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Sample records for frequency tuning functions

  1. Tuning the work function of graphene by nitrogen plasma treatment with different radio-frequency powers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jian-Jhou; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2014-06-09

    Graphene prepared by the chemical vapor deposition method was treated with nitrogen plasma under different radio-frequency (rf) power conditions in order to experimentally study the change in the work function. Control of the rf power could change the work function of graphene from 4.91 eV to 4.37 eV. It is shown that the increased rf power may lead to the increased number of graphitic nitrogen, increasing the electron concentration, and shifting the Fermi level to higher energy. The ability to controllably tune the work function of graphene is essential for optimizing the efficiency of optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  2. Spatial frequency tuning functions and contrast sensitivity at different eccentricities in the visual field

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.W.; Aine, C.J.; Flynn, E.R.; Wood, C.C.

    1996-07-01

    The human luminance spatial frequency contrast sensitivity function (CSF) has been well studied using psychophysical measurements by detecting spatial frequency (SF) grating patterns at threshold. Threshold CSFs at different eccentricities have proven to be quite useful in both basic and clinical vision research. However, near threshold, the CSF is measured at a linear area of the saturating contrast-response curve. In contrast, most of our everyday vision may be at suprathreshold levels, and thus may function most of the time at the nonlinear area of the contrast-response curve. In this study, in order to better characterize the CSF at normal contrast levels, we measured the SF tuning functions as well as the CR functions at different suprathreshold contrast levels and different eccentricities of the visual field using noninvasive MEG techniques. In this study, in addition to peak analysis, we have developed more reliable averaged power analysis methods where the average power can be calculated from the entire waveforms.

  3. Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Olsson, Roy H.

    2016-02-23

    Apparatuses and methods for tuning center frequencies are described herein. Examples of tuning described herein including tuning using feedback from the resonator. Variable gain feedback for tuning of acoustic wave resonators is provided in some examples. An example apparatus may include a resonator and a feedback loop. The resonator may be configured to receive a tuning signal and to provide a feedback signal. The feedback signal may be based on the tuning signal. The feedback loop may be configured to receive the feedback signal from the resonator. The feedback loop further may be configured to provide the tuning signal to actively tune a center frequency of the resonator. The tuning signal may be based on the feedback signal.

  4. The brain frequency tuning function for facial emotion discrimination: An ssVEP study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Maria; Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials have only been applied recently to the study of face perception. We used this method to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of expression perception in the human brain and test the prediction that, as in the case of identity perception, the optimal frequency for facial expression would also be in the range of 5-6 Hz. We presented facial expressions at different flickering frequencies (2-8 Hz) to human observers while recording their brain electrical activity. Our modified adaptation paradigm contrasted blocks with varying expressions versus blocks with a constant neutral expression, while facial identity was kept constant. The presentation of different expressions created a larger steady-state response only at 5 Hz, corresponding to a cycle of 200 ms, over right occipito-temporal electrodes. Source localization using a time-domain analysis showed that the effect localized to the right occipito-temporal cortex, including the superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus. PMID:27096944

  5. Stay tuned: active amplification tunes tree cricket ears to track temperature-dependent song frequency.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Natasha; Pollack, Gerald; Mason, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Tree cricket males produce tonal songs, used for mate attraction and male-male interactions. Active mechanics tunes hearing to conspecific song frequency. However, tree cricket song frequency increases with temperature, presenting a problem for tuned listeners. We show that the actively amplified frequency increases with temperature, thus shifting mechanical and neuronal auditory tuning to maintain a match with conspecific song frequency. Active auditory processes are known from several taxa, but their adaptive function has rarely been demonstrated. We show that tree crickets harness active processes to ensure that auditory tuning remains matched to conspecific song frequency, despite changing environmental conditions and signal characteristics. Adaptive tuning allows tree crickets to selectively detect potential mates or rivals over large distances and is likely to bestow a strong selective advantage by reducing mate-finding effort and facilitating intermale interactions. PMID:27122007

  6. Spatiotemporal frequency and speed tuning in the owl visual wulst.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lucas; Baron, Jerome

    2009-10-01

    The avian visual wulst is hodologically equivalent to the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1). In contrast to most birds, owls have a massive visual wulst, which shares striking functional similarities with V1. To provide a better understanding of how motion is processed within this area, we used sinusoidal gratings to characterize the spatiotemporal frequency and speed tuning profiles of 131 neurones recorded from awake burrowing owls. Cells were found to be clearly tuned to both spatial and temporal frequencies, and in a way that is similar to what has been reported in the striate cortex of primates and carnivores. Our results also suggest the presence of spatial frequency tuning domains in the wulst. Speed tuning was assessed by several methods devised to measure the degree of dependence between spatial and temporal frequency tuning. Although many neurones were found to be independently tuned, a significant proportion of cells showed at least some degree of dependence, compatible with the idea that some kind of initial transformation towards an explicit representation of speed is being carried out by the owl wulst. Interestingly, under certain constraints, a higher incidence of spatial frequency-invariant speed tuned profiles was obtained by combining our experimentally measured responses using a recent cortical model of speed tuning. Overall, our findings reinforce the notion that, like V1, the owl wulst is an important initial stage for motion processing, a function that is usually attributed to areas of the tectofugal pathway in lateral-eyed birds. PMID:19788573

  7. ABR frequency tuning curves in dolphins.

    PubMed

    Supin, A Y; Popov, V V; Klishin, V O

    1993-11-01

    Tone-tone masking was used to determine auditory brain-stem response tuning curves in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in a simultaneous-masking paradigm. The Q10 of the curves was as large as 16-19 in the frequency range 64-128 kHz. In the range 45-16 kHz, Q10 decreased proportionally to the frequency with the bandwidth of the curves being constant, about 3.5-4 kHz at the 10-dB level. Tuning curves below 45 kHz are supposed to reflect broad spectral bandwidth of the probe's effective part which is no longer than 0.5 ms, irrespective of actual probe duration. Tuning curves above 64 kHz are supposed to reflect the real frequency tuning of the dolphin's auditory system. PMID:8263842

  8. Turbine bucket natural frequency tuning rib

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John Zhiqiang; Norton, Paul Francis; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Jacala, Ariel Caesar-Prepena

    2002-01-01

    A tuning rib is added preferably in the aft cavity of a cored turbine bucket to alter the bucket's natural frequencies. The tuning rib may be a solid rib or a segmented rib and is particularly suited for altering high order frequency modes such as 2T, 4F and 1-3S. As such, detrimental crossings of natural bucket frequencies and gas turbine stimuli can be avoided to thereby improve the reliability of a gas turbine without impacting other features of the bucket that are important to the performance of the gas turbine.

  9. Does Face Inversion Change Spatial Frequency Tuning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenbockel, Verena; Fiset, Daniel; Chauvin, Alan; Blais, Caroline; Arguin, Martin; Tanaka, James W.; Bub, Daniel N.; Gosselin, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined spatial frequency (SF) tuning of upright and inverted face identification using an SF variant of the Bubbles technique (F. Gosselin & P. G. Schyns, 2001). In Experiment 1, they validated the SF Bubbles technique in a plaid detection task. In Experiments 2a-c, the SFs used for identifying upright and inverted inner facial…

  10. Psychophysical tuning curves at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Ifat; Plack, Christopher J.

    2005-10-01

    For most normal-hearing listeners, absolute thresholds increase rapidly above about 16 kHz. One hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of the hearing-threshold curve is imposed by the transmission characteristics of the middle ear, which attenuates the sound input [Masterton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45, 966-985 (1969)]. An alternative hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of hearing is imposed by the tonotopicity of the cochlea [Ruggero and Temchin, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13206-13210 (2002)]. The aim of this study was to test these hypotheses. Forward-masked psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were derived for signal frequencies of 12-17.5 kHz. For the highest signal frequencies, the high-frequency slopes of some PTCs were steeper than the slope of the hearing-threshold curve. The results also show that the human auditory system displays frequency selectivity for characteristic frequencies (CFs) as high as 17 kHz, above the frequency at which absolute thresholds begin to increase rapidly. The findings suggest that, for CFs up to 17 kHz, the high-frequency limitation in humans is imposed in part by the middle-ear attenuation, and not by the tonotopicity of the cochlea.

  11. Frequency tuning of THz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xifeng; Danylov, Andriy A.; Light, Alexander R.; Waldman, Jerry; Erickson, Neal

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces the continuously tunable THz radiation through sideband generation of a free running and solidnitrogen- cooled THz quantum cascade laser. The 2.324 THz QCL operating in a single longitudinal mode (SLM) in continuous-wave (cw) was mixed with a swept synthesized microwave signal by a THz Schottky-diode-balanced mixer. Through sideband generation, two frequency branches were observed at low and high frequency, characterized with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. At low frequency, the sideband generates frequencies from -50 GHz to +50 GHz. At high frequency, it generates sideband frequencies from 70 GHz to 115 GHz. The total +/-100 GHz tuning range can be further expanded with higher frequency millimeter wave amplifier/multiplier source. The sideband generates total 1 μW of output power at both upper and lower frequency with 200 μW of driven power from the THz QCL, showing a power conversion efficiency of 5 × 10-3. The demonstration of this SM, continuously tunable THz source enables its applications where SM, spatially coherent beam is required.

  12. Automated frequency tuning of SRF cavities at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhary, M.; Doolittle, L.; Lahti, G.; Simrock, S.N.; Terrell, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automated cavity tuning procedure has been implemented in the CEBAF control system to tune the superconducting RF (SRF) cavities to their operating frequency of 1497 MHz. The capture range for coarse tuning algorithm (Burst Mode) is more than 20 cavity bandwidths (5 kHz). The fine tuning algorithm (Sweep Mode) calibrates the phase offset in the detuning angle measurement. This paper describes the implementation of these algorithms and experience of their operation in CEBAF control system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Resonant frequency tuning of an industrial vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, T. T.; Wright, S. W.; Mitcheson, P. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of tuning the resonant frequency of two industrial vibration energy harvesters. The VEH-450 from Ferro Solutions and the PMG17-50 from Perpetuum were tested using discrete reactive electrical loads. The former could be tuned to +0.5 Hz and -2 Hz from its natural resonant frequency of 50.5 Hz at 0.1g. The latter, however, has a broadband output power spectrum that spans ±10 Hz and its output voltage saturates at 7 Vrms, thereby rendering it un-tunable using the method presented here. A comparison of output power between a tuned VEH-450 and an un-tuned PMG17-50, normalised by harvester weight, shows that the former outperforms the latter only at a tuned frequency of 49.8 Hz. A discussion of a resonant frequency tuning circuit that can be fitted to an existing harvester without making modifications to the harvester is presented.

  14. Frequency Tuning Feature of a Reditron Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Genshen; Li, Xiangsheng; Wang, Yong; Li, Chuanlu; Tan, Qimei; Li, Pingping

    1995-08-01

    We report some experimental results which confirm the theoretical analysis of the tuning feature of a reditron oscillator. Here, we produce high power microwave at 10 GHz, and the tuning range of the reditron is 8-13.32 GHz which is controlled by changing both the voltage and the anode-to-cathode separation. We also report a measurement method of the anode-to-cathode distance.

  15. Frequency tuning of piezoelectric energy harvesters by magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ashtari, Waleed; Hunstig, Matthias; Hemsel, Tobias; Sextro, Walter

    2012-03-01

    A piezoelectric energy harvester is an electromechanical device that converts ambient mechanical vibration into electric power. Most existing vibration energy harvesting devices operate effectively at a single frequency only, dictated by the design of the device. This frequency must match the frequency of the host structure vibration. However, real world structural vibrations rarely have a specific constant frequency. Therefore, piezoelectric harvesters that generate usable power across a range of exciting frequencies are required to make this technology commercially viable. Currently known harvester tuning techniques have many limitations, in particular they miss the ability to work during harvester operation and most often cannot perform a precise tuning. This paper describes the design and testing of a vibration energy harvester with tunable resonance frequency, wherein the tuning is accomplished by changing the attraction force between two permanent magnets by adjusting the distance between the magnets. This tuning technique allows the natural frequency to be manipulated before and during operation of the harvester. Furthermore the paper presents a physical description of the frequency tuning effect. The experimental results achieved with a piezoelectric bimorph fit the calculated results very well. The calculation and experimental results show that using this tuning technique the natural frequency of the harvester can be varied efficiently within a wide range: in the test setup, the natural frequency of the piezoelectric bimorph could be increased by more than 70%.

  16. Frequency Tuning of Hearing in the Beluga Whale.

    PubMed

    Sysueva, Evgeniya V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    Data on frequency tuning in odontocetes are contradictory: different authors have reported filter qualities from 2 to almost 50. In this study, frequency tuning was measured in a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) using a rippled-noise test stimulus in conjunction with the auditory evoked potential (AEP) technique. The response to ripple reversions was considered to indicate resolvability of the ripple pattern. The limit of ripple-pattern resolution ranged from 20 to 32 ripples per octave (rpo). A model of interaction of the ripple spectrum with frequency-tuned filters suggests that this resolution limit requires a filter quality of 29-46. PMID:26611077

  17. Dynamics of spatial frequency tuning in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vreysen, Samme; Zhang, Bin; Chino, Yuzo M.; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal spatial frequency tuning in primary visual cortex (V1) substantially changes over time. In both primates and cats, a shift of the neuron's preferred spatial frequency has been observed from low frequencies early in the response to higher frequencies later in the response. In most cases, this shift is accompanied by a decreased tuning bandwidth. Recently, the mouse has gained attention as a suitable animal model to study the basic mechanisms of visual information processing, demonstrating similarities in basic neuronal response properties between rodents and highly visual mammals. Here we report the results of extracellular single-unit recordings in the anesthetized mouse where we analyzed the dynamics of spatial frequency tuning in V1 and the lateromedial area LM within the lateral extrastriate area V2L. We used a reverse-correlation technique to demonstrate that, as in monkeys and cats, the preferred spatial frequency of mouse V1 neurons shifted from low to higher frequencies later in the response. However, this was not correlated with a clear selectivity increase or enhanced suppression of responses to low spatial frequencies. These results suggest that the neuronal connections responsible for the temporal shift in spatial frequency tuning may considerably differ between mice and monkeys. PMID:22402662

  18. Squeezing Alters Frequency Tuning of WGM Optical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical squeezing has been found to alter the frequency tuning of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator that has an elliptical shape and is made of lithium niobate. It may be possible to exploit this effect to design reconfigurable optical filters for optical communications and for scientific experiments involving quantum electrodynamics. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the squeezing-induced alteration of frequency tuning: The spectrum of a WGM resonator is represented by a comblike plot of intensity versus frequency. Each peak of the comblike plot corresponds to an electromagnetic mode represented by an integer mode number, and the modes are grouped into sets represented by integer mode indices. Because lithium niobate is an electro-optically active material, the WGM resonator can be tuned (that is, the resonance frequencies can be shifted) by applying a suitable bias potential. The frequency shift of each mode is quantified by a tuning rate defined as the ratio between the frequency shift and the applied potential. In the absence of squeezing, all modes exhibit the same tuning rate. This concludes the background information. It has been demonstrated experimentally that when the resonator is squeezed along part of either of its two principal axes, tuning rates differ among the groups of modes represented by different indices (see figure). The differences in tuning rates could be utilized to configure the resonance spectrum to obtain a desired effect; for example, through a combination of squeezing and electrical biasing, two resonances represented by different mode indices could be set at a specified frequency difference something that could not be done through electrical biasing alone.

  19. Estimating cochlear tuning dependence on stimulus level and frequency from the delay of otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata

    2016-08-01

    An objective technique based on the time-frequency analysis of otoacoustic emissions is proposed to get fast and stable estimates of cochlear tuning. Time-frequency analysis allows one to get stable measurements of the delay/frequency function, which is theoretically expected to be a function of cochlear tuning. Theoretical considerations and numerical solutions of a nonlinear cochlear model suggest that the average phase-gradient delay of the otoacoustic emission single-reflection components, weighted, for each frequency, by the amplitude of the corresponding wavelet coefficients, approximately scales as the square root of the cochlear quality factor. The application of the method to human stimulus-frequency and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions shows that tuning decreases approximately by a factor of 2, as the stimulus level increases by 30 dB in a moderate stimulus level range. The results also show a steady increase of tuning with increasing frequency, by a factor of 2 between 1 and 5 kHz. This last result is model-dependent, because it relies on the assumption that cochlear scale-invariance breaking is only due to the frequency dependence of tuning. The application of the method to the reflection component of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, separated using time-frequency filtering, is complicated by the necessity of effectively canceling the distortion component. PMID:27586727

  20. Frequency tuning with RFQ temperature in China ADS Injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Wang; Jian-Long, Huang; Xiao-Qi, Zhang; Bin, Zhang; Yuan, He; Zhou-Li, Zhang; Ai-Min, Shi

    2016-03-01

    A 162.5 MHz four-vane radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) accelerator has been developed at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) for Injector II of the China ADS linac. The RFQ will operate in continuous wave mode at 100 kW. For the designed 10 mA beam, the additional RF power dissipation will induce a very large reflection of power. A water-temperature controlling system will be used to reduce the power reflection by tuning the frequency of the RFQ. The tuning capability of the water temperature is studied under different configurations of cooling water. Simulations and experiment are compared in this paper. The experimental results agree well with simulation using ANSYS. This can be used as a reference to tune the RFQ in beam commissioning. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91026001)

  1. Calibrating the frequency of tuning forks by means of Lissajous figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quereda, Jorge; Ramón, Marina; Silva, Blanca; Hinarejos, Juan José; Rodrigo, José Gabriel; Farías, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    We produce Lissajous figures by modulating a laser beam along two perpendicular directions by means of two tuning forks. When the ratio of the resonant frequencies of the tuning forks is a small rational number, Lissajous figures are clearly resolved on a screen. Because the ratio of frequencies is never exactly a rational number, a phase drift of the Lissajous figures is observed as a function of time. If the period of this phase drift is measured, variations in the resonant frequencies as small as 0.01 Hz can be detected.

  2. Dynamic functional tuning of nonlinear cortical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, Martin

    2006-03-01

    The mammalian neocortex is a highly complex and nonlinear dynamic system. One of its most prominent features is an omnipresent spontaneous neuronal activity. Here the possible functional role of this global background for cognitive flexibility is studied in a prototypic mean-field model area. It is demonstrated that the level of global background current efficiently controls the stimulus-response threshold and the stability and properties of short-term memory states. Moreover, it can dynamically gate arbitrary cortical subnetworks, when applied to parts of the area as a weak bias signal. These results suggest a central functional role of the level of background activation: the dynamic functional tuning of neocortical circuits.

  3. Automatic tuning of the reinforcement function

    SciTech Connect

    Touzet, C.; Santos, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work is to present a method that helps tuning the reinforcement function parameters in a reinforcement learning approach. Since the proposal of neural based implementations for the reinforcement learning paradigm (which reduced learning time and memory requirements to realistic values) reinforcement functions have become the critical components. Using a general definition for reinforcement functions, the authors solve, in a particular case, the so called exploration versus exploitation dilemma through the careful computation of the RF parameter values. They propose an algorithm to compute, during the exploration part of the learning phase, an estimate for the parameter values. Experiments with the mobile robot Nomad 200 validate their proposals.

  4. Size tuning in the absence of spatial frequency tuning in object recognition.

    PubMed

    Fiser, J; Subramaniam, S; Biederman, I

    2001-07-01

    How do we attend to objects at a variety of sizes as we view our visual world? Because of an advantage in identification of lowpass over highpass filtered patterns, as well as large over small images, a number of theorists have assumed that size-independent recognition is achieved by spatial frequency (SF) based coarse-to-fine tuning. We found that the advantage of large sizes or low SFs was lost when participants attempted to identify a target object (specified verbally) somewhere in the middle of a sequence of 40 images of objects, each shown for only 72 ms, as long as the target and distractors were the same size or spatial frequency (unfiltered or low or high bandpassed). When targets were of a different size or scale than the distractors, a marked advantage (pop out) was observed for large (unfiltered) and low SF targets against small (unfiltered) and high SF distractors, respectively, and a marked decrement for the complementary conditions. Importantly, this pattern of results for large and small images was unaffected by holding absolute or relative SF content constant over the different sizes and it could not be explained by simple luminance- or contrast-based pattern masking. These results suggest that size/scale tuning in object recognition was accomplished over the first several images (<576 ms) in the sequence and that the size tuning was implemented by a mechanism sensitive to spatial extent rather than to variations in spatial frequency. PMID:11412885

  5. Natural Focusing Inspection for Pipes by Frequency Tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Rose, Joseph L.; Gavigan, Brian J.

    2005-04-01

    The energy of ultrasonic guided waves may be focused in pipes by utilizing a partially loaded excitation. This focusing technique is called "natural focusing", which can be used to improve a defect's sensitivity to ultrasonic guided waves. However, it is possible that there are a few natural focal points within the inspection range at a particular frequency. Consequently, some defects could be missed. The location of the natural focal points, however, changes with frequency. This phenomenon was theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed. In this paper, the natural focusing inspection technique is investigated. Although a very limited circumferential length might be covered by a naturally focused profile at a single excitation frequency, the entire cross sectional area of the pipe can be inspected when a range of frequencies is employed. Hence, the natural focusing inspection technique can sufficiently inspect the entire pipe with frequency tuning.

  6. Pump wavelength tuning of optical parametric oscillations and frequency mixing in KTiOAsO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G.; Murray, James T.; Petrin, Roger R.; Powell, Richard C.; Loiacono, D. N.; Loiacono, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of alexandrite laser-pumped optical parametric oscillators are reported for potassium titanyl arsenate. Near-infrared tuning curves and slope efficiencies were measured as functions of pump wavelength and pump power. In addition, sum frequency mixing of red and infrared wavelengths to produce green emission is also reported.

  7. Dynamic frequency tuning of electric and magnetic metamaterial response

    DOEpatents

    O'Hara, John F; Averitt, Richard; Padilla, Willie; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-09-16

    A geometrically modifiable resonator is comprised of a resonator disposed on a substrate, and a means for geometrically modifying the resonator. The geometrically modifiable resonator can achieve active optical and/or electronic control of the frequency response in metamaterials and/or frequency selective surfaces, potentially with sub-picosecond response times. Additionally, the methods taught here can be applied to discrete geometrically modifiable circuit components such as inductors and capacitors. Principally, controlled conductivity regions, using either reversible photodoping or voltage induced depletion activation, are used to modify the geometries of circuit components, thus allowing frequency tuning of resonators without otherwise affecting the bulk substrate electrical properties. The concept is valid over any frequency range in which metamaterials are designed to operate.

  8. Neural tuning matches frequency-dependent time differences between the ears.

    PubMed

    Benichoux, Victor; Fontaine, Bertrand; Franken, Tom P; Karino, Shotaro; Joris, Philip X; Brette, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The time it takes a sound to travel from source to ear differs between the ears and creates an interaural delay. It varies systematically with spatial direction and is generally modeled as a pure time delay, independent of frequency. In acoustical recordings, we found that interaural delay varies with frequency at a fine scale. In physiological recordings of midbrain neurons sensitive to interaural delay, we found that preferred delay also varies with sound frequency. Similar observations reported earlier were not incorporated in a functional framework. We find that the frequency dependence of acoustical and physiological interaural delays are matched in key respects. This suggests that binaural neurons are tuned to acoustical features of ecological environments, rather than to fixed interaural delays. Using recordings from the nerve and brainstem we show that this tuning may emerge from neurons detecting coincidences between input fibers that are mistuned in frequency. PMID:25915620

  9. Spatial cue reliability drives frequency tuning in the barn Owl's midbrain.

    PubMed

    Cazettes, Fanny; Fischer, Brian J; Pena, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    The robust representation of the environment from unreliable sensory cues is vital for the efficient function of the brain. However, how the neural processing captures the most reliable cues is unknown. The interaural time difference (ITD) is the primary cue to localize sound in horizontal space. ITD is encoded in the firing rate of neurons that detect interaural phase difference (IPD). Due to the filtering effect of the head, IPD for a given location varies depending on the environmental context. We found that, in barn owls, at each location there is a frequency range where the head filtering yields the most reliable IPDs across contexts. Remarkably, the frequency tuning of space-specific neurons in the owl's midbrain varies with their preferred sound location, matching the range that carries the most reliable IPD. Thus, frequency tuning in the owl's space-specific neurons reflects a higher-order feature of the code that captures cue reliability. PMID:25531067

  10. Tuning of liquid-crystal birefringence using a square ac variable frequency voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Rachid; Falih Bendimerad, Djalal; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine; Vinouze, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that the birefringence of the liquid-crystal cell (LCC) can be varied by applying different frequency values of a single applied ac square voltage. For the experimental evaluation of the birefringence, associated with a certain wavelength λ, as a function of the frequency F LCC of the electrical signal applied to the LCC, we use, for the first time to our knowledge, what we call here a frequency-dependent transmission technique. It consists in measuring the transmission responses between crossed and parallel polarizers as a function of the frequency F LCC. Experimental tests were carried out using a 7 μm-thick E63 nematic LCC and a laser source emitting at λ = 1.55 μm with a launch power of -3 dBm. The tuning voltage V LCC applied to the LCC is an alternative square wave electrical signal whose frequency ranges from 0.5 to 15 kHz. The peak to peak amplitude of the electrical signal is 5 V. The curve of the measured variations of the optical path difference of the LCC versus the frequency F LCC has a positive slope. Application to the tuning of the center wavelength of the transmission response of a one stage hybrid birefringent filter is shown as a proof-of-principle test.

  11. Tuning of MEMS Devices using Evolutionary Computation and Open-loop Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Fink, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Michael I.; Peay, Chris; Oks, Boris; Terrile, Richard; Yee, Karl

    2005-01-01

    We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation that has the capacity to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning and, furthermore, to find the optimally tuned configuration for this state of increased sensitivity. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation.

  12. Frequency selectivity of the human cochlea: Suppression tuning of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Manley, Geoffrey A; van Dijk, Pim

    2016-06-01

    Frequency selectivity is a key functional property of the inner ear and since hearing research began, the frequency resolution of the human ear has been a central question. In contrast to animal studies, which permit invasive recording of neural activity, human studies must rely on indirect methods to determine hearing selectivity. Psychophysical studies, which used masking of a tone by other sounds, indicate a modest frequency selectivity in humans. By contrast, estimates using the phase delays of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAE) predict a remarkably high selectivity, unique among mammals. An alternative measure of cochlear frequency selectivity are suppression tuning curves of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE). Several animal studies show that these measures are in excellent agreement with neural frequency selectivity. Here we contribute a large data set from normal-hearing young humans on suppression tuning curves (STC) of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE). The frequency selectivities of human STC measured near threshold levels agree with the earlier, much lower, psychophysical estimates. They differ, however, from the typical patterns seen in animal auditory nerve data in that the selectivity is remarkably independent of frequency. In addition, SOAE are suppressed by higher-level tones in narrow frequency bands clearly above the main suppression frequencies. These narrow suppression bands suggest interactions between the suppressor tone and a cochlear standing wave corresponding to the SOAE frequency being suppressed. The data show that the relationship between pre-neural mechanical processing in the cochlea and neural coding at the hair-cell/auditory nerve synapse needs to be reconsidered. PMID:27139323

  13. Tuning of SFOAEs Evoked by Low-Frequency Tones Is Not Compatible with Localized Emission Generation.

    PubMed

    Charaziak, Karolina K; Siegel, Jonathan H

    2015-06-01

    Stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) appear to be well suited for assessing frequency selectivity because, at least on theoretical grounds, they originate over a restricted region of the cochlea near the characteristic place of the evoking tone. In support of this view, we previously found good agreement between SFOAE suppression tuning curves (SF-STCs) and a control measure of frequency selectivity (compound action potential suppression tuning curves (CAP-STC)) for frequencies above 3 kHz in chinchillas. For lower frequencies, however, SF-STCs and were over five times broader than the CAP-STCs and demonstrated more high-pass rather than narrow band-pass filter characteristics. Here, we test the hypothesis that the broad tuning of low-frequency SF-STCs is because emissions originate over a broad region of the cochlea extending basal to the characteristic place of the evoking tone. We removed contributions of the hypothesized basally located SFOAE sources by either pre-suppressing them with a high-frequency interference tone (IT; 4.2, 6.2, or 9.2 kHz at 75 dB sound pressure level (SPL)) or by inducing acoustic trauma at high frequencies (exposures to 8, 5, and lastly 3-kHz tones at 110-115 dB SPL). The 1-kHz SF-STCs and CAP-STCs were measured for baseline, IT present and following the acoustic trauma conditions in anesthetized chinchillas. The IT and acoustic trauma affected SF-STCs in an almost indistinguishable way. The SF-STCs changed progressively from a broad high-pass to narrow band-pass shape as the frequency of the IT was lowered and for subsequent exposures to lower-frequency tones. Both results were in agreement with the "basal sources" hypothesis. In contrast, CAP-STCs were not changed by either manipulation, indicating that neither the IT nor acoustic trauma affected the 1-kHz characteristic place. Thus, unlike CAPs, SFOAEs cannot be considered as a place-specific measure of cochlear function at low frequencies, at least in chinchillas. PMID

  14. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghalai, John S.; Gao, Simon; Lee, Hee Yoon; Raphael, Patrick D.; Groves, Andrew K.; Zuo, Jian; Applegate, Brian E.

    2015-12-01

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  15. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    SciTech Connect

    Oghalai, John S.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Gao, Simon; Lee, Hee Yoon; Groves, Andrew K.; Zuo, Jian; Applegate, Brian E.

    2015-12-31

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  16. Tuning the work-function via strong coupling.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, James A; Liscio, Andrea; Schwartz, Tal; Canaguier-Durand, Antoine; Genet, Cyriaque; Palermo, Vincenzo; Samorì, Paolo; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    The tuning of the molecular material work-function via strong coupling with vacuum electromagnetic fields is demonstrated. Kelvin probe microscopy extracts the surface potential (SP) changes of a photochromic molecular film on plasmonic hole arrays and inside Fabry-Perot cavities. Modulating the optical cavity resonance or the photochromic film effectively tunes the work-function, suggesting a new tool for tailoring material properties. PMID:23463588

  17. Avalanche-diode oscillator circuit with tuning at multiple frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D.; Ablow, C. M.; Lee, R. E.; Karp, A.; Chambers, D. R.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed theoretical analysis of three different modes or types of high efficiency oscillation in a PIN diode are presented. For the TRAPATT mode in a PIN diode, it is shown that a traveling avalanche zone is not necessary to generate a dense trapped plasma. An economical computer program for TRAPATT oscillations in a PIN diode is described. Typical results of diode power, dc-to-RF conversion efficiency, and required circuit impedances are presented for several different current waveforms. A semianalytical solution for a second type of high efficiency mode in a PIN diode is derived assuming a rectangular current waveform. A quasi-static approximation is employed to derive a semianalytical solution for the voltage across a PIN diode in a third mode, where avalanching occurs during a major portion of a half cycle. Calculations for this mode indicate that the power increases proportionally to the magnitude of the drive current with a small decrease in efficiency relative to the ordinary TRAPATT mode. An analytical solution is also given for a PIN diode, where it is assumed that the ionization coefficient is a step function. It is shown that the step-ionization approximation permits one to draw possible patterns of avalanche region in the depletion layer as a function of time. A rule governing admissible patterns is derived and an example solution given for one admissible pattern. Preliminary experimental results on the high-efficiency oscillations are presented and discussed. Two different experimental circuits, which used channel-dropping filters to provide independent harmonic tuning, are described. Simpler circuits used to produce high-efficiency oscillations are discussed. Results of experiments using inexpensive Fairchild FD300 diodes are given.

  18. Frequency Response and Gap Tuning for Nonlinear Electrical Oscillator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Harish S.; Vaz, Garnet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study nonlinear electrical oscillator networks, the smallest example of which consists of a voltage-dependent capacitor, an inductor, and a resistor driven by a pure tone source. By allowing the network topology to be that of any connected graph, such circuits generalize spatially discrete nonlinear transmission lines/lattices that have proven useful in high-frequency analog devices. For such networks, we develop two algorithms to compute the steady-state response when a subset of nodes are driven at the same fixed frequency. The algorithms we devise are orders of magnitude more accurate and efficient than stepping towards the steady-state using a standard numerical integrator. We seek to enhance a given network's nonlinear behavior by altering the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, i.e., the resonances of the linearized system. We develop a Newton-type method that solves for the network inductances such that the graph Laplacian achieves a desired set of eigenvalues; this method enables one to move the eigenvalues while keeping the network topology fixed. Running numerical experiments using three different random graph models, we show that shrinking the gap between the graph Laplacian's first two eigenvalues dramatically improves a network's ability to (i) transfer energy to higher harmonics, and (ii) generate large-amplitude signals. Our results shed light on the relationship between a network's structure, encoded by the graph Laplacian, and its function, defined in this case by the presence of strongly nonlinear effects in the frequency response. PMID:24223751

  19. Broad electrical tuning of plasmonic nanoantennas at visible frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thang B.; Mikkelsen, Maiken H.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of electrical tuning of plasmon resonances of optical nanopatch antennas over a wide wavelength range. The antennas consist of silver nanocubes separated from a gold film by a thin 8 nm polyelectrolyte spacer layer. By using ionic liquid and indium tin oxide coated glass as a top electrode, we demonstrate dynamic and reversible tuning of the plasmon resonance over 100 nm in the visible wavelength range using low applied voltages between -3.0 V and 2.8 V. The electrical potential is applied across the nanoscale gap causing changes in the gap thickness and dielectric environment which, in turn, modifies the plasmon resonance. The observed tuning range is greater than the full-width-at-half-maximum of the plasmon resonance, resulting in a tuning figure of merit of 1.05 and a tuning contrast greater than 50%. Our results provide an avenue to create active and reconfigurable integrated nanophotonic components for applications in optoelectronics and sensing.

  20. Spatial cue reliability drives frequency tuning in the barn Owl's midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Cazettes, Fanny; Fischer, Brian J; Pena, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    The robust representation of the environment from unreliable sensory cues is vital for the efficient function of the brain. However, how the neural processing captures the most reliable cues is unknown. The interaural time difference (ITD) is the primary cue to localize sound in horizontal space. ITD is encoded in the firing rate of neurons that detect interaural phase difference (IPD). Due to the filtering effect of the head, IPD for a given location varies depending on the environmental context. We found that, in barn owls, at each location there is a frequency range where the head filtering yields the most reliable IPDs across contexts. Remarkably, the frequency tuning of space-specific neurons in the owl's midbrain varies with their preferred sound location, matching the range that carries the most reliable IPD. Thus, frequency tuning in the owl's space-specific neurons reflects a higher-order feature of the code that captures cue reliability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04854.001 PMID:25531067

  1. Electronic structure tuning of diamondoids through functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rander, Torbjörn; Staiger, Matthias; Richter, Robert; Zimmermann, Tobias; Landt, Lasse; Wolter, David; Dahl, Jeremy E.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Tkachenko, Boryslav A.; Fokina, Natalie A.; Schreiner, Peter R.; Möller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in electronic structures induced by chemical functionalization of the five smallest diamondoids using valence photoelectron spectroscopy. Through the variation of three parameters, namely functional group (thiol, hydroxy, and amino), host cluster size (adamantane, diamantane, triamantane, [121]tetramantane, and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane), and functionalization site (apical and medial) we are able to determine to what degree these affect the electronic structures of the overall systems. We show that unlike, for example, in the case of halobenzenes, the ionization potential does not show a linear dependence on the electronegativity of the functional group. Instead, a linear correlation exists between the HOMO-1 ionization potential and the functional group electronegativity. This is due to localization of the HOMO on the functional group and the HOMO-1 on the diamondoid cage. Density functional theory supports our interpretations.

  2. Isotope enrichment by frequency-tripled temperature tuned neodymium laser photolysis of formaldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1977-01-01

    Enrichment of carbon, hydrogen and/or oxygen isotopes by means of isotopically selective photo-predissociation of formaldehyde is achieved by irradiation provided by a frequency-tripled, temperature tuned neodymium laser.

  3. A novel frequency tuned wireless actuator with snake-like motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kewei; Zhu, Qianke; Chai, Yuesheng

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we propose a novel wireless actuator which is composed of magnetostrictive material/copper bi-layer film. The actuator can be controlled to move like a snake bi-directionally along a pipe by tuning the frequency of external magnetic field near its first order resonant frequency. The governing equation for the actuator is established and the vibration mode shape function is derived. Theoretical analysis shows that motion of the actuator is achieved by asymmetric vibration mode shape, specific vibration bending deformation, and effective net total impacting force. The simulation and experimental results well confirm the theoretical analysis. This work provides contribution to the development of wireless micro robots and autonomous magnetostrictive sensors.

  4. Higher-order vibrational mode frequency tuning utilizing fishbone-shaped microelectromechanical systems resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Naoya; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

    2013-04-01

    Resonators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have received considerable attention for their applications for wireless equipment. The requirements for this application include small size, high frequency, wide bandwidth and high portability. However, few MEMS resonators with wide-frequency tuning have been reported. A fishbone-shaped resonator has a resonant frequency with a maximum response that can be changed according to the location and number of several exciting electrodes. Therefore, it can be expected to provide wide-frequency tuning. The resonator has three types of electrostatic forces that can be generated to deform a main beam. We evaluate the vibrational modes caused by each exciting electrodes by comparing simulated results with measured ones. We then successfully demonstrate the frequency tuning of the first to fifth resonant modes by using the algorithm we propose here. The resulting frequency tuning covers 178 to 1746 kHz. In addition, we investigate the suppression of the anchor loss to enhance the Q-factor. An experiment shows that tapered-shaped anchors provide a higher Q-factor than rectangular-shaped anchors. The Q-factor of the resonators supported by suspension beams is also discussed. Because the suspension beams cause complicated vibrational modes for higher frequencies, the enhancement of the Q-factor for high vibrational modes cannot be obtained here. At present, the tapered-anchor resonators are thought to be most suitable for frequency tuning applications.

  5. Low-Frequency Envelope Sensitivity Produces Asymmetric Binaural Tuning Curves

    PubMed Central

    Agapiou, John P.; McAlpine, David

    2008-01-01

    Neurons in the auditory midbrain are sensitive to differences in the timing of sounds at the two ears—an important sound localization cue. We used broadband noise stimuli to investigate the interaural-delay sensitivity of low-frequency neurons in two midbrain nuclei: the inferior colliculus (IC) and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Noise-delay functions showed asymmetries not predicted from a linear dependence on interaural correlation: a stretching along the firing-rate dimension (rate asymmetry), and a skewing along the interaural-delay dimension (delay asymmetry). These asymmetries were produced by an envelope-sensitive component to the response that could not entirely be accounted for by monaural or binaural nonlinearities, instead indicating an enhancement of envelope sensitivity at or after the level of the superior olivary complex. In IC, the skew-like asymmetry was consistent with intermediate-type responses produced by the convergence of ipsilateral peak-type inputs and contralateral trough-type inputs. This suggests a stereotyped pattern of input to the IC. In the course of this analysis, we were also able to determine the contribution of time and phase components to neurons' internal delays. These findings have important consequences for the neural representation of interaural timing differences and interaural correlation—cues critical to the perception of acoustic space. PMID:18753329

  6. Neural Tuning Functions Underlie Both Generalization and Interference.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ian S; Franklin, David W

    2015-01-01

    In sports, the role of backswing is considered critical for generating a good shot, even though it plays no direct role in hitting the ball. We recently demonstrated the scientific basis of this phenomenon by showing that immediate past movement affects the learning and recall of motor memories. This effect occurred regardless of whether the past contextual movement was performed actively, passively, or shown visually. In force field studies, it has been shown that motor memories generalize locally and that the level of compensation decays as a function of movement angle away from the trained movement. Here we examine if the contextual effect of past movement exhibits similar patterns of generalization and whether it can explain behavior seen in interference studies. Using a single force-field learning task, the directional tuning curves of both the prior contextual movement and the subsequent force field adaptive movements were measured. The adaptation movement direction showed strong directional tuning, decaying to zero by 90° relative to the training direction. The contextual movement direction exhibited a similar directional tuning, although the effect was always above 60%. We then investigated the directional tuning of the passive contextual movement using interference tasks, where the contextual movements that uniquely specified the force field direction were separated by ±15° or ±45°. Both groups showed a pronounced tuning effect, which could be well explained by the directional tuning functions for single force fields. Our results show that contextual effect of past movement influences predictive force compensation, even when adaptation does not require contextual information. However, when such past movement contextual information is crucial to the task, such as in an interference study, it plays a strong role in motor memory learning and recall. This work demonstrates that similar tuning responses underlie both generalization of movement direction

  7. Neural Tuning Functions Underlie Both Generalization and Interference

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Ian S.; Franklin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In sports, the role of backswing is considered critical for generating a good shot, even though it plays no direct role in hitting the ball. We recently demonstrated the scientific basis of this phenomenon by showing that immediate past movement affects the learning and recall of motor memories. This effect occurred regardless of whether the past contextual movement was performed actively, passively, or shown visually. In force field studies, it has been shown that motor memories generalize locally and that the level of compensation decays as a function of movement angle away from the trained movement. Here we examine if the contextual effect of past movement exhibits similar patterns of generalization and whether it can explain behavior seen in interference studies. Using a single force-field learning task, the directional tuning curves of both the prior contextual movement and the subsequent force field adaptive movements were measured. The adaptation movement direction showed strong directional tuning, decaying to zero by 90° relative to the training direction. The contextual movement direction exhibited a similar directional tuning, although the effect was always above 60%. We then investigated the directional tuning of the passive contextual movement using interference tasks, where the contextual movements that uniquely specified the force field direction were separated by ±15° or ±45°. Both groups showed a pronounced tuning effect, which could be well explained by the directional tuning functions for single force fields. Our results show that contextual effect of past movement influences predictive force compensation, even when adaptation does not require contextual information. However, when such past movement contextual information is crucial to the task, such as in an interference study, it plays a strong role in motor memory learning and recall. This work demonstrates that similar tuning responses underlie both generalization of movement direction

  8. General model with experimental validation of electrical resonant frequency tuning of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dibin; Roberts, Stephen; Mouille, Thomas; Tudor, Michael J.; Beeby, Stephen P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a general model and its experimental validation for electrically tunable electromagnetic energy harvesters. Electrical tuning relies on the adjustment of the electrical load so that the maximum output power of the energy harvester occurs at a frequency which is different from the mechanical resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Theoretical analysis shows that for this approach to be feasible the electromagnetic vibration energy harvester’s coupling factor must be maximized so that its resonant frequency can be tuned with the minimum decrease of output power. Two different-sized electromagnetic energy harvesters were built and tested to validate the model. Experimentally, the micro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 0.0035 and an untuned resonant frequency of 70.05 Hz. When excited at 30 mg, it was tuned by 0.23 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 4000 nF its effective tuning range is 0.15 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1500 nF. The macro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 552.25 and an untuned resonant frequency of 95.1 Hz and 95.5 Hz when excited at 10 mg and 25 mg, respectively. When excited at 10 mg, it was tuned by 3.8 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of 3.5 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1200 nF. When excited at 25 mg, its resonant frequency was tuned by 4.2 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of about 5 Hz. Experimental results were found to agree with the theoretical analysis to within 10%.

  9. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Molander, W.A.

    1994-03-01

    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  10. Frequency tuning curves of the dolphin's hearing: envelope-following response study.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y; Klishin, V O

    1996-04-01

    Simultaneous tone-tone masking in conjunction with the envelope-following response (EFR) recording was used to obtain tuning curves in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The EFR was evoked by amplitude-modulated probes of various frequencies. A modulation rate of 600 Hz was found to fit the requirement to have a narrow spectrum and evoke EFR of large amplitude. Tuning curves were obtained within the frequency range from 11.2 to 110 kHz. The Q10 values of the obtained tuning curves varied from 12-14 at the 11.2 kHz center frequency to 17-20 at the 64-90 kHz frequencies. PMID:8847667

  11. Gamma Frequency and the Spatial Tuning of Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fusca, Marco; Rees, Geraint; Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Barnes, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Visual stimulation produces oscillatory gamma responses in human primary visual cortex (V1) that also relate to visual perception. We have shown previously that peak gamma frequency positively correlates with central V1 cortical surface area. We hypothesized that people with larger V1 would have smaller receptive fields and that receptive field size, not V1 area, might explain this relationship. Here we set out to test this hypothesis directly by investigating the relationship between fMRI estimated population receptive field (pRF) size and gamma frequency in V1. We stimulated both the near-center and periphery of the visual field using both large and small stimuli in each location and replicated our previous finding of a positive correlation between V1 surface area and peak gamma frequency. Counter to our expectation, we found that between participants V1 size (and not PRF size) accounted for most of the variability in gamma frequency. Within-participants we found that gamma frequency increased, rather than decreased, with stimulus eccentricity directly contradicting our initial hypothesis. PMID:27362265

  12. Self-Tuning Adaptive-Controller Using Online Frequency Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, W. W.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A real time adaptive controller was designed and tested successfully on a fourth order laboratory dynamic system which features very low structural damping and a noncolocated actuator sensor pair. The controller, implemented in a digital minicomputer, consists of a state estimator, a set of state feedback gains, and a frequency locked loop (FLL) for real time parameter identification. The FLL can detect the closed loop natural frequency of the system being controlled, calculate the mismatch between a plant parameter and its counterpart in the state estimator, and correct the estimator parameter in real time. The adaptation algorithm can correct the controller error and stabilize the system for more than 50% variation in the plant natural frequency, compared with a 10% stability margin in frequency variation for a fixed gain controller having the same performance at the nominal plant condition. After it has locked to the correct plant frequency, the adaptive controller works as well as the fixed gain controller does when there is no parameter mismatch. The very rapid convergence of this adaptive system is demonstrated experimentally, and can also be proven with simple root locus methods.

  13. Laser frequency stabilization using folded cavity and mirror reflectivity tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Cassou, K.; Chiche, R.; Dupraz, K.; Favier, P.; Flaminio, R.; Honda, Y.; Huang, W. H.; Martens, A.; Michel, C.; Pinard, L.; Sassolas, B.; Soskov, V.; Tang, C. X.; Zomer, F.

    2016-06-01

    A new method of laser frequency stabilization using polarization property of an optical cavity is proposed. In a standard Fabry-Perot cavity, the coating layers thickness of cavity mirrors is calculated to obtain the same phase shift for s- and p-wave but a slight detuning from the nominal thickness can produce s- and p-wave phase detuning. As a result, each wave accumulates a different round-trip phase shift and resonates at a different frequency. Using this polarization property, an error signal is generated by a simple setup consisting of a quarter wave-plate rotated at 45°, a polarizing beam splitter and two photodiodes. This method exhibits similar error signal as the Pound-Drever-Hall technique but without need for any frequency modulation. Lock theory and experimental results are presented in this paper.

  14. Surface roughness effects on the frequency tuning performance of a nanoelectromechanical resonator

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Electrothermal heating is one of radio frequency tuning method in nanoelectromechanical resonators with magnetomotive transduction. This study confirmed that the surface roughness of the nanoresonator affects the electrothermal tuning performance under moderate conditions at room temperature. The effect of surface roughness on electrothermal tuning is complicated and involves interactions of mechanical and electrical properties. In addition, the electrothermal damping varied depending on the nanoscale molecular solid structure. These factors affect the signal-to-noise ratio, the effective stress of the beam, and the quality Q-factor of the nanoresonator. PMID:23742218

  15. Analysis and experiment of self-frequency-tuning piezoelectric energy harvesters for rotational motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jin-Chen; Tseng, Chih-Ta; Chen, Yi-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting provides a means to harvest the ambient kinetic energy (e.g., vibrations and rotations) of structures for conversion into usable electricity. The technique can be employed to provide power sources for wireless sensors and low-power devices. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date operate most efficiently within a narrow bandwidth because they are resonance-frequency-based designs, although several tunable techniques have been proposed to broaden the efficient frequency range of energy harvesting. However, most efforts have focused on harvesting vibration energy rather than rotational energy. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive design analysis and experimental tests of a passive self-tuning piezoelectric composite cantilever beam for harvesting energy from rotational motion. The piezoelectric beam harvester is mounted on a rotating axis in the radial direction so that the tensile stress induced by the centrifugal force effectively stiffens the beam to passively tune the resonance frequency. A calculation procedure based on a finite element method is developed to analyze the self-frequency-tuning piezoelectric energy harvester, and the results are compared with those obtained from an analytic beam model. The design parameters for the self-tuning characteristics are identified and discussed. Experimental results verify the frequency-tuning energy harvesting behavior and show improved performances for the voltage and power outputs in the bandwidth.

  16. Integrated tuning fork nanocavity optomechanical transducers with high f M Q M product and stress-engineered frequency tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Ti, C.; Davanço, M. I.; Ren, Y.; Aksyuk, V.; Liu, Y.; Srinivasan, K.

    2015-09-01

    Cavity optomechanical systems are being widely developed for precision force and displacement measurements. For nanomechanical transducers, there is usually a trade-off between the frequency (fM) and quality factor (QM), which limits temporal resolution and sensitivity. Here, we present a monolithic cavity optomechanical transducer supporting both high fM and high QM. By replacing the common doubly clamped, Si3N4 nanobeam with a tuning fork geometry, we demonstrate devices with the fundamental f M ≈ 29 MHz and Q M ≈ 2.2 × 10 5 , corresponding to an fMQM product of 6.35 × 10 12 Hz , comparable to the highest values previously demonstrated for room temperature operation. This high fMQM product is partly achieved by engineering the stress of the tuning fork to be 3 times the residual film stress through clamp design, which results in an increase of fM up to 1.5 times. Simulations reveal that the tuning fork design simultaneously reduces the clamping, thermoelastic dissipation, and intrinsic material damping contributions to mechanical loss. This work may find application when both high temporal and force resolution are important, such as in compact sensors for atomic force microscopy.

  17. Adaptive tuning functions arise from visual observation of past movement

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Ian S.; Franklin, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Visual observation of movement plays a key role in action. For example, tennis players have little time to react to the ball, but still need to prepare the appropriate stroke. Therefore, it might be useful to use visual information about the ball trajectory to recall a specific motor memory. Past visual observation of movement (as well as passive and active arm movement) affects the learning and recall of motor memories. Moreover, when passive or active, these past contextual movements exhibit generalization (or tuning) across movement directions. Here we extend this work, examining whether visual motion also exhibits similar generalization across movement directions and whether such generalization functions can explain patterns of interference. Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning. A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements. Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality. PMID:27341163

  18. Adaptive tuning functions arise from visual observation of past movement.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ian S; Franklin, David W

    2016-01-01

    Visual observation of movement plays a key role in action. For example, tennis players have little time to react to the ball, but still need to prepare the appropriate stroke. Therefore, it might be useful to use visual information about the ball trajectory to recall a specific motor memory. Past visual observation of movement (as well as passive and active arm movement) affects the learning and recall of motor memories. Moreover, when passive or active, these past contextual movements exhibit generalization (or tuning) across movement directions. Here we extend this work, examining whether visual motion also exhibits similar generalization across movement directions and whether such generalization functions can explain patterns of interference. Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning. A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements. Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality. PMID:27341163

  19. Apparatus and Method to Enable Precision and Fast Laser Frequency Tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jeffrey R. (Inventor); Numata, Kenji (Inventor); Wu, Stewart T. (Inventor); Yang, Guangning (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided to enable precision and fast laser frequency tuning. For instance, a fast tunable slave laser may be dynamically offset-locked to a reference laser line using an optical phase-locked loop. The slave laser is heterodyned against a reference laser line to generate a beatnote that is subsequently frequency divided. The phase difference between the divided beatnote and a reference signal may be detected to generate an error signal proportional to the phase difference. The error signal is converted into appropriate feedback signals to phase lock the divided beatnote to the reference signal. The slave laser frequency target may be rapidly changed based on a combination of a dynamically changing frequency of the reference signal, the frequency dividing factor, and an effective polarity of the error signal. Feed-forward signals may be generated to accelerate the slave laser frequency switching through laser tuning ports.

  20. Tuning the resonant frequency of resonators using molecular surface self-assembly approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenpeng; Wang, Jingwei; Yu, Yifei; Chang, Ye; Tang, Ning; Qu, Hemi; Wang, Yanyan; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Daihua; Xu, Huaping; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-01-14

    In this work, a new method to tune the resonant frequency of microfabricated resonator using molecular layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly approach is demonstrated. By simply controlling the polymer concentration and the number of layers deposited, precisely tuning the frequency of microfabricated resonators is realized. Due to its selective deposition through specific molecular recognitions, such technique avoids the high-cost and complex steps of conventional semiconductor fabrications and is able to tune individual diced device. Briefly, film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is used to demonstrate the tuning process and two types of LbL deposition methods are compared. The film thickness and morphology have been characterized by UV-vis reflection spectra, ellipsometer and AFM. As a result, the maximum resonant frequency shift of FBAR reaches more than 20 MHz, meaning 1.4% tunability at least. The minimum frequency shift is nearly 10 kHZ per bilayer, indicating 7 ppm tuning resolution. Pressure cooker test (PCT) is performed to evaluate the reliability of LbL coated FBAR. Furthermore, applications for wireless broadband communication and chemical sensors of LbL coated FBAR have been demonstrated. PMID:25487349

  1. Molecular Design for Tuning Work Functions of Transparent Conducting Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Koldemir, Unsal; Braid, Jennifer L; Morgenstern, Amanda; Eberhart, Mark; Collins, Reuben T; Olson, Dana C; Sellinger, Alan

    2015-06-18

    In this Perspective, we provide a brief background on the use of aromatic phosphonic acid modifiers for tuning work functions of transparent conducting oxides, for example, zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium tin oxide (ITO). We then introduce our preliminary results in this area using conjugated phosphonic acid molecules, having a substantially larger range of dipole moments than their unconjugated analogues, leading to the tuning of ZnO and ITO electrodes over a 2 eV range as derived from Kelvin probe measurements. We have found that these work function changes are directly correlated to the magnitude and the direction of the computationally derived molecular dipole of the conjugated phosphonic acids, leading to the predictive power of computation to drive the synthesis of new and improved phosphonic acid ligands. PMID:26266603

  2. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Mills, Zachary G.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M−0.22, which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M−0.19 based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue. PMID:22904256

  3. Two-dimensional resonance frequency tuning approach for vibration-based energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lin; Prasad, M. G.; Fisher, Frank T.

    2016-06-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting seeks to convert ambient vibrations to electrical energy and is of interest for, among other applications, powering the individual nodes of wireless sensor networks. Generally it is desired to match the resonant frequencies of the device to the ambient vibration source to optimize the energy harvested. This paper presents a two-dimensionally (2D) tunable vibration-based energy harvesting device via the application of magnetic forces in two-dimensional space. These forces are accounted for in the model separately, with the transverse force contributing to the transverse stiffness of the system while the axial force contributes to a change in axial stiffness of the beam. Simulation results from a COMSOL magnetostatic 3D model agree well with the analytical model and are confirmed with a separate experimental study. Furthermore, analysis of the three possible magnetization orientations between the fixed and tuning magnets shows that the transverse parallel magnetization orientation is the most effective with regards to the proposed 2D tuning approach. In all cases the transverse stiffness term is in general significantly larger than the axial stiffness contribution, suggesting that from a tuning perspective it may be possible to use these stiffness contributions for coarse and fine frequency tuning, respectively. This 2D resonant frequency tuning approach extends earlier 1D approaches and may be particularly useful in applications where space constraints impact the available design space of the energy harvester.

  4. Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.

    2016-07-01

    Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.

  5. Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

    2012-09-01

    A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

  6. Application of bias voltage to tune the resonant frequency of membrane-based electroactive polymer energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lin; Grissom, Michael; Fisher, Frank T.

    2016-05-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting has been widely investigated to as a means to generate low levels of electrical energy for applications such as wireless sensor networks. However, for optimal performance it is necessary to ensure that resonant frequencies of the device match the ambient vibration frequencies for maximum energy harvested. Here a novel resonant frequency tuning approach is proposed by applying a bias voltage to a pre-stretched electroactive polymer (EAP) membrane, such that the resulting changes in membrane tension can tune the device to match the environmental vibration source. First, a material model which accounts for the change in properties due to the pre-stretch of a VHB 4910 EAP membrane is presented. The effect of the bias voltage on the EAP membrane, which induces an electrostatic pressure and corresponding reduction in membrane thickness, are then determined. The FEM results from ANSYS agree well with an analytical hyperelastic model of the activation response of the EAP membrane. Lastly, through a mass-loaded circular membrane vibration model, the effective resonant frequency of the energy harvester can be determined as a function of changes in membrane tension due to the applied bias voltage. In the case of an EAP membrane, pre-stretch contributes to the pre-stretch stiffness of the system while the applied bias voltage contributes to a change in bias voltage stiffness of the membrane. Preliminary experiments verified the resonant frequencies corresponding to the bias voltages predicted from the appropriate models. The proposed bias voltage tuning approach for the EAP membrane may provide a novel tuning strategy to enable energy harvesting from various ambient vibration sources in various application environments.

  7. Bidirectional frequency tuning of a piezoelectric energy converter based on a cantilever beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, C.; Goldschmidtboeing, F.; Woias, P.

    2009-09-01

    A piezoelectric energy converter is presented, whose resonance frequency can be tuned by applying mechanical stress to its structure. The converter consists of a piezo-polymer cantilever beam with two additional thin arms, which are used to apply an axial preload to the tip of the beam. The compressive or tensile prestress applied through the arms leads to a shift of the beam's resonance frequency. Experiments with this structure indicate a high potential: the resonance frequency of a harvester to which a compressive preload was applied could be altered from 380 Hz to 292 Hz. In another experiment, a harvester with stiffened arms was tuned from 440 Hz to 460 Hz by applying a tensile preload. In combination with automatic control of the applied force, this type of structure could be used to enhance the performance of energy harvesters in vibrating environments with occasional shifts of the vibrational frequency.

  8. Influence of Broad Auditory Tuning on Across-Frequency Integration of Speech Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eric W.; Carson, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess whether diminished tolerance for disruptions to across-frequency timing in listeners with hearing impairment can be attributed to broad auditory tuning. Method: In 2 experiments in which random assignment was used, sentences were represented as 3 noise bands centered at 530, 1500, and 4243…

  9. Fine frequency tuning in sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave single-frequency coherent light at 252 nm with dual-wavelength enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Fine frequency tuning of the deep-ultraviolet single-mode coherent light at 252 nm was conducted through the PID feedback system automatically by changing the temperature of a beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal in a doubly resonant external cavity for the sum-frequency mixing of 373 and 780 nm light. The temperature-dependent frequency tuning rate is 19.3 MHzK(-1), which is sufficiently fine to realize the laser cooling of neutral silicon atoms because the natural width of the laser cooling transition is 28.8 MHz. PMID:17167584

  10. Frequency tuning of the optical delay in cesium D{sub 2} line including hyperfine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Monte D.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-03-15

    The frequency dependence of optical delays in both the wings and core of the cesium 6 {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-6 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition have been observed and modeled with a Voigt line shape convolved with the six hyperfine components. Tunable delays of 0-37 ns are achieved by tuning the laser frequency through resonance at various vapor pressures of 0.15-5.28 mTorr.

