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1

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom  

E-print Network

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and ...

Penn, Kevin

2

Elimination of the Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Microcystin from the freshwater Pulmonate Snail Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis (SAY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that little to no microcystin (MC), a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, accumulates within freshwater pulmonate snails because the toxin is associated primarily with undigested gut contents that are eliminated from the animal via egestion. To test this, Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-containing cyanobacteria were placed into toxin-free environments and sampled over short (24 h at 21° C) and

Ronald W. Zurawell; Charles F. B. Holmes; Ellie E. Prepas

2006-01-01

3

Sporadic distribution and distinctive variations of cylindrospermopsin genes in cyanobacterial strains and environmental samples from chinese freshwater bodies.  

PubMed

Increasing reports of cylindrospermopsins (CYNs) in freshwater ecosystems have promoted the demand for identifying all of the potential CYN-producing cyanobacterial species. The present study explored the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of cyr genes in cyanobacterial strains and water samples from China. Four Cylindrospermopsis strains and two Raphidiopsis strains were confirmed to produce CYNs. Mutant cyrI and cyrK genes were observed in these strains. Cloned cyr gene sequences from eight water bodies were clustered with cyr genes from Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis (C/R group) in the phylogenetic trees with high similarities (99%). Four cyrI sequence types and three cyrJ sequence types were observed to have different sequence insertions and repeats. Phylogenetic analysis of the rpoC1 sequences of the C/R group revealed four conserved clades, namely, clade I, clade II, clade III, and clade V. High sequence similarities (>97%) in each clade and a divergent clade IV were observed. Therefore, CYN producers were sporadically distributed in congeneric and paraphyletic C/R group species in Chinese freshwater ecosystems. In the evolution of cyr genes, intragenomic translocations and intergenomic transfer between local Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis were emphasized and probably mediated by transposases. This research confirms the existence of CYN-producing Cylindrospermopsis in China and reveals the distinctive variations of cyr genes. PMID:24928879

Jiang, Yongguang; Xiao, Peng; Yu, Gongliang; Shao, Jihai; Liu, Deming; Azevedo, Sandra M F O; Li, Renhui

2014-09-01

4

SAR analysis and bioactive potentials of freshwater and terrestrial cyanobacterial compounds: a review.  

PubMed

Freshwater and terrestrial cyanobacteria resemble the marine forms in producing divergent chemicals such as linear, cyclic and azole containing peptides, alkaloids, cyclophanes, terpenes, lactones, etc. These metabolites have wider biomedical potentials in targeting proteases, cancers, parasites, pathogens and other cyanobacteria and algae (allelopathy). Among the various families of non-marine cyanobacterial peptides reported, many of them are acting as serine protease inhibitors. While the micropeptin family has a preference for chymotrypsin inhibition rather than other serine proteases, the aeruginosin family targets trypsin and thrombin. In addition, cyanobacterial compounds such as scytonemide A, lyngbyazothrins C and D and cylindrocyclophanes were found to inhibit 20S proteosome. Apart from proteases, metabolites blocking the other targets of cancer pathways may exhibit cytotoxic effect. Colon and rectum, breast, lung and prostate are the worst affecting cancers in humans and are deduced to be inhibited by both peptidic and non-peptidic compounds. Moreover, the growth of infections causing parasites such as Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma are well controlled by peptides: aerucyclamides A-D, tychonamides and alkaloids: nostocarboline and calothrixins. Likewise, varieties of cyanobacterial compounds tend to inhibit serious infectious disease causing bacterial, fungal and viral agents. Interestingly, portoamides, spiroidesin, nostocyclamide and kasumigamide are the allelopathic peptides determined to suppress the growth of toxic cyanobacteria and nuisance algae. Thus cyanobacterial compounds have a broad bioactive spectrum; the analysis of SAR studies will not only assist to find out the mode of action but also reveal bioactive key components. Thereby, developing the drugs bearing these bioactive skeletons to treat various illnesses is wide open. PMID:23172644

Nagarajan, M; Maruthanayagam, V; Sundararaman, M

2013-05-01

5

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

2014-01-01

6

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

2014-09-01

7

Elimination of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin from the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis (say).  

PubMed

It has been suggested that little to no microcystin (MC), a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, accumulates within freshwater pulmonate snails because the toxin is associated primarily with undigested gut contents that are eliminated from the animal via egestion. To test this, Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-containing cyanobacteria were placed into toxin-free environments and sampled over short (24 h at 21 degrees C) and long (30 d at 22 and 10 degrees C) time periods. Within 8 h after being removed from exposure to microcystin-containing phytoplankton, the gizzard and cecal string fractions of the feces were eliminated, accounting for 57% of the initial MC concentration. However, detectable concentrations remained beyond 24 h, likely in association with the digestive-gland contents, which can be retained up to 100 h. Long-term MC loss was biphasic at two ambient temperatures. The greatest change (fast phase) occurred over the first 3 d after exposure. By 6 d, the cumulative MC loss from L. stagnalis was 80 and 95% at 10 and 22 degrees C, respectively. Toxin loss over this period was attributed to egestion of indigestible cells/colonies from gizzard and cecum, as well as elimination of unassimilated MC-laden fragments and vacuolate excretion of residues from the digestive gland. The fast-phase depuration rate constant was significantly higher at 22 than at 10 degrees C, indicating an influence of ambient temperature on the rate of toxin loss from pulmonate snails. Depuration continued at slower rates until 30 d, when most (97.5 and 99.5% at 10 and 22 degrees C, respectively) of the initial MC was eliminated. PMID:16407089

Zurawell, Ronald W; Holmes, Charles F B; Prepas, Ellie E

2006-02-01

8

Diurnal variations in the photosynthesis-respiration activity of a cyanobacterial bloom in a freshwater dam reservoir: an isotopic study.  

PubMed

The stable isotopic analyses of molecular oxygen dissolved in water (delta18O(DO)) and dissolved inorganic carbon (delta13C(DIC)), supplemented with basic chemical measurements, have been carried out on a diurnal basis to better understand the dynamics of photosynthesis and respiration in freshwater systems. Our observations have been carried out in a lowland dam reservoir, the Sulejow Lake (central Poland), during the summer cyanobacterial bloom. All data obtained, isotopic, hydrochemical, and biological, show a high mutual consistency. Namely, the lowest delta18O(DO) values, obtained at 10:00 and 14:00 (16.0 and 15.5 per thousand, respectively), correspond to the highest amount of cyanobacterial cells observed (66 and 63 mg dm(-3), respectively), whereas the minimum delta13C(DIC) (-10.6 per thousand) obtained at 22:00 corresponds to the maximum content of organic matter (110 mg dm(-3)). This evidence suggests that isotopic assays of delta18O(DO) and delta13C(DIC) are a reliable tool for the quantitative study of biochemical processes in freshwater systems. PMID:18569188

Trojanowska, Adriana; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Jedrysek, Mariusz-Orion; Kurasiewicz, Marta; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Izydorczyk, Katarzyna

2008-06-01

9

A new genus and species of filamentous microfossil of cyanobacterial affinity from Early Silurian fluvial  

E-print Network

A new genus and species of filamentous microfossil of cyanobacterial affinity from Early Silurian fossil cyanobacteria and warrants formal description as a new taxon. MATERIAL AND METHODS LOCALITY, Switzerland Received 18 March 2009; accepted for publication 1 May 2009 Fossils reported previously from

Tomescu, Alexandru MF

10

Supplementary Information Species Optimal N:P Freshwater/ Taxon Source  

E-print Network

Supplementary Information Species Optimal N:P Freshwater/ Taxon Source (mol mol-1) Marine Melosira binderana 7.1 Freshwater Diatom 1 Microcystis sp. 8.9 Freshwater Cyanobacterium 1 Synedra ulna 11.1 Freshwater Diatom 1 Alexandrium tamarense 11.1 Marine Dinoflagellate 2, 3 Skeletonema costatum 12.0 Marine

11

Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes  

E-print Network

Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes Julien Aprila,1 by the Editorial Board May 7, 2011 (received for review November 4, 2010) Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species

Bernatchez, Louis

12

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species.  

PubMed

Invasions of exotic species have created environmental havoc through competition and displacement of native plants and animals. The introduction of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) into the United States in the 1960s has been detrimental to navigation, power generation, water intake, and water quality (McCann et al., 1996). Our field surveys and feeding studies have now implicated exotic hydrilla and associated epiphytic cyanobacterial species as a link to avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an emerging avian disease affecting herbivorous waterbirds and their avian predators. AVM, first reported in 1994, has caused the death of at least 100 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and thousands of American coots (Fulica americana) at 11 sites from Texas to North Carolina (Thomas et al., 1998; Rocke et al., 2002). Our working hypothesis is that the agent of this disease is an uncharacterized neurotoxin produced by a novel cyanobacterial epiphyte of the order Stigonematales. This undescribed species covers up to 95% of the surface area of leaves in reservoirs where bird deaths have occurred from the disease. In addition, this species is rare or not found on hydrilla collected at sites where AVM disease has not been diagnosed. Laboratory feeding trials and a sentinel bird study using naturally occurring blooms of cyanobacteria on hydrilla leaves and farm-raised mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) induced the disease experimentally. Since 1994 AVM has been diagnosed in additional sites from Texas to North Carolina. Specific site characteristics that produce the disjunct distribution of AVM are unknown, but it is probable that the incidence of this disease will increase with the introduction of hydrilla and associated cyanobacterial species into additional ponds, lakes, and reservoirs. PMID:15892059

Wilde, Susan B; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Habrun, Sarah K; Kempton, Jason; Birrenkott, Anna; Wiley, Faith; Bowerman, William W; Lewitus, Alan J

2005-06-01

13

Variation in the response of the invasive species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Smith) to natural (cyanobacterial toxin) and anthropogenic (herbicide atrazine) stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of increasing freshwater pollution, the impact on life-traits (survival, growth and fecundity) and locomotion of Potamopyrgus antipodarum of a 5-week field-concentration exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR and the triazine herbicide, atrazine was studied. Whatever the age of exposed snails (juveniles, subadults, adults), microcystin-LR induced a decrease in survival, growth and fecundity but had no effect on

Claudia Gerard; Virginie Poullain

2005-01-01

14

Variation in the response of the invasive species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Smith) to natural (cyanobacterial toxin) and anthropogenic (herbicide atrazine) stressors.  

PubMed

In the context of increasing freshwater pollution, the impact on life-traits (survival, growth and fecundity) and locomotion of Potamopyrgus antipodarum of a 5-week field-concentration exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR and the triazine herbicide, atrazine was studied. Whatever the age of exposed snails (juveniles, subadults, adults), microcystin-LR induced a decrease in survival, growth and fecundity but had no effect on locomotion. Atrazine induced a decrease in locomotory activity but had no significant effect on the life-traits. These results are discussed in terms of consequences to field populations. PMID:15927327

Gerard, Claudia; Poullain, Virginie

2005-11-01

15

Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes  

PubMed Central

Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required. PMID:21670289

April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L.; Hanner, Robert H.; Bernatchez, Louis

2011-01-01

16

Diversity of cyanobacterial species and phylotypes in biofilms from the littoral zone of Lake Baikal.  

PubMed

The majority of naturally occurring biofilms contain numerous microorganisms that have not yet been cultured. Additionally, there is little information available regarding the genetic structure and species diversity of these communities. Therefore, we characterised the species diversity, structure and metagenome of biofilms grown on stones and steel plates in the littoral zone of Lake Baikal (East Siberia, Russia) by applying three different approaches. First, light microscopy enabled identification of the species diversity of biofilm-forming cyanobacteria on different substrates with the dominance of Rivularia rufescens, Tolypothrix limbata, Chamaesiphon fuscus, Ch. subglobosus, and Heteroleibleinia pusilla. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to show the spatial structure of biofilms. Finally, sequence analysis of 30,660 16S rRNA clones indicated a high diversity within the biofilm communities, with the majority of the microbes being closely related to Cyanobacteria (8-46% sequences), Proteobacteria (14-43%), and Bacteroidetes (10-41%). Rivularia sp., Pseudanabaena sp., and Chamaesiphon spp. were the dominant cyanobacterial phylotypes. PMID:24385352

Sorokovikova, Ekaterina G; Belykh, Olga I; Gladkikh, Anna S; Kotsar, Oleg V; Tikhonova, Irina V; Timoshkin, Oleg A; Parfenova, Valentina V

2013-12-01

17

Molecular approaches for monitoring potentially toxic marine and freshwater phytoplankton species  

E-print Network

1 Molecular approaches for monitoring potentially toxic marine and freshwater phytoplankton species are a growing problem in freshwater and marine ecosystems due to their ability to synthesize devoted to surveys of toxic photosynthetic microorganisms in marine and freshwater ecosystems due

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Complex hydraulic and substrate variables limit freshwater mussel species richness and abundance  

E-print Network

Complex hydraulic and substrate variables limit freshwater mussel species richness and abundance. We examined how substrate and complex hydraulic variables limit the distribution of freshwater catastrophic declines in the abundance and diversity of freshwater mussel populations (Bival- via

Vaughn, Caryn

19

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species  

E-print Network

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species Zhaohui Abstract Five species of freshwater green algae, including three strains of Botryococcus braunii (two in the algae, including alkadienes, botryococcenes, heptadecenes, fatty acids, and phytadiene, were measured

Sachs, Julian P.

20

Can the Cyanobacterial Carbon-Concentrating Mechanism Increase Photosynthesis in Crop Species? A Theoretical Analysis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Experimental elevation of [CO2] around C3 crops in the field has been shown to increase yields by suppressing the Rubisco oxygenase reaction and, in turn, photorespiration. Bioengineering a cyanobacterial carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) into C3 crop species provides a potential means of elevating [CO2] at Rubisco, thereby decreasing photorespiration and increasing photosynthetic efficiency and yield. The cyanobacterial CCM is an attractive alternative relative to other CCMs, because its features do not require anatomical changes to leaf tissue. However, the potential benefits of engineering the entire CCM into a C3 leaf are unexamined. Here, a CO2 and HCO3? diffusion-reaction model is developed to examine how components of the cyanobacterial CCM affect leaf light-saturated CO2 uptake (Asat) and to determine whether a different Rubisco isoform would perform better in a leaf with a cyanobacterial CCM. The results show that the addition of carboxysomes without other CCM components substantially decreases Asat and that the best first step is the addition of HCO3? transporters, as a single HCO3? transporter increased modeled Asat by 9%. Addition of all major CCM components increased Asat from 24 to 38 µmol m?2 s?1. Several Rubisco isoforms were compared in the model, and increasing ribulose bisphosphate regeneration rate will allow for further improvements by using a Rubisco isoform adapted to high [CO2]. Results from field studies that artificially raise [CO2] suggest that this 60% increase in Asat could result in a 36% to 60% increase in yield. PMID:24550242

McGrath, Justin M.; Long, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

21

Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria are one of the most diverse groups of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Many of them are able to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites. These cyanobacterial toxins can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). Cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous due to this production of secondary metabolites and endotoxins, which could be toxic to animals and plants. Many of the freshwater cyanobacterial blooms include species of the toxigenic genera Microcystis, Anabaena, or Plankthotrix. These compounds differ in mechanisms of uptake, affected organs, and molecular mode of action. In this review, the main focus is the aquatic environment and the effects of these toxins to the organisms living there. Some basic toxic mechanisms will be discussed in comparison to the mammalian system.

Wiegand, C. [Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: cwiegand@igb-berlin.de; Pflugmacher, S. [Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.de

2005-03-15

22

Structural Dynamics of Community Gene Expression In a Freshwater Cyanobacterial Bloom Over a Day-Night Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacterial blooms are a major problem in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs, negatively impacting the ecology of the water body through oxygen depletion upon bloom decay and in some cases through production of toxins. Waterborne cyanobacterial toxins pose a public health threat through drinking and recreational exposure. The frequency of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cyanoHABs) is predicted to increase due to warming regional climates (Paerl et.al, 2011) and increases in non-point source pollution due to urban expansion (Novotny, 2011). CyanoHABs represent complex consortia of cyanobacteria that live in association with diverse assemblages of heterotrophic and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. A better understanding of the structure, function, and interaction between members of the complex microbial communities that support the proliferation of toxigenic cyanobacteria will improve our ability to prevent and control cyanoHABs. Studies of community gene expression, or metatranscriptomics, provide a powerful approach for quantifying changes in both the taxonomic composition (structure) and activity (function) of complex microbial systems in response to dynamic environmental conditions. We have used next-generation Illumina sequencing to characterize the metatranscriptome of a tropical eutrophic drinking water reservoir dominated by the toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa over a day/night cycle. Bacterioplankton sampling was carried out at six time points over a 24 hour period to capture variability associated with changes in the balance between phototrophic and heterotrophic activity. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 bp post-quality control reads per sample. Hierarchical Clustering of transcriptional profiles supported sorting of samples into two clusters corresponding to "day" and "night" collection times. Annotation of reads through the MG-RAST pipeline (Metagenomics- Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology) reveals that the community taxonomic composition stays relatively constant throughout the day/night cycle and is dominated by transcripts with highest identity to members of the phyla Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes (in decreasing order) where Microcystis transcripts represent 15.3 to 25.6% of the total bacterial transcriptomes (Eave=1E-4.22). Community transcripts are enriched with genes from the photosynthesis KEGG pathway during the day. In contrast, Proteobacterial transcripts are enriched at night (20.4% of the total bacterial transcriptome compared to 14.3% in the day, p = 0.039), and reveal signatures of heterotrophic activities. Metatranscriptomic quantification of microbial community gene expression in a cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa contributes to a fundamental understanding of nutrient and energy cycling over a day/night cycle and will enable better management and control of these cyanoHABs. Reference: Paerl HW et.al, (2011) Sci Total Environ.409(10):1739-45. Novotny V. (2011) Journal of Water Sustainability.1(1):1-22.

Wang, J.; Fernando, S.; Thompson, J. R.

2011-12-01

23

Behavioural thermoregulation in two freshwater fish species.  

PubMed

In the presence of a vertical thermal gradient, juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus and minnows Phoxinus phoxinus positioned themselves higher in the water column compared with adult conspecifics. This result was consistent regardless of whether age cohorts were tested separately or together. Furthermore, juveniles but not adult fishes positioned themselves higher in water column in the presence of a thermal gradient compared with those in the absence of a thermal gradient. Juvenile G. aculeatus and adult fish of both species did opt to position themselves higher in the water column in the hours immediately following a feeding event relative to their positions in the same gradient when they had not fed. PMID:20557593

Ward, A J W; Hensor, E M A; Webster, M M; Hart, P J B

2010-06-01

24

Diurnal variations in the photosynthesis-respiration activity of a cyanobacterial bloom in a freshwater dam reservoir: an isotopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable isotopic analyses of molecular oxygen dissolved in water (delta(18)O(DO)) and dissolved inorganic carbon (delta(13)C(DIC)), supplemented with basic chemical measurements, have been carried out on a diurnal basis to better understand the dynamics of photosynthesis and respiration in freshwater systems. Our observations have been carried out in a lowland dam reservoir, the Sulejow Lake (central Poland), during the summer

Adriana Trojanowska; Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak; M. O. Jedrysek; Marta Kurasiewicz; Leonard I. Wassenaar; Katarzyna Izydorczyk

2008-01-01

25

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish species, Anzali, Iran.  

PubMed

The main objectives of study were to monitor the metals concentrations, in freshwater fish species, Carassius gibelio and Esox lucius; and to identify any relationships between species and bioaccumulation of metals. The highest concentration of metals (cadmium, 1.96; copper, 24.2; zinc, 49.6; lead, 5.4; chromium, 4.4) between the fish species and tissues was in the liver of Esox lucius, while the lowest (cadmium,0.21; copper,7.2; zinc,19.4; lead,0.9; chromium,0.6 ?g/g) found in the muscle of Carassius gibelio. Results showed that the metal concentrations were in fishes in descending order of zinc > copper > lead > chromium > cadmium, similarly in the tissue liver > kidney > gill ~ intestine > muscle. PMID:21858708

Ebrahimpour, Mohammad; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Baramaki, Rahimeh; Babaei, Hadi; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

2011-10-01

26

Classification of species attributes for Pacific Northwest freshwater fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish assemblages integrate physical and chemical habitat conditions and are used to evaluate the condition of water resources in the Pacific Northwest. To facilitate such evaluations, we classified each of the 132 freshwater fish species known to occur in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, Washington) by its origin, overall pollution tolerance, adult habitat, adult feeding, and water temperature preference. Recommendations from regional fishery experts, published literature, and the aggregate experience of the authors were used to classify species. The attribute classifications were responsive to human disturbance of aquatic habitats when applied to fish assemblages sampled from throughout the region. Our attribute classification of fish species promotes use of fish assemblages to evaluate water resource conditions regionally and fosters greater acceptance of biological measures of water resource quality.

Zaroban, D. W.; Mulvey, M. P.; Maret, T. R.; Hughes, R. M.; Merritt, G. D.

1999-01-01

27

Next generation planar waveguide detection of microcystins in freshwater and cyanobacterial extracts, utilising a novel lysis method for portable sample preparation and analysis.  

PubMed

The study details the development of a fully validated, rapid and portable sensor based method for the on-site analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples. The process employs a novel lysis method for the mechanical lysis of cyanobacterial cells, with glass beads and a handheld frother in only 10 min. The assay utilises an innovative planar waveguide device that, via an evanescent wave excites fluorescent probes, for amplification of signal in a competitive immunoassay, using an anti-microcystin monoclonal with cross-reactivity against the most common, and toxic variants. Validation of the assay showed the limit of detection (LOD) to be 0.78 ng mL(-1) and the CC? to be 1 ng mL(-1). Robustness of the assay was demonstrated by intra- and inter-assay testing. Intra-assay analysis had % C.V.s between 8 and 26% and recoveries between 73 and 101%, with inter-assay analysis demonstrating % C.V.s between 5 and 14% and recoveries between 78 and 91%. Comparison with LC-MS/MS showed a high correlation (R(2)=0.9954) between the calculated concentrations of 5 different Microcystis aeruginosa cultures for total microcystin content. Total microcystin content was ascertained by the individual measurement of free and cell-bound microcystins. Free microcystins can be measured to 1 ng mL(-1), and with a 10-fold concentration step in the intracellular microcystin protocol (which brings the sample within the range of the calibration curve), intracellular pools may be determined to 0.1 ng mL(-1). This allows the determination of microcystins at and below the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of 1 ?g L(-1). This sensor represents a major advancement in portable analysis capabilities and has the potential for numerous other applications. PMID:23498128

Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Greef, Charles; Lochhead, Michael J; Elliott, Christopher T

2013-03-26

28

Natural xenobiotics to prevent cyanobacterial and algal growth in freshwater: contrasting efficacy of tannic acid, gallic acid, and gramine.  

PubMed

Allelochemical action against planktonic phototrophs is one central issue in freshwater ecology and quality management. To determine some basic mechanisms of this toxic action, we exposed the coccal green alga, Desmodesmus armatus, and the coccal cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, in a batch culture well-supplied with carbon dioxide to increasing concentrations of the polyphenols tannic acid and gallic acid and the alkaloid gramine. The phototrophs were checked after 2d and at the end of the culture for biomass-based growth rates, cell volume, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (?PSIImax), chlorophyll a content (chla) after 2d and at the end of the culture, and lipid peroxidation only at the end of the culture. During the culture, the pH rose from 7.64 to 10.95, a pH characteristic of eutrophic freshwater bodies during nuisance algal blooms. All xenobiotics reduced the growth rate, ?PSIImax, and chla during the first 2d with M. aeruginosa being more sensitive to the polyphenols than D. armatus. The efficacy of the polyphenols declined with increasing pH, indicating potential polymerization and corresponding reduced bioavailability of the polyphenols. In contrast to the polyphenols, gramine increased its toxic action over time, independent of the prevailing pH. All exposures caused slight to severe lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the phototrophs. Hence, one mechanism of growth inhibition may be oxidative stress-mediated reduction in photosynthesis. The presented results suggest that in successful field trials with leachate, the prevailing environmental conditions may inactivate polyphenols and xenobiotics other than polyphenols may be more effective. PMID:24332729

Laue, Pauline; Bährs, Hanno; Chakrabarti, Shumon; Steinberg, Christian E W

2014-06-01

29

Mercury toxicity to freshwater organisms: extrapolation using species sensitivity distribution.  

PubMed

Mercury toxicity to aquatic organisms was evaluated in different taxonomic groups showing the following species sensitivity gradient: Daphnia magna > Daphnia longispina > Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata > Chlorella vulgaris > Lemna minor > Chironomus riparius. Toxicity values ranged from 3.49 ?g/L (48 h-EC?? of D. magna) to 1.58 mg/L (48 h-EC?? of C. riparius). A species sensitivity distribution was used to estimate hazardous mercury concentration at 5 % level (HC5) and the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The HC5 was 3.18 ?g Hg/L and the PNEC varied between 0.636 and 3.18 ?g Hg/L, suggesting no risk of acute toxicity to algae, plants, crustaceans and insects in most freshwaters. PMID:23771310

Rodrigues, Andreia C M; Jesus, Fátima T; Fernandes, Marco A F; Morgado, Fernando; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Abreu, Sizenando N

2013-08-01

30

Selenium species and their distribution in freshwater fish from Argentina.  

PubMed

The distribution and speciation of selenium (Se) in freshwater fish (muscle and liver tissue) from lakes in Argentina was investigated. Three introduced species, brown trout (Salmo trutta), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and one native species, creole perch (Percichthys trucha), were investigated. Values for total selenium in muscle ranged from 0.66 to 1.61 ?g/g, while in the liver, concentrations were much higher, from 4.46 to 73.71 ?g/g on a dry matter basis. Separation of soluble Se species (SeCys(2), selenomethionine (SeMet), SeMeSeCys, selenite and selenate) was achieved by ion exchange chromatography and detection was performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed that in fish muscle, from 47 to 55 % of selenium was soluble and the only Se species identified was SeMet, which represented around 80 % of soluble Se, while in the liver, the amount of soluble Se ranged from 61 to 76 % and the percentage of species identified (SeMet and SeCys(2)) was much lower and ranged from 8 to 17 % of soluble Se. PMID:23242863

Kristan, Urška; Arribére, María A; Stibilj, Vekoslava

2013-02-01

31

Rare and endangered species: freshwater gastropods of southern New England  

SciTech Connect

The rare and endangered species of freshwater gastropods of southern New England are reported on based upon data collected over the past four years. Field sampling was concentrated in Connecticut but included parts of southern Massachusetts east to Cape Code (69 55 W to 73 45'W, 40 00'N). Water chemistry data were collected along with the snails. Collection methods and water analysis techniques have been described elsewhere by Jokinen (The Nautilus 92:156-160, 1978). Voucher specimens have been placed in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, The Florida State Museum, and the Museum of Zoology, the University of Michigan. Acid rain poses a threat to poorly buffered habitats. 6 references, 1 table.

Jokinen, E.H.; Pondick, J.

1981-01-01

32

Polyphasic identification of cyanobacterial isolates from Australia.  

PubMed

Reliable identification of cyanobacterial isolates has significant socio-economic implications as many bloom-forming species affect the aesthetics and safety of drinking water, through the production of taste and odour compounds or toxic metabolites. The limitations of morphological identification have promoted the application of molecular tools, and encouraged the adoption of combined (polyphasic) approaches that include both microscopy- and DNA-based analyses. In this context, the rapid expansion of available sequence data is expected to allow increasingly reliable identification of cyanobacteria, and ultimately resolve current discrepancies between the two approaches. In the present study morphological and molecular characterisations of cyanobacterial isolates (n = 39), collected from various freshwater sites in Australia, were compared. Sequences were obtained for the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene (16S rDNA) (n = 36), the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (rpoC1) (n = 22), and the phycocyanin operon, with its intergenic spacer region (cpcBA-IGS) (n = 19). Phylogenetic analyses identified three cyanobacterial orders: the Chroococcales (n = 8), Oscillatoriales (n = 6), and Nostocales (n = 25). Interestingly, multiple novel genotypes were identified, with 22% of the strains (17/77) having <95% similarity to available sequences in GenBank. Morphological and molecular data were in agreement at the species level for only 26% of the isolates obtained (10/39), while agreement at the genus level was obtained for 31% (12/39). Confident identification of the remaining 44% of the strains (17/39) beyond the order level was not possible. The present study demonstrates that, despite the taxonomic revisions, and advances in molecular-, and bioinformatics-tools, the lack of reliable morphological features, culture-induced pleomorphism, and proportion of misidentified or poorly described sequences in GenBank, still represent significant factors, impeding the confident identification of cyanobacteria species. PMID:24810741

Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una M; Monis, Paul; McGregor, Glenn B; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Paparini, Andrea

2014-08-01

33

Impacts of Alien Invasive Species on Freshwater Fauna at Risk in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater aquatic organisms in North America are disproportionately imperilled when compared to their terrestrial counterparts\\u000a due to widespread habitat alteration, pollution, overexploitation and the introduction of alien species. In this review, we\\u000a examine the threat factors contributing to the endangerment of freshwater fishes and molluscs in Canada and further examine\\u000a the nature of alien invasive species introductions affecting aquatic species

Alan J. Dextrase; Nicholas E. Mandrak

2006-01-01

34

early 800 native fish species in 36 families inhabit the freshwater rivers, streams, and  

E-print Network

N early 800 native fish species in 36 families inhabit the freshwater rivers, streams, and lakes of the United States and Canada. North America has the most diverse temperate freshwater fish fauna in the world. Only about 5 percent of these are the familiar sport or game fishes like trout and bass. The remaining

Liskiewicz, Maciej

35

Aggressive interactions between three species of freshwater crayfish of the genus Cherax (Decapoda: Parastacidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark, native to southeastern Australia, was first introduced to farm dams in southwestern Western Australia in 1932. The geographic range of the crayfish in Western Australia has increased substantially since then, and in recent years it has become established in natural waterways where it co-occurs with species of freshwater crayfish endemic to southwestern Australia, Cherax

Jessica Lynas; Andrew W. Storey; Brenton Knott

2007-01-01

36

Host species preferences by bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus, spawning in freshwater mussels and consequences for offspring survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain the evolution of host responses to parasites: the arms race–evolutionary lag and equilibrium hypotheses. We investigated predictions from these hypotheses based on interspecies host preferences and adaptations in an obligate spawning relationship between a freshwater fish, the European bitterling (Cyprinidae) and four species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae), which the fish use as hosts

Suzanne C. Mills; John D. Reynolds

2002-01-01

37

Extensive allozyme monomorphism in a threatened species of freshwater mussel, Margaritifera hembeli Conrad (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A threatened but under-studied component offreshwater biodiversity in North America is thenative freshwater mussels (Bivalvia:Unionoidea: Margaritiferidae and Unionidae). Genetic data suggest that these mussel speciesgenerally exhibit levels of variability similarto other invertebrates. We surveyed allozymevariation in the Louisiana Pearlshell, Margaritifera hembeli (Margaritiferidae), athreatened freshwater mussel. Five examinedpopulations are monomorphic for 25 allozymeloci, the first report of a native freshwatermussel species

Jason P. Curole; David W. Foltz; Kenneth M. Brown

2004-01-01

38

Carbon source utilization and accumulation of respiration-related substances by freshwater Thioploca species.  

PubMed

Carbon source utilization of Thioploca species from freshwater and brackish lakes in Japan was investigated. Microautoradiography demonstrated that freshwater and brackish Thioploca samples assimilate acetate. In addition, vertical nitrate transportation by freshwater Thioploca was examined by measuring substances accumulated in Thioploca filaments. The filaments of Thioploca sp. from Lake Biwa, a Japanese mesotrophic lake, contained nitrate at concentrations higher than ambient by two to three orders of magnitude. They also accumulated high concentrations of sulfate and abundant elemental sulfur. The results suggest that the Thioploca-specific strategy for sulfur oxidation, migration with accumulated nitrate, is effective even in freshwater habitats of lower sulfide supply. PMID:16989657

Kojima, Hisaya; Nakajima, Takuo; Fukui, Manabu

2007-01-01

39

Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland terrestrial ecosystems.

Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

2014-01-01

40

NOTES ON SOME FRESH-WATER FISHES FROM MAINE, DESCRIlYfIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES.  

E-print Network

NOTES ON SOME FRESH-WATER FISHES FROM MAINE, WITH DESCRIlYfIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES. By VVILLIAM, --------~------ --~ --------------------_._._.._ ~ - _ . F. C. B. 1902-23 353 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;855 NOTES ON SOME FRESH-WATER FISHES~ne,a chiefly compiled and containing hut few fresh-water species. Over thirty years later the present writer

41

Non-native fishes and native species diversity in freshwater fish assemblages across the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of non-native species in North American freshwater ecosystems is considered a primary threat to the integrity\\u000a of native community structure. However, a general understanding of consistent and predictable impacts of non-native species\\u000a on native freshwater diversity is limited, in part, because of a lack of broad-scale studies including data from numerous\\u000a localities across multiple drainages. This study uses

Alison L. Mitchell; Jason H. Knouft

2009-01-01

42

Toxicity of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine to three aquatic animal species.  

PubMed

Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin and candidate contributory cause of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is produced by aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacteria. We have determined BMAA toxicity to three aquatic animal species: zebra fish (Danio rerio), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and the protozoan Nassula sorex. Responses included: clonus convulsions and abnormal spinal axis formation (D. rerio), loss of phototaxis (A. salina) and mortalities (all species). These systems offer potential to further understand BMAA toxicity and the bioaccumulation and fates of BMAA in aquatic food chains leading to potential human exposure. PMID:19929735

Purdie, Esme L; Metcalf, James S; Kashmiri, Shereen; Codd, Geoffrey A

2009-01-01

43

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions of exotic species have created environmental havoc through competition and dis- placement of native plants and animals. The introduction of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) into the United States in the 1960s has been detrimental to navigation, power generation, water intake, and water quality (McCann et al., 1996). Our field surveys and feeding studies have now implicated exotic hydrilla and asso-

Susan B. Wilde; Thomas M. Murphy; Charlotte P. Hope; Sarah K. Habrun; Jason Kempton; Anna Birrenkott; Faith Wiley; William W. Bowerman; Alan J. Lewitus

2005-01-01

44

Hepatotoxic Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Importance of Microcystins in Freshwater Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria possess many adaptations to develop population maxima or “blooms” in lakes and reservoirs. A potential consequence of freshwater blooms of many cyanobacterial species is the production of potent toxins, including the cyclic hepatotoxins, microcystins (MCs). Approximately 70 MC variants have been isolated. Their toxicity to humans and other animals is well studied, because of public health concerns. This review

Ronald W. Zurawell; Huirong Chen; Janice M. Burke; Ellie E. Prepas

2005-01-01

45

The influence of phylogenetic relatedness on species interactions among freshwater green algae  

E-print Network

measured its invasion success when introduced into a steady-state population of another resident species distance separating two interacting species and the success of invasion, nor the prevalence or strengthThe influence of phylogenetic relatedness on species interactions among freshwater green algae

Cardinale, Bradley J.

46

Regulation of gene expression in diverse cyanobacterial species by using theophylline-responsive riboswitches.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria that are currently being developed as biological production platforms. They derive energy from light and carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide, and some species can fix atmospheric nitrogen. One advantage of developing cyanobacteria for renewable production of biofuels and other biological products is that they are amenable to genetic manipulation, facilitating bioengineering and synthetic biology. To expand the currently available genetic toolkit, we have demonstrated the utility of synthetic theophylline-responsive riboswitches for effective regulation of gene expression in four diverse species of cyanobacteria, including two recent isolates. We evaluated a set of six riboswitches driving the expression of a yellow fluorescent protein reporter in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, Leptolyngbya sp. strain BL0902, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, and Synechocystis sp. strain WHSyn. We demonstrated that riboswitches can offer regulation of gene expression superior to that of the commonly used isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside induction of a lacI(q)-Ptrc promoter system. We also showed that expression of the toxic protein SacB can be effectively regulated, demonstrating utility for riboswitch regulation of proteins that are detrimental to biomass accumulation. Taken together, the results of this work demonstrate the utility and ease of use of riboswitches in the context of genetic engineering and synthetic biology in diverse cyanobacteria, which will facilitate the development of algal biotechnology. PMID:25149516

Ma, Amy T; Schmidt, Calvin M; Golden, James W

2014-11-01

47

The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

Glöer, Peter; Peši?, Vladimir

2012-01-01

48

A revision of the species of Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) parasitic in American freshwater fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species of the pseudophyllidean genus Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 parasitising freshwater fishes in America are revised, based on the examination of type and voucher specimens of seven taxa. There are five valid species: Bothriocephalus claviceps (Goeze, 1782), B. cuspidatus Cooper, 1917, B. formosus Mueller & Van Cleave, 1932, B. acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, and B. pearsei Scholz, Vargas-Vázquez & Moravec, 1996.

Tomáš Scholz

1997-01-01

49

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF FLUORANTHENE TO FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER SPECIES UNDER FLUORESCENT AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT  

EPA Science Inventory

The acute and chronic toxicity of fluoranthene was determined for a diverse group of freshwater and saltwater species under both standard laboratory fluorescent light and ultraviolet (UV) light test conditions. Acute tests with 21 species demonstrated that fluoranthene was not le...

50

Predictive Value of Species Sensitivity Distributions for Effects of Herbicides in Freshwater Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present a review of the laboratory and field toxicity of herbicides to aquatic ecosystems. Single-species acute toxicity data and (micro)mesocosm data were collated for nine herbicides. These data were used to investigate the importance of test species selection in constructing species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), and in estimating hazardous concentrations (i.e., HC5) protective for freshwater aquatic ecosystems.

Paul J. Van den Brink; Naomi Blake; Theo C. M. Brock; Lorraine Maltby

2006-01-01

51

Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.  

PubMed

Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO? is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21574555

Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

2011-06-15

52

Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?  

PubMed

Ciliate diversity was investigated in situ in freshwater ecosystems of the maritime (South Shetland Islands, mainly Livingston Island, 63 degrees S) and continental Antarctic (Victoria Land, 75 degrees S), and the High Arctic (Svalbard, 79 degrees N). In total, 334 species from 117 genera were identified in both polar regions, i.e. 210 spp. (98 genera) in the Arctic, 120 spp. (73 genera) in the maritime and 59 spp. (41 genera) in the continental Antarctic. Forty-four species (13% of all species) were common to both Arctic and Antarctic freshwater bodies and 19 spp. to both Antarctic areas (12% of all species). Many taxa are cosmopolitans but some, e.g. Stentor and Metopus spp., are not, and over 20% of the taxa found in any one of the three areas are new to science. Cluster analysis revealed that species similarity between different biotopes (soil, moss) within a study area was higher than between similar biotopes in different regions. Distinct differences in the species composition of freshwater and terrestrial communities indicate that most limnetic ciliates are not ubiquitously distributed. These observations and the low congruence in species composition between both polar areas, within Antarctica and between high- and temperate-latitude water bodies, respectively, suggest that long-distance dispersal of limnetic ciliates is restricted and that some species have a limited geographical distribution. PMID:17313584

Petz, Wolfgang; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Schiftner, Uwe; Quesada, Antonio; Cynan Ellis-Evans, J

2007-02-01

53

Freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa) of Norway II: distribution and ecology of two species of Fredericella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater bryozoans were investigated during field studies of 601 lakes and other surface water bodies throughout Norway from 1960 to 1978. The frequency of occurrence of the two Fredericella species was evaluated in relation to 12 environmental variables. Statistically significant deviations from the frequencies expected on the basis of random distribution were described using the categories preference, avoidance and absence.

Karen Anna Økland; Jan Økland

2001-01-01

54

Seasonal acclimation in the photosynthetic and respiratory temperature responses of three submerged freshwater macrophyte species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of seasonal temperature acclimation in gas exchange are few and only exist for terrestrial and marine plants. Here we report on results obtained for three freshwater macrophyte species (Callitriche obtusangula, Potamogeton pectinatus and Potamogeton perfoliatus). We collected plants from the field at monthly intervals and measured photosynthetic and respiratory temperature-response curves. Fitted and calculated parameters were derived from the

Jorn Pilon; Luis Santamaria

2001-01-01

55

Species Richness, Distribution and Relative Abundance of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) of the Strawberry River, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to document the species richness, distribution and abundance of fresh water mussels, address whether there are distinct communities in the Strawberry River and assess if any environmental variables are associated with mussel distributions. The Strawberry River watershed (1500 km2) is located within the North-central Arkansas. Freshwater mussels were surveyed from the headwater to mouth

Sujata Poudel

2012-01-01

56

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THREE SNAIL SPECIES, INCLUDING THE INVADER POTAMOPYRGUS ANTIPODARUM, IN A FRESHWATER SPRING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly invasive New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, may compete with and displace native North American macroinvertebrates in freshwater systems wherever it becomes established. Densities and spatial distributions of 3 snail species including P. antipodarum and the threatened Taylorconcha serpenticola were compared among 3 adjacent habitat types (run, edge, and vegetation) in Banbury Springs, a tributary of the Snake River,

David C. Richards; L. Dianne Cazier; Gary T. Lester

57

Macrophyte Species Drive the Variation of Bacterioplankton Community Composition in a Shallow Freshwater Lake  

PubMed Central

Macrophytes play an important role in structuring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we explored whether macrophyte species are involved in determining the bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) in shallow freshwater lakes. The BCC in field areas dominated by different macrophyte species in Taihu Lake, a large, shallow freshwater lake, was investigated over a 1-year period. Subsequently, microcosm experiments were conducted to determine if single species of different types of macrophytes in an isolated environment would alter the BCC. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), followed by cloning and sequence analysis of selected samples, was employed to analyze the BCC. The DGGE results of the field investigations indicated that the BCC changed significantly from season to season and that the presence of different macrophyte species resulted in lower BCC similarities in the summer and fall. LIBSHUFF analysis of selected clone libraries from the summer demonstrated different BCCs in the water column surrounding different macrophytes. Relative to the field observations, the microcosm studies indicated that the BCC differed more pronouncedly when associated with different species of macrophytes, which was also supported by LIBSHUFF analysis of the selected clone libraries. Overall, this study suggested that macrophyte species might be an important factor in determining the composition of bacterial communities in this shallow freshwater lake and that the species-specific influence of macrophytes on BCC is variable with the season and distance. PMID:22038598

Zeng, Jin; Bian, Yuanqi; Xing, Peng

2012-01-01

58

Impact of resource availability on species composition and diversity in freshwater nematodes.  

PubMed

This study investigates the long-term effects of resource availability in a freshwater nematode community. We carried out a mesocosm experiment where natural nematode communities were exposed to nutrient addition/depletion over 2 years. Compared to the nutrient-addition treatment, species richness and diversity were strongly reduced upon nutrient depletion. The functional group of bacterial feeders particularly suffered severely from nutrient depletion. The decrease in diversity of bacterial feeders was linked to reduced species richness and diversity of large omnivorous species, as predicted by trophic-dynamic models. Tilman's (1976) statement, that under low nutrient levels the best competitor dominates the system, was applicable in our system. Upon nutrient depletion, resource depletion led to a monoculture of 1 small bacterial feeder, but even after 2 years of resource depletion, up to 16 species still coexisted. Our results provide strong evidence that freshwater nematode systems can be regulated by nutrient competition. PMID:15365809

Michiels, Iris C; Traunspurger, Walter

2005-01-01

59

Interspecific differences in chemosensory responses of freshwater turtles: consequences for competition between native and invasive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) is an introduced invasive species in many Mediterranean countries that is displacing the populations of native endangered\\u000a Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). However, it is relatively unknown how potential competitive interactions could be taking place. In many freshwater turtles,\\u000a semiochemicals from different glands might facilitate species and sex recognition. We hypothesized that chemosensory detection\\u000a of

Nuria Polo-Cavia; Pilar López; José Martín

2009-01-01

60

Micronucleus test in freshwater fish species: an evaluation of its sensitivity for application in field surveys.  

PubMed

Brown trout, Salmo trutta, European eel, Anguilla anguilla, and European minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, three fish species inhabiting European freshwater ecosystems, were evaluated for their use as in situ pollution biomarkers using the micronucleus test in renal erythrocytes. Experimental exposure (by immersion) to different concentrations of cyclophosphamide, colchicine, and cadmium showed that brown trout are more sensitive to the three compounds than minnows and eels. In situ surveys of wild freshwater ecosystems with different levels of pollution showed that minnows and eels living in polluted sites do not present higher micronuclei averages than those caught in clean rivers systems, whereas micronuclei are induced in brown trout inhabiting polluted sites. Our results demonstrated the suitability of brown trout for in situ biomonitoring of freshwater ecosystems as well as for laboratory tests using the micronucleus test. PMID:14575685

Rodriguez-Cea, A; Ayllon, F; Garcia-Vazquez, E

2003-11-01

61

Patterns in species richness and endemism of European freshwater fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To analyse the patterns in species richness and endemism of the native European riverine fish fauna, in the light of the Messinian salinity crisis and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Location European continent.

