipp; Marschner, Heike; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Wehrhan, Ortrud; Lee, Hae Ja

2014-09-01

106

Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser  

E-print Network

We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution $\\Delta E/E = 1.1\\cdot 10^{-4}$ and wave-number resolution of $\\Delta k/k = 3\\cdot 10^{-3}$, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to $5.2/$\\AA\\ in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34\\% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418~eV/$13.5\\,\\mu$m agrees with predictions within 1.3\\%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic HAPG spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1~eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Galtier, Eric Ch; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H; Heimann, Philipp; Marschner, Heike; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Wehrhan, Ortrud; Lee, Hae Ja

2014-01-01

107

Seeding Rangeland  

E-print Network

by multiplying percentage germi- nation by percentage purity of the lot of seed. When hard seed are involved, PLS = (percent germination + percent hard seed ) x percent purity. Recommended seeding rates usually call for 20 live seed per square foot. The number..., many introduced species are easier to manage when planted in a pure stand. Use seed of known quality. Know the germination and purity of the seed, since seeding rates are based on pure live seed. HOW TO SEED Seedbed Preparation An ideal seedbed is firm...

Welch, Tommy G.; Hafercamp, Marshall R.

2001-01-04

108

100-mW linear polarization single-frequency all-fiber seed laser for coherent Doppler lidar application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact short-cavity fiber laser configured with Er 3+/Yb 3+ highly co-doped phosphate glass fiber with stable linear polarization and single frequency output is proposed and investigated experimentally. The fiber laser is composed of a high-reflectivity fiber Bragg grating (HRFBG) and a polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG) with the matched wavelengths at 1540.3 nm, which aims at one of the center wavelengths of the atmospheric transmission windows and may be used as the local oscillator (LO) of the coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). The output power of the laser reaches more than 114-mW, the signal-to-noise ratio is larger than 70 dB and the laser linewidth is about 4.1-kHz. Moreover, the linear polarization with 40.5 dB extinction ratio, the power fluctuation of less than ± 0.25% and the frequency fluctuation of less than ± 80 MHz are also obtained. Compared with the DFB fiber laser, the proposed fiber laser is more suitable for the CDL applications.

Yang, Fei; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhengqing; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui; Yang, Zhongmin; Zhang, Qinyuan

2012-01-01

109

Isolating highly enriched populations of circulating epithelial cells and other rare cells from blood using a magnetic sweeper device.  

PubMed

The enumeration of rare circulating epithelial cells (CEpCs) in the peripheral blood of metastatic cancer patients has shown promise for improved cancer prognosis. Moving beyond enumeration, molecular analysis of CEpCs may provide candidate surrogate endpoints to diagnose, treat, and monitor malignancy directly from the blood samples. Thorough molecular analysis of CEpCs requires the development of new sample preparation methods that yield easily accessible and purified CEpCs for downstream biochemical assays. Here, we describe a new immunomagnetic cell separator, the MagSweeper, which gently enriches target cells and eliminates cells that are not bound to magnetic particles. The isolated cells are easily accessible and can be extracted individually based on their physical characteristics to deplete any cells nonspecifically bound to beads. We have shown that our device can process 9 mL of blood per hour and captures >50% of CEpCs as measured in spiking experiments. We have shown that the separation process does not perturb the gene expression of rare cells. To determine the efficiency of our platform in isolating CEpCs from patients, we have isolated CEpCs from all 47 tubes of 9-mL blood samples collected from 17 women with metastatic breast cancer. In contrast, we could not find any circulating epithelial cells in samples from 5 healthy donors. The isolated CEpCs are all stored individually for further molecular analysis. PMID:19234122

Talasaz, AmirAli H; Powell, Ashley A; Huber, David E; Berbee, James G; Roh, Kyung-Ho; Yu, Wong; Xiao, Wenzhong; Davis, Mark M; Pease, R Fabian; Mindrinos, Michael N; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Davis, Ronald W

2009-03-10

110

The alternative role of 14-3-3 zeta as a sweeper of misfolded proteins in disease conditions.  

PubMed

Here, we propose a novel hypothesis that 14-3-3 zeta might act as a sweeper of misfolded proteins by facilitating the formation of aggregates, which are referred to as inclusion bodies. Studies on the localization of the 14-3-3 proteins in different types of inclusion bodies in the brain including neurofibrillary tangle in Alzheimer's disease, pick bodies in Pick's disease, Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion/florid plaques in sporadic/variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, nuclear inclusions in spinocerebellar ataxia-1, and possibly Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease suggest a close association of these diseases with 14-3-3 zeta. The highly conserved hydrophobic surface of the amphipathic groove in 14-3-3 zeta represents a general mechanism with diverse cellular proteins, and it may also allow for the molecular recognition of misfolded proteins by hydrophobic interaction in disease conditions. When the abnormal processing of misfolded proteins overwhelms the quality control systems of the cell, it is likely that 14-3-3 zeta is recruited to form deposits of protein aggregates with nonnative, misfolded proteins in order to protect the cell against toxicity. Hence, 14-3-3 zeta may be considered as an auxiliary therapeutic tool in the protein aggregation disorders. PMID:16516399

Kaneko, Kiyotoshi; Hachiya, Naomi S

2006-01-01

111

Isolating highly enriched populations of circulating epithelial cells and other rare cells from blood using a magnetic sweeper device  

PubMed Central

The enumeration of rare circulating epithelial cells (CEpCs) in the peripheral blood of metastatic cancer patients has shown promise for improved cancer prognosis. Moving beyond enumeration, molecular analysis of CEpCs may provide candidate surrogate endpoints to diagnose, treat, and monitor malignancy directly from the blood samples. Thorough molecular analysis of CEpCs requires the development of new sample preparation methods that yield easily accessible and purified CEpCs for downstream biochemical assays. Here, we describe a new immunomagnetic cell separator, the MagSweeper, which gently enriches target cells and eliminates cells that are not bound to magnetic particles. The isolated cells are easily accessible and can be extracted individually based on their physical characteristics to deplete any cells nonspecifically bound to beads. We have shown that our device can process 9 mL of blood per hour and captures >50% of CEpCs as measured in spiking experiments. We have shown that the separation process does not perturb the gene expression of rare cells. To determine the efficiency of our platform in isolating CEpCs from patients, we have isolated CEpCs from all 47 tubes of 9-mL blood samples collected from 17 women with metastatic breast cancer. In contrast, we could not find any circulating epithelial cells in samples from 5 healthy donors. The isolated CEpCs are all stored individually for further molecular analysis. PMID:19234122

Talasaz, AmirAli H.; Powell, Ashley A.; Huber, David E.; Berbee, James G.; Roh, Kyung-Ho; Yu, Wong; Xiao, Wenzhong; Davis, Mark M.; Pease, R. Fabian; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Davis, Ronald W.

2009-01-01

112

Designer Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will examine a variety of seeds, describe them, and determine how they are dispersed. Learners will investigate seed dispersal mechanisms by creating and testing a wind dispersed seed that they have designed themselves. Learners will be limited to using a single piece of white paper, one lima bean to represent a seed, tape and scissors. Seeds will be tested by dropping them in front of a window fan and recording the distance they travel. Repeat trials will be conducted, averages calculated, and group data recorded. Learners will examine the features of successful seeds and redesign their seed to try to increase the distance it can be carried by wind. Results will be analyzed and comparisons made to natural phenomena. This lesson can be incorporated into a unit studying ecology, plants, seed dispersal, or evolution of plant traits. It addresses seed dispersal mechanisms as well as elements of experimental design.

Frank Taylor

2009-01-01

113

Effects of ants, ground beetles and the seed-fall patterns on myrmecochory of Erythronium japonicum Decne. (Liliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythronium japonicum (Liliaceae) inhabits deciduous mesic forests of Hokkaido, northern Japan. Myrmecochory of this species was investigated, especially the dispersal frequency, the effect of seed predators and the seed fall pattern. In the quadrat census using marked seeds of E. japonicum, the ant Myrmica kotokui frequently transported the seeds. However, the frequency of seed removal was low and most seeds

Kyohsuke Ohkawara; Seigo Higashi; Masashi Ohara

1996-01-01

114

High-power continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation generated by difference frequency mixing of diode-laser-seeded fiber amplifiers and its application to dual-beam spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the generation of up to 0.7 mW of narrow-linewidth (<60-MHz) radiation at 3.3 micrometers by difference frequency mixing of a Nd:YAG-seeded 1.6-W Yb fiber amplifier and a 1.5-micrometers diode-laser-seeded 0.6-W Er/Yb fiber amplifier in periodically poled LiNbO3. A conversion efficiency of 0.09%/W (0.47 mWW-2 cm-1) was achieved. A room-air CH4 spectrum acquired with a compact 80-m multipass cell and a dual-beam spectroscopic configuration indicates an absorption sensitivity of +/-2.8 x 10(-5) (+/-1 sigma), corresponding to a sub-parts-in-10(9) (ppb) CH4 sensitivity (0.8 ppb).

Lancaster, D. G.; Richter, D.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Goldberg, L.; Koplow, J.

1999-01-01

115

Seed Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners collect, arrange, and draw various seeds from smallest to biggest. They also estimate how many of the smallest would fit into the biggest. In addition, learners predict how many seeds they would find inside an apple or lemon, and cut open these fruits to check their prediction against the real seed count. The Did You Know section describes the biggest and smallest seeds on Earth.

2011-08-20

116

Seed Dispersal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity and bingo-like game, learners explore why and how seeds spread far from the plants that produce them. To understand natural adaptions that let seeds and fruit be dispersed, learners make modifications to dried beans and peas so they could be dispersed by natural forces like water, air, or an animal moving from one place to another. In the "Seed-Go" Game, learners match ways that seeds are dispersed, to fill rows on the game board.

2012-06-26

117

Seed proteomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

118

Traveling Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make three different "seed" types and determine which design flies the farthest. Learners wad a piece of paper, wad a piece of tape, and make a paper helicopter to represent plant seeds. Learners measure and record the distance each seed travels. Use this activity to help learners practice measuring and recording data. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Children's Museum of Houston

2014-09-19

119

Occurrence and trends in weed seed contaminants in fine fescue seed lots in Oregon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fine fescues are highly valued cool-season turf species. Nearly all of the U.S. fine fescue seed is produced in Oregon, although little is known about the occurrence of weed seed contaminants in fine fescue seed lots. This study was conducted to assess the diversity and frequency of occurrence of we...

120

SEED PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter provides information at the upper division undergraduate and graduate student levels that describe the environmental factors and production practices that affect the capacity of forage crops to produce seeds. Consumers require dependable quantities of high quality seeds. Special ru...

121

Scattering Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will: 1) Investigate how seeds are dispersed. 2) Understand the variety of seed dispersal that exists in the plant kingdom. 3) Understand how factors in the natural environment can effect how far a seed is dispersed. Included in this one to two day lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials, procedures, adaptations for older students, discussion questions, an evaluation, extensions, suggested reading, links to other sites, vocabulary, and academic standards. Students will collect a variety of seeds and design a wind-dispersed seed mechanism. They can click on a vocabulary word to hear its pronunciation and a sentence using the word. Teachers can purchase the video, The Private Life of Plants 5-Pack (Branching Out) and download comprehension questions and answers. They can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version of this lesson plan can be downloaded.

DiscoverySchool.com

2007-01-01

122

Many Seeds: Estimating Hidden Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will estimate how many seeds are in a fruit or vegetable, then count to find out. The result: mix estimation with healthy eating. Vary the level of difficulty by using different foods: for younger learners, choose something with up to about 15 seeds inside (e.g. apples, snow peas); for a medium level of difficulty, try melon slices or cucumbers; for more challenge, use pomegranates or mini-pumpkins. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

2012-06-26

123

Watermelon Seed Germination  

E-print Network

Watermelon Seed Germination Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service BP-62 Seed Germination of the necessary genetic material or chromosomes. These seed, known as triploid, have special germination requirements. This bulletin addresses triploid watermelon seed germination and transplant production. First

124

Seed Catalogues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian Institutions Libraries Web site currently features a unique collection of seed and nursery catalogs dating from 1830 to the present. Online visitors may view a portion of the exhibit, which offers a look at "the history of the seed and agricultural implement business in the United States, as well as provides a history of botany and plant research such as the introduction of plant varieties into the US." Although this site does include much material, gardeners and anyone else with a horticultural bent should enjoy a casual browse through the online exhibit.

125

Big Seed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This free iOS app helps develop spatial reasoning and strategic thinking. Users reflect seed squares (horizontally, vertically and diagonally) to grow larger pieces that eventually cover the given design space without spilling over. A graduated set of difficulty levels makes the game accessible to a wide range of ages.

2012-12-06

126

Mighty Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this biology experiment, learners plant soybean seeds in plaster of Paris, witnessing firsthand the mighty power and ability of plants to grow in adverse conditions. This is also an excellent activity to touch upon exothermic reactions, as warmth is created when the plaster is mixed.

2012-06-26

127

Seed Bargains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children as well as adults are usually intrigued by the ideas of bargains. More seeds for less money is often enough to convince them to buy a larger, cheaper package. In this case, the children are savvy enough to question the value of either package. On

Richard Konicek-Moran

2008-04-01

128

A further discussion of the factors controlling the distribution of Pt, Pd, Rh and Au in road dust, gullies, road sweeper and gully flusher sediment in the city of Sheffield, UK.  

PubMed

Forty paired road dust and gully sediments from the city of Sheffield in NE England show that high platinum, palladium and rhodium concentrations derived from catalytic converters depend on proximity to both roundabouts rather than traffic lights and to topographic lows. Road dust outside schools and control samples, further away on the same road, show that Pt, Pd and Rh concentrations are dependent on passing traffic flow rather than numbers of stopping vehicles. Highest values of Pt+Pd in road dust are 852 ppb and 694 ppb in gullies. Rh has maximum values of 113 ppb in road dust and 49 ppb in gullies. Pt and Pd values of a few ppb to just over 100 ppb occur in road dust where traffic does not stop, on roads away from junctions. Pt, Pd, Rh and Au are all picked up by road sweepers and gully flushers both with maximum values of just over 100 ppb Pt and Pd. High Au values (maximum 610 ppb in a road dust) were located on pavements, in suburbs, outside schools and in road sweepers collecting in residential areas rather than on high traffic flow roads. Stratification of Pt and Pd in gullies was not observed whereas a high Au value was recorded at the bottom of a gully suggesting gravity concentration for Au. Anomalous Pd grades of 1050 ppb in road dust from a school entrance and 2040 ppb in a street sweeper sample were recorded. These high Pd- and Au-bearing samples do not have anomalous Pt or Rh values and may be sourced from jewellery or dental fillings. However, most samples have consistent Pt/Pd ratios of about 1 and Pt/Rh values of 4 to 5 indicating a catalytic converter source. Pt and Pd are concentrated in road dust at levels well above background in all the samples, including on high and low traffic flow roads. PMID:19081605

Prichard, H M; Sampson, J; Jackson, M

2009-02-15

129

ANL/APS/LS-327 A New Type of Bunch Compressor and Seeding of a Short Wave Length  

E-print Network

interacting with the electron beam and thus can prepare a significantly higher frequency seed for seeded free-electron lasers. The same approach can be used for a frequency down-conversion that can be useful for generation

Kemner, Ken

130

Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

Lowery, Harvey C.

131

Seed Treatment. Manual 92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

132

The interaction between Cistaceae and a highly specific seed-harvester ant in a Mediterranean scrubland.  

PubMed

We studied the interaction between the ant Goniomma kugleri and Cistaceae in a Cistus ladanifer-dominated scrubland, in southwestern Spain. We monitored seed harvesting, and studied ant preferences among Cistaceae seeds and their capture efficiencies for preferred seeds. For the stand of C. ladanifer, we estimated seed losses due to the ants. Harvesting was restricted to two seasons: mid-autumn to late winter, and late spring. Ant diet relied on Cistaceae seeds: during autumn and winter 90% of seeds returned to nests were of C. ladanifer, and the remaining fraction also comprised Cistaceae seeds. At this time, the ants harvested seeds directly from the plants. In late spring, the ant diet consisted of Tuberaria guttata s.l. seeds. Goniomma kugleri selectively collected Cistaceae seeds. For preferred species, seed removal rates at the colony level and seed capture times invested by individual workers were correlated with seed size. Because of shorter capture time and higher success frequency, capture efficiency in terms of number of seeds captured per unit time was higher for small-seeded species. Although each ant colony collected large numbers (up to 10(5)) of C. ladanifer seeds over the autumn-winter season, the impact of ant removal on the annual seed output was moderate, at around 20%. It is likely that, in C. ladanifer, the staggered seed release period, and the pulsed exposure of seed clumps in capsules through progressive locule dehiscence, effectively minimise seed losses to the ants. PMID:19121113

Bastida, F; Talavera, S; Ortiz, P L; Arista, M

2009-01-01

133

Seed Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seed is an online (and print) magazine dedicated to increasing the scientific awareness and knowledge of the general public. The site is updated six days a week and features news articles, original-content articles on a variety of science topics, columns, and reviews. "Cribsheets," a downloadable feature, provide brief tutorials on scientific issues and innovations that may occur in everyday conversation. The magazine also features a collection of multimedia materials, such as podcasts, slide shows, and video content. The web site's main page features articles from the latest issue; back issues may be browsed by category, author, or date. Information about subscribing to the print version is also provided.

134

How Seeds Travel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will rotate around to 7 different stations to identify how the 7 presented seeds travel, whether it be by wind, water, or animal. They will then record it in their plant journals by illustrating the seed, listing its characteristics, and identifying the way in which it travels. Designer Seeds 7 Stations Coconut-Water Maple Seed- Wind Burdock (burrs) - Animals ...

Mrs Liston

2009-11-09

135

Red peach and seed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peach has only one large seed, as compared to the pomegranate that has many seeds. The peach is like an apple in the way that its seed is surrounded by the entire fruit. The fruit can be eaten by humans, but it is actually there as nourishment and food for the peach seed to grow.

Jack Dykinga (USDA; ARS)

1997-08-01

136

Seed development and carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by the embryo during seed development or retained for use by the embryo

P. E. Wittich

1998-01-01

137

Vegetable Seed Saving Handbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Vegetable Seed Saving Handbook online is a great resource for anyone wanting to harvest viable Fast Plants seeds to plant right away (as in selection experiments) or save for future use. Follow the instructions for cabbage family seeds (Brassica raps, in particular). If you're planning on saving your seeds, treat Fast Plants seeds as "desiccation-tolerant" as described here: http://howtosaveseeds.com/store.php

138

Seed bioinformatics.  

PubMed

Analysis of gene expression data sets is a potent tool for gene function prediction, cis-element discovery, and hypothesis generation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and more recently for other agriculturally relevant species. In the case of Arabidopsis thaliana, experiments conducted by individual researchers to document its transcriptome have led to large numbers of data sets being made publicly available for data mining by the so-called "electronic northerns," co-expression analysis and other methods. Given that approximately 50% of the genes in Arabidopsis have no function ascribed to them by "conventional" homology searches, and that only around 10% of the genes have had their function experimentally determined in the laboratory, these analyses can accelerate the identification of potential gene function at the click of a mouse. This chapter covers the use of bioinformatic data mining tools available at the Bio-Array Resource ( http://www.bar.utoronto.ca ) and elsewhere for hypothesis generation in the context of seed biology. PMID:21898268

Bassel, George W; Holdsworth, Michael J; Provart, Nicholas J

2011-01-01

139

Regular distribution of larvae and resource monopolization in the seed beetle Bruchidius dorsalis infesting seeds of the Japanese honey locust Gleditsia japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the wild multivoltine bruchid seed beetle Bruchidius dorsalis infest dry mature seeds of the Japanese honey locust Gleditsia japonica. The frequency distribution of B. dorsalis larvae per seed was examined in the laboratory. First, preliminary observation showed that the first-instar B. dorsalis larva crawled from an eggshell and traveled in excess of 25 cm before boring into a

Masakazu Shimada; Hiroyuki Kurota; Yukihiko Toquenaga

2001-01-01

140

The effects of endophytes on seed production and seed predation of tall fescue and meadow fescue.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations. In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed predation of endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue (in wild grass populations and in a field experiment) and meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis; in a field experiment only). Endophytes were detected in only one of the 13 cultivars. In contrast, >90% of wild tall fescue plants harbored endophytes in 45 wild populations but were absent in three inland populations in Estonia. In three wild tall fescue study sites, 17%, 22%, and 56% of the seeds were preyed upon by the cocksfoot moth. Endophyte infection did not affect seed mass of tall fescue in the field experiment. However, seed predation was lower in E+ than E- grasses in the two tall fescue populations with higher predation rates. For meadow fescue, the mean number of seeds from E+ plants was higher than E- plants, but E- and E+ seeds had equal rates of predation by the moth. Our results suggest that the effects of grass endophytes on seed production and cocksfoot moth seed predation vary considerably among grass species, and the effects may depend on herbivore pressure and other environmental conditions. PMID:20871988

Saari, Susanna; Helander, Marjo; Faeth, Stanley H; Saikkonen, Kari

2010-11-01

141

The Seed Biology Place  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable site was created by Professor Gerhard Leubner and his colleagues at the University of Freiburg in Germany. Here, visitors can take advantage of a veritable cornucopia of reference materials related to seed biology, such as diagrams and illustrations of seed germination, plant hormones, endosperm weakening, and seed dormancy. Neophytes may wish to start by looking at the Seed Structure and Anatomy area, which features a concise and well-written overview of the structure, anatomy, and morphology of mature seeds. The same section contains information on the seed structure of the castor bean and other legumes. Another fascinating section on the site is dedicated to Seed Evolution. Visitors can discover a wealth of information here, including such topics as the evolutionary trends of angiosperm seeds and the seed ferns of the Late Permian period. All told, the site is a wonderful resource, and visitors will want to share it with friends.

Leubner, Gerhard

2012-02-10

142

Seed Dispersal: Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The guest scientist in this two-minute radio program discusses seed dispersal in plants. He first explains why it is important for seeds to be distributed away from the mother plant. Then he contrasts wind-dispersed seeds with animal-dispersed seeds, pointing out that animals can disperse larger seeds that contain more nutrients for an emerging seedling. The program, which is available here in audio and text, is part of a Pulse of the Planet series on seed dispersal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2007-08-02

143

Injection Seeding Of A Q-Switched Alexandrite Laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiment demonstrates that standing-wave, Q-switched, tunable alexandrite laser can be injection-seeded to increase stability of output frequency and significantly reduce bandwidth from 750 GHz to 180 MHz. Injecting laser acts as oscillator or master, while Q-switched laser into which ouput of seed laser injected acts as amplifier or slave.

Zukowski, Barbara J. K.; Glesne, Thomas R.; Schwemmer, Geary; Czechanski, James P.; Kay, Richard B.