  11. RFQ (radio-frequency quadrupole) accelerator tuning system

    DOEpatents

    Bolie, V.W.

    1988-04-12

    A cooling system is provided for maintaining a preselected operating temperature in a device, which may be an RFQ accelerator, having a variable heat removal requirement, by circulating a cooling fluid through a cooling system remote from the device. Internal sensors in the device enable an estimated error signal to be generated from parameters which are indicative of the heat removal requirement from the device. Sensors are provided at predetermined locations in the cooling system for outputting operational temperature signals. Analog and digital computers define a control signal functionally related to the temperature signals and the estimated error signal, where the control signal is defined effective to return the device to the preselected operating temperature in a stable manner. The cooling system includes a first heat sink responsive to a first portion of the control signal to remove heat from a major portion of the circulating fluid. A second heat sink is responsive to a second portion of the control to remove heat from a minor portion of the circulating fluid. The cooled major and minor portions of the circulating fluid are mixed in responsive to a mixing portion of the control signal, which is effective to proportion the major and minor portions of the circulating fluid to establish a mixed fluid temperature which is effective to define the preselected operating temperature for the remote device. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Frequency-feedback tuning for single-cell cavity under rf heating

    SciTech Connect

    Stepp, J.D.; Bridges, J.F.

    1993-08-01

    A tuning system is described that is being used to match the source frequency of a high-power klystron on the resonant frequency of the prototype single-cell cavity for the 7-GeV Advance Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Typically a water-cooled piston tuner is required to adjust the reactive component of the cavity`s impedance to minimize reflected power back to the RF drive source. As the cavity watts expand due to RF heating, the resonant frequency decreases. Adjusting the source frequency to follow the cavity resonant frequency is a convenient method used to condition the cavity (for vacuum) at high power levels, in this case, 1 MV gap voltage at 100 kW power level. The tuning system consists of two coupling ports, a phase detector, a digitizing I/O system, and a DC coupled FM-modulated RF source. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) loop parameters for the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software are calculated, and data is presented showing the damped response to peturbations on the loop. The timing system presented here does not need water-cooling, has no moving parts to wear out, and has an inherently faster response time. Its one limitation is the digitizing sampling rate. The only limitation in tuning range is the bandwidth of the RF source.

  13. Electrical laser frequency tuning by three terminal terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtani, K. Beck, M.; Faist, J.

    2014-01-06

    Electrical laser emission frequency tuning of a three terminal THz quantum cascade laser is demonstrated. A high electron mobility transistor structure is used in a surface plasmon waveguide to modulate the electron density in a channel, controlling the effective refractive index of the waveguide. The threshold current density was modulated by 28% via applying voltage from −3 to 2 V. The observed laser emission frequency shift by electric field was 2 GHz. By using the three terminal devices, pure frequency modulation of the output light is, in principle, achievable.

  14. Investigation of pulsed mode operation with the frequency tuned CAPRICE ECRIS.

    PubMed

    Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Endermann, M; Hollinger, R; Kondrashev, S; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Patchakui, P T; Spädtke, P

    2016-02-01

    In order to increase the intensity of the highly charged ions produced by the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs), techniques like the frequency tuning and the afterglow mode have been developed and in this paper the effect on the ion production is shown for the first time when combining both techniques. Recent experimental results proved that the tuning of the operating frequency of the ECRIS is a promising technique to achieve higher ion currents of higher charge states. On the other hand, it is well known that the afterglow mode of the ECRIS operation can provide more intense pulsed ion beams in comparison with the continuous wave (cw) operation. These two techniques can be combined by pulsing the variable frequency signal driving the traveling wave tube amplifier which provides the high microwave power to the ECRIS. In order to analyze the effect of these two combined techniques on the ion source performance, several experiments were carried out on the pulsed frequency tuned CAPRICE (Compacte source A Plusiers Résonances Ionisantes Cyclotron Electroniques)-type ECRIS. Different waveforms and pulse lengths have been investigated under different settings of the ion source. The results of the pulsed mode have been compared with those of cw operation. PMID:26931930

  15. Tuned range separated hybrid functionals for solvated low bandgap oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, Thiago B. de Kümmel, Stephan

    2015-07-21

    The description of charge transfer excitations has long been a challenge to time dependent density functional theory. The recently developed concept of “optimally tuned range separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functionals” has proven to describe charge transfer excitations accurately in many cases. However, describing solvated or embedded systems is yet a challenge. This challenge is not only computational but also conceptual, because the tuning requires identifying a specific orbital, typically the highest occupied one of the molecule under study. For solvated molecules, this orbital may be delocalized over the solvent. We here demonstrate that one way of overcoming this problem is to use a locally projected self-consistent field diagonalization on an absolutely localized molecular orbital expansion. We employ this approach to determine ionization energies and the optical gap of solvated oligothiophenes, i.e., paradigm low gap systems that are of relevance in organic electronics. Dioxane solvent molecules are explicitly represented in our calculations, and the ambiguities of straightforward parameter tuning in solution are elucidated. We show that a consistent estimate of the optimal range separated parameter (ω) at the limit of bulk solvation can be obtained by gradually extending the solvated system. In particular, ω is influenced by the solvent beyond the first coordination sphere. For determining ionization energies, a considerable number of solvent molecules on the first solvation shell must be taken into account. We demonstrate that accurately calculating optical gaps of solvated systems using OT-RSH can be done in three steps: (i) including the chemical environment when determining the range-separation parameter, (ii) taking into account the screening due to the solvent, and (iii) using realistic molecular geometries.

  16. Possibilities for Continuous Frequency Tuning in Terahertz Gyrotrons with Nontunable Electrodynamic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.; Chang, T. H.

    2016-02-01

    Large ohmic losses in the cavities of terahertz gyrotrons may lead to the overlapping of the axial mode spectra. In a number of gyrotron experiments, this effect has been used to provide a fairly broadband frequency tuning by changing appropriately the operating magnetic field and/or accelerating voltage of the gyrotron. Similar to the systems with nonfixed axial structure of the RF electromagnetic field and low diffraction quality, which are due to weak reflections of the operating wave from the collector end of the electrodynamic system, this changing leads to a monotonic change in the axial index of the operating wave and transition from the gyrotron regime to the gyro-BWO regime. According to a theoretical comparison of these two methods performed on the basis of generalization of self-consistent gyrotron equations with allowance for variations in the axial electron momenta, low-reflection systems can provide a higher efficiency and monotonicity of the frequency tuning.

  17. Self-powered resonant frequency tuning for Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed-Seddik, B.; Despesse, G.; Boisseau, S.; Defay, E.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication and testing of an innovative 33-mode piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (VEH). This system is able to change its resonant frequency in real time to follow the main frequency of a vibration source. The system proposed in this paper enables to adapt VEH characteristics (resonant frequency, electrical damping) to vibration parameters variations (frequency and amplitude) in order to optimize the extraction of energy and then the output power at any time. This solution allows up to 40% of resonant frequency tuning ratio; moreover, the adaptation is made in real time and the consumption of the regulation electronic is less than 10% of the VEH output power (480μW@0.1g-276Hz).

  18. Coupling and tuning of modal frequencies in direct current biased microelectromechanical systems arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kambali, Prashant N.; Swain, Gyanadutta; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Buks, Eyal; Gottlieb, Oded

    2015-08-10

    Understanding the coupling of different modal frequencies and their tuning mechanisms has become essential to design multi-frequency MEMS devices. In this work, we fabricate a MEMS beam with fixed boundaries separated from two side electrodes and a bottom electrode. Subsequently, we perform experiments to obtain the frequency variation of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical modes of the microbeam with respect to both DC bias and laser heating. We show that the frequencies of the two modes coincide at a certain DC bias, which in turn can also be varied due to temperature. Subsequently, we develop a theoretical model to predict the variation of the two modes and their coupling due to a variable gap between the microbeam and electrodes, initial tension, and fringing field coefficients. Finally, we discuss the influence of frequency tuning parameters in arrays of 3, 33, and 40 microbeams, respectively. It is also found that the frequency bandwidth of a microbeam array can be increased to as high as 25 kHz for a 40 microbeam array with a DC bias of 80 V.

  19. Coupling and tuning of modal frequencies in direct current biased microelectromechanical systems arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambali, Prashant N.; Swain, Gyanadutta; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Buks, Eyal; Gottlieb, Oded

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the coupling of different modal frequencies and their tuning mechanisms has become essential to design multi-frequency MEMS devices. In this work, we fabricate a MEMS beam with fixed boundaries separated from two side electrodes and a bottom electrode. Subsequently, we perform experiments to obtain the frequency variation of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical modes of the microbeam with respect to both DC bias and laser heating. We show that the frequencies of the two modes coincide at a certain DC bias, which in turn can also be varied due to temperature. Subsequently, we develop a theoretical model to predict the variation of the two modes and their coupling due to a variable gap between the microbeam and electrodes, initial tension, and fringing field coefficients. Finally, we discuss the influence of frequency tuning parameters in arrays of 3, 33, and 40 microbeams, respectively. It is also found that the frequency bandwidth of a microbeam array can be increased to as high as 25 kHz for a 40 microbeam array with a DC bias of 80 V.

  20. Breath air measurement using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of measuring of biomarkers in breath air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy and the methods of data mining are presented. We will discuss experimental equipment and various methods of intellectual analysis of the experimental spectra in context of above task. The work was carried out with partial financial support of the FCPIR contract No 14.578.21.0082 (ID RFMEFI57814X0082).

  1. Frequency tuning characteristics of a Q-switched Co:MgF2 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovold, S.; Moulton, P. F.; Killinger, D. K.; Menyuk, N.

    1985-01-01

    A tunable Q-switched Co:MgF2 laser has been developed for atmospheric remote sensing applications. Frequency tuning is provided by a quartz etalon and a specially designed three-element birefringent filter covering the whole gain bandwidth of the Co:MgF2 laser. The laser has good temporal and spectral characteristics, with an emission linewidth of approximately 3 GHz (0.1 per cm).

  2. A new fuzzy self-tuning PD load frequency controller for micro-hydropower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach for controlling the secondary load bank of a micro-hydropower system using a fuzzy self-tuning proportional-derivative (PD) controller. This technology is designed in order to optimize the micro-hydropower system in a resort island located in the South China Sea. Thus, this technology will be able to mitigate the diesel fuel consumption and cost of electricity supply on the island. The optimal hydropower generation for this system depends on the available stream flow at the potential sites. At low stream flow, both the micro-hydropower system and the currently installed diesel generators are required to feed the load. However, when the hydropower generation exceeds the load demand, the diesel generator is shut down. Meanwhile, the system frequency is controlled by a secondary load bank that absorbs the hydropower which exceeds the consumer demand. The fuzzy rules were designed to automatically tune the PD gains under dynamic frequency variations. Performances of the fuzzy self-tuning PD controller were compared with the conventional PD controller. The result of the controller implementation shows the viability of the proposed new controller in achieving a higher performance and more robust load frequency control than the conventional PD controller.

  3. Design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning for VCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Chen; Shengxi, Diao; Lu, Huang; Xuefei, Bai; Fujiang, Lin

    2013-09-01

    To meet the requirements of the low power Zigbee system, VCO design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning are discussed in this paper. Both flicker noise of tail bias transistors and up-conversion of flicker noise from cross-coupled pair are reduced by improved self-switched biasing technology, leading to low close-in phase noise. Low power is achieved by low supply voltage and triode region biasing. To linearly tune the frequency and get constant gain, distributed varactor structure is adopted. The proposed VCO is fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured linear tuning range is from 2.38 to 2.61 GHz. The oscillator exhibits low phase noise of -77.5 dBc/Hz and -122.8 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz and 1 MHz offset, respectively, at 2.55 GHz oscillation frequency while dissipating 2.7 mA from 1.2 V supply voltage, which well meet design specifications.

  4. Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy in Ionic Liquid Using Quartz Tuning Fork Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, Takashi; Fujimura, Motohiko; Negami, Masahiro; Murase, Kuniaki; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) imaging in ionic liquids (ILs) were carried out. A quartz tuning fork sensor with a sharpened tungsten tip was used as a force sensor instead of a Si cantilever. Only the tip apex was immersed in ILs and the quality factor of the sensors was kept more than 100 in spite of the high viscosity of ILs. Atomic-resolution topographic imaging was successfully achieved in an IL as well as in an aqueous solution. In addition, frequency shift versus tip-to-sample distance curves were obtained and the structures of local solvation layers were studied.

  5. Observations of the frequency tuning effect in the 14 GHz CAPRICE ion source.

    PubMed

    Celona, L; Ciavola, G; Consoli, F; Gammino, S; Maimone, F; Mascali, D; Spädtke, P; Tinschert, K; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Robbach, J; Barbarino, S; Catalano, R S

    2008-02-01

    A set of measurements with the CAPRICE ion source at the GSI test bench has been carried out to investigate its behavior in terms of intensity and shape of the extracted beam when the microwaves generating the plasma sweep in a narrow range of frequency (+/-40 MHz) around the klystron center frequency (14.5 GHz). Remarkable variations have been observed depending on the source and the beamline operating parameters, confirming that a frequency dependent electromagnetic distribution is preserved even in the presence of plasma inside the source. Moreover, these observations confirm that the frequency tuning is a powerful method to optimize the electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances. A description of the experimental setup and of the obtained results is given in the following. PMID:18315291

  6. Postadsorption Work Function Tuning via Hydrogen Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The work function of metal substrates can be easily tuned, for instance, by adsorbing layers of molecular electron donors and acceptors. In this work, we discuss the possibility of changing the donor/acceptor mixing ratio reversibly after adsorption by choosing a donor/acceptor pair that is coupled via a redox reaction and that is in equilibrium with a surrounding gas phase. We discuss such a situation for the example of tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenediol (TFBD)/tetrafluoro-1,4-benzoquinone (TFBQ), adsorbed on Cu(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. We use density functional theory and ab initio thermodynamics to show that arbitrary TFBD/TFBQ mixing ratios can be set using hydrogen pressures attainable in low to ultrahigh vacuum. Adjusting the mixing ratio allows modifying the work function over a range of about 1 eV. Finally, we contrast single-species submonolayers with mixed layers to discuss why the resulting inhomogeneities in the electrostatic energy above the surface have different impacts on the interfacial level alignment and the work function. PMID:26692915

  7. Toward tuning the surface functionalization of small ceria nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xing; Wang, Binghui; Grulke, Eric A.; Beck, Matthew J.

    2014-02-21

    Understanding and controlling the performance of ceria nanoparticle (CNP) catalysts requires knowledge of the detailed structure and property of CNP surfaces and any attached functional groups. Here we report thermogravimetric analysis results showing that hydrothermally synthesized ∼30 nm CNPs are decorated with 12.9 hydroxyl groups per nm{sup 2} of CNP surface. Quantum mechanical calculations of the density and distribution of bound surface groups imply a scaling relationship for surface group density that balances formal charges in the functionalized CNP system. Computational results for CNPs with only hydroxyl surface groups yield a predicted density of bound hydroxyl groups for ∼30 nm CNPs that is ∼33% higher than measured densities. Quantitative agreement between predicted and measured hydroxyl surface densities is achieved when calculations consider CNPs with both –OH and –O{sub x} surface groups. For this more general treatment of CNP surface functionalizations, quantum mechanical calculations predict a range of stable surface group configurations that depend on the chemical potentials of O and H, and demonstrate the potential to tune CNP surface functionalizations by varying temperature and/or partial pressures of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  8. Frequency-tuning input-shaped manifold-based switching control for underactuated space robot equipped with flexible appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Ieda, Shoko; Kasai, Shinya

    2014-08-01

    Underactuated control problems, such as the control of a space robot without actuators on the main body, have been widely investigated. However, few studies have examined attitude control problems of underactuated space robots equipped with a flexible appendage, such as solar panels. In order to suppress vibration in flexible appendages, a zero-vibration input-shaping technique was applied to the link motion of an underactuated planar space robot. However, because the vibrational frequency depends on the link angles, simple input-shaping control methods cannot sufficiently suppress the vibration. In this paper, the dependency of the vibrational frequency on the link angles is measured experimentally, and the time-delay interval of the input shaper is then tuned based on the frequency estimated from the link angles. The proposed control method is referred to as frequency-tuning input-shaped manifold-based switching control (frequency-tuning IS-MBSC). The experimental results reveal that frequency-tuning IS-MBSC is capable of controlling the link angles and the main body attitude to maintain the target angles and that the vibration suppression performance of the proposed frequency-tuning IS-MBSC is better than that of a non-tuning IS-MBSC, which does not take the frequency variation into consideration.

  9. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stiffness variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by a plurality of force transmitting mechanisms which contact the noise radiating element. Each one of the force transmitting mechanisms includes an expandable element and a spring in contact with the noise radiating element so that excitation of the element varies the spring force applied to the noise radiating element. The elements are actuated by a controller which receives input of a signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the elements and causes the spring force applied to the noise radiating element to be varied. The force transmitting mechanisms can be arranged to either produce bending or linear stiffness variations in the noise radiating element.

  10. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  11. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stress variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by an expandable ring embedded in the noise radiating element. Excitation of the ring causes expansion or contraction of the ring, thereby varying the stress in the noise radiating element. The ring is actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the ring, causing the ring to expand or contract. Instead of a single ring embedded in the noise radiating panel, a first expandable ring can be bonded to one side of the noise radiating element, and a second expandable ring can be bonded to the other side.

  12. Tuning fractional PID controllers for a Steward platform based on frequency domain and artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copot, Cosmin; Zhong, Yu; Ionescu, Clara; Keyser, Robin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, two methods to tune a fractional-order PI λ D μ controller for a mechatronic system are presented. The first method is based on a genetic algorithm to obtain the parameter values for the fractionalorder PI λ D μ controller by global optimization. The second method used to design the fractional-order PI λ D μ controller relies on an auto-tuning approach by meeting some specifications in the frequency domain. The real-time experiments are conducted using a Steward platform which consists of a table tilted by six servo-motors with a ball on the top of the table. The considered system is a 6 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) motion platform. The feedback on the position of the ball is obtained from images acquired by a visual sensor mounted above the platform. The fractional-order controllers were implemented and the performances of the steward platform are analyzed.

  13. Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger animals.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Giovanni A; Legramandi, Mario A

    2015-10-01

    A long-lasting challenge in comparative physiology is to understand why the efficiency of the mechanical work done to maintain locomotion increases with body mass. It has been suggested that this is due to a more elastic step in larger animals. Here, we show in running, hopping and trotting animals, and in human running during growth, that the resonant frequency of the bouncing system decreases with increasing body mass and is, surprisingly, independent of species or gait. Step frequency roughly equals the resonant frequency in trotting and running, whereas it is about half the resonant frequency in hopping. The energy loss by elastic hysteresis during loading and unloading the bouncing system from its equilibrium position decreases with increasing body mass. Similarity to a symmetrical bounce increases with increasing body mass and, for a given body mass, seems to be maximal in hopping, intermediate in trotting and minimal in running. We conclude that: (1) tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system coincides with a lower hysteresis loss in larger, more-compliant animals; (2) the mechanism of gait per se affects similarity with a symmetrical bounce, independent of hysteresis; and (3) the greater efficiency in larger animals may be due, at least in part, to a lower hysteresis loss. PMID:26347555

  14. Layer Specific Sharpening of Frequency Tuning by Selective Attention in Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Monica Noelle; Barczak, Annamaria; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence that attending to sounds increases the response selectivity of neuronal ensembles even at the first cortical stage of auditory stimulus processing in primary auditory cortex (A1). This is achieved by enhancement of responses in the regions that process attended frequency content, and by suppression of responses in the surrounding regions. The goals of our study were to define the extent to which A1 neuronal ensembles are involved in this process, determine its effect on the frequency tuning of A1 neuronal ensembles, and examine the involvement of the different cortical layers. To accomplish these, we analyzed laminar profiles of synaptic activity and action potentials recorded in A1 of macaques performing a rhythmic intermodal selective attention task. We found that the frequency tuning of neuronal ensembles was sharpened due to both increased gain at the preferentially processed or best frequency and increased response suppression at all other frequencies when auditory stimuli were attended. Our results suggest that these effects are due to a frequency-specific counterphase entrainment of ongoing delta oscillations, which predictively orchestrates opposite sign excitability changes across all of A1. This results in a net suppressive effect due to the large proportion of neuronal ensembles that do not specifically process the attended frequency content. Furthermore, analysis of laminar activation profiles revealed that although attention-related suppressive effects predominate the responses of supragranular neuronal ensembles, response enhancement is dominant in the granular and infragranular layers, providing evidence for layer-specific cortical operations in attentive stimulus processing. PMID:25471586

  15. A 2-to-2.4-GHz differentially-tuned fractional-N frequency synthesizer for DVB tuner applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingbu, Meng; Lei, Lu; Wei, Zhao; Zhangwen, Tang

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a fractional-N frequency synthesizer for digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) receivers. Transfer functions in differentially-tuned PLL are derived and loop parameters are designed. In addition, a fully-differential charge pump is presented. An 8/9 high speed prescaler is analyzed and the design considerations for the CML logic are also presented. Test results show that the RMS phase error is less than 0.7° in integer-N mode and less than 1° in fractional-N mode. The implemented frequency synthesizer draws 10 mA from a 1.8-V supply while occupying a die area of about 1-mm2 in a 0.18-μm CMOS process.

  16. Stochastic Optimally Tuned Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Rabani, Eran; Cytter, Yael; Baer, Roi

    2016-05-19

    We develop a stochastic formulation of the optimally tuned range-separated hybrid density functional theory that enables significant reduction of the computational effort and scaling of the nonlocal exchange operator at the price of introducing a controllable statistical error. Our method is based on stochastic representations of the Coulomb convolution integral and of the generalized Kohn-Sham density matrix. The computational cost of the approach is similar to that of usual Kohn-Sham density functional theory, yet it provides a much more accurate description of the quasiparticle energies for the frontier orbitals. This is illustrated for a series of silicon nanocrystals up to sizes exceeding 3000 electrons. Comparison with the stochastic GW many-body perturbation technique indicates excellent agreement for the fundamental band gap energies, good agreement for the band edge quasiparticle excitations, and very low statistical errors in the total energy for large systems. The present approach has a major advantage over one-shot GW by providing a self-consistent Hamiltonian that is central for additional postprocessing, for example, in the stochastic Bethe-Salpeter approach. PMID:26651840

  17. Tuning the flexibility in MOFs by SBU functionalization.

    PubMed

    Bon, Volodymyr; Kavoosi, Negar; Senkovska, Irena; Müller, Philipp; Schaber, Jana; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M; Mueller, Uwe; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-03-14

    A new approach for the fine tuning of flexibility in MOFs, involving functionalization of the secondary building unit, is presented. The "gate pressure" MOF [Zn3(bpydc)2(HCOO)2] was used as a model material and SBU functionalization was performed by using monocarboxylic acids such as acetic, benzoic or cinnamic acids instead of formic acid in the synthesis. The resulting materials are isomorphous to [Zn3(bpydc)2(HCOO)2] in the "as made" form, but show different structural dynamics during the guest removal. The activated materials have entirely different properties in the nitrogen physisorption experiments clearly showing the tunability of the gate pressure, at which the structural transformation occurs, by using monocarboxylic acids with varying backbone structure in the synthesis. Thus, increasing the number of carbon atoms in the backbone leads to the decreasing gate pressure required to initiate the structural transition. Moreover, in situ adsorption/PXRD data suggest differences in the mechanism of the structural transformations: from "gate opening" in the case of formic acid to "breathing" if benzoic acid is used. PMID:26876816

  18. Tuning the functionalities of a mesocrystal via structural coupling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heng-Jui; Liu, Yun-Ya; Tsai, Chih-Ya; Liao, Sheng-Chieh; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Lin, Hong-Ji; Lai, Chih-Huang; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Li, Jiang-Yu; Chen, Chien-Te; He, Qing; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, mesocrystal, a kind of nanocrystals with specific crystallographic orientation, has drawn a lot of attention due to its intriguing functionalities. While the research community keeps searching for new mesocrystal systems, it is equally crucial to develop new approaches to tune the properties of mesocrystals. In this work, a self-organized two-dimensional mesocrystal composed of highly oriented CoFe2O4 (CFO) nano-crystals with assistance of different perovskite matrices is studied as a model system. We have demonstrated that the strain state and corresponding magnetic properties of the CFO mesocrystal can be modulated by changing the surrounding perovskite matrix through their intimate structural coupling. Interestingly, this controllability is more strongly correlated to the competition of bonding strength between the matrices and the CFO mesocrystals rather than the lattice mismatch. When embedded in a matrix with a higher melting point or stiffness, the CFO mesocrystal experiences higher out-of-plane compressive strain and shows a stronger magnetic anisotropy as well as cation site-exchange. Our study suggests a new pathway to tailor the functionalities of mesocrystals. PMID:26170119

  19. Frequency tuning of hearing in the beluga whale: discrimination of rippled spectra.

    PubMed

    Sysueva, Evgenia V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2014-02-01

    Frequency tuning was measured in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) using rippled-noise test stimuli in conjunction with an auditory evoked potential (AEP) technique. The test stimulus was a 2-octave-wide rippled noise with frequency-proportional ripple spacing. The rippled-noise signal contained either a single reversal or rhythmic (1-kHz rate) reversals of the ripple phase. Single or rhythmic phase reversals evoked, respectively, a single auditory brainstem response (ABR) or a rhythmic AEP sequence-the envelope following response (EFR). The response was considered as an indication of resolvability of the ripple pattern. The rhythmic phase-reversal test with EFR recording revealed higher resolution than the single phase-reversal test with single ABR recording. The limit of ripple-pattern resolution with the single phase-reversal test ranged from 17 ripples per octave (rpo) at 32 kHz to 24 rpo at 45 to 64 kHz; for the rhythmic phase-reversal test, the limit ranged from 20 to 32 rpo. An interaction model of a ripple spectrum with frequency-tuned filters suggests that the ripple-pattern resolution limit of 20 to 32 rpo requires a filter quality Q of 29 to 46. Possible causes of disagreement of these estimates with several previously published data are discussed. PMID:25234904

  20. A comparison of spatial frequency tuning for judgments of eye gaze and facial identity.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne

    2015-07-01

    Humans use the direction of eye gaze and facial identity to make important social judgments. We carried out the first measurements of spatial frequency (SF) tuning for judgments of eye gaze, and compared SF tuning for judgments of facial identity and eye gaze. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated between leftward and rightward shifts of gaze, or between two male faces or two female faces. Faces were masked with visual noise that blocked one of 10 SF bands. For each task and masking SF, we measured contrast thresholds for human observers, and used an ideal observer to measure the amount of visual information available to perform the task. As in previous research, low to mid SFs were most important for judgments of facial identity. Mid to high SFs were most important for judgments of eye gaze, and the highest SF important for these judgments was higher than that for identity. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated horizontal and vertical shifts of gaze. The highest SF important for judgments of gaze did not differ between the horizontal and vertical axes. However, SFs above and below this value were more important for judgments of vertical shifts of gaze than for horizontal shifts of gaze. These results suggest that the visual system relies on higher SFs for judgments of eye gaze than for judgments of facial identity, and that SF tuning is broader for judgments of vertical shifts of gaze than for horizontal shifts of gaze. PMID:25982718

  1. Frequency pre-tuning of the niobium-sputtered quarter-wave resonator for HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; D`Elia, A.; Venturini Delsolaro, W.; Artoos, K.

    2015-10-01

    Superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWRs) will be used in the superconducting linac upgrade in the frame of the HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN. The QWRs are made of bulk copper and have their inner surface covered with sputtered niobium. Their resonant frequency is 101.28 MHz at 4.5 K. Each cavity will be equipped with a tuning system to both minimize the forward power and compensate the frequency variations during production and beam operation. After a careful examination of all contributors to the frequency variation, we decomposed them into two components: frequency shift and its uncertainties. A pre-tuning step was subsequently added to the production sequence prior to niobium sputtering to accommodate the frequency shift mainly due to mechanical tolerances during substrate production, substrate surface treatment, niobium sputtering and cooldown process. To this end, the length of the QWR was chosen as a free parameter for the pre-tuning. Consequently the tuning system needs only to compensate the frequency uncertainties and Lorentz force detuning, thus its design has been largely simplified and its production cost was reduced by 80% comparing to its previous version. We have successfully applied this tuning scheme to five HIE-ISOLDE QWRs and the measured tuning error was 2.4 ± 1.9 kHz. This is well consistent with our calculations and well recoverable by the current simplified tuning system. It is worth noticing that the pre-tuning method only involves one-time measurement of the cavity's resonant frequency and its outer conductor length. This paper focuses on HIE-ISOLDE high-β QWR, but the method can be applied to HIE-ISOLDE low-β QWRs and other variants of QWR-like cavities.

  2. Frequency tuning of polarization oscillations in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Markus; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the coupled spin-photon dynamics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is an attractive opportunity to overcome the limitations of conventional, purely charge based semiconductor lasers. Such spin-controlled VCSELs (spin-VCSELs) offer several advantages, like reduced threshold, spin amplification and polarization control. Furthermore the coupling between carrier spin and light polarization bears the potential for ultrafast polarization dynamics. By injecting spin-polarized carriers, the complex polarization dynamics can be controlled and utilized for high-speed applications. Polarization oscillations as resonance oscillations of the coupled spin- photon system can be generated using pulsed spin injection, which can be much faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. We already demonstrated that the oscillations can be switched in a controlled manner. These controllable polarization dynamics can be used for ultrafast polarization-based optical data communication. The polarization oscillation frequency and therefore the possible data transmission rate is assumed to be mainly determined by the birefringence-induced mode-splitting. This provides a direct tool to increase the polarization dynamics toward higher frequencies by adding a high amount of birefringence to the VCSEL structure. Using this technique, we could recently demonstrate experimentally a birefringence splitting of more than 250 GHz using mechanical strain. Here, we employ the well-known spin-flip model to investigate the tuning of the polarization oscillation frequency. The changing mechanical strain is represented by a linear birefringence sweep to values up to 80πGHz. The wide tuning range presented enables us to generate polarization oscillation frequencies exceeding the conventional intensity modulation frequency in the simulated device by far, mainly dependent on the birefringence in the cavity only.

  3. Frequency tuning of the dolphin's hearing as revealed by auditory brain-stem response with notch-noise masking.

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y; Klishin, V O

    1997-12-01

    Notch-noise masking was used to measure frequency tuning in a dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in a simultaneous-masking paradigm in conjunction with auditory brain-stem evoked potential recording. Measurements were made at probe frequencies of 64, 76, 90, and 108 kHz. The data were analyzed by fitting the rounded-exponent model of the auditory filters to the experimental data. The fitting parameter values corresponded to the filter tuning as follows: QER (center frequency divided by equivalent rectangular bandwidths) of 35 to 36.5 and Q10 dB of 18 to 19 at all tested frequencies. PMID:9407671

  4. Tuning the isoelectric point of graphene by electrochemical functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro, Laura; Krieg, Janina; Desideri, Alessandro; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2015-07-01

    The ability to control the charge-potential landscape at solid-liquid interfaces is pivotal to engineer novel devices for applications in sensing, catalysis and energy conversion. The isoelectric point (pI)/point of zero charge (pzc) of graphene plays a key role in a number of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at the graphene-liquid interface. Supported by theory, we present here a methodology to identify the pI/pzc of (functionalized) graphene, which also allows for estimating the nature and extent of ion adsorption. The pI of bare graphene (as-prepared, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown) is found to be less than 3.3, which we can continuously modify up to 7.5 by non-covalent electrochemical attachment of aromatic amino groups, preserving the favorable electronic properties of graphene throughout. Modelling all the observed results with detailed theory, we also show that specific adsorption of ions and the substrate play only an ancillary role in our capability to tune the pI of graphene.

  5. Tuning the isoelectric point of graphene by electrochemical functionalization.

    PubMed

    Zuccaro, Laura; Krieg, Janina; Desideri, Alessandro; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control the charge-potential landscape at solid-liquid interfaces is pivotal to engineer novel devices for applications in sensing, catalysis and energy conversion. The isoelectric point (pI)/point of zero charge (pzc) of graphene plays a key role in a number of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at the graphene-liquid interface. Supported by theory, we present here a methodology to identify the pI/pzc of (functionalized) graphene, which also allows for estimating the nature and extent of ion adsorption. The pI of bare graphene (as-prepared, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown) is found to be less than 3.3, which we can continuously modify up to 7.5 by non-covalent electrochemical attachment of aromatic amino groups, preserving the favorable electronic properties of graphene throughout. Modelling all the observed results with detailed theory, we also show that specific adsorption of ions and the substrate play only an ancillary role in our capability to tune the pI of graphene. PMID:26134956

  6. Riboswitch function: Flipping the switch or tuning the dimmer?

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Nathan J.; Kulshina, Nadia; Ferré D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2010-10-08

    Riboswitches are structured mRNA elements involved in gene regulation that respond to the intracellular concentration of specific small molecules. Binding of their cognate ligand is thought to elicit a global conformational change of the riboswitch, in addition to modulating the fine structure of the binding site. X-ray crystallography has produced detailed descriptions of the three-dimensional structures of the ligand-bound conformations of several riboswitches. We have employed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to generate low-resolution reconstructions of the ligand-free states of the ligand-binding domains of riboswitches that respond to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), and cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger. Comparison of the SAXS reconstructions with the crystal structures of these two riboswitches demonstrates that the RNAs undergo dramatic ligand-induced global conformational changes. However, this is not an universal feature of riboswitches. SAXS analysis of the solution behavior of several other riboswitch ligand-binding domains demonstrates a broad spectrum of conformational switching behaviors, ranging from the unambiguous switching of the TPP and c-di-GMP riboswitches to complete lack of switching for the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch. Moreover, the switching behavior varies between examples of the same riboswitch from different organisms. The range of observed behaviors suggests that in response to the evolutionary need for precise genetic regulation, riboswitches may be tuned to function more as dimmers or rheostats than binary on/off switches.

  7. Fine tuning points of generating function construction for linear recursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolcu, Bahar; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-01

    Recursions are quite important mathematical tools since many systems are mathematically modelled to ultimately take us to these equations because of their rather easy algebraic natures. They fit computer programming needs quite well in many circumstances to produce solutions. However, it is generally desired to find the asymptotic behaviour of the general term in the relevant sequence for convergence and therefore practicality issues. One of the general tendencies to find the general term asymptotic behaviour, when its ordering number grows unboundedly, is the integral representation over a generating function which does not depend on individual sequence elements. This is tried to be done almost for all types of recursions, even though the linear cases gain more importance than the others because they can be more effectively investigated by using many linear algebraic tools. Despite this may seem somehow to be rather trivial, there are a lot of theoretical fine tuning issues in the construction of true integral representations over true intervals on real axis or paths in complex domains. This work is devoted to focus on this issue starting from scratch for better understanding of the matter. The example cases are chosen to best illuminate the situations to get information for future generalization even though the work can be considered at somehow introductory level.

  8. Tuning the isoelectric point of graphene by electrochemical functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Zuccaro, Laura; Krieg, Janina; Desideri, Alessandro; Kern, Klaus; Balasubramanian, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control the charge-potential landscape at solid-liquid interfaces is pivotal to engineer novel devices for applications in sensing, catalysis and energy conversion. The isoelectric point (pI)/point of zero charge (pzc) of graphene plays a key role in a number of physico-chemical phenomena occurring at the graphene-liquid interface. Supported by theory, we present here a methodology to identify the pI/pzc of (functionalized) graphene, which also allows for estimating the nature and extent of ion adsorption. The pI of bare graphene (as-prepared, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown) is found to be less than 3.3, which we can continuously modify up to 7.5 by non-covalent electrochemical attachment of aromatic amino groups, preserving the favorable electronic properties of graphene throughout. Modelling all the observed results with detailed theory, we also show that specific adsorption of ions and the substrate play only an ancillary role in our capability to tune the pI of graphene. PMID:26134956

  9. The Coefficient of the Voltage Induced Frequency Shift Measurement on a Quartz Tuning Fork

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the coefficient of the voltage induced frequency shift (VIFS) of a 32.768 KHz quartz tuning fork. Three vibration modes were studied: one prong oscillating, two prongs oscillating in the same direction, and two prongs oscillating in opposite directions. They all showed a parabolic dependence of the eigen-frequency shift on the bias voltage applied across the fork, due to the voltage-induced internal stress, which varies as the fork oscillates. The average coefficient of the VIFS effect is as low as several hundred nano-Hz per millivolt, implying that fast-response voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-locked loops with nano-Hz resolution can be built. PMID:25414971

  10. Bilateral matching of frequency tuning in neural cross-correlators of the owl.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Brian J; Peña, José Luis

    2009-06-01

    Sound localization requires comparison between the inputs to the left and right ears. One important aspect of this comparison is the differences in arrival time to each side, also called interaural time difference (ITD). A prevalent model of ITD detection, consisting of delay lines and coincidence-detector neurons, was proposed by Jeffress (J Comp Physiol Psychol 41:35-39, 1948). As an extension of the Jeffress model, the process of detecting and encoding ITD has been compared to an effective cross-correlation between the input signals to the two ears. Because the cochlea performs a spectrotemporal decomposition of the input signal, this cross-correlation takes place over narrow frequency bands. Since the cochlear tonotopy is arranged in series, sounds of different frequencies will trigger neural activity with different temporal delays. Thus, the matching of the frequency tuning of the left and right inputs to the cross-correlator units becomes a 'timing' issue. These properties of auditory transduction gave theoretical support to an alternative model of ITD-detection based on a bilateral mismatch in frequency tuning, called the 'stereausis' model. Here we first review the current literature on the owl's nucleus laminaris, the equivalent to the medial superior olive of mammals, which is the site where ITD is detected. Subsequently, we use reverse correlation analysis and stimulation with uncorrelated sounds to extract the effective monaural inputs to the cross-correlator neurons. We show that when the left and right inputs to the cross-correlators are defined in this manner, the computation performed by coincidence-detector neurons satisfies conditions of cross-correlation theory. We also show that the spectra of left and right inputs are matched, which is consistent with predictions made by the classic model put forth by Jeffress. PMID:19396457

  11. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  12. Note: Enhanced energy harvesting from low-frequency magnetic fields utilizing magneto-mechano-electric composite tuning-fork.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-06-01

    A magnetic-field energy harvester using a low-frequency magneto-mechano-electric (MME) composite tuning-fork is proposed. This MME composite tuning-fork consists of a copper tuning fork with piezoelectric Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O3 (PZT) plates bonded near its fixed end and with NdFeB magnets attached at its free ends. Due to the resonance coupling between fork prongs, the MME composite tuning-fork owns strong vibration and high Q value. Experimental results show that the proposed magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite tuning-fork exhibits approximately 4 times larger maximum output voltage and 7.2 times higher maximum power than the conventional magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite cantilever. PMID:26133877

  13. Note: Enhanced energy harvesting from low-frequency magnetic fields utilizing magneto-mechano-electric composite tuning-fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-06-01

    A magnetic-field energy harvester using a low-frequency magneto-mechano-electric (MME) composite tuning-fork is proposed. This MME composite tuning-fork consists of a copper tuning fork with piezoelectric Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) plates bonded near its fixed end and with NdFeB magnets attached at its free ends. Due to the resonance coupling between fork prongs, the MME composite tuning-fork owns strong vibration and high Q value. Experimental results show that the proposed magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite tuning-fork exhibits approximately 4 times larger maximum output voltage and 7.2 times higher maximum power than the conventional magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite cantilever.

  14. Stiffness nonlinearity as a means for resonance frequency tuning and enhancing mechanical robustness of vibration power harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loverich, J.; Geiger, R.; Frank, J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper addresses a particular type of power harvesting in which energy in the periodic movement of structures is parasitically converted to stored electric charge. In such applications, tuning of the vibration power harvesters' resonance frequency is often required to match the host structures' forcing frequency. This paper presents a method of adjusting the boundary conditions of nonlinear stiffness elements as a means of tuning the resonance frequency of piezoelectric vibration power harvesters (altering the deformation mode from bending to in-plane stretching). Using this tuning method, the resonance frequency was experimentally varied between 56 and 62 Hz. For a vibration level of 2 mm/s, the harvester has a similar Q to a linear system but its Q is reduced by one third at a vibration level of 10 mm/s. This behavior is important for applications where high sensitivity is required for low vibration levels but mechanical robustness is required for high vibration levels.

  15. The spatial frequency tuning of optic-flow-dependent behaviors in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens

    PubMed Central

    Dyhr, Jonathan P.; Higgins, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Insects use visual estimates of flight speed for a variety of behaviors, including visual navigation, odometry, grazing landings and flight speed control, but the neuronal mechanisms underlying speed detection remain unknown. Although many models and theories have been proposed for how the brain extracts the angular speed of the retinal image, termed optic flow, we lack the detailed electrophysiological and behavioral data necessary to conclusively support any one model. One key property by which different models of motion detection can be differentiated is their spatiotemporal frequency tuning. Numerous studies have suggested that optic-flow-dependent behaviors are largely insensitive to the spatial frequency of a visual stimulus, but they have sampled only a narrow range of spatial frequencies, have not always used narrowband stimuli, and have yielded slightly different results between studies based on the behaviors being investigated. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of the spatial frequency dependence of the centering response in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens using sinusoidal and square wave patterns. PMID:20435814

  16. Analysis of Frequency Response and Scale-Factor of Tuning Fork Micro-Gyroscope Operating at Atmospheric Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xukai; Li, Hongsheng; Ni, Yunfang; Sang, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the frequency response and the scale-factor of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure in the presence of an interference sense mode by utilizing the approximate transfer function. The optimal demodulation phase (ODP), which is always ignored in vacuum packaged micro-gyroscopes but quite important in gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure, is obtained through the transfer function of the sense mode, including the primary mode and the interference mode. The approximate transfer function of the micro-gyroscope is deduced in consideration of the interference mode and the ODP. Then, the equation describing the scale-factor of the gyroscope is also obtained. The impacts of the interference mode and Q-factor on the frequency response and the scale-factor of the gyroscope are analyzed through numerical simulations. The relationship between the scale-factor and the demodulation phase is also illustrated and gives an effective way to find out the ODP in practice. The simulation results predicted by the transfer functions are in close agreement with the results of the experiments. The analyses and simulations can provide constructive guidance on bandwidth and sensitivity designs of the micro-gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure. PMID:25621614

  17. Effect of echolocation behavior-related constant frequency-frequency modulation sound on the frequency tuning of inferior collicular neurons in Hipposideros armiger.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jia; Fu, Zi-Ying; Wei, Chen-Xue; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2015-08-01

    In constant frequency-frequency modulation (CF-FM) bats, the CF-FM echolocation signals include both CF and FM components, yet the role of such complex acoustic signals in frequency resolution by bats remains unknown. Using CF and CF-FM echolocation signals as acoustic stimuli, the responses of inferior collicular (IC) neurons of Hipposideros armiger were obtained by extracellular recordings. We tested the effect of preceding CF or CF-FM sounds on the shape of the frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of IC neurons. Results showed that both CF-FM and CF sounds reduced the number of FTCs with tailed lower-frequency-side of IC neurons. However, more IC neurons experienced such conversion after adding CF-FM sound compared with CF sound. We also found that the Q 20 value of the FTC of IC neurons experienced the largest increase with the addition of CF-FM sound. Moreover, only CF-FM sound could cause an increase in the slope of the neurons' FTCs, and such increase occurred mainly in the lower-frequency edge. These results suggested that CF-FM sound could increase the accuracy of frequency analysis of echo and cut-off low-frequency elements from the habitat of bats more than CF sound. PMID:26026915

  18. Hearing impairment induces frequency-specific adjustments in auditory spatial tuning in the optic tectum of young owls.

    PubMed

    Gold, J I; Knudsen, E I

    1999-11-01

    Bimodal, auditory-visual neurons in the optic tectum of the barn owl are sharply tuned for sound source location. The auditory receptive fields (RFs) of these neurons are restricted in space primarily as a consequence of their tuning for interaural time differences and interaural level differences across broad ranges of frequencies. In this study, we examined the extent to which frequency-specific features of early auditory experience shape the auditory spatial tuning of these neurons. We manipulated auditory experience by implanting in one ear canal an acoustic filtering device that altered the timing and level of sound reaching the eardrum in a frequency-dependent fashion. We assessed the auditory spatial tuning at individual tectal sites in normal owls and in owls raised with the filtering device. At each site, we measured a family of auditory RFs using broadband sound and narrowband sounds with different center frequencies both with and without the device in place. In normal owls, the narrowband RFs for a given site all included a common region of space that corresponded with the broadband RF and aligned with the site's visual RF. Acute insertion of the filtering device in normal owls shifted the locations of the narrowband RFs away from the visual RF, the magnitude and direction of the shifts depending on the frequency of the stimulus. In contrast, in owls that were raised wearing the device, narrowband and broadband RFs were aligned with visual RFs so long as the device was in the ear but not after it was removed, indicating that auditory spatial tuning had been adaptively altered by experience with the device. The frequency tuning of tectal neurons in device-reared owls was also altered from normal. The results demonstrate that experience during development adaptively modifies the representation of auditory space in the barn owl's optic tectum in a frequency-dependent manner. PMID:10561399

  19. Tuning of Kilopixel Transition Edge Sensor Bolometer Arrays with a Digital Frequency Multiplexed Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDermid, Kevin; Hyland, Peter; Aubin, Francois; Bissonnette, Eric; Dobbs, Matt; Hubmayr, Johannes; Smecher, Graeme; Wairrach, Shahjahen

    2009-12-01

    A digital frequency multiplexing (DfMUX) system has been developed and used to tune large arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out with SQUID arrays for mm-wavelength cosmology telescopes. The DfMUX system multiplexes the input bias voltages and output currents for several bolometers on a single set of cryogenic wires. Multiplexing reduces the heat load on the camera's sub-Kelvin cryogenic detector stage. In this paper we describe the algorithms and software used to set up and optimize the operation of the bolometric camera. The algorithms are implemented on soft processors embedded within FPGA devices operating on each backend readout board. The result is a fully parallelized implementation for which the setup time is independent of the array size.

  20. Increased energy harvesting and reduced accelerative load for backpacks via frequency tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Longhan; Cai, Mingjing

    2015-06-01

    In this research, a backpack-based frequency-tuneable harvesting device was developed to harvest part of the human kinetic energy during walking and to relieve part of the accelerative load of the backpack from the bearer. The harvester employed a tuning mechanism to adjust the stretch ratio of the springs to adjust the system's stiffness so that the harvesting device can work in an appropriate status to generate more power and relieve a greater load from the bearer. The analysis indicates that adjusting the stiffness harvesting system to fit well with various external excitation conditions, can not only achieve more power output but also relieve part of the accelerative load from the bearer; and the experimental results agreed with the simulation. Compared with previous work, the harvester in this work had a higher efficiency in energy harvesting and could relieve an increased accelerative load from the bearer.

  1. Tuning the resonant frequencies of a drop by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamin, Timothée; Djama, Yacine; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Falcon, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We report an experimental study of a magnetic liquid drop deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate and subjected to vertical vibrations in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is well known that a flattened drop of usual liquid displays oscillating lobes at its periphery when vibrated. By adding ferromagnetic nanoparticles to a water drop and varying the strength of the magnetic field, we are experimentally able to efficiently tune the resonant frequencies of the drop. By using conservation energy arguments, we show that the magnetic field contribution is equivalent to adding an effective negative surface tension to the drop. Our model is found to be in good agreement with the experiments with no fitting parameter.

  2. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.; Fletcher, Neville H.; Blevins, William E.

    2006-01-01

    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends on filtering of the vocal source, but the nature of this filter is controversial. Current hypotheses treat the songbird vocal tract as a rigid tube with a resonance that is modulated by the end-correction of a variable beak opening. Through x-ray cinematography of singing birds, we show that birdsong is accompanied by cyclical movements of the hyoid skeleton and changes in the diameter of the cranial end of the esophagus that maintain an inverse relationship between the volume of the oropharyngeal cavity and esophagus and the song’s fundamental frequency. A computational acoustic model indicates that this song-related motor pattern tunes the major resonance of the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity to actively track the song’s fundamental frequency. PMID:16567614

  3. Terahertz beam steering and frequency tuning by using the spatial dispersion of ultrafast laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Maki, Ken-ichiro; Otani, Chiko

    2008-07-01

    We demonstrate a terahertz (THz) beam steering method using difference frequency generation that is based on the principle of phased array antennas. A strip-line photoconductive antenna was illuminated by two spatially dispersed beams produced from an ultrafast laser. THz radiation with a bandwidth of 65 GHz was generated from the overlapping area of the two beams, between which the frequency difference was approximately constant. We confirmed that the THz beam can be steered by tilting one of the incident pump beams so as to change their relative phase relation. The steering range of the THz beam was 29 degrees when the angle between the incident pump beams was only varied within a range of 0.155 degrees, that is, 187 times less. In addition, by laterally shifting one of the pump beams, the frequency of the THz radiation could be tuned from 0.3 to 1.7 THz. This technique can be applied to high-speed terahertz imaging and spectroscopy systems. PMID:18607423

  4. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A; Fletcher, Neville H; Blevins, William E

    2006-04-01

    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends on filtering of the vocal source, but the nature of this filter is controversial. Current hypotheses treat the songbird vocal tract as a rigid tube with a resonance that is modulated by the end-correction of a variable beak opening. Through x-ray cinematography of singing birds, we show that birdsong is accompanied by cyclical movements of the hyoid skeleton and changes in the diameter of the cranial end of the esophagus that maintain an inverse relationship between the volume of the oropharyngeal cavity and esophagus and the song's fundamental frequency. A computational acoustic model indicates that this song-related motor pattern tunes the major resonance of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity to actively track the song's fundamental frequency. PMID:16567614

  5. Method for independent and continuous tuning of N lasers phase-locked to the same frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz; Madison, Kirk W.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method of phase-locking any number of continuous-wave lasers to an optical frequency comb (OFC) that enables independent frequency positioning and control of each laser while still maintaining lock to the OFC. The scheme employs an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) in a double pass configuration added to each laser before its light is compared by optical heterodyne with the comb. The only requirement is that the tuning bandwidth of the double pass AOM setup be larger than half the OFC repetition rate. We demonstrate this scheme and achieve an arbitrary frequency tuning precision, a tuning rate of 200~MHz/s and a readout precision at the 1~kHz level.

  6. Speech training alters tone frequency tuning in rat primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Crystal T.; Perez, Claudia A.; Carraway, Ryan S.; Chang, Kevin Q.; Roland, Jarod L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies in both humans and animals have documented improved performance following discrimination training. This enhanced performance is often associated with cortical response changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term speech training on multiple tasks can improve primary auditory cortex (A1) responses compared to rats trained on a single speech discrimination task or experimentally naïve rats. Specifically, we compared the percent of A1 responding to trained sounds, the responses to both trained and untrained sounds, receptive field properties of A1 neurons, and the neural discrimination of pairs of speech sounds in speech trained and naïve rats. Speech training led to accurate discrimination of consonant and vowel sounds, but did not enhance A1 response strength or the neural discrimination of these sounds. Speech training altered tone responses in rats trained on six speech discrimination tasks but not in rats trained on a single speech discrimination task. Extensive speech training resulted in broader frequency tuning, shorter onset latencies, a decreased driven response to tones, and caused a shift in the frequency map to favor tones in the range where speech sounds are the loudest. Both the number of trained tasks and the number of days of training strongly predict the percent of A1 responding to a low frequency tone. Rats trained on a single speech discrimination task performed less accurately than rats trained on multiple tasks and did not exhibit A1 response changes. Our results indicate that extensive speech training can reorganize the A1 frequency map, which may have downstream consequences on speech sound processing. PMID:24344364

  7. Frequency tuning and intensity coding of sound in the auditory periphery of the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michaela; Fay, Richard R.; Popper, Arthur N.

    2010-01-01

    Acipenser fulvescens, the lake sturgeon, belongs to one of the few extant non-teleost ray-finned (bony) fishes. The sturgeons (family Acipenseridae) have a phylogenetic history that dates back about 250 million years. The study reported here is the first investigation of peripheral coding strategies for spectral analysis in the auditory system in a non-teleost bony fish. We used a shaker system to simulate the particle motion component of sound during electrophysiological recordings of isolated single units from the eighth nerve innervating the saccule and lagena. Background activity and response characteristics of saccular and lagenar afferents (such as thresholds, response–level functions and temporal firing) resembled the ones found in teleosts. The distribution of best frequencies also resembled data in teleosts (except for Carassius auratus, goldfish) tested with the same stimulation method. The saccule and lagena in A. fulvescens contain otoconia, in contrast to the solid otoliths found in teleosts, however, this difference in otolith structure did not appear to affect threshold, frequency tuning, intensity- or temporal responses of auditory afferents. In general, the physiological characteristics common to A. fulvescens, teleosts and land vertebrates reflect important functions of the auditory system that may have been conserved throughout the evolution of vertebrates. PMID:20400642

  8. Hardware platforms for MEMS gyroscope tuning based on evolutionary computation using open-loop and closed -loop frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Ferguson, Michael I.; Fink, Wolfgang; Oks, Boris; Peay, Chris; Terrile, Richard; Cheng, Yen; Kim, Dennis; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David

    2005-01-01

    We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation. We also report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The hardware platform easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.

  9. Resonant tectorial membrane motion in the inner ear: its crucial role in frequency tuning.

    PubMed Central

    Gummer, A W; Hemmert, W; Zenner, H P

    1996-01-01

    The tectorial membrane has long been postulated as playing a role in the exquisite sensitivity of the cochlea. In particular, it has been proposed that the tectorial membrane provides a second resonant system, in addition to that of the basilar membrane, which contributes to the amplification of the motion of the cochlear partition. Until now, technical difficulties had prevented vibration measurements of the tectorial membrane and, therefore, precluded direct evidence of a mechanical resonance. In the study reported here, the vibration of the tectorial membrane was measured in two orthogonal directions by using a novel method of combining laser interferometry with a photodiode technique. It is shown experimentally that the motion of the tectorial membrane is resonant at a frequency of 0.5 octave (oct) below the resonant frequency of the basilar membrane and polarized parallel to the reticular lamina. It is concluded that the resonant motion of the tectorial membrane is due to a parallel resonance between the mass of the tectorial membrane and the compliance of the stereocilia of the outer hair cells. Moreover, in combination with the contractile force of outer hair cells, it is proposed that inertial motion of the tectorial membrane provides the necessary conditions to allow positive feedback of mechanical energy into the cochlear partition, thereby amplifying and tuning the cochlear response. PMID:8710939

  10. Resonance frequency-retuned quartz tuning fork as a force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ooe, Hiroaki; Sakuishi, Tatsuya; Arai, Toyoko; Nogami, Makoto; Tomitori, Masahiko

    2014-07-28

    Based on a two-prong type quartz tuning fork, a force sensor with a high Q factor, which we call a retuned fork sensor, was developed for non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) with atomic resolution. By cutting a small notch and attaching an AFM tip to one prong, its resonance frequency can be retuned to that of the other intact prong. In balancing the two prongs in this manner, a high Q factor (>50 000 in ultrahigh vacuum) is obtained for the sensor. An atomic resolution image of the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface was demonstrated using an nc-AFM with the sensor. The dependence of the Q factor on resonance frequency of the sensor and the long-range force between tip and sample were measured and analyzed in view of the various dissipation channels. Dissipation in the signal detection circuit turned out to be mainly limited by the total Q factor of the nc-AFM system.

  11. Term frequency - function of document frequency: a new term weighting scheme for enterprise information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Deqing; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Hongping

    2012-11-01

    In today's business environment, enterprises are increasingly under pressure to process the vast amount of data produced everyday within enterprises. One method is to focus on the business intelligence (BI) applications and increasing the commercial added-value through such business analytics activities. Term weighting scheme, which has been used to convert the documents as vectors in the term space, is a vital task in enterprise Information Retrieval (IR), text categorisation, text analytics, etc. When determining term weight in a document, the traditional TF-IDF scheme sets weight value for the term considering only its occurrence frequency within the document and in the entire set of documents, which leads to some meaningful terms that cannot get the appropriate weight. In this article, we propose a new term weighting scheme called Term Frequency - Function of Document Frequency (TF-FDF) to address this issue. Instead of using monotonically decreasing function such as Inverse Document Frequency, FDF presents a convex function that dynamically adjusts weights according to the significance of the words in a document set. This function can be manually tuned based on the distribution of the most meaningful words which semantically represent the document set. Our experiments show that the TF-FDF can achieve higher value of Normalised Discounted Cumulative Gain in IR than that of TF-IDF and its variants, and improving the accuracy of relevance ranking of the IR results.

  12. Post-Functionalized Polymer Brushes for Bio-Separation: Tuning GFP Adsorption via Functional Group Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Steve; Arifuzzaman, Shafi; Genzer, Jan; Naik, Rajesh; Vaia, Richard

    2007-03-01

    An inexpensive and robust biosensor platform that can be tuned to separate and/or detect complex mixtures of biomolecules while minimizing reagents would be of great use for military, homeland security, and medical diagnostic applications. Gradient surfaces of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes have been previously shown to spatially localize biomolecule binding, while minimizing non-specific adsorption of the same biomolecule on other regions of the gradient specimen. In order to further improve the specificity and to provide latent functionality for detection of the binding events, post-polymerization modification of PHEMA with various functional groups has been investigated. Using standard succinimide-based coupling, hydroxyl pendants of PHEMA brushes were conjugated to oligo-peptides, alkanes and oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) through an alpha-terminus primary amine. Ellipsometry, contact angle, XPS and ER-FTIR spectroscopy indicated that coupling occurred with efficiencies ranging from 10-40%. Post-functionalization of PHEMA with OEG and hexadecane allows manipulation of the hydrophilicity of the surface and thus tuning of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) binding.

  13. Methods of reducing low frequency cabin noise and sonically induced stresses, based on the intrinsic structural tuning concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, G.

    1977-01-01

    Control of low frequency interior noise has been difficult in all commercial and general aviation aircraft, since the existing sound attenuation techniques are less effective at these frequencies. Therefore low frequency cabin noise and sonically induced stresses can be reduced mainly by a proper design of the fuselage structure. For this purpose, a concept based on intrinsic tuning and damping of fuselage structural elements has been under development at Boeing for the past three years. This paper describes the results of some laboratory and field tests that were conducted for evaluation of the concept.