Yorick Reyjol; Bernard Hugueny; Didier Pont; Pier Giorgio Bianco; Ulrika Beier; Nuño Caiola; Frederic Casals; Ian Cowx; Alcibiades Economou; Teresa Ferreira; Gertrud Haidvogl; Richard Noble; Adolfo de Sostoa; Thibault Vigneron; Tomas Virbickas

2007-01-01

62

Conditions for coexistence of freshwater mussel species via partitioning of fish host resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larval stage may promote coexistence. A model of resource utilization was developed for two mussel species and analyzed to determine conditions for coexistence. Mussel species were predicted to coexist when they differed in terms of their success in contacting different fish host species; very similar strategies offered limited possibilities for coexistence. Differences in the mussel species' maximum infestation loads on the fish hosts that coincided with differences in their fish host contact success promoted coexistence. Mussel species with a given set of trade-offs in fish host use were predicted to coexist only for a subset of relative fish host abundances, so a shift in relative fish host abundances could result in the loss of a mussel species. An understanding of the conditions for freshwater mussel species coexistence can help explain high mussel diversity in rivers and guide ongoing conservation activities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rashleigh, B.; DeAngelis, D. L.

2007-01-01

63

Toxins produced in cyanobacterial water blooms - toxicity and risks  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters represent a major ecological and human health problem worldwide. This paper briefly summarizes information on major cyanobacterial toxins (hepatotoxins, neurotoxins etc.) with special attention to microcystins-cyclic heptapeptides with high acute and chronic toxicities. Besides discussion of human health risks, microcystin ecotoxicology and consequent ecological risks are also highlighted. Although significant research attention has been paid to microcystins, cyanobacteria produce a wide range of currently unknown toxins, which will require research attention. Further research should also address possible additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects among different classes of cyanobacterial metabolites, as well as interactions with other toxic stressors such as metals or persistent organic pollutants. PMID:21217843

Blaha, Ludek; Babica, Pavel; Marsalek, Blahoslav

2009-01-01

64

Cross-Cordillera exchange mediated by the Panama Canal increased the species richness of local freshwater fish assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 breached the continental divide and set into motion a natural experiment of unprecedented magnitude by bringing previously isolated freshwater fish communities into contact. The construction of a freshwater corridor connecting evolutionarily isolated communities in Pacific and Caribbean watersheds dramatically increased the rate of dispersal, without directly affecting species interactions. Here, we report that

Scott A. Smith; Graham Bell; Eldredge Bermingham

2004-01-01

65

Experimental Anesthesia of Three Species of Freshwater Fish with Etomidate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etomidate (ethyl-l-methylbenzyl-imidazole-5-carboxylate) is an experimental non-barbiturate hypnotic agent used intravenously for anesthetic induction in humans and domestic or laboratory mammals. Three species of fish (golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus) were anesthetized for up to 96 h with various concentrations of etomidate. Mortality during the 48-h recovery period after anesthesia was low in

J. A. Plumb; T. E. Schwedler; C. Limsuwan

1983-01-01

66

Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.  

PubMed

To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of the same cyanobacterial species, as showing by the varying effectiveness of the solvent systems investigated. Therefore, a sole method cannot be regarded as universal and superior for the extraction of endotoxins from cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, the ability of the novel HBW and HDW methods to utilize easily handled organic solvents that are less hazardous than phenol render them attractive alternatives to the standard HPW method. PMID:14758595

Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

2004-02-01

67

Chemical analysis of endolymph and the growing otolith: fractionation of metals in freshwater fish species.  

PubMed

The fractionation of metals from water to otolith is an area of research that has received relatively limited attention, especially in freshwater systems. The objectives of the present research were to study the metal partitioning between otolith and endolymph of two freshwater species: Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and burbot (Lota lota). We also included the chemical analyses of water and blood from fish of the same species collected in the same area but during different years. These results provide insight regarding the partition of metals between water and fish. This is one of the first studies to provide a range of trace metal concentrations for endolymph and the growing otolith (both aragonite and vaterite) and to directly measure otolith-endolymph partition coefficients for freshwater fish. The trace elements (Mg, Sr, and Ba) most often used as otolith elemental tracers were the ones with the lowest uptake from water to blood. We found that endolymph and whole blood had similar metal concentrations, with Mg and Fe being the only elements enriched in whole blood. Results showed few significant differences in trace metal content between wild lake trout and burbot endolymph (except for K, Mg, and Ba), but significant differences existed between their aragonitic otoliths. These results suggest two different crystallization processes in these species or the presence of different proteins (and/or organic matrices) that would selectively influence elemental incorporation in the otoliths. PMID:19154085

Melancon, Sonia; Fryer, Brian J; Markham, James L

2009-06-01

68

SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE SPECIES TESTING: ACUTE TOXICITY OF 13 CHEMICALS TO 12 DIVERSE FRESHWATER AMPHIBIAN, FISH, AND INVERTEBRATE FAMILIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The test series developed methods for testing a compliment of aquatic organisms in a single test that satisfies the freshwater acute toxicity requirements for setting water quality criteria. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, rainbow trout Salmo gairdner...

69

Physiologic and environmental factors influencing the calcium-to-tissue ratio in populations of three species of freshwater pulmonate snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of three species of freshwater pulmonate snails, Physa gyrina (11 populations), Physa integra (17 populations), and Helisoma anceps (18 populations) was carried out from 1973 to 1976, primarily in Michigan.

R. Douglas Hunter; Wendy W. Lull

1977-01-01

70

Concentrations of microcystins in tissues of several fish species from freshwater reservoirs and ponds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to summarise the determination of concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in muscle and liver of freshwater fish species caught in stagnant waters of the Czech Republic. Within the years 2007-2009, 351 muscle samples and 291 liver samples of 16 freshwater fish species derived from four fishponds, and four water reservoirs were analysed. MCs were detected in 53 liver samples. The highest concentrations of microcystins were determined in liver samples of carnivorous fish species; 50.3 ng/g of fresh weight (FW) in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and 22.7 ng/g FW in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). MCs in liver were detected in other five fish species; asp (Aspius aspius), pike (Esox lucius), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Concentrations of MCs in liver of nine fish species (European bream, whitefish, tench, silver carp, European catfish, roach, chub, crucian carp and rudd) were below the detection limit of 1.2-5.4 ng/g FW for different MC congeners. However, the concentrations of MCs in all muscle samples were below the detection limit. The assessment of MCs concentrations might be influenced by the detection method used. Due to the concentrations of MCs being below the detection limit in muscle samples of all fish species analysed, it seems that there might be a low potential threat for human health in case of fish muscle consumption. PMID:23756815

Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Adamovský, Ond?ej; Ziková, Andrea; Navrátil, Stanislav; Kohoutek, Ji?í; Mareš, Jan; Bláha, Lud?k

2013-12-01

71

R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Eukaryotes in Arctic and Antarctic cyanobacterial mats  

E-print Network

Cyanobacterial mats are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the polar regions. Most mats, Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Ciliophora, and Cercozoa. Fungi cyanobacteria are found in a diverse range of marine and freshwater environments (Stal, 2000

Vincent, Warwick F.

72

New cystidicolid species (Nematoda) from Galaxias platei (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonian freshwater environments.  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey of Galaxias platei Steindachner, 1898, from Patagonian Andean Lakes, a new species of Cystidicolidae was found in the stomach of fish. The new species was described using light and scanning electron microscopy; the species has characteristics of Ascarophis and is distinguishable from other species by a combination of the following features: well-developed pseudolabia with T-shaped inner extensions, bifurcate deirids, small ratio GE:ME, small left spicule, small ratio LS:RS, and larvigerous eggs with thick and fine filaments in both poles. Intraspecific variation in the morphology of larvigerous eggs was studied. This is the first species of Ascarophis described from freshwater fishes. PMID:18576739

Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

2008-08-01

73

Toxicity of acid aluminium-rich water to seven freshwater fish species: a comparative laboratory study.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the relative sensitivity among freshwater fish species to aqueous aluminium. Seven common Scandinavian fish species were exposed to acidic Al-rich water, acidic Al-poor water, and approximately neutral water as a control. The relative sensitivity among the species to an acute aluminium challenge was documented, and was in the following order: Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as the most sensitive; then roach, Rutilus rutilus; minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus; perch, Perca fluviatilis; grayling, Thymallus thymallus; brown trout, Salmo trutta; and Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus. Substantial mortality was observed in all species when exposed to the Al-rich medium. Some mortality was also observed in minnow, roach, and brown trout exposed to the acidic Al-poor medium and the control medium. A high resistance to aluminium was observed in Arctic char, while perch was found to be more sensitive to aluminium than expected and, for the first time, a toxic response to aqueous aluminium in grayling was documented. Through controlled experimental studies, the results confirm that aluminium is an important factor in the toxicity of acidified waters to freshwater fish species. PMID:15093412

Poléo, A B; ØStbye, K; Øxnevad, S A; Andersen, R A; Heibo, E; Vøllestad, L A

1997-01-01

74

Eco-physiological adaptations that favour freshwater cyanobacteria in a changing climate.  

PubMed

Climate change scenarios predict that rivers, lakes, and reservoirs will experience increased temperatures, more intense and longer periods of thermal stratification, modified hydrology, and altered nutrient loading. These environmental drivers will have substantial effects on freshwater phytoplankton species composition and biomass, potentially favouring cyanobacteria over other phytoplankton. In this Review, we examine how several cyanobacterial eco-physiological traits, specifically, the ability to grow in warmer temperatures; buoyancy; high affinity for, and ability to store, phosphorus; nitrogen-fixation; akinete production; and efficient light harvesting, vary amongst cyanobacteria genera and may enable them to dominate in future climate scenarios. We predict that spatial variation in climate change will interact with physiological variation in cyanobacteria to create differences in the dominant cyanobacterial taxa among regions. Finally, we suggest that physiological traits specific to different cyanobacterial taxa may favour certain taxa over others in different regions, but overall, cyanobacteria as a group are likely to increase in most regions in the future. PMID:22217430

Carey, Cayelan C; Ibelings, Bas W; Hoffmann, Emily P; Hamilton, David P; Brookes, Justin D

2012-04-01

75

Accumulation and elimination of chromium by freshwater species exposed to spiked sediments.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation and elimination capacity of chromium were examined in four freshwater species: the submersed aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae), the oligochaete Limnodrilus udekemianus (Tubificidae), the crab Zilchiopsis collastinensis (Decapoda), and the fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae). All of the species were exposed simultaneously to sediments spiked with Cr (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) at different concentrations for 28 days, followed by 7 days without Cr to evaluate the concentration of residual Cr. We found that Cr accumulated in the tissues of all four species. The highest bioconcentration factor obtained for each species is as follows: C. demersum, 718.66 (+/-272.91); L. udekemianus, 172.55 (+/-80.8), Z. collastinensis, 67.72 (+/-35.4); C. decemmaculatus, 23.11 (+/-12.82), all at 28 days of exposure. PMID:18274820

Marchese, Mercedes; Gagneten, Ana M; Parma, María J; Pavé, Paola J

2008-11-01

76

Ectoparasitic species of the genus Trichodina (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) parasitising British freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Seven species of the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 were identified during a sampling programme of twenty freshwater fish species from approximately sixty sites in Scotland, England and Wales. Species found include: Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961 from Cyprinus carpio L., Carassius auratus L., Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), Salmo trutta L. and Phoxinus phoxinus L.; Trichodina domerguei Wallengren, 1897 from Gasterosteus aculeatus L.; Trichodina tenuidens Faure-Fremiet, 1944 from Gasterosteus aculeatus; Trichodina pediculus Ehrenberg, 1838 from Gasterosteus aculeatus; Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970 from Abramis brama L.; Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960 from Cyprinus carpio, Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss; and Trichodina intermedia Lom, 1960 from Phoxinus. Morphological variation within and between host populations and host specificity of the Trichodina species recovered are described. PMID:9805782

Gaze, W H; Wootten, R

1998-01-01

77

Reproductive impairment of a viviparous fish species inhabiting a freshwater system with anthropogenic impact.  

PubMed

The potential threat to animal reproduction by contaminated freshwater systems posed the necessity to identify and develop bioindicators and biomarkers to be used for screening and evaluation of the effects in organisms. The main goal of this work was to determine, through histological analyses and changes in gonopodium morphology, whether a freshwater system polluted by anthropogenic activities-sewage, agricultural, and industrial-could cause alterations at the organ level. We also propose the live-bearing fish, Jenynsia multidentata, as a species suitable to study the effects of contaminated aquatic environments. We compared male fish sampled at two different stations in Suquía River basin (Córdoba, Argentina), both differing in degree of pollution, through liver and testis histology and gonopodial morphometric parameters. The water quality, based on the physicochemical characteristics of the studied stations, varied markedly with a decrease in water quality at the downstream site (station 2). At the highest polluted area, detrimental effects on liver and testis were evidenced on histological analysis. Male individuals from station 2 also presented noticeable structural changes of the anal fin, such as a straight gonopodium and abnormal tip area. The present results demonstrate that a freshwater system polluted by the impacts of anthropogenic activities has detrimental effects to J. multidentata. The alterations registered in individuals from the polluted station indicate an impairment of male reproductive performance and imply a risk for other live-bearing species as well as the entire biodiversity. We consider J. multidentata a sentinel species that is useful to evaluate the potential risk present in the studied basin not only to itself but to other species as well. PMID:23124166

Hued, Andrea Cecilia; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Bistoni, María de Los Ángeles

2013-02-01

78

Dinitrogenase reductase (Fe-protein) of nitrogenase in the cyanobacterial symbionts of three Azolla species: Localization and sequence of appearance during heterocyst differentiation.  

PubMed

Transmission electron microscopy and immunocytological labeling were used to study the distribution and ontological occurrence of dinitrogenase reductase (Fe-protein) of nitrogenase in cyanobacterial symbionts within young leaves of the water-ferns Azolla filiculoides Lamarck, A. caroliniana Willdenow, and A. pinnata R. Brown. Rabbit anti-dinitrogenase reductase antisera and goat anti-rabbit-immunoglobulin G antibody conjugated to colloidal gold were used as probes. Western blot analyses showed that a polypeptide of approx. 36 kDa (kdalton) was recognized in the symbionts of all three Azolla species and that the polyclonal sera used were monospecific. In all symbionts, nitrogenase was immunologically recognizable within heterocysts. It was absent from vegetative cells, and also from the akinetes of the A. caroliniana and A. pinnata symbionts. The differentiation of vegetative cells into heterocysts in all three symbionts was initiated by formation of additional external cell-wall layers and narrowing of the neck followed by loss of glycogen, mild vesiculation of thylakoid membranes, and the appearance of polar nodules. No nitrogenase was detected at these early stages, but it appeared in the intermediate proheterocyst stage concomitantly with the formation of contorted membranes, and reached the strongest labeling in mature heterocysts, containing extensive tightly packed membranes. Nitrogenase was evenly distributed throughout heterocysts except at the polar regions, which contained honey-comb configurations and large polar nodules. With increased age of the A. caroliniana and A. pinnata symbionts, heterocysts became highly vesiculated, with a concomitant decrease in the amount of nitrogenase detected. PMID:24220860

Braun-Howland, E B; Lindblad, P; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Bergman, B

1988-12-01

79

The relationship of oocyte diameter and incubation temperature to incubation time in temperate freshwater fish species.  

PubMed

Based on the analysis of six egg variables and incubation temperature of 65 temperate freshwater fish species, the possible relationships between oocyte diameter, incubation time and incubation temperature were reassessed and compared to the results obtained from marine fishes. Most freshwater species have eggs (mean +/-s.d. 2.19 +/- 1.52 mm) larger than marine species, that are chiefly demersal and develop stuck to various substrata, such as plants or rocks. A strong negative relationship was found between incubation time (t, days) and incubation temperature (T, degrees C): t = 186.23e(-0.197T) (r(2)= 0.87). A strong dependence of incubation time on oocyte diameter (Ø, mm) and incubation temperature was also found and was defined as: log(10)t= 3.002 + 0.599 log(10)Ø - 1.91 log(10) (T + 2), which explained 92% of the variance of the data set. Five major groups of species were defined based on the principal component analysis (PCA) of four quantitative variables. There were two distinct groups of salmonids, displaying demersal and non-adhesive eggs with a long incubation time at low temperature, the eggs of which required a high number of degree-days. There was a large group of species possessing small, mostly demersal and adhesive eggs developing at high temperature during a short period of time, and requiring a low number of degree-days. Between these two extremes, there was a fourth group displaying intermediate values and a fifth group including three species with large, adhesive and demersal eggs incubating at high temperatures during a short period of time. The burbot Lota lota displayed an unusual combination of variables compared to the remaining species in the data set. PMID:20735585

Teletchea, F; Gardeur, J-N; Kamler, E; Fontaine, P

2009-02-01

80

Toxin production in cyanobacterial mats from ponds on the McMurdo ice shelf, Antarctica.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are known to produce hepatotoxic substances, the functional and ecological role of these toxins, however, remains largely unclear. Toxic properties of cyanobacteria collected in Antarctica were investigated to determine whether toxin-producing species can also be found under these environmental conditions. Samples were collected from meltwater ponds on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica in the summers of 1997 to 1999. These ponds are colonized by benthic algae and cyanobacterial mats. Oscillatoriales, Nodularia sp., and Nostoc sp. constituted the major taxa in freshwater ponds, while Nostoc sp. was missing from brackish and saline ponds. Samples were taken from either floating, submerged or benthic mats, and extracted for in vitro toxicity testing. The presence of toxins was determined by the phosphatase-inhibition assay and by high performance liquid chromatography. The cytotoxic properties of the extracts were investigated in hepatocytes determining 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide metabolism and trypan blue dye exclusion. The results show that all cyanobacterial extracts display phosphatase-inhibiting activity, of which approximately half had significantly greater than 50% inhibiting activity. The presence of nodularin and microcystin-LR was established by high performance liquid chromatography. Cytotoxic properties, independent of the phosphatase inhibiting activity, were also detected. Toxic strains of cyanobacteria can therefore also be found in Antarctica and this finding may lead to further insight into potential ecological roles of cyanobacterial phosphatase inhibiting toxins. PMID:10858513

Hitzfeld, B C; Lampert, C S; Spaeth, N; Mountfort, D; Kaspar, H; Dietrich, D R

2000-12-01

81

Responses of seven species of native freshwater fish and a shrimp to low levels of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerances of seven New Zealand freshwater fish species and one species of shrimp to low levels of dissolved oxygen were determined in the laboratory by holding fish at dissolved oxygen levels of 1, 3, or 5 mg litre for 48 h at 15°C. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were also tested for comparison. All of the banded kokopu whitebait

Tracie L. Dean; Jody Richardson

1999-01-01

82

Studies on species of fungi associated with mycotic infections of fish in a Nigerian freshwater fish pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out on the species of fungi associated with mycotic infections of fish in a Nigerian freshwater fish pond. A total of 24 fungal species belonging to 6 genera of aquatic phycomycete were isolated from the infected fishes. Achlya racemosa, Aphanomyces laevis, Dictyuchus sterile, Saprolegnia ferax, S. litoralis and S. parasitica had 100% frequency of occurrence amongst

C. I. C. Ogbonna; R. O. Alabi

1991-01-01

83

The occurrence of an Australian leech species (genus Helobdella) in German freshwater habitats as revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater leech Helobdella europaea Kutschera 1987 was discovered twenty years ago in Germany and described as a new species. Here, we show that this leech is genetically identical with the Australian species Helobdella papillornata (CO-I-mt-DNA sequence identity of alignment positions: 98%). We conclude that H. europaea (syn. H. papillornata) represents an introduced annelid that occupies the same ecological niche

I. Pfeiffer; B. Brenig; U. Kutschera

2004-01-01

84

Gene trees versus species trees: reassessing life-history evolution in a freshwater fish radiation.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of speciation are best understood in the context of phylogenetic relationships and as such have often been inferred from single gene trees, typically those derived from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Recent studies, however, have noted the potential for phylogenetic discordance between gene trees and underlying species trees (e.g., due to stochastic lineage sorting, introgression, or selection). Here, we employ a variety of nuclear DNA loci to reassess evolutionary relationships within a recent freshwater fish radiation to reappraise modes of speciation. New Zealand's freshwater-limited Galaxias vulgaris complex is thought to have evolved from G. brevipinnis, a widespread migratory species that retains a plesiomorphic marine juvenile phase. A well-resolved tree, based on four mtDNA regions, previously suggested that marine migratory ability has been lost on 3 independent occasions in the evolution of this species flock (assuming that loss of diadromy is irreversible). Here, we use pseudogene (galaxiid Numt: 1801 bp), intron (S: 903 bp), and exon (RAG-1: 1427 bp) markers, together with mtDNA, to reevaluate this hypothesis of parallel evolution. Interestingly, partitioned Bayesian analysis of concatenated nuclear sequences (3141 bp) and concatenated nuclear and mtDNA (4770 bp) both recover phylogenies implying a single loss of diadromy, not three parallel losses as previously inferred from mtDNA alone. This phylogenetic result is reinforced by a multilocus analysis performed using Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) software that estimates the posterior distribution of species trees under a coalescent model. We discuss factors that might explain the apparently misleading phylogenetic inferences generated by mtDNA. PMID:20603441

Waters, Jonathan M; Rowe, Diane L; Burridge, Christopher P; Wallis, Graham P

2010-10-01

85

Acute Toxicity of Six Freshwater Mussel Species (Glochidia) to Six Chemicals: Implications for Daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as Surrogates for Protection of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures

C. D. Milam; J. L. Farris; F. J. Dwyer; D. K. Hardesty

2005-01-01

86

Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination  

SciTech Connect

Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

Meyers-Schoene, L. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-04-01

87

Toxicokinetic variation in 15 freshwater arthropod species exposed to the insecticide chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

Recent advances in modeling the processes of the toxicity of chemicals-toxicokinetics (TK) and toxicodynamics (TD)-are improving environmental risk assessment (ERA) through prediction of effects from time-varying exposure. This has been achieved by linking chemical fate and toxicological effects mechanistically, based on internal concentrations, through the tissue residue approach. However, certain questions remain: for example, how do TK and TD differ among species and how does this relate to differences in species sensitivity? In a series of experiments, we studied the TK of [(14)C]chlorpyrifos in 15 freshwater arthropod species, two of which were studied in juvenile and adult life stages. Uptake (k(in)) and elimination (k(out)) rate constants were fitted using a one-compartment single first-order kinetic model. The application of two complementary parameter estimation methods facilitated the calculation of bioconcentration factors (BCF) with prediction intervals and 95% depuration times (t(95)) for all tested species. Extremely slow elimination was observed in some species as well as high overall variation in k(in), k(out), BCF, and t(95) across the tested aquatic arthropod species. This variation has implications for the development of TKTD approaches in ERA, including assessing fluctuating exposure concentrations and the interpretation of observed toxicity responses in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:20872686

Rubach, Mascha N; Ashauer, Roman; Maund, Stephen J; Baird, Donald J; Van den Brink, Paul J

2010-10-01

88

Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)  

PubMed Central

Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

2014-01-01

89

Freshwater Influence Over the South Brazilian Continental Shelf: Indications From Foraminiferal Species Dominance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 250-km-long Patos Lagoon covers an area of 10,360 km2 along the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. To the north, the 40-km-long Laguna estuarine system along the Santa Catarina coastline is essentially a series of choked coastal lagoons, with elliptical cells connected to the ocean via a single long and narrow channel. We examined the distribution of benthic foraminifera in samples collected from two continental-shelf transects, labeled the Albardäo transect (32° 58'S) and Santa Marta Cape transect (28° 34'S), in order to track the influence of the Patos Lagoon and the Laguna estuarine system in the dilution of shelf waters. In the Albardäo transect, we notice the dominance of Bulimininella elegantissima and Bolivina striatula live individuals in the shallower stations (15-42 m). These low-oxygen tolerant species are also found in muddy sediments of the Patos lagoon and near the mouth of the Plata River; their presence in shelf sediments indicates continental runoff in the region. Very large individuals of the agglutinated species Arenoparella mexicana and Gaudryina exilis (present in brackish waters Patos Lagoon) are found in water depths 19-54 m, also suggesting a strong and deep freshwater influence. At the 90-m isobath, (1) the species diversity shows a rise, and (2) larger agglutinated species and Buccela peruviana, a temperate/cold-water hyaline species, are occasionally present. B. peruviana is characteristic of assemblages influenced by the Malvinas Current, and indicates the presence of Sub-Antarctic Shelf Water (SASW). In contrast, the dominant species at 53 m on the Santa Marta Cape transect are Bulimina marginata and Pseudononion atlanticum. These species, together with small individuals of Arenoparella mexicana and Gaudryina exilis, show that the Santa Marta Cape area is under a major influence of Subtropical Shelf Waters (STSW), and that fresh-water influence is minor. The assemblage from the deepest stations on this transect (75, 109m) is dominated by Uvigerina peregrina and Cassidulina subglobosa, which indicates the presence of the cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW).

Eichler, P. P.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Eichler, B. B.; Campos, E. J.

2005-05-01

90

Distinct migratory and non-migratory ecotypes of an endemic New Zealand eleotrid (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) – implications for incipient speciation in island freshwater fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many postglacial lakes contain fish species with distinct ecomorphs. Similar evolutionary scenarios might be acting on evolutionarily young fish communities in lakes of remote islands. One process that drives diversification in island freshwater fish species is the colonization of depauperate freshwater environments by diadromous (migratory) taxa, which secondarily lose their migratory behaviour. The loss of migration limits dispersal and

Christian Michel; Brendan J Hicks; Kai N Stölting; Andrew C Clarke; Mark I Stevens; Ray Tana; Axel Meyer; Michael R van den Heuvel

2008-01-01

91

Freshwater ascomycetes: Alascospora evergladensis, a new genus and species from the Florida Everglades.  

PubMed

Alascospora evergladensis, a freshwater ascomycete collected from submerged dead petioles of Nymphaea odorata during a survey of aquatic fungi along a phosphorus gradient in the Florida Everglades, is described and illustrated as a new genus and species in the Pleosporales (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes). The new fungus is unique among genera in the Pleosporales based on a combination of morphological characters that include light brown, translucent, membranous, ostiolate ascomata with dark, amorphous material irregularly deposited on the peridium, especially around the ostiole; globose, fissitunicate, thick-walled asci; septate pseudoparaphyses; and 1-septate ascospores that are hyaline when young, and surrounded by a hyaline gelatinous sheath that is wing-shaped in outline on each side of the ascospore. The sheath is distinctive in that it first expands in water and is translucent, then condenses and darkens around older ascospores, giving them a dark brown, verruculose appearance. PMID:20120226

Raja, Huzefa A; Violi, Helen A; Shearer, Carol A

2010-01-01

92

Acute toxicity of six freshwater mussel species (Glochidia) to six chemicals: Implications for daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as surrogates for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures to represent different chemical classes and modes of action. The relative sensitivities of species were evaluated by ranking their LC 50 values for each chemical. We used these ranks to determine the extent to which U. imbecillis (one of the most commonly used unionids in toxicity tests) was representative of the tolerances of other mussels. We also calculated geometric mean LC50s for the families Unionidae and Daphnidae. Rankings of these data were used to assess the extent to which Daphnidae can be used as surrogates for freshwater mussels relative to chemical sensitivity. While no single chemical elicited consistently high or low toxicity estimates, carbaryl and 2,4-D were generally the least toxic to all species tested. No species was always the most sensitive, and Daphnidae were generally protective of Unionidae. Utterbackia imbecillis, while often proposed as a standard unionid mussel test species, did not always qualify as a sufficient surrogate (i.e., a substitute organism that often elicits similar sensitivity responses to the same contaminant exposure) for other species of mussels, since it was usually one of the more tolerant species in our rankings. U. imbecillis should be used as a surrogate species only with this caution on its relative insensitivity. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Milam, C.D.; Farris, J.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.

2005-01-01

93

Acute toxicity of six freshwater mussel species (Glochidia) to six chemicals: implications for Daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as surrogates for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).  

PubMed

Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures to represent different chemical classes and modes of action. The relative sensitivities of species were evaluated by ranking their LC50 values for each chemical. We used these ranks to determine the extent to which U. imbecillis (one of the most commonly used unionids in toxicity tests) was representative of the tolerances of other mussels. We also calculated geometric mean LC50s for the families Unionidae and Daphnidae. Rankings of these data were used to assess the extent to which Daphnidae can be used as surrogates for freshwater mussels relative to chemical sensitivity. While no single chemical elicited consistently high or low toxicity estimates, carbaryl and 2,4-D were generally the least toxic to all species tested. No species was always the most sensitive, and Daphnidae were generally protective of Unionidae. Utterbackia imbecillis, while often proposed as a standard unionid mussel test species, did not always qualify as a sufficient surrogate (i.e., a substitute organism that often elicits similar sensitivity responses to the same contaminant exposure) for other species of mussels, since it was usually one of the more tolerant species in our rankings. U. imbecillis should be used as a surrogate species only with this caution on its relative insensitivity. PMID:15772883

Milam, C D; Farris, J L; Dwyer, F J; Hardesty, D K

2005-02-01

94

Effects of malathion and carbendazim on Amazonian freshwater organisms: comparison of tropical and temperate species sensitivity distributions.  

PubMed

The risk assessment of pesticides for freshwater ecosystems in the Amazon has relied on the use of toxicity data and water quality criteria derived for temperate regions due to a lack of ecotoxicological studies performed with indigenous species. This leaves an unknown margin of uncertainty for the protection of Amazonian ecosystems, as differences in environmental conditions and species sensitivity are not taken into account. To address this issue, the acute toxic effects of malathion (an organophosphorus insecticide) and carbendazim (a benzimidazole fungicide) were assessed on five fish and five freshwater invertebrates endemic to the Amazonian region. Subsequently, the intrinsic sensitivity of Amazonian and temperate freshwater species was compared using the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) concept. Amazonian species sensitivity to malathion was found to be similar to that of their temperate counterparts, with LC50 values ranging between 111 and 1507 ?g/l for fish species and 2.1-426 ?g/l for arthropod species. However, Amazonian fish appeared to be slightly less sensitive for carbendazim than temperate fish with LC50 values ranging between 1648 and 4238 ?g/l, and Amazonian invertebrates were found to be significantly more resistant than their temperate counterparts, with LC50 values higher than 16000 ?g/l. The results of this study suggest that for these compounds, the use of water quality criteria derived with laboratory toxicity data for temperate species will result in a sufficient protection level for Amazonian freshwater organisms. Recommendations for further research include the validation of threshold concentrations derived with temperate standard test species and with the SSD model with semi-field experiments considering larger assemblages of indigenous species under local environmental conditions. PMID:21267648

Rico, Andreu; Waichman, Andrea V; Geber-Corrêa, Rachel; van den Brink, Paul J

2011-06-01

95

Hidden Biodiversity in an Ecologically Important Freshwater Amphipod: Differences in Genetic Structure between Two Cryptic Species  

PubMed Central

Cryptic species, i.e. species that are morphologically hard to distinguish, have been detected repeatedly in various taxa and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the importance of this finding, we have to know in how far cryptic species differ in various aspects of their biology. The amphipod Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater streams and contains several cryptic species. We examined the population genetic structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of two of them (type A and type B) using microsatellite markers and asked whether they show significant differences. We present results of population genetic analyses based on a total of 37 populations from the headwaters of two major European drainages, Rhine and Rhone. We found that, in both species, genetic diversity was geographically structured among and within drainages. For type A in the Rhine and type B in the Rhone, we detected significant patterns of isolation by distance. The increase of genetic differentiation with geographical distance, however, was much higher in type A than in type B. This result indicates substantial interspecific differences in population history and/or the extent of current gene flow between populations. In the Rhine, type B does not show evidence of isolation by distance, and population differentiation is relatively low across hundreds of kilometres. The majority of these populations also show signatures of recent bottlenecks. These patterns are consistent with a recent expansion of type B into the Rhine drainage. In summary, our results suggest considerable and previously unrecognized interspecific differences in the genetic structure of these cryptic keystone species. PMID:23967060

Westram, Anja Marie; Jokela, Jukka; Keller, Irene

2013-01-01

96

Diversity of Geobacteraceae Species Inhabiting Metal-Polluted Freshwater Lake Sediments Ascertained by 16S rDNA Analyses  

E-print Network

Diversity of Geobacteraceae Species Inhabiting Metal-Polluted Freshwater Lake Sediments Ascertained(III)-reducing family Geobacteraceae were studied along a gradient of metal contaminants in Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Geobacter spp. previously isolated from this region of Lake Coeur d'Alene. Six phylotypes were unique

Lovley, Derek

97

Paleoenvironmental significance of a new species of freshwater sponge from the Late Miocene Quillagua Formation (N Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first fossil (Tertiary) occurrence of freshwater sponges of the genus Ephydatia in the southern hemisphere. The sponges appear in diatomite lacustrine sediments of Late Miocene Quillagua Formation (Chile, Atacama region). The investigated specimens represent a new species, Ephydatia chileana sp. nov., which is close to the Recent cosmopolitan E. fluviatilis. On the basis of sedimentological and

A. Pisera; A Sáez

2003-01-01

98

Analysis of rDNA Regions of Five Freshwater Unionid Mussel Species in Presque Isle Bay, Southeastern Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structure and fecundity of freshwater mussels can be difficult to assess due to the benthic habitat and complex life cycles of these organisms. However, rapid and reliable classification of unionids can be accomplished with polymerase chain reaction if species-specific DNA primers are established. In this report we describe the sequence analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions from five

Trevor J. Manendo; Michael A. Campbell; Herbert H. Gilroy; Edwin C. Masteller

2008-01-01

99

DNA barcoding common non-native freshwater fish species in Turkey: low genetic diversity but high population structuring.  

PubMed

Negative impacts of introduced non-native freshwater species on native species have been increasingly recognized in the world as well as in Turkey. However, there has been relatively little attention on genetic characterization of alien freshwater fishes in their non-native distribution range and virtually no study has been conducted in Turkey despite its crucial importance in invasion biology. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genetic diversity of common non-native freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Gambusia holbrooki, Lepomis gibbosus, and Pseudorasbora parva) using mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences; known as DNA barcodes. Through the whole dataset, seventeen haplotypes (haplotype diversity = 0.8908) were found containing 145 COI sequences. Mean Kimura two-parameter genetic distances were calculated as 0.209 for interspecific distance and 0.009 for intraspecific variation. COI barcode diversity among populations of the same species was found to be low, especially for C. gibelio, G. holbrooki, and L. gibbosus populations which were 0.5%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Our results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the DNA barcoding approach both for identifications at species level and revealing intraspecific variation among populations, which could be used for effective management measures for invasive species and conservation strategies for indigenous and endemic species. PMID:23298166

Keskin, Emre; A?damar, Sevan; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

2013-06-01

100

Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.  

PubMed

Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution. PMID:22435158

El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

2011-12-01

101

Biochemical composition of three algal species proposed as food for captive freshwater mussels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To identify potential diets for rearing captive freshwater mussels, the protein, carbohydrate (CHO), and lipid contents of two green algae, Neochloris oleoabundans, Bracteacoccus grandis, and one diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were compared at different growth stages. The fatty acid and sterol composition were also identified. Protein was greatest (55-70%) for all species at late log growth stage (LL), and declined in late stationary (LS) growth. CHO was greatest at LS stage for all species (33.9-56.4% dry wt). No significant change in lipid levels occurred with growth stage, but tended to increase in N. oleoabundans. Mean lipid content differed significantly in the order: N. oleoabundans > P. tricornutum > B. grandis. Total fatty acids (TFA) were higher at LS stage compared to other stages in the two green algae, and stationary stage in the diatom. Mean unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) as %TFA was significantly higher in N. oleoabundans than the other species. The green algae contained high percentages of C-18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while the diatom was abundant in C-16 saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids and C-20 PUFA fatty acids. Growth stage had no effect on sterol concentration of any species. B. grandis showed significantly higher sterol levels than the other species except P. tricornutum at S stage. B. grandis was characterized by predominantly ??5, C-29 sterols, while N. oleoabundans synthesized ??5,7, ??5,7,22, and ??7, C-28 sterols. P. tricornutum produced primarily a ??5,22, C-28 sterol, and a small amount of a ??7,22, C-28 sterol.

Gatenby, C. M.; Orcutt, D. M.; Kreeger, D. A.; Parker, B. C.; Jones, V. A.; Neves, R. J.

2003-01-01

102

The occurrence of an Australian leech species (genus Helobdella) in German freshwater habitats as revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences.  

PubMed

The freshwater leech Helobdella europaea Kutschera 1987 was discovered twenty years ago in Germany and described as a new species. Here, we show that this leech is genetically identical with the Australian species Helobdella papillornata (CO-I-mt-DNA sequence identity of alignment positions: 98%). We conclude that H. europaea (syn. H. papillornata) represents an introduced annelid that occupies the same ecological niche as the common European leech H. stagnalis L. PMID:15324849

Pfeiffer, I; Brenig, B; Kutschera, U

2004-10-01

103

Comparative study on the susceptibility of freshwater species to copper-based pesticides.  

PubMed

Copper compounds have been intentionally introduced into water bodies as aquatic plant herbicides, algicides and molluscicides. Copper-based fertilizers and fungicides have been widely used in agriculture as well. Despite the fact that copper is an essential element for all biota, elevated concentrations of this metal have been shown to affect a variety of aquatic organisms. Nonetheless, comparative studies on the susceptibility of different freshwater species to copper compounds have seldom been performed. This study was conducted to compare toxicity of copper-based pesticides (copper oxychloride, cuprous oxide and copper sulfate) to different freshwater target (Raphidocelis subcapitata, a planktonic alga and Biomphalaria glabrata, a snail) and non-target (Daphnia similis, a planktonic crustacean and Danio rerio, a fish) organisms. Test water parameters were as follows: pH = 7.4 +/- 0.1; hardness 44 +/- 1 mg/l as CaCO3; DO 8-9 mg/l at the beginning and > 4 mg/l at the end; temperature, fish and snails 25 +/- 1 degrees C, Daphnia 20 +/- 2 degrees C, algae 24 +/- 1 degrees C. D. similis (immobilization), 48-h EC50s (95% CLs) ranging from 0.013 (0.011-0.016) to 0.043 (0.033-0.057) mg Cu/l, and R. subcapitata (growth inhibition), 96-h IC50s from 0.071 (0.045-0.099) to 0.137 (0.090-0.174) mg Cu/l, were the most susceptible species. B. glabrata (lethality), 48-h LC50s from 0.179 (0.102-0.270) to 0.854 (0.553-1.457) mg Cu/l, and D. rerio (lethality), 48-h LC50s 0.063 (0.045-0.089), 0.192 (0.133-0.272) and 0.714 (0.494-1.016) mg Cu/l, were less susceptible than Daphnia to copper-based pesticides. Findings from the present study therefore suggest that increased levels of copper in water bodies is likely to adversely affect a variety of aquatic species. PMID:15183999

de Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Lopes, Renato Matos; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

2004-07-01

104

Dinitrogenase reductase (Fe-protein) of nitrogenase in the cyanobacterial symbionts of three Azolla species: Localization and sequence of appearance during heterocyst differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission electron microscopy and immunocytological labeling were used to study the distribution and ontological occurrence of dinitrogenase reductase (Fe-protein) of nitrogenase in cyanobacterial symbionts within young leaves of the water-ferns Azolla filiculoides Lamarck, A. caroliniana Willdenow, and A. pinnata R. Brown. Rabbit anti-dinitrogenase reductase antisera and goat anti-rabbit-immunoglobulin G antibody conjugated to colloidal gold were used as probes. Western blot

Ellen B. Braun-Howland; Peter Lindblad; Sandra A. Nierzwicki-Bauer; Birgitta Bergman

1988-01-01

105

Sensitivity Analysis of a Cyanobacterial Growth and Movement Model under Two Different Flow Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloom-forming and toxin-producing cyanobacteria remain a persistent nuisance across the world. Modelling cyanobacterial behaviour\\u000a in freshwaters is an important tool for understanding their population dynamics and predicting the location and timing of\\u000a the bloom events in lakes, reservoirs and rivers. A new deterministic–mathematical model was developed, which simulates the\\u000a growth and movement of cyanobacterial blooms in river systems. The model

Basak Guven; Alan Howard

106

Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish  

SciTech Connect

Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.

,

1980-08-01

107

Fungal Parasitism: Life Cycle, Dynamics and Impact on Cyanobacterial Blooms  

PubMed Central

Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids). However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes), spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by “mechanistic fragmentation” following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing. PMID:23593345

Gerphagnon, Melanie; Latour, Delphine; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

2013-01-01

108

A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from freshwater fishes in the south-west of Western Australia.  

PubMed

A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 is described from freshwater fish hosts in the south west of Western Australia. D. occidentalis n. sp. differs from previously described species in the genus principally by the armature of the legs. The new species was found on the gills of the freshwater cobbler Tandanus bostocki Whitely and western minnow Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby in two different river systems. PMID:19731098

Hassan, Marina; Jones, Brian; Lymbery, Alan J

2009-10-01

109

Chronic toxicity of chloride to freshwater species: effects of hardness and implications for water quality guidelines.  

PubMed

Toxicity tests using nine freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, Chironomus dilutus, Hyallela azteca, and Brachionus calyciflorus) were conducted to evaluate their sensitivity to chloride. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) from these tests indicate the ACR of 7.59 employed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in deriving its water quality guideline for chloride may be conservative; a revised ACR of 3.50 is presented here. The endpoints used to calculate the ACR included 24-h to 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for acute tests, and 48-h to 54-d inhibition concentration (ICx) values for growth or reproduction for chronic exposures. Data from the present chronic toxicity tests, and other investigators, were used to propose a water quality guideline for long-term exposure to chloride using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach. The 5th percentile from the SSD was calculated as 307?mg/L and proposed as the water quality guideline. Cladocerans were the most sensitive species in the dataset. Ceriodaphnia dubia was used to evaluate the relationship between water hardness and sensitivity to chloride. A strong relationship was observed and was used to establish a hardness-related equation to modify the proposed water quality guideline on the basis of water hardness, resulting in values ranging from 64?mg/L chloride at 10?mg/L hardness to 388?mg/L chloride at 160?mg/L hardness (as CaCO?). These data suggest that current water quality guidelines for chloride may be overly conservative in water with moderate-to-high hardness, and may not be sufficiently protective under soft-water conditions. PMID:20872898

Elphick, James R F; Bergh, Kelli D; Bailey, Howard C

2011-01-01

110

Evaluating potential effects of exotic freshwater fish from incomplete species presence-absence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshwater ecosystems and biotas around the world are threatened with extinction. Freshwater fishes, for example, are the most endangered vertebrates after amphibians. Exotic fish are widely recognized as a major disturbance agent for native fish. Evaluating the ecological effects of invaders presents many challenges and the problem is greatly augmented in parts of the world where the native fauna

Miguel Pascual; Patricio Macchi; Javier Urbanski; Fernando Marcos; Carla Riva Rossi; Mauro Novara; Patricia Dell' Arciprete

2002-01-01

111

Evaluating Potential Effects of Exotic Freshwater Fish From Incomplete Species Presence–absence Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshwater ecosystems and biotas around the world are threatened with extinction. Freshwater fishes, for example, are the most endangered vertebrates after amphibians. Exotic fish are widely recognized as a major disturbance agent for native fish. Evaluating the ecological effects of invaders presents many challenges and the problem is greatly augmented in parts of the world where the native fauna

Miguel Pascual; Patricio Macchi; Javier Urbanski; Fernando Marcos; Carla Riva Rossi; Mauro Novara; Patricia Dell'Arciprete

2002-01-01

112

Coaggregation by the Freshwater Bacterium Sphingomonas natatoria Alters Dual-Species Biofilm Formation?  