1992-01-01

144

Factors affecting the relationship between seed removal and seed mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

S.B. Vander Wall et al. (Ecology, 86: 801-806 (2005)) criticized seed dispersal studies that use seed removal as a proxy for seed predation, because secondary dispersal processes following removal are important to seed fates for many plants. We compared seed removal rates with direct estimates of seed mortality and another mortality index, based on a 3- year experiment that included

J. E. Moore; R. K. Swihart

2008-01-01

145

The Effects of Endophytes on Seed Production and Seed Predation of Tall Fescue and Meadow Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations.\\u000a In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined\\u000a endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed

Susanna Saari; Marjo Helander; Stanley H. Faeth; Kari Saikkonen

2010-01-01

146

Grape Seed Extract  

MedlinePLUS

... Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven Foster On this page: What ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

147

Inside a Seed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image from Biology by Kenneth R. Miller and Joseph Levine illustrates the five most important parts of a seed: the seed coat, the endosperm, and the embryo's primary root, cotyledon, and embryonic leaves.

2003-09-26

148

Evaluating Cotton Seed Quality  

E-print Network

, treated and bagged for planting the following season. Producers who plan to save seed from conventional varieties are advised to evaluatr seed quality before the planting season, using procedures such as the free fatty acid test, germination tests...

Boman, Randy

2005-10-05

149

Postfire seeding and plant community recovery in the Great Basin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As wildland fire frequency increases around the globe, increased understanding of plant community recovery in burned landscapes is needed to improve effectiveness of rehabilitation efforts. We measured establishment of seeded species, colonization of Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass), and recovery of ...

150

Seed Incompatibility in Primula  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHEN diploid and autotetraploid plants of Primula veris are artificially crossed reciprocally, fertilization occurs and seed is set, but the seed is bad and germination is nil; the same is true for Primula vulgaris and P. elatior. Similar seed incompatibility (as it may be called) between diploids and their colchicine-induced autotetraploids has been reported in several other genera of flowering

D. H. Valentine; S. R. J. Woodell

1960-01-01

151

SEED DORMANCY, GENETICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Seed dormancy is defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artifical conditions. Seed dor...

152

Needs of Seeds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

Keeley, Page

2011-01-01

153

Preservation of recalcitrant seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

154

Seed Development and Germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

155

Seeds as allelopathic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitors of germination or of growth, highly diversified chemicals are commonly found in higher plants. They occur in vegetative organs as well as in seeds or other dispersal units. Nonprotein amino acids, when present, are mainly found in seeds where they can occur in extremely high concentrations. Density of seeds, rate of emanation of inhibitors, their amount and effectiveness, all

Jacob Friedman; George R. Waller

1983-01-01

156

All-optical pump-seed synchronization for few-cycle OPCPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest and experimentally verify a simple method for timing-jitter-free synchronization of the seed and pump pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier. A fraction of a broadband seed pulse centered at 800 nm was frequency-shifted in a photonic crystal fiber to enable synchronized seeding of a picosecond Nd:YAG pump laser.

C. Y. Teisset; N. Ishii; T. Fuji; T. Metzger; S. Kohler; A. Baltuska; F. Krausz; A. M. Zheltikov

2005-01-01

157

Analysis of the plasma sweeper  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of lower hybrid waves to a plasma can be modified by placing potentials on electrodes near the mouth of a phased array. Positive potentials on the electrodes create an electric field that sweeps the plasma away at a velocity c anti E x anti B/B/sup 2/. In this paper we derive the electric field created by the applied potential from the nondivergent character of the current flow and the ion momentum equation, in which ion-neutral charge-exchange collisions are retained, and we compare the predictions with experimental data.

Glanz, J.; Motley, R.W.

1982-09-01

158

Anthropogenic fire drives the evolution of seed traits  

PubMed Central

Fire is a major disturbance affecting ecosystems worldwide. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the evolution of seed persistence (fire resistance) is associated with fire frequency or severity. However, the existence of specific seed traits resulting from natural selection mediated by fire remains a key question in plant evolution. We evaluated the role of fire in the evolution of seed traits from a microevolutionary perspective, using as a study system a native forb from the Chilean matorral, where fire is a novel, anthropogenic disturbance. We show that anthropogenic fires are shaping the evolution of seed traits such as pubescence and shape. Among-population variation in seed pubescence, shape, and pericarp thickness was strongly associated with fire frequency, and within a population, fire selected those plants with more pubescent seeds, thicker pericarps, and less rounded seeds. Seed pubescence and shape were shown to be heritable traits. Our findings provide insights into the understanding of the evolution of seed traits in fire-prone environments and demonstrate that human-made fires can be driving evolutionary changes in plant species from ecosystems where fires do not occur naturally. PMID:22065739

Gómez-González, Susana; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Bustos-Schindler, Carlos; Gianoli, Ernesto

2011-01-01

159

Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chloroplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground.

Mei, M.; Qiu, Y.; He, Y.; Bucker, H.; Yang, C. H.

1994-01-01

160

Mutational effects of space flight on Zea mays seeds.  

PubMed

The growth and development of more than 500 Zea mays seeds flown on LDEF were studied. Somatic mutations, including white-yellow stripes on leaves, dwarfing, change of leaf sheath color or seedling color were observed in plants developed from these seeds. When the frequency of white-yellow formation was used as the endpoint and compared with data from ground based studies, the dose to which maize seeds might be exposed during the flight was estimated to be equivalent to 635 cGy of gamma rays. Seeds from one particular holder gave a high mutation frequency and a wide mutation spectrum. White-yellow stripes on leaves were also found in some of the inbred progenies from plants displayed somatic mutation. Electron microscopy studies showed that the damage of chloroplast development in the white-yellow stripe on leaves was similar between seeds flown on LDEF and that irradiated by accelerated heavy ions on ground. PMID:11539968

Mei, M; Qiu, Y; He, Y; Bucker, H; Yang, C H

1994-10-01

161

Patterns of movement and seed dispersal by three lemur species.  

PubMed

We combined data on gut-passage times, feeding, and movement to explore the patterns of seed dispersal by Eulemur rubriventer, Eulemur rufrifrons, and Varecia variegata editorum lemurs in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. These lemur species deposited less than half of their consumed seeds >100?m away from conspecific trees (40-50%). Long-distance dispersal (>500?m) was rare and average dispersal distances were short relative to those reported of similar-sized haplorrhine primates. The three lemur species showed no significant differences in mean seed-dispersal distances. However, they differed in the shape of their frequency distributions of seed-dispersal distances as a result of differences in how they moved through their habitats. The short distances of seed dispersal we observed and the depauperate frugivorous fauna in Madagascar suggest seed-dispersal may be more limited than in other tropical forests with important implications for plant-community dynamics, biodiversity maintenance, and restoration efforts in Madagascar. PMID:24038313

Razafindratsima, Onja H; Jones, Thomas A; Dunham, Amy E

2014-01-01

162

Control of Weeds at a Pinyon-Juniper Site by Seeding Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area seeded to perennial grasses and an adjacent nonseeded area both within a burned Colorado pinyon\\/Utahjuniper (Pinus edulis Engelm.\\/Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little) com­ munity provided an opportunity to contrast frequency of plant species in the two treatments. Lower frequencies for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and yellow salsify (Tragopogon dubius Scop.), which are introduced annuals, were found in the seeded

Sherel Goodrich; Dustin Rooks

163

Seed Dispersal 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute radio program introduces listeners to the variety of agents that disperse seeds. The program's guest, a plant biologist, cites examples of nonliving and living dispersal agents that include the wind, water, and such animals as birds and bats. He also explains that a plant's fruits or seeds often offer clues about how they are dispersed. The program, which is available here in audio and text, is the first in a series about seed dispersal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2007-07-26

164

The effect of burial depth on removal of seeds of Phytolacca americana.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract - Although burial is known to have important effects on seed predation in a variety of habitats, the role of burial depth in affecting the removal of seeds in early successional systems is poorly known. Phytolacca American (pokeweed) is a model species to examine the role of burial depth in affecting seed removal because it is common in early-successional habitats, studies suggest that seed removal is indicative of seed predation, and seed predation is related to the recruitment of mature plants. To determine how burial depth affects P. americana seed removal, 20 seeds of P. americana were buried at depths of 0, 1, or 3 cm in early-successional habitats at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina for over 6 weeks. The frequency with which seeds were encountered (as measured by the removal of at least one seed) and the proportion of seeds removed was significantly greater when seeds were on the soil surface (0 cm depth) compared to seeds that were buried 1 cm or 3 cm; there was no difference in encounter or removal between seeds at 1 cm or 3 cm. Our findings suggest that burial may have important consequences for P. americana population dynamics, because seed survival depends upon whether or not the seed is buried, and relatively shallow burial can yield large increases in seed survival. Because seed limitation is known to be an important determinant of plant community composition in early successional systems, our work suggests that burial may play an unappreciated role in the dynamics of these communities by reducing predator-mediated seed limitation.

Orrock, John, L.: Damschen, Ellen, I.

2007-04-01

165

Examining Children's Models of Seed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

Jewell, Natalie

2002-01-01

166

Highly efficient narrow-line generation by difference-frequency mixing of a green pump and the stokes seed in RbTiOPO4 crystals: excitation of 943-nm emission.  

PubMed

An efficient and compact scheme for diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser wavelength conversion to 943 nm was demonstrated by use of difference-frequency mixing and stimulated Raman scattering. We believe that this is the highest conversion efficiency from the laser fundamental wavelength reported to date. It is shown that RbTiOPO4 crystals are capable of providing highly efficient frequency mixing as a nonlinear medium. PMID:15119398

Kuznetsov, Sergey; Pasmanik, Guerman; Shilov, Alexander; Tiour, Larissa

2004-04-15

167

SEED DORMANCY, AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Seed dormancy has been defined as the temporary failure of a viable seed to germinate, after a specific length of time, in a particular set of environmental conditions that later evoke germination when the restrictive state has been terminated by either natural or artificial conditions. S...

168

GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

169

What Are Chia Seeds?  

MedlinePLUS

... diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. Salvia hispanica seed is often sold under its common name "chia" as well as several trademarked names. Its origin is believed to be in ... plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native ...

170

Needs of Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about seeds. It specifically probes to find out if students recognize that a seed has needs, similar to other organisms that allow it to develop into the next stage of its life cycle.

Francis Eberle

2007-01-01

171

When Seed Dispersal Matters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience journal is about the varying importance of seed dispersal within plant communities. A profusion of fruit forms implies that seed dispersal plays a central role in plant ecology, yet the chance that an individual seed will ultimately produce a reproductive adult is low to infinitesimal. Extremely high variance in survival implies that variations in fruit production or transitions from seed to seedling will contribute little to population growth. The key issue is that variance in survival of plant life-history stages, and therefore the importance of dispersal, differs greatly among and within plant communities. In stable communities of a few species of long-lived plants, variances in seed and seedling survival are immense, so seed-to-seedling transitions have little influence on overall population dynamics. However, when seedlings in different circumstances have very different chances of survival--in ecological succession, for example, or when dispersed seeds escape density-dependent mortality near parent trees--the biased survival of dispersed seeds or seedlings in some places rather than others results in pervasive demographic impacts.

HENRY F. HOWE and MARIA N. MIRITI (; )

2004-07-01

172

Imprinting and Seed Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilization Seeds consist of three genetically distinct components: embryo, endosperm, and seed coat. In plants, mitosis follows meiosis to produce the haploid phase of the plant life cycle, the male and female gametophytes. The angiosperm female gametophyte, the site of fertilization, is completely embedded within the maternal sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The most prevalent type of mature female gametophyte

Mary Gehring; Yeonhee Choi; Robert L. Fischer

2004-01-01

173

Millennium Seed Bank Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of organizations have developed a concerted interest in establishing seed banks to protect the wide diversity of existing plant life for future generations. The Royal Botanic Gardens is currently working on their own project, whose ultimate goal is to collect 24,000 plant species. So far, they have successfully secured samples from almost all of the native flowering plants in the United Kingdom, and their work continues on in the present day. Many visitors to the site will want to peruse their homepage and the helpful graphic (a peapod) helps orient first-time visitors to the various sections on the site, such as "Solving Seed Problems" and their publications and data area. The site also includes a field manual for those who would like to collect their own seeds in the field as well as data about the seeds collected thus far in the Seed Information Database.

2005-01-01

174

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Electronics Division Internal Report No. 61  

E-print Network

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Electronics Division Internal Report No. 61 FREQUENCY SWEEPER John Payne Sep tember 1967 NUMBER OF COPIES! 100 #12;FREQUENCY SWEEPER John Payne . General Description The sweeper described in this note has been designed to be suitable for installation in a front-end box

Groppi, Christopher

175

7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

2011-01-01

176

7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

2014-01-01

177

7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

2012-01-01

178

7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

2010-01-01

179

7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants...

2013-01-01

180

Investigation of the effect of space flight factors on chromosomes in seeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency of mutations in postflight air-dry Crepis capillaris seeds, kept for five days aboard an artificial satellite was 36.0 + or - 1.9%, vs. 19.01 + or - 1.2% for seeds in a similar ground experiment. Both groups of seeds were prepared in identical concentrations and were treated by the same mutagen. The spectrum of mutations in postflight Crepis capillaris seeds contained a large number of chromosome-type mutations and some cells showed multiple alterations. Postflight seeds not treated with mutagens had a slightly higher level of mutability.

Dubinina, L. G.

1980-01-01

181

Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places\\u000a in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal\\u000a diversity. High Shannon-Index H? was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated\\u000a mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%)

Balaji Venkatesagowda; Ebenezer Ponugupaty; Aneli M. Barbosa; Robert F. H. Dekker

182

Seed Dispersal: Lemurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees in Madagascar's forests have evolved traits that promote the dispersal of their seeds by lemurs. This two-minute radio program focuses on the interaction between forest plants and lemurs--the main seed dispersers in the forests. A guest scientist explains why lemurs ingest seeds that are large relative to their body size. He also notes that the fruits of Madagascar's trees have evolved to be strong smelling but drably colored in accordance with lemurs' keen sense of smell and poor vision. The program is available in text and audio formats. The latter includes audio of ring-tailed lemurs. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2007-09-20

183

SEED ARCHIVE AND STORAGE FACILITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar beet seed storage facilities were updated, and seed is stored at 4C and 25% relative humidity. Over 15,000 packages of seed have been moved into the new storage facility. We used results from field scale germination studies to discard over 3,500 seedlots that showed no emergence. Current seed ...

184

Cactus seed germination: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review tries to give a general overview of the available information on cactus seed germination. First, information about the family Cactaceae is discussed, concerning aspects such as distribution and general characteristics. Seed distinctive features are mentioned, such as colour, form, and size. Aspects of seed physiology, such as germination and dormancy, as well as seed dynamics including dispersal,

Mariana Rojas-Aréchiga; Carlos Vázquez-Yanes

2000-01-01

185

Seed weight variation of Wyoming sagebrush in northern Nevada.  

PubMed

Seed size is a crucial plant trait that may potentially affect not only immediate seedling success but also the subsequent generation. We examined variation in seed weight of Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young), an excellent candidate species for rangeland restoration. The working hypothesis was that a major fraction of spatial and temporal variability in seed size (weight) of Wyoming sagebrush could be explained by variations in mean monthly temperatures and precipitation. Seed collection was conducted at Battle Mountain and Eden Valley sites in northern Nevada, USA, during November of 2002 and 2003. Frequency distributions of seed weight varied from leptokurtic to platykurtic, and from symmetry to skewness to the right for both sites and years. Mean seed weight varied by a factor of 1.4 between locations and years. Mean seed weight was greater (P < 0.05) in 2003 than in 2002 at both sites. This can partially be attributed to 55% greater precipitation in 2003 than 2002, since mean monthly temperatures were similar (P > 0.05) in all study situations. Simple linear regression showed that monthly precipitation (March to November) explained 85% of the total variation in mean seed weight (P = 0.079). Since the relationship between mean monthly temperature (June-November) and mean seed weight was not significant (r2 = 0.00, P = 0.431), this emphasizes the importance of precipitation as an important determinant of mean seed weight. Our results suggest that the precipitation regime to which the mother plant is exposed can have a significant effect on sizes of seeds produced. Hence, seasonal changes in water availability would tend to alter size distributions of produced offspring. PMID:16524249

Busso, Carlos A; Perryman, Barry L

2005-12-01

186

Easy PEAsy Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners determine the necessary conditions for pea seed germination. This activity encourages learners to make predictions and think about how they might investigate the effects of variables like light, temperature, and moisture.

Paul Dyson

2012-04-09

187

Seeds in Flight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

Martin, Willard K.

1978-01-01

188

Fishing for Seeds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

Science and Children, 2001

2001-01-01

189

Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 ?m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

Domínguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernández Aguilar, Claudia; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Martínez Ortiz, Efraín; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther

2010-03-01

190

CloudSeeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth begins with a Web site from the Oklahoma Weather Modification Program called Cloud Physics - The Basics (1 ). Students are encouraged to initiate a debate on the controversy surrounding the issue of inducing or enhancing precipitation. Next, the Texas Water Resources Institute Web site, Does Weather Modification Really Work? (3 ) provides a more basic description of cloudseeding. The site offers several categories including The Science of Cloud Seeding, A Brief History of Weather Modification in Texas, Legal and Policy Issues, Current and Future Activities, and more. The Western Kansas Weather Modification Program offers the next site, Aircrew Pictures 2001 (4 ). The page contains pictures of the planes and crew involved in the program as well as pictures from the plane during a mission. Other links on the site contain radar, data, and other information. The next site from ABCNEWS.com is an article entitled Weather as a Weapon? (5 ) The piece explorers what might happen "on some battlefield of the future where the US military could gain a tactical advantage by changing the weather." A discussion on the possibilities of changing the weather, an Air Force research paper and several other links are provided to learn more. The 6th site maintained by the North Dakota State Water Commission is entitled Atmospheric Resources-Photos and Videos (6 ). Here, visitors can find more photographs of cloudseeding equipment and most notably three videos of cloudseeding planes in action. Atmospherics Incorporated, an operations and research company in the field of applied meteorology, provides the next site, The Physical Basis for Seeding Clouds (7 ). The page describes techniques for cloud seeding and has a link to photographs of pyrotechnic seeding devices. The last site provided by North American Weather Consultants, Inc. is titled, Cloud Seeding -Frequently Asked Questions (8 ). The site briefly answers questions such as When did application of modern cloud seeding technology begin?, Is cloud seeding effective?, and Do the commonly used seeding materials pose any direct health or environmental risks?

2002-01-01

191

Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement—Part II: Effect of precipitation, wintertime road sanding, and street sweepers on inferred PM 10 emission potentials from paved and unpaved roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testing Re-Entrained Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) is a new technique to infer paved and unpaved road dust PM 10 emission potentials based on particulate matter (PM) measurements made onboard a moving vehicle. Light scattering instruments mounted in front and behind the vehicle's tires measure the differential particle concentration of dust suspended by the vehicle's tire in contact with the road surface. Through empirical regressions relating the differential concentration (i.e. TRAKER signal) with the vehicle speed and the downwind flux of PM 10 particles from the road, an equation is derived to infer the speed independent road dust emission potential from the measured TRAKER signal. Measurements from TRAKER offer a new perspective on the processes that affect road dust emissions. The system was used to investigate temporal changes in emission potentials from paved roads in both the winter and summer in the Treasure Valley in Southwest Idaho. During the 3-week wintertime sampling period, the residential road dust PM 10 emission potential decreased by ˜50%. Summertime PM 10 emission potentials were similar to those observed at the end of the winter sampling and showed no upward or downward trends. Wintertime unpaved road emissions increased consistently with the number of days since the last rainfall. Measurement of road dust emission potentials after road sanding on dry roads indicated a 75% increase in PM 10 emissions after 2.5 h. This effect was short lived and emission potentials returned to their pre-sanding levels within 8 h of the sand application. Street sweeping with mechanical and vacuum sweepers was found to offer no measurable reduction in PM 10 emission potentials. On several roads, the PM 10 emission potentials actually increased immediately after vacuum sweeping. Long term effects of street sweeping on road dust emissions were not evaluated as part of this study and may offer some overall reduction in PM emissions from paved roads.

Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Green, M.; Hendrickson, Karin; McGown, Michael; Barton, Kevin; Pitchford, Marc

192

Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis  

PubMed Central

Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

2014-01-01

193

Seeds in space experiment results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

Alston, Jim A.

1991-01-01

194

Automated seed manipulation and planting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

1988-01-01

195

Effect of harvest seasons on the incidence of seed-borne mycoflora of three Amaranthus cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen fungal species were found to be associated with seeds of three cultivars ofAmaranthus cruentus L. There was a seasonal variability in the frequency of isolation, distribution and quantity of these seed-borne fungi among cultivars. The wetness, high temperature and air humidity that accompanied harvests of the first and second seasons greatly increased the number and amount of seed-borne fungi.

A. Adebanjo; T. Ikotun

1994-01-01

196

Precision metering of germinated seeds  

E-print Network

seeds was developed. Viscous fluid was used to suspend the seeds and convey them through the system. Operation of the system began with the seeds suspended in a tank. They were forced to flow in single file through a tube. A two position valve... actuated by an electrical solenoid was used to mechanically capture individual seeds. Air was used to eject the seeds from the system. A new single file device employing dilution flow was tested at rates as high as ten seeds per second. It produced...

Elliot, Gregory Lawrence

1990-01-01

197

Tracking wind-dispersed seeds using (15)N-isotope enrichment.  

PubMed

Seed dispersal influences a wide range of ecological processes. However, measuring dispersal patterns, particularly long-distance dispersal, has been a difficult task. Marking bird-dispersed seeds with stable (15)N isotopes has been shown to be a user-friendly method to trace seed dispersal. In this study, we determined whether (15)N urea solution could be used to enrich seeds of two common wind-dispersed plants, Eupatorium glaucescens (Asteraceae) and Sericocarpus tortifolius (Asteraceae). We further tested if the water type (distilled versus tap) in (15)N urea solutions influences the level and variability of enrichment of plant seeds, and if increasing spraying frequency per se increases enrichment. Because droughts may lower seed set or kill plants, we wanted to investigate if the additional use of an externally applied anti-transpirant affects the intake of externally applied (15)N into seeds. The results demonstrate that (15)N enrichment of seeds can facilitate dispersal experiments with wind-dispersed plants. The use of distilled water in (15)N urea solutions did not increase (15)N enrichment compared to tap water. Further, enrichment was more efficient at lower spray frequencies. Both the use of tap water and low frequencies could lower time, effort and project costs. The results suggest that species can be protected from drought using an anti-transpirant without decreasing the incorporation of (15)N into seeds. PMID:25174806

Forster, C; Herrmann, J D

2014-11-01

198

How many seeds in a seeded breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their demonstrated nutritional value, yield of seeded breadfruit trees (Artocarpus altilis) has not been investigated\\u000a in any detail. In the present study, the average number of seeds per seeded breadfruit harvested from a single 6-yr-old tree\\u000a over a period of 7 months was 59. Individual fruits contained as many as 151 or as few as 12. The average seed

F. D. Bennett; C. Nozzolillo

1987-01-01

199

Effects of inflorescence size on visits from pollinators and seed set of Corydalis ambigua (Papaveraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female reproductive success (seed set) of a spring ephemeral plant, Corydalis ambigua Cham. et schlecht (Papaveraceae) was investigated in relation to inflorescence size and foraging behavior (frequency and duration of visitations) by pollinators (namely, overwintered queens of Bombus hypocrita sapporensis) by detailed daily observations of a natural population. Pollination experiments indicated that C. ambigua is self-incompatible and that seed set

M. Ohara; S. Higashi

1994-01-01

200

Identity and recovery of seed-borne fungal pathogens of field peas in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plating of field pea seed sampled from 13 locations in Western Australia revealed the presence of Mycosphaerella pinodes and, to a lesser extent, Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. In an experiment aimed at determining the effect of surface sterilisation on the frequency of occurrence of M. pinodes and the location of this fungus within the seed, it was found that surface

J. A. Bathgate; K. Sivasithamparam; T. N. Khan

1989-01-01

201

Seeding experiments at SPARC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the DS4 EUROFEL collaboration, a research work plan at the SPARC free-electron laser (FEL) test facility aiming at the investigation of seeded and cascaded FEL configurations is under implementation. The main goal of the collaboration is to study and test the amplification and the FEL harmonic generation process of an input seed signal obtained as higher-order harmonics generated both in crystals (400 and 266 nm) and in gases (266, 160, 114 nm). The SPARC FEL can be configured to test several cascaded FEL configurations. In this paper we introduce SPARC and its main parameters and we analyze the superradiant cascade and the harmonic cascade seeded with a signal with the typical time structure of the harmonics generated in gas.

