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1

The toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

Keywords: Gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis Copper Water quality criteria Ionoregulation Acid­base balance Several recent studies have demonstrated that the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalisThe toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea

Grosell, Martin

2

Elimination of the Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Microcystin from the freshwater Pulmonate Snail Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis (SAY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that little to no microcystin (MC), a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, accumulates within freshwater pulmonate snails because the toxin is associated primarily with undigested gut contents that are eliminated from the animal via egestion. To test this, Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-containing cyanobacteria were placed into toxin-free environments and sampled over short (24 h at 21° C) and

Ronald W. Zurawell; Charles F. B. Holmes; Ellie E. Prepas

2006-01-01

3

Physiologic and environmental factors influencing the calcium-to-tissue ratio in populations of three species of freshwater pulmonate snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of three species of freshwater pulmonate snails, Physa gyrina (11 populations), Physa integra (17 populations), and Helisoma anceps (18 populations) was carried out from 1973 to 1976, primarily in Michigan.

R. Douglas Hunter; Wendy W. Lull

1977-01-01

4

Elimination of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin from the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis (say).  

PubMed

It has been suggested that little to no microcystin (MC), a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, accumulates within freshwater pulmonate snails because the toxin is associated primarily with undigested gut contents that are eliminated from the animal via egestion. To test this, Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-containing cyanobacteria were placed into toxin-free environments and sampled over short (24 h at 21 degrees C) and long (30 d at 22 and 10 degrees C) time periods. Within 8 h after being removed from exposure to microcystin-containing phytoplankton, the gizzard and cecal string fractions of the feces were eliminated, accounting for 57% of the initial MC concentration. However, detectable concentrations remained beyond 24 h, likely in association with the digestive-gland contents, which can be retained up to 100 h. Long-term MC loss was biphasic at two ambient temperatures. The greatest change (fast phase) occurred over the first 3 d after exposure. By 6 d, the cumulative MC loss from L. stagnalis was 80 and 95% at 10 and 22 degrees C, respectively. Toxin loss over this period was attributed to egestion of indigestible cells/colonies from gizzard and cecum, as well as elimination of unassimilated MC-laden fragments and vacuolate excretion of residues from the digestive gland. The fast-phase depuration rate constant was significantly higher at 22 than at 10 degrees C, indicating an influence of ambient temperature on the rate of toxin loss from pulmonate snails. Depuration continued at slower rates until 30 d, when most (97.5 and 99.5% at 10 and 22 degrees C, respectively) of the initial MC was eliminated. PMID:16407089

Zurawell, Ronald W; Holmes, Charles F B; Prepas, Ellie E

2006-02-01

5

The toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have demonstrated that the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis is extremely sensitive to metals (Co, Ni, Pb) in chronic exposures. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute and chronic sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Cu and investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of toxic action. A 96-h LC50 of 31?g L(-1) Cu was estimated indicating L. stagnalis was moderately acutely sensitive to Cu relative to other aquatic organisms. However, in a 30-day chronic exposure using juvenile snails an EC20 of 1.8?g L(-1) Cu was estimated for snail growth making L. stagnalis the most sensitive organism tested to date for Cu. Hardness-based and BLM-based water quality criteria for Cu at the water quality conditions used in this study were 7.8 and 1.5?g L(-1), respectively, indicating L. stagnalis is significantly under-protected by hardness-based WQC. Investigations into the mechanism(s) of toxic action for Cu were conducted on young adult snails necessitating higher Cu exposures. Exposure to Cu at 12?g L(-1) resulted in no detectable effects on hemolymph osmolality, net Ca(2+) uptake, titratable acid excretion, or ammonia excretion. Exposure to 48?g L(-1) Cu was shown to significantly reduce (91%) net Ca(2+) uptake which is strongly correlated with shell deposition and corresponding snail growth. Snails exposed to 48?g L(-1) Cu also exhibited reduced ammonia excretion, a marked hemolymph acidosis, and a compensatory increase in titratable acid excretion. The reduction in net Ca(2+) uptake was hypothesized to be a secondary effect of Cu-induced inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, but no reduction in carbonic anhydrase activity was detected. Overall, it remains unclear whether inhibition of Ca(2+) uptake is a direct result of Cu exposure or, along with the other observed physiological effects, is secondary to an unidentified primary mode of toxic action. Given the hypersensitivity of L. stagnalis to Cu, further study into the mechanisms of action and effects of varying water chemistry on Cu toxicity is clearly warranted. PMID:21723419

Brix, Kevin V; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Grosell, Martin

2011-09-01

6

The origins, fate, and ecological significance of free amino compounds released by freshwater pulmonate snails.  

PubMed

The mass-specific accumulation rates (MSAR) of both total (TFAC) and individual free amino compounds (FAC) in conditioned media were measured by HPLC, using the orthophthaldialdehyde (OPA) methods, in the following cases: (a) laboratory-reared freshwater snails (B. glabrata) with chemosterilized shells; (b) Biomphalaria glabrata with non-chemosterilized shells; (c) B. glabrata faeces; (d) isolated shells of B. glabrata; and (e) 10 other species of freshwater gastropods from the Lewes Brooks, East Sussex, U.K. The MSAR values for B. glabrata show that 95% of the TFAC's (predominantly ethanolamine, phosphoserine, and the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, aspartic acid, and glycine/threonine) originated from the snails themselves as the faeces and shells contributed only 5.0 and 0%, respectively. In contrast, epizootic organisms on the shells of all 10 snail species from the Lewes Brooks released significant amounts of FAC with the two smallest species (Planorbis vortex and Planorbis contortus) having the highest MSAR values. The MSAR for isolated B. glabrata mucus was 42.45 micromol x g(-1)h(-1). As 500 mg snails can release 16.67 mg of mucus daily, this could potentially result in the daily loss of 707.5 micromol of FAC. The cost/benefits of mucus secretion and the various anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and ecological mechanisms which allow freshwater snails to recover FAC's lost as a result of a high rate of urine production in their hypotonic environment, are discussed. PMID:11253805

Thomas, J D; Eaton, P

1998-01-01

7

Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snails, Lymnaea luteolo L. , to heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The current alarm of the impacts of metal pollution on living organisms has received much attention with the tragedy of Minimata and later Niigata, in Japan. Although there has been a great deal of the concern about the acute and chronic toxicities of heavy metals to freshwater fishes and crustaceans but little information is available on the effects of heavy metals to freshwater snails, which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of selected heavy metals to a freshwater pond snail Lymnaea luteolo Lamarck; a locally abundant species and play an important role in the aquatic food chain(s). Static bioassays were conducted with the salts of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc in hard water.

Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

1988-08-01

8

Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea luteola L., to silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Toxicity of nanoparticles depends on many factors including size, shape, chemical composition, surface area and surface charge. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are likely to enter the aquatic ecosystems because of their multiple applications and pose a health concern for humans and aquatic species. Therefore, we used a freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L (L. luteola) to investigate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs in a static-renewal system for 96 h. AgNPs caused molluscicidal activity in L. luteola, with 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50) (48.10 ?g L(-1)). We have observed that AgNPs (36 ?g L(-1)) elicited a significant (p<0.01) reduction in glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde level and catalase in digestive gland of L. luteola. However, a significant (p<0.01) induction in DNA damage was observed by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis in digestive gland cells treated with AgNPs for 24 and 96 h. These results demonstrate that silver nanoparticles are lethal to freshwater snail L. luteola. The oxidative stress biomarkers and comet assay can successfully be used as sensitive tools of aquatic pollution biomonitoring. PMID:24309155

Ali, Daoud; Yadav, Phool Gend; Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Huma; Alarifi, Saud; Harrath, Abdul Halim

2014-06-01

9

Tissue Distribution and Oral Dose Effects of Microcystin in the Freshwater Pulmonate Snail Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis (Say)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcystin (MC) concentrations were measured in the alimentary tract, digestive gland, and remaining visceral mass of adult pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) exposed to cyanobacteria known to contain MC. The highest proportion of total body MC content was measured within the alimentary tract (83%), though an appreciable proportion (17%) was also found within the digestive gland tissue. This provides conclusive evidence

Ronald W. Zurawell; Jeff I. Goldberg; Charles F. B. Holmes; Ellie E. Prepas

2007-01-01

10

INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

4092 INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis complete direct retention (Baldwin, 1935). Metamorphosis and shell formation have been observed for Lymnaea palustris (Morrill, 1982), L. stagnalis (Ebanks et al., 2010) and another freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria

Grosell, Martin

11

Effects of chronic waterborne nickel exposure on growth, ion homeostasis, acid-base balance, and nickel uptake in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive aquatic organism tested to date for Ni. We undertook a series of experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) for this observed hypersensitivity. Consistent with previous experiments, juvenile snail growth in a 21-day exposure was reduced by 48% relative to the control when exposed to 1.3 ?g l(-1) Ni (EC20 less than the lowest concentration tested). Ca(2+) homeostasis was significantly disrupted by Ni exposure as demonstrated by reductions in net Ca(2+) uptake, and reductions in Ca(2+) concentrations in the hemolymph and soft tissues. We also observed reduced soft tissue [Mg(2+)]. Snails underwent a significant alkalosis with hemolymph pH increasing from 8.1 to 8.3 and hemolymph TCO2 increasing from 19 to 22 mM in control versus Ni-exposed snails, respectively. Unlike in previous studies with Co and Pb, snail feeding rates were found to be unaffected by Ni at the end of the exposure. Snails accumulated Ni in the soft tissue in a concentration-dependent manner, and Ni uptake experiments with (63)Ni revealed a biphasic uptake profile - a saturable high affinity component at low exposure concentrations (36-189 nM) and a linear component at the high exposure concentrations (189-1,897 nM). The high affinity transport system had an apparent Km of 89 nM Ni(2+) and Vmax of 2.4 nmol g(-1)h(-1). This equates to a logK of 7.1, significantly higher than logK's (2.6-5.2) for any other aquatic organisms evaluated to date, which will have implications for Biotic Ligand Model development. Finally, pharmacological inhibitors that block Ca(2+) uptake pathways in snails did not inhibit Ni uptake, suggesting that the uptake of Ni does not occur via Ca(2+) uptake pathways. As with Cu and Pb, the exact mechanism for the significant disruption in Ca(2+) homeostasis and reduction in juvenile snail growth remains unknown. PMID:24632313

Niyogi, Som; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

2014-05-01

12

Growth inhibition in early life-stage tests predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive freshwater organism tested to date for several metals (Co, Cu, Pb, Ni) based on 28 d early life-stage (ELS) tests in which growth was the most sensitive endpoint. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has expressed concern that growth in 28 d ELS tests with mollusks may overpredict toxicity because of the potential for recovery in a full life-cycle (LC) test. Consequently, the USEPA only accepts the survival endpoint for these tests in establishing water quality criteria (WQC). To address this concern, the current study aimed to test the sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Pb in a 56 d full LC test evaluating survival, growth, reproductive and embryonic growth endpoints and compare the estimated effect levels to those established using the 28 d ELS test design. The most sensitive endpoints in this study were 28 d growth and 56 d egg mass production, both with a NOEC of <1.0 ?g L(-1) and a LOEC of 1.0 ?g L(-1), showing that the ELS growth endpoint is predictive of the 56 d reproduction endpoint. Snails exposed to 1.0 and 2.7 ?g L(-1) Pb showed full and partial recovery from growth inhibition between 28 and 56 d. While this recovery supports the USEPA's concern about the 28 d growth endpoint; considering the reproductive lifespan of L. stagnalis and the recovery dose-response, we conclude that the 28 d growth endpoint will be within a factor of 3 of full LC endpoints. This is consistent with the level of precision previously determined for fish ELS tests, which the USEPA accepts for WQC derivation, and suggests that tests using 28 d ELS growth endpoint for L. stagnalis may be acceptable for inclusion in WQC derivation. PMID:23274352

Munley, Kathleen M; Brix, Kevin V; Panlilio, Jennifer; Deforest, David K; Grosell, Martin

2013-03-15

13

Chiral Speciation in Terrestrial Pulmonate Snails  

PubMed Central

On the basis of data in the literature, the percentages of dextral versus sinistral species of snails have been calculated for western Europe, Turkey, North America (north of Mexico), and Japan. When the family of Clausiliidae is represented, about a quarter of all snail species may be sinistral, whereas less than one per cent of the species may be sinistral where that family does not occur. The number of single-gene speciation events on the basis of chirality, resulting in the origin of mirror image species, is not closely linked to the percentage of sinistral versus dextral species in a particular region. Turkey is nevertheless exceptional by both a high percentage of sinistral species and a high number of speciation events resulting in mirror image species. Shell morphology and genetic background may influence the ease of chirality-linked speciation, whereas sinistrality may additionally be selected against by internal selection. For the Clausiliidae, the fossil record and the recent fauna suggest that successful reversals in coiling direction occurred with a frequency of once every three to four million years. PMID:22532825

Gittenberger, Edmund; Hamann, Thomas D.; Asami, Takahiro

2012-01-01

14

Additions to the Pulmonate Snails of Oklahoma (With Notes on Anatomical Techniques)  

Microsoft Academic Search

bottom. Using a common large pulmonate snail, a few trial experiments in dissection will soon permit one to devise a satisfactory method. If material is abundant, identifications should be based on the dissection of many specimens. Living snails to be dissected may be drowned or fixed for several minutes in boiling water, both methods being good for reo vealing particular

GLENN R. WEBB

15

Predator-Induced Life-History Shifts in a Freshwater Snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snail Physella virgata virgata, a widely distributed freshwater pulmonate, was observed to change its life-history characteristics in the presence of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in spring-fed Oklahoma streams. These changes were apparently initiated by a water-borne cue released when crayfish fed on conspecific snails. In the presence of the cue, snails exhibited rapid growth rates and little reproduction until

Todd A. Crowl; Alan P. Covich

1990-01-01

16

Survey of Pulmonate Snails of Central Minnesota. I. Lymnaeidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic snails were collected at 148 sites from various wetland habitats in central Minnesota between May and September, 1988. Ten lymnaeid species were collected, including Lymnaea palustris, L. stagnalis, L. exilis, L. caperata, L. catascopium, L. megasoma, L. (Fossaria) modicella, L. (F.) parva, L. (E.) bulimoides, and L. (F.) dalli. These species were found at 30-, 18-, 15, 12-, 11-,

Jeffrey R. Laursen; Gary A. Averbeck; Gary A. Conboy; Bert E. Stromberg

1992-01-01

17

Thermal Compensation of Respiration in Pulmonate Snails (Pulmonata) of Arion and Deroceras Genera Living in Polar and Temperate Climatic Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of respiration rate in pulmonate snails living in various climatic zones demonstrated higher constant a in representatives of Arion genus (A. subfuscus and A. fasciatus) from Polar Area (Murmansk Region) as compared to inhabitants of temperate latitudes (Moscow Region). The snails of Deroceras genus (D. reticulatum) from these two climatic zones were indistinguishable by relative standard metabolism. Different effects

A. A. Zotin; N. D. Ozernyuk

2002-01-01

18

The component community structure of larval trematodes in the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps.  

PubMed

Factors that affected the component community structure of larval trematodes in the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps in Charlie's Pond, North Carolina, were studied over a 15-mo period using a multiple mark-recapture protocol. Patent infections of 8 species were observed in 1,485 of 4,899 snails examined. Reproductive activity, population size, and survival rate of the snail population were estimated to evaluate the extent of resource availability for the parasites. Antagonistic interactions between trematode species that occurred at the infracommunity level had a neglible effect on the composition and structure of the component community. The patterns observed at this level were related to temporal heterogeneity in the abundance of infective stages (mostly miracidia), differential responses of trematode species to the diverse and constantly changing distribution of snail size and abundance, differential mortality of snails infected with certain trematode species, constant recruitment of 1 trematode species over time, and the existence of predictable disturbances such as the complete mortality of the host population and recruitment of a replacement population during a 6-8 wk period. The last factor operated as a reset mechanism for this snail-trematode system once each year. A model of patch dynamics, with snails as patch resources, best explains the organization and dynamics of this system. PMID:1865260

Fernandez, J; Esch, G W

1991-08-01

19

[Thermal compensation of respiration in pulmonate snails (Pulmonata) of Arion and Deroceras genera living in polar and temperate climatic zone].  

PubMed

Comparison of respiration rate in pulmonate snails living in various climatic zones demonstrated higher constant a in representatives of Arion genus (A. subfucus and A. fasciatus) from Polar Area (Murmansk Region) as compared to inhabitants of temperate latitudes (Moscow Region). The snails of Deroceras genus (D. reticulatum) from these two climatic zones were indistinguishable by relative standard metabolism. Different effects of climatic thermal conditions on respiration rates in representatives of these two snail genera can be due to their specific biology. Representatives of Deroceras genus are short-cycle synanthropic species, while the snails of Arion genus are long-cycle species living mostly in the forest zone. PMID:12400380

Zotin, A A; Ozerniuk, N D

2002-01-01

20

Predator-induced life-history shifts in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The snail Physella virgata virgata, a widely distributed freshwater pulmonate, was observed to change its life-history characteristics in the presence of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in spring-fed Oklahoma streams. These changes were apparently initiated by a water-borne cue released when crayfish fed on conspecific snails. In the presence of the cue, snails exhibited rapid growth rates and little reproduction until they reached a size of about 10 mm after 8 months. In the absence of the cue, snails typically grew to about 4 mm (3.5 months) and then began reproduction. The chemically inducible shift indicates that the life histories of these snails are phenotypically plastic. By increasing the variance associated with size and age of maturity, prey may increase the likelihood of coexisting with seasonal predators. PMID:17776452

Crowl, T A; Covich, A P

1990-02-23

21

Characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized 15 new variable microsatellites in the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea (Lymnaea) columella, as well as conditions for multiplexing and simultaneously genotyping sets of loci. Two to six alleles were detected per locus over the six populations studied. Gene diversity ranged from 0.000 to 0.498, but essentially no heterozygous individuals were observed. This resulted in extremely high FIS estimates, and

ANTOINE NICOT; MARIE-PIERRE DUBOIS; CHANTAL DEBAIN; PATRICE DAVID; PHILIPPE JARNE

2008-01-01

22

Development of 10 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria kuhniana (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized 10 variable microsatellite loci in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria kuhniana, as well as conditions for multiplexing and co-loading sets of loci. Two to five alleles were detected per locus over the two studied populations in Venezuela. High inbreeding coefficients suggest high selfing rates. Cross-species amplification provided some variability at eight and three loci in the other species belonging

VIRGINIE DUPUY; ANTOINE NICOT; PHILIPPE JARNE; PATRICE DAVID

2009-01-01

23

[Molluscacide activity of piquerol A isolated from Piqueria trinervia (Compositae) on 8 species of pulmonate snails].  

PubMed

In laboratory trials an aqueous solution of Piquerol A from Piqueria trinervia, collected in several regions of Mexico, showed a molluscicide action on the adults of eight different pulmonates snails species: Fossaria (Fossaria) humilis, F. (Bakerilymnaea) sp., Pseudosuccinea columella and Stagnicola attenuata from Mexico; F. (B.) cubensis and Physa cubensis from Cuba; P. columella and Biomphalaria glabrata from Brazil; B. glabrata from Puerto Rico; and S. elodes from U.S.A. The solution was tested at 50, 25 and 5 ppm concentration, for two periods of 6 and 24 hours, at room temperature (20-22 degrees C). A 100% mortality was obtained for all species at 50 ppm concentration after 6 hours of exposure; the same percentage at 25 ppm after 24 hours; and 60 to 100% mortality at 5 ppm concentration during 24 hours of exposure. No recovery was observed among any of the treated snails. Piquerol A is a sesquiterpene with low stability in nature and has previously only been tested as an insecticide and as an inhibitor of metabolism in cell cultures: no field trails have been made on its toxicity to other aquatic fauna as yet, but it is believed Piquerol A could be an excellent molluscicide for use in areas where focal transmission of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis are taking place. This is the first time experiments on molluscicides have been carried out in Mexico. PMID:2319950

Cruz-Reyes, A; Chavarin, C; Campos Arias, M P; Taboada, J; Jimenez, M

1989-01-01

24

Cockroach Allatostatin-like Immunoreactivity in the Central Nervous System of the Freshwater Snails Bulinus globosus(Planorbidae) and Stagnicola elodes(Lymnaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allatostatin-like immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the central nervous system (CNS) neurons of the freshwater pulmonate snailsBulinus globosus(Planorbidae) andStagnicola elodes(Lymnaeidae). Immunopositive neurons were localized using a monoclonal antibody highly specific to allatostatin I (APSGAQRLYGFGL-amide) from the cockroachDiploptera punctata.All CNS ganglia in both snail species contained immunopositive neurons. The pedal ganglia showed large numbers (80–100) of neurons inBulinusandStagnicola.Large numbers of immunopositive cells

Paul H. Rudolph; Barbara Stay

1997-01-01

25

EMPIRICAL ESTIMATES OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION AMONG THE FRESHWATER PULMONATE SNAILS  

E-print Network

are distinct biological species. Key words: Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Physella, speciation, mate choice, allozyme as "type-c", Physa cubensis, P. heterostropha, P. integra, and P. virgata have all recently been

Dillon, Robert T.