  14. Note: improving spatial resolution of optical frequency-domain reflectometry against frequency tuning nonlinearity using non-uniform fast Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Tiegen; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Kun; Chen, Qinnan; Du, Yang; Li, Dingjie; Yao, X Steve

    2012-06-01

    We propose using non-uniform FFT to minimize the degrading effect of frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in an optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) system. We use an auxiliary interferometer to obtain the required instantaneous optical frequency of the TLS and successfully demonstrate 100 times enhancement in spatial resolution of OFDR with only a 20% increase in computation time. The corresponding measurement reflectivity sensitivity is better than -80 dB, sufficient to detect bending induced index changes in an optical fiber. PMID:22755676

  15. Note: Improving spatial resolution of optical frequency-domain reflectometry against frequency tuning nonlinearity using non-uniform fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Tiegen; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Kun; Chen, Qinnan; Du, Yang; Li, Dingjie; Yao, X. Steve

    2012-06-01

    We propose using non-uniform FFT to minimize the degrading effect of frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in an optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) system. We use an auxiliary interferometer to obtain the required instantaneous optical frequency of the TLS and successfully demonstrate 100 times enhancement in spatial resolution of OFDR with only a 20% increase in computation time. The corresponding measurement reflectivity sensitivity is better than -80 dB, sufficient to detect bending induced index changes in an optical fiber.

  16. A model for electrical resonance and frequency tuning in saccular hair cells of the bull-frog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, A J; Lewis, R S

    1988-06-01

    1. Electrical resonance in solitary hair cells was examined under several experimental conditions using the tight-seal recording technique in the whole-cell current-clamp mode. 2. Resonance was characterized by the frequency and quality factor of oscillations in membrane potential evoked by depolarizing current pulses. Oscillation frequency increased with depolarization, from about 90 Hz at the resting potential to a limiting value of about 250 Hz. The quality factor of the oscillations was a bell-shaped function of membrane potential that reached a maximum of up to 12.6 at a potential slightly positive to the resting potential. 3. Pharmacological experiments were performed to assess which of three ionic currents participate in electrical resonance. Reduction of the voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa) and the Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)) by lowering the extracellular Ca2+ concentration, or reduction of IK(Ca) with tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) degraded the resonance. In contrast, blockade of the transient K+ current (IA) with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) had no significant effect. 4. To test the sufficiency of the Ca2+ and the Ca2+-activated K+ currents to account for resonance, we developed a model using mathematical descriptions of the two currents derived in the preceding paper (Hudspeth & Lewis, 1988), with additional terms for leakage conductance and membrane capacitance. The model correctly predicts the oscillatory responses to applied current pulses, including the non-linear dependences of oscillation frequency and quality factor on membrane potential. 5. Simulations of current-clamp experiments in the presence of a reduced extracellular Ca2+ concentration or of TEA were generated respectively by decreasing the model's values for the maximal Ca2+ or Ca2+-activated K+ conductances. The model's predictions of membrane-potential oscillations under these conditions agree qualitatively with experimental results, providing further support for the model as a

  17. Temporal Frequency Tuning Reveals Interactions between the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Streams.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Garcea, Frank E; Mahon, Bradford Z; Almeida, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Visual processing of complex objects is supported by the ventral visual pathway in the service of object identification and by the dorsal visual pathway in the service of object-directed reaching and grasping. Here, we address how these two streams interact during tool processing, by exploiting the known asymmetry in projections of subcortical magnocellular and parvocellular inputs to the dorsal and ventral streams. The ventral visual pathway receives both parvocellular and magnocellular input, whereas the dorsal visual pathway receives largely magnocellular input. We used fMRI to measure tool preferences in parietal cortex when the images were presented at either high or low temporal frequencies, exploiting the fact that parvocellular channels project principally to the ventral but not dorsal visual pathway. We reason that regions of parietal cortex that exhibit tool preferences for stimuli presented at frequencies characteristic of the parvocellular pathway receive their inputs from the ventral stream. We found that the left inferior parietal lobule, in the vicinity of the supramarginal gyrus, exhibited tool preferences for images presented at low temporal frequencies, whereas superior and posterior parietal regions exhibited tool preferences for images present at high temporal frequencies. These data indicate that object identity, processed within the ventral stream, is communicated to the left inferior parietal lobule and may there combine with inputs from the dorsal visual pathway to allow for functionally appropriate object manipulation. PMID:27082048

  18. Tuning the work function of graphene by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Zeng, Jian-Jhou

    2013-05-06

    Graphene layers grown by chemical vapor deposition were, respectively, irradiated for 0, 20, 40, and 60 min by an ultraviolet light source in order to experimentally study the change in the work function of graphene. The dependences of the work function and carrier concentration upon ultraviolet irradiation have been found. It is shown that ultraviolet irradiation may lead to oxygen desorption, thus reducing the hole density and work function of graphene. Based on the well-known expression for the Fermi energy of Dirac fermions, the Fermi velocity of graphene was extracted to be about 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} m/s.

  19. Frequency tuning of a distributed feedback dye laser with two transmission gratings.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Ding, T N; Hatten, D L; Hill, W T; Goldhar, J

    1993-11-20

    Distributed feedback dye lasers, which use a holographic grating, present a very simple and reliable way to generate ultrashort pulses. We have developed a new technique for wavelength tuning of this type of laser by projecting the image of a second grating into the dye cell. Single-line operating and tuning was demonstrated with transform-limited output pulses on a picosecond time scale. PMID:20856504

  20. Ih Tunes Theta/Gamma Oscillations and Cross-Frequency Coupling In an In Silico CA3 Model

    PubMed Central

    Neymotin, Samuel A.; Hilscher, Markus M.; Moulin, Thiago C.; Skolnick, Yosef; Lazarewicz, Maciej T.; Lytton, William W.

    2013-01-01

    channels are uniquely positioned to act as neuromodulatory control points for tuning hippocampal theta (4–12 Hz) and gamma (25 Hz) oscillations, oscillations which are thought to have importance for organization of information flow. contributes to neuronal membrane resonance and resting membrane potential, and is modulated by second messengers. We investigated oscillatory control using a multiscale computer model of hippocampal CA3, where each cell class (pyramidal, basket, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells), contained type-appropriate isoforms of . Our model demonstrated that modulation of pyramidal and basket allows tuning theta and gamma oscillation frequency and amplitude. Pyramidal also controlled cross-frequency coupling (CFC) and allowed shifting gamma generation towards particular phases of the theta cycle, effected via 's ability to set pyramidal excitability. Our model predicts that in vivo neuromodulatory control of allows flexibly controlling CFC and the timing of gamma discharges at particular theta phases. PMID:24204609

  1. An electrostatic model for the frequency shifts in the carbonmonoxy stretching band of myoglobin: correlation of hydrogen bonding and the stark tuning rate.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Stefan

    2002-11-01

    The effect of internal and applied external electric fields on the vibrational stretching frequency for bound CO (nu(CO)) in myoglobin mutants was studied using density functional theory. Geometry optimization and frequency calculations were carried out for an imidazole-iron-porphine-carbonmonoxy adduct with various small molecule hydrogen-bonding groups. Over 70 vibrational frequency calculations of different model geometries and hydrogen-bonding groups were compared to derive overall trends in the C-O stretching frequency (nu(CO)) in terms of the C-O bond length and Mulliken charge. Simple linear functions were derived to predict the Stark tuning rate using an approach analogous to the vibronic theory of activation.(1) Potential energy calculations show that the strongest interaction occurs for C-H or N-H hydrogen bonding nearly perpendicular to the Fe-C-O bond axis. The calculated frequencies are compared to the structural data available from 18 myoglobin crystal structures, supporting the hypothesis that the vast majority of hydrogen-bonding interactions with CO occur from the side, rather than the end, of the bound CO ligand. The nu(CO) frequency shifts agree well with experimental frequency shifts for multiple bands, known as A states, and site-directed mutations in the distal pocket of myoglobin. The model calculations quantitatively explain electrostatic effects in terms of specific hydrogen-bonding interactions with bound CO in heme proteins. PMID:12405856

  2. Level-dependent auditory tuning: Transducer-based active processes in hearing and best-frequency shifts.

    PubMed

    Nadrowski, Björn; Göpfert, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Ears boost their sensitivity by means of active, force-generating processes that augment the minute vibrations induced by soft sounds. These processes can alter auditory frequency-tuning in a level-dependent way. In the antennal hearing organ of Drosophila, for example, the active process shifts the best frequency (BF) of the antennal sound receiver when the sound intensity is varied, tuning the receiver to conspecific songs. Here we show that this level-dependent tuning can be reproduced by an active transduction model as proposed for vertebrate hair cells and the Drosophila ear. We further show that the direction of the frequency shift depends on the system to which the molecular modules for auditory transduction connect: If this system is mass-less such as the sensory hair bundles of bullfrog saccular hair cells, the BF of the displacement response will increase as the sound intensity declines. Conversely, BF will decrease with declining intensity if the transduction modules couple to inertial systems such as the fly's antennal sound receiver or cupulae in the fish lateral line. PMID:19704854

  3. Theory of work function tuning via mixed-monolayers on functional surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotiuga, Michele; Darancet, Pierre; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) provide both stability and functionality of surfaces useful in optoelectronic nanoscale devices. The work function, level alignment and other electronic properties of functionalized surfaces can be tuned with the choice of molecule and an even finer control of the properties can be obtained with a SAM comprised of multiple types of molecules. Modeling the effect on electronic properties of mixed-monolayers via ab initio calculations poses a challenge due to the large supercell required to capture a range of relative concentrations between the two types of molecules. Here, we present an implicit model - fit from density functional theory calculations - capturing local electrostatic interactions within the SAM primarily due to depolarization of the induced dipoles formed upon binding. This quantitative model allows us to explore supercells with a large number of molecules and, thus, surface concentrations that are inhomogeneous in nature. We compare to experimental results of thiol terminated carboranes on gold Supported by AFOSR MURI FA9550-12-1-0002 and U.S. DOE under Contract Nos. DE-AC02-06CH1135 & DE-AC02-06CH11231.

  4. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals. PMID:27608987

  5. Hybrid Density Functionals Tuned towards Fulfillment of Fundamental DFT Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid exchange-correlation functionals (XC), e.g. PBE0 and HSE, have significantly improved the theoretical description of molecules and solids. Their degree of exact-exchange admixture (α) is in principle a functional of the electron density, but the functional form is not known. In this talk, I will discuss fundamental conditions of exact density-functional theory (DFT) that enable us to find the optimal choice of α for ground-state calculations. In particular, I will discuss the fact that the highest occupied Kohn-Sham level of an N-electron system (ɛHOMO(N)) should be constant for fractional particle numbers between N and N-1 and equals the ionization potential (IP), as given by the total-energy difference. In practice, we realize this in three different ways. XC(α) will be optimized (opt-XC) until it (i) fulfills the condition: ɛHOMO(N) =ɛHOMO (N-1/2) or the Kohn-Sham HOMO agrees with the ionization potential computed in a more sophisticated approach ɛHOMO(N) = IP such as (ii) the G0W0 @opt-XC method or (iii) CCSD(T) or full CI. Using such an opt-XC is essential for describing electron transfer between (organic) molecules, as exemplified by the TTF/TCNQ dimer. It also yields vertical ionization energies of the G2 test set of quantum chemistry with a mean absolute percentage error of only ~3%. Furthermore, our approach removes the starting-point uncertainty of GW calculations and thus bears some resemblance to the consistent starting point scheme and quasiparticle self-consistent GW. While our opt-XC approach yields large α values for small molecules in the gas phase, we find that α needs to be 0.25 or less for organic molecules adsorbed on metals. Work performed in collaboration with V. Atalla, N.A. Richter, S.V. Levchenko, and P. Rinke

  6. Localized electrical fine tuning of passive microwave and radio frequency devices

    DOEpatents

    Findikoglu, Alp T.

    2001-04-10

    A method and apparatus for the localized electrical fine tuning of passive multiple element microwave or RF devices in which a nonlinear dielectric material is deposited onto predetermined areas of a substrate containing the device. An appropriate electrically conductive material is deposited over predetermined areas of the nonlinear dielectric and the signal line of the device for providing electrical contact with the nonlinear dielectric. Individual, adjustable bias voltages are applied to the electrically conductive material allowing localized electrical fine tuning of the devices. The method of the present invention can be applied to manufactured devices, or can be incorporated into the design of the devices so that it is applied at the time the devices are manufactured. The invention can be configured to provide localized fine tuning for devices including but not limited to coplanar waveguides, slotline devices, stripline devices, and microstrip devices.

  7. A Hardware Platform for Tuning of MEMS Devices Using Closed-Loop Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael I.; MacDonald, Eric; Foor, David

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a hardware platform for integrated tuning and closed-loop operation of MEMS gyroscopes. The platform was developed and tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-Resonator MEMS gyroscope. The control of this device is implemented through a digital design on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A software interface allows the user to configure, calibrate, and tune the bias voltages on the micro-gyro. The interface easily transitions to an embedded solution that allows for the miniaturization of the system to a single chip.

  8. Tuning of noble metal work function with organophosphonate nanolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanath, Ganpati Kwan, Matthew; Chow, P. K.; Quintero, Y. Cardona; Ramprasad, R.; Mutin, P. H.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate that weak chemical interactions between untethered moieties in molecular nanolayers on metal surfaces can strongly influence the effective work function Φ{sub eff}. Electron spectroscopy shows that nanolayers of mercaptan-anchored organophosphonates on Au and Pt decrease Φ{sub eff}. The measured Φ{sub eff} shifts correlate with the chemical state of phosphonic acid moieties, and scale with molecular length. These results are contrary to predictions of ab initio calculations of monolayer-capped surfaces, but are consistent with calculations of bilayer-capped surfaces with face-to-face hydrogen-bonded phosphonic acid moieties. Our findings indicate that intra-layer bonding and layering in molecular nanolayers can be key to tailoring heterointerfacial electronic properties for applications.

  9. A quenched study of the Schroedinger functional with chirally rotated boundary conditions: non-perturbative tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Jennifer; Jansen, Karl; Renner, Dru B.; Shindler, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to non-perturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit.

  10. Voltage tuning of the resonance frequency of electroactive polymer membranes over a range of more than 75%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Philippe; Rosset, Samuel; Niklaus, Muhamed; Shea, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    We report on a novel technique to control the resonance frequency of polymer membranes, without additional external actuators. An electrostatic force is used to apply compressive stress to a dielectric electroactive polymers membrane, consisting of a 25 micron thick, 1 to 4 mm diameter, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film bonded onto patterned silicon or Pyrex wafers. Both sides of the membranes are rendered conductive by low-energy metal ion implantation. Ion implantation is chosen because it stiffens the membrane much less than sputtering a film of similar thickness [1][2]. The initial resonance frequency of the membrane is given by its geometry, the Young's modulus and stress of the composite film. The technique presented here allows tuning the resonance frequency from this initial value down to zero (at the buckling threshold) by adding compressive stress due to a voltage difference applied to the electrodes on both sides of the membrane. We have measured a reduction of the first mode resonance frequency of up to 77% (limited by dielectric breakdown) for ion-implanted membranes [3]. The tuning is repeatable and allows for continuous variation. Excellent agreement was found between our measurements and an analytical model we developed based on the Rayleigh-Ritz theory.

  11. System and method for tuning adjusting the central frequency of a laser while maintaining frequency stabilization to an external reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey (Inventor); Thorpe, James I. (Inventor); Numata, Kenji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for stabilizing a laser to a frequency reference with an adjustable offset. The method locks a sideband signal generated by passing an incoming laser beam through the phase modulator to a frequency reference, and adjusts a carrier frequency relative to the locked sideband signal by changing a phase modulation frequency input to the phase modulator. The sideband signal can be a single sideband (SSB), dual sideband (DSB), or an electronic sideband (ESB) signal. Two separate electro-optic modulators can produce the DSB signal. The two electro-optic modulators can be a broadband modulator and a resonant modulator. With a DSB signal, the method can introduce two sinusoidal phase modulations at the phase modulator. With ESB signals, the method can further drive the optical phase modulator with an electrical signal with nominal frequency OMEGA(sub 1) that is phase modulated at a frequency OMEGA(sub 2)

  12. Tuned range-separated hybrid functionals in the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hapka, Michał; Modrzejewski, Marcin; Rajchel, Łukasz; Chałasiński, Grzegorz; Szczęśniak, Małgorzata M.

    2014-10-07

    The aim of this study is to present a performance test of optimally tuned long-range corrected (LRC) functionals applied to the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT). In the present variant, the second-order energy components are evaluated at the coupled level of theory. We demonstrate that the generalized Kohn-Sham (GKS) description of monomers with optimally tuned LRC functionals may be essential for the quality of SAPT interaction energy components. This is connected to the minimization of a many-electron self-interaction error and exemplified by two model systems: polyacetylenes of increasing length and stretching of He{sub 3}{sup +}. Next we provide a comparison of SAPT approaches based on Kohn-Sham and GKS description of the monomers. We show that LRC leads to results better or comparable with the hitherto prevailing asymptotically corrected functionals. Finally, we discuss the advantages and possible limitations of SAPT based on LRC functionals.

  13. Analysis of the natural frequency of a quartz double-end tuning fork with a new deformation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo-Shiun; Chang-Chien, Wen-Tien; Hsieh, Fa-Hwa; Chou, Yuan-Fang; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-06-01

    The quartz double-end tuning fork is composed of two parallel slender beams with their ends fixed to the proof masses, both ends of which are clamped. The structure is made of a quartz wafer which is anisotropic in stiffness. In anti-phase mode the two slender parallel beams vibrate in opposite directions and can be modelled as an Euler beam. The twist moments caused by the slender beams on the proof mass make the cross-section of the proof mass deform into a warped surface. The objective of this research is to establish the warping deformation model so that we can build up the equation of motion for anisotropic stiffness by using Hamilton’s principle and then perform theoretical analysis. The more realistic warping displacement leads the natural frequency closer to the true one. The purpose of the proof mass is to modulate the frequencies and mode shape of tuning fork beams. The advantage of anti-phase mode is that the centre of mass in unchanged during motion so that the system has a higher signal-to-noise ratio. The theoretically obtained frequency is compared with the experimental one and that obtained by the finite element method.

  14. A short report on voltage-to-frequency conversion for HISTRAP RF system tuning control loops

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanul Basher, A.M.

    1991-09-01

    One of the requirements of the HISTRAP RF accelerating system is that the frequency of the accelerating voltage for the cavity must keep in step with the change in the magnetic field. As the energy of the particle increases, the magnetic field is increased to keep the radius of the particle orbit constant. At the same time, the frequency of the electric field must be changed to insure that it is synchronized with the angular movement of the particle. So we need to generate the frequency of the accelerating voltage in relation to the magnetic field. The frequency generation can be accomplished in two stages. The first stage of frequency generation consists of measuring the magnetic field in terms of voltage which is already developed. The second stage is to convert this voltage into frequency. Final frequency precision can be achieved by deriving a frequency-correcting signal from the beam position. This project is concerned with generating the frequency from the analog voltage. The speed of response required will place very stringent requirements on both hardware and software. Technology is available to carry out this task. A hardware configuration has been established and software has been developed. In the following section, we describe the implementation strategy, the hardware configuration, and the desired specifications. Next, we present the software developed, results obtained, along with capabilities and limitations of the system. Finally, we suggest alternate solutions to overcome some of the limitations toward meeting our goal. In the appendices, we include program listings.

  15. Frequency Selectivity of Voxel-by-Voxel Functional Connectivity in Human Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kuwook; Zatorre, Robert J; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2016-01-01

    While functional connectivity in the human cortex has been increasingly studied, its relationship to cortical representation of sensory features has not been documented as much. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate that voxel-by-voxel intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) is selective to frequency preference of voxels in the human auditory cortex. Thus, FC was significantly higher for voxels with similar frequency tuning than for voxels with dissimilar tuning functions. Frequency-selective FC, measured via the correlation of residual hemodynamic activity, was not explained by generic FC that is dependent on spatial distance over the cortex. This pattern remained even when FC was computed using residual activity taken from resting epochs. Further analysis showed that voxels in the core fields in the right hemisphere have a higher frequency selectivity in within-area FC than their counterpart in the left hemisphere, or than in the noncore-fields in the same hemisphere. Frequency-selective FC is consistent with previous findings of topographically organized FC in the human visual and motor cortices. The high degree of frequency selectivity in the right core area is in line with findings and theoretical proposals regarding the asymmetry of human auditory cortex for spectral processing. PMID:25183885

  16. Delocalization error and "functional tuning" in Kohn-Sham calculations of molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen; Srebro, Monika

    2014-08-19

    Kohn-Sham theory (KST) is the "workhorse" of numerical quantum chemistry. This is particularly true for first-principles calculations of ground- and excited-state properties for larger systems, including electronic spectra, electronic dynamic and static linear and higher order response properties (including nonlinear optical (NLO) properties), conformational or dynamic averaging of spectra and response properties, or properties that are affected by the coupling of electron and nuclear motion. This Account explores the sometimes dramatic impact of the delocalization error (DE) and possible benefits from the use of long-range corrections (LC) and "tuning" of functionals in KST calculations of molecular ground-state and response properties. Tuning refers to a nonempirical molecule-specific determination of adjustable parameters in functionals to satisfy known exact conditions, for instance, that the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should be equal to the negative vertical ionization potential (IP) or that the energy as a function of fractional electron numbers should afford straight-line segments. The presentation is given from the viewpoint of a chemist interested in computations of a variety of molecular optical and spectroscopic properties and of a theoretician developing methods for computing such properties with KST. In recent years, the use of LC functionals, functional tuning, and quantifying the DE explicitly have provided valuable insight regarding the performance of KST for molecular properties. We discuss a number of different molecular properties, with examples from recent studies from our laboratory and related literature. The selected properties probe different aspects of molecular electronic structure. Electric field gradients and hyperfine coupling constants can be exquisitely sensitive to the DE because it affects the ground-state electron density and spin density distributions. For π-conjugated molecules, it is shown how the

  17. Intelligent Systems for Stabilizing Mode-Locked Lasers and Frequency Combs: Machine Learning and Equation-Free Control Paradigms for Self-Tuning Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, J. Nathan; Brunton, Steven L.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that a software architecture using innovations in machine learning and adaptive control provides an ideal integration platform for self-tuning optics. For mode-locked lasers, commercially available optical telecom components can be integrated with servocontrollers to enact a training and execution software module capable of self-tuning the laser cavity even in the presence of mechanical and/or environmental perturbations, thus potentially stabilizing a frequency comb. The algorithm training stage uses an exhaustive search of parameter space to discover best regions of performance for one or more objective functions of interest. The execution stage first uses a sparse sensing procedure to recognize the parameter space before quickly moving to the near optimal solution and maintaining it using the extremum seeking control protocol. The method is robust and equationfree, thus requiring no detailed or quantitatively accurate model of the physics. It can also be executed on a broad range of problems provided only that suitable objective functions can be found and experimentally measured.

  18. The experimental results of a self tuning adaptive controller using online frequency identification. [for Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, W.-W.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A fourth-order laboratory dynamic system featuring very low structural damping and a noncolocated actuator-sensor pair has been used to test a novel real-time adaptive controller, implemented in a minicomputer, which consists of a state estimator, a set of state feedback gains, and a frequency-locked loop for real-time parameter identification. The adaptation algorithm employed can correct controller error and stabilize the system for more than 50 percent variation in the plant's natural frequency, compared with a 10 percent stability margin in frequency variation for a fixed gain controller having the same performance as the nominal plant condition. The very rapid convergence achievable by this adaptive system is demonstrated experimentally, and proven with simple, root-locus methods.

  19. Method of Tuning Frequency of the Defect Mode in Two-Dimensional Square Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuya; Wu, Fugen; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhong, Huilin; He, Yun; Cheng, Cong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the defect modes created by taking a single rod away from the center of the supercell in two-dimensional photonic crystals. Through theoretical calculation, we find that the defect band can exist in the photonic band gaps, and the position of the defect band frequency intensively depends on the position and radius size of the defect rod. When the radius of the defect rod is bigger than that of the normal rods, the frequency of the defect band can be tunable in a wider range by moving the defect position while the doubly degenerate defect modes may split into two nondegenerate defect modes. The investigation provides a theoretical instruction to design the optical resonator with tunable frequency.

  20. Bivariate flood frequency analyses using Copula function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sraj, Mojca; Bezak, Nejc; Brilly, Mitja

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was (1) to perform all steps in flood frequency analyses using Copula approach, (2) to select the most appropriate Copula function and (3) to evaluate the conditional bivariate return periods for the next pairs of variables: peak-volume, volume-duration and peak-duration, respectively. Flood frequency analyses are usually made by univariate distribution functions and in most cases only peaks are considered in analyses. However, hydrological processes are multidimensional, so it is reasonable to consider more than one variable in analyses. Different marginal distributions can be used for Copula modelling. Copula function successfully models dependence between two or more depended variables and determination of marginal distributions and Copula selection are two separate processes. Hydrological station Litija on the Sava river is one of the oldest stations in Slovenia and it lies in eastern part of country. 58 years of annual maximums were used for analyses and three-points graphical method was used for base flow separation. The log-Pearson type 3 distribution was selected as marginal distribution of peaks and durations, the Pearson type 3 distribution was chosen as marginal distribution of volumes. Some frequently used Copula functions from the Archimedean (Gumbel-Hougaard, Frank, Joe, Clayton, BB1 and Ali-Mikhail-Haq), Elliptical (Student-t and Normal) and Extreme value (Galambos, Hüsler-Reiss and Tawn) families were applied to the data. Copula parameters were estimated with the method of moments based on the inversion of Kendall's tau and with the maximum likelihood method. Graphical and statistical test were applied for the comparison of different Copula functions. For the pair peak-duration the Kendall correlation coefficient was negative and only Copulas able to model negative dependence were used. The Gumbel-Hougaard, Frank and Ali-Mikhail-Haq Copulas were selected as optimal based on tests results for the pairs: peak-volume, volume

  1. Spatial frequency tuning reveals interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Bradford Z; Kumar, Nicholas; Almeida, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    It is widely argued that the ability to recognize and identify manipulable objects depends on the retrieval and simulation of action-based information associated with using those objects. Evidence for that view comes from fMRI studies that have reported differential BOLD contrast in dorsal visual stream regions when participants view manipulable objects compared with a range of baseline categories. An alternative interpretation is that processes internal to the ventral visual pathway are sufficient to support the visual identification of manipulable objects and that the retrieval of object-associated use information is contingent on analysis of the visual input by the ventral stream. Here, we sought to distinguish these two perspectives by exploiting the fact that the dorsal stream is largely driven by magnocellular input, which is biased toward low spatial frequency visual information. Thus, any tool-selective responses in parietal cortex that are driven by high spatial frequencies would be indicative of inputs from the ventral visual pathway. Participants viewed images of tools and animals containing only low, or only high, spatial frequencies during fMRI. We find an internal parcellation of left parietal "tool-preferring" voxels: Inferior aspects of left parietal cortex are driven by high spatial frequency information and have privileged connectivity with ventral stream regions that show similar category preferences, whereas superior regions are driven by low spatial frequency information. Our findings suggest that the automatic activation of complex object-associated manipulation knowledge is contingent on analysis of the visual input by the ventral visual pathway. PMID:23410033

  2. 750 nm 1.5 W frequency-doubled semiconductor disk laser with a 44 nm tuning range.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Esa J; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna; Rantamäki, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate 1.5 W of output power at the wavelength of 750 nm by intracavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser diode-pumped at 980 nm. An optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.3% was achieved using a bismuth borate crystal. The wavelength of the doubled emission could be tuned from 720 to 764 nm with an intracavity birefringent plate. The beam quality parameter M2 of the laser output was measured to be below 1.5 at all pump powers. The laser is a promising tool for biomedical applications that can take advantage of the large penetration depth of light in tissue in the 700-800 nm spectral range. PMID:26421536

  3. Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowroński, Witold; Frankowski, Marek; Wrona, Jerzy; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Barnaś, Józef

    2014-08-01

    We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.

  4. Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Skowroński, Witold Frankowski, Marek; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Wrona, Jerzy; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Barnaś, Józef

    2014-08-18

    We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.

  5. Evolution of the electronic spectral function and dynamical conductivity across the disorder-tuned superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Nandini

    2015-03-01

    I will discuss the behavior of the single particle electronic spectral function, the bosonic (pair) spectral function P (ω) , and the dynamical conductivity σ (ω) across the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) calculated using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The transition is driven by tuning the charging energy relative to the Josephson coupling or by varying the degree of disorder. We identify a prominent Higgs mode in the superconductor, and characteristic energy scales in the insulator, that vanish at the transition due to enhanced quantum phase fluctuations, despite the persistence of a robust fermionic gap across the SIT. Disorder leads to increased absorption at low frequencies compared to the SIT in a clean system. Disorder also expands the quantum critical region, due to a change in the universality class, with an underlying T=0 critical point. Obtaining the conductivity at the transition has been problematical because of analytic continuation of numerical data. We propose a well-defined integrated low-frequency conductivity that can be reliably estimated and discuss its universality. I acknowledge support from DOE DE-FG02-07ER46423.

  6. A Method for Evaluating Tuning Functions of Single Neurons based on Mutual Information Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brostek, Lukas; Eggert, Thomas; Ono, Seiji; Mustari, Michael J.; Büttner, Ulrich; Glasauer, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    We introduce a novel approach for evaluation of neuronal tuning functions, which can be expressed by the conditional probability of observing a spike given any combination of independent variables. This probability can be estimated out of experimentally available data. By maximizing the mutual information between the probability distribution of the spike occurrence and that of the variables, the dependence of the spike on the input variables is maximized as well. We used this method to analyze the dependence of neuronal activity in cortical area MSTd on signals related to movement of the eye and retinal image movement.

  7. Quantitative Reappraisal of the Helmholtz-Guyton Resonance Theory of Frequency Tuning in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Babbs, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the fundamental biomechanics of sound frequency transduction in the cochlea, a two-dimensional analytical model of the basilar membrane was constructed from first principles. Quantitative analysis showed that axial forces along the membrane are negligible, condensing the problem to a set of ordered one-dimensional models in the radial dimension, for which all parameters can be specified from experimental data. Solutions of the radial models for asymmetrical boundary conditions produce realistic deformation patterns. The resulting second-order differential equations, based on the original concepts of Helmholtz and Guyton, and including viscoelastic restoring forces, predict a frequency map and amplitudes of deflections that are consistent with classical observations. They also predict the effects of an observation hole drilled in the surrounding bone, the effects of curvature of the cochlear spiral, as well as apparent traveling waves under a variety of experimental conditions. A quantitative rendition of the classical Helmholtz-Guyton model captures the essence of cochlear mechanics and unifies the competing resonance and traveling wave theories. PMID:22028708

  8. Sensitive Radio-Frequency Measurements of a Quantum Dot by Tuning to Perfect Impedance Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, N.; Schupp, F. J.; Mavalankar, A.; Rogers, G.; Griffiths, J.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Cottet, A.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Laird, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Electrical readout of spin qubits requires fast and sensitive measurements, which are hindered by poor impedance matching to the device. We demonstrate perfect impedance matching in a radio-frequency readout circuit, using voltage-tunable varactors to cancel out parasitic capacitances. An optimized capacitance sensitivity of 1.6 aF /√{Hz } is achieved at a maximum source-drain bias of 170 -μ V root-mean-square and with a bandwidth of 18 MHz. Coulomb blockade in a quantum-dot is measured in both conductance and capacitance, and the two contributions are found to be proportional as expected from a quasistatic tunneling model. We benchmark our results against the requirements for single-shot qubit readout using quantum capacitance, a goal that has so far been elusive.

  9. Tuning the acoustic frequency of a gold nanodisk through its adhesion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Shun; Wen, Fangfang; Chakraborty, Debadi; Su, Man-Nung; Zhang, Yue; Shuang, Bo; Nordlander, Peter; Sader, John E.; Halas, Naomi J.; Link, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    To fabricate robust metallic nanostructures with top-down patterning methods such as electron-beam lithography, an initial nanometer-scale layer of a second metal is deposited to promote adhesion of the metal of interest. However, how this nanoscale layer affects the mechanical properties of the nanostructure and how adhesion layer thickness controls the binding strength to the substrate are still open questions. Here we use ultrafast laser pulses to impulsively launch acoustic phonons in single gold nanodisks with variable titanium layer thicknesses, and observe an increase in phonon frequencies as a thicker adhesion layer facilitates stronger binding to the glass substrate. In addition to an all-optical interrogation of nanoscale mechanical properties, our results show that the adhesion layer can be used to controllably modify the acoustic phonon modes of a gold nanodisk. This direct coupling between optically excited plasmon modes and phonon modes can be exploited for a variety of emerging optomechanical applications.

  10. Automatic target tracking in forward-looking infrared video sequences using tuned basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2016-07-01

    Tuned basis function (TBF) is a powerful technique for classification of two classes by transforming them into a new space, where both classes will have complementary eigenvectors. A target discrimination technique can be described based on these complementary eigenvector analyses under two classes: (1) target and (2) background clutter, where basis functions that best represent the desired targets form one class while the complementary basis functions form the second class. Since the TBF does not require pixel-based preprocessing, it provides significant advantages for target tracking applications. Furthermore, efficient eigenvector selection and subframe segmentation significantly reduce the computation burden of the target tracking algorithm. The performance of the proposed TBF-based target tracking algorithm has been tested using real-world forward looking infrared video sequences.

  11. Pressure tuning of anisotropy barrier in Fe8 SMMs probed using high frequency EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Beedle, Christopher; Tozer, Stanley; Hill, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are spin systems with large spin ground state where quantum phenomena such as tunneling of magnetization via a considerable anisotropy barrier manifest. One such SMM that has been extensively studied is [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O, also known as Fe8, with a giant spin ground state of S=10. The eight Fe atoms bridged by the ligands form a butterfly structure where six Fe atoms have spins up and two spins down in the simplest model. This structure in fact gives rise to geometrical spin frustration effects within the cluster. By varying the interaction between the spins, manipulation of quantum tunneling in SMMs may be achieved. Typically, the manipulation of spin interactions is realized using chemical methods. As an alternative approach, we employ high pressure to induce changes in the ligand-field environment of the Fe atoms. In this presentation, the pressure-dependent changes in the anisotropy barrier in single crystal Fe8 SMMs investigated by high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance measurements will be discussed.

  12. Dual-Functional Energy-Harvesting and Vibration Control: Electromagnetic Resonant Shunt Series Tuned Mass Dampers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lei; Cui, Wen

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel retrofittable approach for dual-functional energy-harvesting and robust vibration control by integrating the tuned mass damper (TMD) and electromagnetic shunted resonant damping. The viscous dissipative element between the TMD and primary system is replaced by an electromagnetic transducer shunted with a resonant RLC circuit. An efficient gradient based numeric method is presented for the parameter optimization in the control framework for vibration suppression and energy harvesting. A case study is performed based on the Taipei 101 TMD. It is found that by tuning the TMD resonance and circuit resonance close to that of the primary structure, the electromagnetic resonant-shunt TMD achieves the enhanced effectiveness and robustness of double-mass series TMDs, without suffering from the significantly amplified motion stroke. It is also observed that the parameters and performances optimized for vibration suppression are close to those optimized for energy harvesting, and the performance is not sensitive to the resistance of the charging circuit or electrical load. PMID:23918165

  13. Phosphorylation and calcium antagonistically tune myosin-binding protein C's structure and function.

    PubMed

    Previs, Michael J; Mun, Ji Young; Michalek, Arthur J; Previs, Samantha Beck; Gulick, James; Robbins, Jeffrey; Warshaw, David M; Craig, Roger

    2016-03-22

    During each heartbeat, cardiac contractility results from calcium-activated sliding of actin thin filaments toward the centers of myosin thick filaments to shorten cellular length. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is a component of the thick filament that appears to tune these mechanochemical interactions by its N-terminal domains transiently interacting with actin and/or the myosin S2 domain, sensitizing thin filaments to calcium and governing maximal sliding velocity. Both functional mechanisms are potentially further tunable by phosphorylation of an intrinsically disordered, extensible region of cMyBP-C's N terminus, the M-domain. Using atomic force spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and mutant protein expression, we demonstrate that phosphorylation reduced the M-domain's extensibility and shifted the conformation of the N-terminal domain from an extended structure to a compact configuration. In combination with motility assay data, these structural effects of M-domain phosphorylation suggest a mechanism for diminishing the functional potency of individual cMyBP-C molecules. Interestingly, we found that calcium levels necessary to maximally activate the thin filament mitigated the structural effects of phosphorylation by increasing M-domain extensibility and shifting the phosphorylated N-terminal fragments back to the extended state, as if unphosphorylated. Functionally, the addition of calcium to the motility assays ablated the impact of phosphorylation on maximal sliding velocities, fully restoring cMyBP-C's inhibitory capacity. We conclude that M-domain phosphorylation may have its greatest effect on tuning cMyBP-C's calcium-sensitization of thin filaments at the low calcium levels between contractions. Importantly, calcium levels at the peak of contraction would allow cMyBP-C to remain a potent contractile modulator, regardless of cMyBP-C's phosphorylation state. PMID:26908872

  14. Towards double-functionalized small diamondoids: selective electronic band-gap tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Bibek; Fyta, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Diamondoids are nanoscale diamond-like cage structures with hydrogen terminations, which can occur in various sizes and with a diverse type of modifications. In this work, we focus on the structural alterations and the effect of doping and functionalization on the electronic properties of diamondoids, from the smallest adamantane to heptamantane. The results are based on quantum mechanical calculations. We perform a self-consistent study, starting with doping the smallest diamondoid, adamantane. Boron, nitrogen, silicon, oxygen, and phosphorus are chosen as dopants at sites which have been previously optimized and are also consistent with the literature. At a next step, an amine- and a thiol- group are separately used to functionalize the adamantane molecule. We mainly focus on a double functionalization of diamondoids up to heptamantane using both these atomic groups. The effect of isomeration in the case of tetramantane is also studied. We discuss the higher efficiency of a double-functionalization compared to doping or a single-functionalization of diamondoids in tuning the electronic properties, such as the electronic band-gap, of modified small diamondoids in view of their novel nanotechnological applications.

  15. Presynaptic spinophilin tunes neurexin signalling to control active zone architecture and function

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Karzan; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Driller, Jan H; Schreiner, Dietmar; Rey, Ulises; Böhme, Mathias A.; Hollmann, Christina; Ramesh, Niraja; Depner, Harald; Lützkendorf, Janine; Matkovic, Tanja; Götz, Torsten; Bergeron, Dominique D.; Schmoranzer, Jan; Goettfert, Fabian; Holt, Mathew; Wahl, Markus C.; Hell, Stefan W.; Scheiffele, Peter; Walter, Alexander M.; Loll, Bernhard; Sigrist, Stephan J.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly and maturation of synapses at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) depend on trans-synaptic neurexin/neuroligin signalling, which is promoted by the scaffolding protein Syd-1 binding to neurexin. Here we report that the scaffold protein spinophilin binds to the C-terminal portion of neurexin and is needed to limit neurexin/neuroligin signalling by acting antagonistic to Syd-1. Loss of presynaptic spinophilin results in the formation of excess, but atypically small active zones. Neuroligin-1/neurexin-1/Syd-1 levels are increased at spinophilin mutant NMJs, and removal of single copies of the neurexin-1, Syd-1 or neuroligin-1 genes suppresses the spinophilin-active zone phenotype. Evoked transmission is strongly reduced at spinophilin terminals, owing to a severely reduced release probability at individual active zones. We conclude that presynaptic spinophilin fine-tunes neurexin/neuroligin signalling to control active zone number and functionality, thereby optimizing them for action potential-induced exocytosis. PMID:26471740

  16. Presynaptic spinophilin tunes neurexin signalling to control active zone architecture and function.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Karzan; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Driller, Jan H; Schreiner, Dietmar; Rey, Ulises; Böhme, Mathias A; Hollmann, Christina; Ramesh, Niraja; Depner, Harald; Lützkendorf, Janine; Matkovic, Tanja; Götz, Torsten; Bergeron, Dominique D; Schmoranzer, Jan; Goettfert, Fabian; Holt, Mathew; Wahl, Markus C; Hell, Stefan W; Scheiffele, Peter; Walter, Alexander M; Loll, Bernhard; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    Assembly and maturation of synapses at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) depend on trans-synaptic neurexin/neuroligin signalling, which is promoted by the scaffolding protein Syd-1 binding to neurexin. Here we report that the scaffold protein spinophilin binds to the C-terminal portion of neurexin and is needed to limit neurexin/neuroligin signalling by acting antagonistic to Syd-1. Loss of presynaptic spinophilin results in the formation of excess, but atypically small active zones. Neuroligin-1/neurexin-1/Syd-1 levels are increased at spinophilin mutant NMJs, and removal of single copies of the neurexin-1, Syd-1 or neuroligin-1 genes suppresses the spinophilin-active zone phenotype. Evoked transmission is strongly reduced at spinophilin terminals, owing to a severely reduced release probability at individual active zones. We conclude that presynaptic spinophilin fine-tunes neurexin/neuroligin signalling to control active zone number and functionality, thereby optimizing them for action potential-induced exocytosis. PMID:26471740

  17. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeev, T. Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H.

    2015-01-19

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning.

  18. Metalloprotease OMA1 Fine-tunes Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Function and Respiratory Supercomplex Stability.

    PubMed

    Bohovych, Iryna; Fernandez, Mario R; Rahn, Jennifer J; Stackley, Krista D; Bestman, Jennifer E; Anandhan, Annadurai; Franco, Rodrigo; Claypool, Steven M; Lewis, Robert E; Chan, Sherine S L; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in key cellular functions including energy production, metabolic homeostasis, and apoptosis. Normal mitochondrial function is preserved by several interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism - intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) - is represented by conserved proteases distributed across mitochondrial compartments. Many aspects and physiological roles of IMQC components remain unclear. Here, we show that the IMQC protease Oma1 is required for the stability of the respiratory supercomplexes and thus balanced and tunable bioenergetic function. Loss of Oma1 activity leads to a specific destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes and consequently to unbalanced respiration and progressive respiratory decline in yeast. Similarly, experiments in cultured Oma1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts link together impeded supercomplex stability and inability to maintain proper respiration under conditions that require maximal bioenergetic output. Finally, transient knockdown of OMA1 in zebrafish leads to impeded bioenergetics and morphological defects of the heart and eyes. Together, our biochemical and genetic studies in yeast, zebrafish and mammalian cells identify a novel and conserved physiological role for Oma1 protease in fine-tuning of respiratory function. We suggest that this unexpected physiological role is important for cellular bioenergetic plasticity and may contribute to Oma1-associated disease phenotypes in humans. PMID:26365306

  19. Metalloprotease OMA1 Fine-tunes Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Function and Respiratory Supercomplex Stability

    PubMed Central

    Bohovych, Iryna; Fernandez, Mario R.; Rahn, Jennifer J.; Stackley, Krista D.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Anandhan, Annadurai; Franco, Rodrigo; Claypool, Steven M.; Lewis, Robert E.; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in key cellular functions including energy production, metabolic homeostasis, and apoptosis. Normal mitochondrial function is preserved by several interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism – intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) – is represented by conserved proteases distributed across mitochondrial compartments. Many aspects and physiological roles of IMQC components remain unclear. Here, we show that the IMQC protease Oma1 is required for the stability of the respiratory supercomplexes and thus balanced and tunable bioenergetic function. Loss of Oma1 activity leads to a specific destabilization of respiratory supercomplexes and consequently to unbalanced respiration and progressive respiratory decline in yeast. Similarly, experiments in cultured Oma1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts link together impeded supercomplex stability and inability to maintain proper respiration under conditions that require maximal bioenergetic output. Finally, transient knockdown of OMA1 in zebrafish leads to impeded bioenergetics and morphological defects of the heart and eyes. Together, our biochemical and genetic studies in yeast, zebrafish and mammalian cells identify a novel and conserved physiological role for Oma1 protease in fine-tuning of respiratory function. We suggest that this unexpected physiological role is important for cellular bioenergetic plasticity and may contribute to Oma1-associated disease phenotypes in humans. PMID:26365306

  20. A Molecular Surface Functionalization Approach to Tuning Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Carbon Dioxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhi; Kim, Dohyung; Hong, Dachao; Yu, Yi; Xu, Jun; Lin, Song; Wen, Xiaodong; Nichols, Eva M; Jeong, Keunhong; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Conversion of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to value-added products is an important challenge for sustainable energy research, and nanomaterials offer a broad class of heterogeneous catalysts for such transformations. Here we report a molecular surface functionalization approach to tuning gold nanoparticle (Au NP) electrocatalysts for reduction of CO2 to CO. The N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene-functionalized Au NP catalyst exhibits improved faradaic efficiency (FE = 83%) for reduction of CO2 to CO in water at neutral pH at an overpotential of 0.46 V with a 7.6-fold increase in current density compared to that of the parent Au NP (FE = 53%). Tafel plots of the NHC carbene-functionalized Au NP (72 mV/decade) vs parent Au NP (138 mV/decade) systems further show that the molecular ligand influences mechanistic pathways for CO2 reduction. The results establish molecular surface functionalization as a complementary approach to size, shape, composition, and defect control for nanoparticle catalyst design. PMID:27322487

  1. Functional multilayer coated long period grating tuned in transition region for life science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilla, P.; Malachovská, V.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Ambrosio, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2010-09-01

    We report preliminary results on the development of multilayer coated long period gratings (LPGs) for life science applications. The dip-coating technique and a solvent/nonsolvent strategy were exploited to deposit double-layer polymeric film onto a LPG. A primary coating of atactic polystyrene was used as high refractive index layer to tune the working point of the device in the so-called transition region thus achieving remarkable surrounding medium refractive index sensitivity. A secondary layer of atactic poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) containing functional carboxyl groups, characterized by a lower refractive index, was deposited onto the primary coating in order to have the desired functional groups on the surface of the device. Commonly used covalent immobilization procedure, NHS/EDC coupling method, was exploited to link streptavidin on the surface of the functionalized coated device. Finally, real-time detection of biotinylated bovine serum albumin affinity binding on immobilized streptavidin was performed by monitoring the shift of the LPG attenuation bands.

  2. Tuning the functional properties of PMN-PT single crystals via doping and thermoelectrical treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Laihui; Dietze, Matthias; Solterbeck, Claus-Henning; Luo, Haosu; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2013-12-01

    Single crystals based on solid solutions of lead-magnesium-niobate (PMN) and lead titanate (PT) have emerged as highly promising multifunctional systems combining piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and electro-optic properties that surpass by far those of the best known lead-zirkonium-titanate ceramics. In this paper we present new findings on how the phase transition temperature and the dielectric and ferroelectric properties can be tuned depending on crystal composition, orientation, and thermoelectrical treatment. Mn-doped and pure 0.72PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.28PbTiO3 (0.72PMN-0.28PT) single crystals with ⟨111⟩ and ⟨001⟩ orientations were investigated. A special attention was devoted to field cooling (FC), i.e., cooling under electric field from different temperatures. The results illustrate different findings that were not reported before: the Curie temperature, i.e., ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature, is enhanced after field cooling of the Mn-doped, ⟨001⟩-oriented crystal while such a shift is not observed in the ⟨111⟩-oriented and the non-doped crystals. In addition, substantial polarization suppression occurs in the Mn-doped crystals upon FC from high temperature regardless of orientation. Based on piezoforce microscopy of the domain structure that shows suppression of domain growth following field cooling from 200 °C, we propose a mechanism for polarization suppression based on domain pinning by charged defects. The practical importance of our results lies in showing the opportunity offered by a proper choice of crystal composition and poling conditions for tuning the functional properties of PMN-PT single crystals for a specific application. This should contribute to the understanding of their properties towards advanced sensor and transducers devices.

  3. Tuning the reactivity of semiconductor surfaces by functionalization with amines of different basicity

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Stacey F.; Kachian, Jessica S.; Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2011-01-01

    Surface functionalization of semiconductors has been the backbone of the newest developments in microelectronics, energy conversion, sensing device design, and many other fields of science and technology. Over a decade ago, the notion of viewing the surface itself as a chemical reagent in surface reactions was introduced, and adding a variety of new functionalities to the semiconductor surface has become a target of research for many groups. The electronic effects on the substrate have been considered as an important consequence of chemical modification. In this work, we shift the focus to the electronic properties of the functional groups attached to the surface and their role on subsequent reactivity. We investigate surface functionalization of clean Si(100)-2 × 1 and Ge(100)-2 × 1 surfaces with amines as a way to modify their reactivity and to fine tune this reactivity by considering the basicity of the attached functionality. The reactivity of silicon and germanium surfaces modified with ethylamine (CH3CH2NH2) and aniline (C6H5NH2) is predicted using density functional theory calculations of proton attachment to the nitrogen of the adsorbed amine to differ with respect to a nucleophilic attack of the surface species. These predictions are then tested using a model metalorganic reagent, tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (((CH3)2N)4Ti, TDMAT), which undergoes a transamination reaction with sufficiently nucleophilic amines, and the reactivity tests confirm trends consistent with predicted basicities. The identity of the underlying semiconductor surface has a profound effect on the outcome of this reaction, and results comparing silicon and germanium are discussed. PMID:21068370

  4. Theoretical study of excited states of DNA base dimers and tetramers using optimally tuned range-separated density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haitao; Zhang, Shian; Zhong, Cheng; Sun, Zhenrong

    2016-03-15

    Excited states of various DNA base dimers and tetramers including Watson-Crick H-bonding and stacking interactions have been investigated by time-dependent density functional theory using nonempirically tuned range-separated exchange (RSE) functionals. Significant improvements are found in the prediction of excitation energies and oscillator strengths, with results comparable to those of high-level coupled-cluster (CC) models (RI-CC2 and EOM-CCSD(T)). The optimally-tuned RSE functional significantly outperforms its non-tuned (default) version and widely-used B3LYP functional. Compared to those high-level CC benchmarks, the large mean absolute deviations of conventional functionals can be attributed to their inappropriate amount of exact exchange and large delocalization errors which can be greatly eliminated by tuning approach. Furthermore, the impacts of H-bonding and π-stacking interactions in various DNA dimers and tetramers are analyzed through peak shift of simulated absorption spectra as well as corresponding change of absorption intensity. The result indicates the stacking interaction in DNA tetramers mainly contributes to the hypochromicity effect. The present work provides an efficient theoretical tool for accurate prediction of optical properties and excited states of nucleobase and other biological systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26666212

  5. Tuning the electron transport of molecular junctions by chemically functionalizing anchoring groups: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    In this first-principles study, we present density-functional calculations of the electronic structures and electron transport properties of organic molecular junctions with several anchoring groups containing atoms with different electronegativities, i.e., benzenediboronate (BDB), benzenedicarboxylate (BDC), and dinitrobenzene (DNB) molecular junctions sandwiched between two Cu(110) electrodes. The electronic-structure calculations exhibit a significant difference in the density of states not only at the anchoring groups but also at the aromatic rings of the molecular junctions, suggesting that the electron transport is specific for each system. Our transport calculations show that the BDB and DNB molecular junctions have finite electron transmissions at the zero-bias limit while the BDC molecular junction has a negligible electron transmission. Moreover, for the BDB and DNB systems, the electron transmission channels around the Fermi energy reveal fingerprint features, which provide specific functionalities for the molecular junctions. Therefore, our theoretical results demonstrate the possibility to precisely tune the electron transport properties of molecular junctions by engineering the anchoring groups at the single-atom level.

  6. Dendrites are dispensable for basic motoneuron function but essential for fine tuning of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ryglewski, Stefanie; Kadas, Dimitrios; Hutchinson, Katie; Schuetzler, Natalie; Vonhoff, Fernando; Duch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Dendrites are highly complex 3D structures that define neuronal morphology and connectivity and are the predominant sites for synaptic input. Defects in dendritic structure are highly consistent correlates of brain diseases. However, the precise consequences of dendritic structure defects for neuronal function and behavioral performance remain unknown. Here we probe dendritic function by using genetic tools to selectively abolish dendrites in identified Drosophila wing motoneurons without affecting other neuronal properties. We find that these motoneuron dendrites are unexpectedly dispensable for synaptic targeting, qualitatively normal neuronal activity patterns during behavior, and basic behavioral performance. However, significant performance deficits in sophisticated motor behaviors, such as flight altitude control and switching between discrete courtship song elements, scale with the degree of dendritic defect. To our knowledge, our observations provide the first direct evidence that complex dendrite architecture is critically required for fine-tuning and adaptability within robust, evolutionarily constrained behavioral programs that are vital for mating success and survival. We speculate that the observed scaling of performance deficits with the degree of structural defect is consistent with gradual increases in intellectual disability during continuously advancing structural deficiencies in progressive neurological disorders. PMID:25453076

  7. Frequency analysis via the method of moment functionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.; Pan, J. Q.

    1991-01-01

    Several variants are presented of a linear-in-parameters least squares formulation for determining the transfer function of a stable linear system at specified frequencies given a finite set of Fourier series coefficients calculated from transient nonstationary input-output data. The basis of the technique is Shinbrot's classical method of moment functionals using complex Fourier based modulating functions to convert a differential equation model on a finite time interval into an algebraic equation which depends linearly on frequency-related parameters.

  8. Frequency analysis via the method of moment functionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.; Pan, J. Q.

    1990-01-01

    Several variants are presented of a linear-in-parameters least squares formulation for determining the transfer function of a stable linear system at specified frequencies given a finite set of Fourier series coefficients calculated from transient nonstationary input-output data. The basis of the technique is Shinbrot's classical method of moment functionals using complex Fourier based modulating functions to convert a differential equation model on a finite time interval into an algebraic equation which depends linearly on frequency-related parameters.

  9. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  10. An approximation function for frequency constrained structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to examine a function for approximating natural frequency constraints during structural optimization. The nonlinearity of frequencies has posed a barrier to constructing approximations for frequency constraints of high enough quality to facilitate efficient solutions. A new function to represent frequency constraints, called the Rayleigh Quotient Approximation (RQA), is presented. Its ability to represent the actual frequency constraint results in stable convergence with effectively no move limits. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize structural weight subject to some minimum (or maximum) allowable frequency and perhaps subject to other constraints such as stress, displacement, and gage size, as well. A reason for constraining natural frequencies during design might be to avoid potential resonant frequencies due to machinery or actuators on the structure. Another reason might be to satisy requirements of an aircraft or spacecraft's control law. Whatever the structure supports may be sensitive to a frequency band that must be avoided. Any of these situations or others may require the designer to insure the satisfaction of frequency constraints. A further motivation for considering accurate approximations of natural frequencies is that they are fundamental to dynamic response constraints.

  11. Photofunctional hybrids of lanthanide functionalized bio-MOF-1 for fluorescence tuning and sensing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiang; Yan, Bing

    2015-08-01

    A series of luminescent Ln(3+)@bio-MOF-1 (Ln=Eu, Tb, bio-MOF-1=Zn8(ad)4(BPDC)6O⋅2Me2NH2 (ad=adeninate, BPDC=biphenyldicarboxylate)) are synthesized via postsynthetic cation exchange by encapsulating lanthanide ions into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF), and their photophysical properties are studied. After loading 2-thenoyltrifluroacetone (TTA) as sensitized ligand by a gas diffusion ("ship-in-bottle") method, it is found that the luminescent intensity of Eu(3+) is enhanced. Especially, when loading two different lanthanide cations into bio-MOF-1, the luminescent color can be tuned to close white (light pink) light output. Additionally, bio-MOF-1 and Eu(3+)@bio-MOF-1 are selected as representative samples for sensing metal ions. When bio-MOF-1 is immersed in the aqueous solutions of different metal ions, it shows highly sensitive sensing for Fe(3+) as well as Eu(3+)@bio-MOF-1 immersed in the DMF solutions of different metal ion. The results are benefit for the further application of functionalized bio-MOFs in practical fields. PMID:25881265

  12. Tuning the Nanostructure of Highly Functionalized Silica Using Amphiphilic Organosilanes: Curvature Agent Effects.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Romain; Arrachart, Guilhem; Cambedouzou, Julien; Pellet-Rostaing, Stéphane

    2016-05-10

    The self-assembly of amino-undecyl-triethoxysilane (AUT) as micelles in water is considered. The behavior of acid/AUT systems is governed by a complete proton transfer from the acid to the amine, leading to the formation of an ammonium headgroup. This moiety is responsible for the bending of the interface between the organic core of the micelles and the surrounding water. By playing with the size of the acid used as curvature agent, the amphiphilic behavior of the organosilane molecule may be adjusted. We follow the aggregation as the curvature agent size increases. This approach constitutes an efficient and original method in order to tune the nanostructure of highly functionalized silica at the early stage of the elaboration. Small-angle X-ray scattering, wet scanning transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and complementary characterization techniques indicate that hybrid organic-inorganic planar objects and vesicles are obtained for smaller curvature agents. Increasing the size of the curvature agent results in a transition of the aggregation geometry from vesicles to cylindrical direct micelles, finally leading to nanofibers organized in a 2D hexagonal network resembling a "reverse MCM-41 structure". A geometrical molecular self-assembly model is finally proposed, considering the dimensions of the surfactant tail and those of the head groups. PMID:27081741

  13. Non-covalent functionalization of WS2 monolayer with small fullerenes: tuning electronic properties and photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cai-Yun; Huang, Wei-Qing; Hu, Wangyu; Peng, P; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2016-09-14

    Atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) heterostructures have recently attracted growing interest due to their massive potential in solar energy applications due to their band gap in the visible spectral range and extremely strong light-matter interactions. Herein, heterostructures composed of WS2 and MoS2 monolayers, as representative TMDCs, with small fullerenes (B12 and C20) are investigated to explore their applications in solar energy conversion using first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The WS2 (MoS2) monolayer and fullerene form a van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure. Compared to pure monolayers, the heterostructures have a smaller band gap, which favours enhancing visible light absorption. The amount of charge transfer at the interface induced by vdW interactions depends on the type of fullerene. Most importantly, a type-II staggered band alignment is formed between WS2 (MoS2) and fullerene with the latter possessing the higher electron affinity which results in the robust separation of photoexcited charge carriers between them. These results indicate that the electronic properties and photoactivity of TMDCs monolayers can be tuned by non-covalent coupling with small fullerenes, thus meeting the needs of various applications. PMID:27483028

  14. Accurate Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities of Acceptor Molecules II: Non-Empirically Tuned Long-Range Corrected Hybrid Functionals.