Giannessi, L.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.; Boscolo, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Carré, B.; Castellano, M.; Cianchi, A.; Ciocci, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Clozza, A.; Couprie, M. E.; Cultrera, L.; Dattoli, G.; De Silvestri, S.; Di Pace, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Doria, A.; Drago, A.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Frassetto, F.; Fusco, V.; Gallerano, G. P.; Gallo, A.; Garzella, D.; Ghigo, A.; Germano, M.; Giovenale, E.; Labat, M.; Lambert, G.; Mattioli, M.; Merdji, H.; Monchicourt, P.; Migliorati, M.; Musumeci, P.; Nisoli, M.; Orlandi, G. L.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pace, E.; Pagnutti, S.; Palumbo, L.; Petralia, A.; Petrarca, M.; Poletto, L.; Quattromini, M.; Reiche, S.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Ronsivalle, C.; Salières, P.; Sabia, E.; Sansone, G.; Serafini, L.; Spassovsky, I.; Spataro, B.; Stagira, S.; Surrenti, V.; Tchebakoff, O.; Tomassini, S.; Tondello, G.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vicario, C.

2008-08-01

202

Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how

N. P. Louwaars

2007-01-01

203

Seed banks and seed population dynamics of halophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review I will describe the importance of seed banks and thepopulation dynamics of seeds on the distribution of species in salinehabitats. The main questions being examined in this review include: 1.Does the seed bank represent the flora of the entire salinity gradient or isit restricted to the species in each zonal community? 2. Is the size andspecies composition

Irwin A. Ungar

2001-01-01

204

Artificial seeds in barley: encapsulation of microspore-derived embryos.  

PubMed

An in vitro culture system has been developed for barley (Hordeum vulgare), which yields high frequencies of high quality microspore-derived embryos without an intervening callus phase. The embryos are very similar to zygotic embryos with regard to their morphology and germination capacity. These embryos were encapsulated in sodium alginate to produce individual beads containing one embryo each. In accordance with the literature, these beads are denoted "artificial seeds". The artificial seeds germinated well and with a root system superior to that of non-encapsulated embryos. The artificial seeds also maintained their germination capacity for at least 6 months, whereas non-encapsulated embryos did not survive more than 2 weeks in storage. Artificial seeds, thus, probably provide a simple and universal delivery system of in vitro plantlets to greenhouse or field. PMID:24232898

Datta, S K; Potrykus, I

1989-06-01

205

Physical View of Cloud Seeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

Tribus, Myron

1970-01-01

206

Healthy food trends -- chia seeds  

MedlinePLUS

... small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint family. Chia seeds are considered ... States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Services. Plant guide: Chia. https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/ ...

207

Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

Bonner, F. T.; And Others

208

Seeds of the world : Journey to Forever  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seeds of the world: Journey to Forever - No seeds, no food, vanishing seeds, most crop varieties already lost, rendezvous with extinction, seed saving, biodiversity, world hunger This site discusses the importance of seeds to humans and the global economy. It provides extension information about genetically modified seeds and the Green Revolution.

Keith Addison

2001-01-01

209

Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes.  

PubMed

In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic mechanisms play a regulatory role. Here, we demonstrate that the over-expression of chromatin remodeling ATPase genes (AtCHR12 or AtCHR23) reduced the frequency of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana up to 30% relative to the wild-type seeds. On the other hand, single loss-of-function mutations of the two genes did not affect seed germination. The reduction of germination in over-expressing mutants was more pronounced in stress conditions (salt or high temperature), showing the impact of the environment. Reduced germinations upon over-expression coincided with increased transcript levels of seed maturation genes and with reduced degradation of their mRNAs stored in dry seeds. Our results indicate that repression of AtCHR12/23 gene expression in germinating wild-type Arabidopsis seeds is required for full germination. This establishes a functional link between chromatin modifiers and regulatory networks towards seed maturation and germination. PMID:24839909

Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Folta, Adam; Muras, Aleksandra; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

2015-02-01

210

Morphological Analysis of Rubus Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Rubus exhibits morphological diversity and a wide range of reproductive systems and habitats. We examined seed coat ultrastructural morphology of seed accessions of 10 subgenera preserved at the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis, Oregon, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images were taken of 56 seed samples collected worldwide. Macromorphological

Sugae Wada; Barbara M. Reed

211

Somatic polymorphism and seed dispersal  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOMATIC seed polymorphism is the production of seeds of different morphologies or behaviour on different parts of the same plant and is a somatic differentiation rather than the result of genetic segregation1. This phenomenon appears to be confined to a limited number of families of higher plants (for example, Cruciferae, Compositae, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae). Seed produced within a somatic polymorphism may

Anne E. Sorensen

1978-01-01

212

Corridors cause differential seed predation.  

SciTech Connect

Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds? primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

JOHN L. ORROCk; ELLEN I. DAMSCHEN

2005-06-01

213

SEED DORMANCY IN LEAFY SPURGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafy spurge reproduces asexually via crown and root buds and sexually by seeds. Our unit has largely focused on dormancy in buds and vegetative reproduction. However, dormant seeds in the soil play a key role in the persistence of weeds. For example, leafy spurge seeds can remain dormant and viable...

214

Characteristics of Echinacea seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed oils from three commonly cultivated Echinacea species, Echinacea Angustifolia, Echinacea Pallida and Echinacea Purpurea, harvested in 1998 and 1999, were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. Oil yield ranged from 13% to 23%, depending on Echinacea species and seed weight. UV\\/VIS and fluorescence spectra distinguished Echinacea seed oil by species. Vitamin E content of the oils ranged from 29 to 85

B. Dave Oomah; Delphine Dumon; Anaberta Cardador-Martínez; David V. Godfrey

2006-01-01

215

Seed dormancy and germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy and germination are complex adaptive traits of higher plants that are influenced by a large number of genes and environmental factors. Studies of genetics and physiology have shown the important roles of the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in the regulation of dormancy and germination. More recently, the use of quantitative genetics and mutant approaches has allowed

Maarten Koornneef; Leónie Bentsink; Henk Hilhorst

2002-01-01

216

OPTIMIZING SEED BANKING PROCEDURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper outlines factors important for genebanking. Optimizing genebanking procedures is often interpreted as storing seeds under environmental conditions that give them maximum longevity. This paper argues that even this narrow view of optimized genebanking is difficult to define or predict and ...

217

Managing Stress. Project Seed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

218

The SEED Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

Teich, Carolyn R.

2011-01-01

219

USGControls Scarification and Seeding  

E-print Network

, and the June 2002 Hayman fire (Figure 1; Table 1). Post-fire Erosion and the Effectiveness of Burned Area Sch Controls Old PAM Dry/new PAM Totalsedimentyields(tonsha -1 ) First year after burning Second year after burning 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Control Seeding Old Mulch New Mulch Old Contour Felling New

MacDonald, Lee

220

RUSSET BUFFALOBERRY SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed propagation literature for russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. (Elaeagnaceae)) is varied, recommending acid scarification, cold moist stratification, or both treatments. When combinations of sulfuric acid scarification (0 or 5 min) and stratification (0, 9, or 14 wk) treatments were tested on a Montana seedlot, the optimal treatment combination was a 5- min acid soak and 14-wk (98-d) stratification.

Lee S Rosner; John T Harrington

2003-01-01

221

In vitro Asymbiotic Germination of Immature Seed and Formation of Protocorm by Cephalanthera falcata (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Many Orchidaceous species are threatened globally by development and over-collection from their natural habitats for horticultural purposes. Artificial propagation from seeds is difficult in most terrestrial orchids native to temperate regions. Seed production is another limiting factor in the artificial propagation for these species because of the lessened probability of pollination and the destruction of fruit by insect larvae. Members of the genus Cephalanthera are distributed across Europe, Asia and North America. C. falcata is a temperate species of East Asia and an endangered species in Japan. As successful propagation from seeds of this species has never been reported, a reproducible method is described here for seed production in situ and propagation using immature seeds in asymbiotic culture in vitro. • Methods Effects of hand-pollination and bagging treatment of ovaries were examined. Young capsules were collected every 10 d from 50 d after pollination until 120 d after pollination. Immature seeds obtained from these capsules were cultured asymbiotically on modified Kano medium and ND medium. Seed viability was examined within TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) test solution and histological observations were made on viable seeds by paraffin embedding at each collection stage. • Key Results and Conclusions Hand-pollination followed by bagging treatment of ovaries with aluminium foil was effective for insect control during fruit development, and successfully yielded capsules. Of the capsules, 74·5 % survived to full maturity. The highest frequency (39·8 %) of seed germination was obtained with seeds harvested 70 d after pollination. The frequency declined with progress of seed maturity on the mother plant. Minimal germination was observed with seeds harvested 100 d or later after pollination. Histological observation suggests that accumulation of such substances as lignin in the inner integument surrounding the embryo during seed maturation plays an important role in induction of dormancy. PMID:17071633

YAMAZAKI, JUN; MIYOSHI, KAZUMITSU

2006-01-01

222

Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).  

PubMed

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

223

Why high seed densities within buried mesh bags may overestimate depletion rates of soil seed banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Estimates of seed bank depletion rates are essential for modelling and management of plant populations. The seed bag burial method is often used to measure seed mortality in the soil. However, the density of seeds within seed bags is higher than densities in natural seed banks, which may elevate levels of pathogens and influence seed mortality. The aim of

Mourik van T. A; T. J. Stomph; A. J. Murdoch

2005-01-01

224

Dielectric characterization of the seeds of invasive Chinese tallow tree.  

PubMed

Biofuels have the potential to replace a significant portion of the transportation needs of the USA and the world. Low-cost lipid feedstock (i.e. tallow tree seeds) can be used for production of biodiesel, but these seeds need to be dried. Microwave drying is utilized to dry various seeds and grain, but for this process to be most efficient the dielectric properties of the materials need to be known. This study presents, for the first time, the dielectric properties of the seeds of the Chinese tallow tree. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor were determined using a modified free-space method for different moisture contents at frequency ranges centered around 915 and 2450 MHz respectively. The dielectric constant decreased with frequency in those respective ranges, and increased linearly with increasing moisture content, from 1.96 at 0% m.c. to 2.3 at 7% m.c. at 915 MHz, and from 2.08 at 0% m.c. to 2.42 at 7.6% m.c. at 2450 MHz. The dielectric loss factor generally decreased with frequency in both frequency ranges, and increased linearly with moisture content from a low of 0.16 at 0% m.c. to 0.21 at 7.56% at 915 MHz, respectively from a low of 0.13 at 0% m.c. to 0.2 at 7.6% m.c. at 2450 MHz. These results can be used to design microwave processing operations and systems for drying of tallow tree seeds, as well as for non-destructive determination of theses seeds' moisture content. PMID:24779226

Fennell, Laura Picou; Boldor, Dorin

2013-01-01

225

On the modulation effect of pulsing and static magnetic fields and mechanical vibrations on barley seed hydration.  

PubMed

The changes of wet and dry weights of barley seed in different periods of swelling were studied in seeds treated with Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF EMF), Static Magnetic Fields (SMF) and Mechanical Vibrations (MV) in cold (4 degrees C) and warm (20 degrees C) distilled water as well as in seeds non-treated (control). The metabolic dependent seed hydration, dry weight loss and water binding in seed were modulated by preliminary EMF, SMF and MV-induced treatment of distilled water. The specific electrical conductivity (SEC) of control and treated distilled water was measured before the seed incubation. Frequency and intensity "windows" (i.e. range of frequency or intensity) for the effect of EMF, MV and SMF (correspondingly) on seed hydration, solubility and water binding in seed were studied. These "windows" were different in various phases of seed swelling. It is suggested that water structure modification is the result of valence angle changes (SMF and EMF) and dipole molecules vibration (EMF and MV) has different effects on the process of hydration, solubility and water binding in seed. These results are important from the point of understanding the mechanisms of the biological effect of EMF, as well as from the point of agriculture. PMID:15789974

Amyan, Armine; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

2004-01-01

226

Pollination, seed set and seed predation on a landscape scale.  

PubMed

We analysed the combined effects of pollination and seed predation on seed set of Centaurea jacea in 15 landscapes differing in structural complexity. In the centre of each landscape, a patch of Centaurea plants was established for standardized measurements of flower visitation, seed predation and seed set. Both the number of flower-visiting bees and the proportion of flower heads damaged by seed predators increased with landscape complexity, which was measured as the proportion of semi-natural habitats. The mean number of seeds per flower head did not increase with the proportion of semi-natural habitats, presumably because of the counterbalancing effects of pollination and seed predation. For a subset of undamaged flower heads, the number of seeds per flower head was positively correlated with the number of flower visits. Further reasons for the unexpected failure to detect a correlation between landscape complexity and seed set appeared to be changes in flower-visitor behaviour and the contrasting responses of honeybees and wild bees to habitat context. Landscape analyses at eight spatial scales (radius of landscape sectors, 250-3000 m) showed that different groups perceived the landscape at different spatial scales. Changes in pollinator numbers could be explained only at small scales (up to 1000 m), while the seed predators also responded to large scales (up to 2500 m). PMID:11506681

Steffan-Dewenter, I; Münzenberg, U; Tscharntke, T

2001-08-22

227

Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of arabidopsis in microgravity.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. PMID:25317938

Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

2014-10-01

228

Network models of frugivory and seed dispersal: Challenges and opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network analyses have emerged as a new tool to study frugivory and seed dispersal (FSD) mutualisms because networks can model and simplify the complexity of multiple community-wide species interactions. Moreover, network theory suggests that structural properties, such as the presence of highly generalist species, are linked to the stability of mutualistic communities. However, we still lack empirical validation of network model predictions. Here we outline new research avenues to connect network models to FSD processes, and illustrate the challenges and opportunities of this tool with a field study. We hypothesized that generalist frugivores would be important for forest stability by dispersing seeds into deforested areas and initiating reforestation. We then constructed a network of plant-frugivore interactions using published data and identified the most generalist frugivores. To test the importance of generalists we measured: 1) the frequency with which frugivores moved between pasture and forest, 2) the bird-generated seed rain under perches in the pasture, and 3) the perching frequency of birds above seed traps. The generalist frugivores in the forest network were not important for seed dispersal into pastures, and thus for forest recovery, because the forest network excluded habitat heterogeneities, frugivore behavior, and movements. More research is needed to develop ways to incorporate relevant FSD processes into network models in order for these models to be more useful to community ecology and conservation. The network framework can serve to spark and renew interest in FSD and further our understanding of plant-animal communities.

Carlo, Tomás A.; Yang, Suann

2011-11-01

229

Construct Arguments: Pumpkin Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip shows students engaged in the Common Core Practice Standard #3—Construct viable arguments for conclusions reached and critique the reasoning of others. In this lesson, learners work in groups to discuss and revise their estimates of how many seeds are in a small pumpkin. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

WGHB Boston

2013-01-01

230

New Genes in Traditional Seed Systems: Diffusion, Detectability and Persistence of Transgenes in a Maize Metapopulation  

PubMed Central

Gene flow of transgenes into non-target populations is an important biosafety concern. The case of genetically modified (GM) maize in Mexico has been of particular interest because of the country’s status as center of origin and landrace diversity. In contrast to maize in the U.S. and Europe, Mexican landraces form part of an evolving metapopulation in which new genes are subject to evolutionary processes of drift, gene flow and selection. Although these processes are affected by seed management and particularly seed flow, there has been little study into the population genetics of transgenes under traditional seed management. Here, we combine recently compiled data on seed management practices with a spatially explicit population genetic model to evaluate the importance of seed flow as a determinant of the long-term fate of transgenes in traditional seed systems. Seed flow between farmers leads to a much wider diffusion of transgenes than expected by pollen movement alone, but a predominance of seed replacement over seed mixing lowers the probability of detection due to a relative lack of homogenization in spatial frequencies. We find that in spite of the spatial complexities of the modeled system, persistence probabilities under positive selection are estimated quite well by existing theory. Our results have important implications concerning the feasibility of long term transgene monitoring and control in traditional seed systems. PMID:23056246

van Heerwaarden, Joost; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Bellon, Mauricio R.

2012-01-01

231

Mapping of QTL for seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population.  

PubMed

Following winter oilseed rape cultivation, considerable numbers of volunteer oilseed rape plants may occur in subsequent years in following crops. The appearance of volunteer oilseed rape plants is based on the capability of the seeds to become secondary dormant and to survive in this stage for many years in the soil. Genetic reduction of secondary seed dormancy in oilseed rape could provide a means to reduce the frequency of volunteer plants and especially the dispersal of transgenic oilseed rape. The objective of the present study was to analyse the inheritance of primary and secondary seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population derived from the cross Express 617 × R53 and to study correlations to other seed traits. Field experiments were performed in Germany for 2 years at two locations with two replicates. Seeds harvested from open pollinated plants were used for all analyses, including a laboratory test for seed dormancy. A previously developed molecular marker map of the doubled haploid population was used to map QTL of the relevant traits. For primary, secondary and total seed dormancy, the results showed significant effects of the genotypes and their interactions, with years and locations. Two, four and five QTL were detected for primary, secondary and total seed dormancy which explained 19, 35 and 42 % of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Results show that secondary seed dormancy is a heritable trait and that selection for low secondary seed dormancy is possible. PMID:23783224

Schatzki, Jörg; Schoo, Burkhard; Ecke, Wolfgang; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

2013-09-01

232

Does seeding after wildfires in rangelands reduce erosion or invasive species?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mitigation of ecological damage caused by rangeland wildfires has historically been an issue restricted to the western United States. It has focused on conservation of ecosystem function through reducing soil erosion and spread of invasive plants. Effectiveness of mitigation treatments has been debated recently. We reviewed recent literature to conduct a meta-analysis of seeding after wildfires to determine if seedings may (1) protect ecosystems against soil erosion and (2) reduce invasion or abundance of undesirable nonnative plant species. Effectiveness of postfire seedings was examined in 8 erosion and 19 invasive species cases. Seeding has little effect on erosion during the first year after fire and is highly dependent upon initial establishment and coverage of species in successive years. Among all seeding cases, 28% reduced, 67% were neutral, and 5% increased invasive species abundance. Older seedings were more likely to show reductions in invasives than younger seedings. Seedings with high plant establishment were more likely to reduce invasives than those with low establishment. Studies are needed that examine (1) frequency of adequate establishment of postfire seedings and causal factors of success or failure, (2) long-term impacts of seeding along a range of initial establishment and concomitant plant coverage over time as it relates to erosion and abundance of invasive plant species, and (3) auxiliary treatments designed to increase likelihood of germination and establishment given the inevitable variability of environmental conditions. These studies would aid land managers in deciding when postfire treatments are required and their likely level of success.

Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Beyers, Jan L.

2013-01-01

233

Radiobiological experiments with plant seeds aboard the biosatellite Cosmos 1887  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of spaceflight factors on the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Crepis capillaris were studied. The seeds were located inside the satellite in an open space, protected with aluminum foil and also exposed without the foil cover. When the seeds were in open space without any protection, their viability was found to be suppressed; the survival rate and fertility of plants grown from these seeds were also diminished. An increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and in the number of multiple injuries was registered in this case. Experiments with the aluminum foil shielding showed a decrease in the suppression of the seeds' viability, but mutational changes were found to be even more increased, while the survival rate and fertility of the plants decreased. An increase in the thickness of shielding resulted in a decrease in the effects up to the level of the control, except for the effects connected with CA and fertility of the plants. Analysis of the results shows that these impairments can be ascribed to the action of single heavy charged particles (HCP). The seeds can thus be regarded as an integral biological 'dosimeter' which allows estimation of the total effects of radiation, ecological and biological factors.

Benton, E. V.; Anikeeva, I. D.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Vaulina, E. N.; Kostina, L. N.; Marenny, A.; Portman, A. I.; Rusin, S. V.

1995-01-01

234

Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed fate, and may be helpful in developing models to predict seed shadows and recruitment patterns of large-seeded trees.

Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

2011-11-01

235

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2012-04-01

236

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2010-04-01

237

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2011-04-01

238

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2014-04-01

239

19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. 10.57 Section 10.57...ETC. General Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification...

2013-04-01

240

Invasive Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) do not replace native ants as seed dispersers of Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae) in California, USA.  

PubMed

We investigated the indirect effects of Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) invasions on patterns of seed dispersal and predation in the myrmecochorous tree poppy Dendromecon rigida in coastal San Diego County, California. Significantly more seeds were removed from ant-accessible seed stations at sites numerically dominated by a common harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex subnitidus), a native disperser of these seeds and a species sensitive to displacement by L. humile, than from those stations at sites where L. humile was in the majority. Predation of seeds was high, but variable, across sites, suggesting that reduced dispersal could result in increased seed predation in some habitats. Removal of elaiosomes did not affect the frequency with which predators removed seeds, but ants removed significantly more seeds with elaiosomes than without. In behavior trials, only P. subnitidus was able to carry seeds of Dendromecon rigida effectively. L. humile and a small native ant species, Dorymyrmex insanus, while displaying interest in the diaspores, were seldom able to carry whole seeds and, when they did, only carried them a few centimeters. Displacement of native harvester ants by L. humile appears to decrease the dispersal of Dendromecon rigida seeds and may be increasing loss of seeds due to predation. PMID:16228256

Carney, Shanna E; Byerley, M Brooke; Holway, David A

2003-05-01

241

Characterization of amaranth seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1¿10.2% of the oil. The squalene content was 4.8¿4.9% in both types of oil.