26

Physiological and biochemical responses to cold and drought in the rock-dwelling pulmonate snail, Chondrina avenacea.  

PubMed

The pulmonate snail Chondrina avenacea lives on exposed rock walls where it experiences drastic daily and seasonal fluctuations of abiotic conditions and food availability. We found that tolerance to dry conditions was maintained at a very high level throughout the year and was mainly based on the snails' ability to promptly enter into estivation (quiescence) whenever they experienced drying out of their environment. Snails rapidly suppressed their metabolism and minimized their water loss using discontinuous gas exchange pattern. The metabolic suppression probably included periods of tissue hypoxia and anaerobism as indicated by accumulation of typical end products of anaerobic metabolism: lactate, alanine and succinate. Though the drought-induced metabolic suppression was sufficient to stimulate moderate increase of supercooling capacity, the seasonally highest levels of supercooling capacity and the highest tolerance to subzero temperatures were tightly linked to hibernation (diapause). Hibernating snails did not survive freezing of their body fluids and instead relied on supercooling strategy which allowed them to survive when air temperatures dropped to as low as -21 °C. No accumulation of low-molecular weight compounds (potential cryoprotectants) was detected in hibernating snails except for small amounts of the end products of anaerobic metabolism. PMID:23516021

Koštál, Vladimír; Rozsypal, Jan; Pech, Pavel; Zahradní?ková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

2013-08-01

27

Characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda).  

PubMed

We characterized 15 new variable microsatellites in the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea (Lymnaea) columella, as well as conditions for multiplexing and simultaneously genotyping sets of loci. Two to six alleles were detected per locus over the six populations studied. Gene diversity ranged from 0.000 to 0.498, but essentially no heterozygous individuals were observed. This resulted in extremely high F(IS) estimates, and therefore high selfing rates. The F(ST) estimates ranged from 0.18 to 1 among populations, but was generally high. These markers will constitute efficient tools for investigating the population structure of this invasive species. Cross-species amplification was on the whole unsuccessful. PMID:21586021

Nicot, Antoine; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Debain, Chantal; David, Patrice; Jarne, Philippe

2008-11-01

28

Predation Risk and Avoidance Behavior in Two Freshwater Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the predator avoidance behav- iors of two common freshwater snails, Physella virgata and Planorbella trivolvis, to the crayfish Procambarus simulans. In response to crayfish predation, the snails crawled above the waterline for several hours, then re- turned to the water. A significant size-dependent rela- tionship existed between crawlout (vertical migration above the waterline) and vulnerability to predation. All

JAMES E. ALEXANDER; ALAN P. COVICH

1991-01-01

29

Molecular identification of symbionts from the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata in Brazil.  

PubMed

The icthyosporean, Capsaspora owczarzaki, a known predator of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts in vitro, is more prevalent in laboratory-reared strains of the intermediate snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata resistant to S. mansoni, than from the susceptible M line strain. We examined whether B. glabrata resistant to the NIH-PR-1 strain of S. mansoni from 2 regions in Brazil were also host to C. owczarzaki. Symbiont presence was examined using hemolymph culturing and nested polymerase chain reaction of snail genomic DNA with primers designed to specifically amplify sequences from relatives of the Icthyosporea. All B. glabrata of the resistant Salvador strain from the laboratory of Dr. Lobato Paraense in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 46) tested negative for symbionts. Three of 18 semiresistant 10-R2 B. glabrata from the laboratory of Dr. Barbosa in Recife, Brazil tested positive for C. owczarzaki. Another icthyosporean, Anurofeca sp., was identified from 1, 10-R2 snail and from 2 of 12 field-collected B. glabrata from Praia do Forte Orange, Ilha de Itamaracá. Snails from 2 other sites, Hotel Colibri, Pontezinha and Praia do Sossego, Ilha de Itamaracá, were negative for Anurofeca. Two genera of ciliates were also identified. Paruroleptus sp. was found in 4, 10-R2 snails and Trichodina sp. was identified in 2 field-collected snails from Praia do Forte Orange and Praia do Sossego. PMID:15357065

Hertel, Lynn A; Barbosa, Contança S; Santos, Ricardo A A L; Loker, Eric S

2004-08-01

30

Monoamines and their metabolites in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolism of the major monoamines and their functions were studied in the freshwater snail Biomphalariaglabrata. In both juvenile and adult snails, the plasma (cell-free hemolymph) appears to act as a reservoir for most of these monoamines and their metabolites including among others, l-dopa and dopamine as major constituents. Significant quantities of l-tryptophan, precursor of indoleamines, also was found in the

Venkatachari Santhanagopalan; Timothy P Yoshino

2000-01-01

31

Effects of ionic liquids on the survival, movement, and feeding behavior of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta.  

PubMed

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are being promoted as environmentally friendly alternatives to volatile organic solvents currently used by industry. Because ILs are novel and not yet in widespread use, their potential impact on aquatic organisms is unclear. We studied the effects of several ILs on the survivorship and behavior (movement and feeding rates) of the freshwater pulmonate snail, Physa acuta. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of ILs with imidazolium- and pyridinium-based cations and Br- and PF6- as anions ranged from 1 to 325 mg/L. Toxicity was greatest for ILs with eight-carbon alkyl chains attached to both imidazolium and pyridinium rings and declined with shorter alkyl chains, indicating a positive relationship between alkyl chain length and toxicity. Compared to controls, snails moved more slowly when exposed to butyl- and hexyl-cation ILs at 1 to 3% of LC50 concentrations but were not affected at higher IL concentrations (4-10% of LC50), which is characteristic of U-shaped dose-response curves. Snail movement was not affected by ILs with octyl alkyl groups. Grazing patterns, however, indicated that snails grazed less at higher IL concentrations. Physa acuta egestion rates were reduced in the presence of ILs at 3 to 10% of LC50 concentrations. Thus, nonlethal IL concentrations affected P. acuta behaviors, potentially impacting individual fitness and food web interactions. These results provide initial information needed to assess the potential hazards of ILs should they reach freshwater ecosystems. PMID:16050594

Bernot, Randall J; Kennedy, Erin E; Lamberti, Gary A

2005-07-01

32

Habitat disturbance and the stability of freshwater gastropod populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of population stability and habitat permanence has a major influence on the microdistribution of freshwater snails. For two years (February 1980–January 1982), we monitored the abundance of macrophytes and the abundance and size structure of four species of macrophyte-associated freshwater snails in an English pond. Previous work (Lodge, in press) showed that two species, the pulmonate Lymnaea peregra

D. M. Lodge; P. Kelly

1985-01-01

33

Regulation of neurosecretory activity in the freshwater pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) with particular reference to the role of the eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of neurosecretion in the Caudo-Dorsal Cells (CDC) of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, which produce an ovulation hormone, shows a diurnal rhythmicity. Synthesis, transport and release of the neurosecretory material (NSM) is high during the evening and the early night and low during the rest of the day, while storage of NSM mainly occurs during the daytime.

E. W. Roubos

1975-01-01

34

Functional morphology of the neuropeptidergic light-yellow-cell system in pulmonate snails.  

PubMed

The light yellow neuropeptidergic cell system of the basommatophoran snail Lymnaea stagnalis is homologous to the R3-R14 system of the opisthobranch Aplysia californica, and produces three different neuropeptides. Systems homologous to the light yellow cells of Lymnaea stagnalis have been investigated morphologically in two Basommatophora (Lymnaea ovata, Bulinus truncatus) and three Stylommatophora (Helix aspersa, Cepaea nemoralis, Deroceras reticulatum). To this end, an antibody to synthetic light-yellow-cell peptide-II and oligonucleotides to mRNAs encoding parts of peptide-I and peptide-III, were used. The in situ hybridization probes gave negative results. On the other hand, neuronal cell clusters were observed in the central nervous system of all species studied by immunocytochemistry. These clusters were located in the ganglia of the visceral complex. The neurons project axons into all nerves of these ganglia, especially into the pallial nerves, into the connective tissue of the central nervous system, and into the neuropile of various ganglia. The morphology of the systems is similar to that of the light-yellow-cell system of Lymnaea stagnalis. In all species, the wall of the aorta was innervated by immunoreactive axons. Peripheral innervation by the light-yellow-cell system was investigated in Helix aspersa and Deroceras reticulatum. Serial and alternate sections of whole snails were studied. Reconstructions were made of the heart-kidney-lung complex of these animals. In both species, the muscular vessels of the pulmonary system at the right side of the body were strongly innervated by immunoreactive axons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7954689

Boer, H H; Montagne-Wajer, C

1994-09-01

35

Camouflaged or tanned: plasticity in freshwater snail pigmentation  

PubMed Central

By having phenotypically plastic traits, many organisms optimize their fitness in response to fluctuating threats. Freshwater snails with translucent shells, e.g. snails from the Radix genus, differ considerably in their mantle pigmentation patterns, with snails from the same water body ranging from being completely dark pigmented to having only a few dark patterns. These pigmentation differences have previously been suggested to be genetically fixed, but we propose that this polymorphism is owing to phenotypic plasticity in response to a fluctuating environment. Hence, we here aimed to assess whether common stressors, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and predation, induce a plastic response in mantle pigmentation patterns of Radix balthica. We show, in contrast to previous studies, that snails are plastic in their expression of mantle pigmentation in response to changes in UVR and predator threats, i.e. differences among populations are not genetically fixed. When exposed to cues from visually hunting fish, R. balthica increased the proportion of their dark pigmentation, suggesting a crypsis strategy. Snails increased their pigmentation even further in response to UVR, but this also led to a reduction in pattern complexity. Furthermore, when exposed to UVR and fish simultaneously, snails responded in the same way as in the UVR treatment, suggesting a trade-off between photoprotection and crypsis. PMID:24046875

Ahlgren, Johan; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Bronmark, Christer

2013-01-01

36

Camouflaged or tanned: plasticity in freshwater snail pigmentation.  

PubMed

By having phenotypically plastic traits, many organisms optimize their fitness in response to fluctuating threats. Freshwater snails with translucent shells, e.g. snails from the Radix genus, differ considerably in their mantle pigmentation patterns, with snails from the same water body ranging from being completely dark pigmented to having only a few dark patterns. These pigmentation differences have previously been suggested to be genetically fixed, but we propose that this polymorphism is owing to phenotypic plasticity in response to a fluctuating environment. Hence, we here aimed to assess whether common stressors, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and predation, induce a plastic response in mantle pigmentation patterns of Radix balthica. We show, in contrast to previous studies, that snails are plastic in their expression of mantle pigmentation in response to changes in UVR and predator threats, i.e. differences among populations are not genetically fixed. When exposed to cues from visually hunting fish, R. balthica increased the proportion of their dark pigmentation, suggesting a crypsis strategy. Snails increased their pigmentation even further in response to UVR, but this also led to a reduction in pattern complexity. Furthermore, when exposed to UVR and fish simultaneously, snails responded in the same way as in the UVR treatment, suggesting a trade-off between photoprotection and crypsis. PMID:24046875

Ahlgren, Johan; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer

2013-10-23

37

Hypometabolism, antioxidant defenses and free radical metabolism in the pulmonate land snail Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a cycle of estivation and awakening on free radical metabolism in selected organs of the land snail Helix aspersa. Estivation for 20 days induced a 4.9- and 1.8-fold increase in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity (Se-GPX) and in total glutathione levels (GSH-eq), respectively, in hepatopancreas when compared to activity in active animals 24 h after awakening. Foot muscle Se-GPX activity was also increased 3.9-fold during estivation, whereas GSH-eq did not vary. The activities of other antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were unchanged in both organs. After 15 min of awakening, the glutathione disulphide (GSSG)/GSH-eq ratio increased significantly by 55% in hepatopancreas, slowly returning to the levels observed during estivation. The higher GSSG/GSH-eq ratio may be caused by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during awakening. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) decreased from 49 to 30.7 nmol g(-1) wet mass in hepatopancreas after 5 min arousal and, after 30 min, TBARS rose significantly to 39.6 nmol g(-1) wet mass, gradually declining thereafter. The levels of lipid hydroperoxides in hepatopancreas and of carbonyl protein in foot muscle both decreased during awakening. The higher levels of products of free radical damage during estivation may have resulted from low levels of ROS formation associated with decreased rates of lipid hydroperoxide detoxification and oxidized protein turnover caused by metabolic depression. The regulation of the antioxidant system during hypometabolism may constitute a mechanism to minimize oxidative stress during cycles of estivation and awakening. PMID:12517985

Ramos-Vasconcelos, Gabriella R; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2003-02-01

38

Effects of the mixture of diquat and a nonylphenol polyethoxylate adjuvant on fecundity and progeny early performances of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis in laboratory bioassays and microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the bipyridylium herbicide diquat and tank-mix adjuvant Agral®90 were investigated on various life history traits of the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Trait expression was measured in simple laboratory bioassays on small size groups of snails, and under more complex, indoor microcosm conditions, on larger groups of snails. Microcosms were provided with sediment, plants, and fish, thus allowing

Marie-Agnčs Coutellec; Georges Delous; Jean-Pierre Cravedi; Laurent Lagadic

2008-01-01

39

Efficacy of Euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails.  

PubMed

The toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta Linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. These combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. These compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) (Channidae {Ophicephalidae}), which shares the habitat with these snails, but the LC90 (24h) doses of snails have no apparent killing properties in fish populations when treated in mixed population of snails and fish. PMID:21537758

Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

2011-01-01

40

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

PubMed Central

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-01-01

41

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  

PubMed

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-12-01

42

Distribution and ecology of the fresh-water snails (gastropods) of Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is a preliminary report of some of the results arrived at in a study comprising the distribution, ecology and morphology of the fresh-water snails of Norway, including aspects of regional limnology. When finished, the study is expected to be printed in Folia Limnologica Scandinavica. Fresh-water snails and data on environmental factors have been collected in about 1350 lakes,

Oekland

1969-01-01

43

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

E-print Network

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion-13, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, U.S.A. Abstract: We collected six species of freshwater snails from-emerged as a prominent component of the freshwater snail fauna since it disappeared or was locally eradicated

Dillon, Robert T.

44

Occurrence of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 and D. mergi Dubois, 1932 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Danish freshwater snails: ecological and molecular data.  

PubMed

Freshwater pulmonate snails from three locations in Lake Furesř north of Copenhagen were screened for infection with furcocercariae (by shedding in the laboratory) and recovered parasite larvae were diagnosed by molecular methods (by performing PCR of rDNA and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer [ITS] region). Overall prevalence of infection in snails was 2%. Recovered cercariae from Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus) were diagnosed as Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 (prevalence 4%) and cercariae from Radix balthica (Linnaeus) as D. mergi (Dubois, 1932) (prevalence 2%). Pathogen-free rainbow trout were then exposed to isolated cercariae and infection success and site location of metacercariae in these fish were determined. Infection experiments confirmed that both species could infect rainbow trout with the eye lens as infection site for the metacercarial stage although infection success differed. Combination of molecular and biological assays may contribute to improvement of our knowledge on diagnosis, distribution and biology of diplostomids in fish. PMID:23724738

Haarder, Simon; Jřrgensen, Kasper; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf; Buchmann, Kurt

2013-05-01

45

Selective and universal primers for trematode barcoding in freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Trematodes are significant pathogens of high medical, veterinary, and environmental importance. They are hard to isolate from their intermediate hosts, and their early life stages are difficult to identify morphologically. Therefore, primers were developed for trematodes to create a species barcoding system and allow selective PCR amplification in mixed samples. The specific oligonucleotide primer was universal for trematodes that infected several freshwater snail species in Israel. The diagnostic tool is based on the 18S rDNA gene. In contrast to morphological identification, trematode barcoding is rapid as it is based on a sequence of only 800 bp, and it classifies species accurately due to high polymorphism between conserved areas. PMID:24781022

Routtu, J; Grunberg, D; Izhar, R; Dagan, Y; Guttel, Y; Ucko, M; Ben-Ami, F

2014-07-01

46

Freshwater snails in Asser region, Saudi Arabia with special refernce to the zoonotic trematode.  

PubMed

The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761

Bin Dajem, Saad M

2009-08-01

47

Life-history strategies of a freshwater snail in response to stream permanence and predation: balancing conflicting demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history parameters for the freshwater snail Physella virgata virgata were estimated in temporary and permanent streams with and without crayfish (known snail predators). Snails from the permanent stream with crayfish exhibited higher age and size at first reproduction, as well as higher size and age at death, compared to snail populations from both temporary streams and the permanent stream without

Todd A. Crowl

1990-01-01

48

Predator avoidance by the freshwater snail Physella virgata in response to the crayfish Procambarus simulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined predator avoidance behavior of the freshwater snailPhysella (=Physa) virgata in response to the crayfishProcambarus simulans. In both laboratory and field enclosure experiments snails crawled above the waterline for 2 h or longer, then returned to the water.Physella virgata react to chemical signals given off by crayfish actively foraging on conspecific snails; they do not react to inactive crayfish.

J. E. Alexander; A. P. Covich

1991-01-01

49

Spatial variation in infection by digenetic trematodes in a population of freshwater snails ( Potamopyrgus antipodarum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval digenetic trematodes commonly castrate their first intermediate hosts, and should therefore impose strong selection on the timing and mode of host reproduction. Here we examine spatial variation in infection by trematodes in the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Snails were collected at 11 different sites at Lake Alexandrina on the South Island of New Zealand from transects that ran perpendicular

Jukka Jokela; Curtis M. Lively

1995-01-01

50

Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Snail, Melanoides tuberculata  

PubMed Central

Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae) were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59?mg?L?1, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al). Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor) in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals. PMID:22666089

Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Nadzifah, Y.

2012-01-01

51

Freshwater snail diversity in Benin (West Africa) with a focus on human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale freshwater snail survey in Benin to assess the malacological diversity and the larval trematode infections with a focus on Schistosoma genus. We conducted 82 freshwater snail surveys in 35 sites ranked in 4 types and belonging to 9 out of 12 departments. Among 19,200 collected snails, 11 species of freshwater snails were identified. Four species of human schistosome transmitting snails, Bulinus forskalii, B. globosus, B. truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi and seven species of non-human schistosome transmitting snails. Although B. forskalii and B. globosus were the most largely distributed snails, none of the Bulinus snails were found naturally infected by schistosomes. B. pfeifferi was found naturally infected by S. mansoni only in one site with a 0.56% prevalence. The most risky areas were Borgou and the four coastal departments. Preliminary contempory information on human schistosomiasis was provided from three different sites. Schistosoma haematobium was found with 57.1%, 96% and 100% prevalences (two of which were new records for this species in Benin) while S. mansoni was restricted to one site (Toho-Todougba) with 74.3% prevalence. Our data showed that both schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni prevalences increased during the last nineteen years in Toho-Todougba site. PMID:19426659

Ibikounlé, M; Mouahid, G; Sakiti, N G; Massougbodji, A; Moné, H

2009-07-01

52

Population biology, genetic structure, and mating system parameters in freshwater snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Freshwater gastropods can reproduce by both uniparental and biparental means. In particular, self-fertilization in the hermaphrodite\\u000a pulmonates (Basommatophora) and apomictic parthenogenesis in prosobranchs are viable alternatives to biparental sexuality\\u000a in several species. The coexistence of different mating systems within and among extant populations provides opportunities\\u000a to examine the forces directing their evolution. We review the models predicting genetic structure in

T. Städler; P. Jarne

53

Histochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Epidermis and the Subepidermal Gland Cells of the Freshwater Snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermis and the associated subepidermal gland cells of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were studied by means of histochemical and electron microscope techniques.

U. Zylstra

1972-01-01

54

Effectors of metabolic depression in an estivating pulmonate snail (Helix aspersa): whole animal and in vitro tissue studies.  