PubMed Central

Coaggregation is hypothesized to enhance freshwater biofilm development. To investigate this hypothesis, the ability of the coaggregating bacterium Sphingomonas natatoria to form single- and dual-species biofilms was studied and compared to that of a naturally occurring spontaneous coaggregation-deficient variant. Attachment assays using metabolically inactive cells were performed using epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Under static and flowing conditions, coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells adhered to glass surfaces to form diaphanous single-species biofilms. When glass surfaces were precoated with coaggregation partner Micrococcus luteus 2.13 cells, S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells formed densely packed dual-species biofilms. The addition of 80 mM galactosamine, which reverses coaggregation, mildly reduced adhesion to glass but inhibited the interaction and attachment to glass-surface-attached M. luteus 2.13 cells. As opposed to wild-type coaggregating cells, coaggregation-deficient S. natatoria 2.1COGgfp variant cells were retarded in colonizing glass and did not interact with glass-surface-attached M. luteus 2.13 cells. To determine if coaggregation enhances biofilm growth and expansion, viable coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells or the coaggregation-deficient variant S. natatoria 2.1COGgfp cells were coinoculated in flow cells with viable M. luteus 2.13 cells and allowed to grow together for 96 h. Coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells outcompeted M. luteus 2.13 cells, and 96-h biofilms were composed predominantly of S. natatoria 2.1gfp cells. Conversely, when coaggregation-deficient S. natatoria 2.1COGgfp cells were coinoculated with M. luteus 2.13 cells, the 96-h biofilm contained few coaggregation-deficient S. natatoria 2.1 cells. Thus, coaggregation promotes biofilm integration by facilitating attachment to partner species and likely contributes to the expansion of coaggregating S. natatoria 2.1 populations in dual-species biofilms through competitive interactions. PMID:19376917

Min, K. R.; Rickard, A. H.

2009-01-01

113

Where Are All the Fish: Potential of Biogeographical Maps to Project Current and Future Distribution Patterns of Freshwater Species  

PubMed Central

The dendritic structure of river networks is commonly argued against use of species atlas data for modeling freshwater species distributions, but little has been done to test the potential of grid-based data in predictive species mapping. Using four different niche-based models and three different climate change projections for the middle of the 21st century merged pairwise as well as within a consensus modeling framework, we studied the variability in current and future distribution patterns of 38 freshwater fish species across Germany. We used grid-based (11×11 km) fish distribution maps and numerous climatic, topographic, hydromorphologic, and anthropogenic factors derived from environmental maps at a finer scale resolution (250 m–1 km). Apart from the explicit predictor selection, our modeling framework included uncertainty estimation for all phases of the modeling process. We found that the predictive performance of some niche-based models is excellent independent of the predictor data set used, emphasizing the importance of a well-grounded predictor selection process. Though important, climate was not a primary key factor for any of the studied fish species groups, in contrast to substrate preferences, hierarchical river structure, and topography. Generally, distribution ranges of cold-water and warm-water species are expected to change significantly in the future; however, the extent of changes is highly uncertain. Finally, we show that the mismatch between the current and future ranges of climatic variables of more than 90% is the most limiting factor regarding reliability of our future estimates. Our study highlighted the underestimated potential of grid cell information in biogeographical modeling of freshwater species and provides a comprehensive modeling framework for predictive mapping of species distributions and evaluation of the associated uncertainties. PMID:22792361

Markovic, Danijela; Freyhof, Jorg; Wolter, Christian

2012-01-01

114

Interaction between zinc and freshwater and marine diatom species: Surface complexation and Zn isotope fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to characterization of zinc interaction in aqueous solution with two marine planktonic ( Thalassiosira weissflogii = TW, Skeletonema costatum = SC) and two freshwater periphytic species ( Achnanthidium minutissimum = AMIN, Navicula minima = NMIN) by combining adsorption and electrophoretic measurements with surface complexation modeling and by assessing Zn isotopes fractionation during both long term uptake and short term adsorption on diatom cells and their frustules. Reversible adsorption experiments were performed at 25 and 5 °C as a function of exposure time (5 min to 140 h), pH (2 to 10), zinc concentration in solution (10 nM to 1 mM), ionic strength ( I = 0.001 to 1.0 M) and the presence of light. While the shape of pH-dependent adsorption edge is almost the same for all four species, the constant-pH adsorption isotherm and maximal Zn binding capacities differ by an order of magnitude. The extent of adsorption increases with temperature from 5 to 25 °C and does not depend on light intensity. Zinc adsorption decreases with increase of ionic strength suggesting competition with sodium for surface sites. Cell number-normalized concentrations of sorbed zinc on whole cells and their silica frustules demonstrated only weak contribution of the latter (10-20%) to overall zinc binding by diatom cell wall. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities ( ?) revealed negative diatoms surface potential in the full range of zinc concentrations investigated (0.15-760 ?mol/L), however, the absolute value of ? decreases at [Zn] > 15 ?mol/L suggesting a change in surface speciation. These observations allowed us to construct a surface complexation model for Zn binding by diatom surfaces that postulates the constant capacitance of the electric double layer and considers Zn complexation with carboxylate and silanol groups. Thermodynamic and structural parameters of this model are based on previous acid-base titration and spectroscopic results and allow quantitative reproduction of all adsorption experiments. Although Zn adsorption constants on carboxylate groups are almost the same, Zn surface adsorption capacities are very different among diatom species which is related to the systematic differences in their cell wall composition and thickness. Measurements of Zn isotopic composition ( 66Zn/( 64Zn)) performed using a multicollector ICP MS demonstrated that irreversible incorporation of Zn in cultured diatom cells produces enrichment in heavy isotope compared to growth media (? 66Zn(solid-solution) = 0.27 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.05, 0.21 ± 0.05, and 0.19 ± 0.05‰ for TW, SC, NMIN, and AMIN species, respectively). Accordingly, an enrichment of cells in heavy isotopes (? 66Zn(solid-solution) = 0.43 ± 0.1 and 0.27 ± 0.1‰ for NMIN and AMIN, respectively) is observed following short-term Zn sorption on freshwater cells in nutrient media at pH ˜ 7.8. Finally, diatoms frustules are enriched in heavy isotopes compared to solution during Zn adsorption on silica shells at pH ˜ 5.5 (? 66Zn(solid-solution) = 0.35 ± 0.10‰). Measured isotopes fractionation can be related to the structure and stability of Zn complexes formed and they provide a firm basis for using Zn isotopes for biogeochemical tracing.

Gélabert, A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Schott, J.; Boudou, A.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.

2006-02-01

115

Metagenomic Study of Iron Homeostasis in Iron Depositing Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: It is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to cyanobacteria, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, metagenomic study of cyanobacterial community in iron-depositing hot springs may help elucidate how oxygenic prokaryotes can withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe2+ and O2. Method: Anchor proteins from various species of cyanobacteria and some anoxygenic phototrophs were selected on the basis of their hypothetical role in Fe homeostasis and the suppression of oxidative stress and were BLASTed against the metagenomes of iron-depositing Chocolate Pots and freshwater Mushroom hot springs. Results: BLASTing proteins hypothesized to be involved in Fe homeostasis against the microbiomes from the two springs revealed that iron-depositing hot spring has a greater abundance of defensive proteins such as bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp) and DNA-binding Ferritin like protein (Dps) than a fresh-water hot spring. One may speculate that the abundance of Bcp and Dps in an iron-depositing hot spring is connected to the need to suppress oxidative stress in bacteria inhabiting environments with high Fe2+ concnetration. In both springs, Bcp and Dps are concentrated within the cyanobacterial fractions of the microbial community (regardless of abundance). Fe3+ siderophore transport (from the transport system permease protein query) may be less essential to the microbial community of CP because of the high [Fe]. Conclusion: Further research is needed to confirm that these proteins are unique to photoautotrophs such as those living in iron-depositing hot spring.

Brown, I.; Franklin H.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

2010-01-01

116

Diversity of Freshwater Thioploca Species and Their Specific Association with Filamentous Bacteria of the Phylum Chloroflexi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic diversity among filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thioploca inhabiting freshwater\\/brackish environments was analyzed in detail. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of Thioploca found in a freshwater lake in Japan, Lake Okotanpe, was identical to that of Thioploca from Lake Ogawara, a brackish lake. The samples of the two lakes could be differentiated by the sequences of their 23S

Fumiko Nemoto; Hisaya Kojima; Manabu Fukui

117

Comparative study of the lipids of four dominating species of freshwater plants and algae of the Shulgan river.  

PubMed

The fatty acid and lipid compositions of four dominating species of plants and algae of the Shulgan river--Alliaria petiolata, Rhynchostegium riparioides, Sphaeroplea annulina, and Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum--were studied. The composition of phospho-, glyco-, and neutral lipids was investigated. A betaine lipid 1(3), 2-diacylglyceryl-(3)-O-4-(N,N,N-trimethyl)homoserine was detected in the polar lipid fraction of the Rhynchostegium riparioides bryophyte. Characteristic distribution of lipids and fatty acids of freshwater plants and algae is discussed in term of various species specificity. PMID:10611535

Rozentsvet, O A; Kozlov, V G; Dembitsky, V M

1999-11-01

118

The freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea produces compounds toxic to mice and to mammalian and fish cells.  

PubMed

Despite a growing awareness of the presence of cyanobacterial toxins, knowledge about the ability of specific species to produce toxic compounds is still rather limited. It was the overall goal of the current work to investigate if probes derived from the freshwater species Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea (Kutz.) Gomont, a cyanobacterium frequently found in southern Europe and not previously investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds, were capable of eliciting in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The cyanobacterial extract revealed signs of neuro- as well as hepatotoxicity in mice, although these signs could not be explained by the well-known respective cyanobacterial neuro- and hepatotoxins saxitoxin and microcystin. Cytotoxicity was elicited by the cyanobacterial extract in all mammalian cell lines tested. As well, the rainbow trout liver cell line, RTL-W1, was found to be susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of the extract, although the cytotoxicity was dependent on temperature. In contrast, the cyanobacterial growth medium elicited cytotoxicity independent of temperature, leading to morphological changes indicative of alterations to the cytoskeleton. Overall, the results suggest that Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea is an important cyanobacterium to be considered for its potential to cause health risks on environmental exposure of it to mammals and fish. Applying a combination of mammalian and piscine cell line bioassays is a unique approach that, combined with chemical analysis, could be used in the future to identify the structure and cellular mechanisms of the as-yet-unknown toxic Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea metabolites in particular and to screen cyanobacterial extracts for their toxicity in general. PMID:12539139

Teneva, Ivanka; Asparuhova, Dafinka; Dzhambazov, Balik; Mladenov, Rumen; Schirmer, Kristin

2003-02-01

119

Morphological and Phylogenetic Characterizations of Freshwater Thioploca Species from Lake Biwa, Japan, and Lake Constance, Germany  

PubMed Central

Filamentous, gliding, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thioploca were found on sediments in profundal areas of Lake Biwa, a Japanese freshwater mesotrophic lake, and were characterized morphologically and phylogenetically. The Lake Biwa Thioploca resembled morphologically Thioploca ingrica, a brackish water species from a Danish fjord. The diameters of individual trichomes were 3 to 5.6 ?m; the diameters of complete Thioploca filaments ranged from 18 to 75 ?m. The cell lengths ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 ?m. In transmission electron microscope specimens stained with uranyl acetate, dense intracellular particles were found, which did not show any positive signals for phosphorus and sulfur in an X-ray analysis. The 16S rRNA gene of the Thioploca from Lake Biwa was amplified by using newly designed Thioploca-specific primers (706-Thioploca, Biwa160F, and Biwa829R) in combination with general bacterial primers in order to avoid nonspecific amplification of contaminating bacterial DNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the three overlapping PCR products resulted in single DGGE bands, indicating that a single 16S rRNA gene had been amplified. With the same method, the Thioploca from Lake Constance was examined. The 16S rRNA sequence was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization targeted at specific motifs of the Lake Biwa Thioploca. Positive signals were obtained with the bacterial probe EUB-338, the ?-proteobacterial probe GAM42a, and probe Biwa829 targeting the Lake Biwa Thioploca. Based on the nearly complete 16S rRNA sequence and on morphological similarities, the Thioploca from Lake Biwa and the Thioploca from Lake Constance are closely related to T. ingrica and to each other. PMID:12514020

Kojima, Hisaya; Teske, Andreas; Fukui, Manabu

2003-01-01

120

Morphological and phylogenetic characterizations of freshwater Thioploca species from Lake Biwa, Japan, and Lake Constance, Germany.  

PubMed

Filamentous, gliding, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thioploca were found on sediments in profundal areas of Lake Biwa, a Japanese freshwater mesotrophic lake, and were characterized morphologically and phylogenetically. The Lake Biwa Thioploca resembled morphologically Thioploca ingrica, a brackish water species from a Danish fjord. The diameters of individual trichomes were 3 to 5.6 microm; the diameters of complete Thioploca filaments ranged from 18 to 75 micro m. The cell lengths ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 micro m. In transmission electron microscope specimens stained with uranyl acetate, dense intracellular particles were found, which did not show any positive signals for phosphorus and sulfur in an X-ray analysis. The 16S rRNA gene of the Thioploca from Lake Biwa was amplified by using newly designed Thioploca-specific primers (706-Thioploca, Biwa160F, and Biwa829R) in combination with general bacterial primers in order to avoid nonspecific amplification of contaminating bacterial DNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the three overlapping PCR products resulted in single DGGE bands, indicating that a single 16S rRNA gene had been amplified. With the same method, the Thioploca from Lake Constance was examined. The 16S rRNA sequence was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization targeted at specific motifs of the Lake Biwa THIOPLOCA: Positive signals were obtained with the bacterial probe EUB-338, the gamma-proteobacterial probe GAM42a, and probe Biwa829 targeting the Lake Biwa THIOPLOCA: Based on the nearly complete 16S rRNA sequence and on morphological similarities, the Thioploca from Lake Biwa and the Thioploca from Lake Constance are closely related to T. ingrica and to each other. PMID:12514020

Kojima, Hisaya; Teske, Andreas; Fukui, Manabu

2003-01-01

121

Variation of Microcystins, Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxins, in Anabaena spp. as a Function of Growth Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, microcystins, are specific inhibitors of serine\\/threonine protein phosphatases and potent tumor promoters. They have caused several poisonings of animals and also pose a health hazard for humans through the use of water for drinking and recreation. Different strains of the same cyanobacterial species may variously be nontoxic, be neurotoxic, or produce several microcystin variants. It is poorly under-

JARKKO RAPALA; KAARINA SIVONEN; CHRISTINA LYRA; SEPPO I. NIEMELA

1997-01-01

122

Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish from Tennessee: Individual, Species, and Geographical Variations have Implications for Management  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates, including humans, can experience adverse effects from mercury consumed in fish. Humans often prefer large predatory fish that bioaccumulate high mercury levels. Recent attention has focused on the role of selenium countering mercury toxicity, but there is little research on the selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish. We examine selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee at Poplar Creek which receives ongoing inputs of mercury from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Y-12 facility. Our objective was to determine variation of the ratios within species that might affect the protectiveness of selenium against mercury toxicity. Within species, the ratio was correlated significantly and positively with fish length only for two species. There was great individual variation in the selenium:mercury molar ratio within each species, except striped bass. The lack of a clear relationship between the selenium:mercury molar ratio and fish length, and the intraspecific variation, suggests that it would be difficult to use the molar ratio in predicting either the risk from mercury toxicity or in devising consumption advisories. PMID:22456727

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, C.; Donio, M.; Pittfield, T.

2014-01-01

123

The trace element analysis in freshwater fish species, water and sediment in Iyidere stream (Rize-Turkey).  

PubMed

Many environmental problems like dam construction, agricultural debris, flooding and industrial establishments threaten Iyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The trace element concentrations in water, fish and sediments in lyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) were investigated in this study. The concentration of six different elements in ten freshwater fish species and sediment was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard addition is applied for the elemental analysis of fish and sediments. Water samples for trace metals were analyzed using standard spectrophotometry methods. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that ten different freshwater fish samples (Chondrostoma colchicum, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Salmo trutta labrax, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus taurus escherichia, Capoeta tinca, Neogobius kessleri, Rutilus frisii, Lampetra lanceolata) and sediment contained phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and titanium (Ti). Heavy metals as toxic elements for biota (Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn and Mn etc.) were not detected in fish, water and sediments. Thus, It can be declared that freshwater fish of Iyidere does not contains health risks for consumers in terms of metal pollution. PMID:24171246

Verep, Bulent; Mutlu, Cengiz; Apaydin, Gokhan; Cevik, Ugur

2012-07-15

124

The Freshwater Sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis Harbours Diverse Pseudomonas Species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are believed to play an important role in the fitness and biochemistry of sponges (Porifera). Pseudomonas species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) are capable of colonizing a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, but knowledge of their diversity and function in freshwater invertebrates is rudimentary. We assessed the diversity, structure and antimicrobial activities of Pseudomonas spp. in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis. Polymerase Chain Reaction – Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of the global regulator gene gacA revealed distinct structures between sponge-associated and free-living Pseudomonas communities, unveiling previously unsuspected diversity of these assemblages in freshwater. Community structures varied across E. fluviatilis specimens, yet specific gacA phylotypes could be detected by PCR-DGGE in almost all sponge individuals sampled over two consecutive years. By means of whole-genome fingerprinting, 39 distinct genotypes were found within 90 fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates retrieved from E. fluviatilis. High frequency of in vitro antibacterial (49%), antiprotozoan (35%) and anti-oomycetal (32%) activities was found among these isolates, contrasting less-pronounced basidiomycetal (17%) and ascomycetal (8%) antagonism. Culture extracts of highly predation-resistant isolates rapidly caused complete immobility or lysis of cells of the protozoan Colpoda steinii. Isolates tentatively identified as P. jessenii, P. protegens and P. oryzihabitans showed conspicuous inhibitory traits and correspondence with dominant sponge-associated phylotypes registered by cultivation-independent analysis. Our findings suggest that E. fluviatilis hosts both transient and persistent Pseudomonas symbionts displaying antimicrobial activities of potential ecological and biotechnological value. PMID:24533086

Keller-Costa, Tina; Jousset, Alexandre; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Costa, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

125

Community structure of bacteria associated with sheaths of freshwater and brackish thioploca species.  

PubMed

Bacterial communities associated with sheaths of Thioploca spp. from two freshwater lakes (Lake Biwa, Japan, and Lake Constance, Germany) and one brackish lake (Lake Ogawara, Japan) were analyzed with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The comparison between the DGGE band patterns of bulk sediment and Thioploca filaments of Lake Biwa suggested the presence of specific bacterial communities associated with Thioploca sheaths. As members of sheath-associated communities, bacteria belonging to Bacteroidetes were detected from the samples of both freshwater lakes. A DGGE band from Thioploca of Lake Biwa, belonging to candidate division OP8, was quite closely related to another DGGE band detected from that of Lake Constance. In contrast to the case of freshwater lakes, no bacterium of Bacteroidetes or OP8 was detected from Thioploca of Lake Ogawara. However, two DGGE bands from Lake Ogawara, belonging to Chloroflexi, were quite closely related to a DGGE band from Lake Constance. Two DGGE bands obtained from Lake Biwa were closely related to phylogenetically distant dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. Cloning analyses for a dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene were performed on the same samples used for DGGE analysis. The results of the analyses suggest that sheaths of freshwater/brackish Thioploca have little ecological significance for the majority of sulfate reducers. PMID:16944341

Kojima, Hisaya; Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Fukui, Manabu

2006-11-01

126

Species-specific rates of growth and grazing loss among freshwater algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations into the population dynamics of phytoplankton communities have em- phasized the variabilities of loss rates rather than growth rates in governing the changes that occur. Many freshwater phytoplankton, however, grow at rates that are measurably less than their max- imum physiological capability because of nutrient limitation. At any moment the nutrient most limiting in situ division rates varies

John T. Lehmalz; CRAIG D. SANDGREN

1985-01-01

127

Gene expression and activity of digestive proteases in Daphnia: effects of cyanobacterial protease inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The frequency of cyanobacterial blooms has increased worldwide, and these blooms have been claimed to be a major factor leading to the decline of the most important freshwater herbivores, i.e. representatives of the genus Daphnia. This suppression of Daphnia is partly attributed to the presence of biologically active secondary metabolites in cyanobacteria. Among these metabolites, protease inhibitors are found

Anke Schwarzenberger; Anja Zitt; Peter Kroth; Stefan Mueller; Eric Von Elert

2010-01-01

128

Simultaneous multiple species testing: Acute toxicity of 13 chemicals to 12 diverse freshwater amphibian, fish, and invertebrate families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This test series developed methods for testing a compliment of aquatic organisms in a single test that satisfies the freshwater acute toxicity requirements for setting water quality criteria. Species tested included fathead minnowsPimephales promelas, rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri, bluegillLepomis macrochirus, channel catfishIctalurus punctatus, goldfishCarassius auratus, white suckerCatostomus commersoni, daphnidDaphnia magna, midgeTanytarsus dissimilis, crayfishOrconectes immunis, snailAplexa hypnorum, tadpoleXenopus laevis, and leechNephelopsis obscura.

Gary W. Holcombe; Gary L. Phipps; Abdul H. Sulaiman; Alex D. Hoffman

1987-01-01

129

A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Microthelphusa Pretzmann, 1968 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) from the Amazon region of Guyana.  

PubMed

A new species of freshwater crab, Microthelphusa furcifer, is described and illustrated from the Potaro-Siparuni Kuribrong River in the Guyana Shield (Amazon region of Guyana). The new species can be easily separated from its congeners by the morphology of the first gonopod. The first gonopod of Microthelphusa meansi Cumberlidge, 2007, is illustrated to clarify some aspects of its morphology.  PMID:25112338

Pedraza, Manuel; Tavares, Marcos

2014-01-01

130

Sperm removal and ejaculate size correlate with chelae asymmetry in a freshwater crayfish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetry in traits of sexual relevance may impair copulation behaviour and sexual performance of males, ultimately resulting\\u000a in a fitness cost. Freshwater crayfish males use chelae, a sexually selected trait, to secure and position the female prior\\u000a to and during mating. Thus, a relatively large chelae asymmetry, resulting from accidental loss and regeneration of one cheliped\\u000a after autotomy, could have

Paolo Galeotti; Diego Rubolini; Fabio Pupin; Roberto Sacchi; Mauro Fasola

2008-01-01

131

Freshwater bacterioplankton richness in oligotrophic lakes depends on nutrient availability rather than on species-area relationships  

PubMed Central

A central goal in ecology is to grasp the mechanisms that underlie and maintain biodiversity and patterns in its spatial distribution can provide clues about those mechanisms. Here, we investigated what might determine the bacterioplankton richness (BR) in lakes by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We further provide a BR estimate based upon a sampling depth and accuracy, which, to our knowledge, are unsurpassed for freshwater bacterioplankton communities. Our examination of 22?669 sequences per lake showed that freshwater BR in fourteen nutrient-poor lakes was positively influenced by nutrient availability. Our study is, thus, consistent with the finding that the supply of available nutrients is a major driver of species richness; a pattern that may well be universally valid to the world of both micro- and macro-organisms. We, furthermore, observed that BR increased with elevated landscape position, most likely as a consequence of differences in nutrient availability. Finally, BR decreased with increasing lake and catchment area that is negative species–area relationships (SARs) were recorded; a finding that re-opens the debate about whether positive SARs can indeed be found in the microbial world and whether positive SARs can in fact be pronounced as one of the few ‘laws' in ecology. PMID:22170419

Logue, Jurg Brendan; Langenheder, Silke; Andersson, Anders F; Bertilsson, Stefan; Drakare, Stina; Lanzen, Anders; Lindstrom, Eva S

2012-01-01

132

Local nutrient regimes determine site-specific environmental triggers of cyanobacterial and microcystin variability in urban lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms in urban lakes present serious health hazards to humans and animals and require effective management strategies. In the management of toxic cyanobacteria blooms, understanding the roles of environmental factors is crucial. To date, a range of environmental factors have been proposed as potential triggers for the spatiotemporal variability of cyanobacterial biomass and microcystins in freshwater systems. However, the environmental triggers of cyanobacteria and microcystin variability remain a subject of debate due to contrasting findings. This issue has raised the question if the environmental triggers are site-specific and unique between water bodies. In this study, we investigated the site-specificity of environmental triggers for cyanobacterial bloom and cyanotoxins dynamics. Our study suggests that cyanobacterial dominance and cyanobacterial microcystin content variability were significantly correlated to phosphorus and iron concentrations. However, the correlations between phosphorus and iron with cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin variability were not consistent between lakes, thus suggesting a site specificity of these environmental factors. The discrepancies in the correlations could be explained by differences in local nutrient concentration and the cyanobacterial community in the systems. The findings of this study suggest that identification of site-specific environmental factors under unique local conditions is an important strategy to enhance positive outcomes in cyanobacterial bloom control measures.

Sinang, S. C.; Reichwaldt, E. S.; Ghadouani, A.

2014-10-01

133

Mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of different species of predatory freshwater fish and correlation between these elements.  

PubMed

Concentrations of total mercury and selenium were determined in 49 and 42 muscle tissue samples, respectively, of six species of predatory freshwater fish, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca), pike (Esox lucius), European catfish (Silurus glanis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and asp (Aspius aspius). Muscle selenium concentration did not correlate with the corresponding total mercury concentration (R(2) < 0.198) in all examined predatory fish species. There was an inverse correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content in the muscle tissues of dace, pike perch, pike, European catfish and asp. The muscle tissue of rainbow trout exhibits a linear correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content. The total mercury concentration of all examined samples did not exceed the hygienic limit for Hg for predatory fish. PMID:24779785

Strapá?, Imrich; Sokol, Jozef; Žatko, Daniel; Baranová, Mária

2012-01-01

134

Prodigious polyphyly in imperilled freshwater pearly-mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): a phylogenetic test of species and generic designations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unionid bivalves or freshwater pearly-mussels (Unionoidea: Unionidae) serve as an exemplary system for examining many of the problems facing systematists and conservation biologists today. Most of the species and genera were described in the late 1800s and early 1900s, but few phylogenetic studies have been conducted to test conventional views of species and classification. Pearly-mussels of Gulf Coastal drainages of the southeastern United States from the Escambia (southern Alabama to Florida) to the Suwannee Rivers (Florida) are a unique fauna comprised of approximately 100 species, with about 30 endemic to the region. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to test the monophyly and to estimate evolutionary relationships of five unionid species representing three different genera. The molecular phylogenies depict all three genera as polyphyletic. The prodigious polyphyly exhibited within unionids is due to incorrect notions of homology and false assumptions about missing anatomical data. In contrast, the molecular phylogeny provides evidence to support the recognition of all five unionid species as distinct evolutionary entities. Furthermore, molecular genealogical evidence supports the elevation of Quincuncina infucata (Conrad) of the Suwannee River to species level, for which Q. kleiniana (Lea) is available.

Lydeard, Charles; Minton, Russell L.; Williams, James D.

2000-01-01

135

Zoosporic aquatic fungi growing on dead specimens of 29 freshwater crustacean species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated aquatic fungi growing on the carapaces of 29 species of dead crustaceans (13 species of Copepoda, 13 species of Cladocera and 3 species of Ostracoda) in the water from six limnological and trophical different water bodies (two springs, one river, one lake and two ponds). All of these waterbodies are strongly loaded. 146 species of aquatic fungi

Bazyli Czeczuga; Mariola Koz?owska; Anna Godlewska

2002-01-01

136

A new species of freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Pleurobema athearni, from the Coosa River Drainage of Alabama, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mobile Basin historically supported one of the most diverse freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) assemblages in North America. More than 65 species of mussels are known from the Basin, but it is difficult to determine how many species were present historically. The drainage's unique physical habitat was largely destroyed between the late 1800s and mid-1900s by impoundment and channel modifications of most of the larger rivers. Many species that were once common are now restricted to small headwater rivers and mid-sized tributaries. Recent Coosa River tributary surveys revealed a new, undescribed species of Pleurobema. This new species, Pleurobema athearni, is distinctive in outward appearance, shell morphometry and reproductive morphology, and can be distinguished from other Coosa River drainage unionids. Our analysis indicates that P. athearni is morphologically different from other similar taxa. It differs both in shell width/length and width/height ratios and thus provides a simple, quantitative means to differentiate this species from P. georgianum (Lea, 1841) Fusconaia barnesiana (Lea, 1838), and F. cerina (Conrad, 1838), which it superficially resembles and that also occur in the area. Our morphological diagnosis of this species is supported by recent molecular analyses that suggest this species is a Pleurobema and one closely related to other endemic Coosa River drainage unionids. The discovery of a new species of large, long-lived macroinvertebrate from a relatively well-sampled drainage in a populated region of the southeast United States underscores the need for more detailed surveys in isolated stretches of tributary streams. It should also serve as a reminder that almost 40 species of aquatic mollusks have been extirpated from the Mobile Basin before anything could be learned about their habitat or life history requirements. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

Gangloff, M. M.; Williams, J. D.; Feminella, J. W.

2006-01-01

137

[Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific].  

PubMed

Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Pacific, at 496km from Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. This 24 km2 island is surrounded by a protected marine area of 9640 km2. it was declared National Park in 1978 and a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna was collected in 20 sites covering three rivers (Genio, Chatam and Sucio) and two creeks (Minuto and an unnamed creek behind the park rangers' house). Tank bromeliads or phytotelmata were also examined for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters were determined in 13 study sites. Additionally, a comparison with other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was conducted to determine the most important factors controlling the diversity in Tropical Pacific islands. A total of 455 individuals were collected belonging to 20 taxa (mostly identified to genus level) from 15 families of aquatic insects. Other macroinvertebrates such as Palaemonid shrimps, Hidrachnida and Oligochaeta were also collected. The family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) was the most abundant, followed by Chironomidae (Diptera). Diptera was the order of insects with the highest taxonomic richness. A relationship between distance and the number of families was observed supporting the premises of the Theory of island Biogeography. This relationship was improved by correcting area by island elevation, indicating that mountainous islands had the richest faunas, potentially due to high cloud interception that feeds freshwater environments favoring the establishment of aquatic fauna. Physicochemical variables were similar in all sites, possibly due to the geology and the absence of significant sources of pollution on the island. PMID:23885581

Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Ramírez, Alonso; Umaña, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

2013-06-01

138

Diversity of freshwater Thioploca species and their specific association with filamentous bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic diversity among filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thioploca inhabiting freshwater/brackish environments was analyzed in detail. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of Thioploca found in a freshwater lake in Japan, Lake Okotanpe, was identical to that of Thioploca from Lake Ogawara, a brackish lake. The samples of the two lakes could be differentiated by the sequences of their 23S rRNA genes and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The 23S rRNA-based phylogenetic relationships between Thioploca samples from four lakes (Lake Okotanpe, Lake Ogawara, Lake Biwa, and Lake Constance) were similar to those based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. In addition, multiple types of the ITS sequences were obtained from Thioploca inhabiting Lake Okotanpe and Lake Constance. Variations within respective Thioploca populations were also observed in the analysis of the soxB gene, involved in sulfur oxidation. As major members of the sheath-associated microbial community, bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi were consistently detected in the samples from different lakes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that they were filamentous and abundantly distributed within the sheaths of Thioploca. PMID:21800088

Nemoto, Fumiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

2011-11-01

139

Long-term culture at elevated atmospheric CO2 fails to evoke specific adaptation in seven freshwater phytoplankton species.  

PubMed

The concentration of CO(2) in the atmosphere is expected to double by the end of the century. Experiments have shown that this will have important effects on the physiology and ecology of photosynthetic organisms, but it is still unclear if elevated CO(2) will elicit an evolutionary response in primary producers that causes changes in physiological and ecological attributes. In this study, we cultured lines of seven species of freshwater phytoplankton from three major groups at current (approx. 380 ppm CO(2)) and predicted future conditions (1000 ppm CO(2)) for over 750 generations. We grew the phytoplankton under three culture regimes: nutrient-replete liquid medium, nutrient-poor liquid medium and solid agar medium. We then performed reciprocal transplant assays to test for specific adaptation to elevated CO(2) in these lines. We found no evidence for evolutionary change. We conclude that the physiology of carbon utilization may be conserved in natural freshwater phytoplankton communities experiencing rising atmospheric CO(2) levels, without substantial evolutionary change. PMID:23303540

Low-Décarie, Etienne; Jewell, Mark D; Fussmann, Gregor F; Bell, Graham

2013-03-01

140

Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures  

SciTech Connect

Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Evans, J.M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-10-01

141

Long-term culture at elevated atmospheric CO2 fails to evoke specific adaptation in seven freshwater phytoplankton species  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is expected to double by the end of the century. Experiments have shown that this will have important effects on the physiology and ecology of photosynthetic organisms, but it is still unclear if elevated CO2 will elicit an evolutionary response in primary producers that causes changes in physiological and ecological attributes. In this study, we cultured lines of seven species of freshwater phytoplankton from three major groups at current (approx. 380 ppm CO2) and predicted future conditions (1000 ppm CO2) for over 750 generations. We grew the phytoplankton under three culture regimes: nutrient-replete liquid medium, nutrient-poor liquid medium and solid agar medium. We then performed reciprocal transplant assays to test for specific adaptation to elevated CO2 in these lines. We found no evidence for evolutionary change. We conclude that the physiology of carbon utilization may be conserved in natural freshwater phytoplankton communities experiencing rising atmospheric CO2 levels, without substantial evolutionary change. PMID:23303540

Low-Decarie, Etienne; Jewell, Mark D.; Fussmann, Gregor F.; Bell, Graham

2013-01-01

142

Comparing Band Ratio, Semi-Empirical, and Modified Gaussian Models in Predicting Cyanobacterial Pigments in Eutrophic Inland Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacteria are known to produce toxins harmful to humans and compounds that alter the taste/odor of water. Monitoring cyanobacteria is of interest to surface water managers because eutrophication of these surface water bodies are common thus increasing the chances of cyanobacterial blooms. Traditionally cyanobacteria are remotely sensed using the spectral properties of the two pigments: chlorophyll a (Chl-a), indicative of all algal and cyanobacteria species, and phycocyanin (PC), specific to cyanobacteria in most freshwater systems. Initial algorithms identifying cyanobacterial pigments used ratios of reflectance at specific wavelengths. In an effort to increase transferability between different systems researchers have included optical properties of water and water constituents to build semi-empirical models. Recently researchers have applied a curve-fitting, modified Gaussian model (MGM), to predict these cyanobacterial pigments. To determine the best performing algorithm this study compares the performance of 4 band ratio, 4 semi-empirical, and 2 modified Gaussian models in predicting PC and Chl-a on three central Indiana reservoirs (Eagle Creek, Geist, Morse). For each of these reservoirs, spectral data were collected with three different sensors (boat-based: ASD Fieldspec, Ocean Optics USB4000; Ariel: AISA Eagle) over a three year period (2005-2007), and water samples concomitant with these spectra were analyzed for concentration of the two pigments and other water constituents. Comparison shows that a model using the MGM strength at 620 nm from a 2005 Morse Reservoir ASD Fieldspec data set shows that the MGM has the best transferability to a 2006 Morse Reservoir ASD Fieldspec data set in predicting phycocyanin (R2 = 0.77; RMSE= 52.45 ppb), and a band ratio model published by Mittenzwey et al. 1991 has the best transferability in predicting chlorophyll a (R2 = 0.74; RMSE 16.31=ppb).

Robertson, A. L.; Lin, L.; Tedesco, L.; Wilson, J.; Soyeux, E.

2008-12-01

143

Culture-dependent characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in the intertidal zones of the Portuguese coast: a polyphasic study.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are important primary producers, and many are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen playing a key role in the marine environment. However, not much is known about the diversity of cyanobacteria in Portuguese marine waters. This paper describes the diversity of 60 strains isolated from benthic habitats in 9 sites (intertidal zones) on the Portuguese South and West coasts. The strains were characterized by a morphological study (light and electron microscopy) and by a molecular characterization (partial 16S rRNA, nifH, nifK, mcyA, mcyE/ndaF, sxtI genes). The morphological analyses revealed 35 morphotypes (15 genera and 16 species) belonging to 4 cyanobacterial Orders/Subsections. The dominant groups among the isolates were the Oscillatoriales. There is a broad congruence between morphological and molecular assignments. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 9 strains have less than 97% similarity compared to the sequences in the databases, revealing novel cyanobacterial diversity. Phylogenetic analysis, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed at least 12 clusters. One-third of the isolates are potential N(2)-fixers, as they exhibit heterocysts or the presence of nif genes was demonstrated by PCR. Additionally, no conventional freshwater toxins genes were detected by PCR screening. PMID:22277323

Brito, Angela; Ramos, Vitor; Seabra, Rui; Santos, Arlete; Santos, Catarina L; Lopo, Miguel; Ferreira, Sérgio; Martins, António; Mota, Rita; Frazão, Bárbara; Martins, Rosário; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Tamagnini, Paula

2012-03-01

144

Paleoenvironmental significance of a new species of freshwater sponge from the Late Miocene Quillagua Formation (N Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first fossil (Tertiary) occurrence of freshwater sponges of the genus Ephydatia in the southern hemisphere. The sponges appear in diatomite lacustrine sediments of Late Miocene Quillagua Formation (Chile, Atacama region). The investigated specimens represent a new species, Ephydatia chileana sp. nov., which is close to the Recent cosmopolitan E. fluviatilis. On the basis of sedimentological and diatom assemblage data, sponge-bearing diatomites have been interpreted as deposited in open offshore shallow lacustrine conditions with slightly alkaline waters. The sponges show malformations, similar to some diatoms and probably caused by high heavy metal concentrations in a lake water. These concentrations are related to hydrothermal activity, which favored the leaching of volcanic rocks that outcrop extensively in the catchment.

Pisera, A.; Sáez, A.

2003-03-01

145

Impact on indigenous species biodiversity caused by the globalisation of alien recreational freshwater fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most insidious threats to fish conservation around the world is deliberate or accidental introduction of fish species. The impact of alien invasive sport fish is for the most part unpredictable in time and space, with the introduction of relatively few species having resulted in many extirpations of indigenous fish species worldwide. More nations need to quantify biodiversity

J. A. Cambray

2003-01-01

146

The effects of intermittent exposure to suspended solids and turbulence on three species of freshwater mussels.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of intermittent suspended solids exposure on the unionid clams Quadrula pustolosa, Fusconaia cerina and Pleurobema beadleanum. Intermittent impacts of this type are important effects of commercial navigation traffic in freshwater. Clams were cyclically exposed to turbulence alone or accompanied by 600-750 mg litre(-1) of suspended inorganic solids for 9 days. Clams exposed to suspended solids every 3 h reduced their metabolic rate but did not shift from the mainly protein based catabolism of controls. Feeding impairment was apparently compensated for by a reduction in metabolic demand. Conversely, clams exposed every 0.5 h to suspended solids shifted to virtually complete reliance on non-protein body stores as indicated by O:N values averaging 197. PMID:15092759

Aldridge, D W; Payne, B S; Miller, A C

1987-01-01

147

Replacement names and nomenclatural comments for problematic species-group names in Europe's Neogene freshwater Gastropoda.  

PubMed

Over the last 250 years of taxonomic descriptions of freshwater gastropods a large number of primary and secondary homonyms were produced. Several of them have now been uncovered in the course of a new database project. To overcome the associated nomenclatural problems we propose 10 replacement names: Theodoxus pseudodacicus nom. nov., Theodoxus stoicai nom. nov., Viviparus deleeuwi nom. nov., Viviparus lubenescuae nom. nov., Viviparus wesselinghi nom. nov., Melanopsis anistratenkoi nom. nov., Melanopsis gearyae nom. nov., Melanopsis magyari nom. nov., Melanopsis vrcinensis nom. nov., and Pyrgula rusti nom. nov. Additionally, we discuss taxa that might become secondary homonyms because of uncertain genus attributions. The genera Melanoptychia Neumayr, 1880 and Boistelia Cossmann, 1909 are synonymized with Melanopsis Férussac, 1807 in Férussac & Férussac, 1807 based on the lack of sufficient separation criteria. Involved combinations are expounded and recombined accordingly. The nomenclatural problems regarding Melanopsis costata Fuchs, 1870 (non Olivier, 1804) and Planorbis varians Fuchs, 1870 sensu Bandel (2010) are discussed. PMID:24872237

Neubauer, Thomas A; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

2014-01-01

148

Toxicity of magnesium pulses to tropical freshwater species and the development of a duration-based water quality guideline.  

PubMed

Six freshwater species (Chlorella sp., Lemna aequinoctialis, Amerianna cumingi, Hydra viridissima, Moinodaphnia macleayi, and Mogurnda mogurnda) were exposed to 4-h, 8-h, and 24-h Mg pulses in natural creek water. Magnesium toxicity to all species increased with exposure duration; however, the extent of increase and the nature of the relationship differed greatly between species. Based on median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), and compared with continuous exposure data from a previous study, the increase in toxicity with increasing exposure duration from 4 h to continuous (72-144 h) ranged from approximately 2-fold for Chlorella sp. and H. viridissima to greater than 40-fold for A. cumingi. Moreover, the form of the relationship between Mg toxicity and duration ranged from linear or near-linear to exponential for different species. The life-stage at which M. macleayi was exposed was important, with cladocerans pulsed at the onset of reproductive maturity being approximately 4 times more sensitive (based on IC50s) than younger than 6-h-old neonates. Species sensitivity distributions were constructed for the 4-h, 8-h, and 24-h pulse durations, from which 99% species protection guideline values (95% confidence limits [CLs]) of 94 (6.4-1360) mg/L, 14 (0.5-384) mg/L, and 8.0 (0.5-144) mg/L Mg, respectively, were derived. These values were plotted against exposure duration (h) and polynomial interpolation used to derive a guideline value for any pulse duration within the range assessed. PMID:23613126

Hogan, Alicia C; Trenfield, Melanie A; Harford, Andrew J; van Dam, Rick A

2013-09-01

149

Phylogeny and biogeography of highly diverged freshwater fish species (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial genome analysis.  

PubMed

The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the Late Cretaceous to form the present-day distribution of organisms. Furthermore, the Late Cretaceous biotic turnover influenced for the modern terrestrial biodiversity. PMID:23174367

Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto

2013-02-10

150

Identification of Reissner's fiber-like glycoproteins in two species of freshwater planarians (Tricladida), by use of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using one polyclonal antiserum raised against bovine Reissner's fiber and seven monoclonal antibodies raised against bovine Reissner's fiber and against immunopurified bovine subcommissural organ glycoproteins, we have investigated two freshwater planarian species (Girardia tigrina, Schmidtea mediterranea) by light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. ELISA probes showed that the monoclonal antibodies recognized different, nonoverlapping, unrepeated, proteinaceous epitopes present in the same compounds

P. M. Arrabal; G. Estivill-Torrús; E. Miranda; J. Pérez; P. Fernández-Llebrez

2000-01-01

151

Impact on indigenous species biodiversity caused by the globalisation of alien recreational freshwater fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most insidious threats to fish conservation around the world is deliberate or accidental introduction of fish species.\\u000a The impact of alien invasive sport fish is for the most part unpredictable in time and space, with the introduction of relatively\\u000a few species having resulted in many extirpations of indigenous fish species worldwide. More nations need to quantify biodiversity

J. A. Cambray

152

ERPOBDELLA LAHONTANA (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: ARHYNCHOBDELLIDA: ERPOBDELLIDAE), A NEW SPECIES OF FRESHWATER LEECH FROM NORTH AMERICA  

EPA Science Inventory

New species of a leech, Erpobdella lahontana, is described from the Lahontan Basin in California and Nevada of the western United States. This species has four pairs of eyes, the preatrial loops of male paired ducts extend to ganglion XI, and the male and female gonopores are loc...

153

Tardigrades from Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, with particular reference to freshwater species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen species of Tardigrada from lakes and catchments on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, are described. Two species, Echiniscus punctus and Isohypsibius laevis are new to science, and two, Oreella minor and Pseudechiniscus suillus, are new to the Signy Is. records.

S. J. McInnes

1995-01-01

154

Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.  