    PubMed

    Gallandi, Lukas; Marom, Noa; Rinke, Patrick; Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The performance of non-empirically tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the prediction of vertical ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) is assessed for a set of 24 organic acceptor molecules. Basis set-extrapolated coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] calculations serve as a reference for this study. Compared to standard exchange-correlation functionals, tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals produce highly reliable results for vertical IPs and EAs, yielding mean absolute errors on par with computationally more demanding GW calculations. In particular, it is demonstrated that long-range corrected hybrid functionals serve as ideal starting points for non-self-consistent GW calculations. PMID:26731340

  15. An exact generalised function approach to frequency response analysis of beams and plane frames with the inclusion of viscoelastic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns the frequency response analysis of beams and plane frames with an arbitrary number of Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic dampers. Typical external and internal dampers are considered, as grounded translational, tuned mass, rotational and axial dampers, for bending and axial vibrations, respectively. Using the theory of generalised functions within a 1D formulation of equations of motion, exact closed-form expressions are derived for beam dynamic Green's functions and frequency response functions under arbitrary polynomial load, for any number of dampers. For a plane frame, exact global frequency response matrix and load vector are built, with size depending only on the number of beam-to-column nodes, for any number of dampers and point/polynomial loads along the frame members. From the nodal displacement solution, the exact frequency response in all frame members is also obtained in closed analytical form. Numerical applications show many of the advantages of the proposed method.

  16. Temporally tuned neuronal differentiation supports the functional remodeling of a neuronal network in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Veverytsa, Lyubov; Allan, Douglas W

    2012-03-27

    During insect metamorphosis, neuronal networks undergo extensive remodeling by restructuring their connectivity and recruiting newborn neurons from postembryonic lineages. The neuronal network that directs the essential behavior, ecdysis, generates a distinct behavioral sequence at each developmental transition. Larval ecdysis replaces the cuticle between larval stages, and pupal ecdysis externalizes and expands the head and appendages to their adult position. However, the network changes that support these differences are unknown. Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons and the peptide hormones they secrete are critical for ecdysis; their targeted ablation alters larval ecdysis progression and results in a failure of pupal ecdysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the CCAP neuron network is remodeled immediately before pupal ecdysis by the emergence of 12 late CCAP neurons. All 12 are CCAP efferents that exit the central nervous system. Importantly, these late CCAP neurons were found to be entirely sufficient for wild-type pupal ecdysis, even after targeted ablation of all other 42 CCAP neurons. Our evidence indicates that late CCAP neurons are derived from early, likely embryonic, lineages. However, they do not differentiate to express their peptide hormone battery, nor do they project an axon via lateral nerve trunks until pupariation, both of which are believed to be critical for the function of CCAP efferent neurons in ecdysis. Further analysis implicated ecdysone signaling via ecdysone receptors A/B1 and the nuclear receptor ftz-f1 as the differentiation trigger. These results demonstrate the utility of temporally tuned neuronal differentiation as a hard-wired developmental mechanism to remodel a neuronal network to generate a scheduled change in behavior. PMID:22393011

  17. Tuning the Topology and Functionality of Metal–Organic Frameworks by Ligand Design

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Dan; Timmons, Daren J; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2011-02-15

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)—highly crystalline hybrid materials that combine metal ions with rigid organic ligands—have emerged as an important class of porous materials. The organic ligands add flexibility and diversity to the chemical structures and functions of these materials. In this Account, we summarize our laboratory’s experience in tuning the topology and functionality of MOFs by ligand design. These investigations have led to new materials with interesting properties. By using a ligand that can adopt different symmetry conformations through free internal bond rotation, we have obtained two MOFs that are supramolecular stereoisomers of each other at different reaction temperatures. In another case, where the dimerized ligands function as a D₃-Piedfort unit spacer, we achieve chiral (10,3)-a networks. In the design of MOF-based materials for hydrogen and methane storage, we focused on increasing the gas affinity of frameworks by using ligands with different geometries to control the pore size and effectively introduce unsaturated metal centers (UMCs) into the framework. Framework interpenetration in PCN-6 (PCN stands for porous coordination network) can lead to higher hydrogen uptake. Because of the proper alignment of the UMCs, PCN-12 holds the record for uptake of hydrogen at 77 K/760 Torr. In the case of methane storage, PCN-14 with anthracene-derived ligand achieves breakthrough storage capacity, at a level 28% higher than the U.S. Department of Energy target. Selective gas adsorption requires a pore size comparable to that of the target gas molecules; therefore, we use bulky ligands and network interpenetration to reduce the pore size. In addition, with the help of an amphiphilic ligand, we were able to use temperature to continuously change pore size in a 2D layer MOF. Adding charge to an organic ligand can also stabilize frameworks. By ionizing the amine group within mesoMOF-1, the resulting electronic repulsion keeps the network from

  18. Musical experience sharpens human cochlear tuning.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Nelms, Caitlin; Bhagat, Shaum P

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian cochlea functions as a filter bank that performs a spectral, Fourier-like decomposition on the acoustic signal. While tuning can be compromised (e.g., broadened with hearing impairment), whether or not human cochlear frequency resolution can be sharpened through experiential factors (e.g., training or learning) has not yet been established. Previous studies have demonstrated sharper psychophysical tuning curves in trained musicians compared to nonmusicians, implying superior peripheral tuning. However, these findings are based on perceptual masking paradigms, and reflect engagement of the entire auditory system rather than cochlear tuning, per se. Here, by directly mapping physiological tuning curves from stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs)-cochlear emitted sounds-we show that estimates of human cochlear tuning in a high-frequency cochlear region (4 kHz) is further sharpened (by a factor of 1.5×) in musicians and improves with the number of years of their auditory training. These findings were corroborated by measurements of psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) derived via simultaneous masking, which similarly showed sharper tuning in musicians. Comparisons between SFOAE and PTCs revealed closer correspondence between physiological and behavioral curves in musicians, indicating that tuning is also more consistent between different levels of auditory processing in trained ears. Our findings demonstrate an experience-dependent enhancement in the resolving power of the cochlear sensory epithelium and the spectral resolution of human hearing and provide a peripheral account for the auditory perceptual benefits observed in musicians. Both local and feedback (e.g., medial olivocochlear efferent) mechanisms are discussed as potential mechanisms for experience-dependent tuning. PMID:26900073

  19. Low frequency cabin noise reduction based on the intrinsic structural tuning concept: The theory and the experimental results, phase 2. [jet aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, G.

    1978-01-01

    Low frequency cabin noise and sonically induced stresses in an aircraft fuselage may be reduced by intrinsic tuning of the various structural members such as the skin, stringers, and frames and then applying damping treatments on these members. The concept is also useful in identifying the key structural resonance mechanisms controlling the fuselage response to broadband random excitation and in developing suitable damping treatments for reducing the structural response in various frequency ranges. The mathematical proof of the concept and the results of some laboratory and field tests on a group of skin-stringer panels are described. In the so-called stiffness-controlled region, the noise transmission may actually be controlled by stiffener resonances, depending upon the relationship between the natural frequencies of the skin bay and the stiffeners. Therefore, cabin noise in the stiffness-controlled region may be effectively reduced by applying damping treatments on the stiffeners.

  20. Newton algorithm for fitting transfer functions to frequency response measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, J. T.; Mingori, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the problem of synthesizing transfer functions from frequency response measurements is considered. Given a complex vector representing the measured frequency response of a physical system, a transfer function of specified order is determined that minimizes the sum of the magnitude-squared of the frequency response errors. This nonlinear least squares minimization problem is solved by an iterative global descent algorithm of the Newton type that converges quadratically near the minimum. The unknown transfer function is expressed as a sum of second-order rational polynomials, a parameterization that facilitates a numerically robust computer implementation. The algorithm is developed for single-input, single-output, causal, stable transfer functions. Two numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  1. Use of phase information with a stepper motor to control frequency for tuning system of the Front End Test Stand Radio Frequency Quadrupole at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsari, S.; Aslaninejad, M.; Pozimski, J.

    2015-03-01

    For the Front End Test Stand (FETS) linear accelerator project at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, a 4 m, 4 vanes Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) with a resonant frequency of 324 MHz has been designed. The RF power feeding the RFQ gives rise to the temperature increase in the RFQ, which in turn, results in shifting the resonant frequency of the RFQ. The frequency shift and the stability in the RFQ frequency can be maintained based on the reflected power or signal phase information. We have, however, investigated restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases driving a stepper motor. The concept and the system set-up and electronics are described in detail. Results of the measurements indicating the full restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases and stepper motor are presented. Moreover, measured sensitivity of tuner with respect to its position is given.

  2. Combined dynamic scanning tunneling microscopy and frequency modulation atomic force microscopy investigations on polythiophene chains on graphite with a tuning fork sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polesel-Maris, Jérôme; Lubin, Christophe; Thoyer, François; Cousty, Jacques

    2011-04-01

    Polythiophene molecules adsorbed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface were studied by combined dynamic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) with a quartz tuning fork sensor operating in Qplus mode and equipped with a Pt/Ir tip. Upon completing a careful sub-angström oscillation amplitude calibration of the probe, experiments were conducted in an ultra high vacuum at room temperature. By selecting the tip/surface distance regulation parameter, one can select the type of simultaneous information obtained in an area. For distance regulation based on the mean tunneling current, dynamic STM images together with maps of tip/surface force gradient were obtained. FM-AFM images with maps of the tunneling current were also acquired when the distance regulation was based on the frequency shift. Comparison between these images reveals interesting features. For example the tip which operates in STM mode with ultra low current (<10 pA) generates different interaction forces above molecules or graphite. Changes in energy dissipation processes as small as tens of millielectronvolts per cycle were recorded when the tip oscillates above the polymer or on the graphite surface. Hence data demonstrates that a stiff piezoelectric tuning fork of several kilonewtons/meters working as an AFM/STM probe with sub-angström amplitude can characterize weakly adsorbed molecules.

  3. Frequency importance functions for a feature recognition test material.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, V; Studebaker, G A; Pavlovic, C V; Sherbecoe, R L

    1988-06-01

    The relative importance of different parts of the auditory spectrum to recognition of the Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) and its six speech feature subtests was determined. Three normal hearing subjects were tested twice in each of 70 experimental conditions. The analytical procedures of French and Steinberg [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 19, 90-119 (1947)] were applied to the data to derive frequency importance functions for each of the DRT subtests and the test as a whole over the frequency range 178-8912 Hz. For the DRT as a whole, the low frequencies were found to be more important than is the case for nonsense syllables. Importance functions for the feature subtests also differed from those for nonsense syllables and from each other as well. These results suggest that test materials loaded with different proportions of particular phonemes have different frequency importance functions. Comparison of the results with those from other studies suggests that importance functions depend to a degree on the available response options as well. PMID:3411027

  4. Planck 2013 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions, and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). Knowledge of the beam profiles is necessary for determining the transfer function to go from the observed to the actual sky anisotropy power spectrum. The main beam distortions affect the beam window function, complicating the reconstruction of the anisotropy power spectrum at high multipoles, whereas the sidelobes affect the low and intermediate multipoles. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on the measurements performed during Jupiter observations. By stacking the datafrom multiple Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -20 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -25 dB at 70 GHz. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.2% at each LFI frequency band. The Planck pre-launch optical model is conveniently tuned to characterize the main beams independently of any noise effects. This approach provides an optical model whose beams fully reproduce the measurements in the main beam region, but also allows a description of the beams at power levels lower than can be achieved by the Jupiter measurements themselves. The agreement between the simulated beams and the measured beams is better than 1% at each LFI frequency band. The simulated beams are used for the computation of the window functions for the effective beams. The error budget for the window functions is estimated from both main beam and sidelobe contributions, and accounts for the radiometer bandshapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are: 2% and 1.2% at 30 and 44 GHz, respectively (at ℓ ≈ 600), and 0.7% at 70 GHz (at ℓ ≈ 1000).

  5. The problem of frequency weighting functions and standards for birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooling, Robert; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth; Lauer, Amanda; Dent, Micheal; Noirot, Isabelle

    2005-09-01

    Frequency weighting functions in humans are widely used as a single-figure guess to assess noise problems and aid in making decisions with regard to noise limitations when no other data exist. However, this use of frequency weightings invariably results in a loss of precision in assessing the likelihood of a sound to produce hearing damage or sound annoyance. There is a growing interest in developing frequency weighting functions in animals presumably to assist in judging the risk of hearing damage, interference with acoustic communication, or habitat suitability. Laboratory studies reveal many parallels between humans and animals on a variety of psychoacoustic measures, such as equal loudness contours. However, differences between humans and animals on specific tests argue against using standards developed for humans to gauge the effect of noise on animals. Here we review data which show this same problem exists among birds. That is, the differences in the effects of noise among bird species can be as large as the differences between humans and birds. These results suggest that whereas frequency weighting functions and acoustic standards for a specific species might be useful, generalizing across species is likely not practical.

  6. Planck-LFI radiometers tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttaia, F.; Mennella, A.; Stringhetti, L.; Maris, M.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Villa, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Cappellini, B.; Cuevas, L. P.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davis, R.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Gregorio, A.; Hoyland, R.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S.; Mandolesi, N.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Roddis, N.; Sandri, M.; Valenziano, L.; Wilkinson, A.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.; Battaglia, P.; De Nardo, S.; Grassi, S.; Lapolla, M.; Leutenegger, P.; Miccolis, M.; Silvestri, R.

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Planck Low Frequency Instrument tuning activities performed through the ground test campaigns, from Unit to Satellite Levels. Tuning is key to achieve the best possible instrument performance and tuning parameters strongly depend on thermal and electrical conditions. For this reason tuning has been repeated several times during ground tests and it has been repeated in flight before starting nominal operations. The paper discusses the tuning philosophy, the activities and the obtained results, highlighting developments and changes occurred during test campaigns. The paper concludes with an overview of tuning performed during the satellite cryogenic test campaign (Summer 2008) and of the plans for the just started in-flight calibration.

  7. Tuning of Strouhal number for high propulsive efficiency accurately predicts how wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude relate and scale with size and flight speed in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Nudds, Robert L.; Taylor, Graham K.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.

    2004-01-01

    The wing kinematics of birds vary systematically with body size, but we still, after several decades of research, lack a clear mechanistic understanding of the aerodynamic selection pressures that shape them. Swimming and flying animals have recently been shown to cruise at Strouhal numbers (St) corresponding to a regime of vortex growth and shedding in which the propulsive efficiency of flapping foils peaks (St approximately fA/U, where f is wingbeat frequency, U is cruising speed and A approximately bsin(theta/2) is stroke amplitude, in which b is wingspan and theta is stroke angle). We show that St is a simple and accurate predictor of wingbeat frequency in birds. The Strouhal numbers of cruising birds have converged on the lower end of the range 0.2 < St < 0.4 associated with high propulsive efficiency. Stroke angle scales as theta approximately 67b-0.24, so wingbeat frequency can be predicted as f approximately St.U/bsin(33.5b-0.24), with St0.21 and St0.25 for direct and intermittent fliers, respectively. This simple aerodynamic model predicts wingbeat frequency better than any other relationship proposed to date, explaining 90% of the observed variance in a sample of 60 bird species. Avian wing kinematics therefore appear to have been tuned by natural selection for high aerodynamic efficiency: physical and physiological constraints upon wing kinematics must be reconsidered in this light. PMID:15451698

  8. Acoustic Beam Forming Array Using Feedback-Controlled Microphones for Tuning and Self-Matching of Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliffe, Eliott (Inventor); Naguib, Ahmed (Inventor); Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A feedback-controlled microphone includes a microphone body and a membrane operatively connected to the body. The membrane is configured to be initially deflected by acoustic pressure such that the initial deflection is characterized by a frequency response. The microphone also includes a sensor configured to detect the frequency response of the initial deflection and generate an output voltage indicative thereof. The microphone additionally includes a compensator in electric communication with the sensor and configured to establish a regulated voltage in response to the output voltage. Furthermore, the microphone includes an actuator in electric communication with the compensator, wherein the actuator is configured to secondarily deflect the membrane in opposition to the initial deflection such that the frequency response is adjusted. An acoustic beam forming microphone array including a plurality of the above feedback-controlled microphones is also disclosed.

  9. Simple digital system for tuning and long-term frequency stabilization of a CW Ti:Sapphire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beterov, Ilya I.; Markovski, Asparuh G.; Kobtsev, Sergey M.; Yakshina, Elena A.; Entin, Vasily M.; Tretyakov, Denis B.; Baraulya, Vladimir I.; Ryabtsev, Igor I.

    2015-03-01

    We have implemented a simple digital system for long-term frequency stabilization and locking to an arbitrary wavelength of the single-frequency ring CW Ti:Sapphire laser. This system is built using two confocal Fabry-Pérot cavities, one of which is used to narrow the short-term linewidth of the laser and the other to improve the long-term stability of the laser frequency. The length of the second cavity is stabilized using the radiation from an external-cavity diode laser locked to an atomic transition. Our system is an improvement of a commercial Tekhnoscan laser lock. This system has been successfully used in our experiments on high-resolution laser spectroscopy of ultracold rubidium Rydberg atoms.

  10. Cross-stacking aligned carbon-nanotube films to tune microwave absorption frequencies and increase absorption intensities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Che, Renchao; You, Xiao; Jiang, Yishu; Yang, Zhibin; Deng, Jue; Qiu, Longbin; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-23

    Aligned carbon-nanotube (CNT) sheets are used as building blocks to prepare light-weight, frequency-tunable and high-performance microwave absorbers, and the absorption frequency can be accurately controlled by stacking them with different intersectional angles. A remarkable reflection loss of -47.66 dB is achieved by stacking four aligned CNT sheets with an intersectional angle of 90° between two neighboring ones. The incorporation of a second phase such as a metal and a conducting polymer greatly enhances the microwave-absorption capability. PMID:25338951

  11. Online detection of low-frequency functional connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Scott J.; LaConte, Stephen M.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2004-04-01

    Synchronized oscillations in resting state timecourses have been detected in recent fMRI studies. These oscillations are low frequency in nature (<0.08 Hz), and seem to be a property of symmetric cortices. These fluctuations are important as a pontential signal of interest, which could indicate connectivity between functionally related areas of the brain. It has also been shown that the synchronized oscillations decrease in some spontaneous pathological states (such as cocaine injection). Thus, detection of these functional connectivity patterns may help to serve as a guage of normal brain activity. Currently, functional connectivity detection is applied only in offline post-processing analysis. Online detection methods have been applied to detect task activation in functional MRI. This allows real-time analysis of fMRI results, and could be important in detecting short-term changes in functional states. In this work, we develop an outline algorithm to detect low frequency resting state functional connectivity in real time. This will extend connectivity analysis to allow online detection of changes in "resting state" brain networks.

  12. Frequency doubled AlGaInP-VECSEL with high output power at 331 nm and a large wavelength tuning range in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbäck, Thomas; Kahle, Hermann; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We present a non-resonantly pumped vertical external cavity surface-emitting laser in a compact v-shaped cavity configuration. By using intra-cavity frequency doubling in combination with a birefringent filter, a tunable high power UV laser source with an emission wavelength around 335 nm is realized. The fundamental red laser emission is based on a metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy grown (GaxIn1-x)0.5P0.5/[(AlxGa1-x)yIn1-y]0.5P0.5 (abbr. GaInP/AlGaInP) multi-quantum-well structure. Five quantum well packages with four compressively strained quantum wells are placed in a separate confinement heterostructure in a resonant periodic gain design in strain-compensating quaternary AlGaInP barriers and cladding layers, respectively. The 3 λ cavity is fabricated on a 55 λ/4 pairs Al0.45Ga0.55As/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. By using a beta barium borate non-linear crystal for second harmonic generation, output powers up to 150mWat a wavelength of 335 nm could be realized. Tuning of the laser resonance was accomplished with a birefringent filter. A tuning of 9 nm in the UV will be shown.

  13. Gold nanoparticle immobilization on ZnO nanorods via bi-functional monolayers: A facile method to tune interface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Suresh Kumar, P.; Mangalaraj, D.; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Ramakrishna, Seeram; P Srinivasan, M.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrated the functionalization of one dimensional (1-D) zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) using bi-functional organic molecules to create hybrid structures with surface functionalities and tuneable organic/inorganic interface. Bi-functional molecules with carboxylic acid, thiol and silane end groups and amine termination had been employed to functionalize the NRs by forming carboxylate, thiolate and hydroxylation bonds, respectively, with ZnO. The surface textures of NRs were preserved even after functionalization. The functionalized NRs were decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the hybrid structures exhibited a quenched blue shift ultraviolet emission which depended on the distance between the ZnO surface and the AuNPs. The NR functionalization with bi-functional molecules and decoration of NPs, and surface morphologies were analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron spectroscopy. These hybrid structures can play a vital role in tuning the interface properties and have potential applications in future photovoltaics, chemical sensors, biomarkers, and wavelength based biosensors.

  14. A comparative study of rhodopsin function in the great bowerbird (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis): Spectral tuning and light-activated kinetics.

    PubMed

    van Hazel, Ilke; Dungan, Sarah Z; Hauser, Frances E; Morrow, James M; Endler, John A; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-07-01

    Rhodopsin is the visual pigment responsible for initiating the phototransduction cascade in vertebrate rod photoreceptors. Although well-characterized in a few model systems, comparative studies of rhodopsin function, particularly for nonmammalian vertebrates are comparatively lacking. Bowerbirds are rare among passerines in possessing a key substitution, D83N, at a site that is otherwise highly conserved among G protein-coupled receptors. While this substitution is present in some dim-light adapted vertebrates, often accompanying another unusual substitution, A292S, its functional relevance in birds is uncertain. To investigate functional effects associated with these two substitutions, we use the rhodopsin gene from the great bowerbird (Ptilonorhynchus nuchalis) as a background for site-directed mutagenesis, in vitro expression and functional characterization. We also mutated these sites in two additional rhodopsins that do not naturally possess N83, chicken and bovine, for comparison. Both sites were found to contribute to spectral blue-shifts, but had opposing effects on kinetic rates. Substitutions at site 83 were found to primarily affect the kinetics of light-activated rhodopsin, while substitutions at site 292 had a larger impact on spectral tuning. The contribution of substitutions at site 83 to spectral tuning in particular depended on genetic background, but overall, the effects of substitutions were otherwise surprisingly additive, and the magnitudes of functional shifts were roughly similar across all three genetic backgrounds. By employing a comparative approach with multiple species, our study provides new insight into the joint impact of sites 83 and 292 on rhodopsin structure-function as well as their evolutionary significance for dim-light vision across vertebrates. PMID:26889650

  15. Tuning the molecular order of C60 functionalized phosphonic acid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Rumpel, Armin; Novak, Michael; Walter, Johannes; Braunschweig, Björn; Halik, Marcus; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2011-12-20

    Mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkyl phosphonic acids and C(60) functionalized octadecyl phosphonic acids (C(60)C(18)-PA) are deposited on alumina substrates from solution and are shown to form well-ordered structures with an insulating layer of alkyl chains and a semiconducting layer that comprises mainly C(60). Such an ordered structure is a necessity for the application of SAMs in organic transistors but is difficult to obtain since C(60)C(18)-PA without additional support do self-assemble in dense packaging but not in a well-ordered fashion. To avoid disordering of the SAM and to gain a better control of the interfacial properties we have investigated the stabilizing effects of fluorinated dodecyl phosphonic acids (FC(12)-PA) on the C(60)C(18)-PA monolayer. Vibrational sum-frequency (SFG) spectroscopy, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical measurements were applied to study the mixed monolayers. Here, we make use of the differently labeled PA to determine surface coverages and molecular properties of the two species independently. Adsorption of FC(12)-PA gives rise to vibrational bands at 1344 cm(-1) and 1376 cm(-1) in SFG spectra, while a pronounced vibrational band centered at 1465 cm(-1) is attributable to C(60) vibrations. The coexistence of the bands is indicative for the presence of a mixed monolayer that is composed of both molecular species. Furthermore, a pronounced maximum in SFG intensity of the C(60) band is observed for SAMs, which are deposited from solutions with ~75% C(60)C(18)-PA and ~25% FC(12)-PA. The intensity maximum originates from successful stabilization of C(60) modified C(60)C(18)-PA by FC(12)-PA and a significantly improved molecular order. Conclusions from SFG spectra are corroborated by electric measurements that show best performance at these concentrations. Our results provide new information on the morphology and composition of C(60) modified SAMs and establish a route to fabricate well

  16. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. PMID:25978461

  17. Functional Role of PPARs in Ruminants: Potential Targets for Fine-Tuning Metabolism during Growth and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuowen; Khan, Muhammad J.; Loor, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization and biological roles of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes are well known in monogastrics, but not in ruminants. However, a wealth of information has accumulated in little more than a decade on ruminant PPARs including isotype tissue distribution, response to synthetic and natural agonists, gene targets, and factors affecting their expression. Functional characterization demonstrated that, as in monogastrics, the PPAR isotypes control expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, anti-inflammatory response, development, and growth. Contrary to mouse, however, the PPARγ gene network appears to controls milk fat synthesis in lactating ruminants. As in monogastrics, PPAR isotypes in ruminants are activated by long-chain fatty acids, therefore, making them ideal candidates for fine-tuning metabolism in this species via nutrients. In this regard, using information accumulated in ruminants and monogastrics, we propose a model of PPAR isotype-driven biological functions encompassing key tissues during the peripartal period in dairy cattle. PMID:23737762

  18. High frequency of functional extinctions in ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Säterberg, Torbjörn; Sellman, Stefan; Ebenman, Bo

    2013-07-25

    Intensified exploitation of natural populations and habitats has led to increased mortality rates and decreased abundances of many species. There is a growing concern that this might cause critical abundance thresholds of species to be crossed, with extinction cascades and state shifts in ecosystems as a consequence. When increased mortality rate and decreased abundance of a given species lead to extinction of other species, this species can be characterized as functionally extinct even though it still exists. Although such functional extinctions have been observed in some ecosystems, their frequency is largely unknown. Here we use a new modelling approach to explore the frequency and pattern of functional extinctions in ecological networks. Specifically, we analytically derive critical abundance thresholds of species by increasing their mortality rates until an extinction occurs in the network. Applying this approach on natural and theoretical food webs, we show that the species most likely to go extinct first is not the one whose mortality rate is increased but instead another species. Indeed, up to 80% of all first extinctions are of another species, suggesting that a species' ecological functionality is often lost before its own existence is threatened. Furthermore, we find that large-bodied species at the top of the food chains can only be exposed to small increases in mortality rate and small decreases in abundance before going functionally extinct compared to small-bodied species lower in the food chains. These results illustrate the potential importance of functional extinctions in ecological networks and lend strong support to arguments advocating a more community-oriented approach in conservation biology, with target levels for populations based on ecological functionality rather than on mere persistence. PMID:23831648

  19. Frequency-rank correlations of rhodopsin mutations with tuned hydropathic roughness based on self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    The behavior of disease-linked mutations of membrane proteins is especially simple in rhodopsin, where they are well-studied, as they are responsible for retinitis pigmentosa, RP (retinal degeneration). Here we show that the frequency of occurrence of single RP mutations is strongly influenced by their transportational survival rates, and that this survival correlates well (82%) with a long-range, non-local hydropathic measure of the roughness of the water interfaces of ex-membrane rhodopsin based on self-organized criticality (SOC). It is speculated that this concept may be generally useful in studying survival rates of many mutated proteins.

  20. Phosphorylated Peptide Functionalization of Lanthanide Upconversion Nanoparticles for Tuning Nanomaterial-Cell Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chi; Wei, Caiyi; Huang, Zhi; Lu, Yiqing; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Ju, Dianwen; Zhang, Xiangmin; Wang, Wenning; Zhang, Fan

    2016-03-23

    Peptide modification of nanoparticles with high efficiency is critical in determining the properties and bioapplications of nanoparticles, but the methodology remains a challenging task. Here, by using the phosphorylated linear and cyclic peptide with the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) targeting motifs as typical examples, the peptides binding efficiency for the inorganic metal compound nanoparticles was increased significantly after the phosphorylation treatment, and the modification allowed for improving the selectivity and signal-to-noise ratio for cancer targeting and reduced the toxicity derived from nonspecific interactions of nanoparticles with cells owing to the higher amount of phosphopeptide binding. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of various peptides on inorganic metal compound surfaces revealed that the peptide adsorption on the surface is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions between phosphate oxygen and the polarized interfacial water layer, consistent with the experimental observation of the strong binding propensity of phosphorylated peptides. Significantly, with the RGD phosphopeptide surface modification, these nanoparticles provide a versatile tool for tuning material-cell interactions to achieve the desired level of autophagy and may prove useful for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26927957

  1. Niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid composite coatings for tuning primary fibroblast functions.

    PubMed

    Young, Matthew D; Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A; Jarrell, John D; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Chistopher T

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential of niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites for tuning cellular response of fibroblasts, a key cell type of soft tissue/implant interfaces. In this study, various hybrid coatings of niobium oxide and PDMS with different niobium oxide concentrations were synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and contact angle goniometry. The coatings were then applied to 96-well plates, on which primary fibroblasts were seeded. Fibroblast viability, proliferation, and morphology were assessed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation using WST-1 and calcein AM assays along with fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the prepared coatings had distinct surface features with submicron spherical composites covered in a polymeric layer. The water contact angle measurement demonstrated that the hybrid surfaces were much more hydrophobic than the original pure niobium oxide and PDMS. The combination of surface roughness and chemistry resulted in a biphasic cellular response with maximum fibroblast density on substrate with 40 wt % of niobium oxide. The results of the current study indicate that by adjusting the concentration of niobium oxide in the coating, a desirable cell response can be achieved to improve tissue/implant interfaces. PMID:23776075

  2. The WD40 Domain Protein MSI1 Functions in a Histone Deacetylase Complex to Fine-Tune Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Saher; Derkacheva, Maria; Ramström, Margareta; Kralemann, Lejon; Bergquist, Jonas; Hennig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    MSI1 belongs to a family of histone binding WD40-repeat proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana contains five genes encoding MSI1-like proteins, but their functions in diverse chromatin-associated complexes are poorly understood. Here, we show that MSI1 is part of a histone deacetylase complex. We copurified HISTONE DEACETYLASE19 (HDA19) with MSI1 and transcriptional regulatory SIN3-like proteins and provide evidence that MSI1 and HDA19 associate into the same complex in vivo. These data suggest that MSI1, HDA19, and HISTONE DEACETYLATION COMPLEX1 protein form a core complex that can integrate various SIN3-like proteins. We found that reduction of MSI1 or HDA19 causes upregulation of abscisic acid (ABA) receptor genes and hypersensitivity of ABA-responsive genes. The MSI1-HDA19 complex fine-tunes ABA signaling by binding to the chromatin of ABA receptor genes and by maintaining low levels of acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9, thereby affecting the expression levels of ABA receptor genes. Reduced MSI1 or HDA19 levels led to increased tolerance to salt stress corresponding to the increased ABA sensitivity of gene expression. Together, our results reveal the presence of an MSI1-HDA19 complex that fine-tunes ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:26704384

  3. Wafer-to-wafer transfer process of barium strontium titanate for frequency tuning applications using laser pre-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoto, Tetuo; Hirano, Hideki; Somekawa, Toshihiro; Hikichi, Kousuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes laser-assisted film transfer technology for barium strontium titanate (BST) deposited on a sapphire substrate. BST is a promising ferroelectric material for varactors, which are required for frequency-tunable RF applications. However, the deposition temperature of BST (600 ~ 700 °C) is too high for surface acoustic wave (SAW) substrates. In this study, BST grown on a sapphire substrate at 650 °C was transferred at low temperature (140 °C) to a borosilicate glass substrate as well as a LiTaO3 substrate. The transferred BST films were characterized as tunable capacitors. A key process in the BST film transfer technology is the laser pre-irradiation of a buffer Pt layer beneath BST from the backside of the sapphire substrate to weaken the BST-to-Pt adhesion. The mechanism of delamination at the BST/Pt interface is discussed using a simple 1D heat transfer model.

  4. Frequency redistribution function for the polarized two-term atom

    SciTech Connect

    Casini, R.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, M.; Manso Sainz, R.; Landolfi, M.

    2014-08-20

    We present a generalized frequency redistribution function for the polarized two-term atom in an arbitrary magnetic field. This result is derived within a new formulation of the quantum problem of coherent scattering of polarized radiation by atoms in the collisionless regime. The general theory, which is based on a diagrammatic treatment of the atom-photon interaction, is still a work in progress. However, the results anticipated here are relevant enough for the study of the magnetism of the solar chromosphere and of interest for astrophysics in general.

  5. Differentials of a State Reading Assessment: Item Functioning, Distractor Functioning, and Omission Frequency for Disability Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Kentaro; Moen, Ross E.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Large data sets from a state reading assessment for third and fifth graders were analyzed to examine differential item functioning (DIF), differential distractor functioning (DDF), and differential omission frequency (DOF) between students with particular categories of disabilities (speech/language impairments, learning disabilities, and emotional…

  6. Tuning the Attempt Frequency of Protein Folding Dynamics via Transition-State Rigidification: Application to Trp-cage

    PubMed Central

    Abaskharon, Rachel M.; Culik, Robert M.; Woolley, G. Andrew; Gai, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The attempt frequency or prefactor (k0) of the transition state rate equation of protein folding kinetics has been estimated to be on the order of 106 s−1, which is many orders of magnitude smaller than that of chemical reactions. Herein, we use the mini-protein Trp-cage to show that it is possible to significantly increase the value of k0 for a protein folding reaction by rigidifying the transition state. This is achieved by reducing the conformational flexibility of a key structural element (i.e., an α-helix) formed in the transition state via photoisomerization of an azobenzene cross-linker. We find that this strategy not only decreases the folding time of the Trp-cage peptide by more than an order of magnitude (to ~100 ns at 25 °C) but also exposes parallel folding pathways, allowing us to provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first quantitative assessment of the curvature of the transition state free energy surface of a protein. PMID:26120378

  7. Solid-state optical absorption from optimally tuned time-dependent range-separated hybrid density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Jain, Manish; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Kronik, Leeor

    We present a framework for obtaining solid-state charge and optical excitations and spectra from optimally tuned range-separated hybrid density functional theory, which allows for the accurate prediction of exciton binding energies. We demonstrate our approach through calculations of one- and two-particle excitations in pentacene, a molecular semiconducting crystal, where we find excellent agreement with experiments and prior computations. We show that with one adjustable parameter, our method accurately predicts band structures and optical spectra of Si and LiF, prototypical covalent and ionic solids. For a range of extended bulk systems, this method may provide a computationally inexpensive alternative to many-body perturbation theory, opening the door to studies of materials of increasing size and complexity [Phys. Rev. B 92, 081204(R), 2015]. This work was supported by DOE.

  8. Solid-state optical absorption from optimally tuned time-dependent range-separated hybrid density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Jain, Manish; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Kronik, Leeor

    2015-08-01

    We present a framework for obtaining reliable solid-state charge and optical excitations and spectra from optimally tuned range-separated hybrid density functional theory. The approach, which is fully couched within the formal framework of generalized Kohn-Sham theory, allows for the accurate prediction of exciton binding energies. We demonstrate our approach through first principles calculations of one- and two-particle excitations in pentacene, a molecular semiconducting crystal, where our work is in excellent agreement with experiments and prior computations. We further show that with one adjustable parameter, set to produce the known band gap, this method accurately predicts band structures and optical spectra of silicon and lithium fluoride, prototypical covalent and ionic solids. Our findings indicate that for a broad range of extended bulk systems, this method may provide a computationally inexpensive alternative to many-body perturbation theory, opening the door to studies of materials of increasing size and complexity.

  9. Assessing vascular endothelial function using frequency and rank order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Hsu, Po-Chun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Liu, An-Bang; Lin, Zong-Lin; Tang, Chieh-Ju; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2013-08-01

    Using frequency and rank order statistics (FROS), this study analyzed the fluctuations in arterial waveform amplitudes recorded from an air pressure sensing system before and after reactive hyperemia (RH) induction by temporary blood flow occlusion to evaluate the vascular endothelial function of aged and diabetic subjects. The modified probability-weighted distance (PWD) calculated from the FROS was compared with the dilatation index (DI) to evaluate its validity and sensitivity in the assessment of vascular endothelial function. The results showed that the PWD can provide a quantitative determination of the structural changes in the arterial pressure signals associated with regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure by intact vascular endothelium after the application of occlusion stress. Our study suggests that the use of FROS is a reliable noninvasive approach to the assessment of vascular endothelial degeneration in aging and diabetes.

  10. Assigning Quantitative Function to Post-Translational Modifications Reveals Multiple Sites of Phosphorylation That Tune Yeast Pheromone Signaling Output

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, David; Ryan, Christopher J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Cell signaling systems transmit information by post-translationally modifying signaling proteins, often via phosphorylation. While thousands of sites of phosphorylation have been identified in proteomic studies, the vast majority of sites have no known function. Assigning functional roles to the catalog of uncharacterized phosphorylation sites is a key research challenge. Here we present a general approach to address this challenge and apply it to a prototypical signaling pathway, the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pheromone pathway includes a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activated by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We used published mass spectrometry-based proteomics data to identify putative sites of phosphorylation on pheromone pathway components, and we used evolutionary conservation to assign priority to a list of candidate MAPK regulatory sites. We made targeted alterations in those sites, and measured the effects of the mutations on pheromone pathway output in single cells. Our work identified six new sites that quantitatively tuned system output. We developed simple computational models to find system architectures that recapitulated the quantitative phenotypes of the mutants. Our results identify a number of putative phosphorylation events that contribute to adjust the input-output relationship of this model eukaryotic signaling system. We believe this combined approach constitutes a general means not only to reveal modification sites required to turn a pathway on and off, but also those required for more subtle quantitative effects that tune pathway output. Our results suggest that relatively small quantitative influences from individual phosphorylation events endow signaling systems with plasticity that evolution may exploit to quantitatively tailor signaling outcomes. PMID:23554854

  11. Assigning Quantitative Function to Post-Translational Modifications Reveals Multiple Sites of Phosphorylation That Tune Yeast Pheromone Signaling Output

    SciTech Connect

    Pincus, David; Ryan, Christopher J.; Smith, Richard D.; Brent, Roger; Resnekov, Orna; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali

    2013-03-12

    Cell signaling systems transmit information by post-­translationally modifying signaling proteins, often via phosphorylation. While thousands of sites of phosphorylation have been identified in proteomic studies, the vast majority of sites have no known function. Assigning functional roles to the catalog of uncharacterized phosphorylation sites is a key research challenge. Here we present a general approach to address this challenge and apply it to a prototypical signaling pathway, the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The pheromone pathway includes a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activated by a G-­protein coupled receptor (GPCR). We used mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify sites whose phosphorylation changed when the system was active, and evolutionary conservation to assign priority to a list of candidate MAPK regulatory sites. We made targeted alterations in those sites, and measured the effects of the mutations on pheromone pathway output in single cells. Our work identified six new sites that quantitatively tuned system output. We developed simple computational models to find system architectures that recapitulated the quantitative phenotypes of the mutants. Our results identify a number of regulated phosphorylation events that contribute to adjust the input-­output relationship of this model eukaryotic signaling system. We believe this combined approach constitutes a general means not only to reveal modification sites required to turn a pathway on and off, but also those required for more subtle quantitative effects that tune pathway output. Our results further suggest that relatively small quantitative influences from individual regulatory phosphorylation events endow signaling systems with plasticity that evolution may exploit to quantitatively tailor signaling outcomes.

  12. Frequency domain transfer function identification using the computer program SYSFIT

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    Because the primary application of SYSFIT for BPA involves studying power system dynamics, this investigation was geared toward simulating the effects that might be encountered in studying electromechanical oscillations in power systems. Although the intended focus of this work is power system oscillations, the studies are sufficiently genetic that the results can be applied to many types of oscillatory systems with closely-spaced modes. In general, there are two possible ways of solving the optimization problem. One is to use a least-squares optimization function and to write the system in such a form that the problem becomes one of linear least-squares. The solution can then be obtained using a standard least-squares technique. The other method involves using a search method to obtain the optimal model. This method allows considerably more freedom in forming the optimization function and model, but it requires an initial guess of the system parameters. SYSFIT employs this second approach. Detailed investigations were conducted into three main areas: (1) fitting to exact frequency response data of a linear system; (2) fitting to the discrete Fourier transformation of noisy data; and (3) fitting to multi-path systems. The first area consisted of investigating the effects of alternative optimization cost function options; using different optimization search methods; incorrect model order, missing response data; closely-spaced poles; and closely-spaced pole-zero pairs. Within the second area, different noise colorations and levels were studied. In the third area, methods were investigated for improving fitting results by incorporating more than one system path. The following is a list of guidelines and properties developed from the study for fitting a transfer function to the frequency response of a system using optimization search methods.

  13. Fine-tuning of CD8(+) T-cell effector functions by targeting the 2B4-CD48 interaction.

    PubMed

    Lissina, Anna; Ambrozak, David R; Boswell, Kristin L; Yang, Wenjing; Boritz, Eli; Wakabayashi, Yoshiyuki; Iglesias, Maria C; Hashimoto, Masao; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Haddad, Elias; Douek, Daniel C; Zhu, Jun; Koup, Richard A; Yamamoto, Takuya; Appay, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Polyfunctionality and cytotoxic activity dictate CD8(+) T-cell efficacy in the eradication of infected and malignant cells. The induction of these effector functions depends on the specific interaction between the T-cell receptor (TCR) and its cognate peptide-MHC class I complex, in addition to signals provided by co-stimulatory or co-inhibitory receptors, which can further regulate these functions. Among these receptors, the role of 2B4 is contested, as it has been described as either co-stimulatory or co-inhibitory in modulating T-cell functions. We therefore combined functional, transcriptional and epigenetic approaches to further characterize the impact of disrupting the interaction of 2B4 with its ligand CD48, on the activity of human effector CD8(+) T-cell clones. In this setting, we show that the 2B4-CD48 axis is involved in the fine-tuning of CD8(+) T-cell effector function upon antigenic stimulation. Blocking this interaction resulted in reduced CD8(+) T-cell clone-mediated cytolytic activity, together with a subtle drop in the expression of genes involved in effector function regulation. Our results also imply a variable contribution of the 2B4-CD48 interaction to the modulation of CD8(+) T-cell functional properties, potentially linked to intrinsic levels of T-bet expression and TCR avidity. The present study thus provides further insights into the role of the 2B4-CD48 interaction in the fine regulation of CD8(+) T-cell effector function upon antigenic stimulation. PMID:26860368

  14. Tuning the work function in transition metal oxides and their heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Z.; Hansmann, P.

    2016-06-01

    The development of novel functional materials in experimental labs combined with computer-based compound simulation brings the vision of materials design on a microscopic scale continuously closer to reality. For many applications interface and surface phenomena rather than bulk properties are key. One of the most fundamental qualities of a material-vacuum interface is the energy required to transfer an electron across this boundary, i.e., the work function. It is a crucial parameter for numerous applications, including organic electronics, field electron emitters, and thermionic energy converters. Being generally very resistant to degradation at high temperatures, transition metal oxides present a promising materials class for such devices. We have performed a systematic study for perovskite oxides that provides reference values and, equally important, reports on materials trends and the tunability of work functions. Our results identify and classify dependencies of the work function on several parameters including specific surface termination, surface reconstructions, oxygen vacancies, and heterostructuring.

  15. CYLD - a deubiquitylase that acts to fine-tune microtubule properties and functions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunfan; Zhou, Jun

    2016-06-15

    Microtubules are dynamic structures that are crucially involved in a variety of cellular activities. The dynamic properties and functions of microtubules are regulated by various factors, such as tubulin isotype composition and microtubule-binding proteins. Initially identified as a deubiquitylase with tumor-suppressing functions, the protein cylindromatosis (CYLD) has recently been revealed to interact with microtubules, modulate microtubule dynamics, and participate in the regulation of cell migration, cell cycle progression, chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity and ciliogenesis. These findings have greatly enriched our understanding of the roles of CYLD in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we focus on recent literature that shows how CYLD impacts on microtubule properties and functions in various biological processes, and discuss the challenges we face when interpreting results obtained from different experimental systems. PMID:27173491

  16. Tuning of nanoparticle biological functionality through controlled surface chemistry and characterisation at the bioconjugated nanoparticle surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Delyan R.; Rocks, Louise; Kelly, Philip M.; Thomas, Steffi S.; Pitek, Andrzej S.; Verderio, Paolo; Mahon, Eugene; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2015-12-01

    We have used a silica - PEG based bionanoconjugate synthetic scheme to study the subtle connection between cell receptor specific recognition and architecture of surface functionalization chemistry. Extensive physicochemical characterization of the grafted architecture is capable of capturing significant levels of detail of both the linker and grafted organization, allowing for improved reproducibility and ultimately insight into biological functionality. Our data suggest that scaffold details, propagating PEG layer architecture effects, determine not only the rate of uptake of conjugated nanoparticles into cells but also, more significantly, the specificity of pathways via which uptake occurs.

  17. Tune Measurement in RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, M.; Cameron, P.; Cerniglia, P.; Connolly, R.; Cupolo, J.; Dawson, W.; Degen, C.; DellaPenna, A.; DeLong, J.; Drees, A.; Gassner, D.; Kesselman, M.; Lee, R.; Marusic, A.; Mead, J.; Michnoff, R.; Schultheiss, C.; Sikora, R.; Van Zeijts, J.

    2002-12-01

    Three basic tune measurement methods are employed in RHIC; kicked beam, Schottky, and phase-locked loop. The kicked beam and 2GHz Schottky systems have been in operation since the first commissioning of circulating beam in RHIC in 1999. Preliminary PLL measurements utilizing a commercial off-the-shelf lockin amplifier were completed during that run, and the resonant BPM used in that system also delivered 230MHz Schottky spectra. With encouraging preliminary results and the thought of tune feedback in mind, a PLL tune system was implemented in the FPGA/DSP environment of the RHIC BPM system for the RHIC 2001 run. During that run this system functioned at the level of the present state-of-the-art in tune measurement accuracy and resolution, and was successfully incorporated into a tune feedback system for use during acceleration. Each of the tune measurement systems has particular strengths and weaknesses. We present specific and comparative details of systems design and operation. In addition, we present detailed tune measurements and their utilization in the measurement of chromaticity and the implementation of tune feedback. Finally, we discuss planned upgrades for the RHIC 2003 run.

  18. Local inhibitory plasticity tunes macroscopic brain dynamics and allows the emergence of functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Peter J; Jachs, Barbara; Clopath, Claudia; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rich, spontaneous brain activity has been observed across a range of different temporal and spatial scales. These dynamics are thought to be important for efficient neural functioning. A range of experimental evidence suggests that these neural dynamics are maintained across a variety of different cognitive states, in response to alterations of the environment and to changes in brain configuration (e.g., across individuals, development and in many neurological disorders). This suggests that the brain has evolved mechanisms to maintain rich dynamics across a broad range of situations. Several mechanisms based around homeostatic plasticity have been proposed to explain how these dynamics emerge from networks of neurons at the microscopic scale. Here we explore how a homeostatic mechanism may operate at the macroscopic scale: in particular, focusing on how it interacts with the underlying structural network topology and how it gives rise to well-described functional connectivity networks. We use a simple mean-field model of the brain, constrained by empirical white matter structural connectivity where each region of the brain is simulated using a pool of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show, as with the microscopic work, that homeostatic plasticity regulates network activity and allows for the emergence of rich, spontaneous dynamics across a range of brain configurations, which otherwise show a very limited range of dynamic regimes. In addition, the simulated functional connectivity of the homeostatic model better resembles empirical functional connectivity network. To accomplish this, we show how the inhibitory weights adapt over time to capture important graph theoretic properties of the underlying structural network. Therefore, this work presents suggests how inhibitory homeostatic mechanisms facilitate stable macroscopic dynamics to emerge in the brain, aiding the formation of functional connectivity networks. PMID:26348562

  19. miR-17-92 fine-tunes MYC expression and function to ensure optimal B cell lymphoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovich, Marija; Bremang, Michael; Spadotto, Valeria; Musiani, Daniele; Vitale, Elena; Varano, Gabriele; Zambelli, Federico; Mancuso, Francesco M.; Cairns, David A.; Pavesi, Giulio; Casola, Stefano; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    The synergism between c-MYC and miR-17-19b, a truncated version of the miR-17-92 cluster, is well-documented during tumor initiation. However, little is known about miR-17-19b function in established cancers. Here we investigate the role of miR-17-19b in c-MYC-driven lymphomas by integrating SILAC-based quantitative proteomics, transcriptomics and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) analysis upon miR-17-19b overexpression. We identify over one hundred miR-17-19b targets, of which 40% are co-regulated by c-MYC. Downregulation of a new miR-17/20 target, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chek2), increases the recruitment of HuR to c-MYC transcripts, resulting in the inhibition of c-MYC translation and thus interfering with in vivo tumor growth. Hence, in established lymphomas, miR-17-19b fine-tunes c-MYC activity through a tight control of its function and expression, ultimately ensuring cancer cell homeostasis. Our data highlight the plasticity of miRNA function, reflecting changes in the mRNA landscape and 3′ UTR shortening at different stages of tumorigenesis. PMID:26555894

  20. Spectral Tuning of Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Rhodopsin: Evidence for Positive Selection and Functional Adaptation in a Cetacean Visual Pigment.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Sarah Z; Kosyakov, Alexander; Chang, Belinda S W

    2016-02-01

    Cetaceans have undergone a remarkable evolutionary transition that was accompanied by many sensory adaptations, including modification of the visual system for underwater environments. Recent sequencing of cetacean genomes has made it possible to begin exploring the molecular basis of these adaptations. In this study we use in vitro expression methods to experimentally characterize the first step of the visual transduction cascade, the light activation of rhodopsin, for the killer whale. To investigate the spectral effects of amino acid substitutions thought to correspond with absorbance shifts relative to terrestrial mammals, we used the orca gene as a background for the first site-directed mutagenesis experiments in a cetacean rhodopsin. The S292A mutation had the largest effect, and was responsible for the majority of the spectral difference between killer whale and bovine (terrestrial) rhodopsin. Using codon-based likelihood models, we also found significant evidence for positive selection in cetacean rhodopsin sequences, including on spectral tuning sites we experimentally mutated. We then investigated patterns of ecological divergence that may be correlated with rhodopsin functional variation by using a series of clade models that partitioned the data set according to phylogeny, habitat, and foraging depth zone. Only the model partitioning according to depth was significant. This suggests that foraging dives might be a selective regime influencing cetacean rhodopsin divergence, and our experimental results indicate that spectral tuning may be playing an adaptive role in this process. Our study demonstrates that combining computational and experimental methods is crucial for gaining insight into the selection pressures underlying molecular evolution. PMID:26486871

  1. Commissioning of helium injector for coupled radio frequency quadrupole and separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Shixiang Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Zhang, Ailing; Chen, Jia'er; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049

    2014-02-15

    A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.

  2. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  3. Coupled vibro-acoustic model updating using frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.

    2016-03-01

    Interior noise in cavities of motorized vehicles is of increasing significance due to the lightweight design of these structures. Accurate coupled vibro-acoustic FE models of such cavities are required so as to allow a reliable design and analysis. It is, however, experienced that the vibro-acoustic predictions using these models do not often correlate acceptably well with the experimental measurements and hence require model updating. Both the structural and the acoustic parameters addressing the stiffness as well as the damping modeling inaccuracies need to be considered simultaneously in the model updating framework in order to obtain an accurate estimate of these parameters. It is also noted that the acoustic absorption properties are generally frequency dependent. This makes use of modal data based methods for updating vibro-acoustic FE models difficult. In view of this, the present paper proposes a method based on vibro-acoustic frequency response functions that allow updating of a coupled FE model by considering simultaneously the parameters associated with both the structural as well as the acoustic model of the cavity. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical studies on a 3D rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate. Updating parameters related to the material property, stiffness of joints between the plate and the rectangular cavity and the properties of absorbing surfaces of the acoustic cavity are considered. The robustness of the method under presence of noise is also studied.

  4. Hand motor recovery after stroke: tuning the orchestra to improve hand motor function.

    PubMed

    Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2006-03-01

    The motor deficits after stroke are not only the manifestation of the injured brain region, but rather the expression of the ability of the rest of the brain to maintain function. After a lesion in the primary motor cortex, parallel motor circuits might be activated to generate some alternative input to the spinal motoneurons. These parallel circuits may originate from areas such as the contralateral, undamaged primary motor area, bilateral premotor areas, bilateral supplementary motor areas, bilateral somatosensory areas, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Most importantly, the efferent, cortico-spinal output pathways must be preserved for a desired behavioral result. Most of the recovery of function after a stroke may represent actual relearning of the skills with the injured brain. The main neural mechanisms underlying this relearning process after stroke involve shifts of distributed contributions across a specific neural network (fundamentally the network engaged in skill learning in the healthy). If these notions are indeed correct, then neuromodulatory approaches, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, targeting these parallel circuits might be useful to limit injury and promote recovery after a stroke. This paper reviews the stroke characteristics that can predict a good recovery and compensations across brain areas that can be implemented after a stroke to accelerate motor function recovery. PMID:16633016

  5. Quasiparticle Spectra from a Nonempirical Optimally Tuned Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Govind, Niranjan; Autschbach, Jochen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Baer, Roi; Kronik, Leeor

    2012-11-01

    We present a method for obtaining outer-valence quasiparticle excitation energies from a density-functional-theory-based calculation, with an accuracy that is comparable to that of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. The approach uses a range-separated hybrid density functional, with an asymptotically exact and short-range fractional Fock exchange. The functional contains two parameters, the range separation and the short-range Fock fraction. Both are determined nonempirically, per system, on the basis of the satisfaction of exact physical constraints for the ionization potential and frontier-orbital many-electron self-interaction, respectively. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on four important benchmark organic molecules: perylene, pentacene, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianydride (PTCDA), and 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (NTCDA). We envision that for the outer-valence excitation spectra of finite systems the approach could provide an inexpensive alternative to GW, opening the door to the study of presently out of reach large-scale systems.

  6. Quasiparticle Spectra from a Nonempirical Optimally Tuned Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Govind, Niranjan; Autschbach, Jochen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Baer, Roi; Kronik, Leeor

    2013-03-01

    We present a method for obtaining outer-valence quasiparticle excitation energies from a density-functional-theory-based calculation, with an accuracy that is comparable to that of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. The approach uses a range-separated hybrid density functional, with an asymptotically exact and short-range fractional Fock exchange. The functional contains two parameters, the range separation and the short-range Fock fraction. Both are determined nonempirically, per system, on the basis of the satisfaction of exact physical constraints for the ionization potential and many-electron self-interaction, respectively. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on four important benchmark organic molecules: perylene, pentacene, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), and 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA). We envision that for finite systems the approach could provide an inexpensive alternative to GW, opening the door to the study of presently out of reach large-scale systems (Phys. Rev. Lett., in press).

  7. Quasiparticle spectra from a nonempirical optimally tuned range-separated hybrid density functional.

    PubMed

    Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Govind, Niranjan; Autschbach, Jochen; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Baer, Roi; Kronik, Leeor

    2012-11-30

    We present a method for obtaining outer-valence quasiparticle excitation energies from a density-functional-theory-based calculation, with an accuracy that is comparable to that of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. The approach uses a range-separated hybrid density functional, with an asymptotically exact and short-range fractional Fock exchange. The functional contains two parameters, the range separation and the short-range Fock fraction. Both are determined nonempirically, per system, on the basis of the satisfaction of exact physical constraints for the ionization potential and frontier-orbital many-electron self-interaction, respectively. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on four important benchmark organic molecules: perylene, pentacene, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianydride (PTCDA), and 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (NTCDA). We envision that for the outer-valence excitation spectra of finite systems the approach could provide an inexpensive alternative to GW, opening the door to the study of presently out of reach large-scale systems. PMID:23368141

  8. Model updating using correlation analysis of strain frequency response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ning; Yang, Zhichun; Jia, You; Wang, Le

    2016-03-01

    A method is proposed to modify the structural parameters of a dynamic finite element (FE) model by using the correlation analysis for strain frequency response function (SFRF). Sensitivity analysis of correlation coefficients is used to establish the linear algebraic equations for model updating. In order to improve the accuracy of updated model, the regularization technique is used to solve the ill-posed problem in model updating procedure. Finally, a numerical study and a model updating experiment are performed to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method. The results show that the updated SFRFs and experimental SFRFs agree well, especially in resonance regions. Meanwhile, the proposed method has good robustness to noise ability and remains good feasibility even the number of measurement locations reduced significantly.

  9. Tuning and probing interfacial bonding channels for a functionalized organic molecule by surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, G.; Bauer, O.; Willenbockel, M.; Fiedler, B.; Sueyoshi, T.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Soubatch, S.; Sokolowski, M.; Tautz, F. S.

    2013-03-01

    The potassium-induced missing row reconstruction of Ag(110) is used to selectively modify the local chemical interaction between the functional anhydride groups of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) and Ag(110). We find a significant upward shift of the anhydride groups, while the adsorption height of the perylene core is essentially preserved. This demonstrates an attractive perylene/substrate interaction for PTCDA/K:Ag(110), elucidating also the bonding situation for the potassium-free system.

  10. Study on utility of an approximated transfer function of dynamically tuned dry gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingu, H.; Otsuki, M.; Hayano, T.

    The use of a dry gyro in analog rebalance loops is described and a method to improve the static and dynamic characteristics is presented. The transfer function is derived by transforming a generalized equation into the approximated form based on the design specifications of the mechanical parts. This approximation is proved to be reasonable by the result that the differences between the numerical solutions of a generalized equation and those of an approximated equation are less than 1.0%, and their mean values are less than 0.003%. Noninteracting control is analyzed and the stability conditions are investigated. A fundamental design conception for rebalance loops was established.

  11. An error function minimization approach for the inverse problem of adaptive mirrors tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Yang, Fan; Siewert, Frank; Sinn, Harald

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive x-ray optics are more and more used in synchrotron beamlines, and it is probable that they will be considered for the future high-power free-electron laser sources, as the European XFEL now under construction in Hamburg, or similar projects now in discussion. These facilities will deliver a high power x-ray beam, with an expected high heat load delivered on the optics. For this reason, bendable mirrors are required to actively compensate the resulting wavefront distortion. On top of that, the mirror could have also intrinsic surface defects, as polishing errors or mounting stresses. In order to be able to correct the mirror surface with a high precision to maintain its challenging requirements, the mirror surface is usually characterized with a high accuracy metrology to calculate the actuators pulse functions and to assess its initial shape. After that, singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to find the signals to be applied into the actuators, to reach the desired surface deformation or correction. But in some cases this approach could be not robust enough for the needed performance. We present here a comparison between the classical SVD method and an error function minimization based on root-mean-square calculation. Some examples are provided, using a simulation of the European XFEL mirrors design as a case of study, and performances of the algorithms are evaluated in order to reach the ultimate quality in different scenarios. The approach could be easily generalized to other situations as well.