PubMed

We have examined metabolic depression in the land snail (Helix aspersa) during estivation, and have developed a tissue model of metabolic depression using an in vitro mantle preparation. The metabolic rate of H. aspersa is depressed by 84% in vivo within 4 weeks of onset of estivation, and this metabolic depression is accompanied by a decrease in haemolymph PO2 and pH, and an increase in haemolymph PCO2. The in vitro mantle preparation has a stable O2 consumption and energy charge, and an energy charge similar to that of mantle in vivo. The in vitro mantle is an O2-conforming tissue, with VO2 varying curvilinearly with PO2. Consequently, we have developed a mathematical method of calculating tissue VO2 at any PO2. These calculations show that under appropriate incubation conditions of pH and PO2, the mantle from estivating animals shows a stable in vitro metabolic depression of 48% compared to mantle from control snails. The extrinsic effects of PO2 and pH account for 70% of the total in vitro metabolic depression of mantle tissue; intrinsic effectors contribute a further 30%. PMID:8923747

Pedler, S; Fuery, C J; Withers, P C; Flanigan, J; Guppy, M

1996-01-01

55

Habitat-specific variation in life-history traits, clonal population structure and parasitism in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High risk of infection by parasites may select for early reproduction in natural host populations. In a previous study of a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) we found (1) that different clones of the snail are associated with different depth-structured vegetation zones and (2) that snails in shallow water, where the age-specific risk of infection is highest, mature at a smaller

Jokela; M. F. DYBDAHL; C. M. LIVELY

1999-01-01

56

Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis at neutral pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the accumulation of aluminium (Al) by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis at neutral pH, when most Al would be predicted to be in an insoluble form (Al(OH)3). Snails were exposed to a range of Al concentrations (38–285 ?g l?1) for 30 days, followed by 20 days in clean water. Aluminium was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy.Significant accumulation

R. Elangovan; K. N. White; C. R. McCrohan

1997-01-01

57

Snail Snooping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students in grades 5-8 learn about snail reproduction by observing and charting the activities of land snails, freshwater snails, and slugs. Instructions to implement and extend the activity are provided. (MDH)

Miller, Dorothy

1993-01-01

58

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THREE SNAIL SPECIES, INCLUDING THE INVADER POTAMOPYRGUS ANTIPODARUM, IN A FRESHWATER SPRING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly invasive New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, may compete with and displace native North American macroinvertebrates in freshwater systems wherever it becomes established. Densities and spatial distributions of 3 snail species including P. antipodarum and the threatened Taylorconcha serpenticola were compared among 3 adjacent habitat types (run, edge, and vegetation) in Banbury Springs, a tributary of the Snake River,

David C. Richards; L. Dianne Cazier; Gary T. Lester

59

Cockroach allatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the freshwater snails Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae) and Stagnicola elodes (Lymnaeidae).  

PubMed

Allatostatin-like immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the central nervous system (CNS) neurons of the freshwater pulmonate snails Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae) and Stagnicola elodes (Lymnaeidae). Immunopositive neurons were localized using a monoclonal antibody highly specific to allatostatin I (APSGAQRLYGFGL-amide) from the cockroach Diploptera punctata. All CNS ganglia in both snail species contained immunopositive neurons. The pedal ganglia showed large numbers (80-100) of neurons in Bulinus and Stagnicola. Large numbers of immunopositive cells were also found in the cerebral (60) and buccal ganglia (20) of Bulinus. Other ganglia contained fewer immunopositive cells, but these cells were most concentrated in the cerebral (Stagnicola) and left parietal (Bulinus) ganglia and the visceral ganglia of both species. The high concentration of immunopositive cells in the pedal ganglia and axons demonstrable in the pedal nerves suggests that one possible function for a molluscan allatostatin-like peptide would be to modulate muscular function. Extract of Stagnicola CNS effected 50% inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis by corpora allata of D. punctata at between 15 and 30 CNS equivalents, providing further evidence that the molluscan immunoreactive material is a peptide, or peptides, with sequence similarity to the active part of the D. punctata allatostatins. PMID:9169120

Rudolph, P H; Stay, B

1997-05-01

60

Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results A total of 2?479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2?479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes. PMID:23620846

Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol

2013-01-01

61

Acute combined exposure to heavy metals (Zn, Cd) blocks memory formation in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The effect of heavy metals on species survival is well documented; however, sublethal effects on behaviour and physiology are receiving growing attention. Measurements of changes in activity and respiration are more sensitive to pollutants, and therefore a better early indicator of potentially harmful ecological impacts. We assessed the effect of acute exposure (48 h) to two heavy metals at concentrations below those allowable in municipal drinking water (Zn: 1,100 ?g/l; Cd: 3 ?g/l) on locomotion and respiration using the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. In addition we used a novel assessment method, testing the ability of the snail to form memory in the presence of heavy metals in both intact snails, and also snails that had the osphradial nerve severed which connects a chemosensory organ, the osphradium, to the central nervous system. Aerial respiration and locomotion remained unchanged by acute exposure to heavy metals. There was also no effect on memory formation of these metals when administered alone. However, when snails were exposed to these metals in combination memory formation was blocked. Severing the osphradial nerve prevented the memory blocking effect of Zn and Cd, indicating that the snails are sensing these metals in their environment via the osphradium and responding to them as a stressor. Therefore, assessing the ability of this species to form memory is a more sensitive measure of heavy metal pollution than measures of activity, and indicates that the snails' ability to demonstrate behavioural plasticity may be compromised by the presence of these pollutants. PMID:22218978

Byzitter, Jovita; Lukowiak, Ken; Karnik, Vikram; Dalesman, Sarah

2012-04-01

62

The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

Glöer, Peter; Peši?, Vladimir

2012-01-01

63

Zinc sensitivity of a freshwater snail, Lymnaea luteola L. , in relation to seasonal variations in temperature  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic environment has numerous physical and chemical parameters that may influence the physiology and chemical toxicity to freshwater organisms. Temperature is one of the these factors having a marked influence on heavy metal toxicity to fishes and macroinvertebrates. There is a limited and scattered information available on temperature induced changes in acute toxicity of zinc compounds to freshwater pond snails. This information is essential because there are large temperature differences with season and latitudes and the aquatic organisms are subjected to seasonal temperature changes of 20-25/sup 0/C or even more. It is proposed to study the effect of seasonal changes in temperature on zinc toxicity to a freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s) and are widely distributed in lakes, ponds and rivers of India.

Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

1987-07-01

64

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails.  

PubMed

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails. In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an outdoor mesocosm experiment, testing the hypothesis that insects are important predators of pulmonate snails. In laboratory foraging trials, conducted with ten species of insects, most insect taxa consumed snails, and larval dragonflies were especially effective predators. The field surveys showed that dragonflies constitute the majority of the insect biomass in fishless ponds. More focused foraging trials evaluated the ability of the dragonflies Anax junius and Pantala hymenaea to prey upon different sizes and species of pulmonate snails (Helisoma trivolvis, Physa acuta, and Stagnicola elodes). Anax junius consumed all three species up to the maximum size tested. Pantala hymenaea consumed snails with a shell height of 3 mm and smaller, but did not kill larger snails. P. acuta were more vulnerable to predators than were H. trivolvis or S. elodes. In the mesocosm experiment, conducted with predator treatments of A. junius, P. hymenaea, and the hemipteran Belostoma flumineum, insect predators had a pronounced negative effect on snail biomass and density. A. junius and B. flumineum reduced biomass and density to a similar degree, and both reduced biomass more than did P. hymenaea. Predators did not have a strong effect on species composition. A model suggested that A. junius and P. hymenaea have the largest effects on snail biomass in the field. Given that both pulmonate snails and dragonfly nymphs are widespread and abundant in marshes and ponds, snail assemblages in these water bodies are likely regulated in large part by odonate predation. PMID:17457617

Turner, Andrew M; Chislock, Michael F

2007-08-01

65

Accelerated Mutation Accumulation in Asexual Lineages of a Freshwater Snail  

E-print Network

genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail, parthenogenetic, Muller's ratchet, mtDNA, Hill­Robertson, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Introduction Why sexual with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum

Neiman, Maurine

66

Functional diversity among predators of a freshwater snail imposes an adaptive trade-off for shell morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored how functional diversity among predators of the freshwater snail Physa creates an adaptive trade-off for the snail's shell morphology. Physid shells range continuously between elongate and rotund in overall shape. The protection conferred by alternative shell shapes depends on the mode of attack employed by predators. Predators attack Physa primarily through shell entry (by crayfish, Orconectes obscurus) and

Thomas J. DeWitt; Beren W. Robinson; David Sloan Wilson

2000-01-01

67

The effects of spatial habitat structure on the evolution of density-dependent growth and reproduction in freshwater snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the growth and reproductive rates of freshwater snails, Physa acuta, in two habitat types. In the Asabata habitat, snails lived in isolated water pools, which occasionally joined to form a single large pool; in the Kakegawa habitat, they lived in a slow-running water way. Genetic structure assessments using three microsatellite loci supports the idea that a stable panmictic

Masakado Kawata; Hiroshi Sawada; Jun Yokoyama; Lázaro M. Echenique-Díaz; Yasuyuki Ishibashi

2005-01-01

68

Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received. The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 degrees C resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite ? calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

Udomkan, N.; Meejoo, S.; Limsuwan, P.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

2005-07-01

69

Competitive interactions between two successful molluscan invaders of freshwaters: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae) and the pulmonate Physella acuta (Physidae) have invaded freshwaters in many parts of the world and become established. They co-exist in many streams, lakes and ponds in New Zealand, often at high densities. In the present study the effects of intraspecific- and interspecific interactions between the two species on growth and reproductive

Neisha J. Cope; Michael J. Winterbourn

2004-01-01

70

Prevalence of larval helminths in freshwater snails of the Kinmen Islands.  

PubMed

A survey of larval helminths in freshwater snails of Kinmen was conducted from 1986 to 1987. Parasitological examinations of a total of 726 live snails collected from 25 loci revealed that 20 of 80 Bithynia fuchsiana were infected with metacercariae of Echinostoma gotoi and 36 with metacercariae of other echinostomes. Among 57 Radix auricularia swinhoei snails, 27 were infected with echinostomes and eight with metacercariae of other flukes. Of 20 Cipangopaludina chinensis, 18 were found with larvae of echinostomes. Larval trematodes were also found in three of 37 Austropeplea ollula and two of 87 Gyraulus spirillus. Third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus cantonensis were found in Ampullarius canaliculatus (5/103), Sinotaia quadrata (20/141), Hippeutis umbilicalis cantori (1/70) and Gyraulus spirillus (2/87). Segmentina hemisphaerula were not infected. Cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis pumilio and a xiphidiocercaria were found in three, two and two specimens, respectively, of 37 Thiara tuberculata. PMID:8132969

Chao, D; Wang, L C; Huang, T C

1993-12-01

71

Evolution and ecological correlates of uniparental and biparental reproduction in freshwater snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We review the spatial and temporal correlates of uniparental and biparental reproduction in three species of freshwater snails\\u000a as they pertain to the ecological hypotheses for the maintenance of biparental sex. The biogeographic evidence from two species\\u000a (Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Bulinus truncatus) presently supports the Red Queen hypothesis that biparental reproduction is selected as a way to reduce the risk

S. G. Johnsonl; C. M. Lively; S. J. Schrag

72

Failure of transmission of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus between Mallards and freshwater snails: an experimental evaluation.  

PubMed

In aquatic bird populations, the ability of avian influenza (AI) viruses to remain infectious in water for extended periods provides a mechanism that allows viral transmission to occur long after shedding birds have left the area. However, this also exposes other aquatic organisms, including freshwater invertebrates, to AI viruses. Previous researchers found that AI viral RNA can be sequestered in snail tissues. Using an experimental approach, we determined whether freshwater snails (Physa acuta and Physa gyrina) can infect waterfowl with AI viruses by serving as a means of transmission between infected and naďve waterfowl via ingestion. In our first experiment, we exposed 20 Physa spp. snails to an AI virus (H3N8) and inoculated embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs with the homogenized snail tissues. Sequestered AI viruses remain infectious in snail tissues; 10% of the exposed snail tissues infected SPF eggs. In a second experiment, we exposed snails to water contaminated with feces of AI virus-inoculated Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to evaluate whether ingestion of exposed freshwater snails was an alternate route of AI virus transmission to waterfowl. None of the immunologically naďve Mallards developed an infection, indicating that transmission via ingestion likely did not occur. Our results suggest that this particular trophic interaction may not play an important role in the transmission of AI viruses in aquatic habitats. PMID:24502718

Oesterle, Paul T; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Orahood, Darcy; Mooers, Nicole; Sullivan, Heather; Franklin, Alan B; Root, J Jeffrey

2013-10-01

73

Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail  

PubMed Central

Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilizing, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of different mating partners for both males and females. Thus, our results suggest that, in host populations under parasite-mediated selection, exposure to infective propagules increases the rate of mating and the number of mates. PMID:24759366

Soper, D. M.; King, K. C.; Vergara, D.; Lively, C. M.

2014-01-01

74

Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilizing, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of different mating partners for both males and females. Thus, our results suggest that, in host populations under parasite-mediated selection, exposure to infective propagules increases the rate of mating and the number of mates. PMID:24759366

Soper, D M; King, K C; Vergara, D; Lively, C M

2014-01-01

75

Activation of the immune defence of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis by different immune elicitors.  

PubMed

Understanding the outcomes of host-parasite interactions in nature is in high demand as parasites and pathogens are important for several ecological and evolutionary processes. Ecological immunology (ecoimmunology) has a key role in reaching this goal because immune defence is the main physiological barrier against infections. To date, ecoimmunological studies largely lean on measuring constitutive immune defences (components of defence that are always active). However, understanding the role of inducible components of immune function is important as the immune system is largely an inducible defence. Measuring such defences can be complicated as different parasites may activate different immune cascades, and expression of different immune traits may not be independent. We examined the suitability of different immune activation techniques for the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. By experimentally challenging snails with different immune elicitors [injection with snail saline (i.e. wounding), lyophilized Escherichia coli cells, lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, healthy snail gonad, and trematode-infected snail gonad; maintenance in microorganism-enriched water] and measuring phenoloxidase-like and antibacterial activity of their haemolymph, we found increased immune activity against some immune elicitors, but also decreased activity. Our findings suggest potentially complicated relationships among immune traits, and propose suitable techniques for ecological studies in this study system. PMID:23842628

Seppälä, Otto; Leicht, Katja

2013-08-01

76

Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.  

PubMed

Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution. PMID:22435158

El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

2011-12-01

77

Effects of grazing on the quantity and quality of freshwater Aufwuchs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative measures of the Aufwuchs (scum flora) on artificial substrates in situ were used to evaluate the effects of grazing by freshwater pulmonate snails in a shallow pond in southeastern Michigan. Grazer densities of ~ 216 snails\\/m2 marked reduced standing crop so that after 45 days grazed substrata had 6.46 mg dry weight, 604 µg C and 4.18

R. Douglas Hunter

1980-01-01

78

Predator-Induced Morphological Plasticity Across Local Populations of a Freshwater Snail  

PubMed Central

The expression of anti-predator adaptations may vary on a spatial scale, favouring traits that are advantageous in a given predation regime. Besides, evolution of different developmental strategies depends to a large extent on the grain of the environment and may result in locally canalized adaptations or, alternatively, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity as different predation regimes may vary across habitats. We investigated the potential for predator-driven variability in shell morphology in a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, and whether found differences were a specialized ecotype adaptation or a result of phenotypic plasticity. Shell shape was quantified in snails from geographically separated pond populations with and without molluscivorous fish. Subsequently, in a common garden experiment we investigated reaction norms of snails from populations' with/without fish when exposed to chemical cues from tench (Tinca tinca), a molluscivorous fish. We found that snails from fish-free ponds had a narrow shell with a well developed spire, whereas snails that coexisted with fish had more rotund shells with a low spire, a shell morphology known to increase survival rate from shell-crushing predators. The common garden experiment mirrored the results from the field survey and showed that snails had similar reaction norms in response to chemical predator cues, i.e. the expression of shell shape was independent of population origin. Finally, we found significant differences for the trait means among populations, within each pond category (fish/fish free), suggesting a genetic component in the determination of shell morphology that has evolved independently across ponds. PMID:21818264

Bronmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Hollander, Johan

2011-01-01

79

Echinostoma revolutum: Freshwater Snails as the Second Intermediate Hosts in Chiang Mai, Thailand  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province. PMID:23710085

Chantima, Kittichai; Chai, Jong-Yil

2013-01-01

80

Plasticity as Phenotype: G x E Interaction in a Freshwater Snail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasticity in morphological development allows species to accommodate environmental variation experienced during growth; however, genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity per se has been relatively under-studied. We utilized the well-documented plastic response of shell development to predator cues in a freshwater snail to quantify genetic variation for plasticity in growth rate and shell shape. Field-caught pairs of snails reproduced in the laboratory to create families of full siblings, which were then divided and allowed to grow in control and predator cue treatments. Predator (crayfish) cues had significant effects on both size-corrected growth rate and shell shape; family identity also significantly affected both final shell shape and growth rate. The interaction between predator treatment and family identity significantly affected snail growth rate but not final shell shape, suggesting genetic variation in the plastic response to predator cues for a physiological variable (growth rate) but not for a variable known to mechanically reduce the risk of predation (shell shape), at least in this population of snails. The possibility that risk of multiple modes of predation (i.e., both fish and crayfish) in some populations might maintain genetic variation in morphological plasticity is discussed.

Brunkow, P. E.; Calloway, S. A.

2005-05-01

81

Habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774).  

PubMed

Our objective is to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus. In the first phase, snails was collected at 12 sites. This sampling sites presented a degree of organic input. In the second phase 33 sampling sites were chosen, covering a variety of lotic and lentic environments. The snail species found at Guapimirim, state of Rio de Janeiro, displayed a marked habitat preference, specially in relation to the physical characteristics of each environment. Other limiting factors for snail distribution at the studied lotic environments were the water current velocity and the amount of organic matter, mainly to Physa marmorata, M. tuberculatus, and Biomphalaria tenagophila. The absence of interactions between M. tuberculatus and another snails could be associated to the distinct spatial distribution of those species and the instability of habitats. This later factor may favor the coexistence of M. tuberculatus with B. glabrata by reduction of population density. In areas of schistosomiasis transmission some habitat modification may add to the instability of the environment, which would make room for the coexistence of M. tuberculatus and Biomphalaria spp. In this way, some of the usual measures for the control of snail hosts would prevent the extinction of populations of Biomphalaria spp. by M. tuberculatus in particular habitats. PMID:16021304

Giovanelli, Alexandre; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho; Leal, Geórgia Borges Eccard; Baptista, Darcílio Fernandes

2005-04-01

82

Accelerated mutation accumulation in asexual lineages of a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and widespread relative to asexual reproduction, meaning that it must also confer profound advantages in order to persist. One theorized benefit of sex is that it facilitates the clearance of harmful mutations, which would accumulate more rapidly in the absence of recombination. The extent to which ineffective purifying selection and mutation accumulation are direct consequences of asexuality and whether the accelerated buildup of harmful mutations in asexuals can occur rapidly enough to maintain sex within natural populations, however, remain as open questions. We addressed key components of these questions by estimating the rate of mutation accumulation in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by mixed sexual/asexual populations. We found that increased mutation accumulation is associated with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum. Our results demonstrate that increased mutation accumulation in asexuals can differentially affect coexisting and ecologically similar sexual and asexual lineages. The accelerated rate of mutation accumulation observed in asexual P. antipodarum provides some of the most direct evidence to date for a link between asexuality and mutation accumulation and implies that mutational buildup could be rapid enough to contribute to the short-term evolutionary mechanisms that favor sexual reproduction. PMID:19995828

Neiman, Maurine; Hehman, Gery; Miller, Joseph T; Logsdon, John M; Taylor, Douglas R

2010-04-01

83

Accelerated Mutation Accumulation in Asexual Lineages of a Freshwater Snail  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and widespread relative to asexual reproduction, meaning that it must also confer profound advantages in order to persist. One theorized benefit of sex is that it facilitates the clearance of harmful mutations, which would accumulate more rapidly in the absence of recombination. The extent to which ineffective purifying selection and mutation accumulation are direct consequences of asexuality and whether the accelerated buildup of harmful mutations in asexuals can occur rapidly enough to maintain sex within natural populations, however, remain as open questions. We addressed key components of these questions by estimating the rate of mutation accumulation in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by mixed sexual/asexual populations. We found that increased mutation accumulation is associated with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum. Our results demonstrate that increased mutation accumulation in asexuals can differentially affect coexisting and ecologically similar sexual and asexual lineages. The accelerated rate of mutation accumulation observed in asexual P. antipodarum provides some of the most direct evidence to date for a link between asexuality and mutation accumulation and implies that mutational buildup could be rapid enough to contribute to the short-term evolutionary mechanisms that favor sexual reproduction. PMID:19995828

Neiman, Maurine; Hehman, Gery; Miller, Joseph T.; Logsdon, John M.; Taylor, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

84

Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)  

PubMed Central

Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates). The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges. PMID:21599918

2011-01-01

85

Mucus secretion by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis limits aluminum concentrations of the aqueous environment  

SciTech Connect

Extracellular mucopolysaccharide (EPS) is a significant component in many waters. Its role in the cycling and mobilization of metals is unclear. In vitro studies were conducted to examine the influence of EPS, secreted by the freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, on soluble water Al concentrations at near-neutral pH. Snails maintained in aerated water of known ion content and added aluminum reduced Al in solution as compared to controls. Although snails accumulated Al into soft tissue, this only accounted for a small percentage of the total reduction. The remaining Al was recovered following acidification of the water. This observation was attributed to pedal EPS secreted by L. stagnalis which is chiefly insoluble and substrate bound. The Al that remained in solution was more labile, possibly due to the influence of soluble EPS. Further experiments with isolated EPS, confirmed that this poorly soluble film binds and reduces Al in solution. The influence of EPS on the solution chemistry and bioavailability of Al and possibly other metals may be important in natural waters.