PubMed

Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be included in the assessment of the potential adverse effects caused by the release of toxic and bioactive compounds during cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:25103898

Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

2014-10-01

155

ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS OF AIRBORNE HYSPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR MAPPING OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN FRESHWATER COASTAL WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

156

Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic\\u000a acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different\\u000a fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great

Simone de Rosemond; Qianli Xie; Karsten Liber

2008-01-01

157

Spatial Distribution of Cryptic Species Diversity in European Freshwater Amphipods (Gammarus fossarum) as Revealed by Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

In order to understand and protect ecosystems, local gene pools need to be evaluated with respect to their uniqueness. Cryptic species present a challenge in this context because their presence, if unrecognized, may lead to serious misjudgement of the distribution of evolutionarily distinct genetic entities. In this study, we describe the current geographical distribution of cryptic species of the ecologically important stream amphipod Gammarus fossarum (types A, B and C). We use a novel pyrosequencing assay for molecular species identification and survey 62 populations in Switzerland, plus several populations in Germany and eastern France. In addition, we compile data from previous publications (mainly Germany). A clear transition is observed from type A in the east (Danube and Po drainages) to types B and, more rarely, C in the west (Meuse, Rhone, and four smaller French river systems). Within the Rhine drainage, the cryptic species meet in a contact zone which spans the entire G. fossarum distribution range from north to south. This large-scale geographical sorting indicates that types A and B persisted in separate refugia during Pleistocene glaciations. Within the contact zone, the species rarely co-occur at the same site, suggesting that ecological processes may preclude long-term coexistence. The clear phylogeographical signal observed in this study implies that, in many parts of Europe, only one of the cryptic species is present. PMID:21909373

Westram, Anja Marie; Jokela, Jukka; Baumgartner, Caroline; Keller, Irene

2011-01-01

158

Translocations of freshwater crayfish: contributions from life histories, trophic relations and diseases of three species in Western Australia.  

E-print Network

??By examining Western Australian freshwater crayfishes, this thesis aims to further our understanding of how life-history strategies, trophic relationships and disease introductions contribute to the… (more)

Beatty, Stephen

2005-01-01

159

Biodiversity of freshwater fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with more known from temperate, as compared to tropical regions. These includeca 340 ascomycetes, 300 deuteromycetes, and a number of lower fungi which are not discussed here.Aniptodera, Annulatascus, Massarina, Ophioceras andPseudohalonectria are common freshwater ascomycetes, which appear to be well adapted for this lifestyle either in their ascospore types or their

T K Goh; K D Hyde

1996-01-01

160

Haemogregarine infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Twenty-five black river turtles (Rhinoclemmys funerea) and eight white-lipped mud turtles (Kinosternon leucostomum) from Selva Verde, Costa Rica were examined for haemoparasites. Leeches identified as Placobdella multilineata were detected on individuals from both species. All turtles sampled were positive for intraerythrocytic haemogregarines (Apicomplexa:Adeleorina) and the average parasitemia of black river turtles (0.34% ± 0.07) was significantly higher compared to white-lipped mud turtles (0.05% ± 0.006). No correlation was found between parasitemia and relative body mass of either species or between black river turtles from the two habitats. In addition, one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) examined from La Pacifica, Costa Rica, was positive for haemogregarines (0.01% parasitemia). Interestingly, parasites of the scorpion mud turtle were significantly smaller than those from the other two species and did not displace the erythrocyte nucleus, whereas parasites from the other two species consistently displaced host cell nuclei and often distorted size and shape of erythrocytes. This is the first report of haemogregarines in turtles from Central America and of haemogregarines in K. leucostomum, K. scorpioides, and any Rhinoclemmys species. Additional studies are needed to better characterise and understand the ecology of these parasites. PMID:24533326

Rossow, John A; Hernandez, Sonia M; Sumner, Scarlett M; Altman, Bridget R; Crider, Caroline G; Gammage, Mallory B; Segal, Kristy M; Yabsley, Michael J

2013-12-01

161

Haemogregarine infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five black river turtles (Rhinoclemmys funerea) and eight white-lipped mud turtles (Kinosternon leucostomum) from Selva Verde, Costa Rica were examined for haemoparasites. Leeches identified as Placobdella multilineata were detected on individuals from both species. All turtles sampled were positive for intraerythrocytic haemogregarines (Apicomplexa:Adeleorina) and the average parasitemia of black river turtles (0.34% ± 0.07) was significantly higher compared to white-lipped mud turtles (0.05% ± 0.006). No correlation was found between parasitemia and relative body mass of either species or between black river turtles from the two habitats. In addition, one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) examined from La Pacifica, Costa Rica, was positive for haemogregarines (0.01% parasitemia). Interestingly, parasites of the scorpion mud turtle were significantly smaller than those from the other two species and did not displace the erythrocyte nucleus, whereas parasites from the other two species consistently displaced host cell nuclei and often distorted size and shape of erythrocytes. This is the first report of haemogregarines in turtles from Central America and of haemogregarines in K. leucostomum, K. scorpioides, and any Rhinoclemmys species. Additional studies are needed to better characterise and understand the ecology of these parasites. PMID:24533326

Rossow, John A.; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Sumner, Scarlett M.; Altman, Bridget R.; Crider, Caroline G.; Gammage, Mallory B.; Segal, Kristy M.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2013-01-01

162

Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon copelandi (Characidae), 28 marbled hatchetfish Carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish Carnegiella martae (Gasteropelecidae), 27 bodó Ancistrus hoplogenys (Loricariidae), 31 brown pencilfish Nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus (Lebiasinidae) and 13 angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae) were collected from the middle Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, for parasitological studies. Out of the total of 223 fish examined, 143 (64.1%) were parasitized by at least one parasite species. The highest prevalence rate was for Monogenea (36.7%), followed by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) (20.6%), Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora) (4.0%), Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida) (1.3%), Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora) (0.89%), and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda) (0.4%). All eight fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in the gills, but the highest prevalence occurred in P. scalare and the lowest in P. axelrodi and C. strigata. However, the highest mean intensity of Monogenea was found in P. scalare and A. hoplogenys. The protozoan I. multifiliis occurred in the six ornamental fish species examined, but C. strigata and C. martae had higher prevalence and mean intensity. Trichodina spp. were found only in the gills of C. strigata, C. martae and N. eques, and with higher mean intensity in C. strigata. On the other hand, the protozoan P. pilullare was found only in the gills of C. martae. This is the first report of Tetrahymena sp. in Brazil, and it occurred in the gills of C. strigata. PMID:20624347

Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Lemos, Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga; Martins, Maurício Laterça

2010-01-01

163

early 300 species of mussels inhabit fresh-water rivers, streams, and lakes in the United  

E-print Network

N early 300 species of mussels inhabit fresh- water rivers, streams, and lakes in the United States remnant populations of mussels. Dam construction, siltation, water pollution, mining and industrial wastes mussels are underway. However, water pollution continues to threaten streams crucial to their survival

Liskiewicz, Maciej

164

EFFECTS OF COPPER, NICKEL AND ZINC ON THREE SPECIES OF OREGON FRESHWATER SNAILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Three snail species collected from western Oregon were exposed to metals - Juga plicifera and Lithoglyphus virens, which inhabit cool coastal streams, and Physa gyrina, which is found in Willamette Valley ponds. J. plicifera were exposed in flow-through laboratory tests to copper...

165

ALIEN FRESHWATER CRUSTACEAN AND INDIGENOUS MOLLUSC SPECIES WITH AQUACULTURE POTENTIAL IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farming of crustaceans and molluscs in Southern Africa is not well developed, but it is likely to intensify in coming years. The pressure to introduce new candidate species to satisfy specific culinary demands or improve bulk yields and efficiencies is also expected to increase.This paper stresses some of the problems associated with the intentional or accidental introduction of exotics, and

Heimo Mikkola

1996-01-01

166

FRESHWATER SEDIMENT TOXICITY BIOASSESSMENT: RATIONALE FOR SPECIES SELECTION AND TEST DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

The rationale and conceptual basis for the use of sediment toxicity assays are discussed in relationship to their use in sediment evaluations employing faunal surveys, toxicity assays, and chemical analyses. he disadvantages and advantages of various species from the major classe...

167

Mechanisms for the Prevention of Self Fertilization in some Species of Fresh-Water Triclads  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPERIMENTS by Gelei (1924) show that some very effective mechanism for the prevention of self-fertilization does exist in Dendrocoelu m lacteum . When kept alone from the time of hatching, this species produced cocoons containing eggs which had not been fertilized. Two such animals which had both produced unfertile eggs while isolated, after pairing laid cocoons containing fertile eggs. The

P. Ullyott

168

Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of litter from four species of freshwater emergent macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and mass remaining were followed for 30 months in decomposing litter of the perennial macrophytes Typha latifolia L., Carex lacustris Willd., Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt., and the annual Zizania aquatica L. in a fresh water tidal marsh in Massachusetts. Step-wise decreases in the mass remaining that corresponded to seasonal temperature changes were observed for all species.

James T. Morris; Kate Lajtha

1986-01-01

169

Effect of temperature on photosynthesis-light response and growth of four phytoplankton species isolated from a tidal freshwater river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa Kutz. emend. Elenkin, Merismopedia tenuissima Lemmermann, and Oscillatoria sp.) and one diatom (Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima O. Mull. emend. Simonsen) were isolated from the tidal freshwater Potomac River and maintained at 23??C and 40 ??mol photons??m-2??s-1 on a 16:8 L:D cycle in unialgal culture. Photosynthetic parameters were determined in nutrient-replete cultures growing exponentially at 15, 20, 25, and 30??C by incubation with 14C at six light levels. P(B)(max) was strongly correlated with temperature over the entire range for the cyanobacteria and from 15 to 25??C for Aulacoseira, with Q10 ranging from 1.79 to 2.67. The ?? values demonstrated a less consistent temperature pattern. Photosynthetic parameters indicated an advantage for cyanobacteria at warmer temperatures and in light-limited water columns. P(B)(max) and I(k) values were generally lower than comparable literature and field values, whereas ?? was generally higher, consistent with a somewhat shade acclimated status of our cultures. Specific growth rate (??), as measured by chlorophyll change, was strongly influenced by temperature in all species. Oscillatoria had the highest ?? at all temperatures, joined at lower temperatures by Aulacoseira and at higher temperatures by Microcystis. Values of ?? for Aulacaseira were near the low end of the literature range for diatoms consistent with the light-limited status of the cultures. The cyanobacteria exhibited growth rates similar to those reported in other studies. Q10 for growth ranged from 1.71 for Aulacoseira to 4.16 for Microcystis. Growth rate was highly correlated with P(B)(max) for each species and the regression slope coefficients were very similar for three of the species.

Coles, J.F.; Jones, R.C.

2000-01-01

170

Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA.  

PubMed

The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great Slave Lake, near the city of Yellowknife, NT, Canada. The total concentration (dry weight) of arsenic in muscle ranged from 0.57 to 1.15 mg/kg, in the liver from 0.42 to 2.52 mg/kg and in the GIT from 1.48 to 8.92 mg/kg. Among fish species, C. commersoni had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations in the GIT than S. vitreum, E. lucius and C. clupeaformis, and higher total arsenic concentrations in the liver than C. clupeaformis. The mean concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the muscle of all fish ranged from < or =0.01 to 0.05 mg/kg and < or =0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and together comprised < or =7.5% of the total arsenic measured in muscle. The concentrations of MMA were below detection in the muscle of all five fish species. However, AsB and DMA were measured in all fish species and nearly all fish tissues. The concentrations of AsB ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 mg/kg and the concentrations of DMA ranged from <0.02 to 0.45 mg/kg. The majority (>50%) of organic arsenic in almost all of the tissues from fish caught in Back Bay was not directly identified. Evidence from the literature suggests that most of these other organic arsenic species were likely trimethylated arsenic compounds, however, further analytical work would need to be performed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:18214701

de Rosemond, Simone; Xie, Qianli; Liber, Karsten

2008-12-01

171

Variable survival across low pH gradients in freshwater fish species.  

PubMed

A series of 14 day experiments was conducted on five common New Zealand fish species (redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, inanga Galaxias maculatus, brown trout Salmo trutta, longfin eel Anguilla dieffenbachii and koaro Galaxias brevipinnis) to assess the effect of pH on survival and changes in body mass. No species survived in water of pH <4 although there was 100% survival of all adults at pH 4·5, G. maculatus larvae were also tested and had high mortality at this pH. Results suggest that adults are tolerant of low-pH waters; however, successful remediation of anthropogenically acidified streams will require an understanding of the susceptibility to low pH on different life cycle stages. PMID:25230112

Jellyman, P G; Harding, J S

2014-11-01

172

Competitive interactions during basking between native and invasive freshwater turtle species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) is currently introduced in many Mediterranean countries, where it behaves as an invasive species that competes and displaces\\u000a native populations of the endangered Spanish terrapin (Mauremys leprosa). However, the nature of competitive interactions is relatively unknown. During basking activity, factors like greater body\\u000a size or pre-existing behavioral adaptations to an original habitat with higher

Nuria Polo-CaviaPilar; Pilar López; José Martín

2010-01-01

173

Description of two new species of ectoparasitic Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from freshwater fishes in the river Ganges, India.  

PubMed

Two new species of the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838, T. silondiata sp. nov. and T. pangasi sp. nov. from the gills of freshwater fish Silonia silondia (Hamilton 1822) and Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton-Buchanan) respectively from the river Ganges of West Bengal are described here. Wet smears of gills and skins were prepared in the field, air dried and impregnated with Klein's dry silver method. In case of S. silondia (Hamilton 1822) 24 out of 146 host fishes were parasitized on the gills. Infestation rate in case of P. pangasius (Hamilton-Buchanan) was not significant. From a total of 86 examined host fish, only seven were parasitized on the gills. The mean diameters of the body of the specimens of T. silondiata sp. nov. and T. pangasi sp. nov. were 32.7-60.6 (46.4 ± 6.3) ?m and 38.9-54.1 (44.9 ± 3.0) ?m respectively. Taxonomic and morphometric data for these ectoparasitic trichodinids based on wet silver nitrate impregnated specimens are presented. PMID:24431538

Mitra, Amlan Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Gong, Yingchun; Goswami, Mrigen; Bhowmik, Biplab

2013-04-01

174

Erection of Ceratonova n. gen. (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae) to Encompass Freshwater Species C. gasterostea n. sp. from Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and C. shasta n. comb. from Salmonid Fishes.  

PubMed

Ceratonova gasterostea n. gen. n. sp. is described from the intestine of freshwater Gasterosteus aculeatus L. from the Klamath River, California. Myxospores are arcuate, 22.4 ± 2.6 ?m thick, 5.2 ± 0.4 ?m long, posterior angle 45° ± 24°, with 2 sub-spherical polar capsules, diameter 2.3 ± 0.2 ?m, which lie adjacent to the suture. Its ribosomal small subunit sequence was most similar to an intestinal parasite of salmonid fishes, Ceratomyxa shasta (97%, 1,671/1,692 nucleotides), and distinct from all other Ceratomyxa species (<85%), which are typically coelozoic parasites in the gall bladder or urinary system of marine fishes. We propose erection of genus Ceratonova to contain both intestinal, freshwater species and reassign the salmonid parasite as Ceratonova shasta n. comb. PMID:24754344

Atkinson, S D; Foott, J S; Bartholomew, J L

2014-10-01

175

Emerging health issues of cyanobacterial blooms.  

PubMed

This paper describes emerging issue related to cyanobacterial dynamics and toxicity and human health risks. Data show an increasing cyanobacteria expansion and dominance in many environments. However there are still few information on the toxic species fitness, or on the effects of specific drivers on toxin production. Open research fields are related to new exposure scenario (cyanotoxins in water used for haemodialysis and in food supplements); to new patterns of co-exposure between cyanotoxins and algal toxins and/or anthropogenic chemicals; to dynamics affecting toxicity and production of different cyanotoxin variants under environmental stress; to the accumulation of cyanotoxins in the food web. In addition, many data gaps exist in the characterization of the toxicological profiles, especially about long term effects. PMID:23247138

Manganelli, Maura; Scardala, Simona; Stefanelli, Mara; Palazzo, Francesca; Funari, Enzo; Vichi, Susanna; Buratti, Franca Maria; Testai, Emanuela

2012-01-01

176

Distinct migratory and non-migratory ecotypes of an endemic New Zealand eleotrid (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) – implications for incipient speciation in island freshwater fish species  

PubMed Central

Background Many postglacial lakes contain fish species with distinct ecomorphs. Similar evolutionary scenarios might be acting on evolutionarily young fish communities in lakes of remote islands. One process that drives diversification in island freshwater fish species is the colonization of depauperate freshwater environments by diadromous (migratory) taxa, which secondarily lose their migratory behaviour. The loss of migration limits dispersal and gene flow between distant populations, and, therefore, is expected to facilitate local morphological and genetic differentiation. To date, most studies have focused on interspecific relationships among migratory species and their non-migratory sister taxa. We hypothesize that the loss of migration facilitates intraspecific morphological, behavioural, and genetic differentiation between migratory and non-migratory populations of facultatively diadromous taxa, and, hence, incipient speciation of island freshwater fish species. Results Microchemical analyses of otolith isotopes (88Sr, 137Ba and 43Ca) differentiated migratory and non-migratory stocks of the New Zealand endemic Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall (Eleotridae). Samples were taken from two rivers, one lake and two geographically-separated outgroup locations. Meristic analyses of oculoscapular lateral line canals documented a gradual reduction of these structures in the non-migratory populations. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints revealed considerable genetic isolation between migratory and non-migratory populations. Temporal differences in reproductive timing (migratory = winter spawners, non-migratory = summer spawners; as inferred from gonadosomatic indices) provide a prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanism between the two ecotypes. Conclusion This study provides a holistic look at the role of diadromy in incipient speciation of island freshwater fish species. All four analytical approaches (otolith microchemistry, morphology, spawning timing, population genetics) yield congruent results, and provide clear and independent evidence for the existence of distinct migratory and non-migratory ecotypes within a river in a geographically confined range. The morphological changes within the non-migratory populations parallel interspecific patterns observed in all non-migratory New Zealand endemic Gobiomorphus species and other derived gobiid taxa, a pattern suggesting parallel evolution. This study indicates, for the first time, that distinct ecotypes of island freshwater fish species may be formed as a consequence of loss of migration and subsequent diversification. Therefore, if reproductive isolation persists, these processes may provide a mechanism to facilitate speciation. PMID:18275608

2008-01-01

177

Phytoplankton vertical distributions and composition in Baltic Sea cyanobacterial blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the vertical structure of the phytoplankton community in two toxic cyanobacterial blooms in the offshore Baltic Sea. In 1994, vertically separated potentially toxic, diazotrophic and mixotrophic species (belonging to Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae) dominated. In 1997, picocyanobacteria, mainly in colonies, made up 40–50% of the total phytoplankton carbon biomass in the top 20m both day and night. Colony-forming

Susanna Hajdu; Helena Höglander; Ulf Larsson

2007-01-01

178

Trichodina colisae (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae): new parasite records for two freshwater fish species farmed in Brazil.  

PubMed

Family Trichodinidae comprises ciliate protozoa distributed worldwide; they are considered some of the main parasitological agents infecting cultivated fish. However, the trichodinidae parasitizing important fish species cultured in Brazil are unknown, and more taxonomic studies on this group of parasites are required. This research morphologically characterizes Trichodina colisae Asmat & Sultana, (2005) of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) and patinga hybrid (P. mesopotamicus × P. brachypomus) cultivated in the central and southeast regions of the country. Fresh assemblies were made from mucus scraped from the skin, fins and gills, fixed with methanol and, subsequently, impregnated with silver nitrate and stained with Giemsa for assessment under light microscopy. This research reports not only the second occurrence of T. colisae in the world, but also its first occurrence in South America. PMID:23207983

Jerônimo, Gabriela Tomas; Marchiori, Natália da Costa; Pádua, Santiago Benites de; Dias Neto, José; Pilarski, Fabiana; Ishikawa, Márcia Mayumi; Martins, Maurício Laterça

2012-01-01

179

Lack of surface-associated microorganisms in a mixed species community of freshwater Unionidae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To determine whether unionids contain surface-attached endosymbiotic bacteria, ciliates, or fungi, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the epithelial surface of various organs within the digestive systems and mantle cavity of temperate river and lake unionids on a seasonal basis. We also cultured material removed from the lumen of these same organs and from the mantle cavity to detect cellobiose-, cellulose-, and chitin- degrading microbes. No true endosymbiotic fauna were observed attached to the surface of the digestive or mantle tissues of any species of unionid. Microbial growth on cellulose or chitin bacteriological media varied by season and habitat, but not by unionid species or source of the isolate. Lake unionids did not contain microbes capable of digesting cellulose or chitin, whereas unionids from the river site did in March and August, but not in December. Since these cultured cellulose- and chitin-degrading bacteria were never found attached to any unionid tissues, they appeared to be transient forms, not true endosymbionts. Microbes capable of digesting cellobiose were found in every unionid collected in all seasons and habitats, but again, no microbes were directly observed attached to unionid tissues. If unionids, like most other vertebrates, lack digestive enzymes required to initiate primary bond breakage, then the lack of cellulolytic and chitinolytic endosymbionts would affect the ability to utilize cellulose or chitin foods. Thus, in captivity dry feeds based on corn, soybeans, or nauplii should be pre-digested to ensure maximum absorption of nutrients by unionids. The lack of celluloytic or chitinolytic endosymbionts should not affect relocation success, though the seasonal role of transient microbes in unionid nutrition requires further investigation.

Nichols, S. Jerrine; Allen, J.; Walker, G.; Yokoyama, M.; Garling, D.

2001-01-01

180

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and metals residues in sediment and freshwater fish species cultured in a shallow lagoon, Egypt.  

PubMed

Six freshwater fish species cultured in Lake Edku fish farm, one of the northern Nile Delta lakes in Egypt that receives input from numerous anthropogenic activities in addition to agriculture wastes through several huge drains, were collected for the detection and evaluation of residues of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1 -trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), total cyclodienes (TC), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) in their edible parts. In all fish and sediment samples, PCBs were found in higher concentrations than pesticides; the edible parts of Mugil capito, Tilapia galilaeus, Tilapia zilli and Clarias lazera had the highest PCBs (3.49, 0.83, 1.06 and 4.29 ng/g wet weight respectively), PCB 28 being most prevalent in Mugilcapito and Clarias lazera with ratios 86 and 62%, respectively, of the total PCBs. PCB 180 was most prevalent in Tilapia zilli (about 56% of the total PCBs). In these four fish species OCs were found in the order: PCBs > DDTs > HCHs > TC. The other two species (Tilapia nilotica and Tilapia aureus) had the highest concentrations of pesticides (7.58 and 1.13 ng/g wet weight, respectively) with HCHs being most prevalent (96% and 74% of the total pesticides, respectively). OCs were found in the order: HCHs > PCBs > DDTs > TC in the edible Tilapia nilotica, and in the order: PCBs > HCHs > DDTs > TC in the other species. The mean concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in sediments are 539.66 +/- 48.8 and 259.17 +/- 81.2 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Among the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish samples, about 67% of the samples contained marginally higher Pb content in the edible parts, above the European Community's legal limit. About 50% of the samples contained marginally higher Cd content (N.D to 0.88 microg/g) above the permissible level of Cd in fish edible parts; the Cu content ranged from 0.37-2.36 microg/g, with a marginally higher content in the fish but below the maximum permissible limits. As for the concentration of the studied metals in sediments of Edku lagoon, results showed that copper had the highest concentration (2.2 +/- 0.37 microg/g) in the lake sediment. PMID:24350495

Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed; Morsy, Fadia Abu Elmagd

2013-01-01

181

Sigma Factors for Cyanobacterial Transcription  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are photosynthesizing microorganisms that can be used as a model for analyzing gene expression. The expression of genes involves transcription and translation. Transcription is performed by the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme, comprising a core enzyme and a sigma (?) factor which confers promoter selectivity. The unique structure, expression, and function of cyanobacterial ? factors (and RNAP core subunits) are summarized here based on studies, reported previously. The types of promoter recognized by the ? factors are also discussed with regard to transcriptional regulation. PMID:19838335

Imamura, Sousuke; Asayama, Munehiko

2009-01-01

182

Transgenic plants with cyanobacterial genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, cyanobacteria have been regarded as ideal model systems for studying fundamental biochemical processes like\\u000a oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon and nitrogen assimilation. Additionally, they have been used as human foods, sources for\\u000a vitamins, proteins, fine chemicals, and bioactive compounds. Aiming to increase plant productivity as well as nutritional\\u000a values, cyanobacterial genes involved in carbon metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis,

Youn-Il Park; Sang-Bong Choi; Jang R. Liu

2009-01-01

183

Extinction Rates of North American Freshwater Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1900, 123 freshwater animal species have been recorded as extinct in North America. Hun- dreds of additional species of fishes, mollusks, crayfishes, and amphibians are considered imperiled. Using an exponential decay model, we derived recent and future extinction rates for North American freshwater fauna that are five times higher than those for terrestrial fauna. Assuming that imperiled freshwater species

Anthony Ricciardi; Joseph B. Rasmussen

1999-01-01

184

A new cryptic species of South American freshwater pufferfish of the genus Colomesus (Tetraodontidae), based on both morphology and DNA data.  

PubMed

The Tetraodontidae are an Acantomorpha fish family with circumglobal distribution composed of 189 species grouped in 19 genera, occurring in seas, estuaries, and rivers between the tropical and temperate regions. Of these, the genus Colomesus is confined to South America, with what have been up to now considered only two species. C. asellus is spread over the entire Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia drainages, and coastal environments from the Amazon mouth to Venezuela, and is the only freshwater puffers on that continent. C. psittacus is found in coastal marine and brackish water environments from Cuba to the northern coast of South America as far south as to Sergipe in Brazil. In the present contribution we used morphological data along with molecular systematics techniques to investigate the phylogeny and phylogeography of the freshwater pufferfishes of the genus Colomesus. The molecular part is based on a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I dataset constructed from both previously published and newly determined sequences, obtained from specimens collected from three distinct localities in South America. Our results from both molecular and morphological approaches enable us to identify and describe a new Colomesus species from the Tocantins River. We also discuss aspects of the historical biogeography and phylogeography of the South American freshwater pufferfishes, suggesting that it could be more recent than previously expected. PMID:24040239

Amaral, Cesar R L; Brito, Paulo M; Silva, Dayse A; Carvalho, Elizeu F

2013-01-01

185

A New Cryptic Species of South American Freshwater Pufferfish of the Genus Colomesus (Tetraodontidae), Based on Both Morphology and DNA Data  

PubMed Central

The Tetraodontidae are an Acantomorpha fish family with circumglobal distribution composed of 189 species grouped in 19 genera, occurring in seas, estuaries, and rivers between the tropical and temperate regions. Of these, the genus Colomesus is confined to South America, with what have been up to now considered only two species. C. asellus is spread over the entire Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia drainages, and coastal environments from the Amazon mouth to Venezuela, and is the only freshwater puffers on that continent. C. psittacus is found in coastal marine and brackish water environments from Cuba to the northern coast of South America as far south as to Sergipe in Brazil. In the present contribution we used morphological data along with molecular systematics techniques to investigate the phylogeny and phylogeography of the freshwater pufferfishes of the genus Colomesus. The molecular part is based on a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I dataset constructed from both previously published and newly determined sequences, obtained from specimens collected from three distinct localities in South America. Our results from both molecular and morphological approaches enable us to identify and describe a new Colomesus species from the Tocantins River. We also discuss aspects of the historical biogeography and phylogeography of the South American freshwater pufferfishes, suggesting that it could be more recent than previously expected. PMID:24040239

Amaral, Cesar R. L.; Brito, Paulo M.; Silva, Dayse A.; Carvalho, Elizeu F.

2013-01-01

186

Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. Exposed to Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Taihu, China  

PubMed Central

With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

2014-01-01

187

Bioaccumulation of phenol, guaiacol and some chlorophenols by selected freshwater species of leeches.  

PubMed

In the recent study, the bioaccumulation ability of phenolic substances was determined with field-collected specimens of three leech species, i.e., Erpobdella octoculata (Linnaeus), Theromyzon tessulatum (O. F. M?ller) and Glossiphonia complanata (Linneaus). It was found that the examined leeches bioaccumulated phenol (0.03-27.10 mg/kg), 4-methylphenol (0.09-1.83 mg/kg), chlorophenols (0.03-14.90 mg/kg), guaiacol (0.22-2,941 mg/kg), tetrachloroguaiacol (0.06-1.98 mg/kg), 3-chlorosyringol (0.04-15.28 mg/kg) and chlorocatechols (0.33-23.24 mg/kg) present in the water (0.03-25.23 ?g/L) and in the bottom sediments (0.75-760.5 ?g/kg) of three ecosystems that were characterized by different contamination levels. Analysis of both the external mucous coat of the leeches and the tissue of the dermato-muscular sac showed that substantial quantities of the phenolic compounds may be accumulated in both the mucous (0.03-2,941 mg/kg) and the tissue (0.03-1,189.8 mg/kg). PMID:22476255

Grzelak, Bo?ena; Micha?owicz, Jaromir; Dukowska, Ma?gorzata

2012-06-01

188

Gut content weight and clearance rate for three species of freshwater invertebrates  

SciTech Connect

There is concern for potential error in the accurate estimation of chemical bioaccumulation in benthic organisms due to xenobiotics associated with gut contents (sediments). In this study the benthic macroinvertebrates Hexagenia limbata, Chironomus tentans, and Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to five sediments from the Lower Fox River/Green Bay area of Wisconsin to determine the percentage of their weight due to gut contents and the rate at which guts were emptied when the animals were held in clean water. Upon removal from the test sediments, inorganic gut contents in H. limbata, C. tentans, and L. variegatus represented approximately 9, 10, and 10% of their whole body dry weights, respectively. Depuration rates were relatively rapid, with mayflies, midges, and oligochaetes losing approximately 75, 90, and 100% of their gut contents during the first 12 h of depuration. This suggests that a 12--24-h holding period in clean water at the conclusion of sediment bioaccumulation tests with the three species should be sufficient to eliminate potential bias in tissue residue concentrations due to gut contents.

Brooke, L.T.; Ankley, G.T.; Call, D.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States). Lake Superior Research Inst.; Cook, P.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1996-02-01

189

Use of landscape pattern metrics and multiscale data in aquatic species distribution models: a case study of a freshwater mussel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of freshwater mussels are controlled by landscape factors operating at multiple spatial scales. Changes\\u000a in land use\\/land cover (LULC) have been implicated in severe population declines and range contractions of freshwater mussels\\u000a across North America. Despite widespread recognition of multiscale influences few studies have addressed these issues when\\u000a developing distribution models. Furthermore, most studies have disregarded the role

Robert L. Hopkins

2009-01-01

190

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms represent one of the most serious ecological stressors in lakes, rivers, estuaries and marine environments. When there are persistent or frequent blooms with high biomass of cyanobacterial cells, colonies or filaments in the water, a wide range of i...

191

Cyanobacterial Blooms: Toxins, Tastes, and Odors  

E-print Network

Water Science Center USACE Harmful Algal Bloom Technical Session May 28, 2014 #12;Acknowledgements Mandy University of Idaho Oregon State University #12;Overview · Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms · Cyanotoxins;Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms What is an Algal Bloom? · The definition of a "bloom" is somewhat subjective

US Army Corps of Engineers

192

Cyanobacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of a mangrove forest.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterial community colonizing phyllosphere in a well-preserved Brazilian mangrove ecosystem was assessed using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Leaves of trees that occupy this environment (Rhizophora mangle,Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) were collected along a transect beginning at the margin of the bay and extending upland. The results demonstrated that the phyllosphere of R. mangle and L. racemosa harbor similar assemblages of cyanobacteria at each point along the transect. A. schaueriana, found only in the coastal portions of the transect, was colonized by assemblages with lower richness than the other trees. However, the results indicated that spatial location was a stronger driver of cyanobacterial community composition than plant species. Distinct cyanobacterial communities were observed at each location along the coast-to-upland transect. Clone library analysis allowed identification of 19 genera of cyanobacteria and demonstrated the presence of several uncultivated taxa. A predominance of sequences affiliated with the orders Nostocales and Oscillatoriales was observed, with a remarkable number of sequences similar to genera Symphyonemopsis/Brasilonema (order Nostocales). The results demonstrated that phyllosphere cyanobacteria in this mangrove forest ecosystem are influenced by environmental conditions as the primary driver at the ecosystem scale, with tree species exerting some effect on community structure at the local scale. PMID:22611551

Rigonato, Janaina; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kent, Angela; Fiore, Marli Fátima

2012-05-01

193

A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species.  

PubMed

Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study) and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study). Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae). In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso) during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%). Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity. PMID:25229292

Fernandez, Monica Ammon; de Mattos, Aline Carvalho; da Silva, Elizangela Feitosa; Santos, Sonia Barbosa Dos; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2014-07-01

194

Ascaridoidea: a simple DNA assay for identification of 11 species infecting marine and freshwater fish, mammals, and fish-eating birds.  

PubMed

Eleven species belonging to superfamily Ascaridoidea, which infect marine and freshwater fish, mammals, and fish-eating birds, were analyzed using a PCR-RFLP method. The following species were investigated: Anisakis pegreffi, A. physeteris, and A. simplex (parasites of fish and mammals), Contracaecum osculatum, C. radiatum, and C. rudolphi (parasites of mammals and fish-eating birds), Hysterothylacium aduncum (a parasite of fish), Porrocaecum angusticolle, P. crassum, P. depressum, and P. ensicaudatum (parasites of fish-eating birds). PCR-amplified rDNA regions encompassing ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2 produced on templates of genomic DNA isolated from all investigated species were digested with TaqI, AluI, BsuRI, and RsaI endonucleases. Restriction patterns showed that endonuclease TaqI is the most useful enzyme for identification of all investigated species. No variations in restriction patterns within each species were detected. Therefore, we propose that the PCR-RFLP assay described in this report may be used for identification of marine and freshwater parasites from superfamily Ascaridoidea. PMID:12243736

Kijewska, Agnieszka; Rokicki, Jerzy; Sitko, Jiri; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

2002-05-01

195

Important disease conditions of newly cultured species in intensive freshwater farms in Greece: first incidence of nodavirus infection in Acipenser sp.  

PubMed

We describe here the main pathological conditions of freshwater fish recently introduced for intensive rearing (open ponds and recirculating freshwater systems) in Greece. Sturgeon were susceptible to skeletal abnormalities of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis) of unknown aetiology. Horizontal transmission of nodavirus from infected sea bass to sturgeon was detected for the first time. This caused serious pathology and clinical signs, such as lethargy and imbalance, leading to secondary infections with Aeromonas hydrophila and Trichodina sp. and chronic, but steady, mortality. Sea bass were very susceptible to nodavirus infection, monogenean infections and gas bubble disease. Mullet reared under recirculated and open-flow conditions were very sensitive to Chilodonella sp. infection, whereas catfish were susceptible to infection with Ichthyophthirius sp. leading to secondary infections with A. hydrophila, Saprolegnia sp. and Myxobacteria spp. Tilapia were very susceptible to gas bubble disease and A. hydrophila. This bacterium was associated with management manipulations for all species and fully responsive to corrective hygiene methods. PMID:15521324

Athanassopoulou, F; Billinis, C; Prapas, Th

2004-09-01

196

The structural code of cyanobacterial genomes  

PubMed Central

A periodic bias in nucleotide frequency with a period of about 11 bp is characteristic for bacterial genomes. This signal is commonly interpreted to relate to the helical pitch of negatively supercoiled DNA. Functions in supercoiling-dependent RNA transcription or as a ‘structural code’ for DNA packaging have been suggested. Cyanobacterial genomes showed especially strong periodic signals and, on the other hand, DNA supercoiling and supercoiling-dependent transcription are highly dynamic and underlie circadian rhythms of these phototrophic bacteria. Focusing on this phylum and dinucleotides, we find that a minimal motif of AT-tracts (AT2) yields the strongest signal. Strong genome-wide periodicity is ancestral to a clade of unicellular and polyploid species but lost upon morphological transitions into two baeocyte-forming and a symbiotic species. The signal is intermediate in heterocystous species and weak in monoploid picocyanobacteria. A pronounced ‘structural code’ may support efficient nucleoid condensation and segregation in polyploid cells. The major source of the AT2 signal are protein-coding regions, where it is encoded preferentially in the first and third codon positions. The signal shows only few relations to supercoiling-dependent and diurnal RNA transcription in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Strong and specific signals in two distinct transposons suggest roles in transposase transcription and transpososome formation. PMID:25056315

Lehmann, Robert; Machné, Rainer; Herzel, Hanspeter

2014-01-01

197

The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworms of the genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand (Oligochaeta, Almidae) with re-descriptions of several species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworm genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand was investigated based on extensive recent collecting. The species in this genus were characterized by their external and internal morphological characters of the location of wings, genital openings, genital organ structures and their locations, as well as the dimensions of body length and number of segments. Several type specimens were compared with both previous and newly collected materials. Ten new species are described from several river systems in Thailand; as Glyphidrilus borealis sp. n., Glyphidrilus chaophraya sp. n., Glyphidrilus chiensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus huailuangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus kratuensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus quadratus sp. n., Glyphidrilus trangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus wararamensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus vangthongensis sp. n. and Glyphidrilus vesper sp. n. Each species is endemic to a single river system. All 26 previously described species are re-described, and eight lectotypes have been designated. An identification key and a morphological comparison summary are provided. PMID:23653518

Chanabun, Ratmanee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

2013-01-01

198

UNEP: Freshwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This searchable site, from The United Nations Environment Programme, is a clearinghouse for information about freshwater around the globe. The site provides links to UN reports, background guides on key freshwater issues, and many other resources.

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

199

Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of freshwater biology particularly freshwater macroinvertebrates and their effect on water pollution, covering publications of 1976-77. A list of 158 references is also presented. (HM)

Nalepa, T. F.

1978-01-01

200

Occurrence of arsenic species in algae and freshwater plants of an extreme arid region in northern Chile, the Loa River Basin.  

PubMed

This study reports data on arsenic speciation in two green algae species (Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.) and in five aquatic plants (Azolla sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, Phylloscirpus cf. desserticola, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia filifolia and Zannichellia palustris) from the Loa River Basin in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Arsenic content was measured by Mass spectrometry coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), after acidic digestion. Liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation, using both anionic and cationic chromatographic exchange systems. Inorganic arsenic compounds were the main arsenic species measured in all samples. The main arsenic species in the extracts of freshwater algae and plants were arsenite and arsenate, whereas glycerol-arsenosugar (gly-sug), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and methylarsonic acid (MA) were present only as minor constituents. Of the samples studied, algae species accumulated more arsenic than aquatic plants. Total arsenic content ranged from 182 to 11100 and from 20 to 248 mg As kg(-1) (d.w.) in algae and freshwater plants, respectively. In comparison with As concentration in water samples, there was hyper-accumulation (>0.1% d.w.) in Cladophora sp. PMID:22981629

Pell, Albert; Márquez, Anna; López-Sánchez, José Fermín; Rubio, Roser; Barbero, Mercedes; Stegen, Susana; Queirolo, Fabrizio; Díaz-Palma, Paula

2013-01-01

201

The diversity and complexity of the cyanobacterial thioredoxin systems.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis, which makes them unique among the prokaryotes, and this feature together with their abundance and worldwide distribution renders them a central ecological role. Cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of plants and algae are believed to share a common ancestor and the modern chloroplast would thus be the remnant of an endosymbiosis between a eukaryotic cell and an ancestral oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryote. Chloroplast metabolic processes are coordinated with those of the other cellular compartments and are strictly controlled by means of regulatory systems that commonly involve redox reactions. Disulphide/dithiol exchange catalysed by thioredoxin is a fundamental example of such regulation and represents the molecular mechanism for light-dependent redox control of an ever-increasing number of chloroplast enzymatic activities. In contrast to chloroplast thioredoxins, the functions of the cyanobacterial thioredoxins have long remained elusive, despite their common origin. The sequenced genomes of several cyanobacterial species together with novel experimental approaches involving proteomics have provided new tools for re-examining the roles of the thioredoxin systems in these organisms. Thus, each cyanobacterial genome encodes between one and eight thioredoxins and all components necessary for the reduction of thioredoxins. Screening for thioredoxin target proteins in cyanobacteria indicates that assimilation and storage of nutrients, as well as some central metabolic pathways, are regulated by mechanisms involving disulphide/dithiol exchange, which could be catalysed by thioredoxins or related thiol-containing proteins. PMID:16969714

Florencio, Francisco J; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; López-Maury, Luis; Mata-Cabana, Alejandro; Lindahl, Marika

2006-09-01

202

Gene expression and activity of digestive proteases in Daphnia: effects of cyanobacterial protease inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background The frequency of cyanobacterial blooms has increased worldwide, and these blooms have been claimed to be a major factor leading to the decline of the most important freshwater herbivores, i.e. representatives of the genus Daphnia. This suppression of Daphnia is partly attributed to the presence of biologically active secondary metabolites in cyanobacteria. Among these metabolites, protease inhibitors are found in almost every natural cyanobacterial bloom and have been shown to specifically inhibit Daphnia's digestive proteases in vitro, but to date no physiological responses of these serine proteases to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors in Daphnia have been reported in situ at the protein and genetic levels. Results Nine digestive proteases were detected in D. magna using activity-stained SDS-PAGE. Subsequent analyses by LC-MS/MS and database search led to the identification of respective protease genes. D. magna responded to dietary protease inhibitors by up-regulation of the expression of these respective proteases at the RNA-level and by the induction of new and less sensitive protease isoforms at the protein level. The up-regulation in response to dietary trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitors ranged from 1.4-fold to 25.6-fold. These physiological responses of Daphnia, i.e. up-regulation of protease expression and the induction of isoforms, took place even after feeding on 20% cyanobacterial food for only 24 h. These physiological responses proved to be independent from microcystin effects. Conclusion Here for the first time it was shown in situ that a D. magna clone responds physiologically to dietary cyanobacterial protease inhibitors by phenotypic plasticity of the targets of these specific inhibitors, i.e. Daphnia gut proteases. These regulatory responses are adaptive for D. magna, as they increase the capacity for protein digestion in the presence of dietary protease inhibitors. The type and extent of these responses in protease expression might determine the degree of growth reduction in D. magna in the presence of cyanobacterial protease inhibitors. The rapid response of Daphnia to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors supports the assumption that dietary cyanobacterial protease inhibitors exert a strong selection pressure on Daphnia proteases themselves. PMID:20441581

2010-01-01

203

Identification of a Diagnostic Marker To Detect Freshwater Cyanophages of Filamentous Cyanobacteria†  

PubMed Central

Cyanophages are viruses that infect the cyanobacteria, globally important photosynthetic microorganisms. Cyanophages are considered significant components of microbial communities, playing major roles in influencing host community diversity and primary productivity, terminating cyanobacterial water blooms, and influencing biogeochemical cycles. Cyanophages are ubiquitous in both marine and freshwater systems; however, the majority of molecular research has been biased toward the study of marine cyanophages. In this study, a diagnostic probe was developed to detect freshwater cyanophages in natural waters. Oligonucleotide PCR-based primers were designed to specifically amplify the major capsid protein gene from previously characterized freshwater cyanomyoviruses that are infectious to the filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial genera Anabaena and Nostoc. The primers were also successful in yielding PCR products from mixed virus communities concentrated from water samples collected from freshwater lakes in the United Kingdom. The probes are thought to provide a useful tool for the investigation of cyanophage diversity in freshwater environments. PMID:16957185

Baker, Andrea C.; Goddard, Victoria J.; Davy, Joanne; Schroeder, Declan C.; Adams, David G.; Wilson, William H.

2006-01-01

204

Monogeneans on native and introduced freshwater fishes from Cuba with the description of a new species of Salsuginus Beverley-Burton, 1984 from Limia vittata (Poeciliidae).  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey carried out between March and September 2003 in Cuba, the following monogeneans were found on the gills of freshwater fishes: Salsuginus cubensis n. sp. on the Cuban molly Limia vittata Guichenot (Poeciliidae); Cichlidogyrus sclerosus Paperna & Thurston, 1969 and C. tilapiae Paperna, 1960 on the African cichlid Tilapia rendalli Boulenger (Cichlidae); Haplocleidus dispar Mueller, 1936 and Pterocleidus acer Mueller, 1936 (all Dactylogyridae) on the sunfish Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque (Centrarchidae) (new geographical records); and Gyrodactylus sp. (Gyrodactylidae) on the biajaca Nandopsis tetracanthus Valenciennes (Cichlidae) (new host and geographical record). Salsuginus cubensis differs from all other species of the genus in the size and morphology of the copulatory complex. The occurrence of C. sclerosus, C. tilapiae, H. dispar and P. acer in their respective hosts is due to the introduction of these hosts to Cuba. A review of the species composition of the Monogenea in native and introduced freshwater fish from Cuba is presented and the zoogeographical distribution of the species found is briefly discussed. PMID:16786283

Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Cruz-Quintana, Y; León, F L Prats

2006-07-01

205

Species diversity of Plagiorchis Lühe, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) in lymnaeid snails from freshwater ecosystems in central Europe revealed by molecules and morphology.  