  12. Quasiparticle spectra from a nonempirical optimally tuned range-separated hybrid density functional

    SciTech Connect

    Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Govind, Niranjan; Autschbach, Jochen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Baer, Roi; Kronik, Leeor

    2012-11-28

    We present a method for obtaining quasiparticle excitation energies from a DFT-based calculation, but with accuracy that is comparable to that of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. The approach uses a range-separated hybrid density functional, with asymptotically exact and short-range fractional Fock exchange. The functional contains two parameters - the range separation and the short-range Fock fraction. Both are determined non-empirically, per system, based on satisfaction of exact physical constraints for the ionization potential and many-electron self-interaction, respectively. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on the important benchmark molecule, 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianydride (PTCDA), where it is shown to be the only non-empirical DFT-based method comparable to GW calculations. For any finite system, we envision that the approach could be useful directly as an inexpensive alternative to GW that offers good accuracy for both frontier and non-frontier quasiparticle excitation energies, opening the door to the studyof presently out of reach large-scale systems.

  13. Low frequency steady-state brain responses modulate large scale functional networks in a frequency-specific means.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Cui, Qian; Liu, Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Heng; Guo, Xiao-Nan; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Neural oscillations are essential for brain functions. Research has suggested that the frequency of neural oscillations is lower for more integrative and remote communications. In this vein, some resting-state studies have suggested that large scale networks function in the very low frequency range (<1 Hz). However, it is difficult to determine the frequency characteristics of brain networks because both resting-state studies and conventional frequency tagging approaches cannot simultaneously capture multiple large scale networks in controllable cognitive activities. In this preliminary study, we aimed to examine whether large scale networks can be modulated by task-induced low frequency steady-state brain responses (lfSSBRs) in a frequency-specific pattern. In a revised attention network test, the lfSSBRs were evoked in the triple network system and sensory-motor system, indicating that large scale networks can be modulated in a frequency tagging way. Furthermore, the inter- and intranetwork synchronizations as well as coherence were increased at the fundamental frequency and the first harmonic rather than at other frequency bands, indicating a frequency-specific modulation of information communication. However, there was no difference among attention conditions, indicating that lfSSBRs modulate the general attention state much stronger than distinguishing attention conditions. This study provides insights into the advantage and mechanism of lfSSBRs. More importantly, it paves a new way to investigate frequency-specific large scale brain activities. PMID:26512872

  14. Tuning the electronic properties of ZnO nanowire field effect transistors via surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Han, Cheng; Xiang, Du; Zheng, Minrui; Lin, Jiadan; Zhong, Jianqiang; Sow, Chorng Haur; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Using in situ field effect transistor (FET) characterization combined with the molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate a significant depletion of electron charge carriers in single zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire through the surface modification with molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) and 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN) layers. The electron mobility of ZnO nanowire was found to sharply decrease after the surface modification with MoO3; in contrast, the electron mobility significantly increased after functionalization with HATCN layers. Such depletion of n-type conduction originates from the interfacial charge transfer, corroborated by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy studies. The air exposure effect on MoO(3-) and HATCN-coated ZnO nanowire devices was also investigated. PMID:25676393

  15. Tuning the electronic properties of ZnO nanowire field effect transistors via surface functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cheng; Xiang, Du; Zheng, Minrui; Lin, Jiadan; Zhong, Jianqiang; Haur Sow, Chorng; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Using in situ field effect transistor (FET) characterization combined with the molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate a significant depletion of electron charge carriers in single zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire through the surface modification with molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) and 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN) layers. The electron mobility of ZnO nanowire was found to sharply decrease after the surface modification with MoO3; in contrast, the electron mobility significantly increased after functionalization with HATCN layers. Such depletion of n-type conduction originates from the interfacial charge transfer, corroborated by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy studies. The air exposure effect on MoO3- and HATCN-coated ZnO nanowire devices was also investigated.

  16. Tuning band gap and optical properties of SnX2 nanosheets: Hybrid functional studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, P.; Luo, Y. W.; Jia, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Based on hybrid functional calculations, the electronic structures and optical properties are investigated in the monolayer and bilayer tin dichalcogenides SnX2 (X = S and Se) nanosheets. Numerical results show that quantum size effects are obvious on the electronic structures and optical absorption in the SnS2 and SnSe2 nanosheets. The band gap values increase when the nanosheets layer numbers decrease. Moreover, for SnSe2 nanosheet, the optical absorption coefficients are high and its threshold values lie in the visible light activity range. These results are interesting and indicate that SnS2 and SnSe2 nanosheets may serve as the promising candidates for visible optical applications.

  17. Work function tuning at Au-HfO2 interfaces using organophosphonate monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Matthew; Cardinal, Thomas; Mutin, P. Hubert; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2016-05-01

    We show that introducing organophosphonate nanomolecular monolayers (NMLs) at Au-HfO2 interfaces shift the effective work function by 0.2 eV ≥ ΔΦeff ≥ -0.6 eV, due to NML body and bonding dipoles. Electron spectroscopy of NML-Au, NML-HfO2, and Au-NML-HfO2 structures indicate that the Au-NML bond strength is the major factor. Au-NML covalent bonding yields ΔΦeff ˜ - 0.2 eV, while weak bonding yields ΔΦeff ˜ 0.6 eV. In contrast, NMLs on HfO2 decrease Φeff by ˜0.4 eV due to competing contributions from NML-HfO2 bonding strength and NML orientation. These findings are relevant for nanomolecularly tailoring the electronic properties of metal-ceramic interfaces for applications.

  18. Tuning the entropic spring to dictate order and functionality in polymer conjugated peptide biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keten, Sinan

    Hybrid peptide-polymer conjugates have the potential to combine the advantages of natural proteins and synthetic polymers, resulting in biomaterials with improved stability, controlled assembly, and tailored functionalities. However, the effect of polymer conjugation on peptide structural organization and functionality, along with the behavior of polymers at the interface with biomolecules remain to be fully understood. This talk will summarize our recent efforts towards establishing a modeling framework to design entropic forces in helix-polymer conjugates and polymer-conjugated peptide nanotubes to achieve hierarchical self-assembling systems with predictable order. The first part of the talk will discuss how self-assembly principles found in biology, combined with polymer physics concepts can be used to create artificial membranes that mimic certain features of ion channels. Thermodynamics and kinetics aspects of self-assembly and how it governs the growth and stacking sequences of peptide nanotubes will be discussed, along with its implications for nanoscale transport. The second part of the talk will review advances related to modeling polymer conjugated coiled coils at relevant length and time scales. Atomistic simulations combined with sampling techniques will be presented to discuss the energy landscapes governing coiled-coil stability, revealing cascades of events governing disassembly. This will be followed by a discussion of mechanisms through which polymers can stabilize small proteins, such as shielding of solvents, and how specific peptide sequences can reciprocate by altering polymer conformations. Correlations between mechanical and thermal stability of peptides will be discussed. Finally, coarse-grained simulations will provide insight into how the location of polymer attachment changes entropic forces and higher-level organization in helix bundle assemblies. Our findings set the stage for a materials-by-design capability towards dictating complex

  19. Intensity and frequency functions of [14C]2-deoxyglucose labelling in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in the cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Webster, W R; Martin, R L

    1997-02-01

    The frequency organization of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in the anesthetised cat was quantitatively mapped using [14C]2-deoxyglucose. From a standardised rostrocaudal region of the ICC, the position of peak selective labelling along the tonotopic axis closely conformed to the reported tonotopic organization of this nucleus. The position of the peak was found not to significantly change its position along the tonotopic axis with increasing stimulus intensity. However, the amplitude of peak uptake and width of selective labelling were shown to monotonically increase with increase in stimulus intensity. The increase in width of selective labelling, about the position of peak uptake, showed a slight asymmetry toward the high-frequency regions of the ICC. A 2-DG frequency-position function for the ICC, similar to that for the cochlea, enabled the width of 2-DG bands to be expressed in terms of their frequency spread along the tonotopic axis. This inturn enabled 2-DG tuning curves to be plotted which, when compared to electrophysiologically determined tuning curves, showed marked similarities. The minimum threshold and width (Q10) of these 2-DG tuning curves fell within the range reported for single units in the cat auditory pathway. PMID:9119768

  20. Improving harmonic vibrational frequencies calculations in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, R. Eric; Burant, John C.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Frisch, Michael J.

    1997-06-01

    Using a previously introduced weight scheme, microbatching, and grid compression [R. E. Stratmann, G. E. Scuseria and M. J. Frisch, Chem. Phys. Lett. 257, 213 (1996)], we significantly speed up the numerical integration of the exchange-correlation contribution to the Coupled-Perturbed Kohn-Sham equations. In addition, we find that the nature of the integrand is such that it is possible to employ substantially fewer grid points in the quadrature and to use the Gaussian very Fast Multipole Method (GvFMM) with very short multipole expansions for the Coulomb contribution, with negligible loss in accuracy. As a representative example, the computational demand for the exchange-correlation portion of a coronene (C24H12) frequency calculation with a 3-21G basis is reduced by more than one order of magnitude. The overall speed up achieved in this calculation is between a factor of 4 to 6, depending on the specific functional. We also present sample calculations using polarized bases, gradient-corrected functionals, and on even larger systems (C54H18 and C96H24), to illustrate the various effects and improvements that we have accomplished.

  1. Tune measurement in the NSLS booster synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, E.B.; Nawrocky, R.

    1993-07-01

    The NSLS booster synchrotron can accelerate an electron beam from approximately 80 to 750 MeV in 0.7 sec. The betatron tunes can change during acceleration by as much as 0.1 units, causing beam loss as they cross resonance lines. Precise measurements with a conventional swept spectrum analyzer have always been difficult because of the rapid variation of tune as the magnets are ramped. We are now using a system based on a Tektronix 3052 digital spectrum analyzer that can obtain a complete frequency spectrum over a 10 MHz bandwidth in 200 {mu}sec. Betatron oscillations are stimulated for the measurements by applying white noise to the beam through stripline electrodes. We will describe the instrumentation, our measurements of tune as a function time during the acceleration cycle, and the resulting improvements to the booster operation.

  2. Tuning of CFTR Chloride Channel Function by Location of Positive Charges within the Pore

    PubMed Central

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    High unitary Cl− conductance in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl− channel requires a functionally unique, positively charged lysine residue (K95) in the inner vestibule of the channel pore. Here we used a mutagenic approach to investigate the ability of other sites in the pore to host this important positive charge. The loss of conductance observed in the K95Q mutation was >50% rescued by substituting a lysine for each of five different pore-lining amino acids, suggesting that the exact location of the fixed positive charge is not crucial to support high conductance. Moving the positive charge also restored open-channel blocker interactions that are lost in K95Q. Introducing a second positive charge in addition to that at K95 did not increase conductance at any site, but did result in a striking increase in the strength of block by divalent Pt(NO2)42− ions. Based on the site dependence of these effects, we propose that although the exact location of the positive charge is not crucial for normal pore properties, transplanting this charge to other sites results in a diminution of its effectiveness that appears to depend on its location along the axis of the pore. PMID:23083715

  3. Tuning of CFTR chloride channel function by location of positive charges within the pore.

    PubMed

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2012-10-17

    High unitary Cl(-) conductance in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel requires a functionally unique, positively charged lysine residue (K95) in the inner vestibule of the channel pore. Here we used a mutagenic approach to investigate the ability of other sites in the pore to host this important positive charge. The loss of conductance observed in the K95Q mutation was >50% rescued by substituting a lysine for each of five different pore-lining amino acids, suggesting that the exact location of the fixed positive charge is not crucial to support high conductance. Moving the positive charge also restored open-channel blocker interactions that are lost in K95Q. Introducing a second positive charge in addition to that at K95 did not increase conductance at any site, but did result in a striking increase in the strength of block by divalent Pt(NO(2))(4)(2-) ions. Based on the site dependence of these effects, we propose that although the exact location of the positive charge is not crucial for normal pore properties, transplanting this charge to other sites results in a diminution of its effectiveness that appears to depend on its location along the axis of the pore. PMID:23083715

  4. Automatic Tuning of Spatially Varying Transfer Functions for Blood Vessel Visualization.

    PubMed

    Lathen, G; Lindholm, S; Lenz, R; Persson, A; Borga, M

    2012-12-01

    Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is commonly used in clinical routine for diagnosing vascular diseases. The procedure involves the injection of a contrast agent into the blood stream to increase the contrast between the blood vessels and the surrounding tissue in the image data. CTA is often visualized with Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) where the enhanced image contrast is important for the construction of Transfer Functions (TFs). For increased efficiency, clinical routine heavily relies on preset TFs to simplify the creation of such visualizations for a physician. In practice, however, TF presets often do not yield optimal images due to variations in mixture concentration of contrast agent in the blood stream. In this paper we propose an automatic, optimization-based method that shifts TF presets to account for general deviations and local variations of the intensity of contrast enhanced blood vessels. Some of the advantages of this method are the following. It computationally automates large parts of a process that is currently performed manually. It performs the TF shift locally and can thus optimize larger portions of the image than is possible with manual interaction. The method is based on a well known vesselness descriptor in the definition of the optimization criterion. The performance of the method is illustrated by clinically relevant CT angiography datasets displaying both improved structural overviews of vessel trees and improved adaption to local variations of contrast concentration. PMID:26357142

  5. Tuning the geometry of shape-restricted DNA molecules on the functionalized Si(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Antonopoulos, Ioanna H.; Kumar, Sandip; Chen, Junghuei; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2009-11-01

    Designing a well-defined and stable interface between biomolecules and semiconductor surfaces is of great importance for current and future biosensing and bioelectronic applications. The well-characterized chemistry, stability, and easily tunable electronic properties of silicon substrate make it a practical platform for this type of interface. It has been established in our previous work that a robust, covalent attachment between thiol-DNA molecules of a pre-designed geometrical shape and a modified silicon surface can be achieved. This work focuses on using this binding model and altering the distance between the DNA molecules and silicon surface by strategically placing thiol linkers within the pre-determined geometric design of the rectangularly shaped DNA. The statistical analysis of the height profiles of DNA molecules attached to the surface, as determined by AFM, provides specific insight into how the construction of the DNA molecules affects the binding distance. A comparison between two thiol-DNA molecules with different numbers of thiol groups placed either within the rectangular shape or anchored to the free loop of the same geometric design suggest that the average distance of these molecules to the functionalized silicon surface can be changed by approximately 0.5 nm.

  6. Tuning the mind: Exploring the connections between musical ability and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Davey, Nicholas S; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2016-07-01

    A growing body of research suggests that musical experience and ability are related to a variety of cognitive abilities, including executive functioning (EF). However, it is not yet clear if these relationships are limited to specific components of EF, limited to auditory tasks, or reflect very general cognitive advantages. This study investigated the existence and generality of the relationship between musical ability and EFs by evaluating the musical experience and ability of a large group of participants and investigating whether this predicts individual differences on three different components of EF - inhibition, updating, and switching - in both auditory and visual modalities. Musical ability predicted better performance on both auditory and visual updating tasks, even when controlling for a variety of potential confounds (age, handedness, bilingualism, and socio-economic status). However, musical ability was not clearly related to inhibitory control and was unrelated to switching performance. These data thus show that cognitive advantages associated with musical ability are not limited to auditory processes, but are limited to specific aspects of EF. This supports a process-specific (but modality-general) relationship between musical ability and non-musical aspects of cognition. PMID:27107499

  7. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with Kohn-Sham orbitals using non-empirically tuned, long-range-corrected density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.

    2014-01-28

    The performance of second-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations using Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals is evaluated against benchmark results for intermolecular interactions. Unlike previous studies of this “SAPT(KS)” methodology, the present study uses non-empirically tuned long-range corrected (LRC) functionals for the monomers. The proper v{sub xc} (r)→0 asymptotic limit is achieved by tuning the range separation parameter in order to satisfy the condition that the highest occupied KS energy level equals minus the molecule's ionization energy, for each monomer unit. Tests for He{sub 2}, Ne{sub 2}, and the S22 and S66 data sets reveal that this condition is important for accurate prediction of the non-dispersion components of the energy, although errors in SAPT(KS) dispersion energies remain unacceptably large. In conjunction with an empirical dispersion potential, however, the SAPT(KS) method affords good results for S22 and S66, and also accurately predicts the whole potential energy curve for the sandwich isomer of the benzene dimer. Tuned LRC functionals represent an attractive alternative to other asymptotic corrections that have been employed in density-functional-based SAPT calculations, and we recommend the use of tuned LRC functionals in both coupled-perturbed SAPT(DFT) calculations and dispersion-corrected SAPT(KS) calculations.

  8. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission suppression tuning curves in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T; Kopun, Judy; Tan, Hongyang

    2011-02-01

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) suppression data as a function of suppressor level (L(3)) for f(2) frequencies from 0.5 to 8 kHz and L(2) levels from 10 to 60 dB sensation level were used to construct suppression tuning curves (STCs). DPOAE levels in the presence of suppressors were converted into decrement versus L(3) functions, and the L(3) levels resulting in 3 dB decrements were derived by transformed linear regression. These L(3) levels were plotted as a function of f(3) to construct STCs. When f(3) is represented on an octave scale, STCs were similar in shape across f(2) frequency. These STCs were analyzed to provide estimates of gain (tip-to-tail difference) and tuning (Q(ERB)). Both gain and tuning decreased as L(2) increased, regardless of f(2), but the trend with f(2) was not monotonic. A roughly linear relation was observed between gain and tuning at each frequency, such that gain increased by 4-16 dB (mean ≈ 5 dB) for every unit increase in Q(ERB), although the pattern varied with frequency. These findings suggest consistent nonlinear processing across a wide frequency range in humans, although the nonlinear operation range is frequency dependent. PMID:21361440

  9. Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Randall L.; Graber, Harry L.; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Tarantini, Frank; Khoury, Georges; Naar, David J.; Panetta, Thomas F.; Lewis, Theophilus; Pei, Yaling

    2003-07-01

    We have introduced working technology that provides for time-series imaging of the hemoglobin signal in large tissue structures. In this study we have explored our ability to detect aberrant time-frequency responses of breast vasculature for subjects with Stage II breast cancer at rest and in response to simple provocations. The hypothesis being explored is that time-series imaging will be sensitive to the known structural and functional malformations of the tumor vasculature. Mammographic studies were conducted using an adjustable hemisheric measuring head containing 21 source and 21 detector locations (441 source-detector pairs). Simultaneous dual-wavelength studies were performed at 760 and 830 nm at a framing rate of ~2.7 Hz. Optical measures were performed on women lying prone with the breast hanging in a pendant position. Two class of measures were performed: (1) 20- minute baseline measure wherein the subject was at rest; (2) provocation studies wherein the subject was asked to perform some simple breathing maneuvers. Collected data were analyzed to identify the time-frequency structure and central tendencies of the detector responses and those of the image time series. Imaging data were generated using the Normalized Difference Method (Pei et al., Appl. Opt. 40, 5755-5769, 2001). Results obtained clearly document three classes of anomalies when compared to the normal contralateral breast. 1) Breast tumors exhibit altered oxygen supply/demand imbalance in response to an oxidative challenge (breath hold). 2) The vasomotor response of the tumor vasculature is mainly depressed and exhibits an altered modulation. 3) The affected area of the breast wherein the altered vasomotor signature is seen extends well beyond the limits of the tumor itself.

  10. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2012-04-03

    Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.

  11. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.

    2013-01-08

    Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.

  12. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, John L. (Inventor); Morrison, William H. (Inventor); Christophersen, Jon P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.

  13. Comparative phosphoproteome profiling reveals a function of the STN8 kinase in fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow (CEF)

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Sonja; Finazzi, Giovanni; Endler, Anne; Willig, Adrian; Baerenfaller, Katja; Grossmann, Jonas; Gerrits, Bertran; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Rochaix, Jean-David; Baginsky, Sacha

    2011-01-01

    Important aspects of photosynthetic electron transport efficiency in chloroplasts are controlled by protein phosphorylation. Two thylakoid-associated kinases, STN7 and STN8, have distinct roles in short- and long-term photosynthetic acclimation to changes in light quality and quantity. Although some substrates of STN7 and STN8 are known, the complexity of this regulatory kinase system implies that currently unknown substrates connect photosynthetic performance with the regulation of metabolic and regulatory functions. We performed an unbiased phosphoproteome-wide screen with Arabidopsis WT and stn8 mutant plants to identify unique STN8 targets. The phosphorylation status of STN7 was not affected in stn8, indicating that kinases other than STN8 phosphorylate STN7 under standard growth conditions. Among several putative STN8 substrates, PGRL1-A is of particular importance because of its possible role in the modulation of cyclic electron transfer. The STN8 phosphorylation site on PGRL1-A is absent in both monocotyledonous plants and algae. In dicots, spectroscopic measurements with Arabidopsis WT, stn7, stn8, and stn7/stn8 double-mutant plants indicate a STN8-mediated slowing down of the transition from cyclic to linear electron flow at the onset of illumination. This finding suggests a possible link between protein phosphorylation by STN8 and fine-tuning of cyclic electron flow during this critical step of photosynthesis, when the carbon assimilation is not commensurate to the electron flow capacity of the chloroplast. PMID:21768351

  14. The Earthquake Frequency-Magnitude Distribution Functional Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of the completeness magnitude Mc, magnitude above which all earthquakes are detected, is a prerequisite to most seismicity analyses. Although computation of Mc is done routinely, different techniques often result in different values. Since an incorrect estimate can lead to under-sampling or worse to an erroneous estimate of the parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) law, a better assessment of the deviation from the G-R law and thus of the earthquake detectability is of paramount importance to correctly estimate Mc. This is especially true for refined mapping of seismicity parameters such as in earthquake forecast models. The capacity of a seismic network to detect small earthquakes can be evaluated by investigating the functional shape of the earthquake Frequency-Magnitude Distribution (FMD). The non-cumulative FMD takes the form N(m) ∝ exp(-βm)q(m) where N(m) is the number of events of magnitude m, exp(-βm) the G-R law and q(m) a probability function. q(m) is commonly defined as the cumulative Normal distribution to describe the gradual curvature often observed in bulk FMDs. Recent results however show that this gradual curvature is potentially due to spatial heterogeneities in Mc, meaning that the functional shape of the elemental (local) FMD still has to be described. Based on preliminary observations, we propose an exponential detection function of the form q(m) = exp(κ(m-Mc)) for m < Mc and q(m) = 1 for m ≥ Mc, which leads to an FMD of angular shape. The two FMD models (gradually curved and angular) are compared in Southern California and Nevada. We show that the angular shaped FMD model better describes the elemental FMD and that the sum of elemental FMDs with different Mc(x,y) leads to the gradually curved FMD at the regional scale. We show that the proposed model (1) provides more robust estimates of Mc, (2) better estimates local b-values, and (3) gives an insight into earthquake detectability properties by using seismicity as a proxy

  15. Beam tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    A program for configuring the linac, based on previously run configurations for any desired beam was used during the past year. This program uses only a small number of empirical tunes to scale resonator fields to properly accelerate a beam with a different charge-to-mass (q/A) ratio from the original tune configuration. The program worked very well for the PII linac section where we can easily match a new beam`s arrival phase and velocity to the tuned value. It was also fairly successful for the Booster and ATLAS sections of the linac, but not as successful as for the PII linac. Most of the problems are associated with setting the beam arrival time correctly for each major linac section. This problem is being addressed with the development of the capacitive pickup beam phase monitor discussed above. During the next year we expect to improve our ability to quickly configure the linac for new beams and reduce the time required for linac tuning. Already the time required for linac tuning as a percentage of research hours has decreased from 22% in FY 1993 to 15% in the first quarter of FY 1995.

  16. Outer-valence Electron Spectra of Prototypical Aromatic Heterocycles from an Optimally Tuned Range-Separated Hybrid Functional.

    PubMed

    Egger, David A; Weissman, Shira; Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Dauth, Matthias; Baer, Roi; Kümmel, Stephan; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Zojer, Egbert; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-05-13

    Density functional theory with optimally tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functionals has been recently suggested [Refaely-Abramson et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 109, 226405] as a nonempirical approach to predict the outer-valence electronic structure of molecules with the same accuracy as many-body perturbation theory. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of the OT-RSH approach by examining its performance in predicting the outer-valence electron spectra of several prototypical gas-phase molecules, from aromatic rings (benzene, pyridine, and pyrimidine) to more complex organic systems (terpyrimidinethiol and copper phthalocyanine). For a range up to several electronvolts away from the frontier orbital energies, we find that the outer-valence electronic structure obtained from the OT-RSH method agrees very well (typically within ∼0.1-0.2 eV) with both experimental photoemission and theoretical many-body perturbation theory data in the GW approximation. In particular, we find that with new strategies for an optimal choice of the short-range fraction of Fock exchange, the OT-RSH approach offers a balanced description of localized and delocalized states. We discuss in detail the sole exception found-a high-symmetry orbital, particular to small aromatic rings, which is relatively deep inside the valence state manifold. Overall, the OT-RSH method is an accurate DFT-based method for outer-valence electronic structure prediction for such systems and is of essentially the same level of accuracy as contemporary GW approaches, at a reduced computational cost. PMID:24839410

  17. Outer-valence Electron Spectra of Prototypical Aromatic Heterocycles from an Optimally Tuned Range-Separated Hybrid Functional

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory with optimally tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functionals has been recently suggested [Refaely-Abramson et al. Phys. Rev. Lett.2012, 109, 226405] as a nonempirical approach to predict the outer-valence electronic structure of molecules with the same accuracy as many-body perturbation theory. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of the OT-RSH approach by examining its performance in predicting the outer-valence electron spectra of several prototypical gas-phase molecules, from aromatic rings (benzene, pyridine, and pyrimidine) to more complex organic systems (terpyrimidinethiol and copper phthalocyanine). For a range up to several electronvolts away from the frontier orbital energies, we find that the outer-valence electronic structure obtained from the OT-RSH method agrees very well (typically within ∼0.1–0.2 eV) with both experimental photoemission and theoretical many-body perturbation theory data in the GW approximation. In particular, we find that with new strategies for an optimal choice of the short-range fraction of Fock exchange, the OT-RSH approach offers a balanced description of localized and delocalized states. We discuss in detail the sole exception found—a high-symmetry orbital, particular to small aromatic rings, which is relatively deep inside the valence state manifold. Overall, the OT-RSH method is an accurate DFT-based method for outer-valence electronic structure prediction for such systems and is of essentially the same level of accuracy as contemporary GW approaches, at a reduced computational cost. PMID:24839410

  18. Androgens Alter the Tuning of Electroreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlan Meyer, J.; Zakon, Harold H.

    1982-08-01

    Weakly electric fish possess electroreceptors that are tuned to their individual electric organ discharge frequencies. One genus, Sternopygus, displays both ontogenetic and seasonal shifts in these frequencies, possibly because of endocrine influences. Systemic treatment with androgens lowers the discharge frequencies in these animals. Concomitant with these changes in electric organ discharge frequencies are decreases in electroreceptor best frequencies; hence the close match between discharge frequency and receptor tuning is maintained. These findings indicate that the tuning of electroreceptors is dynamic and that it parallels natural shifts in electric organ discharge frequency.

  19. A Tuning Method for Electrically Compensated Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Traps

    PubMed Central

    Brustkern, Adam M.; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for tuning electrically compensated ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) traps by tracking the observed cyclotron frequency of an ion cloud at different oscillation mode amplitudes. Although we have used this method to tune the compensation voltages of a custom-built electrically compensated trap, the approach is applicable to other designs that incorporate electrical compensation. To evaluate the effectiveness of tuning, we examined the frequency shift as a function of cyclotron orbit size at different z-mode oscillation amplitudes. The cyclotron frequencies varied by ~ 12 ppm for ions with low z-mode oscillation amplitudes compared to those with high z-mode amplitudes. This frequency difference decreased to ~1 ppm by one iteration of trap tuning. PMID:20060743

  20. Frequency Response Function Based Damage Identification for Aerospace Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Joseph Acton

    Structural health monitoring technologies continue to be pursued for aerospace structures in the interests of increased safety and, when combined with health prognosis, efficiency in life-cycle management. The current dissertation develops and validates damage identification technology as a critical component for structural health monitoring of aerospace structures and, in particular, composite unmanned aerial vehicles. The primary innovation is a statistical least-squares damage identification algorithm based in concepts of parameter estimation and model update. The algorithm uses frequency response function based residual force vectors derived from distributed vibration measurements to update a structural finite element model through statistically weighted least-squares minimization producing location and quantification of the damage, estimation uncertainty, and an updated model. Advantages compared to other approaches include robust applicability to systems which are heavily damped, large, and noisy, with a relatively low number of distributed measurement points compared to the number of analytical degrees-of-freedom of an associated analytical structural model (e.g., modal finite element model). Motivation, research objectives, and a dissertation summary are discussed in Chapter 1 followed by a literature review in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives background theory and the damage identification algorithm derivation followed by a study of fundamental algorithm behavior on a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with generalized damping. Chapter 4 investigates the impact of noise then successfully proves the algorithm against competing methods using an analytical eight degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with non-proportional structural damping. Chapter 5 extends use of the algorithm to finite element models, including solutions for numerical issues, approaches for modeling damping approximately in reduced coordinates, and analytical validation using a composite

  1. Method of Detecting System Function by Measuring Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, John L. (Inventor); Morrison, William H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Real time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using one time record, Compensated Synchronous Detection (CSD). This parallel method enables battery diagnostics. The excitation current to a test battery is a sum of equal amplitude sin waves of a few frequencies spread over range of interest. The time profile of this signal has duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known, synchronous detection processes the time record and each component, both magnitude and phase, is obtained. For compensation, the components, except the one of interest, are reassembled in the time domain. The resulting signal is subtracted from the original signal and the component of interest is synchronously detected. This process is repeated for each component.

  2. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.

    2008-07-01

    Real time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using one time record, Compensated Synchronous Detection (CSD). This parallel method enables battery diagnostics. The excitation current to a test battery is a sum of equal amplitude sin waves of a few frequencies spread over range of interest. The time profile of this signal has duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known, synchronous detection processes the time record and each component, both magnitude and phase, is obtained. For compensation, the components, except the one of interest, are reassembled in the time domain. The resulting signal is subtracted from the original signal and the component of interest is synchronously detected. This process is repeated for each component.

  3. Tuning of active vibration controllers for ACTEX by genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Denoyer, Keith K.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal tuning of digitally programmable analog controllers on the ACTEX-1 smart structures flight experiment. The programmable controllers for each channel include a third order Strain Rate Feedback (SRF) controller, a fifth order SRF controller, a second order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) controller, and a fourth order PPF controller. Optimal manual tuning of several control parameters can be a difficult task even though the closed-loop control characteristics of each controller are well known. Hence, the automatic tuning of individual control parameters using Genetic Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The optimal control parameters of each control law are obtained by imposing a constraint on the closed-loop frequency response functions using the ACTEX mathematical model. The tuned control parameters are then uploaded to the ACTEX electronic control electronics and experiments on the active vibration control are carried out in space. The experimental results on ACTEX will be presented.

  4. Influence of Temple Headache Frequency on Physical Functioning and Emotional Functioning in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorder Pain

    PubMed Central

    List, Thomas; John, Mike T.; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L.; Truelove, Edmond L.; Anderson, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD–II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form–12 [SF–12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist–90R/SCL–90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Results Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P < .001), SF-12 (P < .001), and GCPS (P < .001), was significantly associated with increased headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P < .001). Conclusion Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches. PMID:22558607

  5. Procedures for Tuning a Multiresonator Photonic Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    Two procedures have been devised for tuning a photonic filter that comprises multiple whispering-gallery mode (WGM) disk resonators. As used here, tuning signifies locking the filter to a specific laser frequency and configuring the filter to obtain a desired high-order transfer function. The main problem in tuning such a filter is how to select the correct relative loading of the resonators to realize a prescribed filter function. The first of the two procedures solves this problem. As temperature gradients develop during operation, the spectra of individual resonators tend to drift, primarily because of the thermorefractive effect. Thus, there arises the additional problem of how to adjust the tuning during operation to maintain the desired transfer function. The second of the two procedures solves this problem. To implement the procedures, it is necessary to incorporate the resonators into an apparatus like that of Figure 1. In this apparatus, the spectrum of each resonator can be adjusted individually, via the electro-optical effect, by adjusting a bias voltage applied to that resonator. In addition, the positions of the coupling prisms and resonators can be adjusted to increase or reduce the gaps between them, thereby reducing or increasing, respectively, the optical coupling between them. The optical power (Pi) in resonator i is monitored by use of a tracking photodiode. Another tracking diode monitors the power reflected from the input terminal (Pr), and still others monitor the input power (Pin) and output power (Po). The readings of these photodiodes are used to guide the tuning adjustments described in this paper.

  6. Frequency and Category Factors in the Reduction and Assimilation of Function Words: EPG and Acoustic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Gick, Bryan; Kanwischer, Dara; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have observed phonetic and phonological differences between function words and content words. However, as many of the most commonly cited function words are also very high in frequency, it is unclear whether these differences are the result of syntactic category or word frequency. This study attempts to determine whether syntactically…

  7. Investigation of effect of excitation frequency on electron energy distribution functions in low pressure radio frequency bounded plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2011-07-01

    Particle in cell (PIC) simulations are employed to investigate the effect of excitation frequency ω on electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in a low pressure radio frequency (rf) discharge. The discharge is maintained over a length of 0.10 m, bounded by two infinite parallel plates, with the coherent heating field localized at the center of the discharge over a distance of 0.05 m and applied perpendicularly along the y and z directions. On varying the excitation frequency f (=ω/2π) in the range 0.01-50 MHz, it is observed that for f ≤ 5 MHz the EEDF shows a trend toward a convex (Druyvesteyn-like) distribution. For f > 5 MHz, the distribution resembles more like a Maxwellian with the familiar break energy visible in most of the distributions. A prominent "hot tail" is observed at f ≥ 20 MHz and the temperature of the tail is seen to decrease with further increase in frequency (e.g., at 30 MHz and 50 MHz). The mechanism for the generation of the "hot tail" is considered to be due to preferential transit time heating of energetic electrons as a function of ω, in the antenna heating field. There exists an optimum frequency for which high energy electrons are maximally heated. The occurrence of the Druyvesteyn-like distributions at lower ω may be explained by a balance between the heating of the electrons in the effective electric field and elastic cooling due to electron neutral collision frequency νen; the transition being dictated by ω ˜ 2πνen.

  8. An efficient modeling methodology of structural systems containing viscoelastic dampers based on frequency response function substructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, A. M. G.; Rade, D. A.; Lépore Neto, F. P.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper it is suggested a modeling methodology of structural systems supported by translational and rotational viscoelastic mounts or joints based on a frequency response function coupling technique. Such strategy enables to predict the dynamic behaviour of the composite systems given a set of frequency response functions of the main structure and a driving point frequency response function of the viscoelastic support. These frequency response functions can be obtained either experimentally or by finite element modeling. Both cases are considered in the study. After presenting the underlying theoretical aspects, the results of numerical simulations of two-dimensional structures are presented, emphasizing the procedure conceived to compute the frequency response functions of the viscoelastic mounts or joints from a detailed finite element model using commercial packages and material properties provided by manufacturers. The dependency of the viscoelastic behaviour on frequency and temperature is accounted for by using the complex modulus approach and the concepts of reduced frequency and shift factor. An investigation using experimentally acquired frequency response functions of a frame structure with a translational viscoelastic damper is presented. Based on the obtained results, the main features of the modeling methodology are highlighted.

  9. Joint Entropy for Space and Spatial Frequency Domains Estimated from Psychometric Functions of Achromatic Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Vladímir de Aquino; Souza, Givago da Silva; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    We used psychometric functions to estimate the joint entropy for space discrimination and spatial frequency discrimination. Space discrimination was taken as discrimination of spatial extent. Seven subjects were tested. Gábor functions comprising unidimensionalsinusoidal gratings (0.4, 2, and 10 cpd) and bidimensionalGaussian envelopes (1°) were used as reference stimuli. The experiment comprised the comparison between reference and test stimulithat differed in grating's spatial frequency or envelope's standard deviation. We tested 21 different envelope's standard deviations around the reference standard deviation to study spatial extent discrimination and 19 different grating's spatial frequencies around the reference spatial frequency to study spatial frequency discrimination. Two series of psychometric functions were obtained for 2%, 5%, 10%, and 100% stimulus contrast. The psychometric function data points for spatial extent discrimination or spatial frequency discrimination were fitted with Gaussian functions using the least square method, and the spatial extent and spatial frequency entropies were estimated from the standard deviation of these Gaussian functions. Then, joint entropy was obtained by multiplying the square root of space extent entropy times the spatial frequency entropy. We compared our results to the theoretical minimum for unidimensional Gábor functions, 1/4π or 0.0796. At low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts, joint entropy reached levels below the theoretical minimum, suggesting non-linear interactions between two or more visual mechanisms. We concluded that non-linear interactions of visual pathways, such as the M and P pathways, could explain joint entropy values below the theoretical minimum at low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts. These non-linear interactions might be at work at intermediate and high contrasts at all spatial frequencies once there was a substantial decrease in joint

  10. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  11. Three-dimensional invisibility cloaks functioning at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Zhou, Fan; Liang, Dachuan; Gu, Jianqiang; Han, Jiaguang; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Weili

    2014-05-01

    Quasi-three-dimensional invisibility cloaks, comprised of either homogeneous or inhomogeneous media, are experimentally demonstrated in the terahertz regime. The inhomogeneous cloak was lithographically fabricated using a scalable Projection Microstereolithography process. The triangular cloaking structure has a total thickness of 4.4 mm, comprised of 220 layers of 20 μm thickness. The cloak operates at a broad frequency range between 0.3 and 0.6 THz, and is placed over an α-lactose monohydrate absorber with rectangular shape. Characterized using angular-resolved reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, the results indicate that the terahertz invisibility cloak has successfully concealed both the geometrical and spectroscopic signatures of the absorber, making it undetectable to the observer. The homogeneous cloaking device made from birefringent crystalline sapphire features a large concealed volume, low loss, and broad bandwidth. It is capable of hiding objects with a dimension nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of its lithographic counterpart, but without involving complex and time-consuming cleanroom processing. The cloak device was made from two 20-mm-thick high-purity sapphire prisms. The cloaking region has a maximum height 1.75 mm with a volume of approximately 5% of the whole sample. The reflected TM beam from the cloak shows nearly the same profile as that reflected by a flat mirror.

  12. Extracting a shape function for a signal with intra-wave frequency modulation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-wave frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape function to describe the intra-wave frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape function in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape function could be any smooth 2π-periodic function. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape function. By exploring the fact that the shape function is a periodic function with respect to its phase function, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape function from the signal. Once the shape function is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-wave modulation can be recovered from the shape function. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape function approach, we can capture the intra-wave frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-wave modulation when the signal is polluted by noise. PMID:26953176

  13. Musician's and Physicist's View on Tuning Keyboard Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubenow, Martin; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous sound of several voices or instruments requires proper tuning to achieve consonance for certain intervals and chords. Most instruments allow enough frequency variation to enable pure tuning while being played. Keyboard instruments such as organ and piano have given frequencies for individual notes and the tuning must be based on a…

  14. Sediment sound speed inversion with time-frequency analysis and modal arrival time probability density functions.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Pole, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The dispersion pattern of a received signal is critical for understanding physical properties of the propagation medium. The objective of this work is to estimate accurately sediment sound speed using modal arrival times obtained from dispersion curves extracted via time-frequency analysis of acoustic signals. A particle filter is used that estimates probability density functions of modal frequencies arriving at specific times. Employing this information, probability density functions of arrival times for modal frequencies are constructed. Samples of arrival time differences are then obtained and are propagated backwards through an inverse acoustic model. As a result, probability density functions of sediment sound speed are estimated. Maximum a posteriori estimates indicate that inversion is successful. It is also demonstrated that multiple frequency processing offers an advantage over inversion at a single frequency, producing results with reduced variance. PMID:27475202

  15. C-H functionalization: thoroughly tuning ligands at a metal ion, a chemist can greatly enhance catalyst's activity and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B

    2013-09-28

    This brief essay consists of a few "exciting stories" devoted to relations within a metal-complex catalyst between a metal ion and a coordinated ligand. When, as in the case of a human couple, the rapport of the partners is cordial and a love cements these relations, a chemist finds an ideal married couple, in other words he obtains a catalyst of choice which allows him to functionalize C-H bonds very efficiently and selectively. Examples of such lucky marriages in the catalytic world of ions and ligands are discussed here. Activity of the catalyst is characterized by turnover number (TON) or turnover frequency (TOF) as well as by yield of a target product. Introducing a chelating N,N- or N,O-ligand to the catalyst molecule (this can be an iron or manganese derivative) sharply enhances its activity. However, the activity of vanadium derivatives (with additionally added to the solution pyrazinecarboxylic acid, PCA) as well as of various osmium complexes does not dramatically depend on the nature of ligands surrounding metal ions. Complexes of these metals are very efficient catalysts in oxidations with H2O2. Osmium derivatives are record-holders exhibiting extremely high TONs whereas vanadium complexes are on the second position. Finally, elegant examples of alkane functionalization on the ions of non-transition metals (aluminium, gallium etc.) are described when one ligand within the metal complex (namely, hydroperoxyl ligand HOO(-)) helps other ligand of this complex (H2O2 molecule coordinated to the metal) to disintegrate into two species, generating very reactive hydroxyl radical. Hydrogen peroxide molecule, even ligated to the metal ion, is perfectly stable without the assistance of the neighboring HOO(-) ligand. This ligand can be easily oxidized donating an electron to its partner ligand (H2O2). In an analogous case, when the central ion in the catalyst is a transition metal, this ion changing its oxidation state can donate an electron to the coordinated H2O2

  16. Tremor Frequency Profile as a Function of Level of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Robert L.; Deutsch, Katherine M.; Newell, Karl M.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic slowness of movement initiation and execution in adult individuals with mental retardation may be driven by the slower frequency profile of the dynamics of the system. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the resting and postural finger tremor frequency profile (single and dual limb) of adults as a function of level of…

  17. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  18. Representation of non-periodic functions by trigonometric series with almost integer frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, G.; Olevskii, A.

    1999-08-01

    Inspired by Menshov's representation theorem, we prove that there exists a sequence of frequecies such that any measurable (complex valued) function on R can be represented as a sum of almost everywhere convergent trigonometric series with these frequencies.

  19. Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, J. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency. We examined the frequency characteristics of human postural coordination and the role of visual information in this coordination. Eight healthy adults maintained balance in stance during sinusoidal support surface translations (12 cm peak to peak) in the anterior-posterior direction at six different frequencies. Changes in kinematic and dynamic measures revealed that both sensory and biomechanical constraints limit postural coordination patterns as a function of translation frequency. At slow frequencies (0.1 and 0.25 Hz), subjects ride the platform (with the eyes open or closed). For fast frequencies (1.0 and 1.25 Hz) with the eyes open, subjects fix their head and upper trunk in space. With the eyes closed, large-amplitude, slow-sway motion of the head and trunk occurred for fast frequencies above 0.5 Hz. Visual information stabilized posture by reducing the variability of the head's position in space and the position of the center of mass (CoM) within the support surface defined by the feet for all but the slowest translation frequencies. When subjects rode the platform, there was little oscillatory joint motion, with muscle activity limited mostly to the ankles. To support the head fixed in space and slow-sway postural patterns, subjects produced stable interjoint hip and ankle joint coordination patterns. This increase in joint motion of the lower body dissipated the energy input by fast translation frequencies and facilitated the control of upper body motion. CoM amplitude decreased with increasing translation frequency, whereas the center of pressure amplitude increased with increasing translation frequency. Our results suggest that visual information was important to maintaining a fixed position of the head and trunk in space, whereas proprioceptive information was sufficient to produce stable coordinative patterns between the support surface and legs. The CNS organizes

  20. First principles optimally tuned range-separated density functional theory for prediction of phosphorus-hydrogen spin-spin coupling constants.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Mojtaba; Fallahzadeh, Parisa

    2016-07-21

    Optimally tuned range-separated (OT-RS) density functional theory (DFT) is a recent endeavor toward the systematic and non-empirical routes for designing the exchange-correlation functionals. Herein, a detailed analysis of the development and benchmarking of the OT-RS functionals for predicting the experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs) in diverse sets of compounds containing phosphorus-hydrogen (P-H) bonds has been done. More specifically, besides analyzing the performances of standard long-range corrected (LC) functionals, two new non-empirical OT-RS functionals are proposed for this purpose. Furthermore, we dissect the importance of both short- and long-range exchange contributions and range separation parameters in LC density functional calculations of P-H SSCCs. It is shown that the proposed functionals not only give an improved description of SSCCs with respect to conventional LC approximations but also in many cases perform better than other functionals from various rungs. The accountability of the new models for predicting the SSCCs and their components in continuum solvents has also been examined and validated. Overall, we hope that this contribution stimulates the development of novel OT-RS DFT approximations based on theoretical arguments as a methodology with both high accuracy and computational efficiency for modeling the NMR parameters. PMID:27339276

  1. Unexpected dynamic up-tuning of auditory organs in day-flying moths.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-07-01

    In certain nocturnal moth species the frequency range of best hearing shifts to higher frequencies during repeated sound stimulation. This could provide the moths with a mechanism to better detect approaching echolocating bats. However, such a dynamic up-tuning would be of little value for day-flying moths that use intra-specific acoustic communication. Here we examined if the ears of day-flying moths provide stable tuning during longer sound stimulation. Contrary to our expectations, dynamic up-tuning was found in the ear of the day-flying species Urania boisduvalii and Empyreuma pugione. Audiograms were measured with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The level of the dominant distortion product (i.e. 2f1-f2) varied as a function of time by as much as 45 dB during ongoing acoustic stimulation, showing a systematic decrease at low frequencies and an increase at high frequencies. As a consequence, within about 2 s of acoustic stimulation, the DPOAEs audiogram shifted from low to high frequencies. Despite the up-tuning, the range of best audition still fell within the frequency band of the species-specific communication signals, suggesting that intra-specific communication should not be affected adversely. Up-tuning could be an ancestral condition in moth ears that in day-flying moths does not underlie larger selection pressure. PMID:25894491

  2. Fast mode-hop-free acousto-optically tuned laser: theoretical and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Bösel, André; Salewski, Klaus-Dieter

    2009-02-10

    We developed a theory that describes fast mode-hop-free tuning of an external cavity diode laser in Littrow configuration with two acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) inside the laser cavity. The theory is based on synchronous shifting of the external cavity modes and the Littrow grating selectivity. It allows calculating the driving signals of both AOMs in order to reach a desired temporal variation of the laser frequency, including particularly fast tuning as well as an arbitrary shape of the tuning function. Furthermore, we present a laser setup for which the needed signals for both AOMs are generated by two direct digital synthesizer circuits. Thereby we were able to verify the theoretical predictions experimentally, achieving, e.g., sinusoidal single-mode tuning of the laser frequency over 40 GHz at a repetition rate of 10 kHz and over 12 GHz at 25 kHz. Finally, the limitations of the theory are discussed. PMID:19209191

  3. Frequency-dependent spatiotemporal tuning properties of non-eye movement related vestibular neurons to three-dimensional translations in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Chen-Huang, Chiju; Peterson, Barry W

    2010-06-01

    Responses of vestibular-only translation sensitive (VOTS) neurons in vestibular nuclei of two squirrel monkeys were studied at multiple frequencies to three-dimensional translations and rotations. A novel frequency-dependent spatiotemporal analysis examined in each neuron whether complex models, with unrestricted response dynamics in three-dimensional (3D) space, provided significantly better fits than restricted models following simple, cosine rule. Subsequently, the statistically selected optimal model was used to predict the maximum translation direction, expressed as a unitary vector, Vt(max), and its associated sensitivity and phase across frequencies. Simple models were sufficient to quantify the 3D translational responses of 66% of neurons. Most VOTS neurons, complex or simple, exhibited flat-gain or low-pass response dynamics. The Vt(max) of simple neurons was fixed, whereas that of complex neurons changed with frequency. The spatial distribution of Vt(max) in simple neurons, which fell within 30 degrees of either the horizontal plane or/and the sagittal plane, was closely aligned with Vt(max) of vestibular afferents. In contrast, the frequency-dependent Vt(max) of most complex neurons migrated from the dorsoventral axis at higher frequency toward the horizontal plane, especially the interaural axis, at lower frequency. When the maximum rotation direction was estimated from responses of the same VOTS neurons to 1.2 Hz yaw, pitch, and roll rotations, complex neurons were more likely to respond to rotations activating vertical canals. Responses to 0.15-0.3 Hz linear accelerations produced by inertial or gravitational forces were indistinguishable in most complex neurons but significantly different in most simple neurons. These observations suggest that simple and complex VOTS neurons constitute distinctive vestibular pathways where complex neurons, exhibiting a novel spatiotemporal filtering mechanism in processing otolith-related signals, are well suited to

  4. Study on processing step uniformity tuning during FET fabrication and sensor wafer response as a function of chuck temperature adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenin, Alexey P.; Boullart, Werner; Quli, Farhat; Wen, Youxian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of chuck temperature adjustment on critical dimension uniformity was studied for the shallow trench isolation etch process by introducing a temperature gradient in a multi-temperature-zone electrostatic chuck. It is shown that the initial radial critical dimension non-uniformity can be improved by a gradual temperature adjustment of the electrostatic chuck and results in the target specification values of uniformity, 3σ ≤ 1.5 nm, for a critical dimension of about 35 nm. Both temperature and RF sensor wafers were used to analyze the impact of an electrostatic chuck temperature gradient on process uniformity by utilizing their unique in situ spatial and temporal mapping capabilities. Thus, the across-wafer thermal sensitivity of the critical dimension was estimated for dense structures: a temperature change of 1 °C leads to a critical dimension change of ˜0.7 nm. The RF sensor wafer was also shown to have a clear response of RF current uniformity to the electrostatic chuck temperature gradient that suggests there could be other phenomena affecting critical dimension uniformity besides temperature itself. The pure temperature contribution to critical dimension change was found to be less than 0.3 nm/°C for the temperature range studied. Finally, a possible mechanism of critical dimension tuning is discussed and an assessment of each separate etch step’s sensitivity to the electrostatic chuck temperature gradient is performed.

  5. Su(fu) switches Rdx functions to fine-tune hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila wing disk.

    PubMed

    Seong, Ki-Hyeon; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays a central role in pattern formation by regulating transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci). Previously, Roadkill (Rdx, also called HIB) was shown to inhibit Ci activity by two distinct mechanisms, depending on the Hh signal strength (Seong et al. 2010, PLoS One 5, e15365). In the anterior region abutting the anterior/posterior (A/P) boundary of the wing disk, where cells receive a strong Hh signal, Rdx blocks the nuclear entry of Ci-155. In contrast, in the region farther from the A/P boundary, where cells receive moderate levels of Hh, Rdx induces Ci-155 degradation in the nucleus. Here, we report that Suppressor of fused, Su(fu), causes the Rdx switch between mechanisms. A strong Hh signal induces rdx expression and suppresses su(fu) expression, whereas moderate levels of Hh induce moderate levels of rdx expression and high levels of su(fu) expression. Rdx blocks entry of Ci-155 into the nucleus in the absence of Su(fu) and Rdx induces the degradation of Ci-155 in the nucleus in the presence of a threshold level of Su(fu). Thus, the Su(fu)-induced switch between the dual actions of Rdx in response to the Hh signal strength plays a role in fine-tuning Hh signaling. PMID:23216924

  6. Small-amplitude synchrotron tune near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The separatrices of the rf buckets near transition are mapped when the synchronous phase is neither 0 or {pi}. The small-amplitude synchronous tune is derived when the rf frequency is changed. Synchrotron radiation is present in all electron storage ring. As a result, the synchronous phase is always offset from {phi}{sub s} = {pi} to compensate for the power loss. Even for proton storage rings with negligible synchrotron radiation, the synchronous phase is also required to be offset from {phi}{sub s} = 0 or {pi} slightly to compensate for beam loading. Thus for all storage rings operating near transition, beam particles reside in accelerating buckets instead of stationary bucket. It is of interest to map these buckets and see how they evolve near transition. When the rf frequency is varied, the closed orbit is pushed radially inward or outward. The momentum of the particle synchronous with the rf is thus changed. By measuring the small-amplitude synchrotron tune as a function of the rf frequency, the lowest first few orders of the slip factor can be inferred. Here, we derive this relationship up to the lowest first three orders of the slip factor when the particle velocity is not ultra-relativistic.

  7. Flexural mode tuning in pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zongqi; Rose, Joseph L.; Quarry, Mike; Chinn, Diane

    2002-05-01

    The ability to carry out a complete pipe inspection with limited access to say 180 degree or less of the circumference is often necessary. Techniques are introduced to make this possible by flexural mode and focusing control via a four dimensional tuning process of adjusting circumferential loading length, position, phase and frequency. Theoretical experiments demonstrate the tuning process.

  8. A Computation of the Frequency Dependent Dielectric Function for Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwitter, D. E.; Kuklja, M. M.; Kunz, A. B.

    1999-06-01

    The imaginary part of the dielectric function as a function of frequency is calculated for the solids RDX, TATB, ADN, and PETN. Calculations have been performed including the effects of isotropic and uniaxial pressure. Simple lattice defects are included in some of the calculations.

  9. Tune measurement methods of the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng-Yang Tan; Xiaolong Zhang; Paul Lebrun

    2003-06-10

    We will discuss several methods for measuring the tunes in the Tevatron. These methods can be separated into three classes: active, passive and hybrid. In the active method, the beam is tickled in order to obtain a frequency response. In the passive method, a Schottky detector which uses a resonant stripline is used to measure the Schottky spectrum of the beam. In the hybrid method, we tickle the beam using kickers, or the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) in order to bring the tune signal above the noise floor of the Schottky detectors. An automatic tune fitting algorithm is also under development which allows us to measure the tune without human intervention.

  10. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two frequency scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  11. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two-frequency scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  12. Microwave damage susceptibility trend of a bipolar transistor as a function of frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen-Yang; Chai, Chang-Chun; Ren, Xing-Rong; Yang, Yin-Tang; Chen, Bin; Song, Kun; Zhao, Ying-Bo

    2012-09-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the damage susceptibility trend of a typical bipolar transistor induced by a high-power microwave (HPM) as a function of frequency. The dependences of the burnout time and the damage power on the signal frequency are obtained. Studies of the internal damage process and the mechanism of the device are carried out from the variation analysis of the distribution of the electric field, current density, and temperature. The investigation shows that the burnout time linearly depends on the signal frequency. The current density and the electric field at the damage position decrease with increasing frequency. Meanwhile, the temperature elevation occurs in the area between the p-n junction and the n-n+ interface due to the increase of the electric field. Adopting the data analysis software, the relationship between the damage power and frequency is obtained. Moreover, the thickness of the substrate has a significant effect on the burnout time.

  13. High-frequency permeability spectra of FeCoSiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laminated films: Tuning of damping by magnetic couplings dependent on the thickness of each ferromagnetic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Feng; Zhang Xiaoyu; Nguyen Nguyen Phuoc; Ma Yungui; Ong, C. K.

    2009-02-15

    In this work, we investigate the high-frequency permeability spectra of as-sputtered FeCoSiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laminated films, and discuss their dependence on the thickness of each FeCoSiN layer, based on the phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The damping factor and coercivity show their minima with lamination, deviating from the expectation based on the grain size confinement effect. Such dependences on the layer thickness indicate the influence of magnetic coupling. The decreases in the damping factor and the coercivities with lamination can be partially attributed to the decrease in the magnetostatic coupling induced by ripple structures. The enhanced damping and enlarged coercivity values obtained with further lamination are ascribed to the enhanced Neel couplings. The dependences show that the lamination can be effective in tuning the magnetization dynamics by changing the magnetic couplings.

  14. Nonlinear seismic response of stratified soil deposits using higher order frequency response functions in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Caraballo, Jose Ramon

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents a new methodology for calculating the nonlinear seismic response of a single or multiple soil layer deposit in the frequency domain. The nonlinear behavior of the soil is taken into account using a model based on the Higher Order Frequency Response functions obtained from the Volterra series. The nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain permits to consider in a precise way the seismic response of soils in which the damping is described by the hysteretic model. This study considers up to the third order kernel, which was found to provide an accurate description for medium to medium-high nonlinearities. The first, second and third order Frequency Response Functions were developed. The procedure developed involves the use of the direct and inverse Fourier transforms of higher order. A one-degree of freedom model of a single horizontal soil layer is first presented to introduce the method. A comparison between the results obtained with the Newmark integration scheme and the proposed method for a soil with viscous damping is presented. Soil deposits with multiple horizontal layers soil deposits are studied next using discrete multiple degree of freedom models. The hysteretic damping model is used to compare the results produced by the Volterra series approach and the Linear Equivalent Method. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to show how the consideration of more terms in the series leads to a more accurate solution. A comparison of ground response spectra obtained from field measurements and from the proposed method is carried out using the data gathered at Treasure Island. The shear beam element with one degree of freedom per layer is used for the spatial discretization of the stratified soil. This model and the proposed method were implemented in computer programs using MATLAB(c). A soil-structure interaction problem, in which a simple model of a building is included in the formulation, is presented as an example of the application of

  15. Application of genetic algorithms to tuning fuzzy control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, Todd; Vombrack, Endre; Aldridge, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Real number genetic algorithms (GA) were applied for tuning fuzzy membership functions of three controller applications. The first application is our 'Fuzzy Pong' demonstration, a controller that controls a very responsive system. The performance of the automatically tuned membership functions exceeded that of manually tuned membership functions both when the algorithm started with randomly generated functions and with the best manually-tuned functions. The second GA tunes input membership functions to achieve a specified control surface. The third application is a practical one, a motor controller for a printed circuit manufacturing system. The GA alters the positions and overlaps of the membership functions to accomplish the tuning. The applications, the real number GA approach, the fitness function and population parameters, and the performance improvements achieved are discussed. Directions for further research in tuning input and output membership functions and in tuning fuzzy rules are described.

  16. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)-Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haitao; Ryno, Sean; Zhong, Cheng; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Sun, Zhenrong; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-14

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a nonempirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values, as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials. PMID:27183355

  17. Rapid estimation of frequency response functions by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of a rapid method which estimates the frequency response function from stereoscopic dynamic data is computed. It is shown that reversal of the order of the operations of coordinate transformation and Fourier transformation, which provides a significant increase in computational speed, introduces error. A portion of the error, proportional to the perturbation components normal to the camera focal planes, cannot be eliminated. The remaining error may be eliminated by proper scaling of frequency data prior to coordinate transformation. Methods are developed for least squares estimation of the full 3x3 frequency response matrix for a three dimensional structure.