Jugdaohsingh, R.; Thompson, R.P.H.; Powell, J.J. [St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Campbell, M.M.; Mccrohan, C.R.; White, K.N. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences] [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

1998-09-01

86

Detection of Neorickettsia risticii from various freshwater snail species collected from a district irrigation canal in Nevada County, California.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of a district irrigation canal in Nevada County, California, USA, as the point source of infection for Neorickettsia risticii, causative agent of equine neorickettsiosis (EN). A total of 568 freshwater snails comprising Juga spp., Planorbella subcrenata (Carpenter, 1857) (Rough Rams-horn), Physella virgata (Gould, 1855) (Protean Physa) and feces from three horses with EN were collected and tested for N. risticii by real-time PCR. A total of four freshwater snails tested PCR positive for N. risticii. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.8-100% homology between the different snail and horse N. risticii isolates. This study represents the first report of infection with N. risticii in Planorbella subcrenata and suggests that the irrigation canal was the aquatic environment responsible for the spread of N. risticii. PMID:23566936

Pusterla, Nicola; Hagerty, Daniel; Mapes, Samantha; Vangeem, Josh; Groves, Lindsey T; Dinucci, Mario; Fielding, Langdon C; Higgins, Jill C

2013-08-01

87

Neuronal and non-neuronal control of the neurosecretory Caudo-Dorsal cells of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cerebral ganglia of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis contain two clusters of neurosecretory Caudo-Dorsal Cells (CDC). These cells produce a neurohormone which stimulates ovulation. Ganglion transplantation and quantitative electron microscopy show that neuronal isolation of the cerebral ganglia complex (CCC) results in an activation of the CDC. It was, therefore, concluded that the CDC are controlled by an inhibitory

E. W. Roubos

1976-01-01

88

Synaptology of the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), with particular reference to neurosecretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the central nervous system (CNS) of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis 3 types of interneuronal contacts can be distinguished electron-microscopically, viz. true synapses, “synapse-like structures” (SLS), and “spinules”. Use of the electron microscope specimen tilting stage reveals numerous true synapses. Both “terminal” and “en passant” contacts occur on neurones and on glial cells. Furthermore “bigeminal” synapses are present. Complex

E. W. Roubos; Carry M. Delft

1979-01-01

89

Antidepressants (venlafaxine and citalopram) cause foot detachment from the substrate in freshwater snails at environmentally relevant concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human antidepressants have been shown to have a wide variety of effects on aquatic mollusks. The antidepressants venlafaxine (“Effexor”) and citalopram (“Celexa”) are human pharmaceuticals detected in effluent from wastewater treatment plants. We report on the acute effects of venlafaxine and citalopram on the attachment ability of two freshwater snails, Leptoxis carinata and Stagnicola (=Lymnaea) elodes. In laboratory experiments, venlafaxine

Peter P. Fong; Caitlin M. Hoy

2012-01-01

90

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883), Gundlachia radiata (Guilding, 1828), Helisoma (=Planorbella) trivolvis (Say, 1817), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Neritina punctulata Lamarck, 1816, and Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as G. radiata and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number

Will K. Reeves; Robert T. Dillon; Gregory A. Dasch

2008-01-01

91

Response to phosphorus limitation varies among lake populations of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  

PubMed

Local adaptation--typically recognized as higher values of fitness-related traits for native vs. non-native individuals when measured in the native environment--is common in natural populations because of pervasive spatial variation in the intensity and type of natural selection. Although local adaptation has been primarily studied in the context of biotic interactions, widespread variation in abiotic characteristics of environments suggests that local adaptation in response to abiotic factors should also be common. Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a freshwater New Zealand snail that is an important model system for invasion biology and the maintenance of sexual reproduction, exhibits local adaptation to parasites and rate of water flow. As an initial step to determining whether P. antipodarum are also locally adapted to phosphorus availability, we examined whether populations differ in their responses to phosphorus limitation. We found that field-collected juvenile P. antipodarum grew at a lower rate and reached an important size threshold more slowly when fed a relatively low vs. a relatively high-phosphorus diet. We also detected significant across-population variation in individual growth rate. A marginally significant population-by-dietary phosphorus interaction along with a two-fold difference across populations in the extent of suppression of growth by low phosphorus suggests that populations of P. antipodarum may differ in their response to phosphorus limitation. Local adaptation may explain this variation, with the implication that snails from lakes with relatively low phosphorus availability should be less severely affected by phosphorus limitation than snails from lakes with higher phosphorus availability. PMID:24454936

Krist, Amy C; Kay, Adam D; Larkin, Katelyn; Neiman, Maurine

2014-01-01

92

Inhibitory effect of naringin on microcystin-LR uptake in the freshwater snail Sinotaia histrica.  

PubMed

Gastropods are an important food source for aquatic animals, and have been demonstrated to transfer microcystin (MC) to higher trophic levels through the food web. In this study, we performed an oral administration experiment to evaluate whether naringin can inhibit MC-LR uptake in the freshwater snail Sinotaia histrica. We also observed the effect of MC-LR on the organizational pathology of the hepatopancreas in S. histrica. Following exposure to cells of Microcystis ichthyoblabe, S. histrica showed vacuolization and separation of the basal lamina from cells in the hepatopancreas. Initial treatment with 1mM naringin resulted in the prevention of MC-LR uptake rate by approximately 60% over 8days, whereas initial treatment with 10mM naringin suppressed microcystin uptake in 2days, despite an increase in MC-LR levels in the snail from days 5 to 8. With continuous treatment of 10mM naringin, the uptake prevention rate was 100%. Overall, we observed a strong inhibitory effect against MC-LR with naringin treatment. This study provides a potential mechanism to prevent the uptake of microcystin in the aquatic food web, thereby limiting its toxicity in cyanobacterial bloom-polluted areas where the environment can be controlled and may have further applications in the aquaculture of gastropods. PMID:25129375

Xie, Liqiang; Hanyu, Tamami; Futatsugi, Noriko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Steinman, Alan D; Park, Ho-Dong

2014-09-01

93

Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the shells of today's univalve freshwater snails, Sinotaia ingallsiana (FS), Pila ampullaceal (PA), Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus which are abundant in Thailand. The FS, PA and AG shells in our study were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples was each then separately annealed for 2 hours in air atmosphere at 300°C, 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, 550°C, 600°C and 900°C, respectively, while the FFS powder was characterized as received. The FS, PA and PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments higher than 450°C of the FS, PA and PCL powder samples resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of high temperature annealed FS, PA and PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite ? calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but not yet completed, although they remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crust over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of FS, PA, PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Typical simulated ESR parameters of FS-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are gx=gy=2.078±0.001, gz=2.002±0.001, Ax=Ay=87.50±1.00 G, Az=89.00±1.00 G and D=115±1 G, respectively. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in FS, PA and PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1. It is thus possible to gain some insight of manganese incorporation into the freshwater shells during the biomineralization process.

Meejoo, S.; Udomkan, N.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

94

Distribution of metals and accumulation of lead by different tissues in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of several metals in different body tissues of the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), collected from an uncontaminated environment, were measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Significant concentrations of the potentially toxic elements manganese, titanium, and copper were detected in all tissues, although they were not detectable in the water sampled at collection; bioaccumulation is thus evidenced. Highest concentrations of manganese and copper were present in the shell, while highest concentrations of titanium were present in the head and foot. Experimental snails were continuously exposed to lead chloride (lead at 5 ppm) for an experimental period of 3 weeks. Both elements were accumulated to different extents by the snail tissues but with high concentrations again in the head of the animals, and chloride also in the visceral hump. No significant alterations in the distribution of the other elements measured were observed in the lead chloride-exposed animals.

Pyatt, F.B. [Nottingham Trent Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Life Sciences; Pyatt, A.J. [Univ. of Bradford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeological Sciences; Pentreath, V.W. [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1997-07-01

95

The Structure of the Statocyst of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The two statocysts are located on the dorsal-lateral side of the left and right pedal ganglion. The statocysts are spherical, fluid-filled capsules with a diameter of approximately 60 microns for young and 110 microns for adult snails. The wall of the cyst is composed of large receptor cells and many smaller supporting cells. The receptor cells bear cilia which are evenly distributed on the apical surface. The cilia have the typical 9+2 internal tubule configuration. Striate rootlets originate from the base of the basal body and run downward into the cytoplasm. Side-roots arise from one side of the basal body and a basal foot from the other. For each receptor cell, the basal foot always points to the periphery of the surface, indicating that the receptor cell is non-polarized. The receptor cells contain cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, compact Golgi bodies and multivesicular bodies. Supporting cells bearing microvilli are interposed between the receptor cells. The junction complex between the supporting cells and the receptor cells is composed of adherens and septate junctions, while between supporting cells only the adherens junctions are present. The static nerve arises from the lateral side of the cyst and contains axons in which parallel neurotubules and mitochondria are found. The axons arise directly from the base of the receptor cells without synapse. In the cyst lumen there are unattached statoconia. The statoconia have a plate-like or concentric membranous ring structure. Based on the morphology, the function of the statocyst in Biomphalaria is discussed.

Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael L.

1997-01-01

96

Spermatozoa Production by Triploid Males in the New Zealand Freshwater Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

PubMed Central

Asexual lineages derived from dioecious taxa are typically assumed to be all female. Even so, asexual females from a variety of animal taxa occasionally produce males. The existence of these males sets the stage for potential gene flow across asexual lineages as well as between sexual and asexual lineages. A recent study showed that asexual triploid female Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail often used as a model to study sexual reproduction, occasionally produce triploid male offspring. Here, we show that these triploid male P. antipodarum 1) have testes that produce morphologically normal sperm, 2) make larger sperm cells that contain more nuclear DNA than the sperm produced by diploid sexual males, and 3) produce sperm that range in DNA content from haploid to diploid, and are often aneuploid. Analysis of meiotic chromosomes of triploid males showed that aberrant pairing during prophase I likely accounts for the high variation in DNA content among sperm. These results indicate that triploid male P. antipodarum produce sperm, but the extent to which these sperm are able to fertilize female ova remains unclear. Our results also suggest that the general assumption of sterility in triploid males should be more closely examined in other species in which such males are occasionally produced. PMID:24307744

Soper, D.M.; Neiman, M.; Savytskyy, O.P.; Zolan, M.E.; Lively, C.M.

2013-01-01

97

Neuro-Endocrine Control of Reproduction in Hermaphroditic Freshwater Snails: Mechanisms and Evolution  

PubMed Central

Invertebrates are used extensively as model species to investigate neuro-endocrine processes regulating behaviors, and many of these processes may be extrapolated to vertebrates. However, when it comes to reproductive processes, many of these model species differ notably in their mode of reproduction. A point in case are simultaneously hermaphroditic molluscs. In this review I aim to achieve two things. On the one hand, I provide a comprehensive overview of the neuro-endocrine control of male and female reproductive processes in freshwater snails. Even though the focus will necessarily be on Lymnaea stagnalis, since this is the best-studied species in this respect, extensions to other species are made wherever possible. On the other hand, I will place these findings in the actual context of the whole animal, after all these are simultaneous hermaphrodites. By considering the hermaphroditic situation, I uncover a numbers of possible links between the regulation of the two reproductive systems that are present within this animal, and suggest a few possible mechanisms via which this animal can effectively switch between the two sexual roles in the flexible way that it does. Evidently, this opens up a number of new research questions and areas that explicitly integrate knowledge about behavioral decisions (e.g., mating, insemination, egg laying) and sexual selection processes (e.g., mate choice, sperm allocation) with the actual underlying neuronal and endocrine mechanisms required for these processes to act and function effectively. PMID:21088700

Koene, Joris M.

2010-01-01

98

Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology. PMID:24278240

Zachar, Nicholas; Neiman, Maurine

2013-01-01

99

Density-dependent influences on feeding and metabolism in a freshwater snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used laboratory experiments to assess the degree of, and the underlying mechanism for, density dependence in the grazing rate of the pulmonate gastropod Physella virgata. Both fecal pellet production and uptake and incorporation of 14C radioisotopes from labeled periphyton were used as indices of grazing rates. Pronounced density-dependent reductions in grazing rate were observed, especially at densities above 4

Kenneth M. Brown; Kevin R. Carman; Veronica Inchausty

1994-01-01

100

Parasite-induced alteration of diurnal rhythms in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The trematode Microphallus sp. alters the behavior of its snail intermediate host, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, in ways that seem to increase transmission to its final host, e.g., waterfowl, and decrease the probability of being eaten by other predators, e.g., fish. The parasite seems to cause the snail to move from the top to the bottom of rocks at about 0900 hr. Waterfowl feed predominantly before 0900 hr, and fish feed predominantly after 0900 hr. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Microphallus sp.-infected snails exhibit a change in behavior at around 0900 hr by examining their response to light and vertical orientation before and after 0900 hr. Results demonstrated that uninfected snails generally move toward light, oriented downward, and move a greater distance in the light compared with the dark at all times of day. Microphallus sp.-infected snails behaved differently from uninfected snails in the early morning but similarly to uninfected snails in the late morning with regard to downward orientation and distance moved in response to light. Snails infected with parasites other than Microphallus sp. behaved similarly to uninfected snails during both time periods. These results suggest that Microphallus sp. manipulates the behavior of Potamopyrgus sp. by altering rates of movement in response to light and vertical orientation in a manner consistent with the hypothesized 0900-hr shift. PMID:17539402

Levri, Edward P; Lunnen, Shane J; Itle, Carolyn T; Mosquea, Leocadia; Kinkade, Brian V; Martin, Travis G; DeLisser, Monique A

2007-04-01

101

Microsatellite size homoplasy, SSCP, and population structure: a case study in the freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus.  

PubMed

The extent of microsatellite size homoplasy, as well as its effect on several population genetics statistics, was investigated in natural populations using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method. The analysis was conducted using 240 individuals from 13 populations of the freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus at a GT(n)CT(m) compound microsatellite locus. We showed that SSCP can be used to uncover, at least partly, size homoplasy in the core sequence of this category of loci. Eight conformers (SSCP variants) were detected among the three size variants (electromorphs). Sequencing revealed that each conformer corresponded to a different combination of repeats in the GT(n) and CT(m) arrays. Part of this additional variability was detected within populations, resulting in a substantial increase in gene diversity in four populations. Additional variability also changed the values of parameters used to analyze population differentiation among populations: pairwise tests of differentiation were significant much more often with conformers than with electromorphs. On the other hand, pairwise estimates of F(st) were either smaller or larger with conformers than with electromorphs, depending on whether or not electromorphs were shared among populations. However, estimates of F(st) (or analogs) over all populations were very similar, ranging between 0.66 and 0.75. Our results were consistent with the theoretical prediction that homoplasy should not always lead to stronger population structure. Finally, conformer sequences and electromorph size distribution suggested that single-point and/or stepwise mutations occurring simultaneously in the different repeated arrays of compound microsatellites produce sequence variation without size variation and hence generate more size homoplasy than expected under a simple stepwise mutation model. PMID:11110909

Angers, B; Estoup, A; Jarne, P

2000-12-01

102

Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and Genotoxicity Induced by Silver Nanoparticles in Freshwater Snail Lymnea luteola L.  

PubMed

Silver is one of the most toxic metals to freshwater aquatic organisms. Limited efforts have been made to study apoptosis and genotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in freshwater snail Lymnea luteola L. (L. luteola). Therefore, the present investigation was aimed to study the induction of apoptosis and DNA damage by AgNPs in L. luteola. AgNPs showed molluscicidal activity against L. luteola and three concentrations of AgNPs were selected, the concentration I (4 ?g/l), concentration II (12 ?g/l), and the concentration III (24 ?g/l). Induction of oxidative stress in snail hemolymph was observed by a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels at different concentration of AgNPs, and on the other hand, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased at lower concentrations but decreased in higher concentration of AgNPs. Catalase (CAT) activity was also decreased at lower concentrations and increased in higher concentration of AgNPs. Flow cytometry data showed that AgNPs exposed hemocyte cells promote apoptotic and necrotic-mediated cell death when AgNPs concentrations were 12 and 24 ?g/l compared to control. DNA damage scores increased with the exposure levels of AgNPs, and dose- and time-dependent effects were observed. A significant positive correlation was observed among reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, and DNA damage. The study suggests that ROS may be involved in inducing apoptosis and DNA damage in the AgNPs exposed hemocyte cells of L. luteola. This study demonstrates that AgNPs is lethal to freshwater snail L. luteola. PMID:25351851

Ali, Daoud

2014-12-01

103

Prosobranch snails as test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals––an overview and a guideline proposal for a reproduction test with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, prosobranch snails have been recommended as promising candidates for test organisms for the assessment of endocrine\\u000a active chemicals. Three prosobranch snail species, the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis, and the marine netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus are portrayed and their respective biotests are presented together with results of laboratory experiments and biological\\u000a effect monitoring surveys

Martina Duft; Claudia Schmitt; Jean Bachmann; Cornelius Brandelik; Ulrike Schulte-Oehlmann; Jörg Oehlmann

2007-01-01

104

Distribution of freshwater snails in the man-made Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing patterns of snail distribution in Oyan Reservoir, a typically medium sized man-made reservoir in southwest Nigeria, were investigated once a month, for 28 months (August 1990-November 1992). During each monthly visit, seven stations were sampled for relative snail density, vegetation cover and physical and chemical properties of the lake water. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the

Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie

1999-01-01

105

Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine  

PubMed Central

Objective To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia II and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance. PMID:23569759

Bdir, Sami; Adwan, Ghaleb

2011-01-01

106

Does social facilitation affect responses to natural and anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis?  

PubMed

Social facilitation is the initiation or increase of a trait, such as stressor tolerance, when in the presence of conspecifics, members of the same species. It has been shown to alter the outcome of toxicity experiments in colonial organisms. We evaluated whether social facilitation would impact responses to stressors in the noncolonial New Mexico ramshorn snail (Planorbella trivolvis) by exposing snails to stressors either singly or in groups of three. Social facilitation did not impact snail responses to malathion but did affect responses to predator cues and temperature stress. PMID:21935982

Plautz, Stephanie C; Salice, Christopher J

2011-12-01

107

Seasonal and artificially elevated temperatures influence bioenergetic allocation patterns in the common pond snail, Physella virgata.  