PubMed

Larval stages of Plagiorchis spp. are both ubiquitous and ecologically important parasites in snail populations of freshwater ecosystems in Europe. However, difficulties in distinguishing the morphologically similar cercariae used for species identification, may lead to underestimation of species diversity. In this study, 38 isolates of Plagiorchis spp. infecting two lymnaeid snails, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) and Radix auricularia (L.), in five central European freshwater ecosystems were subjected to morphological and molecular assessment. Five morphologically homogeneous and genetically distinct lineages of Plagiorchis spp. were identified via matching molecular data for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene with detailed morphological and morphometric data of the cercariae. Comparative sequence analysis using partial 28S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences revealed that three distinct cox1 lineages are conspecific with Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802), P. maculosus (Rudolphi, 1802) and P. koreanus Ogata, 1938, respectively, whereas the lineage identified based on cercarial morphology as P. neomidis Brendow, 1970 plus a single isolate that could not be assigned to a described species, did not match any of the available sequences for Plagiorchis spp. A key to the cercariae of Plagiorchis spp. parasitising lymnaeid populations in central Europe is provided to facilitate identification. PMID:24711111

Zikmundová, Jana; Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

2014-05-01

206

Artificially accelerating the reversal of desertification: cyanobacterial inoculation facilitates the succession of vegetation communities.  

PubMed

Desertification has been recognized as a global environmental problem, and one region experiencing ongoing desertification is the eastern edge of Qubqi Desert (Inner Mongolia). To investigate the facilitating effects of cyanobacterial inoculation technology on the desertification control along this steppe-desert transition region, artificial cyanobacterial crusts were constructed with two filamentous cyanobacteria 3 and 8 years ago combined with Salix planting. The results showed that no crusts formed after 3 years of fixation only with Salix planting, whereas after cyanobacterial inoculation, the crusts formed quickly and gradually succeed to moss crusts. During that course, topsoil environments were gradually improved, providing the necessary material basis for the regeneration of vascular plants. In this investigation, total 27 species of vascular plants had regenerated in the experimental region, mainly belonging to Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Leguminosae. Using space time substitution, the dominant species along with the application of cyanobacterial inoculation technology succeeded from Agriophyllum squarrosum ultimately to Leymus chinensis. In addition, it was found that the shady side of the dunes is more conducive to crust development and succession of vegetation communities. Conclusively, our results indicate artificial cyanobacterial inoculation technology is an effective and desirable path for desertification control. PMID:24303976

Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Qingyi; Wu, Li; Liu, Yongding; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

2014-01-01

207

Acute, chronic and reproductive toxicity of complex cyanobacterial blooms in Daphnia magna and the role of microcystins.  

PubMed

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a global threat to human health and aquatic biota. While the ecotoxicity of cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystins has been studied extensively, little is known about the risks they pose in the wild, i.e. within complex biomasses. In this work, crustaceans (Daphnia magna) were exposed to varying concentrations (0-405 mg d.w L(-1)) of eight complex cyanobacterial water bloom samples in a series of acute (48 h) and chronic (21 day) toxicity experiments. Further acute and chronic exposure assays were performed using aqueous extracts of the crude biomass samples and two fractions prepared by solid phase extraction (SPE) of the aqueous extracts. The cyanobacterial biomasses differed with respect to their dominant cyanobacterial species and microcystin contents. High acute toxicity was observed for 6 of the 8 crude biomass samples. Chronic exposure assays were performed using one complex biomass sample and its various subsamples/fractions. The complex biomass, the crude aqueous extract, and the microcystin-free SPE permeate all elicited similar and significant lethal effects, with LC50 values of around 35.6 mg biomass d.w L(-1) after 21 days. The cyanobacterial biomass samples also affected reproductive health, significantly increasing the time to the first brood (LOEC = 45 mg d.w L(-1) exposure) and inhibiting fecundity by 50% at 15 mg d.w L(-1). Conversely, the microcystin-containing C18-SPE eluate fraction had only weak effects in the chronic assay. These results indicate that cyanobacterial water blooms are highly toxic to zooplankton (both acutely and chronically) at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, the effects observed in the acute and chronic assays were independent of the samples' microcystin contents. Our results thus point out the importance of other cyanobacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, various peptides and depsipeptides, polar alkaloid metabolites or other unidentified metabolites in the overall ecotoxicity of complex cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24412459

Smutná, Marie; Babica, Pavel; Jarque, Sergio; Hilscherová, Klára; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Haeba, Maher; Bláha, Ludek

2014-03-01

208

Detection of Neorickettsia risticii from various freshwater snail species collected from a district irrigation canal in Nevada County, California.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of a district irrigation canal in Nevada County, California, USA, as the point source of infection for Neorickettsia risticii, causative agent of equine neorickettsiosis (EN). A total of 568 freshwater snails comprising Juga spp., Planorbella subcrenata (Carpenter, 1857) (Rough Rams-horn), Physella virgata (Gould, 1855) (Protean Physa) and feces from three horses with EN were collected and tested for N. risticii by real-time PCR. A total of four freshwater snails tested PCR positive for N. risticii. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.8-100% homology between the different snail and horse N. risticii isolates. This study represents the first report of infection with N. risticii in Planorbella subcrenata and suggests that the irrigation canal was the aquatic environment responsible for the spread of N. risticii. PMID:23566936

Pusterla, Nicola; Hagerty, Daniel; Mapes, Samantha; Vangeem, Josh; Groves, Lindsey T; Dinucci, Mario; Fielding, Langdon C; Higgins, Jill C

2013-08-01

209

Siderophores: The special ingredient to cyanobacterial blooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater lakes provide a number of significant ecological services including clean drinking water, habitat for aquatic biota, and economic benefits. The provision of these ecological services, as well as the health of these aquatic systems, is threatened by the excessive growth of algae, specifically, cyanobacteria. Historically, blooms have been linked to eutrophication but recent occurrences indicate that there are less dramatic changes that induce these blooms. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for specific essential metabolic pathways; however, the amount of biologically available iron in naturally occurring lake ranges from saturation to much lower than cell transport affinities. To assist in the modulation of iron availabilities, cyanobacteria in culture produce low molecular weight compounds that function in an iron binding and acquisition system; nevertheless, this has yet to be confirmed in naturally occurring lakes. This project explored the relationship of P, N and in particular, Fe, in the promotion of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms in 30 natural freshwater lakes located in and around the Elk Island National Park, Alberta. It is hypothesized that cyanobacteria produce and utilize iron chelators called siderophores in low Fe and nitrogen (N) conditions, creating a competitive advantage over other algae in freshwater lakes. Lakes were selected to represent a range of iron availability to explore the nutrient composition of lakes that propagated cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) compared to lakes that did not. Lake water was analyzed for nutrients, microbial composition, siderophore concentration, and toxin concentration. Modifications were made to optimize the Czaky and Arnow tests for hydroxamate- and catecholate-type siderophores, respectively, for field conditions. Preliminary results indicate the presence of iron-binding ligands (0.11-2.34 mg/L) in freshwater lakes characterized by widely ranging Fe regimes (0.04-2.74 mg/L). Furthermore, the concentration of iron-binding ligands was found to have a positive correlation to presence of cyanobacteria concentration, indicating a potential relationship between Fe, siderophores, and cyanobacteria. This project works to improve the understanding of freshwater cyanobacteria growth dynamics by investigating the physiological and biochemical processes leading to cHABs. The importance of this project lies in the understanding of elementary nutrient requirements in all algae and how cyanobacteria are able to access low concentration pools and subsequently bloom over other algal species. Investigating the nutrient regimes that stimulate siderophore production and the subsequent production of potentially toxic cyanobacteria blooms is important for lake management and preservation, specifically in the eutrophic and hypereutrophic freshwater lakes of Alberta.

Du, Xue; Creed, Irena; Trick, Charles

2013-04-01

210

Transcriptomic Profiling of Differential Responses to Drought in Two Freshwater Mussel Species, the Giant Floater Pyganodon grandis and the Pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus  

PubMed Central

The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater) that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn) that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp) and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp). BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity. PMID:24586812

Landis, Andrew Gascho; Wang, Guiling; Stoeckel, James; Peatman, Eric

2014-01-01

211

Transcriptomic profiling of differential responses to drought in two freshwater mussel species, the giant floater Pyganodon grandis and the pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus.  

PubMed

The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater) that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn) that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp) and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp). BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity. PMID:24586812

Luo, Yupeng; Li, Chao; Landis, Andrew Gascho; Wang, Guiling; Stoeckel, James; Peatman, Eric

2014-01-01

212

Freshwater Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1998 by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the Freshwater Initiative aims "to protect the plants and animals dependent on freshwaters and develop solutions to key causes of freshwater biodiversity decline." To achieve this goal, Freshwater Initiative staff identifies sites that harbor critical aquatic biodiversity, targets conservation activities at several key freshwater sites, and develops expert and informative collaborations to foster freshwater conservation. The homepage is straightforward; the Strategies section outlines the Initiative's fundamental goals and approaches and identifies key regions of interest (see color map). The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) section describes IHA software (not free) used "to statistically characterize environmental regimes" (most commonly used by hydrologists and ecologists to evaluate streamflow data). Finally, a nice selection of links rounds out the site.

2001-01-01

213

Comparative analysis of cyanobacterial superoxide dismutases to discriminate canonical forms  

PubMed Central

Background Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that catalyze the disproportion of superoxide to peroxide and molecular oxygen through alternate oxidation and reduction of their metal ions. In general, SODs are classified into four forms by their catalytic metals namely; FeSOD, MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and NiSOD. In addition, a cambialistic form that uses Fe/Mn in its active site also exists. Cyanobacteria, the oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes, produce reactive oxygen species that can damage cellular components leading to cell death. Thus, the co-evolution of an antioxidant system was necessary for the survival of photosynthetic organisms with SOD as the initial enzyme evolved to alleviate the toxic effect. Cyanobacteria represent the first oxygenic photoautotrophs and their SOD sequences available in the databases lack clear annotation. Hence, the present study focuses on structure and sequence pattern of subsets of cyanobacterial superoxide dismutases. Result The sequence conservation and structural analysis of Fe (Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP1) and MnSOD (Anabaena sp. PCC7120) reveal the sharing of N and C terminal domains. At the C terminal domain, the metal binding motif in cyanoprokaryotes is DVWEHAYY while it is D-X-[WF]-E-H-[STA]-[FY]-[FY] in other pro- and eukaryotes. The cyanobacterial FeSOD differs from MnSOD at least in three ways viz. (i) FeSOD has a metal specific signature F184X3A188Q189.......T280......F/Y303 while, in Mn it is R184X3G188G189......G280......W303, (ii) aspartate ligand forms a hydrogen bond from the active site with the outer sphere residue of W243 in Fe where as it is Q262 in MnSOD; and (iii) two unique lysine residues at positions 201 and 255 with a photosynthetic role, found only in FeSOD. Further, most of the cyanobacterial Mn metalloforms have a specific transmembrane hydrophobic pocket that distinguishes FeSOD from Mn isoform. Cyanobacterial Cu/ZnSOD has a copper domain and two different signatures G-F-H-[ILV]-H-x-[NGT]-[GPDA]-[SQK]-C and G-[GA]-G-G-[AEG]-R-[FIL]-[AG]-C-G, while Ni isoform has an nickel containing SOD domain containing a Ni-hook HCDGPCVYDPA. Conclusion The present analysis unravels the ambiguity among cyanobacterial SOD isoforms. NiSOD is the only SOD found in lower forms; whereas, Fe and Mn occupy the higher orders of cyanobacteria. In conclusion, cyanobacteria harbor either Ni alone or a combination of Fe and Ni or Fe and Mn as their catalytic active metal while Cu/Zn is rare. PMID:18042279

Priya, Balakrishnan; Premanandh, Jagadeesan; Dhanalakshmi, Raman T; Seethalakshmi, Thangaraj; Uma, Lakshmanan; Prabaharan, Dharmar; Subramanian, Gopalakrishnan

2007-01-01

214

Can cyanobacterial biomass applied to soil affect survival and reproduction of springtail Folsomia candida?  

PubMed

Biomass of cyanobacterial water blooms including cyanobacterial toxins may enter soils, for example, when harvested water bloom is directly applied as an organic fertilizer or when water with massive cyanobacterial biomass is used for irrigation. In spite of this, no information is available about the potential effects on soil arthropods. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of water bloom biomass sampled in five different fresh water lakes on the soil dwelling arthropod, springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola). These samples contained different dominant species of cyanobacteria and varied significantly in microcystin content (21-3662 ?g/g dw biomass). No adverse effects on survival or reproduction were observed for any tested sample at concentration up to 4 g dw biomass/kg dw soil. Despite the known hazardous properties of water blooms in aquatic ecosystems, our pilot results suggest that cyanobacterial biomass might have no significant impact on arthropods in soil. It remains a question, if this is due to low bioavailability of cyanobacterial toxins in soil. PMID:21176962

Lána, Jan; Hofman, Jakub; Bláha, Lud?k

2011-05-01

215

The plastid ancestor originated among one of the major cyanobacterial lineages.  

PubMed

The primary endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts is now well established but the identification of the present cyanobacteria most closely related to the plastid ancestor remains debated. We analyse the evolutionary trajectory of a subset of highly conserved cyanobacterial proteins (core) along the plastid lineage, those which were not lost after the endosymbiosis. We concatenate the sequences of 33 cyanobacterial core proteins that share a congruent evolutionary history, with their eukaryotic counterparts to reconstruct their phylogeny using sophisticated evolutionary models. We perform an independent reconstruction using concatenated 16S and 23S rRNA sequences. These complementary approaches converge to a plastid origin occurring during the divergence of one of the major cyanobacterial lineages that include N2-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria and species able to differentiate heterocysts. PMID:25222494

Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A G; Esteban, Rocío; Diago, María Luz; Houmard, Jean

2014-01-01

216

Fungal Parasitism: Life Cycle, Dynamics and Impact on Cyanobacterial Blooms  

E-print Network

Abstract Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species.latour@univ-bpclermont.fr Introduction Most parasitic zoosporic true fungi found in lakes belong to the phylum Chytridyomycota (i

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Gene copy number variation and its significance in cyanobacterial phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, variation in gene copy numbers is often associated with deleterious effects, but may also have positive effects. For prokaryotes, studies on gene copy number variation are rare. Previous studies have suggested that high numbers of rRNA gene copies can be advantageous in environments with changing resource availability, but further association of gene copies and phenotypic traits are not documented. We used one of the morphologically most diverse prokaryotic phyla to test whether numbers of gene copies are associated with levels of cell differentiation. Results We implemented a search algorithm that identified 44 genes with highly conserved copies across 22 fully sequenced cyanobacterial taxa. For two very basal cyanobacterial species, Gloeobacter violaceus and a thermophilic Synechococcus species, distinct phylogenetic positions previously found were supported by identical protein coding gene copy numbers. Furthermore, we found that increased ribosomal gene copy numbers showed a strong correlation to cyanobacteria capable of terminal cell differentiation. Additionally, we detected extremely low variation of 16S rRNA sequence copies within the cyanobacteria. We compared our results for 16S rRNA to three other eubacterial phyla (Chroroflexi, Spirochaetes and Bacteroidetes). Based on Bayesian phylogenetic inference and the comparisons of genetic distances, we could confirm that cyanobacterial 16S rRNA paralogs and orthologs show significantly stronger conservation than found in other eubacterial phyla. Conclusions A higher number of ribosomal operons could potentially provide an advantage to terminally differentiated cyanobacteria. Furthermore, we suggest that 16S rRNA gene copies in cyanobacteria are homogenized by both concerted evolution and purifying selection. In addition, the small ribosomal subunit in cyanobacteria appears to evolve at extraordinary slow evolutionary rates, an observation that has been made previously for morphological characteristics of cyanobacteria. PMID:22894826

2012-01-01

218

Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)  

PubMed Central

Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates). The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges. PMID:21599918

2011-01-01

219

DEVELOPMENT OF A HUMAN BIOMARKER FOR CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS- MICROCYSTINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasingly, cyanobacterial blooms are being reported worldwide due to several factors: eutrophication, climate change, and potentially greater scientific awareness and detection. During 1996, an outbreak of fatal cyanobacterial toxin intoxications occurred among a group of dia...

220

Two new nematode species, Paragendria papuanensis sp. n. (Seuratoidea) and Rhabdochona papuanensis sp. n. (Thelazioidea), from freshwater fishes in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Two new nematode species, Paragendria papuanensis sp. n. (Quimperiidae) and Rhabdochona papuanensis sp. n. (Rhabdochonidae), are described from the intestine of freshwater fishes Glossamia giellerupi (Weber et Beaufort) (Apogonidae) and Melanotaenia affinis (Weber) (Melanotaeniidae), respectively, from the Sogeram River (Ramu River basin), Madang Province, northern Papua New Guinea. The former species is characterized mainly by the absence of oesophageal teeth, the presence of conspicuously inflated papillae of the last two subventral pairs, a gubernaculum, spicules 69-75 microm long, eggs measuring 57-66 x 39-45 microm, and by a small body (male and female 3.2-3.7 and 5.8 mm long, respectively). Paragendria is considered a valid genus, to which P. aori (Khan et Yaseen, 1969) comb. n., P. guptai (Gupta et Masoodi, 2000) comb. n., P. hanumanthai (Gupta et Jaiswal, 1988) comb. n. and P. vermae (Gupta et Masoodi, 2000) comb. n. are newly transferred. Rhabdochona papuanensis differs from all congeners mainly in having hammer-shaped deirids and from individual species also in other characters. Both findings represent the first records of species of Paragendria and Rhabdochona from the Australian zoogeographical region and the first records of the representatives of these genera from fishes of the families Apogonidae and Melanotaeniidae, respectively. PMID:18666416

Moravec, Frantisek; Ríha, Milan; Kuchta, Roman

2008-06-01

221

The Decline of Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the risks that freshwater ecosystems face and how species nearby are affected by dams, dredging, and channelization of streams. It points out that even though freshwater ecosystems are limited in extent, covering about 1 percent of the Earth's surface, they are highly diverse and contain a disproportionally large number of the world's species. Statistics are given to illustrate the increase in waterways that have been altered for navigation. Some actions that are being taken to reduce threats to freshwater ecosystems are also mentioned.

1999-01-01

222

A Freshwater Classification Approach for Biodiversity Conservation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater biodiversity is highly endangered and faces increasing threats worldwide. To be com- plete, regional plans that identify critical areas for conservation must capture representative components of freshwater biodiversity as well as rare and endangered species. We present a spatially hierarchical approach to classify freshwater systems to create a coarse filter to capture representative freshwater biodiversity in regional conservation plans.

JONATHAN V. HIGGINS; MARK T. BRYER; MARY L. KHOURY; THOMAS W. FITZHUGH

2005-01-01

223

The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.  

PubMed

Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 ?g dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 ?g dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

2011-11-01

224

DNA BARCODING DNA barcoding of Cuban freshwater fishes: evidence for  

E-print Network

DNA BARCODING DNA barcoding of Cuban freshwater fishes: evidence for cryptic species and taxonomic degradation, over- use and introduction of alien species have posed serious challenges to native freshwater fish species. In spite of the accumulated knowledge on the systematics of this freshwater ichthyo

Bernatchez, Louis

225

A holistic approach to taxonomic evaluation of two closely related endangered freshwater mussel species, the oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis and tan riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species in the genus Epioblasma have specialized life history requirements and represent the most endangered genus of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the world. A genetic characterization of extant populations of the oyster mussel E. capsaeformis and tan riffleshell E. florentina walkeri sensu late was conducted to assess taxonomic validity and to resolve conservation issues for recovery planning. These mussel species exhibit pronounced phenotypic variation, but were difficult to characterize phylogenetically using DNA sequences. Monophyletic lineages, congruent with phenotypic variation among species, were obtained only after extensive analysis of combined mitochondrial (1396 bp of 16S, cytochrome-b, and ND1) and nuclear (515 bp of ITS-1) DNA sequences. In contrast, analysis of variation at 10 hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci showed moderately to highly diverged populations based on FST and R ST values, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.39 and 0.15 to 0.71, respectively. Quantitative variation between species was observed in fish-host specificity, with transformation success of glochidia of E. capsaeformis significantly greater (P<0.05) on greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides, and that of E. f. walkeri significantly greater (P<0.05) on fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare. Lengths of glochidia differed significantly (P<0.001) among species and populations, with mean sizes ranging from 241 to 272 ??m. The texture and colour of the mantle-pad of E. capsaeformis sensu stricto is smooth and bluish-white, whereas that of E. f. walkeri is pustuled and brown, with tan mottling. Based on extensive molecular, morphological and life history data, the population of E. capsaeformis from the Duck River, Tennessee, USA is proposed as a separate species, and the population of E. f. walkeri from Indian Creek, upper Clinch River, Virginia, USA is proposed as a distinct subspecies.

Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Hallerman, E.M.

2006-01-01

226

Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production of hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group. PMID:24510140

Stucken, Karina; Koch, Robin; Dagan, Tal

2013-01-01

227

Population genetic patterns in sister species pairs sharing a single speciation event: a study of two species pairs of freshwater fishes  

E-print Network

This study asked whether population genetic structure of daughter species shows a pattern indicative of change caused by the speciation process. Fresh water fishes composing two geminate species pairs from a vicariant event ...

Carlson, Anna

2007-10-08

228

Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a freshwater ecosystem in a large plastic bottle. Learners cut and prepare bottles, then fill with water, aquatic plants, snails and fish. Learners observe their mini-ecosystem over time to see what changes--such as the color of the water, the water temperature, plant growth, and behavior and/or population of the snails or fish. The activity serves as a model for larger freshwater ecosystems such as ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, reservoirs and groundwater.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

229

Effects of propanil, tebufenozide and mefenacet on growth of four freshwater species of phytoplankton: a microplate bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Albufera Natural Park situated in Valencia (Spain), with a very rich flora and fauna is surrounded by rice fields in which pesticide spraying is a regular practice. With this in mind, the sensitivity of four algal species, Scenedesmus acutus, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella saccharophila to pesticides propanil, tebufenozide and mefenacet was studied using single species toxicity tests.

D. Gómez de Barreda Ferraz; C. Sabater; J. M. Carrasco

2004-01-01

230

Effects of an invasive cattail species (Typha x glauca) on sediment nitrogen and microbial community composition in a freshwater wetland.  

PubMed

Sediments from Cheboygan Marsh, a coastal freshwater wetland on Lake Huron that has been invaded by an emergent exotic plant, Typhaxglauca, were examined to assess the effects of invasion on wetland nutrient levels and sediment microbial communities. Comparison of invaded and uninvaded zones of the marsh indicated that the invaded zone showed significantly lower plant diversity, as well as significantly higher aboveground plant biomass and soil organic matter. The sediments in the invaded zone also showed dramatically higher concentrations of soluble nutrients, including greater than 10-fold higher soluble ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate, which suggests that Typhaxglauca invasion may be impacting the wetland's ability to remove nutrients. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed significant differences in the composition of total bacterial communities (based on 16S-rRNA genes) and denitrifier communities (based on nirS genes) between invaded and uninvaded zones. This shift in denitrifiers in the sediments may be ecologically significant due to the critical role that denitrifying bacteria play in removal of nitrogen by wetlands. PMID:16958855

Angeloni, Nicholas L; Jankowski, Kathi Jo; Tuchman, Nancy C; Kelly, John J

2006-10-01

231

A FIRST ACCOUNT OF FRESHWATER POTAMOLEPID SPONGES (DEMOSPONGIAE, SPONGILLINA, POTAMOLEPIDAE) FROM THE MIDDLE  

E-print Network

A FIRST ACCOUNT OF FRESHWATER POTAMOLEPID SPONGES (DEMOSPONGIAE, SPONGILLINA, POTAMOLEPIDAE) FROM occurrence of freshwater potamolepid sponges (Demospongiae, Spongillina, Potamolepidae) to date, originating., 2011). In contrast, there are only about 200 species of freshwater sponges, attributed to six families

Wolfe, Alexander P.

232

Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Biogeographic Units for Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present a new map depicting the first global biogeographic regionalization of Earth's freshwater systems. This map of freshwater ecoregions is based on the distributions and compositions of freshwater fish species and incorporates major ecological and evolutionary patterns. Covering virtually all freshwater habitats on Earth, this ecoregion map, together with associated species data, is a useful tool for underpinning global and regional conservation planning efforts (particularly to identify outstanding and imperiled freshwater systems); for serving as a logical framework for large-scale conservation strategies; and for providing a global-scale knowledge base for increasing freshwater biogeographic literacy. Preliminary data for fish species compiled by ecoregion reveal some previously unrecognized areas of high biodiversity, highlighting the benefit of looking at the world's freshwaters through a new framework.

Robin Abell et al (WWF;)

2008-05-01

233

Characterization of cyanobacterial communities from high-elevation lakes in the Bolivian Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bolivian Altiplano is a harsh environment for life with high solar irradiation (visible and UVR), below freezing temperatures, and some of the lowest precipitation rates on the planet. However, microbial life is visibly abundant in small isolated refugia of spring or snowmelt-fed lakes. In this study, we characterized the cyanobacterial composition of a variety of microbial mats present in three lake systems: Laguna Blanca, Laguna Verde (elevation 4300 m), and a summit lake in the Licancabur Volcano cone (elevation 5970 m). These lakes and their adjacent geothermal springs present an interesting diversity of environments within a geographically small region (5 km2). From these sites, 78 cyanobacterial cultures were isolated in addition to ˜400 cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from environmental genomic DNA. Based on microscopy, cultivation, and molecular analyses, these communities contained many heterocytous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (e.g., Calothrix, Nostoc, Nodularia) as well as a large number of cyanobacteria belonging to the form-genus Leptolyngbya. More than a third (37%) of all taxa in this study were new species (?96% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity), and 11% represented new and novel taxa distantly related (?93% identity) to any known cyanobacteria. This is one of the few studies to characterize cyanobacterial communities based on both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent analyses.

Fleming, Erich D.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie

2010-06-01

234

Cyanobacterial Community Structure In Lithifying Mats of A Yellowstone Hotspring-Implications for Precambrian Stromatolite Biocomplexity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences was used to investigate the molecular biodiversity of cyanobacterial communities inhabiting various lithified morpho-structures in two hotsprings of Yellowstone National Park. These morpho-structures - flat-topped columns, columnar cones, and ridged cones - resemble ancient stromatolites, which are possibly biogenic in origin. The top, middle and bottom sections of these lithified morpho-structures, as well as surrounding non-lithified mats were analyzed to determine the vertical and spatial distribution of cyanobacterial communities. Results from DGGE indicate that the cyanobacterial community composition of lithified morpho-structures (flat-topped columns, columnar cones, and ridged cones) were largely similar in vertical distribution as well as among the morpho-structures being studied. Preliminary results indicate that the cyanobacterial communities in these lithified morpho-structures were significantly different from communities in surrounding non-lithified mats. These results provide additional support to the theory that certain Phormidium/Leptolyngbya species are involved in the morphogenesis of lithifying morpho-structures in hotsprings and may have played a role in the formation of ancient stromatolites.

Lau, Evan; Nash, C. Z.; Vogler, D. R.; Cullings, K.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

235

A new microphallid (Digenea) species from Lontra provocax (Mammalia: Mustelidae) from freshwater environments of northwestern Patagonia (Argentina).  

PubMed

A new microphallid species of Maritrema is described from the native southern river otter, Lontra provocax (Thomas). A naturally infected otter was found dead in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. Ovigerous adult worms were recovered from the anterior portion of the intestine. Specimens of Maritrema huillini n. sp. have an unarmed genital pore and glabrous cirrus. They can be distinguished from all other species in the genus by having a long intestinal ceca extending up to three-quarters of the testes length to the level of the posterior border of the testes and a metraterm composed of a proximal sphincter, a non-muscular sac, and a distal muscular portion. This microphallid is the first species recovered from a South American eutherian host and the first digenean recorded for L. provocax. PMID:22540416

Flores, Verónica R; Brugni, Norma L; Pozzi, Carla M

2012-10-01

236

Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Sundathelphusa Bott, 1969 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from caves in Luzon, Philippines.  

PubMed

Two cave species of Sundathelphusa are described from a karst area in southern Luzon, Philippines. Both species have elongated ambulatory legs but the eyes and carapace pigmentation are well developed, indicating they are not troglobites. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is superficially more similar to S. longipes (Balss, 1937) than to S. holthuisi Ng, 2010, which was described from the same locality. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is distinguished from its closest congeners by its strongly convex anterolateral margin, more swollen branchial regions, possession of a complete frontal median triangle, laterally inflated subbranchial region and the more slender ambulatory legs. Sundathelphusa vienae sp. nov. is unusual among Sundathelphusa species in that its carapace is more quadrate, with the slender and almost straight male first gonopod tapered and having a pointed terminal segment.  PMID:24943634

Husana, Daniel Edison M; Yamamuro, Masumi; Ng, Peter K L

2014-01-01

237

Bacterial community composition associated with freshwater algae: species specificity vs. dependency on environmental conditions and source community.  

PubMed

We studied bacterial associations with the green alga Desmodesmus armatus and the diatom Stephanodiscus minutulus under changing environmental conditions and bacterial source communities, to evaluate whether bacteria-algae associations are species-specific or more generalized and determined by external factors. Axenic and xenic algae were incubated in situ with and without allelopathically active macrophytes, and in the laboratory with sterile and nonsterile lake water and an allelochemical, tannic acid (TA). Bacterial community composition (BCC) of algae-associated bacteria was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), nonmetric multidimensional scaling, cluster analyses, and sequencing of DGGE bands. BCC of xenic algal cultures of both species were not significantly affected by changes in their environment or bacterial source community, except in the case of TA additions. Species-specific interactions therefore appear to overrule the effects of environmental conditions and source communities. The BCC of xenic and axenic D. armatus cultures subjected to in situ bacterial colonization, however, had lower similarities (ca. 55%), indicating that bacterial precolonization is a strong factor for bacteria-algae associations irrespective of environmental conditions and source community. Our findings emphasize the ecological importance of species-specific bacteria-algae associations with important repercussions for other processes, such as the remineralization of nutrients, and organic matter dynamics. PMID:23030046

Eigemann, Falk; Hilt, Sabine; Salka, Ivette; Grossart, Hans-Peter

2013-03-01

238

Effects of prolonged flooding on the distribution and biomass of emergent species along a freshwater wetland coenocline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water levels were raised 1 m for two years in 10 cells of an experimental wetland complex located in the Delta Marsh, Manitoba, Canada. The mean area covered by each of the 5 dominant emergent species in these cells declined significantly during the first year of flooding. There was no significant difference in the total acreage of emergents between flooding

A. G. van der Valk

1994-01-01

239

Liver glutathione content and glutathione?dependent enzymes of two species of freshwater fish as bioindicators of chemical pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione content and glutahione?dependent enzymes were measured in the liver of two fish species, gudgeon (Gobio gobio) and roach (Rutilus arcasii), from the river Bernesga (Spain) caught downstream and upstream of the waste site of several chemical industries. Animals from contaminated sites display a reduced glutathione concentration and a tendency to the decrease of glutathione S?transferase activity. Glutathione peroxidase activity

M. Almar; L. Otero; C. Santos; J. Gonzalez Gallego

1998-01-01

240

Development of rearing and testing protocols for a new freshwater sediment test species: the gastropod Valvata piscinalis.  

PubMed

This paper aimed at proposing rearing and testing protocols for Valvata piscinalis, a new potential species for sediment toxicity testing. Such tests were developed since this species reliably represents the bio/ecological characteristics of other gastropods. It may thus be representative of their sensitivity to chemicals. V. piscinalis was successfully cultured in our laboratory for six generations. Cultures provided a high productivity for a low working time and low costs. The tests conditions we proposed seemed to be relevant for the development of reliable tests with this species. Indeed, hatching probability of egg-capsules, as well as embryo, newborn and juvenile survival rates, were close to 100%. Moreover, growth rates and fecundity were significantly higher than in field and in other laboratory studies. Partial life-cycle tests on clean sediments were achieved for various feeding levels to determine survival, growth and reproduction patterns, ad libitum feeding level and life cycle parameters values. Ad libitum feeding levels for newborn, juveniles and adults were 0.1, 0.4 and 0.8 mg Tetramin/individual/working day. Growth tests with zinc-spiked sediments provided a no-effect concentration and a lowest effect concentration of respectively 200 and 624 mg zinc/kg dry sediment. Other growth tests on spiked sediments we ran at our laboratory with second, third and fourth instars larvae of Chironomus riparius pointed out that V. piscinalis was more sensible to zinc than the chironomid, which is a routine test species in ecotoxicology. According to these results, V. piscinalis is a promising candidate species for sediment toxicity testing. PMID:16153680

Ducrot, Virginie; Cognat, Claudine; Mons, Raphaël; Mouthon, Jacques; Garric, Jeanne

2006-03-01

241

Nitrate (NO 3?N) toxicity to aquatic life: A proposal of safe concentrations for two species of nearctic freshwater invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe concentrations (SCs) of nitrate (NO3?N) for early and last instar larvae of two species of Nearctic net-spinning caddisflies, Cheumatopsyche pettiti and Hydropsyche occidentalis, are estimated from short-term toxicity bioassays using an innovative methodology, the multifactor probit analysis (MPA) software. Toxicity bioassays were conducted in soft water (average hardness value of 42.7 ppm CaCO3). Larvae were exposed to five different

J. A. Camargo; J. V. Ward

1995-01-01

242

Planarian (Dugesia polychroa) predation on freshwater gastropod eggs depends on prey species, clutch morphology, and egg size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though triclad planarias could limit littoral snail recruitment by preying on eggs with their muscular ventral pharynx, planarian predation on eggs has never been quantified. Intact egg clutches encompassing eight snail species × three developmental stages were offered to Dugesia (= Schmidtea) polychroa (Paludicola: Dugesiidae) individuals (body length = 6–12 mm) in one-on-one, no-choice 24-h feeding trials to gain a

Francesco Paolo Miccoli; Marco Giustini; Bruno Cicolani

2011-01-01

243

Persistence of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E in tissues from selected freshwater fish species: implications to public health.  

PubMed

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), round gobies (Neogobius melanostomas), yellow walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were given Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) at four doses (0, 800, 1500, and 4000 mouse lethal doses). BoNT/E was sought in the fish tissues at death or at the conclusion of the experiment (10 days after treatment). Fish were divided into a "fillet" (axial musculature) and a "nonfillet" sample before testing for BoNT/E toxicity with a mouse bioassay. BoNT/E was detected in all species. The percentage of positive BoNT samples ranged across the species and doses from 0 (trout, perch, and walleye) to 17% (round goby) in fillet tissues and from 0 (perch) to 92% (round goby) in nonfillet tissues. The lack of positive fillet samples in three key commercial fish species suggests that the public health implications of eating these fish are minimal. However, the presence of toxin in the nonfillet compartment of a high proportion of fish supports the hypothesis that live intoxicated fish are a vehicle for the transfer of BoNT/E to fish-eating birds, which are then in turn, intoxicated. PMID:16715821

Yule, Adam M; Austin, John W; Barker, Ian K; Cadieux, Brigitte; Moccia, Richard D

2006-05-01

244

Freshwater Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

245

Freshwater macroinvertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Major aspects of the biology of freshwater macroinvertebrates with emphasis on man-induced environmental changes were reviewed in this report with 183 references. The effects of both chemical and physical environmental alteration are examined. The population dynamics of the macroinvertebrates are controlled by factors such as food and feeding habits, periodicity and drift, productivity and animal-sediment interactions.(KRM)

Quigley, M.A.

1982-06-01

246

Harmful freshwater algal blooms, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Suspended algae, or phytoplankton, are the prime source of organic matter supporting food webs in freshwater ecosystems. Phytoplankton productivity is reliant on adequate nutrient supplies; however, increasing rates of nutrient supply, much of it manmade, fuels accelerating primary production or eutrophication. An obvious and problematic symptom of eutrophication is rapid growth and accumulations of phytoplankton, leading to discoloration of affected waters. These events are termed blooms. Blooms are a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia and anoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. Toxins produced by blooms can adversely affect animal (including human) health in waters used for recreational and drinking purposes. Numerous freshwater genera within the diverse phyla comprising the phytoplankton are capable of forming blooms; however, the blue-green algae (or cyanobacteria) are the most notorious bloom formers. This is especially true for harmful toxic, surface-dwelling, scum-forming genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nodularia, Microcystis) and some subsurface bloom-formers (Cylindrospermopsis, Oscillatoria) that are adept at exploiting nutrient-enriched conditions. They thrive in highly productive waters by being able to rapidly migrate between radiance-rich surface waters and nutrient-rich bottom waters. Furthermore, many harmful species are tolerant of extreme environmental conditions, including very high light levels, high temperatures, various degrees of desiccation, and periodic nutrient deprivation. Some of the most noxious cyanobacterial bloom genera (e.g., Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Nodularia) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2), enabling them to periodically dominate under nitrogen-limited conditions. Cyanobacteria produce a range of organic compounds, including those that are toxic to higher-ranked consumers, from zooplankton to further up the food chain. Both N2- and non-N2-fixing genera participate in mutualistic and symbiotic associations with microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. These associations appear to be of great benefit to their survival and periodic dominance. In this review, we address the ecological impacts and environmental controls of harmful blooms, with an emphasis on the ecology, physiology, and management of cyanobacterial bloom taxa. Combinations of physical, chemical, and biotic features of natural waters function in a synergistic fashion to determine the sensitivity of water bodies. In waters susceptible to blooms, human activities in water- and airsheds have been linked to the extent and magnitudes of blooms. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P). The types and amount of nutrient input constraints depend on hydrologic, climatic, geographic, and geologic factors, which interact with anthropogenic and natural nutrient input regimes. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies, dual N and P input reductions are usually required for effective long-term control and management of harmful blooms. In some systems where hydrologic manipulations (i.e., plentiful water supplies) are possible, reducing the water residence time by enhanced flushing and artificial mixing (in conjunction with nutrient input constraints) can be particularly effective alternatives. Implications of various management strategies, based on combined ecophysiological and environmental considerations, are discussed. PMID:12805693

Paerl, H W; Fulton, R S; Moisander, P H; Dyble, J

2001-04-01

247

Critical swimming speed of brown trout (Salmo trutta) infested with freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) glochidia and implications for artificial breeding of an endangered mussel species.  

PubMed

Unionid freshwater mussels need to attach to a host fish for completion of their life cycle. It remains unclear whether the relationship between these mussels and their host fishes can be considered parasitic, mutualistic, or commensal. Herein, we studied the effects of Margaritifera margaritifera infestation on Salmo trutta, the most important host of this endangered mussel species in Central Europe. Glochidial load of host fish increased with increasing glochidial concentration, but the highest ratios of encysted glochidia to exposed glochidia were found at low concentration (15,000 glochidia L(-1)) during infestation. Host fish mortality occurred at infestation rates of ~350 glochidia per g fish weight and was highest (60%) at the highest infestation rates (~900 glochidia per g fish weight). On a sublethal level, swimming performance of hosts was inversely related to infestation rates, with infestation of ~900 glochidia per g fish weight reducing critical swimming speed of S. trutta significantly by ~20% compared to infestation with 6 glochidia per g fish weight. The high mortality and the impaired swimming capability of highly infested hosts indicate a parasitic interaction between M. margaritifera and its host. For conservation and reintroduction of M. margaritifera via glochidia-infested S. trutta, we recommend glochidial loads of 5-100 glochidia per g fish weight, while for artificial breeding of juvenile M. margaritifera under laboratory conditions, higher infestation rates of up to 300 glochidia per g fish weight are ideal to balance high yields of mussels and welfare of host fishes. PMID:23377147

Taeubert, Jens-Eike; Geist, Juergen

2013-04-01

248

Temporal variation in community composition, pigmentation, and Fv/Fm of desert cyanobacterial soil crusts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summers on the Colorado Plateau (USA) are typified by harsh conditions such as high temperatures, brief soil hydration periods, and high UV and visible radiation. We investigated whether community composition, physiological status, and pigmentation might vary in biological soil crusts as a result of such conditions. Representative surface cores were sampled at the ENE, WSW, and top microaspects of 20 individual soil crust pedicels at a single site in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, in spring and fall of 1999. Frequency of cyanobacterial taxa, pigment concentrations, and dark adapted quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were measured for each core. The frequency of major cyanobacterial taxa was lower in the fall compared to spring. The less-pigmented cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus showed significant mortality when not in the presence of Nostoc spp. and Scytonema myochrous (Dillw.) Agardh. (both synthesizers of UV radiation-linked pigments) but had little or no mortality when these species were abundant. We hypothesize that the sunscreen pigments produced by Nostoc and Scytonema in the surface of crusts protect other, less-pigmented taxa. When fall and spring samples were compared, overall cyanobacterial frequency was lower in fall, while sunscreen pigment concentrations, chlorophyll a concentration, and Fv/Fm were higher in fall. The ratio of cyanobacterial frequency/chlorophyll a concentrations was 2-3 times lower in fall than spring. Because chlorophyll a is commonly used as a surrogate measure of soil cyanobacterial biomass, these results indicate that seasonality needs to be taken into consideration. In the fall sample, most pigments associated with UV radiation protection or repair were at their highest concentrations on pedicel tops and WSW microaspects, and at their lowest concentrations on ENE microaspects. We suggest that differential pigment concentrations between microaspects are induced by varying UV radiation dosage at the soil surface on these different microaspects.

Bowker, M.A.; Reed, S.C.; Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.

2002-01-01

249

Toxicity of lead (Pb) to freshwater green algae: development and validation of a bioavailability model and inter-species sensitivity comparison.  

PubMed

Scientifically sound risk assessment and derivation of environmental quality standards for lead (Pb) in the freshwater environment are hampered by insufficient data on chronic toxicity and bioavailability to unicellular green algae. Here, we first performed comparative chronic (72-h) toxicity tests with three algal species in medium at pH 6, containing 4 mg fulvic acid (FA)/L and containing organic phosphorous (P), i.e. glycerol-2-phosphate, instead of PO4(3-) to prevent lead-phosphate mineral precipitation. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was 4-fold more sensitive to Pb than Chlorella kesslerii, with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the middle. The influence of medium physico-chemistry was therefore investigated in detail with P. subcapitata. In synthetic test media, higher concentrations of fulvic acid or lower pH protected against toxicity of (filtered) Pb to P. subcapitata, while effects of increased Ca or Mg on Pb toxicity were less clear. When toxicity was expressed on a free Pb(2+) ion activity basis, a log-linear, 260-fold increase of toxicity was observed between pH 6.0 and 7.6. Effects of fulvic acid were calculated to be much more limited (1.9-fold) and were probably even non-existent (depending on the affinity constant for Pb binding to fulvic acid that was used for calculating speciation). A relatively simple bioavailability model, consisting of a log-linear pH effect on Pb(2+) ion toxicity linked to the geochemical speciation model Visual Minteq (with the default NICA-Donnan description of metal and proton binding to fulvic acid), provided relatively accurate toxicity predictions. While toxicity of (filtered) Pb varied 13.7-fold across 14 different test media (including four Pb-spiked natural waters) with widely varying physico-chemistry (72h-EC50s between 26.6 and 364 ?g/L), this bioavailability model displayed mean and maximum prediction errors of only 1.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, thus indicating the potential usefulness of this bioavailability model to reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessment. A model-based comparison with other species indicated that the sensitivity difference between P. subcapitata and two of the most chronically Pb-sensitive aquatic invertebrates (the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the snail Lymnaea stagnalis) is strongly pH dependent, with P. subcapitata becoming the most sensitive of the three at pH > 7.4. This indicates that inter-species differences in Pb bioavailability relationships should be accounted for in risk assessment and in the derivation of water quality criteria or environmental quality standards for Pb. The chronic toxicity data with three algae species and the bioavailability model presented here will help to provide a stronger scientific basis for evaluating ecological effects of Pb in the freshwater environment. PMID:25089923

De Schamphelaere, K A C; Nys, C; Janssen, C R

2014-10-01

250

Engineered Transcriptional Systems for Cyanobacterial Biotechnology  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria can function as solar-driven biofactories thanks to their ability to perform photosynthesis and the ease with which they are genetically modified. In this review, we discuss transcriptional parts and promoters available for engineering cyanobacteria. First, we go through special cyanobacterial characteristics that may impact engineering, including the unusual cyanobacterial RNA polymerase, sigma factors and promoter types, mRNA stability, circadian rhythm, and gene dosage effects. Then, we continue with discussing component characteristics that are desirable for synthetic biology approaches, including decoupling, modularity, and orthogonality. We then summarize and discuss the latest promoters for use in cyanobacteria regarding characteristics such as regulation, strength, and dynamic range and suggest potential uses. Finally, we provide an outlook and suggest future developments that would advance the field and accelerate the use of cyanobacteria for renewable biotechnology. PMID:25325057

Camsund, Daniel; Lindblad, Peter

2014-01-01

251

Freshwater Fish Gill Ion Transport: August Krogh to morpholinos and microprobes  

E-print Network

REVIEW Freshwater Fish Gill Ion Transport: August Krogh to morpholinos and microprobes D. H. Evans proposed that freshwater fishes (and other freshwater animals) maintain body NaCl homoeostasis for most species (some species do not extract Cl) from freshwater), but the relative roles of anion

Evans, David H.