  18. Crustal Structure Beneath Taiwan Using Frequency-band Inversion of Receiver Function Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomfohrde, D. A.; Nowack, R. L.

    Receiver function analysis is used to determine local crustal structure beneath Taiwan. We have performed preliminary data processing and polarization analysis for the selection of stations and events and to increase overall data quality. Receiver function analysis is then applied to data from the Taiwan Seismic Network to obtain radial and transverse receiver functions. Due to the limited azimuthal coverage, only the radial receiver functions are analyzed in terms of horizontally layered crustal structure for each station. In order to improve convergence of the receiver function inversion, frequency-band inversion (FBI) is implemented, in which an iterative inversion procedure with sequentially higher low-pass corner frequencies is used to stabilize the waveform inversion. Frequency-band inversion is applied to receiver functions at six stations of the Taiwan Seismic Network. Initial 20-layer crustal models are inverted for using prior tomographic results for the initial models. The resulting 20-1ayer models are then simplified to 4 to 5 layer models and input into an alternating depth and velocity frequency-band inversion. For the six stations investigated, the resulting simplified models provide an average estimate of 38 km for the Moho thickness surrounding the Central Range of Taiwan. Also, the individual station estimates compare well with the recent tomographic model of and the refraction results of Rau and Wu (1995) and the refraction results of Ma and Song (1997).

  19. The Catalytic and Non-catalytic Functions of the Brahma Chromatin-Remodeling Protein Collaborate to Fine-Tune Circadian Transcription in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Rosanna S.; Li, Ying H.; Lei, Anna J.; Edery, Isaac; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in gene expression play a critical role in the progression of circadian clocks, and are under regulation by transcription factor binding, histone modifications, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment and elongation, and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Although previous studies have shown that clock-controlled genes exhibit rhythmic chromatin modifications, less is known about the functions performed by chromatin remodelers in animal clockwork. Here we have identified the Brahma (Brm) complex as a regulator of the Drosophila clock. In Drosophila, CLOCK (CLK) is the master transcriptional activator driving cyclical gene expression by participating in an auto-inhibitory feedback loop that involves stimulating the expression of the main negative regulators, period (per) and timeless (tim). BRM functions catalytically to increase nucleosome density at the promoters of per and tim, creating an overall restrictive chromatin landscape to limit transcriptional output during the active phase of cycling gene expression. In addition, the non-catalytic function of BRM regulates the level and binding of CLK to target promoters and maintains transient RNAPII stalling at the per promoter, likely by recruiting repressive and pausing factors. By disentangling its catalytic versus non-catalytic functions at the promoters of CLK target genes, we uncovered a multi-leveled mechanism in which BRM fine-tunes circadian transcription. PMID:26132408

  20. Reliable Prediction with Tuned Range-Separated Functionals of the Singlet-Triplet Gap in Organic Emitters for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haitao; Zhong, Cheng; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-11

    The thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism has recently attracted significant interest in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). TADF relies on the presence of a very small energy gap between the lowest singlet and triplet excited states. Here, we demonstrate that time-dependent density functional theory in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation can be very successful in calculations of the lowest singlet and triplet excitation energies and the corresponding singlet-triplet gap when using nonempirically tuned range-separated functionals. Such functionals provide very good estimates in a series of 17 molecules used in TADF-based OLED devices with mean absolute deviations of 0.15 eV for the vertical singlet excitation energies and 0.09 eV [0.07 eV] for the adiabatic [vertical] singlet-triplet energy gaps as well as low relative errors and high correlation coefficients compared to the corresponding experimental values. They significantly outperform conventional functionals, a feature which is rationalized on the basis of the amount of exact-exchange included and the delocalization error. The present work provides a reliable theoretical tool for the prediction and development of novel TADF-based materials with low singlet-triplet energetic splittings. PMID:26574466

  1. An effective work-function tuning method of nMOSCAP with high-k/metal gate by TiN/TaN double-layer stack thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueli, Ma; Hong, Yang; Wenwu, Wang; Huaxiang, Yin; Huilong, Zhu; Chao, Zhao; Dapeng, Chen; Tianchun, Ye

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the TiN/TaN/TiAl triple-layer to modulate the effective work function (EWF) of a metal gate stack for the n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) devices application by varying the TiN/TaN thickness. In this paper, the effective work function of EWF ranges from 4.22 to 4.56 eV with different thicknesses of TiN and TaN. The thinner TiN and/or thinner in situ TaN capping, the closer to conduction band of silicon the EWF is, which is appropriate for 2-D planar NMOS. Mid-gap work function behavior is observed with thicker TiN, thicker in situ TaN capping, indicating a strong potential candidate of metal gate material for replacement gate processed three-dimensional devices such as FIN shaped field effect transistors. The physical understandings of the sensitivity of EWF to TiN and TaN thickness are proposed. The thicker TiN prevents the Al diffusion then induces the EWF to shift to mid-gap. However, the TaN plays a different role in effective work function tuning from TiN, due to the Ta—O dipoles formed at the interface between the metal gate and the high-k layer.

  2. Complex extraordinary dielectric function of Mg-doped lithium niobate crystals at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, K. A.; Kitaeva, G. Kh.; Kovalev, S. P.; Germansky, S. A.; Buryakov, A. M.; Tuchak, A. N.; Penin, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    We study the dispersion of the extraordinary dielectric function real and imaginary parts in the wide terahertz-frequency range of the lowest polariton branch for bulk LiNbO3 and Mg:LiNbO3 crystals. At frequencies 0.1-2.5 THz, both dispersion parts are measured by means of standard time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, and at higher frequencies up to 5.5 THz, the dielectric function real part is determined using a common scheme of spontaneous parametric down-conversion under near-forward Raman scattering by phonon polaritons. A special approach is applied for measuring of the dielectric function imaginary part at frequencies 1-3 THz, based on the analysis of visibility of three-wave second-order interference under spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The generalized approximate expressions are obtained for complex dielectric function dispersion within the lower polariton branches of LiNbO3 and Mg:LiNbO3. It is shown that the well-known decrease in terahertz-wave absorption of lithium niobate crystals under Mg-doping is caused by changes in the defect structure and reduction of coupling of the terahertz-frequency polaritons with Debye relaxational mode.

  3. Time-domain representation of frequency-dependent foundation impedance functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2006-01-01

    Foundation impedance functions provide a simple means to account for soil-structure interaction (SSI) when studying seismic response of structures. Impedance functions represent the dynamic stiffness of the soil media surrounding the foundation. The fact that impedance functions are frequency dependent makes it difficult to incorporate SSI in standard time-history analysis software. This paper introduces a simple method to convert frequency-dependent impedance functions into time-domain filters. The method is based on the least-squares approximation of impedance functions by ratios of two complex polynomials. Such ratios are equivalent, in the time-domain, to discrete-time recursive filters, which are simple finite-difference equations giving the relationship between foundation forces and displacements. These filters can easily be incorporated into standard time-history analysis programs. Three examples are presented to show the applications of the method.

  4. Head and Tibial Acceleration as a Function of Stride Frequency and Visual Feedback during Running

    PubMed Central

    Busa, Michael A.; Lim, Jongil; van Emmerik, Richard E. A.; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Individuals regulate the transmission of shock to the head during running at different stride frequencies although the consequences of this on head-gaze stability remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine if providing individuals with visual feedback of their head-gaze orientation impacts tibial and head accelerations, shock attenuation and head-gaze motion during preferred speed running at different stride frequencies. Fifteen strides from twelve recreational runners running on a treadmill at their preferred speed were collected during five stride frequencies (preferred, ±10% and ±20% of preferred) in two visual task conditions (with and without real-time visual feedback of head-gaze orientation). The main outcome measures were tibial and head peak accelerations assessed in the time and frequency domains, shock attenuation from tibia to head, and the magnitude and velocity of head-gaze motion. Decreasing stride frequency resulted in greater vertical accelerations of the tibia (p<0.01) during early stance and at the head (p<0.01) during early and late stance; however, for the impact portion the increase in head acceleration was only observed for the slowest stride frequency condition. Visual feedback resulted in reduced head acceleration magnitude (p<0.01) and integrated power spectral density in the frequency domain (p<0.01) in late stance, as well as overall of head-gaze motion (p<0.01). When running at preferred speed individuals were able to stabilize head acceleration within a wide range of stride frequencies; only at a stride frequency 20% below preferred did head acceleration increase. Furthermore, impact accelerations of the head and tibia appear to be solely a function of stride frequency as no differences were observed between feedback conditions. Increased visual task demands through head gaze feedback resulted in reductions in head accelerations in the active portion of stance and increased head-gaze stability. PMID:27271850

  5. Alongshore wind forcing of coastal sea level as a function of frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The amplitude of the frequency response function between coastal alongshore wind stress and adjusted sea level anomalies along the west coast of the United States increases linearly as a function of the logarithm (log10) of the period for time scales up to at least 60, and possibly 100, days. The amplitude of the frequency response function increases even more rapidly at longer periods out to at least 5 yr. At the shortest periods, the amplitude of the frequency response function is small because sea level is forced only by the local component of the wind field. The regional wind field, which controls the wind-forced response in sea level for periods between 20 and 100 days, not only has much broader spatial scales than the local wind, but also propagates along the coast in the same direction as continental shelf waves. Hence, it has a stronger coupling to and an increased frequency response for sea level. At periods of a year or more, observed coastal sea level fluctuations are not only forced by the regional winds, but also by joint correlations among the larger-scale climatic patterns associated with El Nin??o. Therefore, the amplitude of the frequency response function is large, despite the fact that the energy in the coastal wind field is relatively small. These data show that the coastal sea level response to wind stress forcing along the west coast of the United States changes in a consistent and predictable pattern over a very broad range of frequencies with time scales from a few days to several years.

  6. Tuning surface properties of amino-functionalized silica for metal nanoparticle loading: The vital role of an annealing process

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Yuchen; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian -Wei; Zhang, Qianhui; Goes, Shannon; Sun, Weijun; Huang, Wenyu

    2015-10-20

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on oxides have been widely used as multifunctional nanomaterials in various fields such as optical imaging, sensors, and heterogeneous catalysis. However, the deposition of metal NPs on oxide supports with high efficiency and homogeneous dispersion still remains elusive, especially when silica is used as the support. Amino-functionalization of silica can improve loading efficiency, but metal NPs often aggregate on the surface. Herein, we report that a facial annealing of amino-functionalized silica can significantly improve the dispersion and enhance the loading efficiency of various metal NPs, such as Pt, Rh, and Ru, on the silica surface. A series of characterization techniques, such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), Zeta potential analysis, UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with infrared analysis (TGA–IR), and nitrogen physisorption, were employed to study the changes of surface properties of the amino-functionalized silica before and after annealing. We found that the annealed amino-functionalized silica surface has more cross-linked silanol groups and relatively lesser amount of amino groups, and less positively charges, which could be the key to the uniform deposition of metal NPs during the loading process. Lastly, these results could contribute to the preparation of metal/oxide hybrid NPs for the applications that require uniform dispersion.

  7. Tuning surface properties of amino-functionalized silica for metal nanoparticle loading: The vital role of an annealing process

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pei, Yuchen; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian -Wei; Zhang, Qianhui; Goes, Shannon; Sun, Weijun; Huang, Wenyu

    2015-10-20

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on oxides have been widely used as multifunctional nanomaterials in various fields such as optical imaging, sensors, and heterogeneous catalysis. However, the deposition of metal NPs on oxide supports with high efficiency and homogeneous dispersion still remains elusive, especially when silica is used as the support. Amino-functionalization of silica can improve loading efficiency, but metal NPs often aggregate on the surface. Herein, we report that a facial annealing of amino-functionalized silica can significantly improve the dispersion and enhance the loading efficiency of various metal NPs, such as Pt, Rh, and Ru, on the silica surface. Amore » series of characterization techniques, such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), Zeta potential analysis, UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with infrared analysis (TGA–IR), and nitrogen physisorption, were employed to study the changes of surface properties of the amino-functionalized silica before and after annealing. We found that the annealed amino-functionalized silica surface has more cross-linked silanol groups and relatively lesser amount of amino groups, and less positively charges, which could be the key to the uniform deposition of metal NPs during the loading process. Lastly, these results could contribute to the preparation of metal/oxide hybrid NPs for the applications that require uniform dispersion.« less

  8. Giant Surfactants based on Precisely Functionalized POSS Nano-atoms: Tuning from Crystals to Frank-Kasper Phases and Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    In creating new functional materials for advanced technologies, precisely control over functionality and their hierarchical ordered structures are vital for obtaining the desired properties. Giant polyhedra are a class of materials which are designed and constructed via deliberately placing precisely functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and fullerene (C60) molecular nano-particles (MNPs) (so-called ``nano-atoms'') at the vertices of a polyhedron. Giant surfactants are consisted of polymer tail-tethered ``nano-atoms'' which are deliberately and precisely functionalized POSS or C60 molecular nano-particles (MNPs). The ``nano-atom'' heads and polymer tails thus have drastic chemical differences to impart amphiphilicity. These giant surfactants capture the essential structural features of their small-molecule counterparts in many ways but possess much larger sizes, and therefore, they are recognized as size-amplified versions of small molecule surfactants. Two of the most illustrating examples are a series of novel giant tetrahedra and a series of giant giant surfactants as building blocks to construct into hierarchical ordered super-lattice structures ranging from crystals, Frank-Kasper phases and quasicrystals in the condensed bulk states, reveals evidently the interconnections between soft matters and hard matters in sharing their common structures and fundamental knowledge. This work was supported by National Science Foundation (DMR-1409972).

  9. Tuning surface properties of amino-functionalized silica for metal nanoparticle loading: The vital role of an annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yuchen; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Qianhui; Goes, Shannon; Sun, Weijun; Huang, Wenyu

    2016-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on oxides have been widely used as multifunctional nanomaterials in various fields such as optical imaging, sensors, and heterogeneous catalysis. However, the deposition of metal NPs on oxide supports with high efficiency and homogeneous dispersion still remains elusive, especially when silica is used as the support. Amino-functionalization of silica can improve loading efficiency, but metal NPs often aggregate on the surface. Herein, we report that a facial annealing of amino-functionalized silica can significantly improve the dispersion and enhance the loading efficiency of various metal NPs, such as Pt, Rh, and Ru, on the silica surface. A series of characterization techniques, such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), Zeta potential analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with infrared analysis (TGA-IR), and nitrogen physisorption, were employed to study the changes of surface properties of the amino-functionalized silica before and after annealing. We found that the annealed amino-functionalized silica surface has more cross-linked silanol groups and relatively lesser amount of amino groups, and less positively charges, which could be the key to the uniform deposition of metal NPs during the loading process. These results could contribute to the preparation of metal/oxide hybrid NPs for the applications that require uniform dispersion.

  10. Tuning the work function of VO2(1 0 0) surface by Ag adsorption and incorporation: Insights from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lanli; Wang, Xiaofang; Shi, Siqi; Cui, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hongjie; Gao, Yanfeng

    2016-03-01

    VO2 is an attractive material for application to thermochromic optoelectronic devices such as smart windows, and Ag/VO2 double-layered structure can effectively decrease the phase transition temperature (Tc) of VO2 thin film, which is very important for practical application of VO2. Previous works has shown that the decrease in phase transition temperature (Tc) seems to be relevant with the work function of VO2 in Ag/VO2 double-layered thin film, although the underlying mechanism of tuning its Tc by Ag incorporation and adsorption on the VO2(1 0 0) surface has been rarely investigated. Our first-principles calculations reveal that the adsorption of Ag atoms on the VO2(1 0 0) surface rather than incorporation of Ag exhibits a lower work function, which is ascribed to an integrated effect of charge transfer from Ag to VO2(1 0 0) surface and enhanced surface dipole moment. The results suggest that the decrease in work function of VO2 with Ag adsorption favors the reduction in Tc. The current findings are helpful to understand the fundamental mechanism for yielding high-efficiency VO2-based optoelectronic devices.

  11. Interplay between viscoelastic and chemical tunings in fatty-acid-based polyester adhesives: engineering biomass toward functionalized step-growth polymers and soft networks.

    PubMed

    Vendamme, Richard; Olaerts, Katrien; Gomes, Monica; Degens, Marc; Shigematsu, Takayuki; Eevers, Walter

    2012-06-11

    This Article describes the synthesis and characterization of renewable self-adhesive coatings with tunable viscoelastic properties and equipped with well-defined amounts of carboxylic acid "sticker" groups with adhesion promoting characteristics. Hydroxyl-ended polyesters with various architectures (linear, branched) were synthesized by melt polycondensation of dimerized fatty acids and fatty diols and then cured with maleic anhydride-modified triglycerides (such as maleinized soybean oil) in the presence of the amidine catalyst 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. The curing reaction of alcoholysis has the dual effect of chain extending/cross-linking the base polymers via creation of polymeric half-esters linkages while introducing carboxylic acid functions within the gel structure. We demonstrated how the adhesion properties can be finely tuned from molecular design and formulation of the network precursors and how the rheology and functionality of the coatings influence the adhesive bond formation and development. These renewable polyester adhesives proved to be suitable materials for pressure-sensitive adhesives applications with respect to adhesion strength, viscoelasticity, and functionality. In addition, the environmental benefits of such materials are briefly discussed. PMID:22612310

  12. Tuning of ZIF-Derived Carbon with High Activity, Nitrogen Functionality, and Yield – A Case for Superior CO2 Capture

    PubMed Central

    Gadipelli, Srinivas; Guo, Zheng Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A highly effective and facile synthesis route is developed to create and tailor metal-decorated and nitrogen-functionalized active microporous carbon materials from ZIF-8. Clear metal- and pyrrolic-N-induced enhancements of the cyclic CO2 uptake capacities and binding energies are achieved, particularly at a much lower carbonization temperature of 700 °C than those often reported (1000 °C). The high-temperature carbonization can enhance the porosity but only at the expense of considerable losses of sample yield and metal and N functional sites. The findings are comparatively discussed with carbons derived from metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) reported previously. Furthermore, the porosity of the MOF-derived carbon is critically dependent on the structure of the precursor MOF and the crystal growth. The current strategy offers a new and effective route for the creation and tuning of highly active and functionalized carbon structures in high yields and with low energy consumption. PMID:25917928

  13. Nonlinear frequency response of parametrically excited functionally graded Timoshenko beams with a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Yan, T.

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic frequency response of a Timoshenko beam made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an open edge crack. The beam is clamped and subjected to an axial parametric excitation consisting of a static compressive force and a harmonic excitation force. Theoretical formulations are based on Timoshenko shear deformable beam theory, von Karman type geometric nonlinearity and rotational spring model. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the nonlinear partial differential equations which are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equation by using the Least Squares method and Galerkin technique. The nonlinear natural frequencies and excitation frequency-amplitude response curves are obtained by employing Runge-Kutta method and multiple scale method, respectively. A parametric study is conducted to study the effects of material property distribution, crack depth, crack location, excitation frequency, and slenderness ratio on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of parametrically excited, cracked FGM Timoshenko beams.

  14. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-08-01

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach-Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  15. Cloverleaf microgyroscope with electrostatic alignment and tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A micro-gyroscope (10) having closed loop output operation by a control voltage (V.sub.ty), that is demodulated by a drive axis (x-axis) signal V.sub.thx of the sense electrodes (S1, S2), providing Coriolis torque rebalance to prevent displacement of the micro-gyroscope (10) on the output axis (y-axis) V.sub.thy.about.0. Closed loop drive axis torque, V.sub.tx maintains a constant drive axis amplitude signal, V.sub.thx. The present invention provides independent alignment and tuning of the micro-gyroscope by using separate electrodes and electrostatic bias voltages to adjust alignment and tuning. A quadrature amplitude signal, or cross-axis transfer function peak amplitude is used to detect misalignment that is corrected to zero by an electrostatic bias voltage adjustment. The cross-axis transfer function is either V.sub.thy/V.sub.ty or V.sub.tnx/V.sub.tx. A quadrature signal noise level, or difference in natural frequencies estimated from measurements of the transfer functions is used to detect residual mistuning, that is corrected to zero by a second electrostatic bias voltage adjustment.

  16. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN GAP JUNCTION FUNCTION IN PRIMARY HEPATOCYTES. X. Wang1 *, D.E. Housel *, J. Page2, C.F. Blackmanl. 1 National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 USA, 2Oakland, California USA
    ...

  17. Estimation of the auto frequency response function at unexcited points using dummy masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, Naoki; Yaginuma, Shinji; Onodera, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takuya

    2015-02-01

    If structures with complex shapes have space limitations, vibration tests using an exciter or impact hammer for the excitation are difficult. Although measuring the auto frequency response function at an unexcited point may not be practical via a vibration test, it can be obtained by assuming that the inertia acting on a dummy mass is an external force on the target structure upon exciting a different excitation point. We propose a method to estimate the auto frequency response functions at unexcited points by attaching a small mass (dummy mass), which is comparable to the accelerometer mass. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing the auto frequency response functions estimated at unexcited points in a beam structure to those obtained from numerical simulations. We also consider random measurement errors by finite element analysis and vibration tests, but not bias errors. Additionally, the applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by applying it to estimate the auto frequency response function of the lower arm in a car suspension.

  18. Frequency-Domain Green's Functions for Radar Waves in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green’s functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...

  19. Spatial-frequency and contrast properties of reading in central and peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of contrast and spatial frequency on reading speed and compared these effects between the normal fovea and periphery. We found that when text contrast was low, reading speed demonstrated spatial-frequency tuning properties, with a peak tuning frequency that partially scaled with print size. The spatial-frequency tuning disappeared when text contrast was 100%. The spatial-frequency tuning and scaling properties for reading were largely similar between the fovea and the periphery, and closely matched those for letter identification. Just as for the task of letter identification, we showed through an ideal-observer analysis that the spatial-frequency properties for reading could be primarily accounted for by the physical properties of the word stimuli combined with human observers’ contrast sensitivity functions. PMID:19761349

  20. Hard to "tune in": neural mechanisms of live face-to-face interaction with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N; Koike, Takahiko; Hayashi, Masamichi J; Izuma, Keise; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Ishitobi, Makoto; Omori, Masao; Munesue, Toshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are known to have difficulty in eye contact (EC). This may make it difficult for their partners during face to face communication with them. To elucidate the neural substrates of live inter-subject interaction of ASD patients and normal subjects, we conducted hyper-scanning functional MRI with 21 subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) paired with typically-developed (normal) subjects, and with 19 pairs of normal subjects as a control. Baseline EC was maintained while subjects performed real-time joint-attention task. The task-related effects were modeled out, and inter-individual correlation analysis was performed on the residual time-course data. ASD-Normal pairs were less accurate at detecting gaze direction than Normal-Normal pairs. Performance was impaired both in ASD subjects and in their normal partners. The left occipital pole (OP) activation by gaze processing was reduced in ASD subjects, suggesting that deterioration of eye-cue detection in ASD is related to impairment of early visual processing of gaze. On the other hand, their normal partners showed greater activity in the bilateral occipital cortex and the right prefrontal area, indicating a compensatory workload. Inter-brain coherence in the right IFG that was observed in the Normal-Normal pairs (Saito et al., 2010) during EC diminished in ASD-Normal pairs. Intra-brain functional connectivity between the right IFG and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) in normal subjects paired with ASD subjects was reduced compared with in Normal-Normal pairs. This functional connectivity was positively correlated with performance of the normal partners on the eye-cue detection. Considering the integrative role of the right STS in gaze processing, inter-subject synchronization during EC may be a prerequisite for eye cue detection by the normal partner. PMID:23060772

  1. Nicotinic modulation of glutamate receptor function at nerve terminal level: a fine-tuning of synaptic signals.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Mario; Grilli, Massimo; Pittaluga, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on a specific interaction occurring between the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) and the glutamatergic receptors (GluRs) at the nerve endings level. We have employed synaptosomes in superfusion and supplemented and integrated our findings with data obtained using techniques from molecular biology and immuno-cytochemistry, and the assessment of receptor trafficking. In particular, we characterize the following: (1) the direct and unequivocal localization of native α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamatergic receptors on specific nerve terminals, (2) their pharmacological characterization and functional co-localization with nAChRs on the same nerve endings, and (3) the existence of synergistic or antagonistic interactions among them. Indeed, in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc), the function of some AMPA and NMDA receptors present on the dopaminergic and glutamatergic nerve terminals can be regulated negatively or positively in response to a brief activation of nAChRs. This effect occurs rapidly and involves the trafficking of AMPA and NMDA receptors. The event takes place also at very low concentrations of nicotine and involves the activation of several nAChRs subtypes. This dynamic control by cholinergic nicotinic system of glutamatergic NMDA and AMPA receptors might therefore represent an important neuronal presynaptic adaptation associated with nicotine administration. The understanding of the role of these nicotine-induced functional changes might open new and interesting perspectives both in terms of explaining the mechanisms that underlie some of the effects of nicotine addiction and in the development of new drugs for smoking cessation. PMID:25972809

  2. Functional double-shelled silicon nanocrystals for two-photon fluorescence cell imaging: spectral evolution and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sourov; Ghosh, Batu; Beaune, Grégory; Nagarajan, Usharani; Yasui, Takao; Nakamura, Jin; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Baba, Yoshinobu; Shirahata, Naoto; Winnik, Françoise M.

    2016-04-01

    Functional near-IR (NIR) emitting nanoparticles (NPs) adapted for two-photon excitation fluorescence cell imaging were obtained starting from octadecyl-terminated silicon nanocrystals (ncSi-OD) of narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectra having no long emission tails, continuously tunable over the 700-1000 nm window, PL quantum yields exceeding 30%, and PL lifetimes of 300 μs or longer. These NPs, consisting of a Pluronic F127 shell and a core made up of assembled ncSi-OD kept apart by an octadecyl (OD) layer, were readily internalized into the cytosol, but not the nucleus, of NIH3T3 cells and were non-toxic. Asymmetrical field-flow fractionation (AF4) analysis was carried out to determine the size of the NPs in water. HiLyte Fluor 750 amine was linked via an amide link to NPs prepared with Pluronic-F127-COOH, as a first demonstration of functional NIR-emitting water dispersible ncSi-based nanoparticles.Functional near-IR (NIR) emitting nanoparticles (NPs) adapted for two-photon excitation fluorescence cell imaging were obtained starting from octadecyl-terminated silicon nanocrystals (ncSi-OD) of narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectra having no long emission tails, continuously tunable over the 700-1000 nm window, PL quantum yields exceeding 30%, and PL lifetimes of 300 μs or longer. These NPs, consisting of a Pluronic F127 shell and a core made up of assembled ncSi-OD kept apart by an octadecyl (OD) layer, were readily internalized into the cytosol, but not the nucleus, of NIH3T3 cells and were non-toxic. Asymmetrical field-flow fractionation (AF4) analysis was carried out to determine the size of the NPs in water. HiLyte Fluor 750 amine was linked via an amide link to NPs prepared with Pluronic-F127-COOH, as a first demonstration of functional NIR-emitting water dispersible ncSi-based nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01437b

  3. Tuning the work function of monolayer graphene on 4H-SiC (0001) with nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Günes, Fethullah; Arezki, Hakim; Pierucci, Debora; Alamarguy, David; Alvarez, José; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Dappe, Yannick J; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim; Boutchich, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Chemical doping of graphene is a key process for the modulation of its electronic properties and the design and fabrication of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices. Here, we study the adsorption of diluted concentrations of nitric acid (HNO3) onto monolayer graphene/4H-SiC (0001) to induce a variation of the graphene work function (WF). Raman spectroscopy indicates an increase in the defect density subsequent to the doping. Moreover, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) was utilized to quantify the WF shift. UPS data show that the WF of the graphene layer decreased from 4.3 eV (pristine) down to 3.8 eV (30% HNO3) and then increased to 4.4 eV at 100% HNO3 concentration. These observations were confirmed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This straightforward process allows a large WF modulation, rendering the molecularly modified graphene/4H-SiC(0001) a highly suitable electron or hole injection electrode. PMID:26457876

  4. Tuning the Thickness of Ba-Containing "Functional" Layer toward High-Performance Ceria-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Sun, Wenping; Shan, Duo; Wu, Yusen; Liu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Developing highly efficient ceria-based solid oxide fuel cells with high power density is still a big concern for commercial applications. In this work, a novel structured Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ (SDC)-based fuel cell with a bilayered anode consisting of Ni-SDC and Ni-BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3-δ (Ni-BZCY) was designed. In addition to the catalysis function, the Ni-BZCY anode "functional" layer also provides Ba source for generating an electron-blocking layer in situ at the anode/electrolyte interface during sintering. The Ni-BZCY thickness significantly influences the quality of the electron-blocking layer and electrochemical performances of the cell. The cell with a 50 μm thick Ni-BZCY layer exhibits the best performance in terms of open circuit voltage (OCV) and peak power density (1068 mW cm(-2) at 650 °C). The results demonstrate that this cell with an optimal structure has a distinct advantage of delivering high power performance with a high efficiency at reduced temperatures. PMID:27078722

  5. Functional double-shelled silicon nanocrystals for two-photon fluorescence cell imaging: spectral evolution and tuning.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sourov; Ghosh, Batu; Beaune, Grégory; Nagarajan, Usharani; Yasui, Takao; Nakamura, Jin; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Baba, Yoshinobu; Shirahata, Naoto; Winnik, Françoise M

    2016-04-28

    Functional near-IR (NIR) emitting nanoparticles (NPs) adapted for two-photon excitation fluorescence cell imaging were obtained starting from octadecyl-terminated silicon nanocrystals (ncSi-OD) of narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectra having no long emission tails, continuously tunable over the 700-1000 nm window, PL quantum yields exceeding 30%, and PL lifetimes of 300 μs or longer. These NPs, consisting of a Pluronic F127 shell and a core made up of assembled ncSi-OD kept apart by an octadecyl (OD) layer, were readily internalized into the cytosol, but not the nucleus, of NIH3T3 cells and were non-toxic. Asymmetrical field-flow fractionation (AF4) analysis was carried out to determine the size of the NPs in water. HiLyte Fluor 750 amine was linked via an amide link to NPs prepared with Pluronic-F127-COOH, as a first demonstration of functional NIR-emitting water dispersible ncSi-based nanoparticles. PMID:27076260

  6. Controlled surface adsorption of fd filamentous phage by tuning of the pH and the functionalization of the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dae-Young; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Park, So-Jeong; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Joo, Min-Kyu; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Nam, Chang-Hoon

    2011-03-01

    The surface adsorption of fd filamentous phage (fd phage) dispersed in different solution pHs was investigated with functionalized SiO2/Si substrates. The fd phages at high pH (˜9.0) were well-adsorbed on the SiO2/Si surface that was functionalized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, whereas those at low pH (˜3.0) were well-adsorbed on the cleaned SiO2/Si surface. The high affinity of the carboxylic acid groups (COO-) at high pH (˜9.0) was attributed to the fact that they give a higher adsorption to the positively charged amine groups (NH3+) on the surface of the substrate, similar to the effect of H3O+ at low pH (˜3.0) in a solution on the surface of the hydroxyl groups on the substrate (OH-). Interestingly, the aligned structures of the fd phage at intermediate pH (˜7.0), caused by the locally positively charged coat protein of the fd phage and the shear forces along the washing and blowing direction, were identified. The effective spring constant of the fd phage bundles was estimated to be 0.672 N/m using a force-distance curve. Our results offer prerequisite information for the bottom-up assembly in SiO2/Si substrates using the fd phage in bionanoelectronics.

  7. Multi-functional angiographic OFDI using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SunHee; Park, Taejin; Jang, Sun-Joo; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2015-01-01

    Detection of blood flow inside the tissue sample can be achieved by measuring the local change of complex signal over time in angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT). In conventional angiographic OCT, the transverse displacement of the imaging beam during the time interval between a pair of OCT signal measurements must be significantly reduced to minimize the noise due to the beam scanning-induced phase decorrelation at the expense of the imaging speed. Recent introduction of dual-beam scan method either using polarization encoding or two identical imaging systems in spectral-domain (SD) OCT scheme shows potential for high-sensitivity vasculature imaging without suffering from spurious phase noise caused by the beam scanning-induced spatial decorrelation. In this paper, we present multi-functional angiographic optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination. This frequency multiplexing scheme, utilizing unique features of OFDI, provides spatially separated dual imaging beams occupying distinct electrical frequency bands that can be demultiplexed in the frequency domain processing. We demonstrate the 3D multi-functional imaging of the normal mouse skin in the dorsal skin fold chamber visualizing distinct layer structures from the intensity imaging, information about mechanical integrity from the polarization-sensitive imaging, and depth-resolved microvasculature from the angiographic imaging that are simultaneously acquired and automatically co-registered. PMID:25968731

  8. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  9. Multi-functional angiographic OFDI using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination.

    PubMed

    Kim, SunHee; Park, Taejin; Jang, Sun-Joo; Nam, Ahhyun S; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2015-04-01

    Detection of blood flow inside the tissue sample can be achieved by measuring the local change of complex signal over time in angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCT). In conventional angiographic OCT, the transverse displacement of the imaging beam during the time interval between a pair of OCT signal measurements must be significantly reduced to minimize the noise due to the beam scanning-induced phase decorrelation at the expense of the imaging speed. Recent introduction of dual-beam scan method either using polarization encoding or two identical imaging systems in spectral-domain (SD) OCT scheme shows potential for high-sensitivity vasculature imaging without suffering from spurious phase noise caused by the beam scanning-induced spatial decorrelation. In this paper, we present multi-functional angiographic optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) using frequency-multiplexed dual-beam illumination. This frequency multiplexing scheme, utilizing unique features of OFDI, provides spatially separated dual imaging beams occupying distinct electrical frequency bands that can be demultiplexed in the frequency domain processing. We demonstrate the 3D multi-functional imaging of the normal mouse skin in the dorsal skin fold chamber visualizing distinct layer structures from the intensity imaging, information about mechanical integrity from the polarization-sensitive imaging, and depth-resolved microvasculature from the angiographic imaging that are simultaneously acquired and automatically co-registered. PMID:25968731

  10. Regulation of cellular function via electromagnetic field frequency and extracellular environment: A theoretical- experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghian, Toloo; Sheikh, Abdul; Narmoneva, Daria; Kogan, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    Application of external electric field (EF) as a non-pharmacological, non-invasive tool to control cell function is of great therapeutic interest. We developed a theoretical-experimental approach to investigate the biophysical mechanisms of EF interaction with cells in electrode-free physiologically-relevant configuration. Our numerical results demonstrated that EF frequency is the major parameter to control cell response to EF. Non-oscillating or low-frequency EF leads to charge accumulation on the cell surface membrane that may mediate membrane initiated cell responses. In contrast, high-frequency EF penetrates the cell membrane and reaches cell cytoplasm, where it may directly activate intracellular responses. The theoretical predictions were confirmed in our experimental studies of the effects of applied EF on vascular cell function. Results show that non-oscillating EF increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression while field polarity controls cell adhesion rate. High-frequency, but not low frequency, EF provides differential regulation of cytoplasmic focal adhesion kinase and VEGF expression depending on the substrate, with increased expression in cells cultured on RGD-rich synthetic hydrogels, and decreased expression for matrigel culture. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the NSF (DMR-1206784 & DMR-0804199 to AK); the NIH (1R21 DK078814-01A1 to DN) and the University of Cincinnati (Interdisciplinary Faculty Research Support Grant to DN and AK).

  11. Evolutionary Computation Applied to the Tuning of MEMS Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Fink, Wolfgang; Ferguson, Michael I.; Peay, Chris; Oks, Boris; Terrile, Richard; Yee, Karl

    2005-01-01

    We propose a tuning method for MEMS gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through tuning and, furthermore, to find the optimally tuned configuration for this state of increased sensitivity. The tuning method was tested for the second generation JPL/Boeing Post-resonator MEMS gyroscope using the measurement of the frequency response of the MEMS device in open-loop operation.

  12. Interventricular heterogeneity in rat heart responses to hypoxia: the tuning of glucose metabolism, ion gradients, and function.

    PubMed

    Komniski, Milena Segato; Yakushev, Sergej; Bogdanov, Nikolai; Gassmann, Max; Bogdanova, Anna

    2011-05-01

    The matching of energy supply and demand under hypoxic conditions is critical for sustaining myocardial function. Numerous reports indicate that basal energy requirements and ion handling may differ between the ventricles. We hypothesized that ventricular response to hypoxia shows interventricular differences caused by the heterogeneity in glucose metabolism and expression and activity of ion transporters. Thus we assessed glucose utilization rate, ATP, sodium and potassium concentrations, Na, K-ATPase activity, and tissue reduced:oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) content in the right and left ventricles before and after the exposure of either the whole animals or isolated blood-perfused hearts to hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced boost in glucose utilization was more pronounced in the left ventricle compared with the right one. ATP levels in the right ventricle of hypoxic heart were lower than those in the left ventricle. Left ventricular sodium content was higher, and hydrolytic Na, K-ATPase activity was reduced compared with the right ventricle. Administration of the Na, K-ATPase blocker ouabain caused rapid increase in the right ventricular Na(+) and elimination of the interventricular Na(+) gradients. Exposure of the hearts to hypoxia made the interventricular heterogeneity in the Na(+) distribution even more pronounced. Furthermore, systemic hypoxia caused oxidative stress that was more pronounced in the right ventricle as revealed by GSH/GSSG ratios. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that the right ventricle is more prone to hypoxic damage, as it is less efficient in recruiting glucose as an alternative fuel and is particularly dependent on the efficient Na, K-ATPase function. PMID:21398597

  13. The Synthesis of Structural Responses Using Experimentally Measured Frequency Response Functions and Field Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    CAP,JEROME S.; NELSON,CURTIS F.

    2000-11-17

    This paper presents an analysis technique used to generate the structural response at locations not measured during the ejection of a captive-carried store. The ejection shock event is complicated by the fact that forces may be imparted to the store at eight distinct locations. The technique derives forcing functions by combining the initial field test data for a limited number of measurement locations with Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured using a traditional modal-type impact (tap) test at the same locations. The derived forcing functions were then used with tap test FRFs measured at additional locations of interest to produce the desired response data.

  14. Effect of microwave frequency on breakdown and electron energy distribution function using a global model

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Sang Ki; Verboncoeur, John P.

    2008-10-13

    Global models (GMs) have proven a key modeling tool for the plasma processing field due to simplicity and speed. However, a GM requires specification of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The assumption of a Maxwellian EEDF leads to inaccurate reaction rate coefficients and results in error in plasma parameter prediction in high power microwave (HPM) driven discharges. Recently, a GM was developed with a pressure-independent enhanced EEDF to improve fidelity for modeling HPM breakdown. In this work, the GM is extended to 2 decades in frequency, and the frequency effect on HPM breakdown and the EEDF is investigated.

  15. Functional adaptation of long bone extremities involves the localized ``tuning'' of the cortical bone composition; evidence from Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Birch, Helen L.; Gikas, Panagiotis D.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E.

    2014-11-01

    In long bones, the functional adaptation of shape and structure occurs along the whole length of the organ. This study explores the hypothesis that adaptation of bone composition is also site-specific and that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of bone (and, thus, its mechanical properties) varies along the organ's length. Raman spectroscopy was used to map the chemical composition of long bones along their entire length in fine spatial resolution (1 mm), and then biochemical analysis was used to measure the mineral, collagen, water, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content where site-specific differences were seen. The results show that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of the bone material in human tibiae varies by <5% along the mid-shaft but decreases by >10% toward the flared extremities of the bone. Comparisons with long bones from other large animals (horses, sheep, and deer) gave similar results with bone material composition changing across tens of centimeters. The composition of the bone apatite also varied with the phosphate-to-carbonate ratio decreasing toward the ends of the tibia. The data highlight the complexity of adaptive changes and raise interesting questions about the biochemical control mechanisms involved. In addition to their biological interest, the data provide timely information to researchers developing Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive tool for measuring bone composition in vivo (particularly with regard to sampling and measurement protocol).

  16. Modalities of Thinking: State and Trait Effects on Cross-Frequency Functional Independent Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L

    2016-05-01

    Functional states of the brain are constituted by the temporally attuned activity of spatially distributed neural networks. Such networks can be identified by independent component analysis (ICA) applied to frequency-dependent source-localized EEG data. This methodology allows the identification of networks at high temporal resolution in frequency bands of established location-specific physiological functions. EEG measurements are sensitive to neural activity changes in cortical areas of modality-specific processing. We tested effects of modality-specific processing on functional brain networks. Phasic modality-specific processing was induced via tasks (state effects) and tonic processing was assessed via modality-specific person parameters (trait effects). Modality-specific person parameters and 64-channel EEG were obtained from 70 male, right-handed students. Person parameters were obtained using cognitive style questionnaires, cognitive tests, and thinking modality self-reports. EEG was recorded during four conditions: spatial visualization, object visualization, verbalization, and resting. Twelve cross-frequency networks were extracted from source-localized EEG across six frequency bands using ICA. RMANOVAs, Pearson correlations, and path modelling examined effects of tasks and person parameters on networks. Results identified distinct state- and trait-dependent functional networks. State-dependent networks were characterized by decreased, trait-dependent networks by increased alpha activity in sub-regions of modality-specific pathways. Pathways of competing modalities showed opposing alpha changes. State- and trait-dependent alpha were associated with inhibitory and automated processing, respectively. Antagonistic alpha modulations in areas of competing modalities likely prevent intruding effects of modality-irrelevant processing. Considerable research suggested alpha modulations related to modality-specific states and traits. This study identified the

  17. Optimally tuned vibration absorbers to control sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grissom, Michael; Belegundu, Ashok; Koopmann, Gary

    2002-05-01

    A design optimization method is proposed for controlling broadband vibration of a structure and it concomitant acoustic radiation using multiple-tuned absorbers. A computationally efficient model of a structure is developed and coupled with a nonlinear optimization search algorithm. The eigenvectors of the original structure are used as repeated basis functions in the analysis of the structural dynamic re-analysis problem. The re-analysis time for acoustic power computations is reduced by calculating and storing modal radiation resistance matrices at discrete frequencies. The matrices are then interpolated within the optimization loop for eigenvalues that fall between stored frequencies. The method is demonstrated by applying multiple-tuned vibration absorbers to an acoustically-excited composite panel. The absorber parameters are optimized with an objective of maximizing the panel's sound power transmission loss. It is shown that in some cases the optimal solution includes vibration absorbers that are tuned very closely in frequency, thus acting effectively as a broadband vibration absorber (BBVA). The numerical model and design optimization method are validated experimentally, and the BBVA is found to be an effective noise abatement tool.

  18. Computing frequency by using generalized zero-crossing applied to intrinsic mode functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This invention presents a method for computing Instantaneous Frequency by applying Empirical Mode Decomposition to a signal and using Generalized Zero-Crossing (GZC) and Extrema Sifting. The GZC approach is the most direct, local, and also the most accurate in the mean. Furthermore, this approach will also give a statistical measure of the scattering of the frequency value. For most practical applications, this mean frequency localized down to quarter of a wave period is already a well-accepted result. As this method physically measures the period, or part of it, the values obtained can serve as the best local mean over the period to which it applies. Through Extrema Sifting, instead of the cubic spline fitting, this invention constructs the upper envelope and the lower envelope by connecting local maxima points and local minima points of the signal with straight lines, respectively, when extracting a collection of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) from a signal under consideration.

  19. Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement with digital output based on dispersion induced power fading functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Bo; Chi, Hao; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Shilie; Zhang, Xianmin

    2013-04-01

    A novel photonic approach to realize the instantaneous microwave frequency measurement with digital output is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. Based on the power fading function of a double-sideband modulated microwave signal transmitting in a dispersive fiber channel, the microwave frequency to digital code mapping can be realized in a multi-channel system where each channel is configured with a predetermined amount of dispersion. The coding process involved here is similar to that of the photonic analog-to-digital conversion. The principle of the system is discussed in detail. An experiment is carried out, in which the frequency identification with 4-bit quantization levels in 17.5 GHz measurement range is demonstrated. The measurement range and the resolution are discussed theoretically and numerically.

  20. Ecological prediction with nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional data models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Wen-Hsi; Wikle, Christopher K.; Holan, Scott H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Time-frequency analysis has become a fundamental component of many scientific inquiries. Due to improvements in technology, the amount of high-frequency signals that are collected for ecological and other scientific processes is increasing at a dramatic rate. In order to facilitate the use of these data in ecological prediction, we introduce a class of nonlinear multivariate time-frequency functional models that can identify important features of each signal as well as the interaction of signals corresponding to the response variable of interest. Our methodology is of independent interest and utilizes stochastic search variable selection to improve model selection and performs model averaging to enhance prediction. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through simulation and by application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.

  1. High frequency ventilation trial. Nine year follow up of lung function.

    PubMed

    Pianosi, P T; Fisk, M

    2000-03-01

    The high frequency ventilation (HIFI) trial for hyaline membrane disease (HMD) showed no advantage of high frequency over conventional ventilation in pulmonary outcomes after 24 months. The present study tested the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in childhood lung function between patients who had been ventilated by either method. Thirty-two children aged 8-9 years who completed the HIFI trial were asked to return for pulmonary function tests. For purposes of analysis, the patient population was divided according to mode of ventilation, and by diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or HMD. Results were compared to those of 15 term-born, matched, controls. Lung function tests showed a mildly obstructive pattern in prematurely born children. More severe obstruction was seen in those children who had physician-diagnosed asthma or who had used bronchodilators in the past. The prevalence of mild obstructive pattern on pulmonary function testing in preterm infants with HMD or BPD was similar in those who received high frequency vs. conventional ventilation. Factors other than the mode of ventilation exert greater influence on pulmonary outcome in survivors of lung disease of prematurity. PMID:10742612

  2. High frequency functional brain networks in neonates revealed by rapid acquisition resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Luyt, Karen; Heep, Axel; Kauppinen, Risto A

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how spatially remote brain regions interact to form functional brain networks, and how these develop during the neonatal period, provides fundamental insights into normal brain development, and how mechanisms of brain disorder and recovery may function in the immature brain. A key imaging tool in characterising functional brain networks is examination of T2*-weighted fMRI signal during rest (resting state fMRI, rs-fMRI). The majority of rs-fMRI studies have concentrated on slow signal fluctuations occurring at <0.1 Hz, even though neuronal rhythms, and haemodynamic responses to these fluctuate more rapidly, and there is emerging evidence for crucial information about functional brain connectivity occurring more rapidly than these limits. The characterisation of higher frequency components has been limited by the sampling frequency achievable with standard T2* echoplanar imaging (EPI) sequences. We describe patterns of neonatal functional brain network connectivity derived using accelerated T2*-weighted EPI MRI. We acquired whole brain rs-fMRI data, at subsecond sampling frequency, from preterm infants at term equivalent age and compared this to rs-fMRI data acquired with standard EPI acquisition protocol. We provide the first evidence that rapid rs-fMRI acquisition in neonates, and adoption of an extended frequency range for analysis, allows identification of a substantial proportion of signal power residing above 0.2 Hz. We thereby describe changes in brain connectivity associated with increasing maturity which are not evident using standard rs-fMRI protocols. Development of optimised neonatal fMRI protocols, including use of high speed acquisition sequences, is crucial for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the developing brain. PMID:25787931

  3. Tuning Broadband Microwave Amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Alaniz, Gabriel

    2003-09-05

    The PEP-II/DA {Phi} NE/ALS longitudinal feedback systems are complex wide bandwidth systems requiring analog, digital and microwave circuits. The solid-state amplifier is one of the components in the microwave circuit that is required to suppress the coupled bunch instabilities that exist in the PEP-II accelerator. The suppression is achieved by using an antenna as a kicker structure that provides an electric field in order to increase or decrease the energy of particles passing through the structure. The amplifier is made up of sixteen 30 to 35W microstrip GaAs FET modules that are combined to obtain 500W over a bandwidth of 850MHz to 1850MHz. The amplifier malfunctioned causing a reduction in the functionality and power output of the individual GaAs FET modules. The amplifier must be repaired. After repair, the amplifier must be tuned to optimize the gain while maintaining proper power output. The amplifier is tuned using microstrip circuit techniques. A variety of microstrip methods are used to obtain the proper line impedance. The result is a working amplifier that operates efficiently.

  4. Tuning the electronic properties and work functions of graphane/fully hydrogenated h-BN heterobilayers via heteronuclear dihydrogen bonding and electric field control.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiuhua; Jiang, Junke; Meng, Ruishen; Ye, Huaiyu; Tan, Chunjian; Yang, Qun; Sun, Xiang; Yang, Daoguo; Chen, Xianping

    2016-06-28

    Using density functional theory calculations with van der Waals correction, we show that the electronic properties (band gap and carrier mobility) and work functions of graphane/fully hydrogenated hexagonal boron nitride (G/fHBN) heterobilayers can be favorably tuned via heteronuclear dihydrogen bonding (C-HH-B and C-HH-N) and an external electric field. Our results reveal that G/fHBN heterobilayers have different direct band gaps of ∼1.2 eV and ∼3.5 eV for C-HH-B and C-HH-N bonds, respectively. In particular, these band gaps can be effectively modulated by altering the direction and strength of the external electric field (E-field), and correspondingly exhibit a semiconductor-metal transition. The conformation and stability of G/fHBN heterobilayers show a strong dependence on the heteronuclear dihydrogen bonding. Fantastically, these bonds are stable enough under a considerable external E-field as compared with other van der Waals (vdW) 2D layered materials. The mobilities of G/fHBN heterobilayers we predicted are hole-dominated, reasonably high (improvable up to 200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), and extremely isotropic. We also demonstrate that the work function of G/fHBN heterobilayers is very sensitive to the external E-field and is extremely low. These findings make G/fHBN heterobilayers very promising materials for field-effect transistors and light-emitting devices, and inspire more efforts in the development of 2D material systems using weak interlayer interactions and electric field control. PMID:27265511

  5. Cochlear implant melody recognition as a function of melody frequency range, harmonicity, and number of electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonya; Kong, Ying-Yee; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2009-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of the present study was to determine how cochlear implant melody recognition was affected by the frequency range of the melodies, the harmonicity of these melodies, and the number of activated electrodes. The secondary goal was to investigate whether melody recognition and speech recognition were differentially affected by the limitations imposed by cochlear implant processing. Design Four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, eleven cochlear implant users used their clinical processors to recognize melodies of complex harmonic tones with their fundamental frequencies being in the low (104-262 Hz), middle (207-523 Hz), and high (414-1046 Hz) ranges. In the second experiment, melody recognition with pure tones was compared to melody recognition with complex harmonic tones in 4 subjects. In the third experiment, melody recognition was measured as a function of the number of electrodes in 5 subjects. In the fourth experiment, vowel and consonant recognition were measured as a function of the number of electrodes in the same 5 subjects who participated in the third experiment. Results Frequency range significantly affected cochlear implant melody recognition with higher frequency ranges producing better performance. Pure tones produced significantly better performance than complex harmonic tones. Increasing the number of activated electrodes did not affect performance with low- and middle-frequency melodies, but produced better performance with high-frequency melodies. Large individual variability was observed for melody recognition but its source seemed to be different from the source of the large variability observed in speech recognition. Conclusion Contemporary cochlear implants do not adequately encode either temporal pitch or place pitch cues. Melody recognition and speech recognition require different signal processing strategies in future cochlear implants. PMID:19194298

  6. Reference hearing thresholds in an extended frequency range as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Jilek, Milan; Šuta, Daniel; Syka, Josef

    2014-10-01

    The ISO 7029 (2000) standard defines normative hearing thresholds H (dB hearing level) as a function of age Y (years), given by H = α(Y - 18)(2), up to 8 kHz. The purpose of this study was to determine reference thresholds above 8 kHz. Hearing thresholds were examined using pure-tone audiometry over the extended frequency range 0.125-16 kHz, and the acquired values were used to specify the optimal approximation of the dependence of hearing thresholds on age. A sample of 411 otologically normal men and women 16-70 years of age was measured in both ears using a high-frequency audiometer and Sennheiser HDA 200 headphones. The coefficients of quadratic, linear, polynomial and power-law approximations were calculated using the least-squares fitting procedure. The approximation combining the square function H = α(Y - 18)(2) with a power-law function H = β(Y - 18)(1.5), both gender-independent, was found to be the most appropriate. Coefficient α was determined at frequencies of 9 kHz (α = 0.021), 10 kHz (α = 0.024), 11.2 kHz (α = 0.029), and coefficient β at frequencies of 12.5 kHz (β = 0.24), 14 kHz (β = 0.32), 16 kHz (β = 0.36). The results could be used to determine age-dependent normal hearing thresholds in an extended frequency range and to normalize hearing thresholds when comparing participants differing in age. PMID:25324083

  7. Work function tuning of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited WC{sub x}N{sub y} electrodes for metal/oxide/semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zonensain, Oren; Fadida, Sivan; Eizenberg, Moshe; Fisher, Ilanit; Gao, Juwen; Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Harm, Greg; Mountsier, Tom; Danek, Michal

    2015-02-23

    One of the main challenges facing the integration of metals as gate electrodes in advanced MOS devices is control over the Fermi level position at the metal/dielectric interface. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to tune the effective work function (EWF) of W-based electrodes by process modifications of the atomic layer deposited (ALD) films. Tungsten carbo-nitrides (WC{sub x}N{sub y}) films were deposited via plasma-enhanced and/or thermal ALD processes using organometallic precursors. The process modifications enabled us to control the stoichiometry of the WC{sub x}N{sub y} films. Deposition in hydrogen plasma (without nitrogen based reactant) resulted in a stoichiometry of WC{sub 0.4} with primarily W-C chemical bonding, as determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These films yielded a relatively low EWF of 4.2 ± 0.1 eV. The introduction of nitrogen based reactant to the plasma or the thermal ALD deposition resulted in a stoichiometry of WC{sub 0.1}N{sub 0.6–0.8} with predominantly W-N chemical bonding. These films produced a high EWF of 4.7 ± 0.1 eV.

  8. A Noise Level Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  9. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105

  10. Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. IV. Effects of carrier frequency

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, G. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Temporal variation in listeners' sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD, respectively) was measured for sounds of different carrier frequency using the temporal weighting function (TWF) paradigm [Stecker and Hafter (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112,1046–1057]. Listeners made lateralization judgments following brief trains of filtered impulses (Gabor clicks) presented over headphones with overall ITD and/or ILD ranging from ±500 μs ITD and/or ±5 dB ILD across trials. Individual clicks within each train varied by an additional ±100 μs ITD or ±2 dB ILD to allow TWF calculation by multiple regression. In separate conditions, TWFs were measured for carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. Consistent with past studies, TWFs demonstrated high weight on the first click for stimuli with short interclick interval (ICI = 2 ms), but flatter weighting for longer ICI (5–10 ms). Some conditions additionally demonstrated greater weight for clicks near the offset than near the middle of the train. Results support a primary role of the auditory periphery in emphasizing onset and offset cues in rapidly modulated low-frequency sounds. For slower modulations, sensitivity to ongoing high-frequency ILD and low-frequency ITD cues appears subject to recency effects consistent with the effects of leaky temporal integration of binaural information. PMID:25480069

  11. Structures and vibrational frequencies of FOOF and FONO using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Roger D.; Murray, Christopher W.; Handy, Nicholas C.

    1993-02-01

    Calculations of the equilibrium structure and vibrational frequencies of FOOF using the local density approximation are in good agreement with experimental results. However using a theoretically more accurate gradient corrected (non-local) density functional produces a worse structure. Three isomers of FONO are also studied. The geometry of C 2v isomer FNO 2 is predicted accurately by the local density approximation, with gradient corrected functions again giving a poorer structure, but better vibrational frequencies. The structure of the trans-isomer of FONO is in agreement with recent coupled cluster studies, however calculations on cis-FONO disagree with the coupled cluster results, but may be in better agreement with the experimental geometry.

  12. Technique for tuning antenna systems producing negligible signal radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merz, K.

    1969-01-01

    Sweep and marker generators tune and match antenna system in its operational environment. Sweep generator simulates transmissions over entire frequency range of the antenna receiving system. Marker generator identifies frequency points along the wave form displayed on oscilloscope.

  13. To What Extent Is Mean EMG Frequency during Gait a Reflection of Functional Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gestel, L.; Wambacq, H.; Aertbelien, E.; Meyns, P.; Bruyninckx, H.; Bar-On, L.; Molenaers, G.; De Cock, P.; Desloovere, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection…

  14. A rapid method for obtaining frequency-response functions for multiple input photogrammetric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroen, M. L.; Tripp, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A two-digital-camera photogrammetric technique for measuring the motion of a vibrating spacecraft structure or wing surface and an applicable data-reduction algorithm are presented. The 3D frequency-response functions are obtained by coordinate transformation from averaged cross and autopower spectra derived from the 4D camera coordinates by Fourier transformation. Error sources are investigated analytically, and sample results are shown in graphs.

  15. Electro-optic tuning and sidelobe control in acousto-optic tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, L. B.

    1995-01-01

    Both the center wavelength and the sidelobe structure of an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) are determined by the effective waveguide birefringence along the length of the device. By altering the birefringence by means of the electro-optic effect, one can control these device characteristics in potentially useful ways. Electro-optic tuning of the center frequency of an AOTF is demonstrated, and it is shown that this tuning mode, while limited to smaller ranges than acoustic frequency tuning, is many orders of magnitude faster. By use of multisection electrodes, dynamic control over the shape of the filter function is demonstrated. Finally, a number of practical uses of this technique are discussed.