TAMER H. GAMEL; AHMED S. MESALLAM; AHMED A. DAMIR; LILA A. SHEKIB; JOZEF P. LINSSEN

2007-01-01

242

Seed Dispersal by Japanese Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seed dispersal is a crucial process in recruitment of plant populations, as well as for pollen dispersal. The location of\\u000a dispersed seeds affects the survival of seedlings and the spatial distribution pattern of plants. Plants employ various strategies\\u000a for effective seed dispersal, and diaspores have unique structures that utilize biotic and\\/or abiotic factors such as fleshy\\u000a arils for endozoochory, thorny

Tatsuya Otani

243

Fractionation of sunflower seed proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of sunflower seed salt-soluble proteins, which amount to nearly 80% of the total seed nitrogen, has been performed\\u000a by a method we proposed in 1970 and which was confirmed by several others. Three varieties of seeds have been investigated:\\u000a ‘Armavirec,’ ‘Peredovik’, and a pure strain. The occurrence of three groups of proteic fractions was confirmed. Their proportions,\\u000a which fluctuate

J. Baudet; J. Mossé

1977-01-01

244

Dormancy studies in blackberry seed  

E-print Network

been extensive, very little dealt with dormancy of blackberry seeds. Indeed, all the avail? able literature is limited to the practical side of the problem. As early as 1919 Rose (62) suggested that dormancy in Rubus idaeus was probably due... acid treatment was inadvisable. Hottes (39) stated that when raspberry and blackberry seeds are soaked in vinegar their germination will be hastened. Afanasiev (l), in suggesting means to overcome dormancy in blackberry (Rubus spp.),reported the seed...

Lasheen, Abdel Moty

1954-01-01

245

Farmers' Seed System of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in the Center of Diversity: II. Seed Quality, Storage, Protection and Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmer's seed system is defined as a system in which seed selection, seed production, seed storage, management and seed diffusion are integrated with crop production. The seed quality, seed storage, seed protection and seed security are important parts of seed system. The objectives of this study were to assess in sorghum: 1) the quality of farmer-produced seed, 2) the seed

Firew Mekbib

2008-01-01

246

Post-fire seeding on Wyoming big sagebrush ecological sites: regression analyses of seeded nonnative and native species densities.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1980s, sagebrush rangelands in the Great Basin of the United States have experienced more frequent and larger wildfires. These fires affect livestock forage, the sagebrush/grasses/forbs mosaic that is important for many wildlife species (e.g., the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)), post-fire flammability and fire frequency. When a sagebrush, especially a Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young)), dominated area largely devoid of herbaceous perennials burns, it often transitions to an annual dominated and highly flammable plant community that thereafter excludes sagebrush and native perennials. Considerable effort is devoted to revegetating rangeland following fire, but to date there has been very little analysis of the factors that lead to the success of this revegetation. This paper utilizes a revegetation monitoring dataset to examine the densities of three key types of vegetation, specifically nonnative seeded grasses, nonnative seeded forbs, and native Wyoming big sagebrush, at several points in time following seeding. We find that unlike forbs, increasing the seeding rates for grasses does not appear to increase their density (at least for the sites and seeding rates we examined). Also, seeding Wyoming big sagebrush increases its density with time since fire. Seeding of grasses and forbs is less successful at locations that were dominated primarily by annual grasses (cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)), and devoid of shrubs, prior to wildfire. This supports the hypothesis of a "closing window of opportunity" for seeding at locations that burned sagebrush for the first time in recent history. PMID:18790557

Eiswerth, Mark E; Krauter, Karl; Swanson, Sherman R; Zielinski, Mike

2009-02-01

247

Metal deposition using seed layers  

DOEpatents

Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

2013-11-12

248

Selection by a predispersal seed predator constrains the evolution of avian seed dispersal in pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Previous studies have demonstrated that wind dispersal is an effective mode of seed dispersal for pines ( Pinus , Pinaceae) with seeds weighing <90 mg, but not for larger- seeded ( ? 90 mg) pines. Consequently, most large-seeded pines rely on birds in the family Corvidae for seed dispersal, but some do not, and most of their seeds

A. M. SIEPIELSKI; C. W. BENKMAN

2007-01-01

249

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2013-01-01

250

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2014-01-01

251

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2010-01-01

252

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2010-01-01

253

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2014-01-01

254

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2012-01-01

255

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2013-01-01

256

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2011-01-01

257

7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES...Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2011-01-01

258

7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating...Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and...

2012-01-01

259

A preliminary investigation of pre-dispersal seed predation by Acanthoscelides schrankiae Horn (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze trees.  

PubMed

This is the first record of Acanthoscelides schrankiae Horn. feeding in seeds of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze. We investigated the pattern of oviposition and seed exploitation by A. schrankiae, and the distribution of mature fruits and seed predation in the inflorescences. We also compared the percentage of predated seeds, the total dry weight of fruits and non-predated seeds, the percentage of aborted seeds, and the percentage of non-emergent insects, among different quadrants of the M. bimucronata canopy. To determine the occurring species, the emergence of bruchids and parasitoids was observed in the laboratory, resulting altogether, only in individuals of A. schrankiae and Horismenus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species, respectively. Mean number of fruits produced in the median region of inflorescence was significantly higher than in the inferior and superior regions, and the frequencies (observed and expected) of predated and non-predated seeds differed among the different regions of inflorescence. Females of A. schrankiae laid their eggs on fruits, and larvae, after emergence, perforated the exocarp to reach the seeds. Most fruits presented one to three eggs and only one bruchid larva was observed in each seed. The highest value of the rate "number of eggs/fruit" and the highest percentage of predated seeds were recorded in April. Dry weight of fruits (total) and seeds (non-predated), proportions of predated seeds, seed abortions, and non-emergent seed predators, were evenly distributed in the canopy. PMID:17607452

Silva, Laura A; Maimoni-Rodella, Rita C S; Rossi, Marcelo N

2007-01-01

260

Successful creation of species-rich grassland on road verges depend on various methods for seed transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on a suite of vascular plant species (six herbs and two grasses) common to traditionally managed, species-rich grasslands in Western Norway. We assessed the suitability of two species transfer methods (seed sowing and soil seed bank) for restoration of species-rich grassland on a newly established road verge. We compared the species' frequencies one and three years after

J.-F. Nordbakken; K. Rydgren; I. Auestad; I. Austad

2010-01-01

261

Simulation of free-electron lasers seeded with broadband radiation  

SciTech Connect

The longitudinal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL) radiation can be enhanced by seeding the FEL with high harmonics of an optical laser pulse. The radiation produced by high-harmonic generation (HHG), however, has a fast-varying temporal profile that can violate the slowly varying envelope approximation and limited frequency window that is employed in conventional free-electron laser simulation codes. Here we investigate the implications of violating this approximation on the accuracy of simulations. On the basis of both analytical considerations and 1D numerical studies, it is concluded that, for most realistic scenarios, conventional FEL codes are capable of accurately simulating the FEL process even when the seed radiation violates the slowly varying envelope approximation. We additionally discuss the significance of filtering the harmonic content of broadband HHG seeds.

Bajlekov, Svetoslav; Fawley, William; Schroeder, Carl; Bartolini, Riccardo; Hooker, Simon

2011-03-10

262

Teaching Through Trade Books: Secrets of Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From a tiny radish seed to a giant coconut, seeds come in a multitude of shapes and sizes. They all share one amazing secret: the potential to grow into a new plant when conditions are right. In this month's column, students observe a variety of seeds, match seeds to the plants they grow into, explore what seeds need to germinate and grow, and design investigations with seeds.

Emily Morgan

2009-02-01

263

Computational simulation of a particle-laden RF inductively coupled plasma with seeded potassium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the plasma properties, the thermofluid fields and the induction electromagnetic fields and further the in-flight particle behaviors in the radio frequency inductively coupled plasma (RF-ICP), which is electrically enhanced by seeding potassium vapor, are investigated by computational simulation. Since an electrically enhanced plasma is also influenced considerably by the applied coil frequency, the plasma structure and

M. Shigeta; T. Sato; H. Nishiyama

2004-01-01

264

Seed dormancy in alpine species  

PubMed Central

In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

2011-01-01

265

Ripening events in seeded watermelons  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeded watermelons generally start color development in the locule (seed cavity), with color progressing to the center of the fruit during the ripening process. Soluble solids content (SSR) is thought to be highest at the blossom end. In large-fruited watermelon where only a portion of the fruit is...

266

Onion Seed Production in California  

E-print Network

Onion Seed Production in California RONALD E. VOSS, Cooperative Extension Vegetable Specialist for onion (Allium cepa, L.) in California occurs pri- marily in the low desert of Imperial County areas. Onion seed production in the desert includes open-pollinated dehydrator varieties as well

Bradford, Kent

267

Microwave drying of seed cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

268

Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

269

Seed Cotton Handling and Storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storage of harvested seed cotton in the field prior to ginning has changed over the years to methods that decoupled harvesting and ginning operations and reduced labor. Prior to the introduction of the module builder, seed cotton was placed in trailers for transport to the gin where producers would ...

270

Two light yellow seed embryos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The style of the carpel of a flower (female reproductive structure) leads to the ovary. The ovary holds eggs, which become seeds once fertilized. Seeds hold embryos. The embryo becomes a new plant. In animals, the embryo becomes a new animal.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

271

Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

272

Automated seed manipulation and planting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities for the Fall Semester, 1987 focused on investigating the mechanical/electrical properties of wheat seeds and forming various Seed Planting System (SPS) concepts based on those properties. The Electrical Division of the design group was formed to devise an SPS using electrostatic charge fields for seeding operations. Experiments concerning seed separation using electrical induction (rearranging of the charges within the seed) were conducted with promising results. The seeds, when exposed to the high voltage and low current field produced by a Van de Graff generator, were observed to move back and forth between two electrodes. An SPS concept has been developed based on this phenomena, and will be developed throughout the Spring Semester, 1988. The Mechanical Division centered on SPS concepts involving valves, pumps, and fluids to separate and deliver seeds. An SPS idea utilizing the pressure difference caused by air as it rushes out of holes drilled in the wall of a closed container has been formulated and will be considered for future development. Also, a system of seed separation and delivery employing a combination of centrifugal force, friction, and air flow was considered.

Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

1988-01-01

273

Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

274

Differential predation of forage seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

275

Seed that Apple RND Generator!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for "seeding" the random number generator (RND) in Apple computer programs. If RND is not seeded, students would see the same examples, questions, graphics features, or other information each time they turn on the microcomputer and run a program. (JN)

Salyer, Darnell

1984-01-01

276

Wet deposition of the seeding agent after weather modification activities.  

PubMed

Weather modification activities are performed mostly by cloud seeding. Some operational projects have been conducted for more than a half century and cover planetary scales. These activities have led to large amounts of seeding agents being deposited on the ground in precipitation. The main intent of this paper is to identify the spatial pattern of silver iodide deposits after hail suppression. The spatial pattern of silver iodide deposits is determined using the weather modification project measurements from seeding agent reports, two weather radars and 316 launching sites during a 5-year period. The estimated spatial distribution of the deposits is not uniform, with the maximum silver iodide amount located in the southern part of the study area (up to 140 ?g m(-2)). Our results are comparable with the measurements performed by chemical analyses during other cloud seeding experiments. The maximum location coincides well with that of the maximum seeded hailstorm precipitation frequency. A new method for identifying the spatial pattern of wet-deposited material has been established. The location with the maximum amount is found. This method would be important as a means of placing samplers and monitoring at the representative sites because those are where most weather modification projects would be performed in the future. PMID:23589275

Curi?, Mladjen; Janc, Dejan

2013-09-01

277

Seed coat thickness data clarifies seed size-seed persistence tradeoffs in Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theoretical models predict that seed size and seedbank persistence evolve interdependently such that strong selection for one trait corresponds with weak selection for the other. This framework is supported by empirical data but conclusive evidence is lacking. In this study, we expand the seed size-...

278

[Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].  

PubMed

The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity. PMID:24455890

Polevik, N D

2013-01-01

279

Swirling-Sweepers: Constant-Volume Modeling  

E-print Network

by preserving the available amount of material will produce a shape with style, that other vir- tual modeling preservation has been recognized for a long time in animation, as a desirable property for the ani- mation of believable animal and human characters [13]. [9] use constrained optimization methods for objects discretized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

PhotoSeed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The PhotoSeed website is committed to "bringing to light the growth and artistic vision of 19th & 20th century photography." Visitors will note that the background images on the site rotate, and taking a careful glance is a fine way to get a feel for the general milieu. Clicking on the Highlights area allows visitors to browse through photos of British salons in the late 19th century, an Italian Grand Tour album from 1912, and rare images from the American photographic journal, "The Photographic Times." Visitors can also look through the items by categories and via an alphabetized list. The Collection area allows visitors to look through all of the items by photographer, artist, medium, journal, volume, year, atelier, or tag. Overall, it's a remarkable resource for art historians, photographers, architects, and others.

2013-01-01

281

Seed vigor and plant competitiveness resulting from seeds of Eupatorium adenophorum in a persistent soil seed bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds in a persistent soil seed bank (PSSB) provide an effective way to maintain plant population and community stability. Seeds that persist in soil incur physiological costs of maintaining viability and vigor, thus, the growth capability of resulting plants may be reduced. However, a lot of functional roles of the PSSB have been deduced from seed germination capability, and little

You-xin Shen; Chun-yan Zhao; Wen-yao Liu

2011-01-01

282

Genomic dissection of the seed  

PubMed Central

Seeds play an integral role in the global food supply and account for more than 70% of the calories that we consume on a daily basis. To meet the demands of an increasing population, scientists are turning to seed genomics research to find new and innovative ways to increase food production. Seed genomics is evolving rapidly, and the information produced from seed genomics research has exploded over the past two decades. Advances in modern sequencing strategies that profile every molecule in every cell, tissue, and organ and the emergence of new model systems have provided the tools necessary to unravel many of the biological processes underlying seed development. Despite these advances, the analyses and mining of existing seed genomics data remain a monumental task for plant biologists. This review summarizes seed region and subregion genomic data that are currently available for existing and emerging oilseed models. We provide insight into the development of tools on how to analyze large-scale datasets. PMID:25309563

Becker, Michael G.; Hsu, Ssu-Wei; Harada, John J.; Belmonte, Mark F.

2014-01-01

283

[Metabolic control of seed germination].  

PubMed

We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time. PMID:18980744

Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

2008-01-01

284

Soliton-based pump-seed synchronization for few-cycle OPCPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a significant simplification of the scheme for few-cycle Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) which results in the elimination of a picosecond's master oscillator and electronic synchronization loops. A fraction of a broadband seed pulse centered at 760 nm from a 70-MHz Ti:sapphire oscillator was frequency-shifted in a photonic crystal fiber to enable synchronized seeding of a picosecond's

C. Y. Teisset; N. Ishii; T. Fuji; T. Metzger; S. Köhler; R. Holzwarth; A. Baltuska; A. M. Zheltikov; F. Krausz

2005-01-01

285

Seed characters and organ size in the cytotaxonomy of Rumex acetosella L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiocarpic seeds occur in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid populations of Rumex acetosella s.l.- gymnocarpic seeds occur in tetraploids and hexaploids only, and among the hexaploids in populations from northern and central Europe.Cell and organ sizes do not rigorously correspond with the various levels of ploidy, and the overlap in range and frequency results in monomodal distributions.All New Zealand populations are

W. Harris

1969-01-01

286

Generation of Flat Optical Frequency Comb based on Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Recirculating Frequency Shifter Loop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel scheme to generate optical frequency comb by using Mach-Zehnder modulator and recirculating frequency shifter loop based on IQ modulator driven by radio frequency clock signals. A system of 4 flat and stable comb lines generation based on Mach-Zehnder modulator is set as the seed light source of the recirculating loop. Through theorical analysis and simulation it is shown that the proposed theoretical model is proved in good agreement with simulation results.

Wu, Shibao; Li, Yulong; Fei, Yue; Hu, Faze

2014-06-01

287

Topic in Depth - Cloud Seeding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth is about cloud seeding, a type of weather modification in which substances, such as silver iodide or dry ice, are added to the air in order to produce changes in the weather. Cloud seeding is most commonly used to increase precipitation, but may also be used to suppress certain weather patterns as well, such as hail and high winds. While there is some controversy about whether or not cloud seeding actually does produce more precipitation, it can be a highly useful tool for areas that have very arid conditions and need additional rainfall to help produce more viable crops and minimize drought-like conditions.

288

Physical Properties of Sunflower Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical dproperties of sunflower seeds and kernels were evaluated as a function of moisture content. At 6·2% m.c.d.b., the average length, width, thickness and unit mass of the seed were 9·52mm, 5·12mm, 3·27mm and 0·049g respectively. Corresponding values for the kernel were 8·28mm, 4·09mm, 2·43mm and 0·034g. The mean equivalent diameter and sphericity of the seed were 5·39mm and 0·57

R. K. Gupta; S. K. Das

1997-01-01

289

Enhanced germination of artificial seeds by marine cynobacterial extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an improved artificial seed system by using a hot-water extract from a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902. Carrot somatic embryos (Daucus carota L.) were divided into two size categories (> 800 µm and 425–800 µm). High frequency germination (91%) was obtained using the large somatic embryos encapsulated in calcium alginate gel containing 400 mg 1-1 of

Hitoshi Wake; Akinobu Akasaka; Hironori Umetsu; Yoshihiro Ozeki; Koichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Matsunaga

1992-01-01

290

Flowering, Capsule and Seed Characteristics in Cuphea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We modeled the flowering and capsule set dynamics, quantified the level of variation in seed characteristics, elucidated the inter-relationships among seed and capsule physical dimensions, and quantified their impact on single seed weight as the main determinant of seed yield in the indeterminate, p...

291

INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

292

Make a Friend from Soil and Seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners assemble a figure from a nylon stocking or sock stuffed with soil and seeds. The ends of the nylons inside the jar absorb water, which feeds the grass seeds. The seeds grow to become grassy hair for the figure, and the rest of the stuffed nylon becomes the body of the figure. Use this activity to illustrate the process of seed germination.

2012-06-26

293

Evaluation of pesticide uptake by Lupinus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide uptake by seeds depends on the properties of the chemical, such as structure, stability, logkow and diffusion rate, type of water, pH, temperature, content of organic matter and composition, and on seed characteristics such as permeability of the seed coat. The efficiency with which Lupinus angustifolius seeds retain different herbicides (simazine, atrazine, isoproturon, linuron,) and insecticides (carbaryl, fenamiphos, permethrin)

R. M. Garcinuño; P. Fernández-Hernando; C. Cámara

2003-01-01

294

SEED ORCHARDS ON RECLAIMED MINED LAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclaimed mined lands often have restricted public access, a situation that could encourage sagebrush seed growers to invest in methods for increasing seed production and improving seed purity and quality. I tested the agronomic benefit of 2 seeding methods and fabric mulch and a cross-linked polyacrylamide polymer soil amendment by using these practices to establish 3 Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia

D Terrance Booth

2005-01-01

295

Tumbling For Seed Cleaning and Conditioning1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small rock tumblers can be used to clean and condition seeds both in an aqueous and a dry mode. During the process, grit and gravel remove fruit pulp and abrade seed coats. Wet tumbling of seed aids imbibition, leaches water-soluble germination inhibitors, and may partially substitute for cold stratification for some shrub seed lots.

David Dreesen

296

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...an impermeable seed coat, are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra, cotton and dichondra in these rules and regulations there are still present swollen seeds or seeds of these kinds...

2010-01-01

297

46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower seed meal that— (1) Contains a maximum of 4...

2011-10-01

298

7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 ...Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed...

2013-01-01

299

7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 ...Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed...

2011-01-01

300

7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 ...Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed...

2014-01-01

301

7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 ...Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed...

2012-01-01

302

7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means...

2010-01-01

303

A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of SBS Suppression Through Modification of Amplifier Seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental investigations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) are conducted in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers when the amplifier is simultaneously seeded with multiple distinct frequencies or with a phase modulated signal. To this end, detailed models of the SBS process are developed consisting of both a steady-state approach described mathematically by a coupled set of ordinary differential equations and also transient effects described by a coupled set of partial differential equations. For the multi-frequency seeded case, the equations are solved in the steady-state limit and include the effects of four-wave mixing (FWM), intrinsic and external thermal gradients, and laser gain. In one configuration of the multi-seeded case, the signals are separated at twice the acoustic frequency of the fiber medium in order to create nonlinear Brillouin gain coupling between the seeds and Stokes signals, which suppresses the SBS process in the highest frequency seed. The concept is theoretically investigated for the two and three seeded cases. It is shown that for this scheme, FWM becomes quite significant making this concept unlikely in a practical application requiring single-frequency output. Alternatively, a novel concept is developed to suppress SBS in fiber amplifiers that relies on laser gain competition among multiple seeds to create both a favorable thermal gradient and a reduced effective length for the SBS process. In one configuration, the amplifier is simultaneously seeded with a broadband (Deltalambda˜ 0.1nm) and single-frequency Delta v ˜100kHz seed. In this case, several experiments are performed to validate the theoretical predictions with experiments leading to a 203 W polarization maintaining (PM), co-pumped monolithic fiber amplifier demonstration. To the best of our knowledge, this output power is the highest reported in the literature to date for such an amplifier. A time-dependent model of the SBS process initiated from random thermal noise is also developed to study SBS suppression under phase modulated pump conditions. The SBS suppression is characterized for several phase modulation schemes. It is found that the SBS suppression for a white-noise phase modulation (WNS) which broadens the pump spectrum, depends significantly on the length of fiber and only in the long fiber limit follows the often quoted threshold enhancement formula of Pth = P0 (1+Deltanu/Deltanu B) where P0, Deltanu and Deltanu B describe the SBS threshold of the single-frequency case, the effective linewidth of the pump, and the spontaneous Brillouin linewidth respectively. In addition, the SBS threshold is characterized as a function of modulation amplitude and frequency for a single-sinusoidal phase modulation scheme.

Zeringue, Clint Matthew

2011-12-01

304

INCORPORATING ANIMAL BEHAVIOR INTO SEED DISPERSAL MODELS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SEED SHADOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dispersal fundamentally influences plant population and community dynamics but is difficult to quantify directly. Consequently, models are frequently used to describe the seed shadow (the seed deposition pattern of a plant population). For vertebrate- dispersed plants, animal behavior is known to influence seed shadows but is poorly integrated in seed dispersal models. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that

Sabrina E. Russo; Stephen Portnoy; Carol K. Augspurger

2006-01-01

305

Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation

Kelly J. Sivy; Steven M. Ostoja; Eugene W. Schupp; Susan Durham

2011-01-01

306

Control of seed and soil-borne diseases: importance of seed health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To allow seed producers to effectively control seed-borne diseases in winter wheat by making informed seed treatment decisions, rapid diagnostic tests for Microdochium nivale and bunt (Tilletia tritici) have been developed. For these seed tests to be meaningful they must relate to the actual disease levels in the seed bulk. Guidelines will be produced giving details of sampling procedures

V COCKERELL; V MULHOLLAND; N D PAVELEY; W S CLARK; S ANTHONY; J E THOMAS; J BATES; D M KENYON; E J A TAYLOR

307

Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation for Seeded FELs  

SciTech Connect

In the x-ray wavelengths, the two leading FEL concepts are the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) configuration and the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) scheme. While the radiation from a SASE FEL is coherent transversely, it typically has rather limited temporal coherence. Alternatively, the HGHG scheme allows generation of fully coherent radiation by up-converting the frequency of a high-power seed laser. However, due to the relatively low up-frequency conversion efficiency, multiple stages of HGHG FEL are needed in order to generate x-rays from a UV laser. The up-frequency conversion efficiency can be greatly improved with the recently proposed echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) technique. In this work we will present the concept of EEHG, and address some practically important issues that affect the performance of the seeding. We show how the EEHG can be incorporated in the FEL scheme and what is the expected performance of the EEHG seeded FEL. We will then briefly describe the first proof-of-principle EEHG experiment carried out at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) at SLAC. We will also discuss latest advances in the echo-scheme approach, and refer to subsequent modifications of the original concept.

Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

2011-05-19

308

Getting Acquainted with a Seed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description: In this activity students become acquainted with the anatomy and biology of seeds. They will use lenses and scales and make drawings to scale. Students will measure and calculate magnifications and they will begin to understand relationships among these. They will organize and summarize their data and, as they do so, they will be developing the understanding and skills needed to undertake more detailed investigations on the biology and reproduction of Fast Plants.Learning ObjectivesThis activity is designed to strengthen students' observational and quantitative skills. In participating in this activity students will:- learn to use magnifying lenses, microscopes and dissecting tools for detailed observation; - measure scales with rulers; - draw to scale, with accuracy and precision to understand scale and magnification; - learn features of the external anatomy of seeds that are associated with certain features of the internal anatomy of seeds; and - estimate the amount of water required to be taken up by seeds in order to initiate germination.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

309

Alkaloids from Macoubea guianensis seeds.  

PubMed

From the seeds of Macoubea guianensis (Apocynaceae), mixtures of the antipodes of two indole alkaloids, vincadifformine and vincadine, have been isolated; in the first the (+)- and in the second the (-)-isomer predominated. PMID:4094465

Anderson, L A; Bisset, N G; Phillipson, J D; Zarucchi, J L

1985-01-01

310

Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

2011-06-01

311

Can Soil Seed Banks Serve as Genetic Memory? A Study of Three Species with Contrasting Life History Strategies  

PubMed Central

We attempted to confirm that seed banks can be viewed as an important genetic reservoir by testing the hypothesis that standing (aboveground) plants represent a nonrandom sample of the seed bank. We sampled multilocus allozyme genotypes from three species with different life history strategies: Amaranthus retroflexus, Carduus acanthoides, Pastinaca sativa. In four populations of each species we analysed the extent to which allele and genotype frequencies vary in consecutive life history stages including the summer seed bank, which has been overlooked up to now. We compared the winter seed bank (i.e., seeds collected before the spring germination peak), seedlings, rosettes, the summer seed bank (i.e., seeds collected after the spring germination peak) and fruiting plants. We found that: (1) All three species partitioned most of their genetic diversity within life history stages and less among stages within populations and among populations. (2) All genetic diversity parameters, except for allele frequencies, were similar among all life history stages across all populations in different species. (3) There were differences in allele frequencies among life history stages at all localities in Amaranthus retroflexus and at three localities in both Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa. (4) Allele frequencies did not differ between the winter and summer seed bank in most Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa populations, but there was a marked difference in Amaranthus retroflexus. In conclusion, we have shown that the summer seed bank is not genetically depleted by spring germination and that a majority of genetic diversity remains in the soil through summer. We suggest that seed banks in the species investigated play an important role by maintaining genetic diversity sufficient for recovery rather than by accumulating new genetic diversity at each locality. PMID:23185340

Mandák, Bohumil; Zákravský, Petr; Mahelka, Václav; Pla?ková, Ivana

2012-01-01

312

Can soil seed banks serve as genetic memory? A study of three species with contrasting life history strategies.  

PubMed

We attempted to confirm that seed banks can be viewed as an important genetic reservoir by testing the hypothesis that standing (aboveground) plants represent a nonrandom sample of the seed bank. We sampled multilocus allozyme genotypes from three species with different life history strategies: Amaranthus retroflexus, Carduus acanthoides, Pastinaca sativa. In four populations of each species we analysed the extent to which allele and genotype frequencies vary in consecutive life history stages including the summer seed bank, which has been overlooked up to now. We compared the winter seed bank (i.e., seeds collected before the spring germination peak), seedlings, rosettes, the summer seed bank (i.e., seeds collected after the spring germination peak) and fruiting plants. We found that: (1) All three species partitioned most of their genetic diversity within life history stages and less among stages within populations and among populations. (2) All genetic diversity parameters, except for allele frequencies, were similar among all life history stages across all populations in different species. (3) There were differences in allele frequencies among life history stages at all localities in Amaranthus retroflexus and at three localities in both Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa. (4) Allele frequencies did not differ between the winter and summer seed bank in most Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa populations, but there was a marked difference in Amaranthus retroflexus. In conclusion, we have shown that the summer seed bank is not genetically depleted by spring germination and that a majority of genetic diversity remains in the soil through summer. We suggest that seed banks in the species investigated play an important role by maintaining genetic diversity sufficient for recovery rather than by accumulating new genetic diversity at each locality. PMID:23185340

Mandák, Bohumil; Zákravský, Petr; Mahelka, Václav; Pla?ková, Ivana

2012-01-01

313

Physical Properties of Cumin Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of cumin seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, breadth and thickness were 5·61, 1·77 and 1·55 mm respectively. In the moisture range from 7 to 22% d.b., studies on dried or rewetted cumin seed showed that bulk density initially increased from 477 to 502 kg\\/m3then decreased from 502 to 410 kg\\/m3,

K. K. Singh; T. K. Goswami

1996-01-01

314

Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

315

In vitro comparative study of vibro-acoustography versus pulse-echo ultrasound in imaging permanent prostate brachytherapy seeds  

PubMed Central

Background Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) is a common treatment for early stage prostate cancer. While the modern approach using trans-rectal ultrasound guidance has demonstrated excellent outcome, the efficacy of PPB depends on achieving complete radiation dose coverage of the prostate by obtaining a proper radiation source (seed) distribution. Currently, brachytherapy seed placement is guided by trans-rectal ultrasound imaging and fluoroscopy. A significant percentage of seeds are not detected by trans-rectal ultrasound because certain seed orientations are invisible making accurate intra-operative feedback of radiation dosimetry very difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, intra-operative correction of suboptimal seed distributions cannot easily be done with current methods. Vibro-acoustography (VA) is an imaging modality that is capable of imaging solids at any orientation, and the resulting images are speckle free. Objective and methods The purpose of this study is to compare the capabilities of VA and pulse-echo ultrasound in imaging PPB seeds at various angles and show the sensitivity of detection to seed orientation. In the VA experiment, two intersecting ultrasound beams driven at f1 = 3.00 MHz and f2 = 3.020 MHz respectively were focused on the seeds attached to a latex membrane while the amplitude of the acoustic emission produced at the difference frequency 20 kHz was detected by a low frequency hydrophone. Results Finite element simulations and results of experiments conducted under well-controlled conditions in a water tank on a series of seeds indicate that the seeds can be detected at any orientation with VA, whereas pulse-echo ultrasound is very sensitive to the seed orientation. Conclusion It is concluded that vibro-acoustography is superior to pulse-echo ultrasound for detection of PPB seeds. PMID:18538365

Mitri, F.G.; Davis, B.J.; Greenleaf, J.F.; Fatemi, M.

2010-01-01

316

Multiple frequency optical mixer and demultiplexer and apparatus for remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pulsed laser system includes a modulator module configured to provide pulsed electrical signals and a plurality of solid-state seed sources coupled to the modulator module and configured to operate, responsive to the pulsed electrical signals, in a pulse mode. Each of the plurality of solid-state seed sources is tuned to a different frequency channel separated from any adjacent frequency channel by a frequency offset. The pulsed laser system also includes a combiner that combines outputs from each of the solid state seed sources into a single optical path and an optical doubler and demultiplexer coupled to the single optical path and providing each doubled seed frequency on a separate output path.

Chen, Jeffrey R. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

317

The Seed Challenge - `How many seeds can you get from a single seed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 23-page PDF file (644 KB) with a complete set of activities for elementary students (can also work with middle level) to learn about the life cycle of flowering plants. Students predict how many seeds their Fast Plant will produce and engage in planting, growing, observing doing supporting learning activities to understand the life cycle.Carolina Biological sells a kit to accompany this activity for a class of 32 students, containing the seeds and planting materials. Alternatively, the activity can be taught using seeds from a packet of Standard Wisconsin Fast Plants (or seeds from Fast Plants you grow yourself) and your own potting mix and growing system.A 24-hour fluorescent light source is needed for this activity.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

318

Effect of seed predation on seed bank size and seedling recruitment of bush lupine ( Lupinus arboreus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether seed consumers affect plant establishment is an important unresolved question in plant population biology. Seed consumption\\u000a is ubiquitous; at issue is whether seedling recruitment is limited by safe-sites or seeds. If most seeds inhabit sites unsuitable\\u000a for germination, post-dispersal seed consumption primarily removes seeds that would otherwise never contribute to the population\\u000a and granivory has minimal impacts on plant

John L. Maron; Ellen L. Simms

1997-01-01

319

Frequency metrology on the Mg3s2S1-->3s4pP1 line for comparison with quasar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a frequency metrology study on the Mg3s2S1-->3s4pP1 transition near 202.5nm . For this purpose, the fourth harmonic of the output from an injection-seeded Ti:sapphire pulsed laser is employed in a Mg atomic beam experiment with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Absolute frequency calibration with a frequency comb laser is performed on the cw seeding radiation, while the chirp-induced frequency shift

S. Hannemann; E. J. Salumbides; Witte van de S; R. Th. Zinkstok; E.-J. van Duijn; K. S. E. Eikema; W. M. G. Ubachs

2006-01-01

320

Chemometric characterization of sunflower seeds.  

PubMed

The spectroscopic characterization of different varieties of sunflower seeds based on their oleic acid content is proposed. One hundred fifty samples of sunflower seeds from different places of Argentina were analyzed by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS). Seed samples were grounded and sieved without chemical treatment previous to the analysis. For the characterization, the used multivariate methods were: principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). By using PCA, CA, and LDA, and from the point of view of varieties of sunflower seeds, 2 groups were differentiated, based on the concentration of oleic acid: a low oleic group, which ranged from 15% to 25% w/w oleic acid; and the other one (mid-high oleic varieties) which ranged from 26% to 90% w/w oleic acid. However, by using the PLS-DA, 3 groups were correctly differentiated based on the concentration of oleic acid: low oleic (from 15% to 25% w/w oleic acid); mid oleic (26% to 76% w/w oleic acid); and high oleic (? than 77% w/w oleic acid), demonstrating the high classification ability of this method. This multivariate characterization of sunflower seed varieties did not require chromatographic analysis to generate the matrix of concentrations, and only direct measures of NIRDRS spectra were required. This characterization can be useful to quickly know the variety of sunflower seed in the grain market. Practical Applications: This manuscript describes a method to determine 3 varieties of sunflower seeds (high, mid, and low oleic) The advantage of this method is to avoid the use of techniques that require long-time analysis. PMID:22897646

Monferrere, Gastón Lancelle; Azcarate, Silvana Mariela; Cantarelli, Miguel Ángel; Funes, Israel German; Camiña, José Manuel

2012-09-01

321

Effect of Resting Patterns of Tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax) on the Spatial Distribution of Seeds and Seedling Recruitment  

PubMed Central

The spatial distributions of dispersed seeds have important evolutionary consequences for plants. Repeated defecations in sites frequently used by seed dispersers can result in high seed concentrations. We observed the resting behavior of a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru and recorded the occurrence of seed dispersal (over 8 mo) and seed fate (over 11–22 mo) to determine whether the location and use of resting sites influenced the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds and seedlings. The tamarins rested mostly on trees (Saguinus fuscicollis: 60.6%, S. mystax: 89.2%) and dead trunks (S. fuscicollis: 24.4%) and used 61% of their resting sites repeatedly. During both the dry and wet seasons, tamarins dispersed significantly more seeds within resting areas (0.00662 and 0.00424 seeds/m2, respectively) than outside them (0.00141 and 0.00181 seeds/m2). Seed survival and seedling recruitment did not differ significantly between resting and other areas, resulting in a higher seedling concentration around the resting sites. Seed density did not increase with the duration or the frequency of use of the resting sites but did increase when we pooled the seasonal resting sites together in 50 m?×?50 m quadrats, ultimately causing a clumped distribution of dispersed seeds. The use of resting sites in secondary forest, particularly during the dry season, allows the creation of seedling recruitment centers for species coming from the primary forest. Our findings show that tamarin resting behavior affects the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds and seedlings, and their resting sites play an important role in plant diversity maintenance and facilitate forest regeneration in degraded areas. PMID:21423318

Culot, Laurence; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Heymann, Eckhard W.

2010-01-01

322

Effect of Resting Patterns of Tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax) on the Spatial Distribution of Seeds and Seedling Recruitment.  

PubMed

The spatial distributions of dispersed seeds have important evolutionary consequences for plants. Repeated defecations in sites frequently used by seed dispersers can result in high seed concentrations. We observed the resting behavior of a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru and recorded the occurrence of seed dispersal (over 8 mo) and seed fate (over 11-22 mo) to determine whether the location and use of resting sites influenced the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds and seedlings. The tamarins rested mostly on trees (Saguinus fuscicollis: 60.6%, S. mystax: 89.2%) and dead trunks (S. fuscicollis: 24.4%) and used 61% of their resting sites repeatedly. During both the dry and wet seasons, tamarins dispersed significantly more seeds within resting areas (0.00662 and 0.00424 seeds/m(2), respectively) than outside them (0.00141 and 0.00181 seeds/m(2)). Seed survival and seedling recruitment did not differ significantly between resting and other areas, resulting in a higher seedling concentration around the resting sites. Seed density did not increase with the duration or the frequency of use of the resting sites but did increase when we pooled the seasonal resting sites together in 50 m?×?50 m quadrats, ultimately causing a clumped distribution of dispersed seeds. The use of resting sites in secondary forest, particularly during the dry season, allows the creation of seedling recruitment centers for species coming from the primary forest. Our findings show that tamarin resting behavior affects the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds and seedlings, and their resting sites play an important role in plant diversity maintenance and facilitate forest regeneration in degraded areas. PMID:21423318

Muñoz Lazo, Fernando Julio João; Culot, Laurence; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Heymann, Eckhard W

2011-02-01

323

Functional importance of avian seed dispersers changes in response to human-induced forest edges in tropical seed-dispersal networks.  

PubMed

Although seed-dispersal networks are increasingly used to infer the functioning of ecosystems, few studies have investigated the link between the properties of these networks and the ecosystem function of seed dispersal by animals. We investigate how frugivore communities and seed dispersal change with habitat disturbance and test whether relationships between morphological traits and functional roles of seed dispersers change in response to human-induced forest edges. We recorded interaction frequencies between fleshy fruited plants and frugivorous bird species in tropical montane forests in the Bolivian Andes and recorded functional bird traits (body mass, gape width and wing tip length) associated with quantitative (seed-removal rate) and qualitative (seed-deposition pattern) components of seed-dispersal effectiveness. We found that the abundance and richness of frugivorous birds were higher at forest edges. More fruits were removed and dispersed seeds were less clustered at edges than in the interior. Additionally, functional and interaction diversity were higher at edges than in the interior, but functional and interaction evenness did not differ. Interaction strength of bird species increased with body mass, gape width and wing tip length in the forest interior, but was not related to bird morphologies at forest edges. Our study suggests that increases in functional and interaction diversity and an even distribution of interaction strength across bird morphologies lead to enhanced quantity and tentatively enhanced quality of seed dispersal. It also suggests that the effects of species traits on ecosystem functions can vary along small-scale gradients of human disturbance. PMID:25182931

Saavedra, Francisco; Hensen, Isabell; Beck, Stephan G; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Lippok, Denis; Töpfer, Till; Schleuning, Matthias

2014-11-01

324

Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub  

PubMed Central

The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

2012-01-01

325

Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs  

SciTech Connect

Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

2012-03-28

326

Soil warming increases plant species richness but decreases germination from the alpine soil seed bank.  

PubMed

Global warming is occurring more rapidly above the treeline than at lower elevations and alpine areas are predicted to experience above average warming in the future. Temperature is a primary factor in stimulating seed germination and regulating changes in seed dormancy status. Thus, plant regeneration from seed will be crucial to the persistence, migration and post disturbance recruitment of alpine plants in future climates. Here, we present the first assessment of the impact of soil warming on germination from the persistent alpine soil seed bank. Contrary to expectations, soil warming lead to reduced overall germination from the soil seed bank. However, germination response to soil temperature was species specific such that total species richness actually increased by nine with soil warming. We further explored the system by assessing the prevalence of seed dormancy and germination response to soil disturbance, the frequency of which is predicted to increase under climate change. Seeds of a significant proportion of species demonstrated physiological dormancy mechanisms and germination of several species appeared to be intrinsically linked to soil disturbance. In addition, we found no evidence of subalpine species and little evidence of exotic weed species in the soil, suggesting that the soil seed bank will not facilitate their invasion of the alpine zone. In conclusion, changes in recruitment via the alpine soil seed bank can be expected under climate change, as a result of altered dormancy alleviation and germination cues. Furthermore, the alpine soil seed bank, and the species richness therein, has the potential to help maintain local species diversity, support species range shift and moderate species dominance. Implications for alpine management and areas for further study are also discussed. PMID:23505066

Hoyle, Gemma L; Venn, Susanna E; Steadman, Kathryn J; Good, Roger B; McAuliffe, Edward J; Williams, Emlyn R; Nicotra, Adrienne B

2013-05-01

327

The Composition of Cotton Seed Meal and Cotton Seed.  

E-print Network

cpon the second shaker, consisting of vibrating screens like those of the first shaker, but with different perforations. The kernels ancl hull-bran go into a conveyor to the rolls. The hulls go to a second beater similar to the first beater... man to understand tile p~.oc.css as sl~omn. The conveyor bringing the seed from the linters is continued over the top of all machines, dropping anci passing the seed through the huller, rvhich is the first machine in the installation, and it must...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1916-01-01

328

Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. PMID:24920763

Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

2014-06-11

329

Seed Rain and Seed Bank Reveal that Seed Limitation Strongly Influences Plant Community Assembly in Grasslands  

PubMed Central

Dispersal is an important factor in plant community assembly, but assembly studies seldom include information on actual dispersal into communities, i.e. the local propagule pool. The aim of this study was to determine which factors influence plant community assembly by focusing on two phases of the assembly process: the dispersal phase and the establishment phase. At 12 study sites in grazed ex-arable fields in Sweden the local plant community was determined and in a 100-m radius around the centre of each site, the regional species pool was measured. The local seed bank and the seed rain was explored to estimate the local propagule pool. Trait-based models were then applied to investigate if species traits (height, seed mass, clonal abilities, specific leaf area and dispersal method) and regional abundance influenced which species from the regional species pool, dispersed to the local community (dispersal phase) and which established (establishment phase). Filtering of species during the dispersal phase indicates the effect of seed limitation while filtering during the establishment phase indicates microsite limitation. On average 36% of the regional species pool dispersed to the local sites and of those 78% did establish. Species with enhanced dispersal abilities, e.g. higher regional abundance, smaller seeds and dispersed by cattle, were more likely to disperse to the sites than other species. At half the sites, dispersal was influenced by species height. Species establishment was however mainly unlinked to the traits included in this study. This study underlines the importance of seed limitation in local plant community assembly. It also suggests that without information on species dispersal into a site, it is difficult to distinguish between the influence of dispersal and establishment abilities, and thus seed and microsite limitation, as both can be linked to the same trait. PMID:25057815

Marteinsdóttir, Bryndís

2014-01-01

330

CT, MR, and ultrasound image artifacts from prostate brachytherapy seed implants: The impact of seed size  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effects of brachytherapy seed size on the quality of x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) images and seed localization through comparison of the 6711 and 9011 {sup 125}I sources. Methods: For CT images, an acrylic phantom mimicking a clinical implantation plan and embedded with low contrast regions of interest (ROIs) was designed for both the 0.774 mm diameter 6711 (standard) and the 0.508 mm diameter 9011 (thin) seed models (Oncura, Inc., and GE Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL). Image quality metrics were assessed using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) within the low contrast ROIs. For US images, water phantoms with both single and multiseed arrangements were constructed for both seed sizes. For MR images, both seeds were implanted into a porcine gel and imaged with pelvic imaging protocols. The standard deviation of ROIs and CNR values were used as metrics of artifact quantification. Seed localization within the CT images was assessed using the automated seed finder in a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. The number of erroneous seed placements and the average and maximum error in seed placements were recorded as metrics of the localization accuracy. Results: With the thin seeds, CT image noise was reduced from 48.5 {+-} 0.2 to 32.0 {+-} 0.2 HU and CNR improved by a median value of 74% when compared with the standard seeds. Ultrasound image noise was measured at 50.3 {+-} 17.1 dB for the thin seed images and 50.0 {+-} 19.8 dB for the standard seed images, and artifacts directly behind the seeds were smaller and less prominent with the thin seed model. For MR images, CNR of the standard seeds reduced on average 17% when using the thin seeds for all different imaging sequences and seed orientations, but these differences are not appreciable. Automated seed localization required an average ({+-}SD) of 7.0 {+-} 3.5 manual corrections in seed positions for the thin seed scans and 3.0 {+-} 1.2 manual corrections in seed positions for the standard seed scans. The average error in seed placement was 1.2 mm for both seed types and the maximum error in seed placement was 2.1 mm for the thin seed scans and 1.8 mm for the standard seed scans. Conclusions: The 9011 thin seeds yielded significantly improved image quality for CT and US images but no significant differences in MR image quality.

Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Basran, Parminder S.; Thomas, Steven D.; Wells, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V3V 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

2012-04-15

331

Chickpea Seeding Date x Cultivar and Seeding Date x Seeding Rate Studies at Amsterdam, MT Perry Miller and Jeff Holmes  

E-print Network

1 Chickpea Seeding Date x Cultivar and Seeding Date x Seeding Rate Studies at Amsterdam, MT Perry.2 0.5 3.4 -2.0 0.4 -0.1 #12;2 #12;3 Table 1b. Physical site parameters for chickpea seeding date and independent disc coulters for side-banding fertilizer. Chickpea and pea were treated with recommended rates

Lawrence, Rick L.