PubMed

Allocation of organic carbon (OC) to primary energetic pathways was estimated under seasonal and artificially elevated ambient temperatures for a field population of a freshwater pulmonate snail, Physella virgata. Allocation to respiration increased with temperature. Snails allocated most assimilated OC to reproduction within their natural temperature range (15 degrees -35 degrees C), where assimilation efficiencies remained relatively stable at 25%-35%. However, in artificially heated waters exceeding 35 degrees C, declining assimilation rates and increasing respiratory demands inhibited allocation to reproduction and growth. At the species' 40 degrees C upper thermal limit, assimilation efficiencies fell below 10%, while average consumption levels more than doubled relative to snails unaffected by the thermal effluent. Ambient temperature substantially influenced OC allocation over P. virgata's natural temperature range and negatively affected growth and reproduction at temperatures approaching or exceeding maximum natural levels. PMID:15095239

Britton, David K; McMahon, Robert F

2004-01-01

108

The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

2012-01-01

109

Clonal Structure of the Introduced Freshwater Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae), as Revealed by DNA Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-locus DNA fingerprints were obtained from individuals of the hydrobiid snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (= P. jenkinsi), by using an RNA derivative (pSPT 18.15) of Jeffreys's 33. 15 minisatellite core sequence. Whole-body homogenization of snails yielded 3.21 ± 0.09 mu g DNA per individual, producing complex profiles comprising 12-22 fragments within the 1.0-20.0 kilobase (kb) size range. Fingerprints from natural and

L. Hauser; G. R. Carvalho; R. N. Hughes; R. E. Carter

1992-01-01

110

Effect of starvation on parasite-induced mortality in a freshwater snail ( Potamopyrgus antipodarum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of host exploitation is expected, under theory, to be selected to maximise (subject to constraints) the lifetime\\u000a reproductive success of the parasite. Here we studied the effect of two castrating trematode species on their intermediate\\u000a snail host, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. One of the trematode species, Microphallus sp., encysts in the snail host and the encysted larvae “hatch” following ingestion

J. Jokela; C. M. Lively; J. Taskinen; A. D. Peters

1999-01-01

111

Biochemical responses to the toxicity of the biocide abamectin on the freshwater snail Physa acuta.  

PubMed

The toxic effects of abamectin (ABM), an anthelmintic drug, on the snail, Physa Acuta, and the biochemical responses to the exposure stress were evaluated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in snail soft tissues (head, foot, visceral mass, and the mantle) for up to 96h of exposure to 3.4, 9.6, 19.2, or 27.4?gL(-1) of ABM. The results showed that SOD and GST activities were promoted by ABM-exposure at the earlier periods of treatment (12-48h) while these activites were inhibited at the end of test. The tendency of CAT activity was similar to that of SOD, but it increased at the end of test. MDA levels of the snail soft tissues increased in all treatment groups, including the recovery group, indicating that lipid peroxidation occurred in snail soft tissues. ABM-exposure inhibited AChE activity. However, NOS activities increased by ABM-exposure. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes and AChE from the snail soft tissues resumed the normal levels after 96h of recovery period, but MDA level did not attain the original level. This study provides information on the biochemical mechanism of ABM toxicity on the snail. PMID:24507123

Ma, Junguo; Zhou, Chune; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-03-01

112

Effects of landfill leachate effluent and bisphenol A on glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in the gills and digestive glands of the freshwater snail Bellamya purificata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminants with estrogenic activity have recently attracted attention due to their potential detrimental effects on the reproduction of human and wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of endogenous glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes as biomarkers of exposure to landfill leachate effluent and bisphenol A (BPA) in the freshwater snail, Bellamya purificata. Following exposure to 1%,

Xiangli Li; Li Lin; Tiangang Luan; Lihua Yang; Chongyu Lan

2008-01-01

113

APPLICATION OF McKENDRICK - VON FOERSTER'S MODEL OF POPULATION DYNAMICS TO FRESHWATER SNAILS: SPECIFICATION OF THE MODEL USING LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS *)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of the methods of field observation, of laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling was used when studying the life history of freshwater snail Bithynia tentaculata (Linné, 1758) (Prosobranchia) in the River Svratka (South Moravia, Czech Republic). McKendrick - von Foerster's model of population dynamics based on the analysis of seasonal changes in abundance and on the size structure of

Ivona Velecká; Libor Jüttner

114

WYNTK_pulmon.mobi  

Cancer.gov

Lo_que_usted-ncer_de_pulmonSjSjBOOKMOBI]8&-28? F MSY`fnu|?B 4"z$&(*,.02468 :@HBPD`F4HXJLvNRTVXZ\\^` bd`f#@h+j2l:nB;pJrSDt[7vaxhzo|v~~|!6*fr"V3.32kk " ^ MOBINb:7 HP#%$&R EXTHt kprj2014-04-30d&Instituto Nacional del Cncere&Instituto Nacional del Cncer Ciiw es horizontal-lrkindle:embed:0008 ,>

115

A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake  

PubMed Central

Abstract Karucia sublacustrina a new species of freshwater snails (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) is described based on material collected from Skadar Lake (Montenegro, Albania). The new species belongs to monotypic genus Karucia gen. n. The shell morphology and body shape of the new genus resembles Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 and Grossuana Radoman, 1973, from which it differs in the larger shells with relatively slim and a slightly, but clearly shouldered body whorl. The number of gastropods from Skadar Lake basin tallies now 50 species. The adjusted rate of gastropod endemicity for Skadar Lake basin is estimated to be 38%. By compiling faunal and taxonomic data we also aim to provide information of relevance as to conservation efforts. PMID:23794834

Pesic, Vladimir; Gloer, Peter

2013-01-01

116

Freshwater snails and Schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IV - Sul Fluminense Mesoregion.  

PubMed

In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida and Pomacea sp. As to the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni the most frequent species was B. tenagophila, found in all municipalities surveyed, except Parati. Besides new records the present study extends the distribution of B. peregrina and B. straminea in the state. No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15273799

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Fernandez, Monica A

2004-05-01

117

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: VI--Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion.  

PubMed

In this paper, the last of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2005 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; B. straminea; B. tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; D. cimex; D. depressissimum; D. lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; P. marmorata; Plesiophysa guadeloupensis; Pomacea lineata; and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of schistosomiasis the three natural vectors were identified and, although no specimens were found harbouring larval forms of Schistosoma mansoni, different kinds of cercariae had been observed. PMID:17308776

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A

2006-09-01

118

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V -- Norte Fluminense Mesoregion.  

PubMed

In this paper, the fifth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Norte Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2003 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 19 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Burnupia sp.; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema depressissimum; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Hebetancylus moricandi; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida, and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni only B. tenagophila was found, in contrast with other previuosly studied mesoregions.No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15486644

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Loureiro, Márcio S; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A

2004-01-01

119

[Role of chemical signalling in release of motor programs during embryogenesis of freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Helisoma trivolvis].  

PubMed

We have earlier found that freshwater pond snails Helisoma trivolvis and Lymnaea stagnalis, when reared under conditions of starvation, release chemical signals that reversibly suppress larval development of conspecific embryos. Here, we report that (i) these signals are not strictly conspecific and affect also embryos of a closely related species, which occupies a similar environmental niche; (ii) besides the development of embryos, the signals also affect the release of main motor programs, such as locomotion, feeding, and cardiac activity; (iii) action of the signals is bidirectional: they retard the development and release of motor programs at the early larval stages (trochophore to veliger) and accelerate them at later stages (late veliger to hatching). A possible adaptive significance of the described phenomena is discussed. PMID:17479532

Voronezhskaia, E E; Khabarova, M Iu; Chaban, A K; Nezlin, L P

2007-01-01

120

Evidence for negative frequency-dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode.  

PubMed

Host-parasite coevolution is often suggested as a mechanism for maintaining genetic diversity, but finding direct evidence has proven difficult. In the present study, we examine the process of coevolution using a freshwater New Zealand snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and its common parasite (the sterilizing trematode, Microphallus sp.) Specifically, we test for changes in genotypic composition of clonal host populations in experimental populations evolving either with or without parasites for six generations. As predicted under the Red Queen model of coevolution, the initially most common host genotype decreased in frequency in the presence, but not the absence, of parasitism. Furthermore, the initially most common host genotype became more susceptible to infection by the coevolving parasite populations over the course of the experiment. These results are consistent with parasite-meditated selection leading to a rare advantage, and they indicate rapid coevolution at the genotypic level between a host and its parasite. PMID:19473396

Koskella, Britt; Lively, Curtis M

2009-09-01

121

The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon & Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources. PMID:18441407

Takougang, Innocent; Barbazan, Phillipe; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Noumi, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

122

Contrasting the distribution of phenotypic and molecular variation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Population differentiation was investigated by confronting phenotypic and molecular variation in the highly selfing freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We sampled seven natural populations separated by a few kilometers, and characterized by different habitat regimes (permanent/temporary) and openness (open/closed). A genetic analysis based on five microsatellite markers confirms that B. pfeifferi is a selfer (s?0.9) and exhibits limited variation within populations. Most pairwise FST were significant indicating marked population structure, though no isolation by distance was detected. Families from the seven populations were monitored under laboratory conditions over two generations (G1 and G2), allowing to record several life-history traits, including growth, fecundity and survival, over 25 weeks. Marked differences were detected among populations for traits expressed early in the life cycle (up to sexual maturity). Age and size at first reproduction had high heritability values, but such a trend was not found for early reproductive traits. In most populations, G1 snails matured later and at a larger size than G2 individuals. Individuals from permanent habitats matured at a smaller size and were more fecund than those from temporary habitats. The mean phenotypic differentiation over all populations (QST) was lower than the mean genetic differentiation (FST), suggesting stabilizing selection. However, no difference was detected between QST and FST for both habitat regime and habitat openness. PMID:23321708

Tian-Bi, Y-NT; Jarne, P; Konan, J-NK; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K

2013-01-01

123

Stress-induced changes in accumulation of sorbitol and in activities of concomitant enzymes in digestive gland of freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Sorbitol content was determined in the digestive gland of freshwater snail (Viviparus viviparus L.) in different seasons and in a short-term experiment on the water temperature decrease and on intoxication with cadmium chloride. In the model experiments, changes in activities of enzymes involved in sorbitol metabolism (acid phosphatases, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and aldose reductase) were also studied. Sorbitol was accumulated by the snail in response to the temperature decrease (as a cryoprotectant) and under conditions of acute intoxication (as a probable metabolic regulator or a nonspecific protective factor). However, the mechanisms of this accumulation are different: on cold adaptation sorbitol is produced as a result of reduction of glucose under the influence of aldose reductase, and on intoxication sorbitol is mainly produced from fructose under the influence of sorbitol dehydrogenase. Pathways of the sorbitol accumulation and its re-involvement into metabolism are not always the same, and this might be a mechanism for regulation of carbohydrate metabolism (at the initial stage of glycolysis) on adaptation to unfavorable factors of the environment. PMID:19916942

Tsvetkov, I L; Konichev, A S

2009-11-01

124

Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

2014-01-01

125

The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail  

E-print Network

be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. Citation: Chaves-Campos J. Animals can reduce the risk of predation through changes in behavior, life history, morphology given their long history of interaction with shell-breaking predators such as crabs and fish [7

Johnson, Steven G.

126

EFFECTS OF COPPER, NICKEL AND ZINC ON THREE SPECIES OF OREGON FRESHWATER SNAILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Three snail species collected from western Oregon were exposed to metals - Juga plicifera and Lithoglyphus virens, which inhabit cool coastal streams, and Physa gyrina, which is found in Willamette Valley ponds. J. plicifera were exposed in flow-through laboratory tests to copper...

127

Effects of 17?-methyltestosterone on the reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

17-?-methyltestosterone (MT) is a synthetic hormone used in fish hatcheries to induce male monosex. Snails hold promise as possible test models to assess chemicals acting on the endocrine system. Biomphalaria glabrata is an aquatic gastropod mollusk (Pulmonata, Planorbidae) that can be easily maintained in aquaria, predisposing the species for use in ecotoxicological testing. This study evaluated the reproductive effects of MT on B. glabrata by examining histological changes and its reproductive performance. Ten snails per group were exposed for 4 weeks to different concentrations of MT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L). The total number of laid eggs, egg mass per group, size of type V oocytes, and production of spermatozoids were determined. Reproduction of B. glabrata was affected by MT. At the lowest concentration (0.01 mg/L), MT caused a statistically significant increase in the number of egg mass per snail compared with controls unexposed to MT. Histopathology analyses showed an increase in the sperm production at the higher MT concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. Chromatographic analyses of water samples showed that MT concentrations rapidly declined within a 96-h period. These results highlight the importance of giving more support to regulatory authorities, since MT is not registered for use on fish hatcheries in many countries around the world. Wastewater from fish farms discharged into aquatic ecosystems should be monitored for MT residues, since its presence could compromise the reproduction of other native snail species. PMID:24615026

Rivero-Wendt, C L G; Borges, A C; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Ferreira, M F N; Grisolia, C K

2014-01-01

128

Trait compensation and cospecialization in a freshwater snail: size, shape and antipredator behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined relationships between individual differences in antipredator behaviour and prey morphological characters (size, shape) that influence prey vulnerability. Behavioural responses of Physa gyrina to chemical cues associated with predation by crayfish Orconectes rusticus, were assayed in the laboratory for 6 days over a 13-day period. Snails displayed consistent, individually repeatable responses to the predation cues, including hiding (refuge use)

Thomas J. Dewitt; Andrew Sih; Jeffrey A. Hucko

1999-01-01

129

Identification of an estrogen receptor gene in the natural freshwater snail Bithynia tentaculata.  

PubMed

Mollusks have received increasing interest in ecotoxicological studies but so far the available scientific analyses of how their genes are affected by anthropogenic pollutants are scarce. The focus of this study is to identify an estrogen receptor (er) gene in the common prosobranch snail Bithynia tentaculata and to test a hypothesis that 17?-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) will modulate er gene expression after short-term exposure. We set up exposure experiments with a total of 144 snails, which were collected from a natural population in southern Sweden. Snails were exposed to either 10ng/L or 100ng/L EE2 during 24h and/or 72h. From the isolated B. tentaculata RNA we successfully identified and characterized a novel er gene and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Bithynia er gene is an ortholog to the human ER? (ESR1, NR3A1). We found a significant interaction between EE2-dose and exposure duration on the er's gene expression (Two-way ANOVA; p=0.04). We also found a significant difference in the gene expression of the er when comparing the control and 100ng/L treatment groups after 72h in female snails (One-way ANOVA; p=0.047). The results from this study should be useful for future field-related studies of estrogen receptors in natural populations of mollusks. PMID:24583164

Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Persson, Anders; Hansson, Maria C

2014-04-25

130

An experimental heat wave changes immune defense and life history traits in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The predicted increase in frequency and severity of heat waves due to climate change is expected to alter disease dynamics by reducing hosts' ability to resist infections. This could take place via two different mechanisms: (1) through general reduction in hosts' performance under harsh environmental conditions and/or (2) through altered resource allocation that reduces expression of defense traits in order to maintain other traits. We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring the effect of an experimental heat wave (25 vs. 15°C) on the constitutive level of immune defense (hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase [PO]-like activity, antibacterial activity of hemolymph), and life history traits (growth and number of oviposited eggs) of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We also manipulated the exposure time to high temperature (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 days). We found that if the exposure to high temperature lasted <1 week, immune function was not affected. However, when the exposure lasted longer than that, the level of snails' immune function (hemocyte concentration and PO-like activity) was reduced. Snails' growth and reproduction increased within the first week of exposure to high temperature. However, longer exposures did not lead to a further increase in cumulative reproductive output. Our results show that short experimental heat waves do not alter immune function but lead to plastic responses that increase snails' growth and reproduction. Thus, although the relative expression of traits changes, short experimental heat waves do not impair snails' defenses. Negative effects on performance get pronounced when the heat waves are prolonged suggesting that high performance cannot be maintained over long time periods. This ultimately reduces the levels of defense traits. PMID:24455121

Leicht, Katja; Jokela, Jukka; Seppälä, Otto

2013-12-01

131

An experimental heat wave changes immune defense and life history traits in a freshwater snail  

PubMed Central

The predicted increase in frequency and severity of heat waves due to climate change is expected to alter disease dynamics by reducing hosts' ability to resist infections. This could take place via two different mechanisms: (1) through general reduction in hosts' performance under harsh environmental conditions and/or (2) through altered resource allocation that reduces expression of defense traits in order to maintain other traits. We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring the effect of an experimental heat wave (25 vs. 15°C) on the constitutive level of immune defense (hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase [PO]-like activity, antibacterial activity of hemolymph), and life history traits (growth and number of oviposited eggs) of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We also manipulated the exposure time to high temperature (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 days). We found that if the exposure to high temperature lasted <1 week, immune function was not affected. However, when the exposure lasted longer than that, the level of snails' immune function (hemocyte concentration and PO-like activity) was reduced. Snails' growth and reproduction increased within the first week of exposure to high temperature. However, longer exposures did not lead to a further increase in cumulative reproductive output. Our results show that short experimental heat waves do not alter immune function but lead to plastic responses that increase snails' growth and reproduction. Thus, although the relative expression of traits changes, short experimental heat waves do not impair snails' defenses. Negative effects on performance get pronounced when the heat waves are prolonged suggesting that high performance cannot be maintained over long time periods. This ultimately reduces the levels of defense traits. PMID:24455121

Leicht, Katja; Jokela, Jukka; Seppala, Otto

2013-01-01

132

Spot light survey on fresh-water snails of medical importance in Al Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In a survey carried out during Summer and Autumn of 2004, for snails of medical importance, nine species were recovered. These were Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, B. pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis, Bellamya (=Vivipara) unicolor, Physa acuta and Hydrobia musaensis. Parasitological examination revealed that B. alexandrina, B. glabrata and L. natalensis harboured immature stages of their concerned trematode parasites. Moreover, P. acuta harboured the immature stage of the nematode parasite Parastrongylus cantonensis. PMID:15880994

Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; El Garhy, Manal F; Massoud, Ahmed M A

2005-04-01

133

Determination of digestive enzyme kinetics: a new method to define trophic niches in freshwater snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorogenic substrate analogues (MUF substrates) are very sensitive in detecting hydrolytic enzymes. This method was adapted\\u000a for the quantitative analysis of extracellular enzymes in snails and other animals. It was then used to determine cellobiase,\\u000a chitobiase, protease, esterase, phosphatase and lipase in the digestive tract of Radix \\u000a peregra and Bithynia \\u000a tentaculata. The method was sensitive enough to determine the complete

Heinz Brendelberger

1996-01-01

134

non-lethal responses of the freshwater snail potamopyrgus antipodarum to dissolved arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two non-lethal responses, avoidance andimmobility, were observed for thefreshwater gastropod Potamopyrgusantipodarum on exposure to dissolvedarsenic (As) as arsenate (As(V)) orarsenite (As(III)). Two differentpopulations of P. antipodarum, onewith a long history of exposure todissolved As from geothermal fluids andthe other with minimal exposure, werecompared to test for adaptation to As. Both snail populations avoided dissolvedAs(III), the more toxic form, at lowerconcentrations

Lisa A. Golding; Michael H. Timperley; Clive W. Evans

1997-01-01

135

Identification of trematode cercariae carrying Neorickettsia risticii in freshwater stream snails.  