  16. Applying a reservoir functional-zone paradigm to littoral bluegills: differences in length and catch frequency?

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Holly; Crosby, Abigale M.; Roosenburg, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs exhibit gradients in conditions and resources along the transition from lotic to lentic habitat that may be important to bluegill ecology. The lotic–lentic gradient can be partitioned into three functional zones: the riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. We measured catch frequency and length of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) captured along the periphery of these areas (i.e., in the littoral zone of each functional zone) for four small reservoirs in Southeastern Ohio during the summer months of three years. Catch frequency differed between zones for two reservoirs, but these differences were not observed in other years. There was no relationship between reservoir zone and either standard length or catch frequency when the data for all reservoirs were pooled, but we did observe a bimodal length distribution in all reservoirs. A combination of ecological factors including inter and intraspecific competition, predation intensity, management practices, limnology, and assemblage complexity may be mitigating bluegill distribution and abundance in reservoirs. Therefore, a functional zone (categorical) approach to understanding bluegill ecology in reservoirs may not be appropriate. PMID:25177535

  17. Frequency, intensity, species, and strains of oral Candida vary as a function of host age.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinegger, C L; Lockhart, S R; Vargas, K; Soll, D R

    1996-01-01

    While the age of the host has been suggested as a determining factor in yeast carriage, no studies in which the genetic relatedness of isolates has been assessed in combination with the frequency and intensity of carriage as a function of host age have been performed in a single geographical locale and over a short time window. Therefore, by using a simple plating protocol to determine the frequency and intensity of carriage, sugar assimilation patterns to determine species, and Southern blot hybridization with the DNA fingerprinting probe Ca3 combined with computer-assisted analysis to determine the genetic relatedness of strains of Candida albicans, yeast carriage was analyzed as a function of age. All test individuals lived in the Iowa City, Iowa, locale and, except for some of the 0.5- to 1.5-year-olds, were dentate. The results demonstrate that for this test population, the frequency, average intensity, predominant species, and genetic relatedness of C. albicans strains varied as a function of host age. In addition, comparison with oral commensal organisms from the Ann Arbor, Mich., locale confirms the geographical specificity of C. albicans strains and the existence of an Iowa City-enriched strain which is most prevalent in elderly individuals. PMID:8862593

  18. PID Tuning Using Extremum Seeking

    SciTech Connect

    Killingsworth, N; Krstic, M

    2005-11-15

    Although proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are widely used in the process industry, their effectiveness is often limited due to poor tuning. Manual tuning of PID controllers, which requires optimization of three parameters, is a time-consuming task. To remedy this difficulty, much effort has been invested in developing systematic tuning methods. Many of these methods rely on knowledge of the plant model or require special experiments to identify a suitable plant model. Reviews of these methods are given in [1] and the survey paper [2]. However, in many situations a plant model is not known, and it is not desirable to open the process loop for system identification. Thus a method for tuning PID parameters within a closed-loop setting is advantageous. In relay feedback tuning [3]-[5], the feedback controller is temporarily replaced by a relay. Relay feedback causes most systems to oscillate, thus determining one point on the Nyquist diagram. Based on the location of this point, PID parameters can be chosen to give the closed-loop system a desired phase and gain margin. An alternative tuning method, which does not require either a modification of the system or a system model, is unfalsified control [6], [7]. This method uses input-output data to determine whether a set of PID parameters meets performance specifications. An adaptive algorithm is used to update the PID controller based on whether or not the controller falsifies a given criterion. The method requires a finite set of candidate PID controllers that must be initially specified [6]. Unfalsified control for an infinite set of PID controllers has been developed in [7]; this approach requires a carefully chosen input signal [8]. Yet another model-free PID tuning method that does not require opening of the loop is iterative feedback tuning (IFT). IFT iteratively optimizes the controller parameters with respect to a cost function derived from the output signal of the closed-loop system, see [9

  19. Numerical evaluation of the incomplete airy functions and their application to high frequency scattering and diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals of such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. Here, a convergent series solution form for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms were also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution form with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  20. Computer simulation of respiratory impedance and flow transfer functions during high frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    Peslin, R

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of measuring respiratory flow in the airway and at the chest wall and of measuring respiratory input impedance (Z) to monitor high frequency ventilation was investigated by computer simulation using a monoalveolar 10-coefficient model. The latter included a central airway with its resistance (Rc) and inertance (lc), a resistive peripheral airway (Rp), a lumped bronchial compliance (Cb), alveolar gas compliance (Cgas), lung tissue with its resistance (RL) and compliance (CL), and chest wall resistance (RW), inertance (lw) and compliance (Cw). Gas flow in the peripheral airway (Vp), shunt flow through Cb (Vb), gas compression flow (Vgas) and rate of volume change of the lung (VL) and of the chest (VW) were computed and expressed as a function of gas flow in the central airway (Vc). For normal values of the coefficients, Vp/Vc was found to decrease moderately with increasing frequency and was still 0.75 at 20 Hz. Peripheral airway obstruction (Rp x 5) considerably decreased Vp/Vc, particularly at high frequency. It did not change the relationship between the two measurable flows, Vc and Vw, but increased the effective resistance at low frequency and shifted the reactance curve to the right. A reduced lung or chest wall compliance produced little change in Vp/Vc and Z except at very low frequencies; however, it decreased the phase lag between Vw and Vc. Finally, an increased airway wall compliance decreased Vp/Vc, but had little effect on Z and Vw/Vc. It is concluded that measuring respiratory impedance may help in detecting some, but not all of the conditions in which peripheral flow convection is decreased during high frequency oscillations. PMID:2611083

  1. Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique for identifying nonlinear structural elements from frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zheng, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and general Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique is proposed for identifying the parameters or the mathematical model of a nonlinear structural element with steady-state primary harmonic frequency response functions (FRFs). The Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness is defined as the complex ratio between the internal force and the displacement response of unknown element. Obtained with the test data of responses' frequencies and amplitudes, the real and imaginary part of Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness are plotted as discrete points in a three dimensional space over the displacement amplitude and the frequency, which are called the real and the imaginary Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness map, respectively. These points will form a repeatable surface as the Equivalent Dynamic stiffness is only a function of the corresponding data as derived in the paper. The mathematical model of the unknown element can then be obtained by surface-fitting these points with special functions selected by priori knowledge of the nonlinear type or with ordinary polynomials if the type of nonlinearity is not pre-known. An important merit of this technique is its capability of dealing with strong nonlinearities owning complicated frequency response behaviors such as jumps and breaks in resonance curves. In addition, this technique could also greatly simplify the test procedure. Besides there is no need to pre-identify the underlying linear parameters, the method uses the measured data of excitation forces and responses without requiring a strict control of the excitation force during the test. The proposed technique is demonstrated and validated with four classical single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) numerical examples and one experimental example. An application of this technique for identification of nonlinearity from multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems is also illustrated.

  2. Neural tuning characteristics of auditory primary afferents in the chicken embryo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    Primary afferent activity was recorded from the cochlear ganglion in chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus) at 19 days of incubation (E19). The ganglion was accessed via the recessus scala tympani and impaled with glass micropipettes. Frequency tuning curves were obtained using a computerized threshold tracking procedure. Tuning curves were evaluated to determine characteristics frequencies (CFs), CF thresholds, slopes of low and high frequency flanks, and tip sharpness (Q10dB). The majority of tuning curves exhibited the typical 'V' shape described for older birds and, on average, appeared relatively mature based on mean values for CF thresholds (59.6 +/- 20.3 dBSPL) and tip sharpness (Q10dB = 5.2 +/- 3). The mean slopes of low (61.9 +/- 37 dB/octave) and high (64.6 +/- 33 dB/octave) frequency flanks although comparable were somewhat less than those reported for 21-day-old chickens. Approximately 14% of the tuning curves displayed an unusual 'saw-tooth' pattern. CFs ranged from 188 to 1623 Hz. The highest CF was well below those reported for post-hatch birds. In addition, a broader range of Q10dB values (1.2 to 16.9) may related to a greater variability in embryonic tuning curves. Overall, these data suggest that an impressive functional maturity exists in the embryo at E19. The most significant sign of immaturity was the limited expression of high frequencies. It is argued that the limited high CF in part may be due to the developing middle ear transfer function and/or to a functionally immature cochlear base.

  3. Auditory tuning for spatial cues in the barn owl basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y E; Knudsen, E I

    1994-07-01

    1. The basal ganglia are known to contribute to spatially guided behavior. In this study, we investigated the auditory response properties of neurons in the barn owl paleostriatum augmentum (PA), the homologue of the mammalian striatum. The data suggest that the barn owl PA is specialized to process spatial cues and, like the mammalian striatum, is involved in spatial behavior. 2. Single- and multiunit sites were recorded extracellularly in ketamine-anesthetized owls. Spatial receptive fields were measured with a free-field sound source, and tuning for frequency and interaural differences in timing (ITD) and level (ILD) was assessed using digitally synthesized dichotic stimuli. 3. Spatial receptive fields measured at nine multiunit sites were tuned to restricted regions of space: tuning widths at half-maximum response averaged 22 +/- 9.6 degrees (mean +/- SD) in azimuth and 54 +/- 22 degrees in elevation. 4. PA sites responded strongly to broadband sounds. When frequency tuning could be measured (n = 145/201 sites), tuning was broad, averaging 2.7 kHz at half-maximum response, and tended to be centered near the high end of the owl's audible range. The mean best frequency was 6.2 kHz. 5. All PA sites (n = 201) were selective for both ITD and ILD. ITD tuning curves typically exhibited a single, large "primary" peak and often smaller, "secondary" peaks at ITDs ipsilateral and/or contralateral to the primary peak. Three indices quantified the selectivity of PA sites for ITD. The first index, which was the percent difference between the minimum and maximum response as a function of ITD, averaged 100 +/- 29%. The second index, which represented the size of the largest secondary peak relative to that of the primary peak, averaged 49 +/- 23%. The third index, which was the width of the primary ITD peak at half-maximum response, averaged only 66 +/- 35 microseconds. 6. The majority (96%; n = 192/201) of PA sites were tuned to a single "best" value of ILD. The widths of ILD

  4. Altered CD8+ T cell frequency and function in tuberculous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Jawahar, Mohideen S.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cells secreting Type1 and Type 17 cytokines and cytotoxic molecules play a major role in immunity and protection against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), although their role in tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL) is not well known. To identify the distribution and function of CD8+ T cells expressing Type1, Type 2 and Type 17 cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in TBL, we examined baseline and mycobacterial–antigen specific immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with PTB and compared them with TBL. TBL is characterized by elevated frequencies of baseline and mycobacterial-antigen stimulated CD8+ T cells expressing Type 1 (IL-2 and TNFα) and Type 17 (IL-17A and IL-17F) cytokines in comparison to PTB individuals. In contrast, TBL individuals exhibited diminished frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing perforin, granzyme B and CD107a. The blockade of IL-1R and IL-6R during antigenic stimulation resulted in significantly diminished frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing Type 1 and Type 17 cytokines in TBL. Therefore, our data suggest that TBL is characterized by an IL-1 and IL-6 dependent expansion of CD8+ T cells expressing Type 1 and Type 17 cytokines as well as altered frequencies of cytotoxic molecules, reflecting an important association of these cells with the pathogenesis of TBL. PMID:25027793

  5. Intensity discrimination as a function of level and frequency in three species of birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Amanda M.; Poling, Kirsten; Dooling, Robert J.

    2003-04-01

    Many studies have examined frequency discrimination in birds, but there has not been as complete a description of avian intensity discrimination abilities. Birds appear to be slightly less sensitive to changes in intensity than humans and other mammals; however, few studies have systematically looked at the effects of both frequency and presentation level on intensity discrimination in birds. Here we describe intensity discrimination as a function of frequency and sensation level in two small songbird species, the canary (Serinus canarius), the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and a nonsongbird species, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Intensity difference limens (DLIs) for pure tones were obtained from birds using standard operant conditioning procedures and the Method of Constant Stimuli. DLIs ranged from approximately 2-6 dB, which are slightly larger than the DLIs reported in mammals. For all three species, DLIs become smaller with increasing presentation level, but show little effect across frequency for a given level. These results are consistent with previous reports in other species. [Work supported by NIH DC01372 to RJD and DC05450 to AML.

  6. Measuring the spatial frequency transfer function of phase measuring interferometers for laser optics

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Downie, J.D.; Lawson, J.K.

    1996-06-27

    The power spectral density (PSD) function is being employed to specify the surface finish and transmitted wavefront in the mid- spatial frequency regime for laser beam optics of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The instrument used to measure the PSD is a phase measuring Fizeau interferometer. The phase map produced by the interferometer is digitally processed to create the PSD. Before one can use the PSD information, it is necessary to evaluate the fidelity of the interferometer spatial frequency response. Specifically, one must measure the overall transfer function of the instrument. To accomplish this, we perform a two-step ``calibration`` process. We first measure a known precision phase object with the interferometer and then compare the measured PSD to an ideal numerical simulation which represents the theoretical PSD. The square root of the ratio of the measured function to the simulation is defined as the transfer function of the instrument. We present experimental results for both reflective and transmissive test objects, including effects such as the test object orientation and longitudinal location in the interferometer cavity. We also evaluate the accuracy levels obtained using different test objects. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Frequency and functions of non-suicidal self-injury: associations with suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Paul, Elise; Tsypes, Aliona; Eidlitz, Laura; Ernhout, Carrie; Whitlock, Janis

    2015-02-28

    Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N=13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury. PMID:25592979

  8. Immediate effects of different frequencies of auditory stimulation on lower limb motor function of healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lili; Huang, Qiuchen; Hu, Chunying; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of auditory stimulation on the lower limb motor function of healthy people. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 7 healthy people (5 males and 2 females). The subjects’ lower limb function was measured without auditory stimulation (control), and with auditory stimulation of 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 Hz. The measured parameters were maximum knee extension torque, average knee extension torque, the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) time, Functional Reach (FR), and the 10-meter walking time. [Results] The TUG times of 500, 1,500, and 2,000 Hz auditory stimulation showed significant decreases compared to the control. The 10-m walking times of 1,000 and 2,000 Hz auditory stimulation showed significant decreases compared to the control. [Conclusion] The results show that auditory stimulation improved the TUG and 10-meter walking times of healthy people and that different frequencies of auditory stimulation had different effects on lower limb motor function.

  9. TUNE FEEDBACK AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    CAMERON,P.; CERNIGLIA,P.; CONNOLLY,R.; CUPOLO,J.; DAWSON,W.C.; DEGEN,C.; DELLAPENNA,A.; DELONG,J.; DREES,A.; HUHN,A.; KESSELMAN,M.; MARUSIC,A.; OERTER,B.; MEAD,J.; SCHULTHEISS,C.; SIKORA,R.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2001-06-18

    Preliminary phase-locked loop betatron tune measurement results were obtained during RHIC 2000 with a resonant Beam Position Monitor. These results suggested the possibility of incorporating PLL tune measurement into a tune feedback system for RHIC 2001. Tune feedback is useful in a superconducting accelerator, where the machine cycle time is long and inefficient acceleration due to resonance crossing is not comfortably tolerated. This is particularly true with the higher beam intensities planned for RHIC 2001. We present descriptions of a PLL tune measurement system implemented in the DSP/FPGA environment of a RHIC BPM electronics module and the feedback system into which the measurement is incorporated to regulate tune. In addition, we present results from the commissioning of this system during RHIC 2001.

  10. Exact H2 optimal tuning and experimental verification of energy-harvesting series electromagnetic tuned mass dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yilun; Zuo, Lei; Lin, Chi-Chang; Parker, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Energy-harvesting series electromagnetic tuned mass dampers (EMTMDs) have been recently proposed for dual-functional energy harvesting and robust vibration control by integrating the tuned mass damper (TMD) and electromagnetic shunted resonant damping. In this paper, we derive ready-to-use analytical tuning laws for the energy-harvesting series EMTMD system when the primary structure is subjected to force or ground excitations, like wind loads or earthquakes. Both vibration mitigation and energy harvesting performances are optimized using H2 criteria to minimize root-mean-square values of the deformation of the primary structure, or maximize the average harvestable power. These analytical tuning laws can easily guide the design of series EMTMDs under various ambient loadings. Later, extensive numerical analysis is presented to show the effectiveness of the series EMTMDs. The numerical analysis shows that the series EMTMD is superior to mitigate the vibration of the primary structure nearly across the whole frequency spectrum, as compared to that of classic TMDs. Simultaneously, the series EMTMD can better harvest the energy due to broader bandwidth effect. Beyond simulations, this paper also experimentally verifies the effectiveness of the energy-harvesting series electromagnetic TMDs in both vibration mitigation and energy harvesting.

  11. Spatial clustering of tuning in mouse primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Ringach, Dario L; Mineault, Patrick J; Tring, Elaine; Olivas, Nicholas D; Garcia-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Trachtenberg, Joshua T

    2016-01-01

    The primary visual cortex of higher mammals is organized into two-dimensional maps, where the preference of cells for stimulus parameters is arranged regularly on the cortical surface. In contrast, the preference of neurons in the rodent appears to be arranged randomly, in what is termed a salt-and-pepper map. Here we revisited the spatial organization of receptive fields in mouse primary visual cortex by measuring the tuning of pyramidal neurons in the joint orientation and spatial frequency domain. We found that the similarity of tuning decreases as a function of cortical distance, revealing a weak but statistically significant spatial clustering. Clustering was also observed across different cortical depths, consistent with a columnar organization. Thus, the mouse visual cortex is not strictly a salt-and-pepper map. At least on a local scale, it resembles a degraded version of the organization seen in higher mammals, hinting at a possible common origin. PMID:27481398

  12. Spatial clustering of tuning in mouse primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ringach, Dario L.; Mineault, Patrick J.; Tring, Elaine; Olivas, Nicholas D.; Garcia-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    The primary visual cortex of higher mammals is organized into two-dimensional maps, where the preference of cells for stimulus parameters is arranged regularly on the cortical surface. In contrast, the preference of neurons in the rodent appears to be arranged randomly, in what is termed a salt-and-pepper map. Here we revisited the spatial organization of receptive fields in mouse primary visual cortex by measuring the tuning of pyramidal neurons in the joint orientation and spatial frequency domain. We found that the similarity of tuning decreases as a function of cortical distance, revealing a weak but statistically significant spatial clustering. Clustering was also observed across different cortical depths, consistent with a columnar organization. Thus, the mouse visual cortex is not strictly a salt-and-pepper map. At least on a local scale, it resembles a degraded version of the organization seen in higher mammals, hinting at a possible common origin. PMID:27481398

  13. Bi deficiency-tuned functionality in multiferroic Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangmei; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution and ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) transition behaviors were observed in Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (100)-textured films with a carefully controlled Bi deficiency concentration δ. Raman spectra revealed an orthorhombic structural transition induced by Mn substitution. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage loops of Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films clearly demonstrated antiferroelectric behavior with increasing δ. The responses of the domain structure of the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film under positive and negative applied voltages directly suggested the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The existence of (100) superstructure reflections and antiparallel displacements of the Bi atoms along the [100] direction observed by transmission electron microscopy unambiguously reveal the AFE phase. The chemical substitution-induced orthorhombic structural transition in BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film implies that as the δ concentration increases, the changes in Bi-O bonding and the stereochemical activity of Bi 6s lone pair affect both the ferroelectric distortion and the antiferrodistortive rotation and therefore drive the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 crystal lattice to form a PbZrO3-type orthorhombic phase with an AFE order. A continuing increase in Bi deficiency creates defect dipole complexes which produce an internal field leading to a preferred direction of the ferroelectric domain. The Bi deficiency in multiferroic BiFeO3 provides a new route by which to tune functionality. PMID:26775621

  14. Bi deficiency-tuned functionality in multiferroic Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangmei; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution and ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) transition behaviors were observed in Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (100)-textured films with a carefully controlled Bi deficiency concentration δ. Raman spectra revealed an orthorhombic structural transition induced by Mn substitution. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage loops of Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films clearly demonstrated antiferroelectric behavior with increasing δ. The responses of the domain structure of the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film under positive and negative applied voltages directly suggested the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The existence of (100) superstructure reflections and antiparallel displacements of the Bi atoms along the [100] direction observed by transmission electron microscopy unambiguously reveal the AFE phase. The chemical substitution-induced orthorhombic structural transition in BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film implies that as the δ concentration increases, the changes in Bi-O bonding and the stereochemical activity of Bi 6s lone pair affect both the ferroelectric distortion and the antiferrodistortive rotation and therefore drive the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 crystal lattice to form a PbZrO3-type orthorhombic phase with an AFE order. A continuing increase in Bi deficiency creates defect dipole complexes which produce an internal field leading to a preferred direction of the ferroelectric domain. The Bi deficiency in multiferroic BiFeO3 provides a new route by which to tune functionality. PMID:26775621

  15. Bi deficiency-tuned functionality in multiferroic Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangmei; Deng, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Structural evolution and ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) transition behaviors were observed in Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (100)-textured films with a carefully controlled Bi deficiency concentration δ. Raman spectra revealed an orthorhombic structural transition induced by Mn substitution. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops and capacitance-voltage loops of Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 films clearly demonstrated antiferroelectric behavior with increasing δ. The responses of the domain structure of the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film under positive and negative applied voltages directly suggested the coexistence of FE and AFE phases. The existence of (100) superstructure reflections and antiparallel displacements of the Bi atoms along the [100] direction observed by transmission electron microscopy unambiguously reveal the AFE phase. The chemical substitution-induced orthorhombic structural transition in BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 film implies that as the δ concentration increases, the changes in Bi-O bonding and the stereochemical activity of Bi 6s lone pair affect both the ferroelectric distortion and the antiferrodistortive rotation and therefore drive the Bi1-δFe0.95Mn0.05O3 crystal lattice to form a PbZrO3-type orthorhombic phase with an AFE order. A continuing increase in Bi deficiency creates defect dipole complexes which produce an internal field leading to a preferred direction of the ferroelectric domain. The Bi deficiency in multiferroic BiFeO3 provides a new route by which to tune functionality.

  16. Transfer function method for frequency response and damping effect of multilayer PCLD on cylindrical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Q.; Fang, Z. P.; Wan, H. C.; Zheng, L.

    2013-07-01

    Based on the Donnell assumptions and linear visco-elastic theory, the constitutive equations of the cylindrical shell with multilayer Passive Constrained Layer Damping (PCLD) treatments are described. The motion equations and boundary conditions are derived by Hamilton principle. After trigonometric series expansion and Laplace transform, the state vector is introduced and the dynamic equations in state space are established. The transfer function method is used to solve the state equation. The dynamic performance including the natural frequency, the loss factor and the frequency response of clamped-clamped multi-layer PCLD cylindrical shell is obtained. The results show that multi-layer PCLD cylindrical shell is more effective than the traditional three-layer PCLD cylindrical shell in suppressing vibration and noise if the same amount of material is applied. It demonstrates a potential application of multi-layer PCLD treatments in many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles.

  17. Identification of the dynamic properties of joints using frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čelič, Damjan; Boltežar, Miha

    2008-10-01

    The dynamic properties of joints are extremely difficult to model accurately using a purely analytical approach. However, these properties can be extracted from experimental data. In this paper we present a method for establishing a theoretical model of a joint from the substructures and assembly frequency-response function (FRF) data. The identification process considers not only translational, but also rotational degrees of freedom (RDOFs). The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated numerically and experimentally. A combined numerical-experimental approach was used to identify the mass, stiffness and damping effects of a real bolted joint. Using the least-squares method, data from the wide frequency range were used. A substructure synthesis method with the joint effects included was used to check the extracted values.

  18. Birefringence of solid-state laser media: broadband tuning discontinuities and application to laser line narrowing

    SciTech Connect

    Krasinski, J.S.; Band, Y.B.; Chin, T.; Heller, D.F.; Morris, R.C.; Papanestor, P.

    1989-04-15

    Spectral consequences that result from using birefringent media with broadband gain inside of laser cavities containing polarizing elements are described. We show that the laser intensity is modulated as a function of the output frequency unless the cavity elements are carefully aligned so that their polarization axis coincides with a principal optical axis of the gain medium. Analysis of the tuning characteristics of a birefringent polarization-dependent gain medium is exploited to provide a simple method for line narrowing the laser output. By introduction of an intracavity birefringent compensator the narrow-band output can be continuously tuned. Experimental results for alexandrite lasers are presented.

  19. Transfer-function-parameter estimation from frequency response data: A FORTRAN program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program designed to fit a linear transfer function model to given frequency response magnitude and phase data is presented. A conjugate gradient search is used that minimizes the integral of the absolute value of the error squared between the model and the data. The search is constrained to insure model stability. A scaling of the model parameters by their own magnitude aids search convergence. Efficient computer algorithms result in a small and fast program suitable for a minicomputer. A sample problem with different model structures and parameter estimates is reported.

  20. The phonological function of vowels is maintained at fundamental frequencies up to 880 Hz.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Daniel; Maurer, Dieter; Dellwo, Volker

    2015-07-01

    In a between-subject perception task, listeners either identified full words or vowels isolated from these words at F0s between 220 and 880 Hz. They received two written words as response options (minimal pair with the stimulus vowel in contrastive position). Listeners' sensitivity (A') was extremely high in both conditions at all F0s, showing that the phonological function of vowels can also be maintained at high F0s. This indicates that vowel sounds may carry strong acoustic cues departing from common formant frequencies at high F0s and that listeners do not rely on consonantal context phenomena for their identification performance. PMID:26233058

  1. Accurate vibrational frequencies using the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małolepsza, Edyta; Witek, Henryk A.; Morokuma, Keiji

    2005-09-01

    An optimization technique for enhancing the quality of repulsive two-body potentials of the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method is presented and tested. The new, optimized potentials allow for significant improvement of calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies. Mean absolute deviation from experiment computed for a group of 14 hydrocarbons is reduced from 59.0 to 33.2 cm -1 and maximal absolute deviation, from 436.2 to 140.4 cm -1. A drawback of the new family of potentials is a lower quality of reproduced geometrical and energetic parameters.

  2. Experimental determination of frequency response function estimates for flexible joint industrial manipulators with serial kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saupe, Florian; Knoblach, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Two different approaches for the determination of frequency response functions (FRFs) are used for the non-parametric closed loop identification of a flexible joint industrial manipulator with serial kinematics. The two applied experiment designs are based on low power multisine and high power chirp excitations. The main challenge is to eliminate disturbances of the FRF estimates caused by the numerous nonlinearities of the robot. For the experiment design based on chirp excitations, a simple iterative procedure is proposed which allows exploiting the good crest factor of chirp signals in a closed loop setup. An interesting synergy of the two approaches, beyond validation purposes, is pointed out.

  3. Damage assessment of the truss system with uncertainty using frequency response function based damage identification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans; Yao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A novel vibration-based damage identification methodology for the truss system with mass and stiffness uncertainties is proposed and demonstrated. This approach utilizes the damaged-induced changes of frequency response functions (FRF) to assess the severity and location of the structural damage in the system. The damage identification algorithm is developed basing on the least square and Newton-Raphson methods. The dynamical model of system is built using finite element method and Lagrange principle while the crack model is based on fracture mechanics. The method is synthesized via numerical examples for a truss system to demonstrate the effectiveness in detecting both stiffness and mass uncertainty existed in the system.

  4. Otoacoustic Estimates of Cochlear Tuning: Testing Predictions in Macaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.; Bergevin, Christopher; Kalluri, Radha; Mc Laughlin, Myles; Michelet, Pascal; van der Heijden, Marcel; Joris, Philip X.

    2011-11-01

    Otoacoustic estimates of cochlear frequency selectivity suggest substantially sharper tuning in humans. However, the logic and methodology underlying these estimates remain untested by direct measurements in primates. We report measurements of frequency tuning in macaque monkeys, Old-World primates phylogenetically closer to humans than the small laboratory animals often taken as models of human hearing (e.g., cats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas). We find that measurements of tuning obtained directly from individual nerve fibers and indirectly using otoacoustic emissions both indicate that peripheral frequency selectivity in macaques is significantly sharper than in small laboratory animals, matching that inferred for humans at high frequencies. Our results validate the use of otoacoustic emissions for noninvasive measurement of cochlear tuning and corroborate the finding of sharper tuning in humans.

  5. Specificity of the Human Frequency Following Response for Carrier and Modulation Frequency Assessed Using Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gockel, Hedwig E; Krugliak, Alexandra; Plack, Christopher J; Carlyon, Robert P

    2015-12-01

    The frequency following response (FFR) is a scalp-recorded measure of phase-locked brainstem activity to stimulus-related periodicities. Three experiments investigated the specificity of the FFR for carrier and modulation frequency using adaptation. FFR waveforms evoked by alternating-polarity stimuli were averaged for each polarity and added, to enhance envelope, or subtracted, to enhance temporal fine structure information. The first experiment investigated peristimulus adaptation of the FFR for pure and complex tones as a function of stimulus frequency and fundamental frequency (F0). It showed more adaptation of the FFR in response to sounds with higher frequencies or F0s than to sounds with lower frequency or F0s. The second experiment investigated tuning to modulation rate in the FFR. The FFR to a complex tone with a modulation rate of 213 Hz was not reduced more by an adaptor that had the same modulation rate than by an adaptor with a different modulation rate (90 or 504 Hz), thus providing no evidence that the FFR originates mainly from neurons that respond selectively to the modulation rate of the stimulus. The third experiment investigated tuning to audio frequency in the FFR using pure tones. An adaptor that had the same frequency as the target (213 or 504 Hz) did not generally reduce the FFR to the target more than an adaptor that differed in frequency (by 1.24 octaves). Thus, there was no evidence that the FFR originated mainly from neurons tuned to the frequency of the target. Instead, the results are consistent with the suggestion that the FFR for low-frequency pure tones at medium to high levels mainly originates from neurons tuned to higher frequencies. Implications for the use and interpretation of the FFR are discussed. PMID:26162415

  6. Complex electrical properties of shale as a function of frequency and water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adisoemarta, Paulus Suryono

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the change in complex electrical permittivity of shale as a function of water content. An experimental research program has been initiated to investigate the electrical properties of swelling shales, shales that have been exposed to water and are therefore expanding, across a wide frequency range, 5 Hz to 1.3 GHz. This range spans the spectrum of the commonly used down-hole logging measurements from the deep laterologs to the microwave dielectric tools. Two distinct measurement techniques have been used to span the range: four-electrode with balanced bridge for the low frequencies, and open-ended coaxial probe with network analyzer at the high end. The probe technique is simple to use, potentially enabling field measurements of complex permittivity to be taken, although some accuracy is sacrificed. The effects of swelling are most pronounced at the lowest frequencies. This investigation discovered a phenomenon of shale: it will generate a direct electrical current under stress that has a potential for a wellbore diagnostic tool. Also the best fluid for shale preservation was found to be Isopar M TM, a mineral oil saturated with deionized water.

  7. Frequency-domain Green's functions for radar waves in heterogeneous 2.5D media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Green's functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. Wave propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and wave propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic function. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens functions is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's functions. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's functions might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation transfer function measurement of charge-coupled devices using frequency-variable fringe patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liefeng; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai

    2008-03-01

    Although there are various methods to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) of charge-coupled devices (CCD), the interferometric fringe pattern method has advantages over others, such as canted slit sources, bar targets, knife-edge, laser-speckle patterns, random noise pattern, etc. Our interferometric method is relatively simple and versatile: It requires no critical optics and no focusing or precision alignment, the entry array is tested, the contrast ratio of the test pattern is high enough, the spatial frequency of the fringe pattern can vary continuously. Our method generates the formation of a sinusoidal intensity fringe pattern by the interference of two monochromatic plane waves, and straightforward projects it onto the CCD array under test. The construction of the experimental device is based on the Fresnel Double-Mirror structure. A 2.5 mw He-Ne laser with the wavelength of 632.8 nm is used as the light source, the laser beam is spatially filtered by a 10 μm pinhole and expanded to a diameter of 30 mm, and the resulting wave front is divided by two mirrors, which incline to each other at a small angle, and interfered. One of the mirrors is rotatable to vary the frequency of the pattern. The CCD array is mounted on a stage, which is also rotatable to make that the CCD array takes different angle with the fringe pattern direction, to receive the patterns. With the method we provided, the spatial frequency can be extended to some 2 times the Nyquist frequency of the CCD array to study the aliasing effect. In the Cartesian coordinates, the x- and y- axis MTFs (at angle 0° and 90°) of the CCD array were measured, the other three MTFs (at angle 26.56°, 45° and 63.44°), which nobody has done before, were also tested offering a more comprehensive characterization of the CCD array.

  9. In vitro characterization of HCN channel kinetics and frequency dependence in myocytes predicts biological pacemaker functionality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Bucchi, Annalisa; Oren, Ronit V; Kryukova, Yelena; Dun, Wen; Clancy, Colleen E; Robinson, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    The pacemaker current, mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, contributes to the initiation and regulation of cardiac rhythm. Previous experiments creating HCN-based biological pacemakers in vivo found that an engineered HCN2/HCN1 chimeric channel (HCN212) resulted in significantly faster rates than HCN2, interrupted by 1-5 s pauses. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in HCN212 and HCN2 in vivo functionality as biological pacemakers, we studied newborn rat ventricular myocytes over-expressing either HCN2 or HCN212 channels. The HCN2- and HCN212-over-expressing myocytes manifest similar voltage dependence, current density and sensitivity to saturating cAMP concentrations, but HCN212 has faster activation/deactivation kinetics. Compared with HCN2, myocytes expressing HCN212 exhibit a faster spontaneous rate and greater incidence of irregular rhythms (i.e. periods of rapid spontaneous rate followed by pauses). To explore these rhythm differences further, we imposed consecutive pacing and found that activation kinetics of the two channels are slower at faster pacing frequencies. As a result, time-dependent HCN current flowing during diastole decreases for both constructs during a train of stimuli at a rapid frequency, with the effect more pronounced for HCN2. In addition, the slower deactivation kinetics of HCN2 contributes to more pronounced instantaneous current at a slower frequency. As a result of the frequency dependence of both instantaneous and time-dependent current, HCN2 exhibits more robust negative feedback than HCN212, contributing to the maintenance of a stable pacing rhythm. These results illustrate the benefit of screening HCN constructs in spontaneously active myocyte cultures and may provide the basis for future optimization of HCN-based biological pacemakers. PMID:19171659

  10. Frequency response functions of shape features from full-field vibration measurements using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weizhuo; Mottershead, John E.; Siebert, Thorsten; Pipino, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The availability of high speed digital cameras has enabled three-dimensional (3D) vibration measurement by stereography and digital image correlation (DIC). The 3D DIC technique provides non-contact full-field measurements on complex surfaces whereas conventional modal testing methods employ point-wise frequency response functions. It is proposed to identify the modal properties by utilising the domain-wise responses captured by a DIC system. This idea will be illustrated by a case study in the form a car bonnet of 3D irregular shape typical of many engineering structures. The full-field measured data are highly redundant, but the application of image processing using functional transformation enables the extraction of a small number of shape features without any significant loss of information from the raw DIC data. The complex bonnet surface on which the displacement responses are measured is essentially a 2-manifold. It is possible to apply surface parameterisation to 'flatten' the 3D surface to form a 2D planar domain. Well-developed image processing techniques are defined on planar domains and used to extract features from the displacement patterns on the surface of a specimen. An adaptive geometric moment descriptor (AGMD), defined on surface parametric space, is able to extract shape features from a series of full-field transient responses under random excitation. Results show the effectiveness of the AGMD and the obtained shape features are demonstrated to be succinct and efficient. Approximately 14 thousand data points of raw DIC measurement are represented by 20 shape feature terms at each time step. Shape-descriptor frequency response functions (SD-FRFs) of the response field and the loading field are derived in the shape feature space. It is seen that the SD-FRF has a similar format to the conventional receptance FRF. The usual modal identification procedure is applied to determine the natural frequencies, damping factors and eigen-shape-feature vectors

  11. Functions, lifetime frequency, and variety of methods of non-suicidal self-injury among college students.

    PubMed

    Saraff, Pooja D; Pepper, Carolyn M

    2014-10-30

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and intrapersonal functions of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have both been found to have strong relationships with NSSI. The present study examines their role in the lifetime frequency and variety of NSSI methods, taken as indicators of severity of NSSI. We hypothesized that intrapersonal functions would explain frequency and variety of NSSI beyond the effects of interpersonal functions. Further we hypothesized that intrapersonal functions would moderate the effect of BPD characteristics on frequency of NSSI. College students (n=52) who endorsed at least one lifetime act of NSSI completed self-report measures and semi-structured interviews about NSSI behaviors, frequency, variety and functions, and BPD symptoms. Results supported the hypotheses that intrapersonal functions play a role in the lifetime frequency and variety of NSSI behaviors in addition to that of interpersonal functions, but did not support the role of intrapersonal functions as a moderator. Findings are discussed in terms of relative importance of all factors involved in explaining severity of NSSI, measured as lifetime frequency and variety. PMID:24947915

  12. A rare functional cardioprotective APOC3 variant has risen in frequency in distinct population isolates

    PubMed Central

    Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Dedoussis, George; Southam, Lorraine; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xifara, Dionysia K.; Matchan, Angela; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Rayner, Nigel W.; Chen, Yuan; Pollin, Toni I.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Kiagiadaki, Chrysoula; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Moutsianas, Loukas; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; Tyler-Smith, Chris; McVean, Gil; Xue, Yali; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Isolated populations can empower the identification of rare variation associated with complex traits through next generation association studies, but the generalizability of such findings remains unknown. Here we genotype 1,267 individuals from a Greek population isolate on the Illumina HumanExome Beadchip, in search of functional coding variants associated with lipids traits. We find genome-wide significant evidence for association between R19X, a functional variant in APOC3, with increased high-density lipoprotein and decreased triglycerides levels. Approximately 3.8% of individuals are heterozygous for this cardioprotective variant, which was previously thought to be private to the Amish founder population. R19X is rare (<0.05% frequency) in outbred European populations. The increased frequency of R19X enables discovery of this lipid traits signal at genome-wide significance in a small sample size. This work exemplifies the value of isolated populations in successfully detecting transferable rare variant associations of high medical relevance. PMID:24343240

  13. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  14. Effect of shunted piezoelectric control for tuning piezoelectric power harvesting system responses—analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumentut, M. F.; Howard, I. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents new analytical modelling of shunt circuit control responses for tuning electromechanical piezoelectric vibration power harvesting structures with proof mass offset. For this combination, the dynamic closed-form boundary value equations reduced from strong form variational principles were developed using the extended Hamiltonian principle to formulate the new coupled orthonormalized electromechanical power harvesting equations showing combinations of the mechanical system (dynamical behaviour of piezoelectric structure), electromechanical system (electrical piezoelectric response) and electrical system (tuning and harvesting circuits). The reduced equations can be further formulated to give the complete forms of new electromechanical multi-mode frequency response functions and the time waveform of the standard AC-DC circuit interface. The proposed technique can demonstrate self-adaptive harvesting response capabilities for tuning the frequency band and the power amplitude of the harvesting devices. The self-adaptive tuning strategies are demonstrated by modelling the shunt circuit behaviour of the piezoelectric control layer in order to optimize the harvesting piezoelectric layer during operation under input base excitation. In such situations, with proper tuning parameters the system performance can be substantially improved. Moreover, the validation of the closed-form technique is also provided by developing the Ritz method-based weak form analytical approach giving similar results. Finally, the parametric analytical studies have been explored to identify direct and relevant contributions for vibration power harvesting behaviours.

  15. A novel auto-tuning method for fractional order PI/PD controllers.

    PubMed

    De Keyser, Robin; Muresan, Cristina I; Ionescu, Clara M

    2016-05-01

    Fractional order PID controllers benefit from an increasing amount of interest from the research community due to their proven advantages. The classical tuning approach for these controllers is based on specifying a certain gain crossover frequency, a phase margin and a robustness to gain variations. To tune the fractional order controllers, the modulus, phase and phase slope of the process at the imposed gain crossover frequency are required. Usually these values are obtained from a mathematical model of the process, e.g. a transfer function. In the absence of such model, an auto-tuning method that is able to estimate these values is a valuable alternative. Auto-tuning methods are among the least discussed design methods for fractional order PID controllers. This paper proposes a novel approach for the auto-tuning of fractional order controllers. The method is based on a simple experiment that is able to determine the modulus, phase and phase slope of the process required in the computation of the controller parameters. The proposed design technique is simple and efficient in ensuring the robustness of the closed loop system. Several simulation examples are presented, including the control of processes exhibiting integer and fractional order dynamics. PMID:26903289

  16. Functional Characterization of MODY2 Mutations Highlights the Importance of the Fine-Tuning of Glucokinase and Its Role in Glucose Sensing

    PubMed Central

    García-Herrero, Carmen-María; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Azriel, Sharona; Gutierrez-Nogués, Angel; Aragonés, Angel; Vincent, Olivier; Campos-Barros, Angel; Argente, Jesús; Navas, María-Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) acts as a glucose sensor in the pancreatic beta-cell and regulates insulin secretion. Heterozygous mutations in the human GK-encoding GCK gene that reduce the activity index increase the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion threshold and cause familial, mild fasting hyperglycaemia, also known as Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 2 (MODY2). Here we describe the biochemical characterization of five missense GK mutations: p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, p.His416Arg and p.Ala449Thr. The enzymatic analysis of the corresponding bacterially expressed GST-GK mutant proteins show that all of them impair the kinetic characteristics of the enzyme. In keeping with their position within the protein, mutations p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, and p.His416Arg strongly decrease the activity index of GK, affecting to one or more kinetic parameters. In contrast, the p.Ala449Thr mutation, which is located in the allosteric activator site, does not affect significantly the activity index of GK, but dramatically modifies the main kinetic parameters responsible for the function of this enzyme as a glucose sensor. The reduced Kcat of the mutant (3.21±0.28 s−1 vs 47.86±2.78 s−1) is balanced by an increased glucose affinity (S0.5 = 1.33±0.08 mM vs 7.86±0.09 mM) and loss of cooperativity for this substrate. We further studied the mechanism by which this mutation impaired GK kinetics by measuring the differential effects of several competitive inhibitors and one allosteric activator on the mutant protein. Our results suggest that this mutation alters the equilibrium between the conformational states of glucokinase and highlights the importance of the fine-tuning of GK and its role in glucose sensing. PMID:22291974

  17. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone.

    PubMed

    Thap, Tharoeun; Chung, Heewon; Jeong, Changwon; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV₁/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs). For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE) and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of the FEV₁/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and short-time Fourier transform (STFT), and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and peak expiratory flow (PEF), regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and -0.257, respectively, while FEV₁/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject's familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone. PMID:27548164

  18. Propagation of the two-frequency coherence function in an inhomogeneous background random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, Alexander; Bronshtein, Alexander; Mazar, Reuven

    2004-07-01

    The spatial and temporal structures of time-dependent signals can be appreciably affected by random changes of the parameters of the medium characteristic of almost all geophysical environments. The dispersive properties of random media cause distortions in the propagating signal, particularly in pulse broadening and time delay. When there is also spatial variation of the background refractive index, the observer can be accessed by a number of background rays. In order to compute the pulse characteristics along each separate ray, there is a need to know the behaviour of the two-frequency mutual coherence function. In this work, we formulate the equation of the two-frequency mutual coherence function along a curved background ray trajectory. To solve this equation, a recently developed reference-wave method is applied. This method is based on embedding the problem into a higher dimensional space and is accompanied by the introduction of additional coordinates. Choosing a proper transform of the extended coordinate system allows us to emphasize 'fast' and 'slow' varying coordinates which are consequently normalized to the scales specific to a given type of problem. Such scaling usually reveals the important expansion parameters defined as ratios of the characteristic scales and allows us to present the proper ordering of terms in the desired equation. The performance of the main order solution is demonstrated for the homogeneous background case when the transverse structure function of the medium can be approximated by a quadratic term. This article is dedicated to the memory of Professor Reuven Mazar, a top notch scientist, whose creativity influenced many random media researchers. Professor Mazar passed away suddenly a few weeks before the publication of this paper.

  19. The Effect of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection on BDCA3+ Dendritic Cell Frequency and Function

    PubMed Central

    van der Aa, Evelyn; Buschow, Sonja I.; Biesta, Paula J.; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Woltman, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection results from inadequate HBV-specific immunity. BDCA3+ dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells considered to be important for antiviral responses because of specific characteristics, including high interferon-λ production. BDCA3+ DCs may thus also have a role in the immune response against HBV, and immunotherapeutic strategies aiming to activate DCs, including BDCA3+ DCs, in patient livers may represent an interesting treatment option for chronic HBV. However, neither the effect of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection on the frequency and function of BDCA3+ DCs in liver and blood, nor the effect of the viral surface protein (HBsAg) that is abundantly present in blood of infected individuals are known. Here, we provide an overview of BDCA3+ DC frequency and functional capacity in CHB patients. We find that intrahepatic BDCA3+ DC numbers are increased in CHB patients. BDCA3+ DCs from patient blood are not more mature at steady state, but display an impaired capacity to mature and to produce interferon-λ upon polyI:C stimulation. Furthermore, in vitro experiments exposing blood and intrahepatic BDCA3+ DCs to the viral envelope protein HBsAg demonstrate that HBsAg does not directly induce phenotypical maturation of BDCA3+ DCs, but may reduce IFN-λ production via an indirect unknown mechanism. These results suggest that BDCA3+ DCs are available in the blood and on site in HBV infected livers, but measures may need to be taken to revive their function for DC-targeted therapy. PMID:27529176

  20. TUNE: Compiler-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-18

    This project has developed compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 Jaguar system at Oak Ridge, which has multi-core Opteron nodes with SSE-3 SIMD extensions, and the Cray XE6 Hopper system at NERSC. To achieve this goal, we combined compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation, which have been developed by the PIs over the past several years. We examined DOE Office of Science applications to identify performance bottlenecks and apply our system to computational kernels that operate on dense arrays. Our goal for this performance-tuning technology has been to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, we aim to make our technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  1. Tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling cryogenic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Tuito, Avi

    2016-05-01

    Tuned dynamic absorbers (TDA) find use, in particular, for attenuating tonal vibration export produced by the moving components of cryogenic cooler. For the best performance, the resonant frequency of TDA needs to be essentially equal the driving frequency; accurate frequency match is favorably achieved by minimizing the cooler induced vibration by adjusting the driving frequency. For the best performance, the design of TDA needs to ensure minimum damping ratio; this is achievable by using planar flexural bearings having zero friction anchoring features. Accurate evaluation of effective mass, damping ratio and frequency is needed for TDA characterization during development and manufacturing. This data may be also important for the dynamic modelling. The authors are exploring the express method requiring no physical access to the proof mass of TDA. In this approach, the TDA is mounted upon the low frequency vibration mounted rod, the dynamic properties of TDA are then evaluated using the frequency response function - local accelerance - captured on the above rod using accelerometer, instrumented modal hammer and dual-channel signal analyzer. The authors are presenting the TDA design, outcomes of full-scale experimentation on dynamic properties evaluation and attained performance.

  2. Amplitude dependence of the tune shift

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1986-03-01

    Recent studies in the Tevatron have measured the tune shift as a function of the displacement from a closed orbit. The measured values of tune shift were found to be much smaller than one would expect from the measured distribution of the normal octupole moments in the Tevatron. Tracking studies performed to see if, and under what conditions, the observed results could be obtained are reported. The effect of linear coupling is taken into consideration, and is found to significantly reduce the coefficient of the tune shift. The dependence of the tune shift on the initial coordinate of a particle in the presence of a distribution of octupole moments is calculated. The ''smear'' is calculated as a function of linear coupling. (LEW)

  3. Non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity assessment using wavelet transfer function-based time-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Keissar, K; Maestri, R; Pinna, G D; La Rovere, M T; Gilad, O

    2010-07-01

    A novel approach for the estimation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is introduced based on time-frequency analysis of the transfer function (TF). The TF method (TF-BRS) is a well-established non-invasive technique which assumes stationarity. This condition is difficult to meet, especially in cardiac patients. In this study, the classical TF was replaced with a wavelet transfer function (WTF) and the classical coherence was replaced with wavelet transform coherence (WTC), adding the time domain as an additional degree of freedom with dynamic error estimation. Error analysis and comparison between WTF-BRS and TF-BRS were performed using simulated signals with known transfer function and added noise. Similar comparisons were performed for ECG and blood pressure signals, in the supine position, of 19 normal subjects, 44 patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction (MI) and 45 patients with chronic heart failure. This yielded an excellent linear association (R > 0.94, p < 0.001) for time-averaged WTF-BRS, validating the new method as consistent with a known method. The additional advantage of dynamic analysis of coherence and TF estimates was illustrated in two physiological examples of supine rest and change of posture showing the evolution of BRS synchronized with its error estimations and sympathovagal balance. PMID:20585147

  4. 21 CFR 882.1525 - Tuning fork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tuning fork. 882.1525 Section 882.1525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a mechanical device which resonates at a given frequency and is used to diagnose hearing...

  5. A Fast Method of Transforming Relaxation Functions Into the Frequency Domain

    PubMed Central

    Mopsik, Frederick I.

    1999-01-01

    The limits to the error due to truncation of the numeric integration of the one-sided Laplace transform of a relaxation function in the time domain into its equivalent frequency domain are established. Separate results are given for large and small ω. These results show that, for a given ω, only a restricted range of time samples is needed to perform the computation to a given accuracy. These results are then combined with a known error estimate for integration by cubic splines to give a good estimate for the number of points needed to perform the computation to a given accuracy. For a given data window between t1 and t2, the computation time is shown to be proportional to ln(t1/t2).

  6. A new iterative model updating method using incomplete frequency response function data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Xianyue; Chai, Shan; Allemang, Randall J.; Li, Lijun

    2014-04-01

    A new iterative model updating method is proposed for reduced model using incomplete frequency response function (FRF) data. It uses a modified difference vector between the analytical and experimental FRF data to construct a linear sensitivity updating equation system. To improve the convergence performance of the proposed algorithm, a concept of pseudo master degree-of-freedom (DOF) is put forward and the finite element (FE) model is reduced to the measured and user selected pseudo DOFs. The FRFs at pseudo master DOFs are estimated using the impedance matrix of iteratively modified analytical model and the measured FRFs at master DOFs. They are only used to improve the sensitivity matrix and difference calculation between the analytical and experimental FRF data without introducing additional difference equation. At the end, a 25 truss structure is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.

  7. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  8. Modal analysis using a Fourier analyzer, curve-fitting, and modal tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed modal test program differs from single-input methods in that preliminary data may be acquired using multiple inputs, and modal tuning procedures may be employed to define closely spaced frquency modes more accurately or to make use of frequency response functions (FRF's) which are based on several input locations. In some respects the proposed modal test proram resembles earlier sine-sweep and sine-dwell testing in that broadband FRF's are acquired using several input locations, and tuning is employed to refine the modal parameter estimates. The major tasks performed in the proposed modal test program are outlined. Data acquisition and FFT processing, curve fitting, and modal tuning phases are described and examples are given to illustrate and evaluate them.

  9. Optimal Pid Tuning for Power System Stabilizers Using Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oonsivilai, Anant; Marungsri, Boonruang

    2008-10-01

    An application of the intelligent search technique to find optimal parameters of power system stabilizer (PSS) considering proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) for a single-machine infinite-bus system is presented. Also, an efficient intelligent search technique, adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO), is engaged to express usefulness of the intelligent search techniques in tuning of the PID—PSS parameters. Improve damping frequency of system is optimized by minimizing an objective function with adaptive particle swarm optimization. At the same operating point, the PID—PSS parameters are also tuned by the Ziegler-Nichols method. The performance of proposed controller compared to the conventional Ziegler-Nichols PID tuning controller. The results reveal superior effectiveness of the proposed APSO based PID controller.

  10. Measurement of the Ion Distribution Function in a Dual Frequency Plasma Etch Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Kushner, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The ion energy distribution function, (IEDF) was measured in detail in an industrial etch tool. The plasma was made with an ICP source (440 kHz, 500 W) and two independently controlled bias sources. The Si wafer was placed on a ceramic electrostatic chuck with an embedded capacitor plate. The first source ran at 2.2 MHz (600 Vpp and 2500 W) with a maximum sheath potential drop of 650 V or 2000V. The second source ran at 19 MHz with Vpp of 600 V. The principal diagnostic was Laser Induced Fluorescence on Argon using 611.49 nm light from a tunable dye laser with ions responding to Doppler shifted light. Using cylindrical lens combinations the laser light was transformed into a sheet 15 cm wide and 0.5 cm thick. The beam could be transverse or parallel to the normal of the wafer. The glowing ions (at 461 nm) were photographed by a CCD camera with 400 micron resolution. The laser was phase locked to the 2.2 MHz rf and the IDDF measured as a function of radial position, height above the wafer and at 8 phases. With Vpp = 600 V the highest energy ions observed were 500 eV, 1.2 mm above the wafer. These observations as well as the angular distribution agreed well with a computer simulation. In the dual frequency case when the potential of the wafer was most negative wrt the bulk plasma the IEDF structure 0.8 mm above the wafer was well fitted by 4 Gaussians. The ion flux to the wafer was far more uniform in the dual frequency case. This research supported by the NSF and DOE.

  11. Resistive Fine Tuning of Resonant Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Simple fixed-inductance/fixed-capacitance tank circuit modified for fine adjustment of resonant frequency by addition of small inductance with potentiometer across it. Additional winding built into full winding as integral part or added externally. Technique provides quick way of tuning reactance out of power-transformer circuit to maximize power transfer or to adjust frequency of oscillator. Applications include rotary transformers, servo amplifiers, and analog computer modules.

  12. Sample Skewness as a Statistical Measurement of Neuronal Tuning Sharpness

    PubMed Central

    Samonds, Jason M.; Potetz, Brian R.; Lee, Tai Sing

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the statistical measurement of the sample skewness of the distribution of mean firing rates of a tuning curve to quantify sharpness of tuning. For some features, like binocular disparity, tuning curves are best described by relatively complex and sometimes diverse functions, making it difficult to quantify sharpness with a single function and parameter. Skewness provides a robust nonparametric measure of tuning curve sharpness that is invariant with respect to the mean and variance of the tuning curve and is straightforward to apply to a wide range of tuning, including simple orientation tuning curves and complex object tuning curves that often cannot even be described parametrically. Because skewness does not depend on a specific model or function of tuning, it is especially appealing to cases of sharpening where recurrent interactions among neurons produce sharper tuning curves that deviate in a complex manner from the feedforward function of tuning. Since tuning curves for all neurons are not typically well described by a single parametric function, this model independence additionally allows skewness to be applied to all recorded neurons, maximizing the statistical power of a set of data. We also compare skewness with other nonparametric measures of tuning curve sharpness and selectivity. Compared to these other nonparametric measures tested, skewness is best used for capturing the sharpness of multimodal tuning curves defined by narrow peaks (maximum) and broad valleys (minima). Finally, we provide a more formal definition of sharpness using a shape-based information gain measure and derive and show that skewness is correlated with this definition. PMID:24555451

  13. Simultaneous recording of stimulus-frequency and distortion-product otoacoustic emission input-output functions in human ears.

    PubMed

    Schairer, Kim S; Keefe, Douglas H

    2005-02-01

    Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE) input-output (I/O) functions were elicited in normal-hearing adults using unequal-frequency primaries in equal-level and fixed-suppressor level (Ls) conditions. Responses were repeatable and similar across a range of primary frequency ratios in the fixed-Ls condition. In comparison to equal-frequency primary conditions [Schairer, Fitzpatrick, and Keefe, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 944-966 (2003)], the unequal-frequency, fixed-Ls condition appears to be more useful for characterizing SFOAE response growth and relating it to basilar-membrane response growth, and for testing the ability to predict audiometric thresholds. Simultaneously recorded distortion-product OAE (DPOAE) I/O functions had higher thresholds than SFOAE I/O functions, and they identified the onset of the nonlinear-distortion mechanism in SFOAEs. DPOAE threshold often corresponded to nonmonotonicities in SFOAE I/O functions. This suggests that the level-dependent nonmonotonicities and associated phase shifts in SFOAE I/O functions were due to varying degrees of cancellation of two sources of SFOAE, such as coherent reflection and distortion mechanisms. Level-dependent noise was observed on-band (at the frequencies of the stimuli) but not off-band, or in the DPOAEs. The variability was observed in ears with normal hearing and ears with cochlear implants. In general, these results indicate the source of the variability is biological, possibly from within the middle ear. PMID:15759702

  14. Functional shape of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution and completeness magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the functional shape of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution (FMD) to identify its dependence on the completeness magnitude Mc. The FMD takes the form N(m) ∝ exp(-βm)q(m) where N(m) is the event number, m the magnitude, exp(-βm) the Gutenberg-Richter law and q(m) a detection function. q(m) is commonly defined as the cumulative Normal distribution to describe the gradual curvature of bulk FMDs. Recent results however suggest that this gradual curvature is due to Mc heterogeneities, meaning that the functional shape of the elemental FMD has yet to be described. We propose a detection function of the form q(m) = exp(κ(m - Mc)) for m < Mc and q(m) = 1 for m ≥ Mc, which leads to an FMD of angular shape. The two FMD models are compared in earthquake catalogs from Southern California and Nevada and in synthetic catalogs. We show that the angular FMD model better describes the elemental FMD and that the sum of elemental angular FMDs leads to the gradually curved bulk FMD. We propose an FMD shape ontology consisting of 5 categories depending on the Mc spatial distribution, from Mc constant to Mc highly heterogeneous: (I) Angular FMD, (II) Intermediary FMD, (III) Intermediary FMD with multiple maxima, (IV) Gradually curved FMD and (V) Gradually curved FMD with multiple maxima. We also demonstrate that the gradually curved FMD model overestimates Mc. This study provides new insights into earthquake detectability properties by using seismicity as a proxy and the means to accurately estimate Mc in any given volume.

  15. Design and Calibration of an Airborne Multichannel Swept-Tuned Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Diamond, John K.; Bertelrud, Arild

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design and calibration of a four-channel, airborne, swept-tuned spectrum analyzer used in two hypersonic flight experiments for characterizing dynamic data up to 25 kHz. Built mainly from commercially available analog function modules, the analyzer proved useful for an application with limited telemetry bandwidth, physical weight and volume, and electrical power. The authors discuss considerations that affect the frequency and amplitude calibrations, limitations of the design, and example flight data.

  16. Precision and Fast Wavelength Tuning of a Dynamically Phase-Locked Widely-Tunable Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    We report a precision and fast wavelength tuning technique demonstrated for a digital-supermode distributed Bragg reflector laser. The laser was dynamically offset-locked to a frequency-stabilized master laser using an optical phase-locked loop, enabling precision fast tuning to and from any frequencies within a 40-GHz tuning range. The offset frequency noise was suppressed to the statically offset-locked level in less than 40 s upon each frequency switch, allowing the laser to retain the absolute frequency stability of the master laser. This technique satisfies stringent requirements for gas sensing lidars and enables other applications that require such well-controlled precision fast tuning.

  17. Piezoelectric-tuned microwave cavity for absorption spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Leskovar, Branko; Buscher, Harold T.; Kolbe, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Gas samples are analyzed for pollutants in a microwave cavity that is provided with two highly polished walls. One wall of the cavity is mechanically driven with a piezoelectric transducer at a low frequency to tune the cavity over a band of microwave frequencies in synchronism with frequency modulated microwave energy applied to the cavity. Absorption of microwave energy over the tuned frequencies is detected, and energy absorption at a particular microwave frequency is an indication of a particular pollutant in the gas sample.