252

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms: causes, consequences, and controls.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the Earth's oldest oxygenic photoautotrophs and have had major impacts on shaping its biosphere. Their long evolutionary history (? 3.5 by) has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recently anthropogenic modifications of aquatic environments, including nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication), water diversions, withdrawals, and salinization. Many cyanobacterial genera exhibit optimal growth rates and bloom potentials at relatively high water temperatures; hence global warming plays a key role in their expansion and persistence. Bloom-forming cyanobacterial taxa can be harmful from environmental, organismal, and human health perspectives by outcompeting beneficial phytoplankton, depleting oxygen upon bloom senescence, and producing a variety of toxic secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanotoxins). How environmental factors impact cyanotoxin production is the subject of ongoing research, but nutrient (N, P and trace metals) supply rates, light, temperature, oxidative stressors, interactions with other biota (bacteria, viruses and animal grazers), and most likely, the combined effects of these factors are all involved. Accordingly, strategies aimed at controlling and mitigating harmful blooms have focused on manipulating these dynamic factors. The applicability and feasibility of various controls and management approaches is discussed for natural waters and drinking water supplies. Strategies based on physical, chemical, and biological manipulations of specific factors show promise; however, a key underlying approach that should be considered in almost all instances is nutrient (both N and P) input reductions; which have been shown to effectively reduce cyanobacterial biomass, and therefore limit health risks and frequencies of hypoxic events. PMID:23314096

Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G

2013-05-01

253

Mussel isotope signature as indicator of nutrient pollution in a freshwater eutrophic lake: species, spatial, and seasonal variability.  

PubMed

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of five mussel species from littoral and pelagic areas were investigated with different trophic states in the eutrophic Lake Taihu, the third largest lake in China. Interpopulation variability for these mussels was relatively small in foot tissues because of the slow turnover time. Seasonal and spatial variations among the delta (15)N values of mussels might be due in part to the natural variation in delta (15)N values of potential food sources and the variation in the amount of human pollutions discharged into various locations of the lake. Although the increase of mussel delta (15)N values was accompanied by the increase of nutrient concentrations in most situations in this study, statistically significant correlations were only 22% of the total correlations in this survey, which might be attributed to the different time-scale variations in nutrient concentrations and isotope signatures and the unknown details of the trophic pathways and metabolism for incorporation of these nutrients. PMID:19274484

Wen, Zhourui; Xie, Ping; Xu, Jun

2010-04-01

254

A rapid microbiotest for the detection of cyanobacterial toxins.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria occur widely in lakes, reservoirs, ponds, and slow flowing rivers. Many species are known to produce toxins (cyanotoxins), a number of which are of concern for health. Cyanotoxins vary in chemical structure and may be found intracellular or released into water. There is not only a wide variation in the toxicity of known cyanotoxins but a substantial number of toxins have to date not been identified chemically. Chemical analysis of cyanotoxins is nowadays not used for routine monitoring because it is time consuming, it requires specialized equipment and expertise, and is hence expensive. There is hence an urgent need for rapid tests in surface waters to detect cyanobacterial toxins because of the need for safe drinking water and safe natural bathing waters, which may be burdened by cyanobacterial blooms or scums. Previous investigations have already shown that larvae of the anostracan crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus are quite sensitive to neurotoxic and hepatotoxic cyanotoxins. The present paper reports on the sensitivity comparison of the (1 h) Rapidtoxkit (based on a sublethal endpoint) and the (24 h) Thamnotoxkit microbiotest (based on mortality). Both assays make use of larvae of T. platyurus. The Rapidtoxkit is a new microbiotest that determines the decrease of ingestion of colored particles by the crustacean larvae, which are stressed by a short exposure to toxicants. Fifteen cyanobacterial samples composed of laboratory strains and natural bloom samples were tested by both microbiotests. All samples were also analyzed concurrently by HPLC for microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. The correlation coefficient between the two microbiotests (r = 0.82) showed the very good correspondence between the sublethal and the lethal effects. No known toxins could be detected in some samples, although the latter were found highly toxic to the test organisms in both bioassays. These results point to the presence of unknown toxin(s) produced by some cyanobacteria such as e.g., the Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strain isolated from Lake Balaton in Hungary. This comparative study clearly showed that the 1 h Rapidtoxkit is an attractive rapid alternative to the Thamnotoxkit microbiotest. PMID:17295262

Törökné, Andrea; Vasdinnyei, Rita; Asztalos, B Mária

2007-02-01

255

Total mercury distribution in different tissues of six species of freshwater fish from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana.  

PubMed

Total mercury concentrations were determined in seven tissues of 38 fish samples comprising six species from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry technique using an automatic mercury analyzer. Mercury concentration in all the tissues ranged from 0.005 to 0.022 ?g/g wet weight. In general, the concentration of mercury in all the tissues were decreasing in the order; liver?>?muscle?>?intestine?>?stomach?>?gonad?>?gill?>?swim bladder. Mercury concentration was generally greater in the tissues of high-trophic-level fish such as Clarotes laticeps, Mormyrops anguilloides and Chrysichthys aurutus whereas low-trophic-level fish such as Oreochromis niloticus recorded low mercury concentration in their tissues. The results obtained for total mercury concentration in the muscle tissues analysed in this study are below the WHO/FAO threshold limit of 0.5 ?g/g. This suggests that the exposure of the general public to Hg through fish consumption can be considered negligible. PMID:21713471

Atta, Alhassan; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Agorku, Eric Selorm

2012-05-01

256

Hibernation in freshwater turtles: softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) are the most intolerant of anoxia among North American species.  

PubMed

Softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) were submerged at 3 degrees C in anoxic or normoxic water. Periodically, blood PO(2), PCO(2), pH, plasma [Cl(-)], [Na(+)], [K(+)], total Ca, total Mg, lactate, glucose, and osmolality were measured; hematocrit and body mass determined; and blood [HCO(3)(-)] calculated. On day 14 of anoxic submergence, five of eight softshell turtles were dead, one died immediately after removal, and the remaining two showed no signs of life other than a heartbeat. After 11 days of submergence in anoxic water, blood pH fell from 7.923 to 7.281 and lactate increased to 62.1 mM. Plasma [HCO(3)(-)] was titrated from 34.57 mM to 4.53 mM. Plasma [Cl(-)] fell, but [K(+)] and total Ca and Mg increased. In normoxic submergence, turtles survived over 150 days and no lactate accumulated. A respiratory alkalosis developed (pH-8.195, PCO(2)-5.49 after 10 days) early and persisted throughout; no other variables changed in normoxic submergence. Softshell turtles are very capable of extrapulmonary extraction of O(2), but are an anoxia-intolerant species of turtle forcing them to utilize hibernacula that are unlikely to become hypoxic or anoxic (e.g., large lakes and rivers). PMID:12687397

Reese, S A; Jackson, D C; Ultsch, G R

2003-04-01

257

[Identification of two cyanobacterial strains isolated from the Kotel'nikovskii hot spring of the Baikal rift].  

PubMed

Two cyanobacterial strains, Pseudanabaena sp. 0411 and Synechococcus sp. 0431, were isolated from a sample collected in the Kotel'nikovskii hot spring of the Baikal rift. According to the results of light and transmission electron microscopy, as well as of the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, these cyanobacteria were classified as Pseudanabaena sp. nov. and Synechococcus bigranulatus Skuja. The constructed phylogenetic tree shows that the studied strains are positioned in the clades of cyanobacteria isolated from hydrothermal vents of Asia and New Zealand, separately from marine and freshwater members of these genera, including those isolated from Lake Baikal. PMID:18683660

Sorokovnikova, E G; Tikhonova, I V; Belykh, O I; Klimenkov, I V; Likhoshva?, E V

2008-01-01

258

Freshwater Molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater mollusc shells are among the best and most extensively preserved fossils in lacustrine sediments. These molluscs\\u000a are useful because they occur in a broad range of paleoenvironments. As a result, they have been used to reconstruct former\\u000a stream confluences, provide a basis for biostratigraphic zonation of sedimentary sequences in lake basins, and reconstruct\\u000a habitat and climatic conditions. Because many

Barry B. Miller; Michael J. S. Tevesz

259

Freshwater Mammals as Indicators of Habitat Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among the mammals within the current extent of the European Union, there are no truly aquatic freshwater species. There are,\\u000a however, several species that are semi-aquatic and that in one way or the other are associated with or depend on freshwater\\u000a habitats. There is also one seal species that inhabits brackish waters in the Baltic Sea as well as the

Michael Schneider

260

A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR. PMID:24031304

de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Pipole, Fernando; Werner, Vera Regina; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood Dail; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos M.; Rangel, Marisa; Konno, Katsuhiro; Sant' Anna, Celia Leite

2008-01-01

261

Early cyanobacterial fossil record: preservation, palaeoenvironments and identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterial fossil record is among the oldest for any group of organisms, possibly reaching back to 3500 Ma ago. The molecular phylogeny of cyanobacteria is complementary to the fossil findings, confirming the antiquity of the group, the role of cyanobacteria in the evolution of planetary primary production, and the symbiotic origins of plastids in algae and plants from cyanobacterial

Stjepko Golubic; Lee Seong-Joo

1999-01-01

262

Rapid determination of arsenic species in freshwater organisms from the arsenic-rich Hayakawa River in Japan using HPLC-ICP-MS.  

PubMed

Speciation analyses of water-soluble arsenicals from freshwater and biological samples collected from the Hayakawa River (Kanagawa, Japan), which contains a high concentration of arsenic, were performed using high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). River water contained only arsenate, which is a pentavalent inorganic arsenical. The water bug Stenopsyche marmorata contained inorganic arsenicals accounting for 77% of the water-soluble arsenicals, followed by oxo-arsenosugar-glycerol, which is a type of dimethylarsinoylriboside (arsenosugar). The freshwater green macroalga Cladophora glomerata contained oxo-arsenosugar-glycerol and oxo-arsenosugar-phosphate as 64% of the water-soluble arsenicals. Production of the same types of arsenosugars was confirmed in the freshwater green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125 experimentally exposed to arsenate. The muscle tissues of all freshwater fish and crustaceans analyzed contained arsenobetaine, oxo-arsenosugar-glycerol, and/or oxo-arsenosugar-phosphate in various concentrations. Seven freshwater fish (Cobitis biwae, Leuciscus hakonensis, Phoxinus lagowski steindachneri, Plecoglossus altivelis, Rhinogobius sp. CB, Rhinogobius sp. CO, Sicyopterus japonicus) and the crustacean Macrobracbium nipponenese contained arsenobetaine in their muscle tissues as the predominant form, contributing up to 80% of the water-soluble arsenicals, while the freshwater fish Anguilla japonica muscle tissues primarily contained dimethylarsinic acid as 77% of the water-soluble arsenicals, followed by arsenobetaine. The freshwater fish Zacco platypus muscle tissues predominantly contained oxo-arsenosugar-phosphate, accounting for 51% of the water-soluble arsenicals, followed by dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine. These biological samples possessed non-extractable arsenical(s) accounting for more than 50% of the total arsenic concentration. PMID:19203781

Miyashita, Shinichi; Shimoya, Masahito; Kamidate, Yoshiaki; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Shikino, Osamu; Fujiwara, Shoko; Francesconi, Kevin A; Kaise, Toshikazu

2009-05-01

263

Freshwater biodiversity conservation: recent progress and future challenges  

E-print Network

Freshwater biodiversity conservation: recent progress and future challenges David L. Strayer1 Cary's Republic of China Abstract. Freshwater habitats occupy ,1% of the Earth's surface, yet are hotspots in the range and abundance of many freshwater species, so that they are now far more imperiled than

264

Temperature and Cyanobacterial Bloom Biomass Influence Phosphorous Cycling in Eutrophic Lake Sediments  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial blooms frequently occur in freshwater lakes, subsequently, substantial amounts of decaying cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) settles onto the lake sediments where anaerobic mineralization reactions prevail. Coupled Fe/S cycling processes can influence the mobilization of phosphorus (P) in sediments, with high releases often resulting in eutrophication. To better understand eutrophication in Lake Taihu (PRC), we investigated the effects of CBB and temperature on phosphorus cycling in lake sediments. Results indicated that added CBB not only enhanced sedimentary iron reduction, but also resulted in a change from net sulfur oxidation to sulfate reduction, which jointly resulted in a spike of soluble Fe(II) and the formation of FeS/FeS2. Phosphate release was also enhanced with CBB amendment along with increases in reduced sulfur. Further release of phosphate was associated with increases in incubation temperature. In addition, CBB amendment resulted in a shift in P from the Fe-adsorbed P and the relatively unreactive Residual-P pools to the more reactive Al-adsorbed P, Ca-bound P and organic-P pools. Phosphorus cycling rates increased on addition of CBB and were higher at elevated temperatures, resulting in increased phosphorus release from sediments. These findings suggest that settling of CBB into sediments will likely increase the extent of eutrophication in aquatic environments and these processes will be magnified at higher temperatures. PMID:24682039

Chen, Mo; Ye, Tian-Ran; Krumholz, Lee R.; Jiang, He-Long

2014-01-01

265

Potent toxins in Arctic environments--presence of saxitoxins and an unusual microcystin variant in Arctic freshwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are the predominant phototrophs in freshwater ecosystems of the polar regions where they commonly form extensive benthic mats. Despite their major biological role in these ecosystems, little attention has been paid to their physiology and biochemistry. An important feature of cyanobacteria from the temperate and tropical regions is the production of a large variety of toxic secondary metabolites. In Antarctica, and more recently in the Arctic, the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin and nodularin (Antarctic only) have been detected in freshwater microbial mats. To date other cyanobacterial toxins have not been reported from these locations. Five Arctic cyanobacterial communities were screened for saxitoxin, another common cyanobacterial toxin, and microcystins using immunological, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Saxitoxin was detected for the first time in cyanobacteria from the Arctic. In addition, an unusual microcystin variant was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gene expression analyses confirmed the analytical findings, whereby parts of the sxt and mcy operon involved in saxitoxin and microcystin synthesis, were detected and sequenced in one and five of the Arctic cyanobacterial samples, respectively. The detection of these compounds in the cryosphere improves the understanding of the biogeography and distribution of toxic cyanobacteria globally. The sequences of sxt and mcy genes provided from this habitat for the first time may help to clarify the evolutionary origin of toxin production in cyanobacteria. PMID:23648386

Kleinteich, Julia; Wood, Susanna A; Puddick, Jonathan; Schleheck, David; Küpper, Frithjof C; Dietrich, Daniel

2013-11-25

266

Hypersaline cyanobacterial mats as indicators of elevated tropical hurricane activity and associated climate change.  

PubMed

The Atlantic hurricanes of 1999 caused widespread environmental damage throughout the Caribbean and US mid-Atlantic coastal regions. However, these storms also proved beneficial to certain microbial habitats; specifically, cyanobacteria-dominated mats. Modern mats represent the oldest known biological communities on earth, stromatolites. Contemporary mats are dominant biological communities in the hypersaline Bahamian lakes along the Atlantic hurricane track. We examined the impacts of varying levels of hypersalinity on 2 processes controlling mat growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, in Salt Pond, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Hypersalinity (> 5 times seawater salinity) proved highly inhibitory to these processes. Freshwater input from Hurricane Floyd and other large storms alleviated this salt-inhibition. A predicted 10 to 40 year increase in Atlantic hurricane activity accompanied by more frequent "freshening" events will enhance mat productivity, CO2 sequestration and nutrient cycling. Cyanobacterial mats are sensitive short- and long-term indicators of climatic and ecological changes impacting these and other waterstressed environments. PMID:12733791

Paerl, Hans W; Steppe, Timothy F; Buchan, Kenneth C; Potts, Malcolm

2003-03-01

267

Cyanobacterial Toxins as Allelochemicals with Potential Applications as Algaecides, Herbicides and Insecticides  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) from marine and freshwater habitats are known to produce a diverse array of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolites. However, the functional role of the vast majority of these compounds, particularly in terms of the physiology and ecology of the cyanobacteria that produce them, remains largely unknown. A limited number of studies have suggested that some of the compounds may have ecological roles as allelochemicals, specifically including compounds that may inhibit competing sympatric macrophytes, algae and microbes. These allelochemicals may also play a role in defense against potential predators and grazers, particularly aquatic invertebrates and their larvae. This review will discuss the existing evidence for the allelochemical roles of cyanobacterial toxins, as well as the potential for development and application of these compounds as algaecides, herbicides and insecticides, and specifically present relevant results from investigations into toxins of cyanobacteria from the Florida Everglades and associated waterways. PMID:18728763

Berry, John P.; Gantar, Miroslav; Perez, Mario H.; Berry, Gerald; Noriega, Fernando G.

2008-01-01

268

Evidence for the functioning of photosynthetic CO 2 -concentrating mechanisms in lichens containing green algal and cyanobacterial photobionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic properties of a range of lichens containing both green algal (11 species) and cyanobacterial (6 species) photobionts were examined with the aim of determining if there was clear evidence for the operation of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) within the photobionts. Using a CO2-gas-exchange system, which allowed resolution of fast transients, evidence was obtained for the existence of an

Murray R. Badger; Hardy Pfanz; Burkhard Büdel; Ulrich Heber; Otto L. Lange

1993-01-01

269

The presence of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin in black band disease of corals.  

PubMed

Black band disease (BBD) is a migrating, cyanobacterial dominated, sulfide-rich microbial mat that moves across coral colonies lysing coral tissue. While it is known that BBD sulfate-reducing bacteria contribute to BBD pathogenicity by production of sulfide, additional mechanisms of toxicity may be involved. Using HPLC/MS, the cyanotoxin microcystin was detected in 22 field samples of BBD collected from five coral species on nine reefs of the wider Caribbean (Florida Keys and Bahamas). Two cyanobacterial cultures isolated from BBD, Geitlerinema and Leptolyngbya sp. contained microcystin based on HPLC/MS, with toxic activity confirmed using the protein phosphatase inhibition assay. The gene mcyA from the microcystin synthesis complex was detected in two field samples and from both BBD cyanobacterial cultures. Microcystin was not detected in six BBD samples from a different area of the Caribbean (St Croix, USVI) and the Philippines, suggesting regional specificity for BBD microcystin. This is the first report of the presence of microcystin in a coral disease. PMID:17506829

Richardson, Laurie L; Sekar, Raju; Myers, Jamie L; Gantar, Miroslav; Voss, Joshua D; Kaczmarsky, Longin; Remily, Elizabeth R; Boyer, Gregory L; Zimba, Paul V

2007-07-01

270

Energy density of freshwater Patagonian organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed by using a bomb calorimeter the energy density of the main species of Patagonian freshwater ecosystems, including fish, crustaceans, gastropods, oligochaetes, and insects. Fish (5048-5789 Cal\\/g) were the most energy density group, followed by insects (5062- 5232), crustaceans (3364-3994), oligochaetes (3471) and gastropods (1143). These data consist on the first direct energy density estimations of freshwater species and

JAVIER CIANCIO; MIGUEL PASCUAL

271

Health Risk Assessment of Cyanobacterial (Blue-green Algal) Toxins in Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial toxins have caused human poisoning in the Americas, Europe and Australia. There is accumulating evidence that they are present in treated drinking water supplies when cyanobacterial blooms occur in source waters. With increased population pressure and depleted groundwater reserves, surface water is becoming more used as a raw water source, both from rivers and lakes/reservoirs. Additional nutrients in water which arise from sewage discharge, agricultural run-off or storm water result in overabundance of cyanobacteria, described as a ‘water bloom’. The majority of cyanobacterial water-blooms are of toxic species, producing a diversity of toxins. The most important toxins presenting a risk to the human population are the neurotoxic alkaloids (anatoxins and paralytic shellfish poisons), the cyclic peptide hepatotoxins (microcystins) and the cytotoxic alkaloids (cylindrospermopsins). At the present time the only cyanobacteral toxin family that have been internationally assessed for health risk by the WHO are the microcystins, which cause acute liver injury and are active tumour promoters. Based on sub-chronic studies in rodents and pigs, a provisional Guideline Level for drinking water of 1?g/L of microcystin-LR has been determined. This has been adopted in legislation in countries in Europe, South America and Australasia. This may be revised in the light of future teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The other cyanobacterial toxin which has been proposed for detailed health risk assessment is cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxic compound which has marked genotoxicity, probable mutagenicity, and is a potential carcinogen. This toxin has caused human poisoning from drinking water, and occurs in water supplies in the USA, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. An initial health risk assessment is presented with a proposed drinking water Guideline Level of 1?g/L. There is a need for both increased monitoring data for toxins in drinking water and epidemiological studies on adverse health effects in exposed populations to clarify the extent of the health risk. PMID:16705800

Falconer, Ian R.; Humpage, Andrew R.

2005-01-01

272

Freshwater Flow Charts - 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following: (1) Explanation of Charts Showing Freshwater Flow in 1995; (2) Estimated U.S. Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (3) Estimated California Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (4) Estimated New Mexico Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); and (5) Web locations and credits.

Kaiper, G V

2003-11-21

273

Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples.  

PubMed

Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a survey on cyanobacterial blooms and studied three ponds in detail. Among 3,500 urban ponds in the urbanized Dutch province of North Brabant, 125 showed cyanobacterial blooms in the period 2009-2012. This covered 79% of all locations registered for cyanobacterial blooms, despite the fact that urban ponds comprise only 11% of the area of surface water in North Brabant. Dominant bloom-forming genera in urban ponds were Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix. In the three ponds selected for further study, the microcystin concentration of the water peaked at 77 ?g l(-1) and in scums at 64,000 ?g l(-1), which is considered highly toxic. Microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR were the most prevalent variants in these waters and in scums. Cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a peaked in August with concentrations up to 962 ?g l(-1) outside of scums. The ponds were highly eutrophic with mean total phosphorus concentrations between 0.16 and 0.44 mg l(-1), and the sediments were rich in potential releasable phosphorus. High fish stocks dominated by carp lead to bioturbation, which also favours blooms. As urban ponds in North Brabant, and likely in other regions, regularly suffer from cyanobacterial blooms and citizens may easily have contact with the water and may ingest cyanobacterial material during recreational activities, particularly swimming, control of health risk is of importance. Monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in urban ponds is a first step to control health risks. Mitigation strategies should focus on external sources of eutrophication and consider the effect of sediment P release and bioturbation by fish. PMID:24798921

Waajen, Guido W A M; Faassen, Elisabeth J; Lürling, Miquel

2014-08-01

274

E¡ects of an invasive cattail species (Typhaglauca )o n sediment nitrogen and microbial community composition in a freshwater wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments from Cheboygan Marsh, a coastal freshwater wetland on Lake Huron that has been invaded by an emergent exotic plant, Typhaglauca, were examined to assess the effects of invasion on wetland nutrient levels and sediment microbial communities. Comparison of invaded and uninvaded zones of the marsh indicated that the invaded zone showed significantly lower plant diversity, as well as significantly

Nicholas L. Angeloni; Kathi Jo Jankowski; Nancy C. Tuchman; John J. Kelly

275

Monogeneans on native and introduced freshwater fishes from Cuba with the description of a new species of Salsuginus Beverley-Burton, 1984 from Limia vittata (Poeciliidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a parasitological survey carried out between March and September 2003 in Cuba, the following monogeneans were found on the gills of freshwater fishes: Salsuginus cubensis n. sp. on the Cuban molly Limia vittata Guichenot (Poeciliidae); Cichlidogyrus sclerosus Paperna & Thurston, 1969 and C. tilapiae Paperna, 1960 on the African cichlid Tilapia rendalli Boulenger (Cichlidae); Haplocleidus dispar Mueller, 1936 and

Edgar F. Mendoza-Franco; V. M. Vidal-Martínez; Y. Cruz-Quintana; F. L. Prats León

2006-01-01

276

Physicochemical variation of cyanobacterial starch, the insoluble ?-Glucans in cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

Unicellular, diazotrophic species of cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp. NBRC 102756, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Cyanobacterium sp. CLg1, accumulate insoluble ?-glucan inside the cells as the storage polysaccharide. The purified polysaccharides showed granular morphology, with a diameter of 0.2-0.7 µm. The three ?-glucan preparations all showed A-type allomorph in X-ray diffraction analysis. Distinct thermal gelatinization temperatures were observed for these polysaccharides. The ?-glucans from NBRC 102756 and ATCC 51142 strains consisted solely of branched ?-glucans, or semi-amylopectin, while CLg1 contained semi-amylopectin as the primary component as well as linear or scarcely branched glucan (amylose). Separation of the debranched glucan chains by gel filtration chromatography explicitly showed the presence in the semi-amylopectin molecule of long chains corresponding to B2 chains, which connect clusters in amylopectin of plants. The relative proportions of short and long glucan chains in the branched polysaccharides differed depending on the species, and the variation was intimately correlated with the physical properties of the ?-glucans. The results suggested that semi-amylopectin of the three cyanobacteria exhibit essentially similar organization with a tandem cluster structure. The polysaccharides of these strains are therefore referred to as 'cyanobacterial starch', distinct from glycogen. PMID:23299410

Suzuki, Eiji; Onoda, Miho; Colleoni, Christophe; Ball, Steven; Fujita, Naoko; Nakamura, Yasunori

2013-04-01

277

Calcification of cyanobacterial mats in Solar Lake, Sinai  

SciTech Connect

Pore-water samples were obtained from the shallow-water part of Solar Lake (Sinai) where luxurious cyanobacterial mats grow. These samples were analyzed for Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, Cl/sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and titration alkalinity (TA) to determine the role of cyanobacterial growth and degradation on the calcification of the mats. The data are modeled thermodynamically to predict mineral-pore-water equilibria. The data support earlier bacterial and sedimentological studies suggesting that the degradation of the cyanobacterial mat via sulfate reduction is of major importance in the calcification process. 34 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Lyons, W.B.; Long, D.T.; Hines, M.E.; Gaudette, H.E.; Armstrong, P.B.

1984-10-01

278

Periphyton removal by freshwater micrograzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In various experiments, the freshwater snail species Lymnaea peregra (Müll.), Physa fontinalis (L.), Valvata piscinalis (Müll.) and Bithynia tentaculata (L.) significantly removed periphyton from glass slides, while the two tested crustacean species, Asellus aquaticus (L.) and Gammarus pulex (L.), did not. B. tentaculata removed similar amounts of periphyton accumulated in the field as it did of laboratory-cultured periphyton.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Removal rates

J. E. Vermaat

1993-01-01

279

A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities.  

PubMed

This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats. PMID:9841675

Ward, D M; Ferris, M J; Nold, S C; Bateson, M M

1998-12-01

280

A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

1998-01-01

281

DEVELOPMENT OF A HUMAN BIOMARKER FOR CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS-MICROCYSTINS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study will determine if a commercially- available enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) designed to detect microcystins in water can be used to detect microcystins in human serum and liver. Increasingly, cyanobacterial blooms are being reported worldwide due to several...

282

Microbial diversity in hot spring cyanobacterial mats: pattern and prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Direct molecular analysis of the composition and structure of geothermal cyanobacterial mat communities,has revealed diversity patterns suggesting that adaptive radiation and geographic isolation are the important drivers of cyanobacterial diversification. Itis clear that 16S rRNA sequence variation cannot detect all ecological or geographic populations (ecotypes and geotypes, respectively), but it remains unclear what level of molecular resolution is required

Frederick M Cohan; D. M. Ward

2005-01-01

283

Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

1984-04-01

284

Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin ?-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in Shark Fins  

PubMed Central

Sharks are among the most threatened groups of marine species. Populations are declining globally to support the growing demand for shark fin soup. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate toxins that may pose health risks to consumers of shark products. The feeding habits of sharks are varied, including fish, mammals, crustaceans and plankton. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been detected in species of free-living marine cyanobacteria and may bioaccumulate in the marine food web. In this study, we sampled fin clips from seven different species of sharks in South Florida to survey the occurrence of BMAA using HPLC-FD and Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS methods. BMAA was detected in the fins of all species examined with concentrations ranging from 144 to 1836 ng/mg wet weight. Since BMAA has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, these results may have important relevance to human health. We suggest that consumption of shark fins may increase the risk for human exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin BMAA. PMID:22412816

Mondo, Kiyo; Hammerschlag, Neil; Basile, Margaret; Pablo, John; Banack, Sandra A.; Mash, Deborah C.

2012-01-01

285

Unveiling Distribution Patterns of Freshwater Phytoplankton by a Next Generation Sequencing Based Approach  

PubMed Central

The recognition and discrimination of phytoplankton species is one of the foundations of freshwater biodiversity research and environmental monitoring. This step is frequently a bottleneck in the analytical chain from sampling to data analysis and subsequent environmental status evaluation. Here we present phytoplankton diversity data from 49 lakes including three seasonal surveys assessed by next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S ribosomal RNA chloroplast and cyanobacterial gene amplicons and also compare part of these datasets with identification based on morphology. Direct comparison of NGS to microscopic data from three time-series showed that NGS was able to capture the seasonality in phytoplankton succession as observed by microscopy. Still, the PCR-based approach was only semi-quantitative, and detailed NGS and microscopy taxa lists had only low taxonomic correspondence. This is probably due to, both, methodological constraints and current discrepancies in taxonomic frameworks. Discrepancies included Euglenophyta and Heterokonta that were scarce in the NGS but frequently detected by microscopy and Cyanobacteria that were in general more abundant and classified with high resolution by NGS. A deep-branching taxonomically unclassified cluster was frequently detected by NGS but could not be linked to any group identified by microscopy. NGS derived phytoplankton composition differed significantly among lakes with different trophic status, showing that our approach can resolve phytoplankton communities at a level relevant for ecosystem management. The high reproducibility and potential for standardization and parallelization makes our NGS approach an excellent candidate for simultaneous monitoring of prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton in inland waters. PMID:23349714

Eiler, Alexander; Drakare, Stina; Bertilsson, Stefan; Pernthaler, Jakob; Peura, Sari; Rofner, Carina; Simek, Karel; Yang, Yang; Znachor, Petr; Lindstrom, Eva S.

2013-01-01

286

Lake Level Fluctuations Boost Toxic Cyanobacterial "Oligotrophic Blooms"  

PubMed Central

Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of extreme events as dry periods followed by heavy rains. The massive appearance of Dolichospermum lemmermannii (?=?planktonic Anabaena), a toxic species absent from the pelagic zone of the subalpine oligotrophic Lake Maggiore before 2005, could be a consequence of the unusual fluctuations of lake level in recent years. We hypothesized that these fluctuations may favour the cyanobacterium as result of nutrient pulses from the biofilms formed in the littoral zone when the lake level is high. To help verify this, we exposed artificial substrates in the lake, and evaluated their nutrient enrichment and release after desiccation, together with measurements of fluctuations in lake level, precipitation and D.lemmermannii population. The highest percentage of P release and the lowest C?P molar ratio of released nutrients coincided with the summer appearance of the D.lemmermannii bloom. The P pulse indicates that fluctuations in level counteract nutrient limitation in this lake and it is suggested that this may apply more widely to other oligotrophic lakes. In view of the predicted increase in water level fluctuations due to climate change, it is important to try to minimize such fluctuations in order to mitigate the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:25295866

Callieri, Cristiana; Bertoni, Roberto; Contesini, Mario; Bertoni, Filippo

2014-01-01

287

Photocatalytic degradation of cyanobacterial microcystin toxins in water.  

PubMed

The microcystins are hepatotoxins produced by a number of cyanobacterial species (blue green algae) in fresh water systems. The increasing eutrophication of natural waters has led to an increase in the incidence of algal blooms and the consequent increased risk of microcystin contamination of water resources. The removal of microcystins LR, YR and YA from contaminated water was investigated using an experimental laboratory-scale photocatalytic 'falling film' reactor in which an oxygen purge, UV radiation and semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalyst were used to oxidatively decompose the microcystin pollutants. Preliminary studies, using algal extracts spiked into distilled water, indicated that the microcystins were rapidly decomposed in this reactor. The decomposition followed first order reaction kinetics with half-lives of less than 5 min with the reactor operating in a closed-loop mode. Reaction rates were strongly dependent on the amount of TiO2 catalyst (O-5 g/l), but only marginally influenced by a change in gas purge from oxygen to compressed air. The use of lake water, rather than distilled water, showed that this process is feasible in natural waters, although increased levels of catalyst (up to 5 g/l) were required to achieve comparable decomposition rates. PMID:9839673

Shephard, G S; Stockenström, S; De Villiers, D; Engelbrecht, W J; Sydenham, E W; Wessels, G F

1998-12-01

288

Temporal variation in community composition, pigmentation, and F(v)/F(m) of desert cyanobacterial soil crusts.  

PubMed

Summers on the Colorado Plateau (USA) are typified by harsh conditions such as high temperatures, brief soil hydration periods, and high UV and visible radiation. We investigated whether community composition, physiological status, and pigmentation might vary in biological soil crusts as a result of such conditions. Representative surface cores were sampled at the ENE, WSW, and top microaspects of 20 individual soil crust pedicels at a single site in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, in spring and fall of 1999. Frequency of cyanobacterial taxa, pigment concentrations, and dark adapted quantum yield [F(v)/F(m)] were measured for each core. The frequency of major cyanobacterial taxa was lower in the fall compared to spring. The less-pigmented cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus showed significant mortality when not in the presence of Nostoc spp. and Scytonema myochrous (Dillw.) Agardh. (both synthesizers of UV radiation-linked pigments) but had little or no mortality when these species were abundant. We hypothesize that the sunscreen pigments produced by Nostoc and Scytonema in the surface of crusts protect other, less-pigmented taxa. When fall and spring samples were compared, overall cyanobacterial frequency was lower in fall, while sunscreen pigment concentrations, chlorophyll a concentration, and F(v)/F(m) were higher in fall. The ratio of cyanobacterial frequency/chlorophyll a concentrations was 2-3 times lower in fall than spring. Because chlorophyll a is commonly used as a surrogate measure of soil cyanobacterial biomass, these results indicate that seasonality needs to be taken into consideration. In the fall sample, most pigments associated with UV radiation protection or repair were at their highest concentrations on pedicel tops and WSW microaspects, and at their lowest concentrations on ENE microaspects. We suggest that differential pigment concentrations between microaspects are induced by varying UV radiation dosage at the soil surface on these different microaspects. PMID:11984625

Bowker, M A; Reed, S C; Belnap, J; Phillips, S L

2002-01-01

289

Association of a new type of gliding, filamentous, purple phototrophic bacterium inside bundles of Microcoleus chthonoplastes in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unidentified filamentous purple bacterium, probably belonging to a new genus or even a new family, is found in close association with the filamentous, mat-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes in a hypersaline pond at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt. This organism is a gliding, segmented trichome, 0.8-0.9 micrometer wide. It contains intracytoplasmic stacked lamellae which are perpendicular and obliquely oriented to the cell wall, similar to those described for the purple sulfur bacteria Ectothiorhodospira. These bacteria are found inside the cyanobacterial bundle, enclosed by the cyanobacterial sheath. Detailed transmission electron microscopical analyses carried out in horizontal sections of the upper 1.5 mm of the cyanobacterial mat show this cyanobacterial-purple bacterial association at depths of 300-1200 micrometers, corresponding to the zone below that of maximal oxygenic photosynthesis. Sharp gradients of oxygen and sulfide are established during the day at this microzone in the two cyanobacterial mats studied. The close association, the distribution pattern of this association and preliminary physiological experiments suggest a co-metabolism of sulfur by the two-membered community. This probable new genus of purple bacteria may also grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by the cyanobacterium. Since the chemical gradients in the entire photic zone fluctuate widely in a diurnal cycle, both types of metabolism probably take place. During the morning and afternoon, sulfide migrates up to the photic zone allowing photoautotrophic metabolism with sulfide as the electron donor. During the day the photic zone is highly oxygenated and the purple bacteria may either use oxidized species of sulfur such as elemental sulfur and thiosulfate in the photoautotrophic mode or grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by M. chthonoplastes. The new type of filamentous purple sulfur bacteria is not available yet in pure culture, and its taxonomical position cannot be fully established. This organism is suggested to be a new type of gliding, filamentous, purple phototroph.

D'Amelio, E. D.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

1987-01-01

290

The Languages Spoken in the Water Body (or the Biological Role of Cyanobacterial Toxins)  

PubMed Central

Although intensification of toxic cyanobacterial blooms over the last decade is a matter of growing concern due to bloom impact on water quality, the biological role of most of the toxins produced is not known. In this critical review we focus primarily on the biological role of two toxins, microcystins and cylindrospermopsin, in inter- and intra-species communication and in nutrient acquisition. We examine the experimental evidence supporting some of the dogmas in the field and raise several open questions to be dealt with in future research. We do not discuss the health and environmental implications of toxin presence in the water body. PMID:22529842

Kaplan, Aaron; Harel, Moshe; Kaplan-Levy, Ruth N.; Hadas, Ora; Sukenik, Assaf; Dittmann, Elke

2012-01-01

291

Zoogeographic distribution of terrestrial\\/freshwater tardigrades from current literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on terrestrial and freshwater Tardigrada is relatively limited, being concerned with 617 species world wide. Many of the references are in obscure publications. This paper attempts to bring this information together, tabulating the numbers of tardigrade species recorded from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in various countries and the number of countries from which tardigrades have been recorded. Each

S. J. McInnes

1994-01-01

292

FRESHWATER FISHES OF ALASKA: THEIR BIOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION AND VALUE  

EPA Science Inventory

A summary of knowledge of the freshwater fishes of Alaska is provided. Covered are 56 species in 34 genera and 15 families, including strictly freshwater species, anadromous forms and those which normally are marine but which occasionally or regularly enter fresh water. For each ...

293

Implications of Dam Obstruction for Global Freshwater Fish Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dams are obstructing rivers worldwide, impairing habitat and migration opportunities for many freshwater fish species; however, global data linking dam and fish distributions have been limited. Here, we quantify dam obstruction at the biogeographic scale of freshwater ecoregion, which provides the spatial framework necessary to assess the risk of fish species loss due to dams and allows us to identify

Catherine Reidy Liermann; Christer Nilsson; James Robertson; Rebecca Y. Ng

2012-01-01

294

Habitat disturbance and the stability of freshwater gastropod populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of population stability and habitat permanence has a major influence on the microdistribution of freshwater snails. For two years (February 1980–January 1982), we monitored the abundance of macrophytes and the abundance and size structure of four species of macrophyte-associated freshwater snails in an English pond. Previous work (Lodge, in press) showed that two species, the pulmonate Lymnaea peregra

D. M. Lodge; P. Kelly

1985-01-01

295

Sedimented cyanobacterial detritus as a source of nutrient for submerged macrophytes (Vallisneria spiralis and Elodea nuttallii): An isotope labeling experiment using 15N  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tracer experiment using the nitrogen isotope 15N investigated the uptake and incorporation of nitrogen from sedimented cyanobacterial detritus by two species of submerged macrophytes, the native Vallisneria spiralis and the exotic Elodea nuttallii, in Lake Taihu (China). The cyanobacterium Microcystis was labeled with 15Nammonium and dried to produce detritus, which was injected into vegetated sediments and traced to establish

Leiyan Zhang; Kuanyi Li; Zhengwen Liu; Jack J. Middelburg

2010-01-01

296

Integrative freshwater ecology and biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater ecosystems provide goods and services of critical importance to human societies, yet they are among the most heavily altered ecosystems with an overproportional loss of biodiversity. Major threats to freshwater biodiversity include overexploitation, water pollution, fragmentation, destruction or degradation of habitat, and invasions by non-native species. Alterations of natural flow regimes by man-made dams, land-use changes, river impoundments, and

Juergen Geist

2011-01-01

297

International Freshwater Agreements  

E-print Network

Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements #12;#12;Copyright © 2002, United Nations Environment.na.unep.net www.unep.org The Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements was compiled under the direction and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "The World's International Freshwater

Wolf, Aaron

298

The molecular phylogeny of freshwater Dothideomycetes  

PubMed Central

The freshwater Dothideomycetes species are an ecological rather than taxonomic group and comprise approximately 178 meiosporic and mitosporic species. Due to convergent or parallel morphological adaptations to aquatic habitats, it is difficult to determine phylogenetic relationships among freshwater taxa and among freshwater, marine and terrestrial taxa based solely on morphology. We conducted molecular sequence-based phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal sequences (SSU and/or LSU) for 84 isolates of described and undescribed freshwater Dothideomycetes and 85 additional taxa representative of the major orders and families of Dothideomycetes. Results indicated that this ecological group is not monophyletic and all the freshwater taxa, except three aeroaquatic Tubeufiaceae, occur in Pleosporomycetidae as opposed to Dothideomycetidae. Four clades comprised of only freshwater taxa were recovered. The largest of these is the Jahnulales clade consisting of 13 species, two of which are the anamorphs Brachiosphaera tropicalis and Xylomyces chlamydosporus. The second most speciose clade is the Lindgomycetaceae clade consisting of nine taxa including the anamorph Taeniolella typhoides. The Lindgomycetaceae clade consists of taxa formerly described in Massarina, Lophiostoma, and Massariosphaeria e.g., Massarina ingoldiana, Lophiostoma breviappendiculatum, and Massariosphaeria typhicola and several newly described and undescribed taxa. The aquatic family Amniculicolaceae, including three species of Amniculicola, Semimassariosphaeria typhicola and the anamorph, Anguillospora longissima, was well supported. A fourth clade of freshwater species consisting of Tingoldiago graminicola, Lentithecium aquaticum, L. arundinaceum and undescribed taxon A-369-2b was not well supported with maximum likelihood bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability. Eight freshwater taxa occurred along with terrestrial species in the Lophiostoma clades 1 and 2. Two taxa lacking statistical support for their placement with any taxa included in this study are considered singletons within Pleosporomycetidae. These singletons, Ocala scalariformis, and Lepidopterella palustris, are morphologically distinct from other taxa in Pleosporomycetidae. This study suggests that freshwater Dothideomycetes are related to terrestrial taxa and have adapted to freshwater habitats numerous times. In some cases (Jahnulales and Lindgomycetaceae), species radiation appears to have occurred. Additional collections and molecular study are required to further clarify the phylogeny of this interesting ecological group. PMID:20169028

Shearer, C.A.; Raja, H.A.; Miller, A.N.; Nelson, P.; Tanaka, K.; Hirayama, K.; Marvanová, L.; Hyde, K.D.; Zhang, Y.

2009-01-01

299

DNA barcoding of freshwater fishes and the development of a quantitative qPCR assay for the species-specific detection and quantification of fish larvae from plankton samples.  

PubMed

The barcoding of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coI) gene was amplified and sequenced from 16 species of freshwater fishes found in Lake Wivenhoe (south-eastern Queensland, Australia) to support monitoring of reservoir fish populations, ecosystem function and water health. In this study, 630-650 bp sequences of the coI barcoding gene from 100 specimens representing 15 genera, 13 families and two subclasses of fishes allowed 14 of the 16 species to be identified and differentiated. The mean ± s.e. Kimura 2 parameter divergence within and between species was 0.52 ± 0.10 and 23.8 ± 2.20% respectively, indicating that barcodes can be used to discriminate most of the fish species accurately. The two terapontids, Amniataba percoides and Leiopotherapon unicolor, however, shared coI DNA sequences and could not be differentiated using this gene. A barcoding database was established and a qPCR assay was developed using coI sequences to identify and quantify proportional abundances of fish species in ichthyoplankton samples from Lake Wivenhoe. These methods provide a viable alternative to the time-consuming process of manually enumerating and identifying ichthyoplankton samples. PMID:24963726

Loh, W K W; Bond, P; Ashton, K J; Roberts, D T; Tibbetts, I R

2014-08-01

300

Extreme variability of cyanobacterial blooms in an urban drinking water supply  

E-print Network

, the drinking water supply for Quebec City, Canada, harmful cyanobacterial blooms were first recorded in autumn; Vincent, 2009; Oliver et al., 2012). The development of cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water supplies

Vincent, Warwick F.