332

Volumetric Components of Seed Imbibition  

PubMed Central

Swelling parameters were determined for 15 seed species; the swelling quotients were found to range from less than 1.1 (castorbean) to 2.8 (mungbean) and swelling coefficients ranged from 0.09 (castorbean) to 0.42 (cowpea). Swelling leads to a lowering of specific gravity of those seeds with high initial specific gravity, and an elevation of those with low initial specific gravity. The extent of swelling bears a linear relationship with moisture content. Redrying to air dryness only partially restores the original volume, but oven drying completely restores it. Temperatures alter both the rate and the extent of swelling. Solutes in the imbibing solution alter the dynamics of the volume increases, indicating several types of influences; these include osmotic effects, salt effects, valence effects, pH effects, and lyotropic effects. It is suggested that deformation resulting from imbibitional swelling may contribute to the stresses experienced by seed tissues during hydration. PMID:16663281

Leopold, A. Carl

1983-01-01

333

Smoke signals and seed dormancy  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MAX2 has been discovered in four separate genetic screens, indicating that it has roles in leaf senescence, seedling photosensitivity, shoot outgrowth and seed germination. Both strigolactones and karrikins can regulate A. thaliana seed germination and seedling photomorphogenesis in a MAX2-dependent manner, but only strigolactones inhibit shoot branching. How MAX2 mediates specific responses to both classes of structurally-related signals, and the origin of its dual role remains unknown. The moss Physcomitrella patens utilizes strigolactones and MAX2 orthologs are present across the land plants, suggesting that this signaling system could have an ancient origin. The seed of parasitic Orobanchaceae species germinate preferentially in response to strigolactones over karrikins, and putative Orobanchaceae MAX2 orthologs form a sub-clade distinct from those of other dicots. These observations suggest that lineage-specific evolution of MAX2 may have given rise to specialized responses to these signaling molecules. PMID:22019642

Waters, Mark T; Nelson, David C

2011-01-01

334

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2013-01-01

335

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2011-01-01

336

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2014-01-01

337

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2010-01-01

338

7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall...

2012-01-01

339

Original article Genetic variation for seed yield and its components  

E-print Network

of inflorescences, seed number per plant and seed weight per inflorescence showed high phenotypic and genetic correlations with seed yield per plant. The possibility of using the seed weight per inflorescence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

Seed composition, seedling emergence and early seeding vigour of red kidney bean seed produced at elevated temperature and Carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding effects of temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on seed quality is important under present and future climates. The objective was to determine the effects of elevated growth temperature and CO2 during seed-filling of parent plants on seed composition and ensuing seedling emergence and ...

341

Native seed preferences of shrub-steppe rodents, birds and ants: the relationships of seed attributes and seed use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study established the preferences of shrubsteppe granivores among seeds of 6 common sagebrushsteppe plants and related the preferences observed to physical and nutritional attributes of the seeds. Seeds of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata) and green needlegrass (Stipa viridula) were placed in groups of petri

M. I. Kelrick; J. A. MacMahon; R. R. Parmenter; D. V. Sisson

1986-01-01

342

SEEDS: A Celebration of Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major goal of the project of Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) was to stimulate interest in science through the active involvement of all participants. Youthful investigators utilized the basic and integrated science process skills as they conducted the research necessary to complete the data reports used in the compilation of this document. Participants described many unique activities designed to promote critical thinking and problem solving. Seeds made a significant impact toward enhancing the teaching, learning, and enjoyment of science for students worldwide.

Melton, Bob

1991-01-01

343

Epoxy oils from plant seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy acids have been reported in seed oils from more than 60 species in 12 plant families. The discovery of 9,10-epoxyoctadec-12-ynoic\\u000a and 9,10-epoxy-trans-3,cis-12-octadecadienoic acids brings to six the number of natural epoxy acids now known to occur in seed oils. These latest epoxy\\u000a acids and 15,16-epoxy-cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid have been found in only one species each and at levels lower than

F. R. Earle

1970-01-01

344

SEEDS Moving Group Status Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

McElwain, Michael

2011-01-01

345

Flowering time and seed dormancy control use external coincidence to generate life history strategy.  

PubMed

Climate change is accelerating plant developmental transitions coordinated with the seasons in temperate environments. To understand the importance of these timing advances for a stable life history strategy, we constructed a full life cycle model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Modelling and field data reveal that a cryptic function of flowering time control is to limit seed set of winter annuals to an ambient temperature window which coincides with a temperature-sensitive switch in seed dormancy state. This coincidence is predicted to be conserved independent of climate at the expense of flowering date, suggesting that temperature control of flowering time has evolved to constrain seed set environment and therefore frequency of dormant and non-dormant seed states. We show that late flowering can disrupt this bet-hedging germination strategy. Our analysis shows that life history modelling can reveal hidden fitness constraints and identify non-obvious selection pressures as emergent features. PMID:25824056

Springthorpe, Vicki; Penfield, Steven

2015-01-01

346

Recommended Amounts of Nuts, seeds, and soy  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Nuts, seeds, and soy Table B14. Nuts, seeds, and soy: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) %

347

Creating New Broadleaved Woodland by Direct Seeding  

E-print Network

by Direct Seeding Ian Willoughby, Richard Jinks, Peter Gosling and Gary Kerr Forestry Commission: Edinburgh WILLOUGHBY, I. et al. (2004). Creating new broadleaved woodland by direct seeding. Forestry Commission

348

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2011-01-01

349

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act...hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes...seedlings included in the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the...

2012-01-01

350

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2010-01-01

351

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2014-01-01

352

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2013-01-01

353

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2014-01-01

354

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2010-01-01

355

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2011-01-01

356

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2013-01-01

357

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act...hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes...seedlings included in the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the...

2013-01-01

358

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2012-01-01

359

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act...hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes...seedlings included in the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the...

2014-01-01

360

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2012-01-01

361

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act...hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes...seedlings included in the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the...

2011-01-01

362

MHD seed recovery/regeneration, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Three tasks are reported on: design, refurbish, operate potassium formate system; design, construct, operate the calcium formate production POC; and Western seed studies (spent Western seed is a mixture of potassium carbonate and potassium sulfate plus inerts).

Not Available

1992-01-01

363

Update on Legume Seed Development Using Genomics to Study Legume Seed Development1  

E-print Network

(Glycine max) is now one of the most important seed crops in the world (Wilcox, 2004). Research on legume in legume genomes to program seed formation. In the future, this information should permit novel approaches). These compartments have different origins and play distinct roles in seed formation. The maternally derived seed coat

Goldberg, Robert B.

364

Life history evolution of seed-bank annuals in response to seed predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We present a model of life history evolution for seed-bank annuals in temporally varying environments in which both the seed bank and the distribution of fecundity across year types evolve in response to seed predation. The fecundity distribution refers to the expected reproductive success of germinating seeds across a range of different year types. We assume that it is a

Joel S. Brown; D. Lawrence Venable

1991-01-01

365

PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

366

American Journal of Botany 88(4): 623627. 2001. SEED SIZE VARIATION AND PREDATION OF SEEDS  

E-print Network

; predation; seed size; sunflower. A consequence of the increased use of transgenes in crop breeding. We examined seed size variation and its relationship to pre- dation with the common sunflower623 American Journal of Botany 88(4): 623­627. 2001. SEED SIZE VARIATION AND PREDATION OF SEEDS

Snow, Allison A.

367

Seed-Health Assessment of Different Bean Seed Grades and Sources from Ethiopia Using Molecular Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local seed systems, which supply about 99% of bean seeds in the east and central Africa regions, are progressively being supported as an alternative to facilitate the accessibility of improved bean varieties to farmers. However, these systems have been rightly or wrongly criticized for supplying substandard quality seeds. This study was carried out to assess the seed health of different

Rubyogo Jean Claude; Matthew Dickinson; Sean Mayes; Teshale Assefa

2009-01-01

368

Global analysis of gene activity during Arabidopsis seed development and identification of seed-specific  

E-print Network

that occurs within the ovule and ends with a dormant seed primed to become the next plant generation (1, 2Global analysis of gene activity during Arabidopsis seed development and identification of seed for review February 19, 2010) Most of the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for controlling seed

Goldberg, Robert B.

369

Masting, seed dispersal and seed predation in the cycad Macrozamia communis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the adaptive value of mast seeding, a common phenomenon in temperate trees and shrubs. Masting is likely to affect both seed dispersal and seed predation. In systems where similar taxa of animals are involved in these two processes, the consequences of mast seeding are likely to be particularly complicated. This study examined the effects of mast

Ruth T. Ballardie; Robert J. Whelan

1986-01-01

370

Another Wintertime Cloud Seeding Case Study with Strong Evidence of Seeding Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s numerous winter orographic cloud seeding experiments were conducted over Utah's Wasatch Plateau. Several previously published case studies suc- cessfully documented the physical response in clouds and precipitation to ground-based seeding with silver iodide and liquid propane. A previously unpublished case study that shows additional evidence of positive seeding effects is presented here. Careful docu- mentation of seeding

Arlen W. Huggins

371

Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

Basiri, Shadi

2015-02-01

372

Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

2012-01-01

373

Handling System for Iridium-192 Seeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A complete system is proposed for safe handling of iridium-192 seeds used to internally irradiate malignant growths. A vibratory hopper feeds the seeds onto a transport system for deposit in a magazine or storage area. A circular magazine consisting of segmented plastic tubing with holes in the walls to accommodate the seeds seems feasible. The magazine is indexed to stop and release a seed for calibration and deposition.

Carpenter, W.; Wodicka, D.

1973-01-01

374

TRIACYLGLYCEROL PHASE AND SEED STORAGE BEHAVIOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anecdotal stories have long suggested that oil-rich seeds store poorly; however, laboratory studies show that lipid content does not correlate with seed quality. Recently, we found that the tendency of triacylglycerols (TAG) to crystallize during storage of Cuphea seeds has a profound effect on see...

375

Plant Populations and Seeding Rates for Soybeans  

E-print Network

Plant Populations and Seeding Rates for Soybeans Andrew P. Robinson Department of Agronomy www input costs for soybean growers, so it's important for growers to plant the right amount of seed to minimize input costs and increase profitability. Seeding rate, plant population, and row spacing are tied

Holland, Jeffrey

376

Chilling requirement of commercial Echinacea seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the effect of the moist chilling of seed on germination of Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, and the effect of seed coat trimming on the germination of E. angustifolia. Seed of E. angustifolia stratified for more than 2 weeks achieved maximum germination rates of 65–80%. Maximum germination rates of E. purpurea (84%)

G. A. Parmenter; L. C. Burton; R. P. Littlejohn

1996-01-01

377

46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping...Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to...combined. (c) Before loading, the seed cake must be aged per the instructions of...

2013-10-01

378

46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping...Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to...combined. (c) Before loading, the seed cake must be aged per the instructions of...

2012-10-01

379

46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping...Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to...combined. (c) Before loading, the seed cake must be aged per the instructions of...

2014-10-01

380

Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

Kevin J. Harrington; C. DArch-Evans

1985-01-01

381

Seed dispersal in Erythronium grandiflorum (Liliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary and secondary seed dispersal was investigated for the glacier lily Erythronium grandiflorum in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. These heavy seeds have no obvious adaptations for biotic or abiotic dispersal, but can be thrown short distances when the dehiscent fruits are shaken by wind. We used sticky traps to measure primary transport of seeds up to 1 m away from

George D. Weiblen; James D. Thomson

1995-01-01

382

Formative Assessment Probes: Seeds in a Bag  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many young children come to school with prior experiences planting seeds in a garden or in a pot, watering them, and seeing them grow. These early scientific investigations are designed to help children understand that seeds need water, something to grow in (such as soil), and the right temperature to sprout--if these conditions are met, a seed

Keeley, Page

2014-01-01

383

The evolution of massive black hole seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the evolution of high-redshift seed black hole masses at late times and their observational signatures. The massive black hole seeds studied here form at extremely high redshifts from the direct collapse of pre-galactic gas discs. Populating dark matter haloes with seeds formed in this way, we follow the mass assembly of these black holes to the present time

Marta Volonteri; Giuseppe Lodato; Priyamvada Natarajan

2008-01-01

384

Cryopreservation of orthodox and recalcitrant seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter in Plant Cell Culture, Development and Biotechnology describes student laboratory exercises for cryopreservation of plant seeds in liquid nitrogen. It includes two exercises involving step by step protocols for use with the two major types of seeds. A standard technique for small seed...

385

LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA) SEED DORMANCY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafy spurge is a herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces asexually through adventitious vegetative buds and sexually by seed. Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to 8 yr. The objectives of this research were to identify seed components which restrict germination and to determine if afterri...

386

Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

387

Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

388

Inheritance of seed colour in Brassica campestris L. and breeding for yellow-seeded B. napus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed colour inheritance was studied in five yellow-seeded and one black-seeded B. campestris accessions. Diallel crosses between the yellow-seeded types indicated that the four var. yellow sarson accessions of Indian origin had the same genotype for seed colour but were different from the Swedish yellow-seeded breeding line. Black seed colour was dominant over yellow. The segregation patterns for seed colour

B. Y. Chen; W. K. Heneen

1992-01-01

389

Observation of frequency doubling in tantalum doped silica fibres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Second harmonic conversion efficients of 3 x 0,0001 in tantalum-doped silica fibers prepared by the seeding technique are reported. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the frequency doubling in this fiber and to compare the results to the behavior observed in germanosilicate and rare earth-doped aluminosilicate fibers.

Driscoll, T. J.; Lawandy, N. M.; Killian, A.; Rienhart, L.; Morse, T. F.

1991-01-01

390

MICROWAVE AND RADIO-FREQUENCY POWER APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief review is presented of potential applications for radio-frequency and microwave power applications in agriculture. Included are applications for stored-product insect control, seed treatment to improve germination and seedling performance, conditioning of products to improve nutritional val...

391

The poppy seed defense: a novel solution.  

PubMed

A major toxicological challenge is distinguishing whether morphine in urine, in the absence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), originates from 'street' heroin use or poppy seed ingestion. Manufacturing byproducts from the synthesis of illicit heroin include those that originate from the reaction of acetic anhydride with the alkaloid impurity, thebaine, which undergoes skeletal rearrangement, resulting in compounds with a 2-(N-methylacetamido)ethyl side-chain. The hypothesis that the tertiary amide in this side-chain is resistant to endogenous hydrolysis was supported from in-vitro experiments; a glucuronide metabolite (designated 'ATM4G') was identified that may be used as a marker of 'street' heroin administration. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for this metabolite was then performed on selected urine specimens from 22 known heroin users, these being negative on routine testing for 6-MAM by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using the generally applied reporting threshold of 10?ng/mL, but positive for the presence of morphine. Peaks corresponding to the retention time for the metabolite marker were clearly observed for 16 of the 22 samples, with variations of the ratios of its three dependent ions being within?±?30% of that produced in vitro. Conversely, 6-MAM was detected in only 3 samples, but at concentrations <1?ng/mL. Such a high frequency for the presence of the metabolite marker in urine, in the absence of 6-MAM, is noteworthy and suggests that detection of this metabolite may offer an important advance in forensic toxicology, allowing the development of a new and more definitive test for heroin abuse and thus a potential solution to the so-called 'poppy seed defense'. PMID:24339374

Chen, P; Braithwaite, R A; George, C; Hylands, P J; Parkin, M C; Smith, N W; Kicman, A T

2014-03-01

392

Frequency domain optical parametric amplification  

PubMed Central

Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43?mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8??m wavelength. PMID:24805968

Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

2014-01-01

393

Reducing seed damage by soybean bugs by growing small-seeded soybeans and delaying sowing time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of seed size and planting time on seed damage by soybean bugs in the field over 2 years. Kyushu-143, a small-seeded soybean with many pods, suffered less damage at harvest by soybean bugs than the large-seeded cultivars Fukuyutaka and Sachiyutaka. We attributed the field tolerance of Kyushu-143 to large numbers of “spare” seeds that could compensate

Takashi Wada; Nobuyuki Endo; Masakazu Takahashi

2006-01-01

394

Two-phase seed dispersal: linking the effects of frugivorous birds and seed-caching rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frugivorous birds disperse the seeds of many fruit-bearing plants, but the fate of seeds after defecation or regurgitation\\u000a is often unknown. Some rodents gather and scatter hoard seeds, and some of these may be overlooked, germinate, and establish\\u000a plants. We show that these two disparate modes of seed dispersal are linked in some plants. Rodents removed large (>25 mg)\\u000a seeds from

Stephen B. Vander Wall; Kellie M. Kuhn; Jennifer R. Gworek

2005-01-01

395

Seed microRNA Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory molecules that play critical roles in gene expression. The biological functions of miRNAs are important for developmental processes in plants and animals. Little is known about the functions of miRNAs in seeds. To gain a better understand-ing of the regulation o...

396

Noise Amplification in HGHG Seeding  

SciTech Connect

An essential element of seeded FEL based on high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) or echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) is an undulator-modulator, in which interaction with a laser beam modulates the beam energy. We study how the interaction of electrons in this undulator-modulator changes the noise properties of the beam.

Stupakov, Gennady

2010-08-25

397

Irradiation of seeds and sprouts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of raw sprouts has gained popularity due to their high nutrient and low caloric value. During the sprouting of the seeds, the conditions are favorable for the growth of bacteria, including pathogens which can cause foodborne illnesses. This chapter discusses the bacterial pathogens ide...

398

SEED BIOLOGY OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The seed of Medicago truncatula have morphological features typical of dicotyledons, and are borne in a spine-covered spiral pod. The cotyledons are rich in protein (35-45%), the major storage molecule. They accumulate approximately 10% lipids and only traces of starch. The most abundant proteins a...

399

Climate Kids: Make Seed Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycled paper produced from the instructions provided contains an additional component - wildflower seeds. The entire paper disc can be planted; the sprouting of the flowers can be observed and analyzed. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

2013-12-03

400

Alcoholic beverages Nuts and seeds  

E-print Network

berry tangerine coconut oil bell pepper durian macadamia nut lemon juice honey swiss cheese cider bread munster cheese tarragon salmon macaroni orange juice hop matsutake black pepper black raspberry sage thyme pepper mate baked potato cashew pear ham pimenta catfish yogurt nira roasted sesame seed root cream

Ahn, Yong-Yeol

401

The Seed Is the Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

Antone, Eileen M.

2005-01-01

402

ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SEED OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The film-forming properties of canola (CAN), soybean (SBO), and jojoba (JO) seed oils under elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions were investigated to determine if differences in their chemical and physical properties affect their EHD properties. Polyalphaolefin (PAO), whose EHD properties have been ...

403

Withanolides from hyoscyamus niger seeds  

PubMed

Three withanolide class steroids were isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. Two of them were identified as daturalactone-4 (1) and Nic-3 (which is now named hyoscyamilactol) (2). The new compound was elucidated as 16alpha-acetoxyhyoscyamilactol (3) on the basis of spectroscopic properties and X-ray crystallographic analysis. PMID:10543915

Ma; Williams; Che

1999-10-01

404

A single frequency Nd:YAG Q-switched laser with timely controllable firing time by a gated Pockels cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with precisely controllable firing time was realized by using a single gated Pockels cell. We have devised a setup of injecting seeding in that a CW seeded laser radiation entrapped inside the ring cavity function as a pulse seeding for the slave laser. A pulse seeding instead of CW seeding can avoid the cavity length scanning to realize stable seeding. This seeding process is completed before Pockels cell opening edge in which the entrapped seed in the slave cavity initialize the starting of slave lasing once the ring cavity is closed. In this design, we use only one adjustable gated Pockels cell to realize these two functions, (1) at the opening edge, close the slave cavity and start the laser oscillation, and (2) at the falling edge, dump the cavity when the lasing pulse energy optimizes. Because the Q-switch firing time is precisely controlled by the Pockels cell's timing, thus it can be precisely controlled. The advantage of the realized regime is in stable laser operation with no need in adjustment of the mode of the cavity to the seeded wavelength. In experiments, we found that the frequency of the Q-switched laser radiation matches well to the injected seeded laser mode. With slave oscillator, the output pulse energy can be above 80 mJ to close 100 mJ depending on the operating condition and pulse width is about 10 ns.

Wu, Frank F.; Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

2011-02-01

405

[Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].  

PubMed

So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ? 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ? 93%, seed moisture ? 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ? 26%, thousand-grain weight ? 266 g, purity ? 73%, seed moisture ?9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ? 10%, purity ? 50%, thousand-grain weight ? 08 g, seed moisture ? 13%. PMID:25775792

Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

2014-11-01

406

Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

2009-05-01

407

Savanna fires increase rates and distances of seed dispersal by ants.  

PubMed

Myrmecochory (seed dispersal by ants) is a prominent dispersal mechanism in many environments, and can play a key role in local vegetation dynamics. Here we investigate its interaction with another key process in vegetation dynamics-fire. We examine ant dispersal of seeds immediately before and after experimental burning in an Australian tropical savanna, one of the world's most fire-prone ecosystems. Specifically, our study addressed the effects of burning on: (1) the composition of ants removing seeds, (2) number of seed removals, and (3) distance of seed dispersal. Fire led to higher rates of seed removal post-fire when compared with unburnt habitat, and markedly altered dispersal distance, with mean dispersal distance increasing more than twofold (from 1.6 to 3.8 m), and many distance dispersal events greater than the pre-fire maximum (7.55 m) being recorded. These changes were due primarily to longer foraging ranges of species of Iridomyrmex, most likely in response to the simplification of their foraging landscape. The significance of enhanced seed-removal rates and distance dispersal for seedling establishment is unclear because the benefits to plants in having their seeds dispersed by ants in northern Australia are poorly known. However, an enhanced removal rate would enhance any benefit of reduced predation by rodents. Similarly, the broader range of dispersal distances would appear to benefit plants in terms of reduced parent-offspring conflict and sibling competition, and the location of favourable seedling microsites. Given the high frequency of fire in Australian tropical savannas, enhanced benefits of seed dispersal by ants would apply for much of the year. PMID:17033801

Parr, C L; Andersen, A N; Chastagnol, C; Duffaud, C

2007-02-01

408

The role of local species pool, soil seed bank and seedling pool in natural vegetation restoration on abandoned slope land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theory and empirical evidence suggest that natural vegetation restoration depends on both the availability of seed resources and on successful seedling establishment. In the hill-gully Loess Plateau region, it remains unclear whether a rich diversity of species persists in the fragmented landscape in spite of intensive human activities and whether the distribution of the soil seed bank and the establishment of seedlings are threatened by serious soil erosion. We investigated vegetation composition in a series of plots with different slope aspects and degrees in a watershed of 8.26 km2 in Shaanxi Provence, China to determine the local species pool. The soil seed bank and seedling recruitment on typical eroded slopes over varied erosion zones were simultaneously studied to characterise soil seed bank resources and seedling establishment. In this study, 133 species were identified in the local species pool. The species' frequency within the soil seed bank, seedling and standing vegetation was positively correlated with the frequency of matched species in the local species pool. The soil seed bank density and species richness had no significantly decreasing with the soil erosion intensity increasing on the hill slope. However, the seedling density and species composition showed significant difference among the investigative times and different erosion zones. Furthermore, the species frequency declined with increasing seed mass. Results of this study indicate that the seeds of widely distributed species always have small size, persist in soil under eroded conditions and have stable seedling density over the growing season. Therefore, these species can successfully recolonise in abandoned slope land. However, late-successional species with large seeds that lack dispersal vectors are less able to disperse and recolonise in areas that need to be restored.

Wang, Ning; Jiao, Juying; Du, Huadong; Wang, Dongli; Jia, Yanfeng; Chen, Yu

2013-04-01

409

Research Article Banking on the past: seed banks as a reservoir for rare  

E-print Network

a limiting factor in the above- ground frequency of native species or a promoting factor in plant invasions of these restored habitats. Keywords: Annual plants; ephemeral wetlands; invasive species; native plants; rareResearch Article Banking on the past: seed banks as a reservoir for rare and native species

Collinge, Sharon K.