PubMed

We provide evidence of Neorickettsia (Ehrlichia) risticii Holland, the agent of Potomac horse fever, in trematode larval stages found in aquatic snails and insects collected from a stream in Korea, using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment amplified from several cercaria species. It was observed that of 423 (13.1%) of 3,219 snails infected with cercariae, 77 (20.8% of the 371) were infected with N. risticii. Five families of trematode cercariae, Schistosomatidae, Echimostomatidae, Heterophyidae, Microphallidae, and Acanthocopidae were identified morphologically within Semisulcospira libertina, Radix auricularia coreana, and S. gottschei snails. Echinostoma cinetorchis, E. hortense, and Metagonimus sp. were identified based on both the cercarial morphology as well as by phylogenetic analysis of the amplified 18S rRNA gene sequences. Adult aquatic insects were also collected from the same sites and were sorted into five species, Ischnura asiatica in Coenagrionidae and Calopteryx japonica, Sympetrum darwinianum, Symptrum eroticum, and Symptrum parvulum in Calopterygoidae. One thousand and two hundred eighty five metacercariae (classified into groups A through F) were isolated from 310 adult aquatic insects, and the average number of metacercariae per aquatic insect was 4.1. However, there was no amplification of N. risticii from these metacercariae. PMID:12860634

Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Meen-Ju; Kim, Eun-Ha; Kim, Min-Seok; Na, Dong-Gyun; Chae, Joon-Seok

2003-06-01

136

Operculum closing as a defence against predatory leeches in four British freshwater prosobranch snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defence reaction of operculum closing in response to the presence of the molluscivorous leech Glossiphonia complanata (L.) and the non-molluscivorous Erpobdella octoculata (L.) was studied in four species of freshwater prosobranch gastropod. Bithynia tentaculata (L.) and Valvata piscinalis (Mller) can distinguish between the leeches, reacting only to G. complanata. V. piscinalis is capable of a greater degree of distance

Paul M. Kelly; Jenny S. Cory

1987-01-01

137

Toxic effect of two common Euphorbiales latices on the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The aqueous and serially purified latex extracts of plants Euphorbia pulcherima and Euphorbia hirta (family Euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. Sub-lethal doses (40 and 80% of LC(50)) of aqueous and partially purified latex extracts of both the plants also significantly alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase in nervous tissue of the snail Lymnaea acuminata in time and dose dependent manner. E. pulcherima and E. hirta are common medicinal plants of family Euphorbiaceae. E. pulcherima is useful for a variety of conditions, such as rheumatism, snakebite, asthma, obstipation, and skin-diseases. While, E. hirta is also used in cough, asthma, colic, dysentery, and genito urinary diseases. PMID:21782684

Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, R P; Singh, Digvijay; Singh, Ajay

2004-01-01

138

Discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in sexual and asexual lineages of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  

PubMed

The presence and extent of mitonuclear discordance in coexisting sexual and asexual lineages provides insight into 1) how and when asexual lineages emerged, and 2) the spatial and temporal scales at which the ecological and evolutionary processes influencing the evolution of sexual and asexual reproduction occur. Here, we used nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and a mitochondrial gene to characterize phylogeographic structure and the extent of mitonuclear discordance in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This New Zealand freshwater snail is often used to study the evolution and maintenance of sex because obligately sexual and obligately asexual individuals often coexist. While our data indicate that sexual and asexual P. antipodarum sampled from the same lake population are often genetically similar, suggesting recent origin of these asexuals from sympatric sexual P. antipodarum, we also found significantly more population structure in sexuals vs. asexuals. This latter result suggests that some asexual lineages originated in other lakes and/or in the relatively distant past. When comparing mitochondrial and nuclear population genetic structure, we discovered that one mitochondrial haplotype ('1A') was rare in sexuals, but common and widespread in asexuals. Haplotype 1A frequency and nuclear genetic diversity were not associated, suggesting that the commonness of this haplotype cannot be attributed entirely to genetic drift and pointing instead to a role for selection. PMID:23957656

Paczesniak, Dorota; Jokela, Jukka; Larkin, Katelyn; Neiman, Maurine

2013-09-01

139

Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)  

SciTech Connect

Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Ecotoxicology Group)

1994-09-01

140

Wide variation in ploidy level and genome size in a New Zealand freshwater snail with coexisting sexual and asexual lineages.  

PubMed

Natural animal populations are rarely screened for ploidy-level variation at a scale that allows detection of potentially important aberrations of common ploidy patterns. This type of screening can be especially important for the many mixed sexual/asexual systems in which sexuals are presumed to be dioecious diploids and asexuals are assumed to be triploid and all-female. For example, elevation of ploidy level above triploidy can be a source of genetic variation and raises the possibility of gene flow among ploidy levels and to asexual lineages. We used flow cytometry and mtDNA sequencing to characterize ploidy level and genome size in Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail where obligate sexual (presumed diploid and dioecious) and obligate apomictic asexual (presumed triploid and nearly all female) individuals frequently coexist. We documented the widespread occurrence and multiple origins of polyploid males and individuals with >3× ploidy, and find that both are likely to be descended from asexual females. Our survey also suggested the existence of extensive variation in genome size. The discovery of widespread variation in ploidy level and genome size in such a well-studied system highlights the importance of broad, extensive, and ecologically representative sampling in uncovering ploidy level and genome-size variation in natural populations. PMID:22023586

Neiman, Maurine; Paczesniak, Dorota; Soper, Deanna M; Baldwin, Austin T; Hehman, Gery

2011-11-01

141

[Freshwater snails of the Campus of Manguinhos, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ].  

PubMed

A survey of freshwater gastropods of the Campus of Manguinhos, Fundaçăo Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, was carried out during the last two years aiming to compare the current species with those found at the beginning of this century. Among 18 breeding sites in 880,000m2 of the surveyed area, 13 showed the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria straminea; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa cubensis; Pomacea glauca and Pomacea lineata. Notably, Biomphalaria tenagophila reported by Lutz in 1918, had disappeared and B. straminea and the Asiatic thiarid M. tuberculatus had been introduced. No specimens infected with Schistosoma mansoni were found. PMID:11460215

Fernandez, M A; Thiengo, S C; Boaventura, M F

2001-01-01

142

Sole smooth muscle states determine gliding rate in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The sole of crawling gastropods is a unique model for studying the function of smooth muscles and ciliated epithelium. The gastropod snail Lymnaea stagnalis glides over the substratum without visible muscular contraction in its sole; consequently, the gliding was thought to be due to sole cilia. However, we have shown that the sole muscles in Lymnaea are phasic smooth muscles. They contribute extensively to gliding rate, which is directly correlated with the sole length (longitudinal sole muscle tonus) that varies widely during gliding. Here, we show that the linear relationship between gliding rate and sole length in Lymnaea may be modified. Serotonin increases gliding rate and has no effect on sole length. Dopamine contracts the sole and, consequently, slows the gliding rate, while ergometrine (a blocker of dopamine receptors) relaxes the sole and increases gliding rate. These influences on locomotion rate and sole length are similar to those obtained earlier for Helix lucorum, in which the substances changed the number and contraction force of muscle cells involved in peristaltic locomotory waves. Taken together, the data obtained here for Lymnaea and earlier for Helix describe the fundamental mechanisms for controlling phasic smooth muscles. PMID:24445444

Pavlova, Galina A

2013-12-01

143

Higher rate of tissue regeneration in polyploid asexual versus diploid sexual freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Characterizing phenotypic differences between sexual and asexual organisms is a critical step towards understanding why sexual reproduction is so common. Because asexuals are often polyploid, understanding how ploidy influences phenotype is directly relevant to the study of sex and will provide key insights into the evolution of ploidy-level variation. The well-established association between genome size and cell cycle duration, evidence for a link between genome size and tissue regeneration rate and the growing body of research showing that ploidy influences growth rate and gene expression led us to hypothesize that healing and tissue regeneration might be affected by ploidy-level variation. We evaluated this hypothesis by measuring the rate of regeneration of antenna tissue of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by frequent coexistence between diploid sexuals and polyploid asexuals. Antennae of triploid and presumptive tetraploid asexuals regenerated more rapidly than the antennae of diploid sexuals, but regeneration rate did not differ between triploids and tetraploids. These results suggest either that ploidy elevation has nonlinear positive effects on tissue regeneration and/or that factors associated directly with reproductive mode affect regeneration rate more than ploidy level. The results of this study also indicate that the lower ploidy of sexual P. antipodarum is unlikely to confer advantages associated with more rapid regeneration. PMID:23843218

Krois, Nicole R; Cherukuri, Anvesh; Puttagunta, Nikhil; Neiman, Maurine

2013-08-23

144

Higher rate of tissue regeneration in polyploid asexual versus diploid sexual freshwater snails  

PubMed Central

Characterizing phenotypic differences between sexual and asexual organisms is a critical step towards understanding why sexual reproduction is so common. Because asexuals are often polyploid, understanding how ploidy influences phenotype is directly relevant to the study of sex and will provide key insights into the evolution of ploidy-level variation. The well-established association between genome size and cell cycle duration, evidence for a link between genome size and tissue regeneration rate and the growing body of research showing that ploidy influences growth rate and gene expression led us to hypothesize that healing and tissue regeneration might be affected by ploidy-level variation. We evaluated this hypothesis by measuring the rate of regeneration of antenna tissue of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by frequent coexistence between diploid sexuals and polyploid asexuals. Antennae of triploid and presumptive tetraploid asexuals regenerated more rapidly than the antennae of diploid sexuals, but regeneration rate did not differ between triploids and tetraploids. These results suggest either that ploidy elevation has nonlinear positive effects on tissue regeneration and/or that factors associated directly with reproductive mode affect regeneration rate more than ploidy level. The results of this study also indicate that the lower ploidy of sexual P. antipodarum is unlikely to confer advantages associated with more rapid regeneration. PMID:23843218

Krois, Nicole R.; Cherukuri, Anvesh; Puttagunta, Nikhil; Neiman, Maurine

2013-01-01

145

Resistance in introduced populations of a freshwater snail to native range parasites.  

PubMed

Introduced species provide an opportunity to examine responses to novel ecological conditions, in particular to the absence of co-evolved enemies. Introduced populations could evolve lower investment in resistance or could down-regulate their immune system as a plastic response to enemy absence. The response might have consequences for the success of introduced species. Assuming a trade-off between resistance and traits related to demographic success, an evolved change or reallocation from resistance could increase the chances of invasions. On the other hand, introduced populations could have increased resistance as a correlate of greater vigour and competitive ability among successful invaders [Sampling Bias hypothesis (SBH)]. These hypotheses make different predictions about investment in resistance in introduced populations. Using a New Zealand clonal snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), we examined the resistance of three introduced genotypes (one from the US and two from Europe) to several populations of a native range parasite (Microphallus sp.). One genotype (Euro A) was resistant to all native range parasite populations, consistent with the SBH. However, two remaining genotypes (Euro C and US 1) were less susceptible to parasite populations that were allopatric to their source populations. Furthermore, resistance of one genotype (US 1) collected from the introduced range was indistinguishable from its resistance when collected from the range of the parasite. Hence, there was no evidence for decreased resistance in the absence of native enemies, which is inconsistent with hypotheses that envision reduced allocation to resistance or a trade-off between competitive ability and resistance. PMID:17040392

Emblidge Fromme, A; Dybdahl, M F

2006-11-01

146

Environmental versus Anthropogenic Effects on Population Adaptive Divergence in the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

PubMed Central

Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using QST -FST comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean FST?=?0.291), five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment. PMID:25207985

Bouetard, Anthony; Cote, Jessica; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Collinet, Marc; Coutellec, Marie-Agnes

2014-01-01

147

Environmental versus anthropogenic effects on population adaptive divergence in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using Q(ST)-F(ST) comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean F(ST) = 0.291), five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment. PMID:25207985

Bouétard, Anthony; Côte, Jessica; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Collinet, Marc; Coutellec, Marie-Agnčs

2014-01-01

148

North American Paleozoic land snails with a summary of other Paleozoic nonmarine snails  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land snails from the Paleozoic of North America are known from the coal fields of eastern Canada, from the Dunkard basin west of the Allegheny Mountains, and from the western margin of the Illinois basin. The earliest finds were made about 125 years ago; essentially no new information has been recorded for a century. Large collections of Anthracopupa from the Dunkard basin sparked inquiry into the land snails from the other two areas. Studies using the SEM (scanning electron microscope) have provided considerable insight into microdetails of shell structure, which allow systematic assignment of these gastropods. All may be assigned to extant families, except one, for which insufficient material allows only superfamily assignment. The prosobranch Dawsonella is confirmed as being a terrestrial neritacean gastropod. To date, it is known only from the upper Middle Pennsylvanian of Illinois and Indiana. All the other Paleozoic land snails are stylommatophoran pulmonates; their current classification as nonmarine cyclophoraceans is not correct. Restudy of material from the Joggins section of Nova Scotia indicates that representatives of two ordinal groups of pulmonates appeared simultaneously in upper Lower Pennsylvanian strata; the oldest land prosobranch is found in only very slightly younger rocks. Zonites (Conulus) priscus is reassigned to the new genus Protodiscus in the extant family Discidae. Dendropupa is placed within the family Enidae, Anthraaopupa is placed in the family Tornatellinidae, and 'Pupa' bigsbii is assigned to the superfamily Pupillacea. All four of these family-level taxa are diverse and belong to two orders within the superorder Stylommatophora, heretofore considered a derived rather than an ancestral stock. Anthracopupa ohioensis Whitfield is a highly variable species, and two other species Naticopsis (?) diminuta and A.(?) dunkardona, both named by Stauffer and Schroyer, are placed in synonymy with it. To obtain taxonomic data to support the family placement of Anthracopupa, growth forms of modern pupillid and tornatellinid snails have been distinguished. The apertural barriers in Anthracopupa are identical in placement and growth pattern with those of living Tornatellinidae and independently confirm the family placement derived from study of the general form. One new species, A. sturgeoni, has been named. Anthracopupa is found most commonly in thin limestones interpreted as having been deposited in pools into which the small shells floated. Dendropupa is most commonly found in erect tree stumps that were covered by rapid sedimentation. Both environments are similar to those in which the shells of allied living species may be found today, and the fossils support environmental interpretations made entirely from lithology. A survey of the few European occurrences of Paleozoic land snails indicates that both Anthracopupa and Dendropupa occur in Lower Permian strata; Anthracopupa is known from beds as old as Westphalian B. These genera cannot be used for determining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary. Both the long local stratigraphic range of A. brittanica and D. vetusta reported in the literature and the moderately long range and great variability of A. ohioensis suggest that the land snails have little stratigraphic utility. On the other hand, the occurrence of these land snails in the late Paleozoic of the Northern Hemisphere provides further fossil evidence suggestive of a closed Atlantic Ocean at that time. A comparison of the Paleozoic and the present distributions of land -snail families on both sides of the Atlantic provides some interesting data on geographic shifts of organisms. Finally, the assignment of the earliest land snails to extant taxa at the family level indicates that the subclass Pulmonata has been very conservative in its evolution after initial radiation. A few notes on Paleozoic freshwater snails complete this survey.

Solem, Alan; Yochelson, Ellis Leon

1979-01-01

149

[Distribution Of Medically Important Freshwater Snails And Larval Trematodes From Parafossarulus Manchouricus And Semisulcospira Libertina Around The Jinyang Lake In Kyongsang-Nam-Do, Korea  

PubMed

The Jinyang Lake is dammed up Nam River, and surrounded by Jinju city and four counties; Jinyang, Sanchong, Hadong, and Sachon in Kyongsang-Nam-Do, Korea. The area around this man-made lake have been known as an endemic focus of clonorchiasis in Korea. The present study was first aimed to know the distribution of freshwater mollusks including medically important snails, and larval trematodes shed from Parafossarulus manchouricus and Semisulcospira libertina. In addtion to above studies, water analyses in each snail habitat were carried out in order to figure out a part of their environmental factors. This malaco-ecological survey was done at the six areas around upper, middle and lower parts of the lake for 4 months, August-November, 1983. Total nine species of freshwater mollusks were collected throughout the study: 4 species of gastropods; Semisulcospira libertina, Cipangopaludina chinensis, Parafossarulus manchouricus and Radix auricularia, and 5 species of bivalves; Unio douglasiae, Anodonta woodiana, Lamprotula gottschei, Corbicula fluminea and Limnoperma lucustris. Out of nine species of freshwater mollusks, three species of gastropods; S. libertina, P. manchouricus and R. auricularia were medically important in terms of the transmission of digenetic trematodes to humans. P. manchouricus and R. auricularia were mainly collected from the shallow ponds and the irrigation channels with the muddy basin, but S. libertina and the bivalves were only collected from the stream of Nam river where the gravels and rocks were dominant. The levels of dissolved oxygen(D.O.) and biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.(5)) of the water specimens sampled from the study areas ranged from 6.0 to 9.6 ppm and from 0.4 to 1.6 ppm respectively. As a result, it is considered that water system around the Jinyang Lake might be relatively clean without any heavy pollution of aquatic microorganisms and organic materials during the period of this study. On the other hand, eight metalic constituents from the water samples were also assayed, and all metalic ions detected were remarkably low below the legal criteria. However, calcium ion in the water samples from the habitats of P. manchouricus was considerably higher than others. Infection rates of digenetic trematodes in the snails were 6.9 % in P. manchouricus and 4.8 poercent in S. libertina, respectively. P. manchouricus snails harboring with the cercariae of Clonorchis sinensis were only 0.14 % among the snails examined and other trematode cercariae except cercaria of C. sinensis were; furcocercus cercariae, cercaria of Loxogenes liberum type I and II. S. libertina snails parasitized with the cercariae of Metagonimus yokogawai were 1.5 % out of the snails examined and no cercaria of Paragonimus westermani was found in S. libertina snails in the present study. Digenetic trematode cercariae other then M. yokogawai in S. libertina snails were: Cercaria yoshidae (B type), Cercaria cristata, Cercaria innominatum, Cercaria of Centrocestus formosanus and Cercaria nipponensis. PMID:12902649

Cho, Hae Chang; Chung, Pyung Rim; Lee, Keun Tae

1983-12-01

150

Population dynamics of Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae) in the field populations of freshwater snails and its implications as a potential regulator of trematode larvae community.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to study (1) the population dynamics of Chaetogaster limnaei in the field populations of freshwater snails and the implications for the species as a potential regulator of the trematode larvae community and (2) prevalence and intensity of C. limnaei in relation to host species, host size, and season. This study was conducted at Al-Salam Canal and Al-Abtal village (new cultivated area in north Sinai). The samples were collected from March 2004 to February 2005. The natural infection rate by trematodes and C. limnaei was assessed monthly. Thirteen species of snails were examined for C. limnaei infection, five species were found infected. There were positive correlations between host size and both combined prevalence and mean intensity in all hosts. The data demonstrated that prevalence in Bulinus truncatus was higher when compared with other hosts. Bellamya unicolor has higher mean intensity when compared with other host species. A significant difference was found between host species and both prevalence and intensity. There were spatial and temporal variations in prevalence and mean intensity in most hosts, and the data suggest some seasonality. A negative correlation was found between prevalence of C. limnaei and trematode infection. C. limnaei did not co-occur with trematode larvae in infected hosts indicating that the oligochaete may protect the hosts from trematode infection. B. unicolor was recorded for the first time as a host for C. limnaei. C. limnaei may be a potential regulator of the trematode community in freshwater snails. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that C. limnaei, symbiotically associated with snail vector of parasitic diseases, may have important implications with respect to biological control and/or changes in the epizootiology of native parasites in the study area. PMID:17252272

Ibrahim, Mohamed Moussa

2007-06-01

151

The role of Chaetogaster limnaei in the dynamics of trematode transmission in natural populations of freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Chaetogaster limnaei, an oligochaete was always found infesting Bulinus (Phy.) globosus, B.(B.) forskalii and Lymnaea natalensis in Bo, Sierra Leone, living below the shell or embedded in the mucus of the foot. The worms had no preference for snails with trematode infection. The population was highest in the dry season when fewer snails were infected by trematodes. This is suggested to be a result of the protection the worms give to snails against invading miracidia. PMID:602368

Fashuyi, S A; Williams, M O

1977-12-13

152

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I-- Metropolitan mesoregion.  

PubMed

In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954); Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818); Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864); Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848); Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835); Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835); Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839); Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839); Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962); Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774); Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822); Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:11586447

Thiengo, S C; Fernandez, M A; Boaventura, M F; Grault, C E; Silva, H F; Mattos, A C; Santos, S B

2001-01-01

153

Isotopic niche metrics as indicators of toxic stress in two freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Descriptors of trophic niche and of food web structure and function have been suggested as integrative and sensitive endpoints of toxicant effects. In the present study, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures were used to assess the effects of the dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram (35 and 170?g/L nominal concentrations) and of a petroleum distillate (0.01, 0.4, 2 and 20mg/L nominal loadings as Hydrocarbon Emulsion or Hydrocarbon Water Accommodated Fraction) on the trophic niche of two freshwater gastropods in artificial streams (Radix peregra) and ponds (Lymnaea stagnalis). Results were analyzed using classical univariate statistical methods and recently proposed uni- and multivariate metrics of the realized trophic niche of species. The trophic niche metrics were highly sensitive to both types of chemicals, but exposure resulted in different response patterns according to the nature of the tested compound. Thiram clearly affected gastropod trophic niche leading to a change in the food resources used and resulting in trophic niche expansion (i.e., increase of diversity of used resources, especially dead animals) or trophic niche contraction (i.e., decrease of diversity of used resources) across time. Both gastropod taxa exposed to hydrocarbons showed a clear trophic niche expansion. Trophic niche metrics therefore provide a promising way of investigating non-lethal effects of exposure to organic chemicals on aquatic invertebrates, and subsequent disturbances in food webs. PMID:24691210

Bayona, Yannick; Roucaute, Marc; Cailleaud, Kevin; Lagadic, Laurent; Bassčres, Anne; Caquet, Thierry

2014-06-15

154

A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species.  

PubMed

Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study) and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study). Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae). In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso) during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%). Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity. PMID:25229292

Fernandez, Monica Ammon; de Mattos, Aline Carvalho; da Silva, Elizangela Feitosa; Santos, Sonia Barbosa Dos; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2014-07-01

155

Species diversity of Plagiorchis Lühe, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) in lymnaeid snails from freshwater ecosystems in central Europe revealed by molecules and morphology.  