301

A new freshwater crab (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamonautidae) from the Paleogene of Tanzania, Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of numerous fragmentary remains of freshwater crab in Paleogene, probably Oligocene, sediments in Tanzania, Africa, permits the description of a new genus and species, Tanzanonautes tuerkai. The fossils represent the oldest freshwater crabs known.

Rodney M. Feldmann; Patrick M. O'Connor; Nancy J. Stevens; Michael D. Gottfried; Eric M. Roberts; Sifa Ngasala; Erin L. Rasmusson; Saidi Kapilima

2007-01-01

302

Tests for the toxicity assessment of cyanobacterial bloom samples.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) blooms are one of the common consequences of the increasing eutrophication of surface waters. The production of cyanobacterial toxins and their presence in drinking and recreational waters represents a growing danger to human and animal health. Due to a lack of toxin standards and to resource limitations on the wide-scale use of analytical methods (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) in cyanobacterial toxin monitoring, it is necessary to assess and to develop additional methods for their detection and estimation. Microbiotests using invertebrates offer a possible approach for the inexpensive and straightforward detection and assessment of cyanobacterial bloom toxicity. Three microbiotests with: Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, and Spirostomum ambiguum were examined with bloom samples containing hepatotoxic microcystin-LR and up to five additional microcystin variants. Two kinds of cyanobacterial bloom sample preparations were tested: crude extracts (CE) and purified extracts (PE). The highest toxicity was found when CE was used for microbiotests. The sensitivity of microorganisms decreased from S. ambiguum to T. platyurus and to D. magna. A statistically significant correlation was found between microcystin concentration and T. platyurus biotest, and between mouse bioassay and S. ambiguum results. Addition of Me2SO (1%, v/v) is a possible method to increase the sensitivity of the microorganisms for microcystin-LR. PMID:11594024

Tarczynska, M; Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Romanowska-Duda, Z; Sawicki, J; Beattie, K; Codd, G; Zalewski, M

2001-10-01

303

The cyanobacterial genome core and the origin of photosynthesis Robert Haselkorn, and Michael Y. Galperin  

E-print Network

The cyanobacterial genome core and the origin of photosynthesis Robert Haselkorn, and Michael Y.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;The cyanobacterial genome core and the origin of photosynthesis Armen Y proteins, which could also be involved in photosynthesis. Only a few components of cyanobacterial

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

304

Facts about Cyanobacteria (Blue-green Algae) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms  

E-print Network

) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cyanobacteria are bacteria smell bad. #12;2 Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) CyanoHABs are algae blooms, including North and South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, Scandinavia, and China. Cyanobacterial blooms

305

The use of algae-cyanobacterial communities for the assessment of lead pollution of gray forest soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of lead acetate on the characteristics of the algae-cyanobacterial communities of a gray forest soil was studied in a model experiment. The investigation was carried out using the method of water-soil cultures. The advantages and disadvantages of the application of this method for the ecotoxicological experiments are considered. The species of cyanobacteria and algae tolerant and sensitive to heavy metals were revealed. The addition of lead acetate at doses of 750 and 1500 mg/kg to soil caused a decrease in the species diversity and abundance of the cyanobacteria and algae, a reduction of the total content of chlorophyll, and changes in the morphology of individuals, whereas a dose of 300 mg/kg stimulated the development of the algae-cyanobacterial communities. The effect observed is suggested to be due to the double action of the salt: the adverse influence of the lead cations, and the positive influence of the acetate anions and the protective function of the soil. The use of a complex of different parameters of the biological organization of the communities at the cell, organism, and community levels results in the objective and complete assessment of the toxicant effects on the algae-cyanobacterial community of the gray forest soil.

Temraleeva, A. D.; Pinskii, D. L.; Patova, E. N.; Spirina, E. V.

2011-03-01

306

Galaxias gollumoides (Teleostei: Galaxiidae), a new fish species from Stewart Island, with notes on other non?migratory freshwater fishes present on the island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galaxias gollumoides is a new species described from the Island Hill wetlands in central Stewart Island (east of Mason Bay), and the Robertson River in southern Stewart Island It is the first endemic Galaxias from the island, although another non?diadromous species, G depressiceps, is present there, as well as four diadromous species of Galaxias G gollumoides appears to belong to

R. M. McDowall; W. L. Chadderton

1999-01-01

307

Variation of microcystins, cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, in Anabaena spp. as a function of growth stimuli.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, microcystins, are specific inhibitors of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and potent tumor promoters. They have caused several poisonings of animals and also pose a health hazard for humans through the use of water for drinking and recreation. Different strains of the same cyanobacterial species may variously be nontoxic, be neurotoxic, or produce several microcystin variants. It is poorly understood how the amount of toxins varies in a single strain. This laboratory study shows the importance of external growth stimuli in regulating the levels and relative proportions of different microcystin variants in two strains of filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena spp. The concentration of the toxins in the cells increased with phosphorus. High temperatures (25 to 30 degrees C), together with the highest levels of light studied (test range, 2 to 100 mumol m-2 s-1), decreased their amount. Different structural variants of microcystins responded differently to growth stimuli. Variants of microcystin (MCYST)-LR correlated with temperatures below 25 degrees C, and those of MCYST-RR correlated with higher temperatures. Nitrogen added into the growth medium and increasing temperatures increased the proportion of microcystin variants demethylated in amino acid 3. All variants remained mostly intracellular. Time was the most important factor causing the release of the toxins into the growth medium. Time, nitrogen added into the growth medium, and light fluxes above 25 mumol m-2 s-1 significantly increased the concentrations of the dissolved toxins. According to the results, it thus seems that the reduction of phosphorus loads in bodies of water might play a role in preventing the health hazards that toxic cyanobacterial water blooms pose, not only by decreasing the cyanobacteria but also by decreasing their toxin content. PMID:9172340

Rapala, J; Sivonen, K; Lyra, C; Niemelä, S I

1997-06-01

308

Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

2012-01-01

309

Water quality for freshwater fish  

SciTech Connect

This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

Howells, G. (ed.) (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

310

Effects of polyaluminium chloride on the freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a number of countries across the world, aluminium in the form of polyaluminium chloride has been used in the treatment of freshwaters for the direct removal of cyanobacteria, or phosphorus removal, but knowledge about its effect on zooplankton species is poor. In our study, polyaluminium chloride toxicity was tested on both artificial and natural freshwaters for a better understanding

Daniel Jan?ula; P?emysl Mikula; Blahoslav Maršálek

2011-01-01

311

MACROBRACHIUM VICCONI, NEW SPECIES, A FRESH-WATER SHRIMP FROM A RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHEAST MEXICO, AND COMPARISON WITH CONGENERS (DECAPODA: PALAEMONIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobrachium vicconi, new species, from a rain forest of southeastern Mexico is described. It is similar to Macrobrachium quelchi and Macrobrachium atabapense in total length, partially abbrevi- ated larval development, and cornea not reduced. Macrobrachium vicconi differs from those species in the size-ratio of the articles of the legs, the spinous ornamentation, and the length of the second pereiopods. Macrobrachium

Ramiro Román; A. Laura Ortega; Luis M. Mejía

2000-01-01

312

A natural freshwater origin for two chlamydial species, Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavochlamydia salmonicola, causing mixed infections in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).  

PubMed

Gill disease in salmonids is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology. Epitheliocystis of the gill lamellae caused by obligate intracellular bacteria of the order Chlamydiales is one known factor; however, their diversity has greatly complicated analyses to establish a causal relationship. In addition, tracing infections to a potential environmental source is currently impossible. In this study, we address these questions by investigating a wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) population from seven different sites within a Swiss river system. One age class of fish was followed over 18 months. Epitheliocystis occurred in a site-specific pattern, associated with peak water temperatures during summer months. No evidence of a persistent infection was found within the brown trout population, implying an as yet unknown environmental source. For the first time, we detected 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' and 'Candidatus Clavochlamydia salmonicola' infections in the same salmonid population, including dual infections within the same fish. These organisms are strongly implicated in gill disease of caged Atlantic salmon in Norway and Ireland. The absence of aquaculture production within this river system and the distance from the sea, suggests a freshwater origin for both these bacteria and offers new possibilities to explore their ecology free from aquaculture influences. PMID:22176683

Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Polkinghorne, Adam; Nufer, Lisbeth; Schifferli, Andrea; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Segner, Helmut; Steiner, Pascale; Vaughan, Lloyd

2012-08-01

313

Monitoring Biological Invasions in Freshwater Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Alien species invading freshwater systems are causing major changes in biodiversity worldwide. Some alien species have been\\u000a used as indicators of water quality and environmental degradation. We discuss the reasons for monitoring invasive species\\u000a beyond their use as ecological indicators, and offer guidance on the design of appropriate long-term monitoring schemes. Monitoring\\u000a plays an essential role in providing an early

Montserrat Vilà; Emili García-Berthou

314

Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure.  

PubMed

beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, has been proposed to be the causative agent of devastating neurodegenerative diseases on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. Because cyanobacteria are widespread globally, we hypothesized that BMAA might occur and bioaccumulate in other ecosystems. Here we demonstrate, based on a recently developed extraction and HPLC-MS/MS method and long-term monitoring of BMAA in cyanobacterial populations of a temperate aquatic ecosystem (Baltic Sea, 2007-2008), that BMAA is biosynthesized by cyanobacterial genera dominating the massive surface blooms of this water body. BMAA also was found at higher concentrations in organisms of higher trophic levels that directly or indirectly feed on cyanobacteria, such as zooplankton and various vertebrates (fish) and invertebrates (mussels, oysters). Pelagic and benthic fish species used for human consumption were included. The highest BMAA levels were detected in the muscle and brain of bottom-dwelling fishes. The discovery of regular biosynthesis of the neurotoxin BMAA in a large temperate aquatic ecosystem combined with its possible transfer and bioaccumulation within major food webs, some ending in human consumption, is alarming and requires attention. PMID:20439734

Jonasson, Sara; Eriksson, Johan; Berntzon, Lotta; Spácil, Zdenek; Ilag, Leopold L; Ronnevi, Lars-Olof; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

2010-05-18

315

Accumulation and depuration of cyanobacterial toxin nodularin and biomarker responses in the mussel Mytilus edulis.  

PubMed

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to an extract made of natural cyanobacterial mixture containing toxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (70-110 microg nodularin l(-1), 24-h exposure followed by 144-h depuration period in clean water). Toxin concentration increased from initial 400 to 1100 mg kg(-1) after 24-h exposure, measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), a biomarker of direct neurotoxic effects, showed inhibition after 12 and 24h exposure but returned to control level during the depuration period. Catalase (CAT) activity, an indicator of oxidative stress, showed significantly elevated levels in exposed mussels but only 72 h after the end of the exposure. No change in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) involved in conjugation reactions could be observed. A gradual yet incomplete elimination of nodularin (from 1100 to 600 mg kg(-1)) was observed during the depuration period, and the tissue levels were 30% lower in clean water after 24 h. The observed increase in oxidative stress indicated by elevated CAT activity is likely connected to detoxification reactions leading to the production of reactive oxygen species, including an apparent time lag in this specific enzymatic defence response. That no change in GST activity was observed suggests that this enzyme is not significantly involved in the detoxification process of nodularin-containing cyanobacterial extract in M. edulis. PMID:17363031

Kankaanpää, Harri; Leiniö, Sari; Olin, Miikka; Sjövall, Olli; Meriluoto, Jussi; Lehtonen, Kari K

2007-07-01

316

Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure  

PubMed Central

?-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, has been proposed to be the causative agent of devastating neurodegenerative diseases on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. Because cyanobacteria are widespread globally, we hypothesized that BMAA might occur and bioaccumulate in other ecosystems. Here we demonstrate, based on a recently developed extraction and HPLC-MS/MS method and long-term monitoring of BMAA in cyanobacterial populations of a temperate aquatic ecosystem (Baltic Sea, 2007–2008), that BMAA is biosynthesized by cyanobacterial genera dominating the massive surface blooms of this water body. BMAA also was found at higher concentrations in organisms of higher trophic levels that directly or indirectly feed on cyanobacteria, such as zooplankton and various vertebrates (fish) and invertebrates (mussels, oysters). Pelagic and benthic fish species used for human consumption were included. The highest BMAA levels were detected in the muscle and brain of bottom-dwelling fishes. The discovery of regular biosynthesis of the neurotoxin BMAA in a large temperate aquatic ecosystem combined with its possible transfer and bioaccumulation within major food webs, some ending in human consumption, is alarming and requires attention. PMID:20439734

Jonasson, Sara; Eriksson, Johan; Berntzon, Lotta; Spacil, Zdenek; Ilag, Leopold L.; Ronnevi, Lars-Olof; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

2010-01-01

317

Co-existence of photosynthetic and respiratory activities in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes.  

PubMed

The thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria are the major sites of respiratory electron transport as well as photosynthetic light reactions. The photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains share some components, and their presence in the same membrane opens up the possibility for a variety of "unorthodox" electron transport routes. Many of the theoretically possible electron transport pathways have indeed been detected in particular species and circumstances. Electron transport has a crucial impact on the redox balance of the cell and therefore the pathways of electron flow in the cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane must be tightly regulated. This review summarises what is known of cyanobacterial electron transport components, their interactions and their sub-cellular location. The role of thylakoid membrane organisation in controlling electron transport pathways is discussed with respect to recent evidence that the larger-scale distribution of complexes in the membrane is important for controlling electron exchange between the photosynthetic and respiratory complexes. The distribution of complexes on scales of 100nm or more is under physiological control, showing that larger-scale thylakoid membrane re-arrangement is a key factor in controlling the crosstalk between photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Dynamic and ultrastructure of bioenergetic membranes and their components. PMID:24316145

Mullineaux, Conrad W

2014-04-01

318

BIODIVERSITY Conservation biogeography of freshwater  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Conservation biogeography of freshwater fishes: recent progress and future implications of their distributions are far reaching (Darwin, 1839; Wallace, 1876). Freshwater fishes exemplify. These factors underlie an interesting observation: at regional to global scales, most freshwater fishes occupy

García-Berthou, Emili

319

Toxicity of complex cyanobacterial samples and their fractions in Xenopus laevis embryos and the role of microcystins.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the effects of various cyanobacterial fractions in Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) with African clawed frog embryos. Fractions were prepared from five biomasses with different dominant genera (Microcystis, Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Planktothrix) and different microcystin content. Effects of following fractions were investigated: (I) homogenate of complex cyanobacterial biomass, (II) cell debris (pellet) after centrifugation of complex biomass, (III) supernatant after centrifugation of complex biomass (= crude aqueous extract), (IV) permeate after passing of crude extract through C-18 column (fraction devoid of microcystins), and (V) eluate from C-18 column (containing microcystins, if present). Besides classical parameters evaluated in 96 h FETAX (mortality, growth inhibition, malformations), we have also assessed the effects on biochemical markers of oxidative stress and detoxification (glutathione pool, GSH; activity of glutathione peroxidase, GPx; glutathione reductase, GR; activity of glutathione-S-transferase, GST). Complex biomass (I) and aqueous extract (III) were generally the most toxic fractions in terms of mortality and growth inhibition, whereas eluates containing microcystins (V) were generally less toxic. On the other hand, the same fraction (eluates) induced significant malformations in low concentrations but the effects were not related to the content of microcystins. Biomarkers were affected in variable manner but no significant effect or clear relation to microcystin content was observed. Our data support the hypothesis that microcystins are not the only or major toxic compounds in the complex cyanobacterial samples (at least for some species) and that more attention should be paid to other components of complex cyanobacterial biomass including non-specific parameters such as oxygen content or toxic ammonia released during bacterial decay of organic material. PMID:17092578

Burýsková, Blanka; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Vrsková, Dagmar; Marsálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Ludek

2006-12-30

320

Reduction of cyanobacterial toxins through coprophagy in Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to follow the fate of the cyanobacterial toxin, nodularin, produced by Nodularia spumigena through ingestion by Mytilus edulis and re-ingestion of faecal material (coprophagy). Mussels were fed with cultures of N. spumigena, and the faeces that were produced were fed to other mussels not previously exposed to N. spumigena. Concentrations of nodularin were measured in the

C. Svensen; E. Strogyloudi; C. Wexels Riser; J. Dahlmann; C. Legrand; P. Wassmann; E. Granéli; K. Pagou

2005-01-01

321

Reduction of cyanobacterial toxins through coprophagy in Mytilus edulis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to follow the fate of the cyanobacterial toxin, nodularin, produced by Nodularia spumigena through ingestion by Mytilus edulis and re-ingestion of faecal material (coprophagy). Mussels were fed with cultures of N. spumigena, and the faeces that were produced were fed to other mussels not previously exposed to N. spumigena. Concentrations of nodularin were measured in the

C. Svensen; E. Strogyloudi; C. Wexels Riser

322

Proteomics with a pinch of salt: A cyanobacterial perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are ancient life forms and have adapted to a variety of extreme environments, including high salinity. Biochemical, physiological and genetic studies have contributed to uncovering their underlying survival mechanisms, and as recent studies demonstrate, proteomics has the potential to increase our overall understanding further. To date, most salt-related cyanobacterial proteomic studies have utilised gel electrophoresis with the model organism

Jagroop Pandhal; Phillip C Wright; Catherine A Biggs

2008-01-01

323

Calcification in cyanobacterial biofilms of alkaline salt lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomicrobiological analysis of calcifying biofilms of three alkaline salt lakes characterized by moderate to high carbonate alkalinity indicates that microbial carbonate rock formation is not directly linked to cyanobacterial carbon fixation. The present review summarizes results from two published case studies that have been carried out at Pyramid Lake, USA, and Lake Nuoertu, PR China. New observations and data are

Gernot Arp; Andreas Reimer; Joachim Reitner

1999-01-01

324

State of knowledge and concerns on cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins  

E-print Network

not be under-stated, these ubiquitous microorganisms are mostly associated with eutrophic waters. Eutrophication of water resources is often considered as the primary cause of water quality impairment on a world and drinking water, including economic impacts and research needs. Cyanobacterial blooms usually occur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Monitoring changing toxigenicity of a cyanobacterial bloom by molecular methods.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial blooms are potential health hazards in water supply reservoirs. This paper reports analyses of a cyanobacterial bloom by use of PCR-based methods for direct detection and identification of strains present and determination of their toxigenicity. Serial samples from Malpas Dam, in the New England region of Australia, were analyzed during a prolonged, mixed cyanobacterial bloom in the summer of 2000 to 2001. Malpas Dam has been shown in the past to have toxic blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa that have caused liver damage in the human population drinking from this water supply reservoir. Cyanobacterial genera were detected at low cell numbers by PCR amplification of the phycocyanin intergenic spacer region between the genes for the beta and alpha subunits. The potential for microcystin production was determined by PCR amplification of a gene in the microcystin biosynthesis pathway. The potential for saxitoxin production was determined by PCR amplification of a region of the 16S rRNA gene of Anabaena circinalis strains. Toxicity of samples was established by mouse bioassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography. We show that bloom components can be identified and monitored for toxigenicity by PCR more effectively than by other methods such as microscopy and mouse bioassay. We also show that toxigenic strains of Anabaena and Microcystis spp. occur at this site and that, over the course of the bloom, the cell types and toxicity changed. This work demonstrates that PCR detection of potential toxicity can enhance the management of a significant public health hazard. PMID:12450830

Baker, Judith A; Entsch, Barrie; Neilan, Brett A; McKay, David B

2002-12-01

326

APTAMER CAPTURE AND OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRIC DETECTION OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacterial toxins have been identified as a health risk in source and finished waters passing through drinking water utilities in the United States. In this project, a rapid, sensitive and field usable sensor based on an aptamer modified planar waveguide interferometric se...

327

CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS AND 2005 ISOCHAB EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT WORKGROUP  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA, Office of Research and Development, in collaboration with other US federal agencies, is leading the organization of an International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms on 6-10 September, 2005. The goal of this symposium is to develop a comprehensive nat...

328

A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater habitats and species living in freshwater are generally more prone to extinction than terrestrial or marine ones. Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are thus of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many

G. Kostoski; C. Albrecht; S. Trajanovski; T. Wilke

2010-01-01

329

The monophyletic origin of freshwater cray sh estimated from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA  

E-print Network

The monophyletic origin of freshwater cray sh estimated from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA their widespread use as model organisms, the phylogenetic status of the around 520 species of freshwater cray¢sh is still in doubt. One hypothesis suggests two distinct origins of freshwater cray¢sh as indicated

Fetzner Jr., James W.

330

Effects of Glyphosate and Polyoxyethylenamine on Growth and Energetic Reserves in the Freshwater Crayfish Cherax  

E-print Network

Effects of Glyphosate and Polyoxyethylenamine on Growth and Energetic Reserves in the Freshwater: 19 March 2011 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 Abstract Freshwater crayfish Cherax and the decrease in lipid reserves associated with exposure to POEA. Cherax quadricarinatus is a freshwater species

Vatnick, Itzick

331

Persistence of Environmental DNA in Freshwater Tony Dejean1,2,3  

E-print Network

Persistence of Environmental DNA in Freshwater Ecosystems Tony Dejean1,2,3 , Alice Valentini1 in order to confirm the presence of the focus species in freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic vertebrates (fish reflects the persistence of DNA fragments in freshwater ecosystems. The short time persistence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

A review of the effects of heavy metals on freshwater mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread recent decline in the species diversity and population density of freshwater mussels in North America may be partly related to chronic, low-level exposure to toxic metals. As benthic filter-feeding organisms, freshwater mussels are exposed to metals that are dissolved in water, associated with suspended particles and deposited in bottom sediments. Thus, freshwater mussels can bioaccumulate certain metals to

Teresa J. Naimo

1995-01-01

333

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited growth rate effects  

E-print Network

Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and spe- cies. Organic Geochemistry. Two species of freshwater green algae, Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus, were grown in batch

Sachs, Julian P.

334

Thermal sensitivity of metabolic enzymes in subarctic and temperate freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature has a major impact on the physiological processes of freshwater invertebrates. Despite the endangered status of many freshwater mussel species and the potential effect of global warming on North America’s northern aquatic habitats, thermal sensitivity of the metabolic apparatus of freshwater bivalves has received little attention. By examining the thermal sensitivity of 10 key metabolic enzymes and in situ

Hélène Doucet-Beaupré; Caroline Dubé; Sophie Breton; Hans O. Pörtner; Pierre U. Blier

2010-01-01

335

Prevalence of chemical defenses among freshwater plants.  

PubMed

Although macrophyte herbivore interactions in freshwater systems were generally disregarded for many years, recent data suggest that herbivory can be intense and important in structuring freshwater communities. This has led to the hypothesis that chemical defenses should be common among freshwater plants, but few studies have reported such chemical defenses, and no previous studies have assessed the frequency of chemical defenses among a substantial number of freshwater plant species. In a study of 21 macrophyte species co-occurring with the omnivorous crayfish Procambarus acutus in a southeastern USA wetland environment, we found that extracts of 11 species (52%) deterred feeding by P. acutus when tested in artificial foods at natural concentrations. Of these 11 chemically defended species, one species, Eupatorium capillifolium, consistently had a more unpalatable extract following mechanical damage to plant tissue, indicative of an activated chemical defense. Because herbivores are commonly nitrogen-limited and select food based on several plant traits, including plant nutritional value, it might be expected that chemical defenses would be especially important for protein-rich plants. However, we found no relationship between soluble protein concentration and deterrence of plant extracts. PMID:16124238

Prusak, Anne C; O'Neal, Jennifer; Kubanek, Julia

2005-05-01

336

A Sensitive Determination of Iodine Species, Including Organoiodine, for Freshwater and Seawater Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Spectrophotometric Detection  

E-print Network

In order to more effectively use iodine isotope ratios, 129I/127I, as hydrological and geochemical tracers in aquatic systems, a new HPLC method was developed for the determination of iodine speciation. The dissolved iodine species that dominate...

Schwehr, K. A.; Santschi, P. H.

337

The loss of native biodiversity and continuing nonindigenous species introductions in freshwater, estuarine, and wetland communities of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benthic invertebrates and fishes of the estuarine, lower stream areas, and wetlands of Pearl Harbor were sampled from\\u000a 1997–1998 as a companion study to marine inventories conducted in Pearl Harbor. The first comprehensive assessment of the\\u000a area found that nonindigenous species comprise the dominant portion of the biota. A total of 191 aquatic species in 8 phyla\\u000a were identified

Ronald A. Englund

2002-01-01

338

ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH Endang Species Res  

E-print Network

mortality. In eastern Ontario, Canada, freshwater turtles are encountered as bycatch in an inland commercial impairments associated with fyke-net capture for 3 species of freshwater turtles (eastern musk turtle Sternotherus odoratus, northern map turtle Graptemys geographica and painted turtle Chrysemys picta

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

339

Inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by cyanobacterial extracts - indications of novel tumor promoting cyanotoxins?  

PubMed Central

Toxicity and liver tumor promotion of cyanotoxins microcystins have been extensively studied. However, recent studies document that other metabolites present in the complex cyanobacterial water blooms may also have adverse health effects. In this study we used rat liver epithelial stem-like cells (WB-F344) to examine the effects of cyanobacterial extracts on two established markers of tumor promotion, inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) – ERK1/2. Extracts of cyanobacteria (laboratory cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and water blooms dominated by these species) inhibited GJIC and activated MAPKs in a dose-dependent manner (effective concentrations ranging 0.5 - 5 mg d.w./mL). Effects were independent of the microcystin content and the strongest responses were elicited by the extracts of Aphanizomenon sp. Neither pure microcystin-LR nor cylindrospermopsin inhibited GJIC or activated MAPKs. Modulations of GJIC and MAPKs appeared to be specific to cyanobacterial extracts since extracts from green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, heterotrophic bacterium Klebsiella terrigena, and isolated bacterial lipopolysaccharides had no comparable effects. Our study provides the first evidence on the existence of unknown cyanobacterial toxic metabolites that affect in vitro biomarkers of tumor promotion, i.e. inhibition of GJIC and activation of MAPKs. PMID:19619572

Bláha, Lud?k; Babica, Pavel; Hilscherová, Klára; Upham, Brad L.

2009-01-01

340

Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1998-03-01

341

AVES.NET: The Freshwater Dinoflagellates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by AVES.NET, this website about Freshwater Dinoflagellates was created by Victor W. Fazio III and Dr. Susan Carty of Heidelberg College (Tiffin, Ohio). Two main attractions of this site are the Freshwater Dinoflagellate Image Archive, and the Recent Additions-Freshwater Dinoflagellate Images 2003 (from the 2003-04 winter field season). Individual Dinoflagellate image pages generally include a ventral view, dorsal view, or both, and the pages featuring species from Ohio include county distribution maps. Site visitors can email Dr. Carty for permission to use any of the images. The website also contains a List of Freshwater Dinoflagellates in Ohio, some of which link to the individual image pages. Additionally, the site offers a Review of Online Images of Freshwater Dinoflagellates including links to many other host sites, and a link to an online article by Dr. Susan Carty and Daniel E. Wujek entitled _A New Species of Peridinium and New Records of Dinoflagellates and Silica-Scaled Chrysophytes from Belize._ [NL

Carty, Susan; Fazio, Victor W. (1962-)

342

TOXICITY AND METABOLISM STUDIES WITH EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PRIORITY POLLUTANTS AND RELATED CHEMICALS IN FRESHWATER ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty-two chemicals from the EPA priority pollutant list were studied for their acute and/or chronic toxicity to selected freshwater organisms. Freshwater species tested included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis...

343

Role of fungi in freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with a greater number known from temperate, as compared to tropical, regions. Three main groups can be considered which include Ingoldian fungi, aquatic ascomycetes and non-Ingoldian hyphomycetes, chytrids and, oomycetes. The fungi occurring in lentic habitats mostly differ from those occurring in lotic habitats. Although there is no comprehensive work dealing

Michelle K. M. Wong; Teik-Khiang Goh; I. John Hodgkiss; Kevin D. Hyde; V. Mala Ranghoo; Clement K. M. Tsui; Wai-Hong Ho; Wilson S. W. Wong; Tsz-Kit Yuen

1998-01-01

344

Toxicity of vanadium to different freshwater organisms  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to determine the acute and subchronic toxicity of vanadium for various species of freshwater fish. The long-term toxicity and the effect of vanadium on the reproduction of Daphnia magna is also evaluated and compared with the toxicity of other metals.

Beusen, J.M.; Neven, B.

1987-08-01

345

A comparison of the growth and survival of two freshwater crayfish species, Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz and Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana), under different temperature and density regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth experiments carried out with two juvenile crayfish species, Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz and Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana), at different temperatures and densities highlighted the problem of cannibalism under conditions aimed at intensifying\\u000a crayfish production. Cannibalism proved to be much lower in A. leptodactylus than P. leniusculus, suggesting that the former might be the better candidate for astaciculture. In the first of

Muzaffer Mustafa Harl?o?lu

2009-01-01

346

Morphological variation in Echinorhynchus truttae Schrank, 1788 and the Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki & Valtonen, 1987 species complex from freshwater fishes of northern Europe  

PubMed Central

Abstract Echinorhynchus truttae and the Echinorhynchus bothniensis species complex are common parasites of salmoniform and other fishes in northern Europe. Echinorhynchus bothniensis and its sibling species Echinorhynchus 'bothniensis' are thought to be closely related to the Nearctic Echinorhynchus leidyi Van Cleave, 1924 based on morphological similarity and common usage of a mysid intermediate host. This study provides the first analysis of morphological and meristic variation in Echinorhynchus truttae and expands our knowledge of anatomical variability in the Echinorhynchus bothniensis group. Morphological variability in Echinorhynchus truttae was found to be far greater than previously reported, with part of the variance attributable to sexual dimorphism. Echinorhynchus truttae, the two species of the Echinorhynchus bothniensis group and Echinorhynchus leidyi displayed considerable interspecific overlap in the ranges of all conventional morphological characters. However, Proboscis profiler, a tool for detecting acanthocephalan morphotypes using multivariate analysis of hook morphometrics, successfully separated Echinorhynchus truttae from the other taxa. The Echinorhynchus bothniensis species group could not be reliably distinguished from Echinorhynchus leidyi (or each other), providing further evidence of the affinity of these taxa. Observations on the distribution of Echinorhynchus truttae in its definitive host population are also reported. PMID:24723769

2013-01-01

347

Effect of water pH on the toxicity of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol to four species of freshwater animals  

SciTech Connect

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol (TCP) is a weak acid with a pH of approximately 7.2 which is expected to have a significant effect upon its toxicity. Lumbriculus variegatus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, and Hyalella azteca were exposed to TCP in 96 h flow-through toxicity tests. For the first two species, simultaneous tests were conducted at three pH values (7.0, 7.8, 8.6). The other two species were tested at six pH values conducted in two sets of three simultaneous tests (6.2, 7.4, 8.6 and 6.8, 8.0, 9.2). All species tested showed decreased sensitivity to TCP with increased pH of the water. Over the pH range tested, LC50s for L. variegatus varied by about 5-fold, for P. promelas by 12-fold, for H. azteca by 10-fold, and for O. mykiss by 1.5-fold. The effects of pH on TCP toxicity to P. promelas was also tested in 30 day chronic tests at pH 7.0, 7.8 and 8.6. Survival in these tests was affected by pH similarly to the acute tests. Growth also was less severely affected at higher pH.

Brooke, L.T.; Markee, T.; Vande Venter, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States); Spehar, R.; Erickson, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1994-12-31

348

Comparison of 17 biotests for detection of cyanobacterial toxicity.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity of 17 acute bioassays of cyanobacterial toxicity by assessment of crude extracts of three cyanobacterial samples (all dominated by Microcystis sp. but substantially differing in microcystin-LR content). Toxicity of the fractions prepared by solid-phase extraction (SPE) for microcystins was also determined. The most sensitive bioassay was the 24-h test with crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus, which elicited high lethality in the samples and also in fractions without microcystins. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, protozoans Spirostomum ambiguum and Tetrahymena termophyla, and the crustacean Daphnia pulex formed the second group of sensitive bioassays. Good selective toxicity response to microcystins also was observed in the weakly sensitive biotests with the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Preconcentration of microcystins by SPE substantially decreased variation of the results in bioassays and improved the discriminating potential of most assays employed. PMID:15269901

Marsálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Ludek

2004-08-01

349

GC constituents and relative codon expressed amino acid composition in cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins.  

PubMed

The genomic as well as structural relationship of phycobiliproteins (PBPs) in different cyanobacterial species are determined by nucleotides as well as amino acid composition. The genomic GC constituents influence the amino acid variability and codon usage of particular subunit of PBPs. We have analyzed 11 cyanobacterial species to explore the variation of amino acids and causal relationship between GC constituents and codon usage. The study at the first, second and third levels of GC content showed relatively more amino acid variability on the levels of G3+C3 position in comparison to the first and second positions. The amino acid encoded GC rich level including G rich and C rich or both correlate the codon variability and amino acid availability. The fluctuation in amino acids such as Arg, Ala, His, Asp, Gly, Leu and Glu in ? and ? subunits was observed at G1C1 position; however, fluctuation in other amino acids such as Ser, Thr, Cys and Trp was observed at G2C2 position. The coding selection pressure of amino acids such as Ala, Thr, Tyr, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Asn, and Ser in ? and ? subunits of PBPs was more elaborated at G3C3 position. In this study, we observed that each subunit of PBPs is codon specific for particular amino acid. These results suggest that genomic constraint linked with GC constituents selects the codon for particular amino acids and furthermore, the codon level study may be a novel approach to explore many problems associated with genomics and proteomics of cyanobacteria. PMID:24933001

Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

2014-08-10

350

Screening, production, optimization and characterization of cyanobacterial polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnological applications of algal polysaccharide as emulsifiers, thickeners and laxatives have led to the screening and\\u000a selection of certain diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria from saline\\/alkaline soil of Madhya Pradesh, India. Strain specific\\u000a variation in cell bound, extracellular and total polysaccharide content was quantified under laboratory conditions. Among\\u000a the cyanobacterial isolates examined Nostoc calcicola RDU-3 was found to produce highest amount (105 mg l?1)

Surendra Singh; Shipra Das

351

Monitoring Survival and Preservation of Recent Cyanobacterial Mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geobiological evolution cyanobacterial mats have played a fundamental role through the development of early microbial carbonate ecosystems and through the sustainment of major biogeochemical cycling in the biosphere; nonetheless their sedimentary record is relatively modest in comparison with their biological impact; this apparent under-representation in the fossil record may be due to their intrinsic poor preservation potential but also to our inability to recognize some subtle microbial signatures. Modern studies on cyanobacterial mats involve high-tech molecular approaches to identify, analyze and even quantify the genetic diversity of ancient and modern microbial mats, yet the physical changes of mats, their survival and preservation potential, remain almost unknown and experimentally poorly explored. If we are going to succeed in the astrobiological quest for traces of life we should develop integrated methods and diagnostic features to address biosignatures at both, the phenotypic and genotypic levels when possible. The correct recognition and interpretation of biosignatures in this emerging field needs, aside these fine molecular tools, plain experimental approaches to test microbial resistance, survival and preservation potential of microbial mats after exposure to diagenetic changes. In this work we study some effects on fresh slices of cyanobacterial mats and cultures of specific external simulated agents that normally occur during diagenesis such as dehydratation, heat, abrasion or pressure among others. Samples from different cyanobacterial communities associated to carbonates collected from different rivers and falls around Mexico were subjected to same lab procedures. Physical and textural changes were monitored through microscopic analysis where cell integrity and mat cohesiveness were analyzed before and after treatment. Preliminary results show that mats enriched in halite and clay sediments were preferentially preserved; however those mats subjected to a rapid dehydration technique retained their original textural characteristics but their overall integrity was lost. Simple and direct observations like these help to get a better idea as to what to expect as biosignatures according to a specific environment, bridging the gap between the observer and the different types and scales of evidences.

Chacon, Elizabeth; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Camargo, Claudia

2010-05-01

352

Anti-cyanobacterial fatty acids released from Myriophyllum spicatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to identify unknown allelochemicals released from Myriophyllum spicatum and to investigate their anti-cyanobacterial effects. A series of analyses of culture solutions and methanol extracts of M. spicatum using gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector revealed that M. spicatum released fatty acids, specifically, nonanoic, tetradecanoic, hexadecanoic, octadecanoic, and octadecenoic acids. Nonanoic, cis-6-octadecenoic, and cis-9-octadecenoic

Satoshi Nakai; Shingo Yamada; Masaaki Hosomi

2005-01-01

353

Transatlantic Freshwater Aqueduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a technical and geopolitical reappraisal of a macro-engineering proposal to plumb Earth’s freshwater, siphoning\\u000a some of it from a region of surplus (Amazon River Basin) to a region of shortage (arid northern Africa) via his positively buoyant (subsurface floating) seabed-anchored Transatlantic Freshwater Aqueduct. Two different routes for\\u000a the pipeline, of length 4,317 and 3,745 km, respectively, have been

Viorel Badescu; Dragos Isvoranu; Richard B. Cathcart

2010-01-01

354

Promotion of oxidative stress in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum during biotransformation of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial toxins have been shown to have adverse effects on mammals, birds and fish and are therefore being increasingly recognised as a potent stress and health hazard factor in aquatic ecosystems. Microcystins, which are cyclic heptapeptides and a main group of the cyanotoxins, are mainly retained within the producer-cells during cyanobacterial bloom development. However, these toxins are released into the surrounding medium by senescence and lysis of the blooms. The released toxins could then come into contact with a wide range of aquatic organisms including invertebrates, fish and aquatic plants. In many organisms, biotransformation of the toxins will take place via several glutathione-related conjugate. During the biotransformation process in which the toxin and the toxin conjugate are broken down, the formation of reactive oxygen species might occur. These reactive oxygen species activate several antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and also influence the glutathione-ascorbate cycle. Aim of this study was to investigate formation of the glutathione-conjugate, activation of glutathione S-transferases and the elevation of several antioxidant enzymes giving evidence for the promotion of oxidative stress by microcystins. During exposure of Ceratophyllum demersum to the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR in an concentration of 5.0 microg/L, an elevation of microsomal and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase was measured, showing the beginning formation of the glutathione-toxin conjugate. The superoxide dismutase as well as in parallel the hydrogen peroxide level increased giving evidence for oxidative stress in the aquatic plant. Other reactive oxygen detoxifiying enzymes were also elevated and the glutathione pool, expressed in reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide concentration was changed accordingly. PMID:15550274

Pflugmacher, Stephan

2004-12-10

355

Effect of Incubation Temperature on the Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species from Freshwater Beaches, Nearby Wastewater Effluents, and Bird Fecal Droppings  

PubMed Central

This large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°C versus 42°C) to study the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario. The putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°C were confirmed by Campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 759 water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples were tested. Positive amplification reactions for the genus Campylobacter were found for 454 (60%) samples incubated at 37°C, compared to 258 (34%) samples incubated at 42°C. C. jejuni (16%) and C. lari (12%) were detected significantly more frequently at the 42°C incubation temperature than at 37°C (8% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher rates of C. coli (14%) and other Campylobacter spp. (36%) were detected at the 37°C incubation temperature than at 42°C (8% and 7%, respectively). These results were consistent across surface water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples. At times, Campylobacter spp. were recovered and detected at 37°C (3% for C. jejuni, 10% for C. coli, and 3% for C. lari) when the same samples incubated at 42°C were negative. A significantly higher rate of other Campylobacter spp. was detected only at 37°C (32%) than only at 42°C (3%). These results indicate that incubation temperature can significantly influence the culturability and detection of thermophilic and other fastidious Campylobacter spp. and that a comprehensive characterization of the Campylobacter spp. in surface water, wastewaters, or bird fecal droppings will require incubation at both 37 and 42°C. PMID:24077717

Hill, Stephen; Nowak, Eva; Edge, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

356

Identifying Canadian Freshwater Fishes through DNA Barcodes  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5? region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. Methodology/Principal Findings We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp “barcode” region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%). Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average), the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases). The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. Conclusions/Significance The present study evidenced that freshwater fish species can be efficiently identified through the use of DNA barcoding, especially the species complex of small-sized species, and that the present COI library can be used for subsequent applications in ecology and systematics. PMID:22423312

Hubert, Nicolas; Hanner, Robert; Holm, Erling; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Taylor, Eric; Burridge, Mary; Watkinson, Douglas; Dumont, Pierre; Curry, Allen; Bentzen, Paul; Zhang, Junbin; April, Julien; Bernatchez, Louis

2008-01-01

357

The effect of rock composition on cyanobacterial weathering of crystalline basalt and rhyolite.  

PubMed

The weathering of volcanic rocks contributes significantly to the global silicate weathering budget, effecting carbon dioxide drawdown and long-term climate control. The rate of chemical weathering is influenced by the composition of the rock. Rock-dwelling micro-organisms are known to play a role in changing the rate of weathering reactions; however, the influence of rock composition on bio-weathering is unknown. Cyanobacteria are known to be a ubiquitous surface taxon in volcanic rocks. In this study, we used a selection of fast and slow growing cyanobacterial species to compare microbial-mediated weathering of bulk crystalline rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic composition, under batch conditions. Cyanobacterial growth caused an increase in the pH of the medium and an acceleration of rock dissolution compared to the abiotic controls. For example, Anabaena cylindrica increased the linear release rate (R(i)(l)) of Ca, Mg, Si and K from the basalt by more than fivefold (5.21-12.48) and increased the pH of the medium by 1.9 units. Although A. cylindrica enhanced rhyolite weathering, the increase in R(i)(l) was less than threefold (2.04-2.97) and the pH increase was only 0.83 units. The R(i)(l) values obtained with A. cylindrica were at least ninefold greater with the basalt than the rhyolite, whereas in the abiotic controls, the difference was less than fivefold. Factors accounting for the slower rate of rhyolite weathering and lower biomass achieved are likely to include the higher content of quartz, which has a low rate of weathering and lower concentrations of bio-essential elements, such as, Ca, Fe and Mg, which are known to be important in controlling cyanobacterial growth. We show that at conditions where weathering is favoured, biota can enhance the difference between low and high Si-rock weathering. Our data show that cyanobacteria can play a significant role in enhancing rock weathering and likely have done since they evolved on the early Earth. PMID:22694082

Olsson-Francis, K; Simpson, A E; Wolff-Boenisch, D; Cockell, C S

2012-09-01

358

Two new freshwater fish species of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from karst poljes in Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik littoral (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species, Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi, are described on the basis of morphological comparisons of isolated geographical populations of fishes identified earlier as Telestes metohiensis. A lectotype is designated for Telestes metohiensis, whose range is shown to include waters of Gata?ko, Cerni?ko, and Nevesinjsko poljes in Eastern Herzegovina. Telestes dabar from Dabarsko Polje (Eastern Herzegovina) and Telestes miloradi from Konavosko Polje (south Croatia) share with Telestes metohiensis the following combination of characters that distinguish them from the rest of the genus Telestes: pharyngeal teeth in one row, usually 5–4; preoperculo-mandibular canal not communicating with the infraorbital canal; mouth subterminal, the tip of the mouth cleft on or below the level of the ventral margin of the eye; postcleithrum minute or absent; ventral portion of the trunk with a dark stripe on a pale background; and dorsal portion of trunk uniformly dark and bordered ventrally by a dark midlateral stripe. Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi are distinguishable from Telestes metohiensis in usually having 8½ branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. usually 7½), 9 or 10 gill rakers (vs. 7–10, usually 8), and the dark stripe on the ventral portion of the trunk below the main pigmented area of the back narrow and usually not reaching posteriorly to the caudal peduncle (vs. dark stripe wide and extending posteriorly to the caudal peduncle). Telestes dabar is distinguished from Telestes miloradi by having scales on most of the body situated close to one another and overlapping in a region behind the pectoral girdle and usually on the caudal peduncle (vs. overlapping scales on most of the body); the lateral line usually incomplete and interrupted, with 24–69, usually 54–65, total scales (vs. lateral line usually complete, with 55–67 total scales); scales above and below the lateral line slightly smaller than lateral-line scales (vs. of about equal size); head width 43–52% HL (vs. 48–58% HL); and lower jaw length 10–12% SL or 36–41% HL (vs. 8–10% SL or 33–38% HL). Telestes miloradi, a very local endemic species,is known only by historical samples. Telestes dabar is an abundant fish in Dabarsko Polje, but its range is critically restricted during the dry season by a few permanent sources. Nothing is known about its occurrence in underground karst waters. PMID:22539906

Bogutskaya, Nina G.; Zupancic, Primoz; Bogut, Ivan; Naseka, Alexander M.