410

Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the alkaline transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol and ethanol, for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Both conventional and in situ transesterification were investigated using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm). Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with methanol gave high yields of methyl esters (95%) after a short reaction time

K. G. Georgogianni; M. G. Kontominas; P. J. Pomonis; D. Avlonitis; V. Gergis

2008-01-01

411

DIELECTRIC STUDY OF BINDING MODES OF WATER IN GRAIN AND SEED AT LOW TEMPERATURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dielectric behavior of bound water in grain and seed was investigated through measurement of the dielectric properties at microwave frequencies over a wide temperature range between minus 70 degrees C and +21 degrees C. Samples of wheat and soybeans were cooled to minus 70 degrees C and then their...

412

Improved efficiency of somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos in Hyoscyamus niger by seed water-soaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an efficient procedure to obtain somatic embryos from mature zygotic embryos of Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane). It has several advantages over previous regeneration methods, which are: the use of mature seeds, an average 80% somatic embryogenesis rate and a high (eight-fold higher than the control) plant regeneration frequency. The critical step in this protocol was soaking of the

Shanjun Tu; R. S. Sangwan; B. S. Sangwan-Norreel

2005-01-01

413

Statistical Tests of the Apple IIe Random Number Generator Yield Suggestions from Generator Seeding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses flaws in the Apple IIe Applesoft random number generator, RND, and reports results of frequency and serial correlation tests of the generator. Suggestions of seeds that yield sequences of numbers which pass fundamental screening tests for randomness are presented. (Author/LRW)

Gleason, John M.

1988-01-01

414

Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator  

DOEpatents

An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

Smith, Arlee V. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Darrell J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-12-27

415

The antifungal compound totarol of Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai seeds selects for fungi on seedling root surfaces.  

PubMed

Hinoki-asunaro (Thujopsis dolabrata Sieb. et Zucc. var. hondai Makino) is a tree endemic in Japan whose seeds produce several terpenoids. We hypothesized that antifungal compounds in seeds might select for fungi on the root surfaces of T. dolabrata var. hondai seedlings. We examined seed and soil fungi, their sensitivity to methanol extracts of the seeds, the fungi on root surfaces of seedlings grown in Kanuma pumice (a model mineral soil) and nursery soil, and the frequency at which each fungus was detected on the seedling root surface. We calculated correlation coefficients between fungal detection frequency on root surfaces and fungal sensitivity to seed extracts. We also isolated from the seeds the antifungal compound totarol that selected for fungi on root surfaces. Species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the most frequently isolated fungi from seeds. Mortierella and Mucor were the dominant fungi isolated from Kanuma pumice, whereas Umbelopsis and Trichoderma were the main fungi isolated from nursery soil. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the dominant fungi isolated from root surfaces of seedlings grown in Kanuma pumice, and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, and Trichoderma were the main root-surface fungi isolated from seedlings grown in nursery soil. The fungal detection frequencies on root surfaces in both soils were significantly and negatively correlated with fungal sensitivity to the seed extract. A similar correlation was found between the fungal detection frequency on root surfaces and fungal sensitivity to totarol. We conclude that totarol is one factor that selects for fungi on root surfaces of T. dolabrata var. hondai in the early growth stage. PMID:18026796

Yamaji, Keiko; Mori, Shigeta; Akiyama, Masaru; Kato, Atsushi; Nakashima, Tadakazu

2007-12-01

416

[Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].  

PubMed

In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method. PMID:25775790

Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

2014-11-01

417

Determination of oil in sunflower seeds  

SciTech Connect

Oil content measurement in sunflower seeds on an ''as is'' basis by current official methods is often associated with poor reproducibility. This study shows that the main factor contributing to this poor agreement is the particle size to which seeds are ground. This invariably influences the homogeneity of the bulk ground sample from which subsequent subsamples are taken. It is therefore suggested that oil content determinations on sunflower seeds should be carried out on seed samples that have been evenly and finely ground, to a particle size not greater than 2.0 mm, in a mechanical mill such as the Ultra-Centrifugal mill. Other factors investigated were seed composition (free husk, empty husk, crude fiber and seed meats) and structural differences in the seeds by light microscopy. (Refs. 16).

Kochlar, S.P.; Rossell, J.B.

1987-06-01

418

Experimental Biology of Ammonia-Rich Environments. Germination of Allium Seed, a Novel Capability Among Angiosperms 1  

PubMed Central

Seed populations from a majority of species and cultivars of Allium yield up to 15% germination under atmospheres containing NH3 together with equal volumes of N2 or air. Selected onion and leek cultivars tested in a range of NH3 or O2 compositions show little or no dependency upon quantitative variations in these gases. Radicles from seeds germinated in ammonia displayed low frequencies of abnormal mitotic activity. Comparisons of NH4OH with other bases, and with salts indicated that seed behavior could not be accounted for solely by osmolar or alkaline factors. Aspects of NH3 toxicity, tolerance and permeation were also considered. PMID:16656386

Siegel, S. M.; Daly, Olive W.

1966-01-01

419

The relationship between seed dormancy, seed size and weediness, in Crepis tectorum (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

I examined the germination characteristics of weed and outcrop populations of Crepis tectorum to test the hypothesis that the presumably more ephemeral weed habitat favors the highest levels of seed dormancy. The winter annual habit characterizing most plants of this species was reflected in a rapid germination of seeds sown in late summer. A slightly higher fraction of surface-sown seeds of weed plants delayed germination. Buried seeds of weed plants also survived better than seeds produced by plants in most outcrop populations, supporting the idea that weediness favors seed dormancy and a persistent seed bank. However, the differences in seed dormancy between the two ecotypes were small and not entirely consistent. Furthermore, high levels of seed dormancy were induced during burial in the outcrop group, suggesting that there is a potential for a dormant seed population in this habitat as well. Demographic data from one of the outcrop populations verified the presence of a large between-year seed bank. Possible environmental factors favoring seed dormancy in outcrop populations are discussed. The unusually large seeds of weedy Crepis contrasts with the relatively small difference in seed dormancy between the two ecotypes. PMID:22160124

Anderson, S

1990-06-01

420

Frequency metrology on the Mg 3s² ¹Sâ3s4p ¹P line for comparison with quasar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a frequency metrology study on the Mg 3s² ¹Sâ3s4p ¹P transition near 202.5 nm. For this purpose, the fourth harmonic of the output from an injection-seeded Ti:sapphire pulsed laser is employed in a Mg atomic beam experiment with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Absolute frequency calibration with a frequency comb laser is performed on the cw seeding radiation, while the

S. Hannemann; E. J. Salumbides; S. Witte; R. Th. Zinkstok; E.-J. van Duijn; K. S. E. Eikema; W. Ubachs

2006-01-01

421

Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.  

PubMed

Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal at a range of spatial scales in complex seed-disperser networks, thus providing a robust and widely applicable framework for future studies. PMID:24669744

Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

2014-02-01

422

Wind-dispersed Seed Deposition Patterns and Seedling Recruitment of Artemisia halodendron in a Moving Sandy Land  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Artemisia halodendron is a native sub-shrub that occurs mainly in moving and semi-fixed sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, China. Information on the spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron inhabiting moving sandy lands is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and post-dispersal recruitment of A. halodendron seedlings. •Methods The spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron were examined by investigating the numbers of deposited seeds, emerged and surviving seedlings using sampling points at a range of distances from the parent plant in eight compass directions for two consecutive growing seasons. •Key Results Wind-dispersed seed deposition showed considerable variation between directions and years. Wind transported A. halodendron seeds only a few meters away from the parent plant in all eight directions. Seedling emergence and establishment also showed between-direction and between-year variability, but the spatial pattern of seedling distribution differed from that of seed deposition. Only a very small fraction (<1 %) of the deposited seeds emerged in the field and survived for long enough to be included in our seedling censuses at the end of the growing season. •Conclusions The spatial variation in wind speed and frequency strongly affects the pattern of seed deposition, although the variation in seed deposition does not determine the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment. Seeds of A. halodendron are not dispersed very well by wind. The low probability of recruitment success for A. halodendron seedlings suggests that this species does not rely on seedling recruitment for its persistence and maintenance of population. PMID:15857850

LI, FENG-RUI; WANG, TAO; ZHANG, AI-SHENG; ZHAO, LI-YA; KANG, LING-FEN; CHEN, WEN

2005-01-01

423

Low-Cost, Single-Frequency Sources for Spectroscopy using Conventional Fabry-Perot Diode Lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial (uncoated) Fabry-Perot laser diodes are converted to single-frequency spectroscopy sources by passively locking the laser frequency to the band edge of a fiber Bragg grating, which phase-locks the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding.

Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

1999-01-01

424

Occurrence and distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with the climatic variables  

PubMed Central

One hundred samples of tomato seeds were collected in 2011 and 2012 from tomato-cultivated fields in Saudi Arabia and screened for their seed-borne mycoflora. A total of 30 genera and 57 species of fungi were recovered from the collected seed samples using agar plate and deep-freezing blotter methods. The two methods differed as regards the frequency of recovered seed-borne fungi. Seven fungi among those recovered from tomato seeds, which are known as plant pathogens, were tested for their pathogenicity and transmission on tomato seedlings. The recovery rate of these pathogens gradually decreased from root up to the upper stem, and did not reach to the stem apex. The distribution of tomato seed-borne fungi was also investigated throughout Saudi Arabia. In this concern, Al-Madena governorate recorded the highest incidence of fungal flora associated with tomato seeds. The impact of meteorological variables on the distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora was explored using the ordination technique (canonical correspondence analysis). Among all climatic factors, relative humidity was the most influential variable in this regard. Our findings may provide a valuable contribution to our understanding of future global disease change and may be used also to predict disease occurrence and fungal transfer to new uninfected areas. PMID:24964218

Al-Askar, Abdulaziz A; Ghoneem, Khalid M; Rashad, Younes M; Abdulkhair, Waleed M; Hafez, Elsayed E; Shabana, Yasser M; Baka, Zakaria A

2014-01-01

425

Occurrence and distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with the climatic variables.  

PubMed

One hundred samples of tomato seeds were collected in 2011 and 2012 from tomato-cultivated fields in Saudi Arabia and screened for their seed-borne mycoflora. A total of 30 genera and 57 species of fungi were recovered from the collected seed samples using agar plate and deep-freezing blotter methods. The two methods differed as regards the frequency of recovered seed-borne fungi. Seven fungi among those recovered from tomato seeds, which are known as plant pathogens, were tested for their pathogenicity and transmission on tomato seedlings. The recovery rate of these pathogens gradually decreased from root up to the upper stem, and did not reach to the stem apex. The distribution of tomato seed-borne fungi was also investigated throughout Saudi Arabia. In this concern, Al-Madena governorate recorded the highest incidence of fungal flora associated with tomato seeds. The impact of meteorological variables on the distribution of tomato seed-borne mycoflora was explored using the ordination technique (canonical correspondence analysis). Among all climatic factors, relative humidity was the most influential variable in this regard. Our findings may provide a valuable contribution to our understanding of future global disease change and may be used also to predict disease occurrence and fungal transfer to new uninfected areas. PMID:24964218

Al-Askar, Abdulaziz A; Ghoneem, Khalid M; Rashad, Younes M; Abdulkhair, Waleed M; Hafez, Elsayed E; Shabana, Yasser M; Baka, Zakaria A

2014-11-01

426

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Single Frequency Amplifier with Photonic Bandgap Fiber at 1178 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single frequency photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1178 nm is investigated experimentally and numerically. With a pump power of 81 W, a single frequency 1178 nm fiber laser of 10.3 W is obtained with a 3W seed laser and a 20 m gain fiber. Numerical simulation is conducted with a rate equation model taking amplified spontaneous emission and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) into consideration. Temperature distribution along the fiber is applied for SBS suppression, more than 50 W single frequency fiber laser at 1178 nm is predicted theoretically with a 5W seed laser and a 40 m long gain fiber with five temperature steps.

Wang, Jian-Hua; Cui, Shu-Zhen; Hu, Jin-Meng; Cao, Fen; Fang, Yong; Lu, Hui-Ling

2014-06-01

427

Correlation between chiasma frequency and quantitative traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

PubMed

Four locally adapted and high yielding cultivars of upland cotton were examined in order to elucidate the relationship between total chiasma frequency and quantitative traits, including yield and fiber properties. Total chiasma frequency per nucleus was found to correlate positively with boll number (r = 0.4041), seed cotton yield (r = 0.6003), seed index (r = 0.4624), lint yield (r = 0.7325), and lint index (r = 0.9534). The data are discussed from the point of view that the heterozygosity caused by increased chiasma frequency in inbreeding cotton cultivars is an important compensating mechanism for enhancing effective recombination and genetic variability. PMID:24305760

Srivastava, H K

1980-05-01

428

Water binding in legume seeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

1987-01-01

429

[Genomic imprinting and seed development].  

PubMed

The endosperm, a seed tissue that mediates the transfer of nutrients from the maternal parent to the embryo, is an important site of imprinting in flowering plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three genes were identified that prevent fertilization-independent seed development: FIS1/MEDEA, FIS2 and FIS3/FIE. MEDEA (MEA), a master regulator of endosperm development, is known to be imprinted in the endosperm. FWA is also imprinted in the endosperm of the model plant Arabidopsis. The following aspects were included in the present review: the imprinting mechanism in angiosperms, the latest progress in the control of MEA and FWA imprinting, the parental conflict theory to explain imprinting, the imprinting methods and other imprinted genes found in plants. PMID:16120596

Zhang, Wen-Wei; Cao, Shao-Xian; Jiang, Ling; Zhu, Su-Song; Wan, Jian-Min

2005-07-01

430

Thermal properties of cumin seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the measurement of thermal properties, namely specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of cumin seed. The specific heat increased from 1330 to 3090 J\\/kgK with increase in temperature from ?70°C to 50°C and moisture content from 1.8% to 20.5% dry basis. The thermal conductivity increased from 0.046 to 0.223 W\\/mK with the increase in temperature from

K. K Singh; T. K Goswami

2000-01-01

431

Generation of Particles and Seeding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important elements in laser velocimetry, yet the most neglected, is the small particle embedded in the flow field that scatters the light necessary to make velocity measurements. An attempt to remove the confusion in choosing a seeding method by assessing many of the techniques currently used is presented. Their characteristics and typical limitations imposed by various applications are outlined. The ramifications of these methods on measurement accuracy are addressed.

Meyers, James F.

1991-01-01

432

Seed oil of Artemisia absinthium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil of the seeds ofArtemisia absinthium has yielded 95.5% of glycerides. Of these, 59.5% consists of unoxidized and 32.0% of oxidized triglycerides, 1.3% of diglycerides,\\u000a and 2.7% of monoglycerides. The remaining 4.5% of the oil is made up of hydrocarbons, sterols, sterol acetates, and free fatty\\u000a acids. The oxy acid content has been calculated from the results obtained (?12%

N. T. Ul'chenko; É. I. Gigienova; K. L. Seitanidi; M. R. Yagudaev; A. U. Umarov

1979-01-01

433

Compositional data on sunflower seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative data are provided on the composition of achenes from sunflower varieties Armavirec, Peredovik, VNIIMK 8931, Smena,\\u000a Krasnodarets, Arrowhead and Mingren. Handseparated achene components were analyzed. Kernel oil from seed raised in northern\\u000a United States or southern Canada typically contains about 70% of linoleic acid. In addition to other common acids, traces\\u000a of C17, C20, C22, C24 acids and linolenic

F. R. Earle; C. H. Vanetten; T. F. Clark; I. A. Wolff

1968-01-01

434

Alfalfa… for Forage and Seed.  

E-print Network

disking or harrowing, the soil should be firmed with a culti- packer or similar roller. Then weeds may be con- trolled by light disking until planting time. Af- ter planting, repeat the cultipacking or rolling. Where wind erosion is a problem, alfalfa... may be seeded into a dead stubble of sorghum, Sudan- grass or small grain. If cultivation is necessary to control weeds, use implements that allow shal- low, subsurface tillage with the stubble left on the soil surface. Weedy growth also may...

Trew, E. M.

1957-01-01

435

Seed physiological maturity in Cuphea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuphea (Cuphea viscosissima Jacq.×C. lanceolata f. silenoides W.T. Aiton, line PSR23) is a new crop being developed in the North Central United States, as an industrial oilseed crop. Cuphea PSR23 seed oil is rich in medium-chain-length fatty acids such as capric acid used to manufacture soaps and detergents. The objective of this research was to determine the time when physiological

Marisol T. Berti; Burton L. Johnson; Linda K. Manthey

2007-01-01

436

Compounds That Promote Seed Germination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The two molecules for this month come from the section Compound in Smoke Provides the Spark for Germination in the article about "Research Advances" by Angela G. King. These molecules have been demonstrated to stimulate seed germination under various conditions. The butenolide moiety is frequently encountered in natural products. An interesting approach to the synthesis of such molecules can be found in this Organic Letters article (accessed January 2005).

437

Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 ?-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed. PMID:24625826

Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Macquet, Audrey; Kronholm, Ilkka; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Poulain, Damien; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; Loudet, Olivier; de Meaux, Juliette; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

2014-03-01

438

Post-hypoxic Oxidative Stress in Aging Pea Seeds: I. Hypoxia Development during Imbibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

During seed transition from quiescence to metabolic activity and subsequent germination, orthodox seeds become sensitive to stress. Aging seeds become particularly sensitive to stress conditions and during storage, seeds undergo aging that deteriorates their quality. Each seed lot contains strong seeds, weak seeds, and dead seeds, but dry seed quality cannot be assessed prior to germination. Nevertheless, air- dry pea

Tatiana V. Veselova; Vladimir A. Veselovsky

2009-01-01

439

Proteomics of rice seed germination  

PubMed Central

Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles, and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies. PMID:23847647

He, Dongli; Yang, Pingfang

2013-01-01

440

MHD seed recovery/regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Task 1 calls for the design, procurement, construction, and installation of the Seed Regeneration Proof-of-Concept Facility (SRPF) (Figure 1) that will produce tonnage quantities of recyclable potassium formate seed at a design rate of 250 lb/hr for testing in the channel at the CDIF while collecting data that will be used to upgrade the design of a 300 MW{sub t} system. Approximately 12 tons of KCOOH (dry basis) as 70--75 wt% solution have been produced. The front end of the plant (potassium sulfate reaction and solids separation/washing units) was operated for five days in March. Most of the operations were conducted at a spent seed feed rate of 250 pounds/hour. A total of {approximately}8,500 gallons of dilute KCOOH solution was generated containing approximately 2.6 tons of potassium formate (dry basis). The average KCOOH content of this solution was -7 wt%. The design KCOOH solution concentration for the front end of the plant is 8.5 wt%. The evaporation unit was operated or a total six days during March. Approximately 2.5 tons of potassium formate (dry basis) were processed through the evaporator and concentrated to >70 wt%.

Not Available

1992-01-01

441

Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer.  

PubMed

Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

Talluto, Matthew V; Benkman, Craig W

2014-07-01

442

Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer  

PubMed Central

Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

Talluto, Matthew V.; Benkman, Craig W.

2014-01-01

443

The Potential Roles of Seeds and Seed Bioactives on the Prevention and Treatment of Breast and Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several seeds have been suggested to play a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. These include flaxseed, grape\\u000a seed, sesame seed, pomegranate seed, caper seed, black cumin seed, and adlay seed. This chapter describes the research to\\u000a date on the determination of their anticancer effects using different experimental models (in vitro, animal, clinical), the\\u000a findings identifying the active

Krista A. Power; Lilian U. Thompson

444

Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

2011-01-01

445

Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

2011-07-01

446

Tannin concentration enhances seed caching by scatter-hoarding rodents: An experiment using artificial ‘seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannins are very common among plant seeds but their effects on the fate of seeds, for example, via mediation of the feeding preferences of scatter-hoarding rodents, are poorly understood. In this study, we created a series of artificial 'seeds' that only differed in tannin concentration and the type of tannin, and placed them in a pine forest in the Shangri-La Alpine Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province of China. Two rodent species ( Apodemus latronum and A. chevrieri) showed significant preferences for 'seeds' with different tannin concentrations. A significantly higher proportion of seeds with low tannin concentration were consumed in situ compared with seeds with a higher tannin concentration. Meanwhile, the tannin concentration was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of seeds cached. The different types of tannin (hydrolysable tannin vs condensed tannin) did not differ significantly in their effect on the proportion of seeds eaten in situ vs seeds cached. Tannin concentrations had no significant effect on the distance that cached seeds were carried, which suggests that rodents may respond to different seed traits in deciding whether or not to cache seeds and how far they will transport seeds.

Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

2008-11-01

447

Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is a distinctive and charismatic plant of the Mojave Desert. Although floral biology and seed production of Joshua tree and other yuccas are well understood, the fate of Joshua tree seeds has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that Joshua tree seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents. We radioactively labelled Joshua tree seeds and followed their fates at five source plants in Potosi Wash, Clark County, Nevada, USA. Rodents made a mean of 30.6 caches, usually within 30 m of the base of source plants. Caches contained a mean of 5.2 seeds buried 3-30 nun deep. A variety of rodent species appears to have prepared the caches. Three of the 836 Joshua tree seeds (0.4%) cached germinated the following spring. Seed germination using rodent exclosures was nearly 15%. More than 82% of seeds in open plots were removed by granivores, and neither microsite nor supplemental water significantly affected germination. Joshua tree produces seeds in indehiscent pods or capsules, which rodents dismantle to harvest seeds. Because there is no other known means of seed dispersal, it is possible that the Joshua tree-rodent seed dispersal interaction is an obligate mutualism for the plant.

Vander Wall, S. B.; Esque, T.; Haines, D.; Garnett, M.; Waitman, B.A.

2006-01-01

448

Yellowstone grizzly bear mortality, human habituation, and whitebark pine seed crops  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population may be extirpated during the next 100-200 years unless mortality rates stabilize and remain at acceptable low levels. Consequently, we analyzed relationships between Yellowstone grizzly bear mortality and frequency of human habituation among bears and size of the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) seed crop. During years of large seed crops, bears used areas within 5 km of roads and 8 km of developments half as intensively as during years of small seed crops because whitebark pine's high elevation distribution is typically remote from human facilities. On average, management trappings of bears were 6.2 times higher, mortality of adult females 2.3 times higher, and mortality of subadult males 3.3 times higher during years of small seed crops. We hypothesize that high mortality of adult females and subadult males during small seed crop years was a consequence of their tendency to range closest (of all sex-age cohorts) to human facilities; they also had a higher frequency of human habituation compared with adult males. We also hypothesize that low morality among subadult females during small seed crop years was a result of fewer energetic stressors compared with adult females and greater familiarity with their range compared with subadult males; mortality was low even though they ranged close to humans and exhibited a high frequency of human habituation. Human-habituated and food-conditioned bears were 2.9 times as likely to range within 4 km of developments and 3.1 times as often killed by humans compared with nonhabituated bears. We argue that destruction of habituated bears that use native foods near humans results in a decline in the overall ability of bears to use available habitat; and that the number and extent of human facilities in occupied grizzly bear habitat needs to be minimized unless habituated bears are preserved and successful ways to manage the associated risks to humans are developed.

Mattson, David J.; Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.

1992-01-01

449

HIV Testing Frequency  

MedlinePLUS

... Testing : HIV Testing Frequency Translate Text Size Print HIV Testing Frequency Testing Frequency How often should you ... local health department for proper care and information. HIV Testing HIV Test Locations HIV Test Types HIV ...