PubMed

Larval stages of Plagiorchis spp. are both ubiquitous and ecologically important parasites in snail populations of freshwater ecosystems in Europe. However, difficulties in distinguishing the morphologically similar cercariae used for species identification, may lead to underestimation of species diversity. In this study, 38 isolates of Plagiorchis spp. infecting two lymnaeid snails, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) and Radix auricularia (L.), in five central European freshwater ecosystems were subjected to morphological and molecular assessment. Five morphologically homogeneous and genetically distinct lineages of Plagiorchis spp. were identified via matching molecular data for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene with detailed morphological and morphometric data of the cercariae. Comparative sequence analysis using partial 28S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences revealed that three distinct cox1 lineages are conspecific with Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802), P. maculosus (Rudolphi, 1802) and P. koreanus Ogata, 1938, respectively, whereas the lineage identified based on cercarial morphology as P. neomidis Brendow, 1970 plus a single isolate that could not be assigned to a described species, did not match any of the available sequences for Plagiorchis spp. A key to the cercariae of Plagiorchis spp. parasitising lymnaeid populations in central Europe is provided to facilitate identification. PMID:24711111

Zikmundová, Jana; Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

2014-05-01

156

Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a freshwater ecosystem in a large plastic bottle. Learners cut and prepare bottles, then fill with water, aquatic plants, snails and fish. Learners observe their mini-ecosystem over time to see what changes--such as the color of the water, the water temperature, plant growth, and behavior and/or population of the snails or fish. The activity serves as a model for larger freshwater ecosystems such as ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, reservoirs and groundwater.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

157

Detection of Ehrlichia risticii, the Agent of Potomac Horse Fever, in Freshwater Stream Snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) from Northern California  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia DNA was identified by nested PCR in operculate snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) collected from stream water in a northern California pasture in which Potomac horse fever (PHF) is enzootic. Sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from a suite of genes (the 16S rRNA, groESL heat shock operon, 51-kDa major antigen genes) indicated that the source organism closely resembled Ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of PHF. The minimum percentage of Juga spp. harboring the organism in the population studied was 3.5% (2 of 57 snails). No ehrlichia DNA was found in tissues of 123 lymnaeid, physid, and planorbid snails collected at the same site. These data suggest that pleurocerid stream snails may play a role in the life cycle of E. risticii in northern California. PMID:9687446

Barlough, Jeffrey E.; Reubel, Gerhard H.; Madigan, John E.; Vredevoe, Larisa K.; Miller, Paul E.; Rikihisa, Yasuko

1998-01-01

158

Eye trematode infection in small passerines in Peru caused by Philophthalmus lucipetus, an agent with a zoonotic potential spread by an invasive freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Until now, four species of eye trematodes have been found in South America. Of them, Philophthalmus lucipetus (synonymized with Philophthalmus gralli) displays a broad host spectrum, with at least 30 bird species (prevalently large water birds), five mammal species and humans serving as definitive hosts, and with snails Fagotia (Microcolpia) acicularis, Amphimelania holandri, Melanopsis praemorsa and Melanoides tuberculata serving as intermediate hosts. When examining a total of 50 birds of ten species in the wetland of Pantanos de Villa, Lima, Peru in July 2011, eye trematodes were identified visually in the edematous conjunctival sac of 11 (48%) out of 23 resident many-colored rush tyrants Tachuris rubrigastra. Based on morphometric characteristics, the trematodes were identified as P. lucipetus. ITS2 and CO1 gene of the examined specimens combined showed a 99% similarity to an Iranian isolate of Philophthalmus sp. from the intermediate host Melanoides tuberculata, an invasive freshwater snail, suggesting that these two isolates represent the same species with a wide geographical range. Moreover, the prevalence of infection with the philophthalmid cercariae was 31% in 744 Melanoides tuberculata examined in Pantanos de Villa in 2010. It is evident that P. lucipetus occurs throughout the world as well as locally, including Eurasia and South America. Here we report this trematode for the first time in Peru, and we were the first to sequence any of the South American eye trematodes. Low host specificity of P. lucipetus and the invasive character of Melanoides tuberculata as a competent intermediate host suggest that eye trematodosis caused by P. lucipetus may emerge frequently in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics. Increase of the zoonotic potential of the P. lucipetus associated with this invasive snail spreading across the world is predictable and should be of interest for further research. PMID:23570701

Literák, Ivan; Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Wetzel, Eric J; Cardenas Callirgos, Jorge Manuel; ?apek, Miroslav; Valle Basto, Daniel; Papoušek, Ivo

2013-08-01

159

Detection and quantification of schistosome DNA in freshwater snails using either fluorescent probes in real-time PCR or oligochromatographic dipstick assays targeting the ribosomal intergenic spacer.  

PubMed

Several DNA probes were designed for use in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to target sequence variation within the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) of schistosomes. A sub-section of the IGS (?300bp) was amplified, with cross-specific primers, after which group-specific fluorescent, locked nucleic acid probes were assessed for their ability to differentiate and quantify DNA from Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni group parasites. A number of fluorescent probe candidates were screened and validated against genomic DNA from adult schistosome worms and laboratory infected freshwater snails. Two fluorescent, locked nucleic acid probes ShaemLNA5 and SmanLNA2, of 20-26bp in length, were identified and found to be effective in providing evidence of infection in field-collected snails. To adapt these real-time PCR assays for more resource-poor laboratory settings, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed and primer/probe combinations were modified for use in oligochromatography, a DNA 'dipstick' technology. An appropriate dipstick was developed, inclusive of internal amplification and amplicon migration controls that could be of particular importance for assessing schistosome transmission dynamics. These assays and tools also have future potential for use in detection of schistosome infections in humans and livestock. PMID:22100540

Kane, Richard A; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Leclipteux, Thierry; Evraerts, Jonathan; Standley, Claire J; Allan, Fiona; Betson, Martha; Kaba, Rehana; Mertens, Pascal; Laurent, Thierry

2013-11-01

160

Endocrine disruption in aquatic pulmonate molluscs: few evidences, many challenges.  

PubMed

As compared to other groups of aquatic gastropods, documented examples of endocrine disruption in pulmonates are rather limited. This is quite surprising because the endocrine control of physiological functions has been extensively studied in these animals. In the model-species Lymnaea stagnalis, the neurohormonal regulation of reproduction has been thoroughly investigated, and the primary structure of several peptides and receptors involved in endocrine processes has been established. However, the use of this knowledge has been fairly limited in the context of ecotoxicology, to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The present review summarizes the main and more recent findings on the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in aquatic pulmonate snails (Basommatophora). It then comprehensively describes selected in vivo laboratory and semi-field studies which provide evidence for possible endocrine disrupting effects of estrogenic and androgenic test compounds [e.g., ethynylestradiol, methyltestosterone (MT)], and of environmental contaminants [e.g., cadmium (Cd), tributyltin (TBT), and nonylphenol (NP), pesticides]. Finally, challenging perspectives for future research are discussed. PMID:17235673

Lagadic, Laurent; Coutellec, Marie-Agnčs; Caquet, Thierry

2007-02-01

161

Adaptive Radiation in the Larval Feeding Habits of the Snail-Killing Fly Genus Tetanocera (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genus Tetanocera consists of 29 species in North America. The genus is unusual in that its larvae occupy five of the 17 feeding groups recognized in the family, as most other genera of the family occupy only one or two trophic guilds. Seven species have larvae that attack pulmonate aquatic snails, three species attack pulmonate snails stranded on shorelines, four species attack amber snails of the family Succineidae, three species attack slugs, and two species are predators of terrestrial snails. The larval feeding behavior of representative species of each of the five trophic guilds will be described and illustrated.

Foote, B. A.

2005-05-01

162

A Snail Perspective on the Biogeography of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Origin and Intra-Island Dispersal of the Viviparous Freshwater Gastropod Tylomelania  

PubMed Central

The complex geological history of the Indonesian island Sulawesi has shaped the origin and subsequent diversification of its taxa. For the endemic freshwater snail Tylomelania a vicariant origin from the Australian margin has been hypothesized. Divergence time estimates from a mtDNA phylogeny based on a comprehensive island-wide sampling of Tylomelania fit regional tectonic constraints and support the ‘out-of-Australia’ vicariance hypothesis. The Banggai-Sula region of the Sula Spur, the Australian promontory colliding with West Sulawesi during the Miocene, is identified as a possible source area for the colonization of Sulawesi by the ancestor of Tylomelania. The molecular phylogeny also shows a rapid diversification of Tylomelania into eight major lineages with very little overlap in their distribution on the island. Haplotype networks provide further evidence for a strong spatial structure of genetic diversity in Tylomelania. Distribution boundaries of the major lineages do at best partially coincide with previously identified contact zones for other endemic species groups on Sulawesi. This pattern has likely been influenced by the poor dispersal capabilities and altitudinal distribution limits of this strict freshwater inhabitant. We suggest that late Miocene and Pliocene orogeny in large parts of Sulawesi has been the vicariant event driving primary diversification in Tylomelania. PMID:24971564

von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Bjorn; Marwoto, Ristiyanti M.; Glaubrecht, Matthias

2014-01-01

163

Phyto-adaptogens protect against environmental stress-induced death of embryos from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The main purpose of the studies presented in this paper is twofold: 1) to evaluate whether phyto-adap- togens (Acanthopanax senticosus and Rhodiola rosea) are able to exert a protective action against stress-induced death of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis; and 2) whether a possible protec- tive action by phyto-adaptogens can be explained by the induction of heat

E. K. Boon-Niermeijer; A. van den Berg; G. Wikman; F. A. C. Wiegant

2000-01-01

164

Heavy metal concentrations in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina uninfected or infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and/or Echinostoma liei in Egypt: the potential use of this snail as a bioindicator of pollution.  

PubMed

In spite of using aquatic snails as bioindicators for water pollution, little attention has been paid to the effect of parasitism upon the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in these organisms. The present study therefore aimed to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in trematode-infected Biomphalaria alexandrina collected from Kafer Alsheikh and Menofia provinces, Egypt, with uninfected snails from the same sites, in order to assess the effect of parasitism on the use of these snails as bioindicators. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft parts and shells of snails were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the heavy metal profile in snails infected with Echinostoma liei was very different from that in snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The total concentration of heavy metals in E. liei-infected snails collected from Kafer Alsheikh or Menofia province was greater than in uninfected snails. In contrast, the total concentration of heavy metals in S. mansoni-infected snails was reduced compared with uninfected snails. In conclusion, the status of snails with respect to parasitic infection must be taken into consideration when these snails are used as bioindicators. PMID:23710821

Mostafa, O M S; Mossa, A-T H; El Einin, H M A

2014-12-01

165

Mytilus inhibitory peptides (MIP) in the central and peripheral nervous system of the pulmonate gastropods, Lymnaea stagnalis and Helix pomatia : distribution and physiological actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and neuroanatomy of Mytilus inhibitory peptides (MIP)-containing neurons in the central nervous system and their innervation pattern in the peripheral nervous system of the pulmonate snail species, Lymnaea stagnalis and Helix pomatia, have been investigated immunocytochemically, by applying an antibody raised to GSPMFVamide. A significant number of immunoreactive neurons occurs in the central nervous system of both species

Károly Elekes; Tibor Kiss; Yuko Fujisawa; László Hernádi; Lajos Erdélyi; Yojiro Muneoka

2000-01-01

166

Impact of the redox-cycling herbicide diquat on transcript expression and antioxidant enzymatic activities of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The presence of pesticides in the environment results in potential unwanted effects on non-target species. Freshwater organisms inhabiting water bodies adjacent to agricultural areas, such as ditches, ponds and marshes, are good models to test such effects as various pesticides may reach these habitats through several ways, including aerial drift, run-off, and drainage. Diquat is a non-selective herbicide used for crop protection or for weed control in such water bodies. In this study, we investigated the effects of diquat on a widely spread aquatic invertebrate, the holarctic freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Due to the known redox-cycling properties of diquat, we studied transcript expression and enzymatic activities relative to oxidative and general stress in the haemolymph and gonado-digestive complex (GDC). As diquat is not persistent, snails were exposed for short times (5, 24, and 48 h) to ecologically relevant concentrations (22.2, 44.4, and 222.2 ?g l(-1)) of diquat dibromide. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the transcription of genes encoding catalase (cat), a cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod), a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (gpx), a glutathione reductase (gred), the retinoid X receptor (rxr), two heat shock proteins (hsp40 and hsp70), cortactin (cor) and the two ribosomal genes r18S and r28s. Enzymatic activities of SOD, Gpx, Gred and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were investigated in the GDC using spectrophoto/fluorometric methods. Opposite trends were obtained in the haemolymph depending on the herbicide concentration. At the lowest concentration, effects were mainly observed after 24 h of exposure, with over-transcription of cor, hsp40, rxr, and sod, whereas higher concentrations down-regulated the expression of most of the studied transcripts, especially after 48 h of exposure. In the GDC, earlier responses were observed and the fold-change magnitude was generally much higher: transcription of all target genes increased significantly (or non-significantly for cat) after 5 h of exposure, and went back to control levels afterwards, suggesting the onset of an early response to oxidative stress associated to the unbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes. Although increases obtained for Gred and SOD activities were globally consistent with their respective transcript expressions, up-regulation of transcription was not always correlated with increase of enzymatic activity, indicating that diquat might affect steps downstream of transcription. However, constitutive levels of enzymatic activities were at least maintained. In conclusion, diquat was shown to affect expression of the whole set of studied transcripts, reflecting their suitability as markers of early response to oxidative stress in L. stagnalis. PMID:23237706

Bouétard, Anthony; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Vassaux, Daničle; Lagadic, Laurent; Coutellec, Marie-Agnčs

2013-01-15

167

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V - Norte fluminense mesoregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex;

Silvana C Thiengo; Aline C Mattos; M Fernanda Boaventura; Monica A Fernandez; Sonia B Santos

2004-01-01

168

Toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of Euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of plant Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. Sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50) of aqueous stem bark and leaf extracts of this plant also significantly (P<0.05) alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and the activity of enzyme protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase in various tissues of the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata in time and dose dependent manner. Euphorbia hirta (family-Euphorbiaceae) commonly known as Dudhi, is a common medicinal plant of India, which is used in variety of diseases i.e. cough, asthma, colic, dysentery, genito urinary diseases. PMID:15722098

Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Ram P; Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Singh, Ajay

2005-04-01

169

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-12-01

170

Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata  

PubMed Central

Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

2013-01-01

171

Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response

V. Moeller; V. E. Forbes; M. H. Depledge

1994-01-01

172

Calcium localization in the shell-forming tissue of the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata: a comparative study of various methods for localizing calcium.  

PubMed

The routes calcium might take across the mantle to the shell have been investigated with various electron-microscopical techniques in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae, Basommatophora). In chemically-fixed tissue, calcium was precipitated with a tannic acid-antimonate technique in predominantly the intercellular spaces of the outer mantle epithelium and the interstitium below it. Some vacuoles of the outer mantle epithelium and one type of mucus cell in the inner mantle epithelium also contained precipitate. The presence of calcium in the precipitates was proved by electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with electron spectroscopic imaging. Incubation with lead acetate and uranyl acetate revealed binding-sites for calcium in the intercellular spaces of the epithelia interstitium and the mucus cells of the inner mantle epithelium. Precipitates were also seen after all incubations in the calcium spherites of the connective tissue. The concentrations of calcium and other elements were analysed in freeze-dried ultrathin sections of cryofixed mantle tissue by means of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Only in mitochondria of the musculature could high amounts of calcium and phosphorous be detected. PMID:1283386

Bielefeld, U; Zierold, K; Körtje, K H; Becker, W

1992-12-01

173

Partial characterisation of high-molecular weight glycoconjugates in the trail mucus of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

We have studied the glycoconjugates in trail mucus of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The mucus was dissolved with 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride (GuHCl) and the major component was comprised of very high-M(r) glycoconjugates that were eluted in the void volume of a Sepharose CL-4B gel-filtration column. This high-M(r) material was pooled and thereafter subjected to density gradient centrifugation first in 4 M GuHCl/CsCl and subsequently 0.2 M GuHCl/CsCl to further remove non-glycosylated proteins and DNA. The harvested glycoconjugate pool chromatographed in the void volume of Sepharose CL-2B. However, reduction of disulfide bonds lowered the molecular size of approximately 80% of the void material yielding a major fragment and some minor smaller fragments in gel chromatography. The reduced glycoconjugates were digested with papain and yielded high molecular weight, proteinase-resistant glycopeptides. This fragmentation pattern is similar to that found for oligomeric gel-forming mucins in mammals and the amino acid composition (60% Ser/Thr) and sugar analysis of the glycopeptides is consistent with mucin-like molecules, there being no significant amounts of xylose or uronic acids. The residual 20% of the preparation, which apparently resisted reduction and protease digestion, had a similar amino acid composition to the bulk, but was somewhat different in sugar composition, containing some xylose and a significant amount of glucuronic acid. The two groups of molecules had very different morphologies in the electron microscope. Taken together, these data suggest that trail mucus is a complex mixture of at least two families of protein-glycoconjugate molecules based upon the gel-forming mucin and proteoglycan families, though we cannot rule out that polysaccharides may also be present. PMID:15081999

Ballance, Simon; Howard, Marj; White, Keith N; McCrohan, Catherine R; Thornton, David J; Sheehan, John K

2004-04-01

174

Endocrine effects of contaminated sediments on the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum in vivo and in the cell bioassays in vitro.  

PubMed

Lake Pilnok located in the black coal-mining region Ostrava-Karvina, Czech Republic, contains sediments highly contaminated with powdered waste coal. Moreover, population of the endangered species of narrow-clawed crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus with high proportion of intersex individuals (18%) was observed at this site. These findings motivated our work that aimed to evaluate contamination, endocrine disruptive potency using in vitro assays and in vivo effects of contaminated sediments on reproduction of sediment-dwelling invertebrates. Chemical analyses revealed low concentrations of persistent chlorinated compounds and heavy metals but concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high (sum of 16 PAHs 10 microg/g dw). Organic extracts from sediments caused significant in vitro AhR-mediated activity in the bioassay with H4IIE-luc cells, estrogenicity in MVLN cells and anti-androgenicity in recombinant yeast assay, and these effects could be attributed to non-persistent compounds derived from the waste coal. We have also observed significant in vivo effects of the sediments in laboratory experiments with the Prosobranchian euryhaline mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Sediments from Lake Pilnok as well as organic extracts of the sediments (externally added to the control sediment) significantly affected fecundity during 8 weeks of exposure. The effects were stimulations of fecundity at lower concentrations at the beginning of the experiment followed by inhibitions of fecundity and general toxicity. Our study indicates presence of chemicals that affected endocrine balance in invertebrates, and emphasizes the need for integrated approaches combining in vitro and in vivo bioassays with identification of chemicals to elucidate ecotoxicogical impacts of contaminated sediment samples. PMID:18675471

Mazurová, E; Hilscherová, K; Jálová, V; Köhler, H-R; Triebskorn, R; Giesy, J P; Bláha, L

2008-09-17

175

Aragonite to Calcite Transformation Study by XRD and Esr Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells:. P. Canaliculata Lamarck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to study the Mn2+ ions in snails of P. canaliculata lamarck (PCL). All these shells are abundant in Thailand. Fractions of aragonite and calcite phase in the shells have been approximately determined by ESR. The PCL shell was ground into fine powders and then four samples were separately annealed for 2 h in air at 400°C, 450°C, 500°C and 600°C, respectively. The phase transition from aragonite to calcite was monitored by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and electron spin resonance spectrometer (ESR). Our results show that unheated PCL sample is mainly made of aragonite with only a small fraction of calcite. Annealing of the PCL powder sample at the temperature more than 450°C has resulted in the irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. The analysis of their ESR spectra has shown that Mn2+ ions partially substituted Ca2+ in the lattices. Finally, the spin Hamiltonian parameters for Mn2+ distributed in both aragonite and calcite were evaluated. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL show that Mn2+ ions enter Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Typical simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are gx=gy=2.078(1), gz=1.999(1), Ax=Ay=87.0 G, Az=89.00 G and D=115 G, respectively. It is thus possible to gain some insight of manganese incorporation into the fresh water shells during the biomineralization process.