2012-01-01

359

Phytotoxic effects of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a: morphological, physiological and biochemical responses in aquatic macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum.  

PubMed

Anatoxin-a is one of the common and major cyanobacterial neurotoxins acting as a powerful agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In recent years, the toxin has become the focus of public attention, due to the mass development of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial blooms) in freshwater bodies triggered by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a is suspected to have a distinct toxic mechanism depending on physiological and nervous systems in exposed organisms. The numerous researches have been actively conducted with respect to the toxic effects of anatoxin-a on mammals; however, little research has aimed at its possible effects on aquatic plants, wherein well-structured nervous system is absent with the lack of various components of the acetylcholine mechanism. In this study, submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was adopted to examine the effects of anatoxin-a on morphological (growth), physiological (photosynthetic pigment contents) and biochemical (hydrogen peroxide level, biotransformation and antioxidative enzymes) responses in the aquatic plant at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 50 ?g/L). The significant elevation of antioxidative enzymes in parallel with increased formation of hydrogen peroxide appeared from 0.5 ?g/L of anatoxin-a. In the measurement of photosynthetic pigments, the decrease in chlorophyll a content was detected at 5 and 50 ?g/L, whereas the increase in carotenoids/total chlorophyll was observed from 0.05 ?g/L. Accordingly, the alteration in growth was manifested in the presence of 5 and 50 ?g/L of anatoxin-a. The results clearly indicate that anatoxin-a can disrupt homeostasis of C. demersum through induction of oxidative stress; furthermore this aquatic plant possesses effective defense mechanisms to cope with low concentrations of anatoxin-a. PMID:23578514

Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan

2013-08-01

360

Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate pesticides and other contaminants. Biomarker data on individual fish, generated at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center (Lafayette, La.), included percent white blood cells in whole blood, spleen weight to body weight ratio, liver weight to body weight ratio, condition factor, splenic macrophage aggregates, and liver microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Fish age was estimated by comparing total lengths with values from the same species in the Southeast United States as determined from the literature. Contaminant analyses were coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Analytical Control Facility (Laurel, Md.), where residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and trace elements were determined. The organic contaminant data were generated at the Mississippi State University Chemical Lab (Mississippi State, Miss.), and the inorganic contaminant data were generated by the Texas A&M University Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (College Station, Tex.). Statistical tests were performed to assess relationships among contaminants, fish age, fish species, and collection sites.

Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

2008-01-01

361

Evolution of active host-attraction strategies in the freshwater mussel tribe Lampsilini (Bivalvia: Unionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) require a host, usually a fish, to complete their life cycle. Most species of mussels show adaptations that increase the chances of glochidia larvae contacting a host. We investigated the evolutionary relationships of the freshwater mussel tribe Lampsilini including 49 of the approximately 100 extant species including 21 of the 24 recognized genera. Mitochondrial DNA

David T. Zanatta; Robert W. Murphy

2006-01-01

362

First records of freshwater molluscs from the ecological reserve El Edén, Quintana Roo, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of the freshwater molluscs at El Edén was unknown. This is the fi rst treatment of them, allowing us to compare spatial and temporal species distribution. Eleven species of freshwater molluscs were found in 2 surveys carried in March (dry season) and September (rainy season) 1998 at the reserve El Edén. A total of 266 individuals were collected;

Roberto Cózatl-Manzano; Edna Naranjo-García

363

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

E-print Network

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion-13, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, U.S.A. Abstract: We collected six species of freshwater snails from-emerged as a prominent component of the freshwater snail fauna since it disappeared or was locally eradicated

Dillon, Robert T.

364

Bacterial Flora of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man), Cultured in Concrete Tanks in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial counts and the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial flora in the digestive tract of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in Saudi Arabia were investigated, and the isolates were identified to the species level. Physicochemical characteristics, bacterial counts, and bacterial flora of freshwater prawn culture tank water, tank sediment, and freshwater prawn carapace were also investigated. Total viable bacterial counts ranged from

Ahmed H. Al-Harbi

2003-01-01

365

An in vivo system involving co-expression of cyanobacterial flavodoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase confers increased tolerance to oxidative stress in plants  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress in plants causes ferredoxin down-regulation and NADP+ shortage, over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, electron leakage to oxygen and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Expression of cyanobacterial flavodoxin in tobacco chloroplasts compensates for ferredoxin decline and restores electron delivery to productive routes, resulting in enhanced stress tolerance. We have designed an in vivo system to optimize flavodoxin reduction and NADP+ regeneration under stress using a version of cyanobacterial ferredoxin–NADP+ reductase without the thylakoid-binding domain. Co-expression of the two soluble flavoproteins in the chloroplast stroma resulted in lines displaying maximal tolerance to redox-cycling oxidants, lower damage and decreased ROS accumulation. The results underscore the importance of chloroplast redox homeostasis in plants exposed to adverse conditions, and provide a tool to improve crop tolerance toward environmental hardships. PMID:23650570

Giro, Mariana; Ceccoli, Romina D.; Poli, Hugo O.; Carrillo, Nestor; Lodeyro, Anabella F.

2011-01-01

366

Horizontal Gene Transfer in Cyanobacterial Signature Genes Shailaja Yerrapragada, Janet L. Siefert, and George E. Fox  

E-print Network

Chapter 20 Horizontal Gene Transfer in Cyanobacterial Signature Genes Shailaja Yerrapragada, Janet candidates for HGT among closely related cyanobacterial strains. Key words: Horizontal gene transfer.), Horizontal Gene Transfer: Genomes in Flux, vol. 532 C Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media

Fox, George

367

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacterial System (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to develop an O{sub 2}-tolerant cyanobacterial system for continuous light-driven H{sub 2} production from water. The overall goal is to produce a cyanobacterial recombinant to produce H{sub 2} continuously.

Xu, Q.; Smith, H. O.; Maness, P.-C.

2007-05-01

368

Evolution of a cyanobacterial bloom forecast system in western Lake Erie: Development and initial evaluation  

E-print Network

to the forecast system. Harmful algal blooms of the genus Microcystis were found in all 3 yearsEvolution of a cyanobacterial bloom forecast system in western Lake Erie: Development and initial and Atmospheric Administration began monitoring cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie using high temporal resolution

369

Effects of harmful cyanobacteria on the freshwater pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii.  

PubMed

Grazing is a major regulating factor in cyanobacterial population dynamics and, subsequently, considerable effort has been spent on investigating the effects of cyanotoxins on major metazoan grazers. However, protozoan grazers such as free-living amoebae can also feed efficiently on cyanobacteria, while simultaneously posing a major threat for public health as parasites of humans and potential reservoirs of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, we conducted several experiments in which the freshwater amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was exposed to pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and six cyanobacterial strains, three MC-producing strains (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-WR, [Dha7] MC-RR) and three strains containing other oligopeptides such as anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins. Although the exposure to high concentrations of pure MC-LR yielded no effects on amoeba, all MC-producing strains inflicted high mortality rates on amoeba populations, suggesting that toxic effects must be mediated through the ingestion of toxic cells. Interestingly, an anabaenopeptin-producing strain caused the greatest inhibition of amoeba growth, indicating that toxic bioactive compounds other than MCs are of great importance for amoebae grazers. Confocal scanning microscopy revealed different alterations in amoeba cytoskeleton integrity and as such, the observed declines in amoeba densities could have indeed been caused via a cascade of cellular events primarily triggered by oligopeptides with protein-phosphatase inhibition capabilities such as MCs or anabaenopeptins. Moreover, inducible-defense mechanisms such as the egestion of toxic, MC-producing cyanobacterial cells and the increase of resting stages (encystation) in amoebae co-cultivated with all cyanobacterial strains were observed in our experiments. Consequently, cyanobacterial strains showed different susceptibilities to amoeba grazing which were possibly influenced by the potentiality of their toxic secondary metabolites. Hence, this study shows the importance of cyanobacterial toxicity against amoeba grazing and, that cyanobacteria may contain a wide range of chemical compounds capable of negatively affect free-living, herbivorous amoebae. Moreover, this is of high importance for understanding the interactions and population dynamics of such organisms in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23333903

Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo; Agha, Ramsy; Cirés, Samuel; Lezcano, María Ángeles; Sánchez-Contreras, María; Waara, Karl-Otto; Utkilen, Hans; Quesada, Antonio

2013-04-15

370

Are native naiads more tolerant to pollution than exotic freshwater bivalve species? An hypothesis tested using physiological responses of three species transplanted to mercury contaminated sites in the Ebro River (NE, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lower Ebro River exist the paradoxical convergence of relatively well preserved river dynamics with the historical presence of a chloralkali plant with a long history of mercury discharges and the recent invasion of foreign bivalves species. Here we performed a comparative study on two alien bivalves, the Zebra mussel and the Asian clam (Dreissena polymorpha and Corbicula fluminea),

Melissa Faria; Miguel Angel López; Sergi Díez; Carlos Barata

371

A Novel Cyanophage with a Cyanobacterial Nonbleaching Protein A Gene in the Genome  

PubMed Central

A cyanophage, PaV-LD, has been isolated from harmful filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii in Lake Donghu, a shallow freshwater lake in China. Here, we present the cyanophage's genomic organization and major structural proteins. The genome is a 95,299-bp-long, linear double-stranded DNA and contains 142 potential genes. BLAST searches revealed 29 proteins of known function in cyanophages, cyanobacteria, or bacteria. Thirteen major structural proteins ranging in size from 27 kDa to 172 kDa were identified by SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometric analysis. The genome lacks major genes that are necessary to the tail structure, and the tailless PaV-LD has been confirmed by an electron microscopy comparison with other tail cyanophages and phages. Phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid proteins also reveals an independent branch of PaV-LD that is quite different from other known tail cyanophages and phages. Moreover, the unique genome carries a nonbleaching protein A (NblA) gene (open reading frame [ORF] 022L), which is present in all phycobilisome-containing organisms and mediates phycobilisome degradation. Western blot detection confirmed that 022L was expressed after PaV-LD infection in the host filamentous cyanobacterium. In addition, its appearance was companied by a significant decline of phycocyanobilin content and a color change of the cyanobacterial cells from blue-green to yellow-green. The biological function of PaV-LD nblA was further confirmed by expression in a model cyanobacterium via an integration platform, by spectroscopic analysis and electron microscopy observation. The data indicate that PaV-LD is an exceptional cyanophage of filamentous cyanobacteria, and this novel cyanophage will also provide us with a new vision of the cyanophage-host interactions. PMID:22031930

Gao, E-Bin; Gui, Jian-Fang

2012-01-01

372

Freshwater macro-invertebrates of Namibia  

E-print Network

The identification and conservation status of Namibian representatives of eight freshwater invertebrate phyla are discussed, as are the faunas of different wetland types. The species identified and localities recorded form only a fraction of those that actually occur. About 50 species are probably endemic (occurring only in Namibia). The greatest recorded speciation and number of endemics is in the Ostracoda. All seven amphipod and isopod species are likely to be endemic due to their unique stygobiotic (cave-dwelling) habitat. The two largest groups, the Coleoptera and the dipteran larvae, together have 14 potentially endemic species. Most identified species are from the Kavango River, springs throughout the country, and man-made waterholes. The Cunene River fauna is unique in Namibia, but probably represents the southern limit of the Angolan fauna. The number of identified species from the Cunene, East Caprivi, Bushmanland and the southern pans probably grossly under-represents the actual number of species occurring there.

B. A. Curtis

1990-01-01

373

Restricted-Range Fishes and the Conservation of Brazilian Freshwaters  

PubMed Central

Background Freshwaters are the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Although recent assessments provide data on global priority regions for freshwater conservation, local scale priorities remain unknown. Refining the scale of global biodiversity assessments (both at terrestrial and freshwater realms) and translating these into conservation priorities on the ground remains a major challenge to biodiversity science, and depends directly on species occurrence data of high taxonomic and geographic resolution. Brazil harbors the richest freshwater ichthyofauna in the world, but knowledge on endemic areas and conservation in Brazilian rivers is still scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data on environmental threats and revised species distribution data we detect and delineate 540 small watershed areas harboring 819 restricted-range fishes in Brazil. Many of these areas are already highly threatened, as 159 (29%) watersheds have lost more than 70% of their original vegetation cover, and only 141 (26%) show significant overlap with formally protected areas or indigenous lands. We detected 220 (40%) critical watersheds overlapping hydroelectric dams or showing both poor formal protection and widespread habitat loss; these sites harbor 344 endemic fish species that may face extinction if no conservation action is in place in the near future. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first analysis of site-scale conservation priorities in the richest freshwater ecosystems of the globe. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that freshwater biodiversity has been neglected in former conservation assessments. The study provides a simple and straightforward method for detecting freshwater priority areas based on endemism and threat, and represents a starting point for integrating freshwater and terrestrial conservation in representative and biogeographically consistent site-scale conservation strategies, that may be scaled-up following naturally linked drainage systems. Proper management (e. g. forestry code enforcement, landscape planning) and conservation (e. g. formal protection) of the 540 watersheds detected herein will be decisive in avoiding species extinction in the richest aquatic ecosystems on the planet. PMID:20613986

Nogueira, Cristiano; Buckup, Paulo A.; Menezes, Naercio A.; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T.; Kasecker, Thais P.; Ramos Neto, Mario B.; da Silva, Jose Maria C.

2010-01-01

374

On some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy.  

PubMed

The paper presents a systematic survey of some cestodes parasitizing freshwater fish in Italy. The following eight species were recorded: Monobothrium wageneri, Cyathocephalus truncatus, Triaenophorus nodulosus (plerocercoids and adults), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, B. claviceps, Ligula intestinalis (plerocercoids), Schistocephalus sp. (plerocercoids) and Proteocephalus percae from Perca fluviatilis which is reported from freshwater fish in Italy for the first time. All the tapeworms recovered are described and figured. PMID:1339972

Scholz, T; Paggi, L; Di Cave, D; Orecchia, P

1992-12-01

375

Causes and Controls of Freshwater Drum Mortality during Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens is an abundant and underutilized species in Lake Eric. Transportation of live fish from commercial shore seines to pay-fishing lakes causes high immediate and delayed mortality during warm summer months. Freshwater drums transported 6 hours had 4% immediate mortality and 94% delayed mortality (over 1–2 weeks). Salt (5 g\\/liter NaCl), low hauled-fish densities (60 g

David L. Johnson; Michael T. Metcalf

1982-01-01

376

State of knowledge and concerns on cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous microorganisms considered as important contributors to the formation of Earth's atmosphere and nitrogen fixation. However, they are also frequently associated with toxic blooms. Indeed, the wide range of hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatotoxins synthesized by these bacteria is a growing environmental and public health concern. This paper provides a state of the art on the occurrence and management of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in surface and drinking water, including economic impacts and research needs. Cyanobacterial blooms usually occur according to a combination of environmental factors e.g., nutrient concentration, water temperature, light intensity, salinity, water movement, stagnation and residence time, as well as several other variables. These environmental variables, in turn, have promoted the evolution and biosynthesis of strain-specific, gene-controlled metabolites (cyanotoxins) that are often harmful to aquatic and terrestrial life, including humans. Cyanotoxins are primarily produced intracellularly during the exponential growth phase. Release of toxins into water can occur during cell death or senescence but can also be due to evolutionary-derived or environmentally-mediated circumstances such as allelopathy or relatively sudden nutrient limitation. Consequently, when cyanobacterial blooms occur in drinking water resources, treatment has to remove both cyanobacteria (avoiding cell lysis and subsequent toxin release) and aqueous cyanotoxins previously released. Cells are usually removed with limited lysis by physical processes such as clarification or membrane filtration. However, aqueous toxins are usually removed by both physical retention, through adsorption on activated carbon or reverse osmosis, and chemical oxidation, through ozonation or chlorination. While the efficient oxidation of the more common cyanotoxins (microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin and saxitoxin) has been extensively reported, the chemical and toxicological characterization of their by-products requires further investigation. In addition, future research should also investigate the removal of poorly considered cyanotoxins (?-methylamino-alanine, lyngbyatoxin or aplysiatoxin) as well as the economic impact of blooms. PMID:23892224

Merel, Sylvain; Walker, David; Chicana, Ruth; Snyder, Shane; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

2013-09-01

377

Highly plastic genome of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, a ubiquitous toxic freshwater cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There has been little investigation of the genomics of these cyanobacteria. Results Deciphering the 5,172,804 bp sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 has revealed the high plasticity of its genome: 11.7% DNA repeats containing more than 1,000 bases, 6.8% putative transposases and 21 putative restriction enzymes. Compared to the genomes of other cyanobacterial lineages, strain PCC 7806 contains a large number of atypical genes that may have been acquired by lateral transfers. Metabolic pathways, such as fermentation and a methionine salvage pathway, have been identified, as have genes for programmed cell death that may be related to the rapid disappearance of Microcystis blooms in nature. Analysis of the PCC 7806 genome also reveals striking novel biosynthetic features that might help to elucidate the ecological impact of secondary metabolites and lead to the discovery of novel metabolites for new biotechnological applications. M. aeruginosa and other large cyanobacterial genomes exhibit a rapid loss of synteny in contrast to other microbial genomes. Conclusion Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 appears to have adopted an evolutionary strategy relying on unusual genome plasticity to adapt to eutrophic freshwater ecosystems, a property shared by another strain of M. aeruginosa (NIES-843). Comparisons of the genomes of PCC 7806 and other cyanobacterial strains indicate that a similar strategy may have also been used by the marine strain Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 to adapt to other ecological niches, such as oligotrophic open oceans. PMID:18534010

Frangeul, Lionel; Quillardet, Philippe; Castets, Anne-Marie; Humbert, Jean-Francois; Matthijs, Hans CP; Cortez, Diego; Tolonen, Andrew; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Kehr, Jan-Christoph; Zilliges, Yvonne; Ziemert, Nadine; Becker, Sven; Talla, Emmanuel; Latifi, Amel; Billault, Alain; Lepelletier, Anthony; Dittmann, Elke; Bouchier, Christiane; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole

2008-01-01

378

Microcystins in Slovene freshwaters (central Europe)--first report.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial blooms are frequent in the North-Eastern region of Slovenia, where the agricultural activities are intensive, resulting in higher water eutrophication. In a two year monitoring program we identified eighteen blooms of cyanobacteria, fifteen being hepatotoxic by intraperitoneal mouse bioassay. The approximate LD100 varied from 50-1000 mg/kg (dry cell weight/animal weight) and gross pathological signs were characteristic of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. Frequently the blooms were dominated by the most common and cosmopolitan species Microcystis aeruginosa. Other bloom forming species were M. wesenbergii, Oscillatoria rubescens, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), three hepatotoxins were identified, microcystin RR being the most frequent and present in highest amounts, LR, and YR. The phytoplankton analysis revealed that several different species of cyanobacteria were present in the water bodies at the time of the blooms. Although present in various water bodies, filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacteria had no chance to proliferate in the presence of the colonial genus Microcystis. In individual cases we were faced with a bloom in the bloom, meaning that various Microcystis aeruginosa blooms were heavily contaminated with another cyanobacteria, Phormidium mucicola which infested the mucilage of the chroococcal species. PMID:9131592

Sedmak, B; Kosi, G

1997-01-01

379

Biomes: Freshwater and Seawater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. Students conduct research by sampling organisms in a nearby freshwater habitat to determine how an organism's behavior and adaptation relate to its habitat, and how freshwater habitats have different characteristics depending on whether water is still or moving. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

380

Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyanobacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryptoendolithic microbial communities in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) are characterized on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi. Two eukaryotic communities (the lichen-dominated and Hemichloris communities) and three cyanobacterial communities (the red Gloeocapsa, Hormathonema-Gloeocapsa, and Chroococcidiopsis communities) are described. Eleven coccoid, one pleurocapsoid, and five filamentous cyanobacteria occurring in these communities are characterized and illustrated. The moisture grade of the rock substrate seems to affect pH, formation of primary iron stain, and the distribution of microbial communities.

Friedmann, E. I.; Hua, M.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

1988-01-01

381

Freshwater and Marine Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Freshwater and Marine Image Bank is an ongoing digital collection of images related to freshwater and marine topics, in all their diversity. It includes images of fish, shellfish, and marine mammals, pictures of fish hatcheries and dams and vessels, materials related to polar exploration, regional and traditional fisheries, and limnological (freshwater) subjects. Its scope is global.

Washington, University O.

2010-02-16

382

The effect of cyanobacterial crude extract on the transcription of GST mu, GST kappa and GST rho in different organs of goldfish (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

The glutathione S-transferases play important roles in the detoxification of microcystin. Core-sequences of three classes of GST (mu, kappa and rho) were cloned from goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) i.p. injected with cyanobacterial crude extract at two doses (50 and 200 microg MC-LReq kg(-1)BW). The relative changes of the mRNA abundance in liver, kidney and intestine were analyzed by real-time PCR. The transcription of GST mu was inhibited in intestine at both doses and the transcription of GST kappa was inhibited from 12 to 48h in kidney at both doses. The decreased transcription of GST rho was detected in all three organs at the high dose. It is suggested that transcription inhibition of GST rho might be significant in MCs toxicity at higher toxin concentration in omnivorous freshwater fish. Alteration in transcription of GSTs stimulated by MCs implicates an increased health risk to fish. PMID:18760847

Hao, Le; Xie, Ping; Fu, Juan; Li, Guangyu; Xiong, Qian; Li, Huiying

2008-10-20

383

Global diversity of freshwater birds (Aves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the 10,000 birds species living on earth, 5% (e.g., 560) need imperatively freshwater habitat in order to satisfy at\\u000a least one of their life history traits. About 11 completed families could even disappear if their wetland habitat left. About\\u000a 10% (58) of these can be considered as endemic. Africa contains the biggest number of endemic (20) and more precisely

Olivier Dehorter; Matthieu Guillemain

384

Global diversity of freshwater birds (Aves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the 10,000 birds species living on earth, 5% (e.g., 560) need imperatively freshwater habitat in order to satisfy at\\u000a least one of their life history traits. About 11 completed families could even disappear if their wetland habitat left. About\\u000a 10% (58) of these can be considered as endemic. Africa contains the biggest number of endemic (20) and more precisely

Olivier Dehorter; Matthieu Guillemain

2008-01-01

385

Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastid phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus  

PubMed Central

Chloroplasts were once free-living cyanobacteria that became endosymbionts, but the genomes of contemporary plastids encode only ?5–10% as many genes as those of their free-living cousins, indicating that many genes were either lost from plastids or transferred to the nucleus during the course of plant evolution. Previous estimates have suggested that between 800 and perhaps as many as 2,000 genes in the Arabidopsis genome might come from cyanobacteria, but genome-wide phylogenetic surveys that could provide direct estimates of this number are lacking. We compared 24,990 proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis genome to the proteins from three cyanobacterial genomes, 16 other prokaryotic reference genomes, and yeast. Of 9,368 Arabidopsis proteins sufficiently conserved for primary sequence comparison, 866 detected homologues only among cyanobacteria and 834 other branched with cyanobacterial homologues in phylogenetic trees. Extrapolating from these conserved proteins to the whole genome, the data suggest that ?4,500 of Arabidopsis protein-coding genes (?18% of the total) were acquired from the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids. These proteins encompass all functional classes, and the majority of them are targeted to cell compartments other than the chloroplast. Analysis of 15 sequenced chloroplast genomes revealed 117 nuclear-encoded proteins that are also still present in at least one chloroplast genome. A phylogeny of chloroplast genomes inferred from 41 proteins and 8,303 amino acids sites indicates that at least two independent secondary endosymbiotic events have occurred involving red algae and that amino acid composition bias in chloroplast proteins strongly affects plastid genome phylogeny. PMID:12218172

Martin, William; Rujan, Tamas; Richly, Erik; Hansen, Andrea; Cornelsen, Sabine; Lins, Thomas; Leister, Dario; Stoebe, Bettina; Hasegawa, Masami; Penny, David

2002-01-01

386

DECOMPOSITION IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the sources and composition of organic matter and the decomposition of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM) in freshwater ecosystems. The main points to emerge from the review are listed below.1. Terrestrial plant material is an important source of allochthonous POM in lotlc systems.2. In lentic systems important autochthonous sources of DOM are the algae

R. D. Robarts

1986-01-01

387

Freshwater Marsh. Habitat Pac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans and student data sheets, and a poster. The overview describes how the freshwater marsh is an important natural resource for plant, animal, and human populations and how the destruction of marshes causes…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

388

Fungi associated with the diseases of freshwater fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of present investigations 43 isolates representing 5 genera of Saprolegniaceous fungi were isolated from 19 different species of freshwater fishes. The parasitic abilities of these isolates have been demonstrated by conducting artificial inoculation experiments under laboratory conditions using the species of Puntius and Colisa as test fishes.

R. C. Srivastava; G. C. Srivastava

1978-01-01

389

Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda.

2014-01-01

390

Macrophyte colonization in a freshwater tidal wetland (Lyme, CT, USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed bank sampling and creation of plots cleared of standing vegetation showed that aboveground vegetative propagules were more important than seeds in colonization of a freshwater tidal wetland but that the relative importance of sexual reproduction varied among species. Nine submerged species established in colonization plots. Of these colonization events, 60% were achieved by plant fragments, either in the sediment

Robert S. Capers

2003-01-01

391

Similarities in Acute Temperature Preferences of Freshwater Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of new and published laboratory data revealed strong geographic similarities in acute (up to 4-hour) temperature preferences for several freshwater fishes. Regression models developed from our laboratory studies predicted acute temperature preferences of species from other geographic areas. Species within a family (three cyprinids, two ictalurids, and six centrarchids were tested) have similar acute preferenda, except that

Dilip Mathur; Robert M. Schutsky; Edmund J. Purdy Jr; Carl A. Silver

1981-01-01

392

Similarities in acute temperature preferences of freshwater fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of new and published laboratory data revealed strong geographic similarities in acute (up to 4-h) temperature preferences for several freshwater fishes. Regression models developed from our laboratory studies predicted acute temperature preferences of species from other geographic areas. Species within a family (three cyprinids, two ictalurids, and six centrarchids were tested) have similar acute preferenda, except that

DILIP MATHUR; ROBERT M. SCHUTSKY; EDMUND J. PURDY; CARL A. SILVER

1981-01-01

393

Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium by a cyanobacterial mat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study comprises the use of cyanobacterial mat (collected from tannery effluent site) to remove hexavalent chromium. This mat was consortium of cyanobacteria/blue-green algae such as Chlorella sp., Phormidium sp. and Oscillatoria sp. The adsorption experiments were carried out in batches using chromium concentrations 2-10, 15-30 and 300 ppm at pH 5.5-6.2. The adsorption started within 15 min; however, 96 % reduction in metal concentration was observed within 210 min. The adsorption phenomenon was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. This biosorption fitted Freundlich adsorption isotherm very well. It was observed that the best adsorption was at 4 ppm, and at 25 ppm in the chosen concentration ranges. Scanning electron micrograph showed the physiology of mat, indicating sites for metal uptake. The main focus was collection of the cyanobacterial mat from local environments and its chromium removal potential at pH 5.5-6.2.

Shukla, Dhara; Vankar, Padma S.; Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar

2012-12-01

394

Liver slice culture for assessing hepatotoxicity of freshwater cyanobacteria.  

PubMed

1. A modified mouse liver slice culture technique was established and the viability of the system was assessed on the basis of leakage of cytosolic enzymes viz. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and slice histology. 2. This system was employed for toxicity screening of five algal species of Indian origin on the basis of the EC50 for LDH leakage (dose of cyanobacteria resulting in leakage of 50% of enzyme) of a known toxic cyanobacterial strain Microcystis aeruginosa (PCC 7820). On the basis of both in vitro and in vivo toxicity none of the five species screened exhibited toxicity. 3. The toxicity of PCC 7820 was compared with a purified cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, Microcystin-LR. Various biochemical indices and histological changes confirm the hepatotoxic nature of the toxins. 4. The toxins did not induce glutathione-mediated lipid peroxidation but they did cause significant mitochondrial damage based on an MTT assay. 5. The study illustrates the utility of this in vitro system in identifying naturally occurring toxic cyanobacteria, particularly hepatotoxic species. PMID:8645500

Bhattacharya, R; Rao, P V; Bhaskar, A S; Pant, S C; Dube, S N

1996-02-01

395

Decrease of NH4+-N by bacterioplankton accelerated the removal of cyanobacterial blooms in aerated aquatic ecosystem.  

PubMed

We used aerated systems to assess the influence of the bacterioplankton community on cyanobacterial blooms in algae/post-bloom of Lake Taihu, China. Bacterioplankton community diversity was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. Chemical analysis and nitrogen dynamic changes illustrated that NH4+-N was nitrified to NO2--N and NO3--N by bacterioplankton. Finally, NH4+-N was exhausted and NO3--N was denitrified to NO2--N, while the accumulation of NO2--N indicated that bacterioplankton with completely aerobic denitrification ability were lacking in the water samples collected from Lake Taihu. We suggested that adding completely aerobic denitrification bacteria (to denitrify NO2--N to N2) would improve the water quality. PCR-DGGE and sequencing results showed that more than1/3 of the bacterial species were associated with the removal of nitrogen, and Acidovorax temperans was the dominant one. PCR-DGGE, variation of nitrogen, removal efficiencies of chlorophyll-a and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the bacterioplanktonsignificantly influenced the physiological and biochemical changes of cyanobacteria. Additionally, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means revealed there was no obvious harm to the microecosystem from aeration. The present study demonstrated that bacterioplankton can play crucial roles in aerated ecosystems, which could control the impact of cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophicated fresh water systems. PMID:24552050

Yang, Xi; Xie, Ping; Ma, Zhimei; Wang, Qing; Fan, Huihui; Shen, Hong

2013-11-01

396

Comparison of the respiratory metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we compared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The results showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater; while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Li, Ying

2013-11-01

397

Persistence of Environmental DNA in Freshwater Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The precise knowledge of species distribution is a key step in conservation biology. However, species detection can be extremely difficult in many environments, specific life stages and in populations at very low density. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge on DNA persistence in water in order to confirm the presence of the focus species in freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic vertebrates (fish: Siberian sturgeon and amphibian: Bullfrog tadpoles) were used as target species. In control conditions (tanks) and in the field (ponds), the DNA detectability decreases with time after the removal of the species source of DNA. DNA was detectable for less than one month in both conditions. The density of individuals also influences the dynamics of DNA detectability in water samples. The dynamics of detectability reflects the persistence of DNA fragments in freshwater ecosystems. The short time persistence of detectable amounts of DNA opens perspectives in conservation biology, by allowing access to the presence or absence of species e.g. rare, secretive, potentially invasive, or at low density. This knowledge of DNA persistence will greatly influence planning of biodiversity inventories and biosecurity surveys. PMID:21858099

Dejean, Tony; Valentini, Alice; Duparc, Antoine; Pellier-Cuit, Stephanie; Pompanon, Francois; Taberlet, Pierre; Miaud, Claude

2011-01-01

398

Cyanobacterial and microcystins dynamics following the application of hydrogen peroxide to waste stabilisation ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are a risk to human and ecological health, and a hindrance to biological wastewater treatment. This study investigated the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from within waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). The daily dynamics of cyanobacteria and microcystins (commonly occurring cyanotoxins) were examined following the addition of H2O2 to wastewater within both the laboratory and at the full scale within a maturation WSP, the final pond in a wastewater treatment plant. Hydrogen peroxide treatment at concentrations ? 0.1 mg H2O2 ?g-1 total phytoplankton chlorophyll a led to the lysis of cyanobacteria, in turn releasing intracellular microcystins to the dissolved state. In the full-scale trial, dissolved microcystins were then degraded to negligible concentrations by H2O2 and environmental processes within five days. A shift in the phytoplankton assemblage towards beneficial Chlorophyta species was also observed within days of H2O2 addition. However, within weeks, the Chlorophyta population was significantly reduced by the re-establishment of toxic cyanobacterial species. This re-establishment was likely due to the inflow of cyanobacteria from ponds earlier in the treatment train, suggesting that whilst H2O2 may be a suitable short-term management technique, it must be coupled with control over inflows if it is to improve WSP performance in the longer term.

Barrington, D. J.; Ghadouani, A.; Ivey, G. N.

2013-06-01

399

Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). In the twentieth century, freshwater fishes had the highest extinction rate worldwide among vertebrates. The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

Burkhead, Noel M.

2012-01-01

400

Freshwater Pollution and Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2008 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org. This laboratory experiment teaches students the effects of pollutants on water quality and the impact it has on living organisms through fresh water quality testing of different environmental sources. Students should have some prior knowledge of the properties of water and a basic understanding of freshwater resources before beginning this activity. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to: know how pollutants affect freshwater sources, interpret the most efficient tests to perform on water samples based on where the water originates, and analyze the affects pollutants have on water quality.

Michael Griffin (Brogden Middle School)

2008-08-01

401

Cyanobacterial calcification in modern microbialites at the submicrometer-scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for microfossils in the geological record has been a long-term challenge. Part of the problem comes from the difficulty of identifying such microfossils unambiguously, since they can be morphologically confused with abiotic biomorphs. One route to improve our ability to correctly identify microfossils consists in studying fossilization processes affecting bacteria in modern settings. We studied the initial stages of fossilization of cyanobacterial cells in modern microbialites from Lake Alchichica (Mexico), a Mg-rich hyperalkaline crater lake (pH 8.9) hosting currently growing stromatolites composed of aragonite [CaCO3] and hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 × 4(H2O)]. Most of the biomass associated with the microbialites is composed of cyanobacteria. Scanning electron microscopy analyses coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy observations were conducted to co-localize cyanobacterial cells and associated minerals. These observations showed that cyanobacterial cells affiliating to the order Pleurocapsales become specifically encrusted within aragonite with an apparent preservation of cell morphology. Encrustation gradients from non-encrusted to totally encrusted cells spanning distances of a few hundred micrometers were observed. Cells exhibiting increased levels of encrustation along this gradient were studied down to the nm-scale using a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) milling, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the C, O and N K-edges. Two different types of aragonite crystals were observed: one type was composed of needle-shaped nano-crystals growing outward from the cell body with a crystallographic orientation perpendicular to the cell wall, and another type was composed of larger crystals that progressively filled the cell interior. Organic matter (OM), initially co-localized with the cell, decreased in concentration and dispersed away from the cell while crystal growth occurred. As encrustation developed, OM progressively disappeared, but remaining OM showed the same spectroscopic signature. In the most advanced stages of fossilization, only the textural organization of the two types of aragonite recorded the initial cell morphology and spatial distribution.

Couradeau, E.; Benzerara, K.; Gérard, E.; Estève, I.; Moreira, D.; Tavera, R.; López-García, P.

2013-02-01

402

Ecology of tidal freshwater marshes of the United States east coast: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

Tidal freshwater marshes are a distinctive type of estuarine ecosystem located upstream from tidal saline marshes and downstream from non-tidal freshwater marshes. They are characterized by freshwater or nearly freshwater conditions most of the time, flora and fauna dominated by freshwater species, and daily lunar tidal flushing. This report examines the ecology of this community as it occurs along the Atlantic seaboard from southern New England to northern Florida. This marsh community is heavily influenced by river flow, which maintains freshwater conditions and deposits sediments high in silt and clay. The plant assemblage in tidal freshwater marshes is diverse both in numbers of species and structural plant types. Plant community structure is markedly diverse spatially and seasonally, and reflects the dynamic processing of energy and biomass in the marsh through high productivity, rapid decomposition and seasonal nutrient cycling. The diverse niches in this heterogeneous environment are exploited by a very diverse animal community of as many as 125 species of fish, 102 species of amphibians and reptiles, 280 species of birds, and 46 species of mammals over the community's broad range. Although fewer species are permanent residents or marsh breeders, use of his community for food and cover is high. This use, coupled with the marshes' capacity to be natural buffers and water filters, argue for their high value as natural resources. 349 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

Odum, W.E.; Smith, T.J. III; Hoover, J.K.; McIvor, C.C.

1984-01-01

403

Acidification of freshwaters  

SciTech Connect

This volume gives an account that draws not only on the main branches of chemistry but also on soil physics, chemistry, hydrology, meteorology, geography, geology, plant physiology, soil microbiology and zoology. The author examine the numerous interacting physical, chemical, and biological, processes that regulate the acidity of freshwaters, a phenomenon that has various causes, including precipitation; acidifying pollutions; and the interaction of plants, soils and water. The relative importance of the different processes is examined.

Cresser, M.S.; Edwards, A.C.

1987-01-01

404

Freshwater wetlands and wildlife  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a product of the Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife symposium held in Charleston, South Carolina, on March 24--27, 1986 and contains 94 papers. The stimulus for the symposium came from our interest in augmenting the findings of the long-term research programs on freshwater wetlands and wildlife that have been carried out on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The symposium provided a forum on an international scale for the exchange of data about freshwater ecosystems: their functions, uses, and their future. The papers in this volume address issues related to natural, man-managed, and degraded ecosystems. The volume is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the functions and values of wetlands, including their use as habitat for plants and animals, their role in trophic dynamics, and their basic processes. The second section treats the subject of their status and management, including techniques for assessing their value, laws for protecting them, and plans for properly managing them. Individual papers will be indexed and entered separately on the energy data base.

Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W. (eds.)

1989-01-01

405

DETOXIFICATION OF CYANOBACTERIAL TOXIN - CONTAMINATED WATER USING TIO2 PHOTOCATALYTIC FILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacterial harmfal algal blooms (CyanoHABs) often produce undesirable color, odor and taste and more importantly, potent toxins that can cause chronic, acute and acute letha poisonings to wild and domestic animals and humans...

406

THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Background and Significance Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

407

Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in cyanobacterial cultures  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

2014-09-30

408

Benthic Marine Cyanobacterial Mat Ecosystems: Biogeochemistry and Biomarkers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyanobacterial mats are complete ecosystems that can include processes of primary production, diagenesis and lithification. Light sustains oxygenic photosynthesis, which in turn provides energy, organic matter and oxygen to the community. Due to both absorption and scattering phenomena, incident light is transformed with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition. Mobile photo synthesizers optimize their position with respect to this light gradient. When photosynthesis ceases at night, the upper layers of the mat become reduced and sulfidic. Counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide combine to provide daily-contrasting environments separated on a scale of a few mm. The functional complexity of mats, coupled with the highly proximal and ordered spatial arrangement of biota, offers the potential for a staggering number of interactions. At a minimum, the products of each functional group of microorganisms affect the other groups both positively and negatively. For example, cyanobacteria generate organic matter (potential substrates) but also oxygen (a toxin for many anaerobes). Anaerobic activity recycles nutrients to the photosynthesizers but also generates potentially toxic sulfide. The combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods, and to various depths in the mat. Observations of mats have produced numerous surprises. For example, obligately anaerobic processes can occur in the presence of abundant oxygen, highly reduced gases are produced in the presence of abundant sulfate, meiofauna thrive at high sulfide concentrations, and the mats' constituent populations respond to environmental changes in complex ways. While photosynthetic bacteria dominate the biomass and productivity of the mat, nonphotosynthetic, anaerobic processes constitute the ultimate biological filter on the ecosystem's emergent biosignatures, including those sedimentary textures, organic compounds, and minerals that enter the fossil record. The ability of cyanobacterial mats to channel abundant solar energy into the creation and maintenance of complex structures and processes has created a multitude of consequences, both for sedimentation and for the early evolution of our biosphere.

DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

409

Microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation: the supply of nutrients.  

PubMed

Microalgae and cyanobacteria are a promising new source of biomass that may complement agricultural crops to meet the increasing global demand for food, feed, biofuels and chemical production. Microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation does not interfere directly with food production, but care should be taken to avoid indirect competition for nutrient (fertilizer) supply. Microalgae and cyanobacteria production requires high concentrations of essential nutrients (C,N,P,S,K,Fe, etc.). In the present paper the application of nutrients and their uptake by microalgae and cyanobacteria is reviewed. The main focus is on the three most significant nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus; however other nutrients are also reviewed. Nutrients are generally taken up in the inorganic form, but several organic forms of them are also assimilable. Some nutrients do not display any inhibition effect on microalgal or cyanobacterial growth, while others, such as NO2 or NH3 have detrimental effects when present in high concentrations. Nutrients in the gaseous form, such as CO2 and NO face a major limitation which is related mainly to their mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid state. Since the cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria consumes considerable quantities of nutrients, strategies to improve the nutrient application efficiency are needed. Additionally, a promising strategy to improve microalgal and cyanobacterial production sustainability is the utilization of waste streams by recycling of waste nutrients. However, major constraints of using waste streams are the reduction of the range of the biomass applications due to production of contaminated biomass and the possible low bio-availability of some nutrients. PMID:25113948

Markou, Giorgos; Vandamme, Dries; Muylaert, Koenraad

2014-11-15

410

Cyanobacterial emergence at 2.8 gya and greenhouse feedbacks.  

PubMed

Apparent cyanobacterial emergence at about 2.8 Gya coincides with the negative excursion in the organic carbon isotope record, which is the first strong evidence for the presence of atmospheric methane. The existence of weathering feedbacks in the carbonate-silicate cycle suggests that atmospheric and oceanic CO2 concentrations would have been high prior to the presence of a methane greenhouse (and thus the ocean would have had high bicarbonate concentrations). With the onset of a methane greenhouse, carbon dioxide concentrations would decrease. Bicarbonate has been proposed as the preferred reductant that preceded water for oxygenic photosynthesis in a bacterial photosynthetic precursor to cyanobacteria; with the drop of carbon dioxide level, Archean cyanobacteria emerged using water as a reductant instead of bicarbonate (Dismukes et al., 2001). Our thermodynamic calculations, with regard to this scenario, give at least a tenfold drop in aqueous CO2 levels with the onset of a methane-dominated greenhouse, assuming surface temperatures of about 60 degrees C and a drop in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide from about 1 to 0.1 bars. The buildup of atmospheric methane could have been triggered by the boost in oceanic organic productivity that arose from the emergence of pre-cyanobacterial oxygenic phototrophy at about 2.8-3.0 Gya; high temperatures may have precluded an earlier emergence. A greenhouse transition timescale on the order of 50-100 million years is consistent with results from modeling the carbonate-silicate cycle. This is an alternative hypothesis to proposals of a tectonic driver for this apparent greenhouse transition. PMID:18237259

Schwartzman, David; Caldeira, Ken; Pavlov, Alex

2008-02-01

411

Cyanobacterial sulfide-quinone reductase: cloning and heterologous expression.  

PubMed

The gene encoding sulfide-quinone reductase (SQR; E.C.1.8.5.'), the enzyme catalyzing the first step of anoxygenic photosynthesis in the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica, was cloned by use of amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides as well as sequences conserved in the Rhodobacter capsulatus SQR and in an open reading frame found in the genome of Aquifex aeolicus. SQR activity was also detected in the unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica following sulfide induction, with a V(max) of 180 micromol of plastoquinone-1 (PQ-1) reduced/mg of chlorophyll/h and apparent K(m) values of 20 and 40 microM for sulfide and quinone, respectively. Based on the conserved sequences, the gene encoding A. halophytica SQR was also cloned. The SQR polypeptides deduced from the two cyanobacterial genes consist of 436 amino acids for O. limnetica SQR and 437 amino acids for A. halophytica SQR and show 58% identity and 74% similarity. The calculated molecular mass is about 48 kDa for both proteins; the theoretical isoelectric points are 7.7 and 5.6 and the net charges at a neutral pH are 0 and -14 for O. limnetica SQR and A. halophytica SQR, respectively. A search of databases showed SQR homologs in the genomes of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120 as well as the chemolithotrophic bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. All SQR enzymes contain characteristic flavin adenine dinucleotide binding fingerprints. The cyanobacterial proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the T7 promoter. Membranes isolated from E. coli cells expressing A. halophytica SQR performed sulfide-dependent PQ-1 reduction that was sensitive to the quinone analog inhibitor 2n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. The wide distribution of SQR genes emphasizes the important role of SQR in the sulfur cycle in nature. PMID:10852862

Bronstein, M; Schütz, M; Hauska, G; Padan, E; Shahak, Y

2000-06-01