450

Effects of seed origin and irrigation on survival and growth of transplanted shrubs  

SciTech Connect

Revegetation is difficult in the Mojave Desert due to limited, erratic precipitation and extreme temperatures. Establishing plant cover by transplanting native shrubs is known to be a promising technique, but many questions still remain regarding its use on a large operational scale. A study was initiated on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site (NTS) to determine the effects of seed origin and irrigation on survival and growth of transplanted shrubs. Plants of three species (Larrea tridentata, Ambrosia dumosa, and Atriplex canescens) were grown in a greenhouse and hardened outdoors. Plants of all three species were produced from two seed sources: (1) seed collected from the NTS (Mojave Desert), and (2) commercially available seed collected from outside the NTS. One-year-old containerized plants (180 of each species) were transplanted to a site on the NTS and irrigated with two liters of water at one of the following frequencies: (1) at time of planting only, (2) at time of planting and monthly during the first growing season, and (3) at time of planting and twice monthly during the first growing season. After 16 months, survival of all species was generally greater than 80% and was unaffected by irrigation treatments. Survival of fourwing saltbush was significantly greater from local versus non-local seed. Survival of bursage and creosotebush was generally unaffected by seed origin. Shrub volumes regardless of species or seed origin increased during the first growing season, and then decreased during the second growing season. Shrub volumes for fourwing saltbush were significantly greater for shrubs from local versus non-local seed.

Winkel, V.K.

1995-10-01

451

Coherence-based photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds implanted in a canine prostate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization of individual brachytherapy seed locations assists with intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. Photoacoustic imaging is advantageous when compared to current ultrasound imaging methods, due to its superior sensitivity to metal surrounded by tissue. However, photoacoustic images suffer from poor contrast with insufficient laser fluence. A short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamformer was implemented to enhance these low-contrast photoacoustic signals. Photoacoustic imaging was performed with a transrectal ultrasound probe and an optical fiber surrounded by a light-diffusing sheath, placed at a distance of approximately 4-5 mm from the location of seeds implanted in an in vivo canine prostate. The average energy density through the tip of the sheath was varied from 8 to 167 mJ/cm2. When compared to a fast Fourier transform (FFT)- based reconstruction method, the mean contrast and signal-to-noise ratios were improved by up to 22 dB and a factor of 4, respectively, with the SLSC beamformer (12% of the receive aperture elements were included in the short-lag sum). Image artifacts that were spatially coherent had spatial frequency spectra that were quadrantally symmetric about the origin, while the spatial frequency spectra of the seed signals possessed diagonal symmetry. These differences were utilized to reduce artifacts by 9-14 dB after applying a bandpass filter with diagonal symmetry. Results indicate that advanced methods, such as SLSC beamforming or frequency-based filters, hold promise for intraoperative localization of prostate brachytherapy seeds

Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

2014-03-01

452

Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy  

PubMed Central

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumulation can therefore be also beneficial for seed germination and seedling growth by regulating cellular growth, ensuring a protection against pathogens or controlling the cell redox status. ROS probably also act as a positive signal in seed dormancy release. They interact with abscisic acid and gibberellins transduction pathway and are likely to control numerous transcription factors and properties of specific protein through their carbonylation. PMID:19513212

El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

2008-01-01

453

Factors that shape seed mass evolution  

PubMed Central

We used correlated divergence analysis to determine which factors have been most closely associated with changes in seed mass during seed plant evolution. We found that divergences in seed mass have been more consistently associated with divergences in growth form than with divergences in any other variable. This finding is consistent with the strong relationship between seed mass and growth form across present-day species and with the available data from the paleobotanical literature. Divergences in seed mass have also been associated with divergences in latitude, net primary productivity, temperature, precipitation, and leaf area index. However, these environmental variables had much less explanatory power than did plant traits such as seed dispersal syndrome and plant growth form. PMID:16030149

Moles, Angela T.; Ackerly, David D.; Webb, Campbell O.; Tweddle, John C.; Dickie, John B.; Pitman, Andy J.; Westoby, Mark

2005-01-01

454

Seed Dormancy in Red Rice 1  

PubMed Central

Sodium nitrite at 10 millimolar breaks dormancy of dehulled red rice (Oryza sativa). While germination is light independent, low pH conditions (pH 3) are required for maximum response. Water and buffer controls at pH 3 remain dormant. The response to nitrite occurs at 25 and 30°C but is reduced at 20°C, although nondormant seeds germinate readily at this temperature. The contact time for response to nitrite is less than 2 h at the start of imbibition. Seeds imbibed first in water show reduced germination when subsequently transferred to nitrite. Dehulled seeds show little or no response to nitrate and ammonium ions. Intact seeds remain dormant in the presence of nitrite or nitrate unless partially dry-afterripened. The pH dependence of nitrite sensitivity is reduced in intact, afterripening seeds. In highly dormant seeds, vacuum infiltration experiments suggest that the hull restricts uptake of nitrite. PMID:16663224

Cohn, Marc Alan; Butera, Denise L.; Hughes, John A.

1983-01-01

455

Factors that shape seed mass evolution.  

PubMed

We used correlated divergence analysis to determine which factors have been most closely associated with changes in seed mass during seed plant evolution. We found that divergences in seed mass have been more consistently associated with divergences in growth form than with divergences in any other variable. This finding is consistent with the strong relationship between seed mass and growth form across present-day species and with the available data from the paleobotanical literature. Divergences in seed mass have also been associated with divergences in latitude, net primary productivity, temperature, precipitation, and leaf area index. However, these environmental variables had much less explanatory power than did plant traits such as seed dispersal syndrome and plant growth form. PMID:16030149

Moles, Angela T; Ackerly, David D; Webb, Campbell O; Tweddle, John C; Dickie, John B; Pitman, Andy J; Westoby, Mark

2005-07-26

456

Applicator Training Manual for: Seed Treatment Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on seed treatment and type of seeds which can be treated. Also discussed are the problems and pests commonly associated with seed diseases and the fungicides and insecticides used for seed treatment. Information is also given on seed treatment equipment such as dust treaters, slurry treaters, and direct…

TeKrony, Dennis M.

457

Inheritance of seed colour in turnip rape ( Brassica campestris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of seed colour was investigated in the progenies of crosses between seven yellow seeded forms and a brown seeded one of turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Seed colour differences were found to be determined in each case by one or two genes with epistatic effect. Moreover, independent inheritance of hilum colour was observed. Seed colour was predominantly but

A. Schwetka

1982-01-01

458

Seed dynamics during forest succession in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil seed banks and current seed inputs each play a role in tropical succession. We compared the abundance and floristic composition of seeds from these two sources at a Costa Rican site by germinating seeds from the soil, measuring seed inputs for 3 yr, and monitoring the earliest colonists in a forest clearing.

K. R. Young; J. J. Ewel; B. J. Brown

1987-01-01

459

Transgenic soybean seeds rebalance protein composition to maintain protein content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ontogeny of both seed structure and of seed storage substances results from a determinant genetic program that produces a population of nearly identical seeds. The seed’s developmental program to accumulate storage substances can be modified by nutrient availability and environmental conditions ...

460

HORTSCIENCE 42(6):14361439. 2007. Primed Lettuce Seeds Exhibit  

E-print Network

HORTSCIENCE 42(6):1436­1439. 2007. Primed Lettuce Seeds Exhibit Increased Sensitivity to Moisture. Lactuca sativa, seed priming, aging, viability equation, germination Abstract. The Ellis-Roberts seed contents. Seed priming, which can break dormancy and accelerate germination, can also reduce seed storage

Bradford, Kent

461

An International Journal Serving Seed Scientists and Technologists  

E-print Network

and assessing seed enhancement treatments such as pelleting and priming. Hydrotime analysis can be simplifiedSeed Technology An International Journal Serving Seed Scientists and Technologists Volume 26, Number 1 · 2004 Published jointly by: ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL SEED ANALYSTS SOCIETY OF COMMERCIAL SEED

Bradford, Kent

462

Evolutionary Ecology, 1994, 8, 188-195 Pollen availability, seed production and seed  

E-print Network

, Cirsium arvense. Offspring of flies feed solelyon thistle seeds and seed production is pollen- limited thistle (Cirsium arvense) may be affected by the availability of pollen. In Europe, O. ruficauda attacks

Lalonde, Bob

463

Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on seed quality.  

PubMed

Successful crop production depends initially on the availability of high-quality seed. By 2050 global climate change will have influenced crop yields, but will these changes affect seed quality? The present review examines the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature during seed production on three seed quality components: seed mass, germination and seed vigour. In response to elevated CO2, seed mass has been reported to both increase and decrease in C3 plants, but not change in C4 plants. Increases are greater in legumes than non-legumes, and there is considerable variation among species. Seed mass increases may result in a decrease of seed nitrogen (N) concentration in non-legumes. Increasing temperature may decrease seed mass because of an accelerated growth rate and reduced seed filling duration, but lower seed mass does not necessarily reduce seed germination or vigour. Like seed mass, reported seed germination responses to elevated CO2 have been variable. The reported changes in seed C/N ratio can decrease seed protein content which may eventually lead to reduced viability. Conversely, increased ethylene production may stimulate germination in some species. High-temperature stress before developing seeds reach physiological maturity (PM) can reduce germination by inhibiting the ability of the plant to supply the assimilates necessary to synthesize the storage compounds required for germination. Nothing is known concerning the effects of elevated CO2 on seed vigour. However, seed vigour can be reduced by high-temperature stress both before and after PM. High temperatures induce or increase the physiological deterioration of seeds. Limited evidence suggests that only short periods of high-temperature stress at critical seed development stages are required to reduce seed vigour, but further research is required. The predicted environmental changes will lead to losses of seed quality, particularly for seed vigour and possibly germination. The seed industry will need to consider management changes to minimize the risk of this occurring. PMID:23495259

Hampton, J G; Boelt, B; Rolston, M P; Chastain, T G

2013-04-01

464

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

465

Cotton Planting Seed and Related Fiber Qualities.  

E-print Network

must be sterilized at the gins. Experience has indicated that unless seed treated in this manner are cooled by spread- ing or turning soon after heating, the germination is impaired. The ginning season is short with con- siderable volume... concentrated in a 50 to 60-day period. Growers are under pressure to harvest the crop quickly and have little opportunity to pre- serve the germination potential of the seed. The oil mill price for seed is usually attractive. The growers, therefore, depend...

Paulson, W. E.; Ward, J. M.

1956-01-01

466

Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes  

SciTech Connect

A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

2014-06-10

467

Accumulation and degradation of thiamin-binding protein and level of thiamin in wheat seeds during seed maturation and germination.  

PubMed

Changes in the levels of thiamin-binding globulin and thiamin in wheat seeds during maturation and germination were studied. The thiamin-binding activity of the seed proteins increased with seed development after flowering. The thiamin content of the seeds also increased with development. Thiamin-binding activity decreased during seed germination. On the other hand, immunological analysis using an antibody directed against the thiamin-binding protein isolated from wheat seeds showed that the thiamin-binding globulin accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds during maturation, and then the protein was degraded and disappeared during seed germination. These results suggested that the thiamin-binding globulin of wheat seeds was synthesized and accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds with seed development, similar to the thiamin-binding albumin in sesame seeds, and that thiamin bound to the thiamin-binding globulin in the dormant wheat seeds for germ growth during germination. PMID:15215587

Watanabe, Katsumi; Nishida, Naoko; Adachi, Takashi; Ueda, Motoko; Mitsunaga, Toshio; Kawamura, Yukio

2004-06-01

468

The dehydration and rehydration characteristics of the seeded breadfruit or breadnut seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harrynanan, L. and Sankat, C. K. 2008. The dehydration and rehydration characteristics of the seeded breadfruit or breadnut seed. Canadian Biosystems Engineering\\/Le genie des biosystems auCanada 50: 3.373.45. Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of dehydration and rehydration of in-shell mature breadnut seeds. Pretreated (cooked in salted water) and untreated in-shell mature breadnut seeds were dried in a

L. Harrynanan; C. K. Sankat

2008-01-01

469

Seed Priming Effects on Germination, Growth and Yield of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insufficient seedling stand establishment is one of the major obstacles for achieving potential yield of dry direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, seed priming technique was explored for improving germination and crop performance of dry direct-seeded rice. Seed-priming treatments used during the investigation included untreated control, hydro-priming, water hardening, and osmo-hardening with KCl. Priming reduced mean germination

G. Mahajan; R. S. Sarlach; S. Japinder; M. S. Gill

2011-01-01

470

Proteopathic tau seeding predicts tauopathy in vivo.  

PubMed

Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell-cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is untested, however. It is unknown whether seeding anticipates and correlates with subsequent development of pathology as predicted for a causal agent. One major limitation has been the lack of a robust assay to measure proteopathic seeding activity in biological specimens. We engineered an ultrasensitive, specific, and facile FRET-based flow cytometry biosensor assay based on expression of tau or synuclein fusions to CFP and YFP, and confirmed its sensitivity and specificity to tau (? 300 fM) and synuclein (? 300 pM) fibrils. This assay readily discriminates Alzheimer's disease vs. Huntington's disease and aged control brains. We then carried out a detailed time-course study in P301S tauopathy mice, comparing seeding activity versus histological markers of tau pathology, including MC1, AT8, PG5, and Thioflavin S. We detected robust seeding activity at 1.5 mo, >1 mo before the earliest histopathological stain. Proteopathic tau seeding is thus an early and robust marker of tauopathy, suggesting a proximal role for tau seeds in neurodegeneration. PMID:25261551

Holmes, Brandon B; Furman, Jennifer L; Mahan, Thomas E; Yamasaki, Tritia R; Mirbaha, Hilda; Eades, William C; Belaygorod, Larisa; Cairns, Nigel J; Holtzman, David M; Diamond, Marc I

2014-10-14

471

Long-term Survival and Seed Transmission of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in Melon and Watermelon Seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli (Aac) is a key factor in the dissemination of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits. In this study, we report seed transmission of Aac from 34-year-old watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus) and from 40-year-old melon seed (Cucumis melo). The seed lo...

472

Determining ‘threshold’ levels for seed-borne virus infection in seed stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many advances in testing procedures to detect seed-borne virus infection in seed samples. However, scant attention has been given to the implications of improved test results in terms of the economic losses resulting from sowing seed stocks with different amounts of infection. For agricultural and horticultural industries to use the results of tests on representative samples, defined

Roger A. C. Jones

2000-01-01

473

A seed predator drives the evolution of a seed dispersal mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although antagonists are hypothesized to impede the evolution of mutualisms, they may simultaneously exert selection favouring the evolution of alternative mutualistic interactions. We found that increases in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seed defences arising from selection exerted by a pre-dispersal seed predator (red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) reduced the efficacy of limber pine's primary seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) while

Adam M. Siepielski; Craig W. Benkman

2008-01-01

474

Buried Seed Banks as Indicators of Seed Output along an Altitudinal Gradient.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study of buried seed banks (viable seeds deposited in the soil near parent plants) provides a relatively easy way of determining cumulative effects on seed production and species' altitudinal limits. Sites, methods, validity, interpretation, problems of collection on a mountain, and germination techniques are discussed. (Author/DH)

Thompson, K.

1985-01-01

475

Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

476

Living boundaries: tracking weed seed movement with non-dormant seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synthetic seed banks are a useful tool for increasing precision of counts in weed demography studies. By sowing a known number of seeds of a single accession within a spatially well-described area, an investigator can greatly improve the signal to noise ratio, relative to the ambient weed seed bank,...

477

Susan's Lemon Poppy Seed Cake 2 oz. Black poppy seeds (4 tbs.)*  

E-print Network

Susan's Lemon Poppy Seed Cake 2 oz. Black poppy seeds (4 tbs.)* 4 oz. Self-raising flour (just and poppy seeds. Bake in a greased loaf tin for about 30 min. Ten minutes before the cake is due to come out. When the cake is baked, stab with a skewer or knife and pour the lemon syrup over the cake. Yummy

Lamond, Angus I.

478

Comparisons of seed longevity under simulated aging and genebank storage conditions using brassicaceae seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds survive for years under dry conditions but then viability crashes without warning. Efforts to provide high quality seeds to customers, breed longer-living seeds, or to investigate the underlying causes of deterioration during storage prompt the need for a reliable measure of the longevity phe...

479

Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) was introduced for the first time in Chile in 2008 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and also as high omega-3-containing seed oil for the salmon feed industry. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum seeding date to maximize camelina seed yield in South Central Chile. The experiment was conducted under dryland conditions

Marisol Berti; Rosemarie Wilckens; Susana Fischer; Alejandro Solis; Burton Johnson

2011-01-01

480

``From seed-to-seed'' experiment with wheat plants under space-flight conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal with plant experiments in microgravity is to achieve a complete life cycle, the ``seed-to-seed experiment''. Some Soviet attempts to reach this goal are described, notably an experiment with the tiny mustard, Arabidopsis thaliana, in the Phyton 3 device on Salyut 7. Normal seeds were produced although yields were reduced and development was delayed. Several other experiments have

A. Mashinsky; I. Ivanova; T. Derendyaeva; G. Nechitailo; F. Salisbury

1994-01-01

481

Seed priming enhances emergence, yield, and quality of direct-seeded rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

solution was found to be better for vigor enhancement than other priming strategies. Although seed priming tech- niques have been found effective for better germination and seed- ling establishment in rice under controlled conditions (Basra et al 2005, Farooq et al 2006), and al- though some success in enhancing the performance of direct-seeded rice has been reported (Du and Tuong

M. Farooq; S. M. A. Basra; Hafeez Ur-Rehman

2009-01-01

482

Intrapopulation variation in Abutilon theophrasti seed mass and its relationship to seed germinability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between seed mass variation and germinability in ten Abutilon theophrasti Medic. plants from a single agricultural population was examined under controlled environmental conditions. Seeds were collected in the autumn of 1995 and dry-stored in paper bags at 4°C until the start of trials in the spring of 1998. For each plant, between 549 and 1000 randomly selected seeds

Hameed A. Baloch; Antonio DiTommaso; Alan K. Watson

2001-01-01

483

Two-phase seed dispersal: linking the effects of frugivorous birds and seed-caching rodents.  

PubMed

Frugivorous birds disperse the seeds of many fruit-bearing plants, but the fate of seeds after defecation or regurgitation is often unknown. Some rodents gather and scatter hoard seeds, and some of these may be overlooked, germinate, and establish plants. We show that these two disparate modes of seed dispersal are linked in some plants. Rodents removed large (>25 mg) seeds from simulated bird feces (pseudofeces) at rates of 8-50%/day and scatter hoarded them in soil. Ants (Formica sibylla) also harvested some seeds and carried them to their nests. Rodents carried seeds 2.5+/-3.2 m to cache sites (maximum 12 m) and buried seeds at 8+/-7 mm depth. Enclosure studies suggest that yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) made the caches. In spring, some seeds germinated from rodent caches and established seedlings, but no seedlings established directly from pseudofeces. This form of two-phase seed dispersal is important because each phase offers different benefits to plants. Frugivory by birds permits relatively long-range dispersal and potential colonization of new sites, whereas rodent caching moves seeds from exposed, low-quality sites (bird feces on the ground surface) to a soil environment that may help maintain seed viability and promote successful seedling establishment. PMID:15959820

Vander Wall, Stephen B; Kuhn, Kellie M; Gworek, Jennifer R

2005-09-01

484

Converting Frequency Responses to Daily Frequency  

Cancer.gov

Frequency information on the DSQ in NHANES 2009-2010 was collected using a rate and time unit (e.g., 3 times per week). A different response format consisting of a set number of frequency categories is used in the self-administered paper questionnaire (link to questionnaire) ,. In both cases, the frequency responses are converted to a common unit of time, i.e. times per day.

485

The seeded growth of graphene  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we demonstrate the seeded growth of graphene under a plasma chemical vapor deposition condition. First, we fabricate graphene nanopowders (~5?nm) by ball-milling commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The graphene nanoparticles were subsequently subject to a direct current plasma generated in a 100?Torr 10%CH4 - 90%H2 gas mixture. The plasma growth enlarged, over one hour, the nuclei to graphene sheets larger than one hundred nm2 in area. Characterization by electron and X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images provide evidence for the presence of monolayer graphene sheets. PMID:25022816

Lee, Jae-Kap; Lee, Sohyung; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Min, Bong-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Il; Park, Yeseul; John, Phillip

2014-01-01

486

Cytokinins in Seeds of Pumpkin  

PubMed Central

Extracts of seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) contain three chromatographically distinguishable cytokinins which are held on Dowex 50-W and are extractable by ethanol and n-butanol. Two of the active factors are precipitable by silver nitrate at acidic pH. The chromatographic behavior and the spectral characteristics of one of these cytokinins are similar to those of zeatin. However, the RF values of the other two active compounds do not match with those of any of the known natural cytokinins. PMID:16657272

Gupta, Geeta R. P.; Maheshwari, S. C.

1970-01-01

487

The seeded growth of graphene.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrate the seeded growth of graphene under a plasma chemical vapor deposition condition. First, we fabricate graphene nanopowders (~5 nm) by ball-milling commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The graphene nanoparticles were subsequently subject to a direct current plasma generated in a 100 Torr 10%CH4 - 90%H2 gas mixture. The plasma growth enlarged, over one hour, the nuclei to graphene sheets larger than one hundred nm(2) in area. Characterization by electron and X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images provide evidence for the presence of monolayer graphene sheets. PMID:25022816

Lee, Jae-Kap; Lee, Sohyung; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Min, Bong-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Il; Park, Yeseul; John, Phillip

2014-01-01

488

The seeded growth of graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate the seeded growth of graphene under a plasma chemical vapor deposition condition. First, we fabricate graphene nanopowders (~5 nm) by ball-milling commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The graphene nanoparticles were subsequently subject to a direct current plasma generated in a 100 Torr 10%CH4 - 90%H2 gas mixture. The plasma growth enlarged, over one hour, the nuclei to graphene sheets larger than one hundred nm2 in area. Characterization by electron and X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images provide evidence for the presence of monolayer graphene sheets.

Lee, Jae-Kap; Lee, Sohyung; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Min, Bong-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Il; Park, Yeseul; John, Phillip

2014-07-01

489

Morphology, physiology and environmental effects of triploid watermelon seed germination  

E-print Network

-part approach to the problem. First, the morphology of the seed coat was examined. In the morphology section, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the basic structural differences in the seed coat. Seed components characteristics were also...

Grange, Stacie Lee

2001-01-01

490

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2013-01-01

491

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2014-01-01

492

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2010-01-01

493

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2012-01-01

494

7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53...FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of...201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity...

2011-01-01

495

7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton....

2011-01-01

496

7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton....

2012-01-01

497

7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton....

2014-01-01

498

7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton....

2013-01-01

499

7 CFR 457.108 - Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. 457.108...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.108 Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. The sunflower seed crop insurance provisions for the...

2012-01-01

500

7 CFR 457.108 - Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. 457.108...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.108 Sunflower seed crop insurance provisions. The sunflower seed crop insurance provisions for the...

2013-01-01