  18. Otoacoustic Estimation of Cochlear Tuning: Validation in the Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Guinan, John J.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze published auditory-nerve and otoacoustic measurements in chinchilla to test a network of hypothesized relationships between cochlear tuning, cochlear traveling-wave delay, and stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs). We find that the physiological data generally corroborate the network of relationships, including predictions from filter theory and the coherent-reflection model of OAE generation, at locations throughout the cochlea. The results support the use of otoacoustic emissions as noninvasive probes of cochlear tuning. Developing this application, we find that tuning ratios—defined as the ratio of tuning sharpness to SFOAE phase-gradient delay in periods—have a nearly species-invariant form in cat, guinea pig, and chinchilla. Analysis of the tuning ratios identifies a species-dependent parameter that locates a transition between “apical-like” and “basal-like” behavior involving multiple aspects of cochlear physiology. Approximate invariance of the tuning ratio allows determination of cochlear tuning from SFOAE delays. We quantify the procedure and show that otoacoustic estimates of chinchilla cochlear tuning match direct measures obtained from the auditory nerve. By assuming that invariance of the tuning ratio extends to humans, we derive new otoacoustic estimates of human cochlear tuning that remain mutually consistent with independent behavioral measurements obtained using different rationales, methodologies, and analysis procedures. The results confirm that at any given characteristic frequency (CF) human cochlear tuning appears sharper than that in the other animals studied, but varies similarly with CF. We show, however, that the exceptionality of human tuning can be exaggerated by the ways in which species are conventionally compared, which take no account of evident differences between the base and apex of the cochlea. Finally, our estimates of human tuning suggest that the spatial spread of excitation of a pure tone

  19. Toward self-tuning adaptive vibration-based microgenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, Shad; Zhang, Yang

    2005-02-01

    The rapidly decreasing size, cost, and power consumption of wireless sensors has opened up the relatively new research field of energy harvesting. Recent years have seen an increasing amount of research on using ambient vibrations as a power source. An important feature of all of these generators is that they depend on the resonance frequency of the generator device being matched with the frequency of the input vibrations. The goal of this paper, therefore, is to explore solutions to the problem of self-tuning vibration based energy harvesters. A distinction is made between "active" tuning actuators that must continuously supply power to achieve the resonance frequency change, and "passive" tuning actuators that supply power initially to tune the frequency, and then are able to "turn off" while maintaining the new resonance frequency. This paper analyzes the feasibility of tuning the resonance frequency of vibration based generators with "active" tuning actuators. Actuators that can tune the effective stiffness, mass, and damping are analyzed theoretically. Numerical results based for each type of actuator are presented. It is shown that only actuators that tune the effective damping will result in a net increase in power output, and only under the circumstance that no actuation power is needed to add damping. The net increase in power occurs when the mismatch between driving vibrations the mismatch between driving vibrations the resonance frequency of the device is more than 5%. Finally, the theory and numerical results are validated by experiments done on a piezoelectric generator with a smart material "active" tuning actuator.

  20. Functionalized nanowire-based antigen detection using frequency-based signals.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Cong; Qiu, Wanzhi Z; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    As part of clinical diagnosis, a clinician is required to detect disease causing antigens, bacteria, or viruses in serum, saliva, or other biological samples. Usually, this requires the sample to be sent to a pathology laboratory for analysis. Silicon nanowires can be made into sensitive molecular sensors. When being functionalized with antibodies, they are capable of detecting femto molar concentrations of antigens in real time. Biological molecules at a pH different from their isoelectric point exhibit a net charge. When an antigen attaches to the antibody on the nanowire, the net charged on the antigen displaces free carriers in the nanowire changing its conductance. To date, detection methods have been based upon directly measuring the change in dc conductance. This is difficult and requires sensitive low-noise amplifiers and high-resolution analog-to-digital converters. This is not ideal for low-cost and highly integrated systems. In this paper, it is demonstrated that nanowires exhibit an ac-transfer function that resembles that of a high-pass filter. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time this effect has been reported. Furthermore, it is illustrated that as molecules with a higher net charge attach to the nanowire and displace more charge carriers within the nanowire channel, the filter's corner frequency decreases. This property of silicon nanowires is exploited to build a low-cost real-time antigen detection system. PMID:21968710

  1. Identification of hydrological neighborhoods for regional flood frequency analysis using statistical depth function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazneh, H.; Chebana, F.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2016-08-01

    The adoption of hydrological neighborhoods is one of the common approaches employed for the delineation step in regional frequency analysis (RFA). Traditional methods proposed for building hydrological neighborhoods are mainly based on distance metrics. These methods have some limitations. They are not robust against outliers, they are not affine invariant and they require site characteristics to be normally distributed. To overcome these limitations, the present paper aims to propose a new robust method to identify the neighborhood of a target site. The proposed method is based on the statistical notion of depth function. More precisely, a similarity measure derived from depth functions is used to compute the similarities between the target sites and the gauged ones. A data set from the southern part of the province of Quebec (Canada) is used to compare the proposed method with traditional ones. The obtained results indicate that the depth-based method leads to neighborhoods that are more homogeneous and more efficient for quantile estimation, than those obtained by traditional methods. The triangular shape of neighborhoods obtained by the proposed approach makes it practical and flexible.

  2. A DFT study on Cu(I) coordination in Cu-ZSM-5: Effects of the functional choice and tuning of the ONIOM approach.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, Simone

    2015-04-01

    The coordination of Cu(+) at the T1 and T7 positions of the M7 ring of Cu-ZSM-5, and the interaction of NO with coordinated Cu(+) were investigated by means of DFT/ONIOM calculations. The B3LYP, BLYP, PBE1PBE, PBE, M06, and M062X functionals with the def2-TZVP (def2-QZVP for Cu) basis set were used in the high-level part of ONIOM calculations, with the HF/3-21G, B3LYP/LANL2DZ, M06/LANL2DZ, and M062X/LANL2DZ methods in the low-level part. The ability of suitable combinations of the above methods to reproduce (i) the crystallographic structure of purely siliceous ZSM-5, (ii) the tendency of Cu(+) to be twofold or fourfold coordinated by framework oxygen atoms of Cu-ZSM-5, and (iii) the interaction energy and the N-O stretching frequency of adsorbed nitrogen oxide are discussed, showing that different results are obtained depending on the adopted computational approach. With reference to above properties, some considerations about the employment of the ONIOM approximations are also included. PMID:25684442

  3. Tune tracking with a PLL in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.

    2005-11-01

    The Tevatron tune tracker is based on the idea that the phase of the transverse frequency response of the beam can be measured quickly and accurately enough so that the phase at the betatron tune resonance can be tracked by a phase locked loop (PLL). In this paper, a mathematical model of this idea is discussed and is used as the basis for the realization of the tune tracker hardware. The tune tracker has been successfully tested under different beam conditions and is now operational in the Tevatron.

  4. A Numerical Optimization Approach for Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Garg, Devendra P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a method to tune fuzzy controllers using numerical optimization. The main attribute of this approach is that it allows fuzzy logic controllers to be tuned to achieve global performance requirements. Furthermore, this approach allows design constraints to be implemented during the tuning process. The method tunes the controller by parameterizing the membership functions for error, change-in-error and control output. The resulting parameters form a design vector which is iteratively changed to minimize an objective function. The minimal objective function results in an optimal performance of the system. A spacecraft mounted science instrument line-of-sight pointing control is used to demonstrate results.

  5. On the Tuning of High-Resolution NMR Probes

    PubMed Central

    Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Huber, Gaspard; Nausner, Martin; Horničáková, Michaela; Desvaux, Hervé; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Three optimum conditions for the tuning of NMR probes are compared: the conventional tuning optimum, which is based on radio-frequency pulse efficiency, the spin noise tuning optimum based on the line shape of the spin noise signal, and the newly introduced frequency shift tuning optimum, which minimizes the frequency pushing effect on strong signals. The latter results if the radiation damping feedback field is not in perfect quadrature to the precessing magnetization. According to the conventional RLC (resistor–inductor–capacitor) resonant circuit model, the optima should be identical, but significant deviations are found experimentally at low temperatures, in particular on cryogenically cooled probes. The existence of different optima with respect to frequency pushing and spin noise line shape has important consequences on the nonlinearity of spin dynamics at high polarization levels and the implementation of experiments on cold probes. PMID:25210000

  6. On the tuning of high-resolution NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Pöschko, Maria Theresia; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Huber, Gaspard; Nausner, Martin; Horničáková, Michaela; Desvaux, Hervé; Müller, Norbert

    2014-11-10

    Three optimum conditions for the tuning of NMR probes are compared: the conventional tuning optimum, which is based on radio-frequency pulse efficiency, the spin noise tuning optimum based on the line shape of the spin noise signal, and the newly introduced frequency shift tuning optimum, which minimizes the frequency pushing effect on strong signals. The latter results if the radiation damping feedback field is not in perfect quadrature to the precessing magnetization. According to the conventional RLC (resistor-inductor-capacitor) resonant circuit model, the optima should be identical, but significant deviations are found experimentally at low temperatures, in particular on cryogenically cooled probes. The existence of different optima with respect to frequency pushing and spin noise line shape has important consequences on the nonlinearity of spin dynamics at high polarization levels and the implementation of experiments on cold probes. PMID:25210000

  7. Little Known Facts about the Common Tuning Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, P. P.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the physical principles of the tuning fork which has a common use in teaching laboratories. Includes information on its vibration, frequency of vibration, elasticity, and reasons for having two prongs. (YDS)

  8. Acousto-optic filter for electronic laser tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    Electronically tunable lithium niobate filter utilizes acoustic-optic diffraction for tuning laser to desired frequencies. Filter placed inside laser cavity diffracts incident optical signal of one polarization into orthogonal polarization by collinearly propagating acoustic beam to desired wavelength.

  9. Structure based function prediction of proteins using fragment library frequency vectors

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Akshay; Jayaraman, Valadi Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    The function of the protein is primarily dictated by its structure. Therefore it is far more logical to find the functional clues of the protein in its overall 3-dimensional fold or its global structure. In this paper, we have developed a novel Support Vector Machines (SVM) based prediction model for functional classification and prediction of proteins using features extracted from its global structure based on fragment libraries. Fragment libraries have been previously used for abintio modelling of proteins and protein structure comparisons. The query protein structure is broken down into a collection of short contiguous backbone fragments and this collection is discretized using a library of fragments. The input feature vector is frequency vector that counts the number of each library fragment in the collection of fragments by all-to-all fragment comparisons. SVM models were trained and optimised for obtaining the best 10-fold Cross validation accuracy for classification. As an example, this method was applied for prediction and classification of Cell Adhesion molecules (CAMs). Thirty-four different fragment libraries with sizes ranging from 4 to 400 and fragment lengths ranging from 4 to 12 were used for obtaining the best prediction model. The best 10-fold CV accuracy of 95.25% was obtained for library of 400 fragments of length 10. An accuracy of 87.5% was obtained on an unseen test dataset consisting of 20 CAMs and 20 NonCAMs. This shows that protein structure can be accurately and uniquely described using 400 representative fragments of length 10. PMID:23144557

  10. Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment.

    PubMed

    Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction. PMID:26441146

  11. Effect of weak, interrupted sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field on neural regeneration in rats: functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bervar, Marijan

    2005-07-01

    A study of the effect of weak, interrupted sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field (ISMF) stimulation on regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve was carried out. In the experiment, 60 Wistar rats were used: 24 rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve transection injury and immediate surgical nerve repair, 24 rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, and the remaining 12 rats underwent a sham surgery. Half of the animals (n = 12) with either sciatic nerve lesion were randomly chosen and exposed between a pair of Helmholtz coils for 3 weeks post-injury, 4 h/day, to an interrupted (active period to pause ratio = 1.4 s/0.8 s) sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic field of 0.5 mT. The other half of the animals (n = 12) and six rats with sham surgery were used for two separate controls. Functional recovery was followed for 6 weeks for the crush injuries and 7(1/2) months for the transection injuries by video assisted footprint analysis in static conditions and quantified using a recently revised static sciatic index (SSI) formula. We ascertained that the magnetic field influence was weak, but certainly detectable in both injury models. The accuracy of ISMF influence detection, determined by the one-way repeated measures ANOVA test, was better for the crush injury model: F(1, 198) = 9.0144, P = .003, than for the transection injury model: F(1, 198) = 6.4826, P = .012. The Student-Newman-Keuls range test for each response day yielded significant differences (P < .05) between the exposed and control groups early in the beginning of functional recovery and later on from the points adjacent to the beginning of the plateau, or 95% of functional recovery, and the end of observation. These differences probably reflect the ISMF systemic effect on the neuron cell bodies and increased and more efficient reinnervation of the periphery. PMID:15887258

  12. Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Nicolas R; Fiddes, Lindsey K; Yan, Ning

    2015-06-10

    This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor. PMID:25993041

  13. Adaptive tuning of an electrodynamically driven thermoacoustic cooler.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoyu; Minner, Brian L; Chiu, George T C; Mongeau, Luc; Braun, James E

    2002-03-01

    The commercial development of thermoacoustic coolers has been hampered in part by their low efficiencies compared to vapor compression systems. A key component of electrodynamically driven coolers is the electromechanical transducer, or driver. The driver's electroacoustic transduction efficiency, defined as the ratio of the acoustic power delivered to the working gas by the moving piston and the electrical power supplied, must be maintained near its maximum value if a high overall system efficiency is to be achieved. Modeling and experiments have shown that the electroacoustic efficiency peaks sharply near the resonance frequency of the electro-mechano-acoustic system. The optimal operating frequency changes as the loading condition changes, and as the properties of the working gas vary. The driver efficiency may thus drop significantly during continuous operation at a fixed frequency. In this study, an on-line driver efficiency measurement scheme was implemented. It was found that the frequency for maximum electroacoustic efficiency does not precisely match any particular resonance frequency, and that the efficiency at resonance can be significantly lower than the highest achievable efficiency. Therefore, a direct efficiency measurement scheme was implemented and validated using a functional thermoacoustic cooler. An adaptive frequency-tuning scheme was then implemented. Experiments were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the control scheme to maintain the maximum achievable driver efficiency for varying operating conditions. PMID:11931301

  14. Habitable zones exposed: astrosphere collapse frequency as a function of stellar mass.

    PubMed

    Smith, David S; Scalo, John M

    2009-09-01

    Stellar astrospheres--the plasma cocoons carved out of the interstellar medium by stellar winds--are one of several buffers that partially screen planetary atmospheres and surfaces from high-energy radiation. Screening by astrospheres is continually influenced by the passage of stars through the fluctuating density field of the interstellar medium (ISM). The most extreme events occur inside dense interstellar clouds, where the increased pressure may compress an astrosphere to a size smaller than the liquid-water habitable-zone distance. Habitable planets then enjoy no astrospheric buffering from exposure to the full flux of galactic cosmic rays and interstellar dust and gas, a situation we call "descreening" or "astrospheric collapse." Under such conditions the ionization fraction in the atmosphere and contribution to radiation damage of putative coding organisms at the surface would increase significantly, and a series of papers have suggested a variety of global responses to descreening. These possibilities motivate a more careful calculation of the frequency of descreening events. Using a ram-pressure balance model, we compute the size of the astrosphere in the apex direction as a function of parent-star mass and velocity and ambient interstellar density, emphasizing the importance of gravitational focusing of the interstellar flow. The interstellar densities required to descreen planets in the habitable zone of solar- and subsolar-mass stars are found to be about 600(M/M[middle dot in circle])(-2) cm(-3) for the Sun's velocity relative to the local ISM. Such clouds are rare and small, indicating that descreening encounters are rare. We use statistics from two independent catalogues of dense interstellar clouds to derive a dependence of descreening frequency on the parent-star mass that decreases strongly with decreasing stellar mass, due to the weaker gravitational focusing and smaller habitable-zone distances for lower-mass stars. We estimate an uncertain

  15. Habitable Zones Exposed: Astrosphere Collapse Frequency as a Function of Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David S.; Scalo, John M.

    2009-09-01

    Stellar astrospheres -- the plasma cocoons carved out of the interstellar medium by stellar windsâ -- are one of several buffers that partially screen planetary atmospheres and surfaces from high-energy radiation. Screening by astrospheres is continually influenced by the passage of stars through the fluctuating density field of the interstellar medium (ISM). The most extreme events occur inside dense interstellar clouds, where the increased pressure may compress an astrosphere to a size smaller than the liquid-water habitable-zone distance. Habitable planets then enjoy no astrospheric buffering from exposure to the full flux of galactic cosmic rays and interstellar dust and gas, a situation we call "descreening" or "astrospheric collapse." Under such conditions the ionization fraction in the atmosphere and contribution to radiation damage of putative coding organisms at the surface would increase significantly, and a series of papers have suggested a variety of global responses to descreening. These possibilities motivate a more careful calculation of the frequency of descreening events. Using a ram-pressure balance model, we compute the size of the astrosphere in the apex direction as a function of parent-star mass and velocity and ambient interstellar density, emphasizing the importance of gravitational focusing of the interstellar flow. The interstellar densities required to descreen planets in the habitable zone of solar- and subsolar-mass stars are found to be about 600(M/M⊙)-2 cm-3 for the Sun's velocity relative to the local ISM. Such clouds are rare and small, indicating that descreening encounters are rare. We use statistics from two independent catalogues of dense interstellar clouds to derive a dependence of descreening frequency on the parent-star mass that decreases strongly with decreasing stellar mass, due to the weaker gravitational focusing and smaller habitable-zone distances for lower-mass stars. We estimate an uncertain upper limit to the

  16. Acoustic tuning of gas liquid scheme injectors for acoustic damping in a combustion chamber of a liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon; Park, I.-Sun; Kim, Seong-Ku; Jip Kim, Hong

    2007-07-01

    In a combustion chamber of a liquid rocket engine, acoustic fine-tuning of gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied numerically for acoustic stability by adopting a linear acoustic analysis. Injector length and blockage ratio at gas inlet are adjusted for fine-tuning. First, acoustic behavior in the combustor with a single injector is investigated and acoustic-damping effect of the injector is evaluated for cold condition by the quantitative parameter of damping factor as a function of injector length. From the numerical results, it is found that the injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping when it is tuned finely. The optimum tuning-length of the injector to maximize the damping capacity corresponds to half of a full wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling in the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. In baffled chamber, the optimum lengths of the injector are calculated as a function of baffle length for both cold and hot conditions. Next, in the combustor with numerous resonators, peculiar acoustic coupling between a combustion chamber and injectors is observed. As the injector length approaches a half-wavelength, the new injector-coupled acoustic mode shows up and thereby, the acoustic-damping effect of the tuned injectors is appreciably degraded. And, damping factor maintains a near-constant value with blockage ratio and then, decreases rapidly. Blockage ratio affects also acoustic damping and should be considered for acoustic tuning.

  17. Fuzzy tuning B-spline curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatah, Abd.; Rozaimi

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we will discuss about the construction of fuzzy tuning B-spline curve based on fuzzy set theory. The concept of fuzzy tuning in designing this B-spline curve is based on the uncertain knots values which has to be defined first and then the result will be blended together with B-spline function which exists in users presumption in deciding the best knots value of tuning. Therefore, fuzzy set theory especially fuzzy number concepts are used to define the uncertain knots values and then it will be become fuzzy knots values. The Result by using different values of fuzzy knots for constructing a fuzzy tuning of B-spline curves will be illustrated.

  18. Phase lock acquisition system having FLL for coarse tuning and PLL for fine tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, S. P.; Decker, M. J.; Jelen, R. A.

    1986-04-01

    The acquisition of phase lock to a reference frequency by a signal acquisition system is accomplished using a voltage controlled oscillator, a wideband frequency discriminator, a prepositioning circuit, and a phase lock loop. The voltage controlled oscillator is prepositioned within a loop bandwidth of the reference frequency by the prepositioning circuit and the wide band frequency discriminator which provide coarse tuning. The voltage controlled oscillator achieves phase lock with the reference frequency when it receives the fine tune signal from the phase lock loop. Using both the discriminator and the phase lock loop allows fast acquisition without the need to calibrate the voltage controlled oscillator. Since the discriminator pull-in range is much larger than the phase-lock loop bandwidth, the number of bits can be much smaller than in acquisition circuit using a digital prepositioning circuit alone.

  19. Saccade Preparation Reshapes Sensory Tuning.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Human observers make large rapid eye movements-saccades-to bring behaviorally relevant information into the fovea, where spatial resolution is high. In some visual tasks [1-4], performance at the location of a saccade target improves before the eyes move. Although these findings provide evidence that extra-retinal signals evoked by saccades can enhance visual perception, it remains unknown whether and how presaccadic modulations change the processing of feature information and thus modulate visual representations. To answer this question, one must go beyond the use of methods that only probe performance accuracy (d') in different tasks. Here, using a psychophysical reverse correlation approach [5-8], we investigated how saccade preparation influences the processing of orientation and spatial frequency-two building blocks of early vision. We found that saccade preparation selectively enhanced the gain of high spatial frequency information and narrowed orientation tuning at the upcoming saccade landing position. These modulations were time locked to saccade onset, peaking right before the eyes moved (-50-0 ms). Moreover, merely deploying covert attention within the same temporal interval without preparing a saccade did not alter performance. The observed presaccadic tuning changes may correspond to the presaccadic enhancement [9-11] and receptive field shifts reported in neurophysiological studies [12-14]. Saccade preparation may support transaccadic integration by reshaping the representation of the saccade target to be more fovea-like just before the eyes move. The presaccadic modulations on spatial frequency and orientation processing illustrate a strong perception-action coupling by revealing that the visual system dynamically reshapes feature selectivity contingent upon eye movements. PMID:27265397

  20. Vibrational frequency shifts of fluid nitrogen fundamental and hot band transitions as a function of pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.C.; Schiferl, D.; Zinn, A.S.; Ragan, D.D.; Moore, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy have been used to obtain vibrational spectra of shock-compressed and static high-pressure fluid nitrogen, respectively. Vibrational frequencies were obtained from the CARS data using a semiclassical model for these spectra. Spontaneous Raman vibrational frequencies were determined by fitting data using a Lorentz shape line. A functional form was found for the dependence of the vibrational frequency on pressure and temperature to 40 GPa and 5000 K, respectively. The result is compared to a recent theoretical model. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo O.; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Impedance metasurface is composed of electrical small scatters in two dimensional plane, of which the surface impedance can be designed to produce desired reflection phase. Tunable reflection phase can be achieved by incorporating active element into the scatters, but the tuning range of the reflection phase is limited. In this paper, an active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase control is presented to remove the phase tuning deficiency in conventional approach. The unit cell of the metasurface is a multiple resonance structure with two resonance poles and one resonance zero, capable of providing 360° reflection phase variation and active tuning within a finite frequency band. Linear reflection phase tuning can also be obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation are presented and validated by experiment at microwave frequency. The proposed approach can be applied to many cases where fine and full phase tuning is needed, such as beam steering in reflectarray antennas. PMID:24162366

  2. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo O; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Impedance metasurface is composed of electrical small scatters in two dimensional plane, of which the surface impedance can be designed to produce desired reflection phase. Tunable reflection phase can be achieved by incorporating active element into the scatters, but the tuning range of the reflection phase is limited. In this paper, an active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase control is presented to remove the phase tuning deficiency in conventional approach. The unit cell of the metasurface is a multiple resonance structure with two resonance poles and one resonance zero, capable of providing 360° reflection phase variation and active tuning within a finite frequency band. Linear reflection phase tuning can also be obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation are presented and validated by experiment at microwave frequency. The proposed approach can be applied to many cases where fine and full phase tuning is needed, such as beam steering in reflectarray antennas. PMID:24162366

  3. Self-Tuning Impact Damper for Rotating Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pufy, Kirsten P. (Inventor); Brown, Gerald V. (Inventor); Bagley, Ronald L. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A self-tuning impact damper is disclosed that absorbs and dissipates vibration energy in the blades of rotors in compressors and/or turbines thereby dramatically extending their service life and operational readiness. The self-tuning impact damper uses the rotor speed to tune the resonant frequency of a rattling mass to an engine order excitation frequency. The rating mass dissipates energy through collisions between the rattling mass and the walls of a cavity of the self-tuning impact damper, as well as though friction between the rattling mass and the base of the cavity. In one embodiment, the self-tuning impact damper has a ball-in-trough configuration with tire ball serving as the rattling mass.

  4. Attention flexibly alters tuning for object categories

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiye G.; Kastner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Using functional MRI (fMRI) and a sophisticated forward encoding and decoding approach across the cortical surface, a new study examines how attention alternates tuning functions across a large set of semantic categories. The results suggest a dynamic attention mechanism that allocates greater resources to the attended and related semantic categories at the expense of unattended ones. PMID:23756038

  5. An Exponential Detection Function to Describe Earthquake Frequency-Magnitude Distributions Below Completeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2011-12-01

    The capacity of a seismic network to detect small earthquakes can be evaluated by investigating the shape of the Frequency-Magnitude Distribution (FMD) of the resultant earthquake catalogue. The non-cumulative FMD takes the form N(m) ∝ exp(-βm)q(m) where N(m) is the number of events of magnitude m, exp(-βm) the Gutenberg-Richter law and q(m) a probability function. I propose an exponential detection function of the form q(m) = exp(κ(m-Mc)) for m < Mc with Mc the magnitude of completeness, magnitude at which N(m) is maximal. With Mc varying in space due to the heterogeneous distribution of seismic stations in a network, the bulk FMD of an earthquake catalogue corresponds to the sum of local FMDs with respective Mc(x,y), which leads to the gradual curvature of the bulk FMD below max(Mc(x,y)). More complicated FMD shapes are expected if the catalogue is derived from multiple network configurations. The model predictions are verified in the case of Southern California and Nevada. Only slight variations of the detection parameter k = κ/ln(10) are observed within a given region, with k = 3.84 ± 0.66 for Southern California and k = 2.84 ± 0.77 for Nevada, assuming Mc constant in 2° by 2° cells. Synthetic catalogues, which follow the exponential model, can reproduce reasonably well the FMDs observed for Southern California and Nevada by using only c. 15% of the total number of observed events. The proposed model has important implications in Mc mapping procedures and allows use of the full magnitude range for subsequent seismicity analyses.

  6. Properties of functional brain networks correlate with frequency of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Barzegaran, Elham; Joudaki, Amir; Jalili, Mahdi; Rossetti, Andrea O; Frackowiak, Richard S; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and small-world structure, estimated with clustering coefficient, modularity, global efficiency, and small-worldness (SW) metrics, respectively. Yet the number of PNES attacks per month correlated with a weakness of local connectedness and a skewed balance between local and global connectedness quantified with SW, all in EEG alpha band. In beta band, patients demonstrated above-normal resiliency, measured with assortativity coefficient, which also correlated with the frequency of PNES attacks. This interictal EEG phenotype may help improve differentiation between PNES and epilepsy. The results also suggest that local connectivity could be a target for therapeutic interventions in PNES. Selective modulation (strengthening) of local connectivity might improve the skewed balance between local and global connectivity and so prevent PNES events. PMID:23267325

  7. Approximation of the Duffing oscillator frequency response function using the FPK equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. J.; Worden, K.

    2011-02-01

    Although a great deal of work has been carried out on nonlinear structural dynamic systems under random excitation, there has been a comparatively small amount of this work concentrating on the calculation of the quantities commonly measured in structural dynamic tests. Perhaps the most fundamental of these quantities is the frequency response function (FRF). A number of years ago, Yar and Hammond took an interesting approach to estimating the FRF of a Duffing oscillator system which was based on an approximate solution of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation. Despite reproducing the general features of the statistical linearisation estimate, the approximation failed to show the presence of the poles at odd multiples of the primary resonance which are known to occur experimentally. The current paper simply extends the work of Yar and Hammond to a higher-order of approximation and is thus able to show the existence of a third 'harmonic' in the FRF. A comparison is made with previous work where an approximation to the FRF was computed using the Volterra series.

  8. Experimental measurements of frequency transfer function due to smoothing by spectral dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Jacques; Penninckx, Denis

    2013-02-01

    In order to avoid propagation nonlinearities (Kerr effect, Raman and Brillouin scattering) and optical damage, nanosecond high power lasers such as the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) amplify quasi-monochromatic pulses. But they generate a static speckle pattern in the focal spot. This speckle pattern needs to be smoothed in order to lower high intensity peaks which are detrimental during the propagation and the interaction with the plasma in the target. Different techniques are implemented to smooth the intensity nevertheless all high power lasers carry at least smoothing by spectral dispersion. It consists in broadening the spectrum through a phase modulator and focusing the different wavelengths at slightly different positions using a diffractive element such as a grating. In the temporal domain, it has been theoretically shown that the pulse power is thus filtered between near field and far field [1, 2]. The filtering allows techniques such as "picket fence" to increase conversion efficiency [1] and reduces detrimental effects of unwanted intensity distortions called FM-AM conversion [2, 3]. Here, to the best of our knowledge we show the first experimental measurement of the frequency transfer function of this filtering. Measurements are in perfect agreement with the numerical calculations.

  9. An Improved High Frequency Modulating Fusion Method Based on Modulation Transfer Function Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Wu, M.; Zhang, X.

    2012-07-01

    GeoEye-1 is the most advanced and highest resolution commercial earth imaging satellite in the world today. It provides multispectral images (MS) and Panchromatic image (PAN) with spatial resolutions of 2.0 m and 0.5 m respectively. Image fusion is very important for mapping and image interpretation because it can take advantage of the complementary spatial/spectral resolution characteristics of remote sensing imagery. So an improved high frequency modulation fusion method based on MTF is proposed. Modulation transfer functions (MTF) are firstly measured from GeoEye-1 images, and then the degraded images based on MTF filters are obtained. Secondly, modulating parameter is obtained based on Minimum Mean Square Error, and image fusion is performed and measured in the degraded version. Finally, fused images with the high spatial resolution are produced by using the proposed method. Compared with fusion methods of weighted high passing filtering(w-HPF) in ERDAS IMAGINE and general image fusion based on MTF( MTF-GIF), The results of fused GeoEye-1 images show that the proposed method is an efficient way for GeoEye-1 image fusion, which can keep spectral information with the high spatial resolution.

  10. Multi-damage localization in plate structure using frequency response function-based indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hai-yang; Guo, Xing-lin; Ouyang, Huajiang; Yang, Xiu-ming

    2015-07-01

    Vibration signal and its derivative have shown some promise in structural damage detection in previous research. However, the theoretical and practical difficulties of multi-damage detection in plate structures based on dynamic responses remain. In this paper, an efficient damage localization index based on frequency response function (FRF) is presented. The imaginary part of FRF (IFRF) is extracted to derive the new localization index due to its relation to modal flexibility. For avoiding the finite element model error, two-dimensional gapped smoothing method (GSM) is employed without the need for baseline data from a presumably undamaged structure. Experimental studies on a steel plate with two localized defects in different boundary conditions are performed. The results are compared with some typical damage indices in the literature, such as mode shapes, uniform load surface and IFRF. In order to mitigate the inherent disadvantages of GSM in anti-noise ability, a simple statistical treatment based on Thompson outlier analysis is finally used for noise suppression. The effect of damage level and boundary condition on the detection results is also investigated.

  11. Musician's and physicist's view on tuning keyboard instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubenow, Martin; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous sound of several voices or instruments requires proper tuning to achieve consonance for certain intervals and chords. Most instruments allow enough frequency variation to enable pure tuning while being played. Keyboard instruments such as organ and piano have given frequencies for individual notes and the tuning must be based on a compromise. The equal temperament is not the only solution, but a special choice. Unequal temperaments produce better results in many cases, because important major thirds and triads are improved. Equal temperament was not propagated by Johann Sebastian Bach, as is often stated in introductory literature on this topic.

  12. Testing obliquity-tuned timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, Christian; Meyers, Stephen R.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2016-04-01

    Astrochronology seeks to use rhythmic sedimentary alterations to provide high-resolution age models, and this method now provides a backbone for much of the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scale. While a range of methods for orbital tuning are available, a common approach is to directly match observed sedimentary alternations to target curves from astronomical computations, followed by evaluation of amplitude modulations (AM) as a means of verification. A quantitative test for precession-eccentricity modulations in astronomically-tuned data has been recently developed, however, a similar test for obliquity is lacking. Here, we introduce an algorithm for obliquity AM assessment, which avoids effects of obliquity frequency modulation that can artificially mimic the expected AM. The approach can be used to test for correlation with the theoretical astronomical solution in a way similar to the precession AM method. Obliquity is an especially dominant component of orbitally-driven climate variability in the early Quaternary; here Quaternary models and climate proxy records are used to evaluate the reliability of the proposed method.

  13. Complier-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning (TUNE) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chame, Jacqueline

    2013-06-07

    TUNE was created to develop compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 system at Oak Ridge. TUNE combines compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation. The goal of this performance-tuning technology is to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, TUNE aims to make compiler technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  14. Transient potassium channels augment degeneracy in hippocampal active dendritic spectral tuning.

    PubMed

    Rathour, Rahul Kumar; Malik, Ruchi; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons express an intraneuronal map of spectral tuning mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated nonspecific-cation channels. Modeling studies have predicted a critical regulatory role for A-type potassium (KA) channels towards augmenting functional robustness of this map. To test this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from soma and dendrites of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and measured spectral tuning before and after blocking KA channels using two structurally distinct pharmacological agents. Consistent with computational predictions, we found that blocking KA channels resulted in a significant reduction in resonance frequency and significant increases in input resistance, impedance amplitude and action-potential firing frequency across the somato-apical trunk. Furthermore, across all measured locations, blocking KA channels enhanced temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials and critically altered the impedance phase profile, resulting in a significant reduction in total inductive phase. Finally, pair-wise correlations between intraneuronal percentage changes (after blocking KA channels) in different measurements were mostly weak, suggesting differential regulation of different physiological properties by KA channels. Our results unveil a pivotal role for fast transient channels in regulating theta-frequency spectral tuning and intrinsic phase response, and suggest that degeneracy with reference to several coexisting functional maps is mediated by cross-channel interactions across the active dendritic arbor. PMID:27094086

  15. Transient potassium channels augment degeneracy in hippocampal active dendritic spectral tuning

    PubMed Central

    Rathour, Rahul Kumar; Malik, Ruchi; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons express an intraneuronal map of spectral tuning mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated nonspecific-cation channels. Modeling studies have predicted a critical regulatory role for A-type potassium (KA) channels towards augmenting functional robustness of this map. To test this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from soma and dendrites of rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and measured spectral tuning before and after blocking KA channels using two structurally distinct pharmacological agents. Consistent with computational predictions, we found that blocking KA channels resulted in a significant reduction in resonance frequency and significant increases in input resistance, impedance amplitude and action-potential firing frequency across the somato-apical trunk. Furthermore, across all measured locations, blocking KA channels enhanced temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials and critically altered the impedance phase profile, resulting in a significant reduction in total inductive phase. Finally, pair-wise correlations between intraneuronal percentage changes (after blocking KA channels) in different measurements were mostly weak, suggesting differential regulation of different physiological properties by KA channels. Our results unveil a pivotal role for fast transient channels in regulating theta-frequency spectral tuning and intrinsic phase response, and suggest that degeneracy with reference to several coexisting functional maps is mediated by cross-channel interactions across the active dendritic arbor. PMID:27094086

  16. Probing cochlear tuning and tonotopy in the tiger using otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Edward J.; McGee, JoAnn; Shera, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (sound emitted from the ear) allow cochlear function to be probed noninvasively. The emissions evoked by pure tones, known as stimulus-frequency emissions (SFOAEs), have been shown to provide reliable estimates of peripheral frequency tuning in a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species. Here, we apply the same methodology to explore peripheral auditory function in the largest member of the cat family, the tiger (Panthera tigris). We measured SFOAEs in 9 unique ears of 5 anesthetized tigers. The tigers, housed at the Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, NE), were of both sexes and ranged in age from 3 to 10 years. SFOAE phase-gradient delays are significantly longer in tigers—by approximately a factor of two above 2 kHz and even more at lower frequencies—than in domestic cats (Felis catus), a species commonly used in auditory studies. Based on correlations between tuning and delay established in other species, our results imply that cochlear tuning in the tiger is significantly sharper than in domestic cat and appears comparable to that of humans. Furthermore, the SFOAE data indicate that tigers have a larger tonotopic mapping constant (mm/octave) than domestic cats. A larger mapping constant in tiger is consistent both with auditory brainstem response thresholds (that suggest a lower upper frequency limit of hearing for the tiger than domestic cat) and with measurements of basilar-membrane length (about 1.5 times longer in the tiger than domestic cat). PMID:22645048

  17. Comparison of misfit functions for phase-only inversion in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G.; Jeong, W.; Min, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full waveform inversion suffers from non-uniqueness and non-linearity problems. By using kinematic property of wavefield rather than dynamic property, we can mitigate such problems because the phase is linear and robust (Kamei et al. 2013). For the phase-only inversion, several misfit functions were suggested. Bednar et al. (2007) compared the logarithmic phase-only inversion proposed by Shin and Min (2006) with the conventional phase-only inversion. On the other hand, Kamei et al. (2014) introduced another method that uses the exponential of phase by normalizing the wavefield with respect to the amplitude. In this study, we compare the aforementioned three phase-only inversion methods in the frequency domain: i) the logarithmic phase-only inversion, ii) the conventional phase-only inversion I (briefly conventional I method) that normalizes wavefield with respect to the amplitude variation, and iii) the conventional phase-only inversion II (briefly conventional II method) that replaces the amplitude of the modeled data with that of field data. In the cases of the logarithmic and conventional I methods, if the modeled signal function is close to 0 or becomes large, the gradients of the misfit function diverge to infinity or converge to 0, respectively. In contrast, the conventional II method does not suffer from these problems. For fair comparison, we removed extremely small or large values with Gaussian filtering to avoid the instability problem in the logarithmic and conventional I methods. In addition, we assumed that the phase of the field data is unwrapped to the same degree as the phase of the modeled data in all the cases. On the other hand, the logarithmic and conventional II methods require the additional assumption that amplitudes of the field data are the same as those of the modeled data. However, the conventional I method does not require such an assumption. Our numerical examples show that the conventional I method yields more robust and accurate

  18. Quasi-periodicity of spin motion in storage rings-a new look at spin tune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. P.; Ellison, J.; Heinemann, K.

    2001-06-01

    We show how spin motion on the periodic closed orbit of a storage ring can be analyzed in terms of the Floquet theorem for equations of motion with periodic parameters. The spin tune on the closed orbit emerges as an extra frequency of the system which is contained in the Floquet exponent in analogy with the wave vector in Bloch wave functions for electrons in periodic atomic structures. We then show how to analyze spin motion on quasi-periodic synchro-betatron orbits in terms of a generalisation of the Floquet theorem and find that if small devisors are controlled by applying a Diophantine condition, a spin tune can again be defined and that it again emerges as an extra frequency in a Floquet-like exponent. We thereby obtain a deeper insight into the concept of ``spin tune'' and the conditions for its existence. The formalism suggests the use of Fourier analysis to ``measure'' spin tune during simulations of spin motion on synchro-betatron orbits. .

  19. Cavity tuning and light-shift in the Rb-87 maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busca, G.; Tetu, M.; Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    A new method for tuning the cavity of the Rb-87 maser is proposed. It is based on the existence of a cavity tuning for which the maser frequency is independent on the light intensity. The features of this method are evaluated theoretically and tested experimentally. Preliminary results obtained by using a closed loop feedback electronic system for tuning the cavity are given.

  20. Tuning the Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    "Tuning the blend" is a phrase that educators hear a lot these days. It refers to finding the correct balance of online activities and face-to-face instruction in hybrid--or blended--courses. Finding a mix that meets the needs of both faculty and students requires experimentation, experience, and constant tweaking. And, as with coffee, the same…

  1. Tuning toward Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Marcus; Kalina, Michelle; Chapman, Adina

    2013-01-01

    The Obama administration and the Lumina Foundation have been the principal drivers focusing the nation on increasing the number of high-quality degrees and credentials. Tuning, a faculty-driven process for defining clear student learning outcomes--what a student should know, understand, and be able to do--is one of the ways to support this goal.

  2. Tuning Your Priors to the World

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The idea that perceptual and cognitive systems must incorporate knowledge about the structure of the environment has become a central dogma of cognitive theory. In a Bayesian context, this idea is often realized in terms of “tuning the prior”—widely assumed to mean adjusting prior probabilities so that they match the frequencies of events in the world. This kind of “ecological” tuning has often been held up as an ideal of inference, in fact defining an “ideal observer.” But widespread as this viewpoint is, it directly contradicts Bayesian philosophy of probability, which views probabilities as degrees of belief rather than relative frequencies, and explicitly denies that they are objective characteristics of the world. Moreover, tuning the prior to observed environmental frequencies is subject to overfitting, meaning in this context overtuning to the environment, which leads (ironically) to poor performance in future encounters with the same environment. Whenever there is uncertainty about the environment—which there almost always is—an agent's prior should be biased away from ecological relative frequencies and toward simpler and more entropic priors. PMID:23335572

  3. Quartz Tuning Fork Pressure Gauge for High-Pressure Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, J.; Velasco, A.; Taborek, P.

    2016-08-01

    We have measured the quality factor Q and the frequency f of a 32-kHz quartz tuning fork immersed in liquid ^4 He between 0.9 and 3.0 K, over pressures ranging from the saturated vapor pressure to ≈ 25 atm. At constant pressure, as a function of temperature, the quality factor and frequency have strong features related to the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction. At constant temperature, Q depends on the superfluid fraction, while the frequency is a smooth function of pressure. The behavior is explained using a simple hydrodynamic model. The liquid helium viscosity is obtained from measured values of Q, and together with tabulated values of the helium density as a function of pressure and temperature, the frequency shift can be parameterized as a function of temperature and pressure. The observed sensitivity is ≈ 7.8 Hz/atm. The quartz tuning fork provides a compact low power method of measuring the pressure in the bulk liquid.

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Mattern, Margarete; Plener, Paul L; Bifulco, Antonia; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2013-04-30

    This study aimed to investigate a specific relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and a variety of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) over and above childhood abuse and their impact on frequency, severity, and functions of NSSI. A sample of 125 inpatients (aged 13 to 26) was consecutively recruited within a psychiatric university hospital. Frequency, methods and functions of NSSI were assessed by the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), ACEs were assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). The 12 month prevalence of NSSI in this representative, clinical sample was 60.0%. Engagement in NSSI was significantly related to ACEs with highest associations for maternal antipathy and neglect. Whilst ACEs were not associated with frequency or severity of NSSI, some ACEs were significantly related to the automatic functions of NSSI (e.g., affect regulation, anti-dissociative function or self-punishment) as well as to a peer identification function. NSSI represents a frequent phenomenon among young clinical populations and seems to be specifically related to ACEs with maternal antipathy or neglect commonly featured over and above experiences of abuse. Since ACEs also influence the functions of NSSI such factors need to be examined as part of clinical care planning. PMID:23159195

  5. On the role of electron energy distribution function in double frequency heating of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schachter, L. Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2014-02-15

    Double frequency heating (DFH) is a tool to improve the output of highly charged ions particularly from modern electron cyclotron resonance ion source installations with very high RF-frequencies. In order to gain information on the DFH-mechanism and on the role of the lower injected frequency we have carried out a series of dedicated experiments where we have put emphasis on the creation of a discrete resonance surface also for this lower frequency. Our well-established method of inserting an emissive MD (metal-dielectric) liner into the plasma chamber of the source is used in these experiments as a tool of investigation. In this way, the electron temperature and density for both ECR zones is increased in a controlled manner, allowing conclusions on the role of the change of the electron-energy-distribution function with and without DFH.

  6. Vibrotactile perceived intensity for mobile devices as a function of direction, amplitude, and frequency.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Inwook; Seo, Jongman; Kim, Myongchan; Choi, Seungmoon

    2013-01-01

    Vibrotactile rendering is an emerging interaction method for information transmission in mobile devices, replacing or supplementing visual and auditory displays. To design effective vibrotactile actuators or display algorithms, an understanding of the perceived intensity (strength) of their vibrations is essential. This paper aims to build a robust model for the perceived intensities of mobile device vibrations, which can be immediately used by engineers and application designers. To this end, we carried out two psychophysical experiments using absolute magnitude estimation procedures. In Experiment I, we investigated the effects of vibration direction and device weight on the perceived intensity of mobile device vibrations. The vibration directions tested (height, width, and depth), and the device weights (90-130 g) were determined considering those of contemporary mobile devices. Only the vibration direction was found to be a statistically significant factor, showing the highest perceived intensities along the height direction of a mobile device. In Experiment II, we measured the perceived intensities of vibrations with various amplitudes and frequencies along the three vibration directions. Then, for each direction, a psychophysical magnitude function and equal sensation contours were constructed based on Stevens' power law, which clearly visualize the consequences of vibration parameter changes on the resulting perceptual strength. In addition, we found a monotonic relationship between the physical power of vibration absorbed by the hand and the resulting perceived intensity. This suggests that the former, which is greatly easier to acquire in practice, is a reliable predictor of the latter. We expect that the results of this study can provide immediate knowledge about the perceptual strength of vibrations that engineers and applications developers will find useful. PMID:24808331

  7. Evaluation of range-separated hybrid density functionals for the prediction of vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and Raman activities†

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Janesko, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    We present an assessment of different density functionals, with emphasis on range-separated hybrids, for the prediction of fundamental and harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and Raman activities. Additionally, we discuss the basis set convergence of vibrational properties of H2O with long-range corrected hybrids. Our results show that B3LYP is the best functional for predicting vibrational frequencies (both fundamental and harmonic); the screened-PBE hybrid (HSE) density functional works best for infrared intensities, and the long-range corrected PBE (LC-ωPBE), M06-HF, and M06-L density functionals are almost as good as MP2 for predicting Raman activities. We show the predicted Raman spectrum of adenine as an example of a medium-size molecule where a DFT/Sadlej pVTZ calculation is affordable and compare our results against the experimental spectrum. PMID:18989473

  8. Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Lorenza; Marzo, Aude; Boyle, Kieran; Stamatakou, Eleanna; Lopes, Douglas M.; Anane, Derek; McLeod, Faye; Rosso, Silvana B.; Gibb, Alasdair; Salinas, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The functional assembly of the synaptic release machinery is well understood; however, how signalling factors modulate this process remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that Wnts play a role in presynaptic function. To examine the mechanisms involved, we investigated the interaction of release machinery proteins with Dishevelled-1 (Dvl1), a scaffold protein that determines the cellular locale of Wnt action. Here we show that Dvl1 directly interacts with Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and indirectly with the SNARE proteins SNAP25 and Syntaxin (Stx-1). Importantly, the interaction of Dvl1 with Syt-1, which is regulated by Wnts, modulates neurotransmitter release. Moreover, presynaptic terminals from Wnt signalling-deficient mice exhibit reduced release probability and are unable to sustain high-frequency release. Consistently, the readily releasable pool size and formation of SNARE complexes are reduced. Our studies demonstrate that Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release and identify Syt-1 as a target for modulation by secreted signalling proteins. PMID:26400647

  9. Passively Self-Tuning Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. G.; Pillatsch, P.; Wright, P. K.

    2014-11-01

    Real world systems that are candidates for vibrational energy harvesting rarely vibrate at a single frequency, nor are these frequencies constant over time. This necessitates that vibration harvesters operate over a wide bandwidth or tune their resonance. Most tunable devices require additional energy or active control to achieve resonance over various frequencies. This work presents a passively self-tuning energy harvester that autonomously adapts its resonant frequency to the input without requiring additional energy. The system consists of a clamped- clamped beam, a movable proof mass, and a piezoelectric patch bonded to the underside of the beam. It demonstrated an open-circuit voltage output of 668 mVrms at 160Hz, 0.65g input excitation. Discrepancies between displacement and voltage magnification factors upon tuning at higher frequencies are discussed, as well as instabilities of the system and sensitivity to proof mass characteristics.

  10. The Relation between Order of Acquisition, Segmental Frequency and Function: The Case of Word-Initial Consonants in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Severen, Lieve; Gillis, Joris J. M.; Molemans, Inge; van den Berg, Renate; De Maeyer, Sven; Gillis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The impact of input frequency (IF) and functional load (FL) of segments in the ambient language on the acquisition order of word-initial consonants is investigated. Several definitions of IF/FL are compared and implemented. The impact of IF/FL and their components are computed using a longitudinal corpus of interactions between thirty…

  11. An Electroactive, Tunable, and Frequency Selective Surface Utilizing Highly Stretchable Dielectric Elastomer Actuators Based on Functionally Antagonistic Aperture Control.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Jaeho; Kim, Jin-Bong; Kim, Young-Cheol; Lee, Jung-Yong; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-04-13

    An active, frequency selective surface utilizing a silver-nanowire-coated dielectric elastomer with a butterfly-shaped aperture pattern is realized by properly exploiting the electroactive control of two antagonistic functions (stretching vs compression) on a patterned dielectric elastomer actuator. PMID:26864249

  12. The functional correlation between rainfall rate and extinction coefficient for frequencies from 3 to 10 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rainfall rate (R) obtained from radiometric brightness temperatures and the extinction coefficient (k sub e) is investigated by computing the values of k sub e over a wide range of rainfall rates, for frequencies from 3 to 25 GHz. The results show that the strength of the relation between the R and the k sub e values exhibits considerable variation for frequencies at this range. Practical suggestions are made concerning the selection of particular frequencies for rain measurements to minimize the error in R determinations.

  13. The Effects of tDCS Across the Spatial Frequencies and Orientations that Comprise the Contrast Sensitivity Function

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Bruno; Johnson, Aaron P.; Thompson, Benjamin; Hansen, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has recently been employed in traditional psychophysical paradigms in an effort to measure direct manipulations on spatial frequency channel operations in the early visual system. However, the effects of tDCS on contrast sensitivity have only been measured at a single spatial frequency and orientation. Since contrast sensitivity is known to depend on spatial frequency and orientation, we ask how the effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS may vary according to these dimensions. We measured contrast sensitivity with sinusoidal gratings at four different spatial frequencies (0.5, 4, 8, and 12 cycles/°), two orientations (45° Oblique and Horizontal), and for two stimulus size conditions [fixed size (3°) and fixed period (1.5 cycles)]. Only contrast sensitivity measured with a 45° oblique grating with a spatial frequency of 8 cycles/° (period = 1.5 cycles) demonstrated clear polarity specific effects of tDCS, whereby cathodal tDCS increased and anodal tDCS decreased contrast sensitivity. Overall, effects of tDCS were largest for oblique stimuli presented at high spatial frequencies (i.e., 8 and 12 cycles/°), and were small or absent at lower spatial frequencies, other orientations and stimulus size. Thus, the impact of tDCS on contrast sensitivity, and therefore on spatial frequency channel operations, is opposite in direction to other behavioral effects of tDCS, and only measurable in stimuli that generally elicit lower contrast sensitivity (e.g., oblique gratings with period of 1.5 cycles at spatial frequencies above the peak of the contrast sensitivity function). PMID:26640448

  14. Extending the mode-hop-free tuning range of an external-cavity diode laser by synchronous tuning with mode matching.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hai; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Yangli; Zhang, Weibo

    2014-11-20

    We present an effective method to extend the mode-hop-free (MHF) tuning range of an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) by synchronous tuning of the longitudinal modes of the external cavity and the internal cavity, with the mode also matched in the initial state. Both the principle of synchronous tuning and the condition of mode matching in a Littman-configuration ECDL are introduced. The necessary tuning parameters could simply be estimated by the output power curve of the tuning with a single photodiode. By using this tuning method, we increased the MHF tuning range of an ECDL with a nonoptimized reflector pivot position from several gigahertzes to over 78 GHz around 774.5 nm. The tuning performance of the ECDL could meet the requirement of frequency scanned interferometry. PMID:25607863

  15. Tuning of the Electronic Properties of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons through Functionalization: Theoretical Study of (1)Δg O2 Border Addition.

    PubMed

    Ghigo, Giovanni; Maranzana, Andrea; Tonachini, Glauco

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of a DFT study of the border oxidation by (1) Δg O2 of molecular models of armchair graphene nanoribbons (a-GNRs). The aim of this work is to propose a new method, as an alternative or complementary method to the tuning of the size, to modify the electronic properties of a-GNRs. Here, we investigate modification of the HOMO and LUMO energies, which are some of the most important parameters to be controlled in the design of organic electronic devices. We study the oxidation reaction mechanism of medium-size polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mimicking the stiffness and reactivity of a-GNRs. Thermodynamics and kinetics indicate that the reaction should bring about a decoration of the borders with vicinal dialdehyde groups. We also study the effect of this oxidation on the HOMO and LUMO energies of two series of molecular models of a-GNRs with increasing lengths. The results suggest that the oxidized a-GNRs should present LUMO energies lowered by 0.3-0.5 eV with respect to the original material, whereas the HOMO energies are barely lowered. PMID:26401974

  16. Tuning superior solar cell performance of carrier mobility and absorption in perovskite CH3NH3GeCl3: A density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Qing; Wu, Li-Juan; Liu, Biao; Wang, Ling-Zhi; He, Peng-Bin; Cai, Meng-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The solar cell based on hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite has received considerable attention. One of the most important issues in the pursuit of further developments in this area is to obtain both a high carrier mobility and an excellent ability of light adsorption. In this paper, we investigate the electronic structure and electronic effective masses of the new non-toxic material CH3NH3GeCl3 by first-principle calculations. The results show that the absorption efficiency of CH3NH3GeCl3 is more superior to that of CH3NH3PbI3 in short wavelength region. We trace this result to the ferroelectricity caused by the more serious octahedral GeCl6- distortion. We also discover a new relationship between the carrier effective masses anisotropy and the anisotropy of electronic density of states along three principal directions. Moreover, while applied the isotropic compressive pressure, the absorption efficiency and carrier mobility of CH3NH3GeCl3 in orthorhombic phase are improved greatly due to changes of electronic structure. We speculate that these are general results of tuning of the carrier mobility by controlling the band gap and the electronic occupation along different directions, to obtain both a high carrier mobility and an excellent ability of light adsorption.

  17. High frequency volume coils for clinical NMR imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J T; Hetherington, H P; Otu, J O; Pan, J W; Pohost, G M

    1994-08-01

    A tuned transmission line resonator has been developed in theory and in practical design for the clinical NMR volume coil application at 4.1 tesla. The distributed circuit transmission line resonator was designed for high frequency, large conductive volume applications where conventional lumped element coil designs perform less efficiently. The resonator design has made use of a resonant coaxial cavity, which could be variably tuned to the Larmor frequency of interest by tunable transmission line elements. Large head- and body-sized volumes, high efficiencies, and broad tuning ranges have been shown to be characteristic of the transmission line resonator to frequencies of 500 MHz. The B1 homogeneity of the resonator has been demonstrated to be a function of the electromagnetic properties of the load itself. By numerically solving Maxwell's equations for the fully time-dependent B1 field, coil homogeneity was predicted with finite-element models of anatomic structure, and inhomogeneities corrected for. A how-to exposition of coil design and construction has been included. Simple methods of quadrature driving and double tuning the transmission line resonator have also been presented. Human head images obtained with a tuned transmission line resonator at 175 MHz have clearly demonstrated uncompromised high field advantages of signal-to-noise and spatial resolution. PMID:7968443

  18. Tuned vibration absorbers with nonlinear viscous damping for damped structures under random load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The classical problem for the application of a tuned vibration absorber is to minimize the response of a structural system, such as displacement, velocity, acceleration or to maximize the energy dissipated by tuned vibration absorber. The development of explicit optimal absorber parameters is challenging for a damped structural system since the fixed points no longer exist in the frequency response curve. This paper aims at deriving a set of simple design formula of tuned vibration absorber with nonlinear viscous damping based on the frequency tuning for harmonic load for a damped structural system under white noise excitation. The vibration absorbers being considered include tuned mass damper (TMD) and liquid column vibration absorber (LCVA). Simple approximate expression for the standard deviation velocity response of tuned vibration absorber for damped primary structure is also derived in this study to facilitate the estimation of the damping coefficient of TMD with nonlinear viscous damping and the head loss coefficient of LCVA. The derived results indicate that the higher the structural inherent damping the smaller the supplementary damping provided by a tuned vibration absorber. Furthermore, the optimal damping of tuned vibration absorber is shown to be independent of structural damping when it is tuned using the frequency tuning for harmonic load. Finally, the derived closed-form expressions are demonstrated to be capable of predicting the optimal parameters of tuned vibration absorbers with sufficient accuracy for preliminary design of tuned vibration absorbers with nonlinear viscous damping for a damped primary structure.

  19. RF tuning element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Lubecke, Victor M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for tuning a circuit includes a substrate, a transmission line on the substrate that includes first and second conductors coupled to a circuit to be tuned, and a movable short-circuit for varying the impedance the transmission line presents to the circuit to be tuned. The movable short-circuit includes a dielectric layer disposed atop the transmission line and a distributed shorting element in the form of a conductive member that is configured to be slid along at least a portion of the transmission line atop the dielectric layer. The conductive member is configured to span the first and second conductors of the transmission line and to define at least a first opening that spans the two conductors so that the conductive member includes first and second sections separated by the first opening. The first and second sections of the conductive member combine with the first and second conductors of the transmission line to form first and second low impedance sections of transmission line, and the opening combines with the first and second conductors of the transmission line and the dielectric layer to form a first high impedance section of transmission line intermediate the first and second low impedance sections. Each of the first low impedance section and the first high impedance section have a length along the transmission line of approximately one-quarter wavelength, thus providing a periodic variation of transmission line impedance. That enhances reflection of rf power.

  20. Towards an autonomous self-tuning vibration energy harvesting device for wireless sensor network applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Vinod R.; Prasad, M. G.; Fisher, Frank T.

    2011-02-01

    Future deployment of wireless sensor networks will ultimately require a self-sustainable local power source for each sensor, and vibration energy harvesting is a promising approach for such applications. A requirement for efficient vibration energy harvesting is to match the device and source frequencies. While techniques to tune the resonance frequency of an energy harvesting device have recently been described, in many applications optimization of such systems will require the energy harvesting device to be able to autonomously tune its resonance frequency. In this work a vibration energy harvesting device with autonomous resonance frequency tunability utilizing a magnetic stiffness technique is presented. Here a piezoelectric cantilever beam array is employed with magnets attached to the free ends of cantilever beams to enable magnetic force resonance frequency tuning. The device is successfully tuned from - 27% to + 22% of its untuned resonance frequency while outputting a peak power of approximately 1 mW. Since the magnetic force tuning technique is semi-active, energy is only consumed during the tuning process. The developed prototype consumed maximum energies of 3.3 and 3.9 J to tune to the farthest source frequencies with respect to the untuned resonance frequency of the device. The time necessary for this prototype device to harvest the energy expended during its most energy-intensive (largest resonant frequency adjustment) tuning operation is 88 min in a low amplitude 0.1g vibration environment, which could be further optimized using higher efficiency piezoelectric materials and system components.