Udomkan, N.; Limsuwan, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

176

Land and water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

177

Description and life-cycle of Thrinascotrema brisbanica n. g., n. sp. (Digenea: Plagiorchiida), a parasite of the freshwater turtle Elseya latisternum from Australia, and the erection of the family Thrinascotrematidae.  

PubMed

A new genus and species, Thrinascotrema brisbanica, is proposed to accommodate a plagiorchiidan trematode parasitic in the stomach of the freshwater turtle Elseya latisternum. The distinctive taxonomic features of the parasite are the shape and extent of the excretory bladder, and the stenostomate arrangement of the excretory collecting ducts in the adult, cercaria and metacercaria together with a cercarial protonephridial formula of 2ż(12 + 12 + 12) + (12 + 12 + 12)ż. The life-cycle is three- host and aquatic. The pulmonate snail Glyptophysa gibbosa served as both a first and second intermediate host and tadpoles of Limnodynastes peronii, Adelotus brevis and Bufo marinus, and the snail Austropeplea lessoni also served as second intermediate hosts. Eggs were fully embryonated and infective when laid, but did not hatch until eaten by the snail. Cercariae first emerged 55 days after infection at 24-28 degrees C. They were sluggish swimmers and survived for about 48 hr. They attached firmly to the skin of snails and tadpoles on contact and began to penetrate the skin after a short exploratory migration. Metacercariae survived in snails and tadpoles for at least 3 months. It is concluded that Thrinascotrema is best placed within a new family, the Thrinascotrematidae (Digenea: Plagiorchiida), based on the unusual morphology of the excretory system. PMID:10619069

Sue, L J; Platt, T R

1999-07-01

178

Correlation between snails and fish in fish ponds of World Fish Center (ICLARM) with special reference to snail vectors of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.  

PubMed

The abundance of snail species in earthen fish ponds, irrigation and drainage canals at World Fish Center (ICLARM) in descending order was Bellamya unicolor (50.89%) > Physa acuta (18.94%) > Cleopatra bulimoides (7.6%) > Lanistes carinatus (6.73%) > Bulinus truncatus (5.19%) > Melanoides tuberculata (4.83%) > Lymnaea natalensis (3.14%) > Gabbiella senaariensis (0.9%) > Biomphalaria alexandrina (0.55%) > Lym naea truncatula (0.4%) > Planorbis planorbis and Succinea cleopatra (0.33%) > Ferrissia isseli (0.18%). Dead snails constituted about 5.19% of all the collected specimens. There were dramatic decrease in the total number of pulmonates in fish ponds which contained only Tilapia sp., and a very small number of cat fish, whereas the numbers of prosobranchia snails were much higher in these ponds. In fish ponds which accommodated a variety of fish species, the most dominant snail was B. unicolor followed by L. carinatus. However, pulmonate snails were absent in these ponds. B. truncatus was the only snail species found in concrete tank which contained only young tilapias with a very small size (5-8 cm in standard length). In irrigation canals, the number of snails and diversity was much higher than those in fish ponds. Out of 191 snails collected from inlet irrigation canal, 71 were dead, but in the outside irrigation canals, seven out of 564 snails were dead. P. acuta was absent in all examined fish ponds, but it was alive and in a high number (497 snails) in the outside irrigation canals. The number of snails collected from Bahnasawy drain was remarkably low (128 snails), however the diversity of snails was much higher compared to those in fish ponds and irrigation canals. Snail populations were stable with constant recruitment of young to adult snails for all the studied species. PMID:14964656

Ismail, Nahed M M; El Gamal, Abd El Rahman A

2003-08-01

179

Histopathological effects of copper on selected epithelial tissues of snails  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of freshwater snails to copper sulfate has several harmful effects on the snails. These effects include several physiological disturbances as well as certain behavioral and histological changes. On the strength of these findings it was decided to investigate, by means of transmission electron microscopy, whether histological changes occur in the surface epithelium of the snail Bulinus tropicus after exposure to copper sulfate.

Wolmarans, C.T.; van Aardt, W.J.; Coetzee, J.

1986-06-01

180

Digenean trematode infections of native freshwater snails and invasive Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the Grand Teton National Park/John D. Rockefeller Memorial Parkway Area.  

PubMed

Outside its native range, the invasive New Zealand mud snail (NZMS), Potamopyrgus antipodarum, is rarely reported to harbor parasites. To test this observation, 7 sites along the Snake River and Polecat Creek in the Grand Teton National Park/John D Rockefeller Memorial Parkway area (Wyoming) were surveyed for native aquatic snails, NZMS, and associated digenean trematodes, in July 2005. At 6 sites, native snails harbored patent digenean infections; within 2 hr, < or =10% of lymnaeid snails shed furcocercariae or xiphidiocercariae, and < or =42% of physid snails released furcocercariae or echinostome cercariae. Partial 18S rDNA sequences were recovered from several furcocercariae. Potamopyrgus antipodarum was present at, and collected from, 5 sites. Polymerase chain reaction assays targeting digenean rDNA sequences in DNA extracted from pools of 150 NZMS snails did not detect parasites. The examination of 960 NZMS by overnight shedding yielded 1 occurrence of (surface-encysted) metacercariae of an unclassified notocotylid (based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequences). The dissection of 150 ethanol-fixed NZMS (30/site) revealed 2 types of digenean metacercariae encysted in tissues of 5 snails from Polecat Creek. Thus, invasive NZMS may serve as first and second intermediate host for digenean parasites. PMID:18576875

Adema, C M; Lun, C-M; Hanelt, B; Seville, R S

2009-02-01

181

Prosobranch snails as test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals--an overview and a guideline proposal for a reproduction test with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  

PubMed

Recently, prosobranch snails have been recommended as promising candidates for test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals. Three prosobranch snail species, the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis, and the marine netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus are portrayed and their respective biotests are presented together with results of laboratory experiments and biological effect monitoring surveys in the field. All characterized species are highly sensitive toward xeno-androgens [triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), methyltestosterone (MT) and fenarimol (FEN)], and xeno-estrogens [bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), ethinylestradiol], and show effects at environmentally relevant, rather low concentrations in laboratory experiments. For exposure to the xeno-androgen TPT, EC(10) values range between 15.9 and 29.0 ng as Sn/L (sediment 0.03 mug as Sn/kg), for TBT, EC(10) values are found between 3.42 and 37.8 ng as Sn/L (sediment 2.98 microg as Sn/kg) and effect concentrations for FEN are calculated as 18.6 ng/L (EC(10)) and 0.19 microg/kg (EC(50) sediment; EC(10) not calculable). Exposure to xeno-estrogens yielded EC(10 )values of 13.9 ng/L (0.19 microg/kg) for BPA, a NOEC of <1 microg/L (EC(10) of 0.004 microg/kg) for OP and a NOEC of 1 ng/l (EC(10) sediment of 2.2 microg/kg) for ethinylestradiol. Responses to androgens comprised the development of imposex and the reduction of fertility or embryo production, effects of estrogens included the stimulation of egg production and embryo production, and the increased weight of glands. Also, biological effect monitoring studies with P. antipodarum and N. reticulatus in several rivers or estuarine areas revealed the capacity of the biotests to detect an androgenic or estrogenic potential of sediment samples. A comparison of the three test species with regard to sensitivity and practical aspects in routine application favors the freshwater mudsnail P. antipodarum for a standardized procedure, and this reproduction test will be introduced into the OECD guideline program for standardization in the near future. PMID:17219090

Duft, Martina; Schmitt, Claudia; Bachmann, Jean; Brandelik, Cornelius; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

2007-02-01

182

Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the natural tolerance of environmental stresses that impose changes in oxygen availability and oxygen consumption on animals is discussed with a particular focus on the biochemistry of estivation and metabolic depression in pulmonate land snails. Despite reduced oxygen consumption and PO2 during estivation, which should also mean reduced production of oxyradicals, the activities

Marcelo Hermes-Lima; Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey

1998-01-01

183

Snails home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

2014-06-01

184

Integrating Nonindigenous Aquatic Plant Control with Protection of Snail Kite Nests in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) feeds primarily on the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) in Florida. The nonindigenous, floating water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) impede kites from finding snails. Effective control of these aquatic plants in the littoral zone of central and south Florida\\u000a lakes benefits kites by maintaining open foraging habitat. However, incidental herbicide

HENRY T. SMITH; DANIEL D. THAYER

2001-01-01

185

Snail-macrophyte interactions in a shallow, mesoeutrophic lake in southern New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to investigate trophic interactions between snails and macrophytes in freshwater benthic systems. Surveys of the snail and macrophyte communities of Calder Lake revealed Armiger crista, a recent introduction to Calder Lake, to be the most abundant snail. Macrophyte species composition in the lake was highly variable between years, with Vallisneria americana dominance in 1993

Bernadette Kathleen Gorham

1997-01-01

186

Aquatic Toxicology 128129 (2013) 6066 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis Reproductive endpoints Lymnaea stagnalis Water quality criteria a b s t r a c t The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive freshwater organism tested to date for several metals (Co, Cu, Pb

Grosell, Martin

187

Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

2003-01-01

188

Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda. PMID:18280060

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

2008-01-01

189

Why are there few algae on snail shells? The effects of grazing, nutrients and shell chemistry on the algae on shells of Helisoma trivolvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Freshwater snails often lack visible growths of algae on their shells. We tested three possible mechanisms that may account for this (grazing, snail-derived nutrients and chemical defences), using the ramshorn snail Helisoma trivolvis. 2. The experiments were carried out in floating plastic enclosures in a pond and comprised seven treatments. Grazing treatments were: a lone snail (ungrazed, as

LINDSEY L. ABBOTT; ELIZABETH A. BERGEY

2007-01-01

190

Linking embryo toxicity with genotoxic responses in the freshwater snail Physa acuta: single exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, fluoxetine, bisphenol A, vinclozolin and exposure to binary mixtures with benzo(a)pyrene.  

PubMed

Genotoxic effects on fauna after waterborne pollutant exposure have been demonstrated by numerous research programmes. Less effort has been focused on establishing relationship between genotoxicity and long-term responses at higher levels of biological organization. Taking into account that embryos may be more sensitive indicators of reproductive impairment than alterations in fertility, we have developed two assays in multiwell plates to address correlations between embryo toxicity and genotoxicity. The potential teratogenicity was assessed by analyzing abnormal development and mortality of Physa acuta at embryonic stage. Genotoxicity was measured by the micronucleus (MN) test using embryonic cells. Our results showed that linkage between genotoxicity and embryo toxicity depends on mechanisms of action of compounds under study. Embryo toxic responses showed a clear dose-related tendency whereas no clear dose-dependent effect was observed in micronucleus induction. The higher embryo toxicity was produced by benzo(a)pyrene exposure followed by fluoxetine and bisphenol A. Vinclozolin was the lower embryo toxic compound. Binary mixtures with BaP always resulted in higher embryo toxicity than single exposures but antagonistic effects were observed for MN induction. Benzo(a)pyrene produced the higher MN induction at 0.04 mg/L, which also produced clear embryo toxic effects. Fluoxetine did not induce cytogenetic effects but 0.25mg/L altered embryonic development. Bisphenol A significantly reduced hatchability at 0.5mg/L while MN induction appeared with higher treatments than those that start causing teratogenicity. Much higher concentration of vinclozolin (5mg/L) reduced hatchability and induced maximum MN formation. In conclusion, while validating one biomarker of genotoxicity and employing one ecologically relevant effect, we have evaluated the relative sensitivity of a freshwater mollusc for a range of chemicals. The embryo toxicity test is a starting point for the development of a life cycle test with freshwater snails even for undertaking multigeneration studies focused on transgenerational effects. PMID:22417675

Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Aparicio, Natalia; Fernández, Carlos

2012-06-01

191

Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

2013-01-01

192

Cercarial Dermatitis Transmitted by Exotic Marine Snail  

PubMed Central

Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is caused by the penetration of human skin by cercariae of schistosome parasites that develop in and are released from snail hosts. Cercarial dermatitis is frequently acquired in freshwater habitats, and less commonly in marine or estuarine waters. To investigate reports of a dermatitis outbreak in San Francisco Bay, California, we surveyed local snails for schistosome infections during 2005–2008. We found schistosomes only in Haminoea japonica, an Asian snail first reported in San Francisco Bay in 1999. Genetic markers place this schistosome within a large clade of avian schistosomes, but do not match any species for which there are genetic data. It is the second known schistosome species to cause dermatitis in western North American coastal waters; these species are transmitted by exotic snails. Introduction of exotic hosts can support unexpected emergence of an unknown parasite with serious medical or veterinary implications. PMID:20735918

Cohen, Andrew N.; James, David; Hui, Lucia; Hom, Albert; Loker, Eric S.

2010-01-01

193

Localization of FMRFamide- and ACEP-1-like immunoreactivities in the nervous system and heart of a pulmonate mollusc, Achatina fulica.  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical localization of two neuropeptides possibly involved in the regulation of cardiac activity in a pulmonate mollusc, Achatina fulica Férussac, was studied. On the ventral surface of the right cerebral ganglion, more than 50 neurons with diameters of 30-50 microns showed immunoreactivity to the antiserum of the neuropeptide FMRFamide. Many were also immunoreactive to an antiserum raised against Achatina cardio-excitatory peptide-1 (ACEP-1). Although FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons occurred in all components of the subesophageal ganglia, identifiable ACEP-1-like immunoreactive neurons were located only in the visceral ganglion and the right parietal ganglion. In the heart, FMRFamide- and ACEP-1-like immunoreactive fibers were restricted to the atrium and the aortic end of the ventricle, consistent with morphological observations of cardiac innervation. The present results suggest that FMRFamide- and ACEP-1-like peptides are involved in regulating the heart beat of this snail. PMID:7850856

Fujiwara-Sakata, M; Kobayashi, M

1994-12-01

194

Aquatic Toxicology 106107 (2012) 147156 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

of lead toxicity to the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis Kevin V. Brixa,b, , Andrew J Received in revised form 11 November 2011 Accepted 15 November 2011 Keywords: Gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis Lead Calcium Feeding rates a b s t r a c t The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis

Grosell, Martin

195

Aquatic Toxicology 91 (2009) 302311 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

of the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, to chronic lead exposure Martin Grosella, , Kevin V. Brixa been determined for Lymnaea stagnalis, which is at or below the current USEPA water quality criterion a b s t r a c t Previous studies have shown that freshwater pulmonate snails of the genus Lymnaea

Grosell, Martin

196

Cholinesterase activities as potential biomarkers: characterization in two freshwater snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Hydrobiidae, Smith 1889) and Valvata piscinalis (Mollusca, Valvatidae, Müller 1774).  

PubMed

Anti-cholinesterase insecticides constitute a major portion of modern synthetic pesticides and the assessment of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition is widely used as a specific biomarker for evaluating the exposure of non-target organisms to these pollutants. However, most studies on this biomarker were developed on vertebrates and among invertebrates, gastropod mollusks are rarely used. Gastropods are important members of aquatic habitats and therefore present a high ecological relevance for freshwater ecosystems. In this context, ChE activities were characterized in two freshwater gastropod mollusks, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Valvata piscinalis, in order to ascertain their value as sentinel species. Firstly, characterization of ChE activities was performed using different substrates (acetylcholine iodide, butyrylcholine iodide and propionylcholine iodide) and specific inhibitors (eserine, iso-OMPA and BW284c51). Secondly, in vivo effect of a widely used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos, was tested on ChE activity in both species. Results suggested that P. antipodarum possesses two isoforms of cholinesterases, one isoform which properties are intermediate between an acetyl and a propionyl ChE, and one minor isoform which correspond to a butyryl ChE, while V. piscinalis seems to possess only one isoform which displays typical properties of an acetyl ChE. Chlorpyrifos induced no effect on V. piscinalis ChE. In contrast, P. antipodarum activity was significantly decreased by environmental realistic chlorpyrifos concentrations (2.86 and 14.2 nM) after seven days of contact. The present study suggests that P. antipodarum may be employed as a biological indicator for assessing pesticide contamination. PMID:17998142

Gagnaire, Beatrice; Geffard, Olivier; Xuereb, Benoit; Margoum, Christelle; Garric, Jeanne

2008-03-01

197

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails.\\u000a In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish\\u000a but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an

Andrew M. Turner; Michael F. Chislock

2007-01-01

198

Distribution of monoamines within the central nervous system of the juvenile pulmonate snail, Achatina fulica.  

PubMed

The distributions of serotonin and catecholamines were examined within the central ganglia of juvenile Achatina through the histological localization of serotonin-like immunoreactivity and of glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence. Somata containing these amines were widely distributed throughout all central ganglia except the two pleural ganglia and the left parietal ganglion. Most catecholaminergic neurons were very small (5-10 microns in diameter) and located in clusters in the cerebral and pedal ganglia, although a few, somewhat larger catecholaminergic neurons were also scattered throughout other locations. Catecholamines also appeared to be heavily concentrated in certain neuropilar regions of the central ganglia. Serotonergic neurons were generally much larger than the catecholaminergic neurons, and some of these somata reached relatively large sizes (up to 50-70 microns in diameter). The majority of serotonergic cells were located in the pedal ganglia but major populations were also located in the paired cerebral, the right parietal and the visceral ganglia. Several of the serotonergic cells could be reliably recognized as distinct individuals which appear to be identical to those described in previous studies. Among the previously identified cells which appear to contain serotonin are v-RCDN ad v-LCDN (the right and left metacerebral giant cells) of the cerebral ganglia, d-LPeLN of the left pedal ganglion, and TAN, TAN-2, and TAN-3 of the right parietal ganglion. Comparisons are drawn with general distribution patterns of monoamines and with identified monoaminergic cells and cell populations found in other gastropod species. PMID:3064870

Croll, R P

1988-09-13

199

The evolution of reproductive isolation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater  

E-print Network

The evolution of reproductive isolation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater snail Physa in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater snail Physa Robert T Dillon Jr1* , Amy R Wethington2 and Charles,6], and fish [7,8]. In gastropod mollusks, the mechanisms of repro- ductive isolation have been elucidated only

Dillon, Robert T.

200

Occurrence of larval Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis and Leger, 1910) in freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller) from Al-Hafuf, Saudi Arabia and its development into adult in various experimental hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of occurrence of Philophthalmus gralli in Melanoides tuberculatus from Saudi Arabia. The overall infection rate of M. tuberculatus with P. gralli larvae was 8.9%. However, the incidence of infection varied from 6.46 to 10.16% depending on the size of the snail, and larger snails were found to be more infected than the smaller ones. The

A. M. N. Kalantan; M. Arfin; H. A. Al-Arefi; H. I. Bobshait; S. A. Hamadah; F. H. Al-Thawab; A. A. Al-Shamrani

1997-01-01

201

Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion Sungyon Lee,1  

E-print Network

2008; published online 26 August 2008 Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion marine and freshwater snails. A significant effort has gone towards understanding pedal wave locomotion

Lauga, Eric

202

Male New Zealand Mud Snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) Persist in Copulating with  

E-print Network

Male New Zealand Mud Snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) Persist in Copulating with Asexual of a natural system in which these issues are relevant is Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a freshwater snail native choice by conducting two laboratory experiments focused on determining whether male P. antipodarum housed

Neiman, Maurine

203

Exacerbation of pulmonic regurgitation by diastolic tricuspid regurgitation.  

PubMed

Few cases of diastolic mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) have been reported in the world literature. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman admitted for syncope, with a permanent pacemaker following complete heart block. Echocardiography revealed that the timing of the diastolic TR (and noted MR) coincided with the second phase of the pulmonic insufficiency (PI) jet. The respirometer revealed that the diastolic TR and the second phase of the PI are highly sensitive to respiration (attenuated with inspiration and exacerbated with expiration). The uniqueness of this case is the rare occurrence of the exacerbation of PI as the result of diastolic TR. PMID:25041155

Fan, Dali; Makaryus, John N; Wassef, Bishoy; Suma, Valentin; Masry, Mina; Makaryus, Amgad N

2014-09-01

204

Pedal sole immunoreactive axons in terrestrial pulmonates: Limax, Arion, and Helix.  

PubMed

A century ago histological techniques such as formic acid-gold chloride showed the nerve morphology of the pedal sole in Limax and Helix. There have been no similar descriptions since then of the central nervous system relevant to locomotory pedal waves in the foot of slugs and snails. Topical application of 5-HT affects locomotory waves, but the innervation of the pedal sole with 5-HT axons is not known. Three-dimensional morphology of pedal axons in terrestrial pulmonate embryos is shown herein with modern histological techniques using antibodies and the confocal microscope. In Limax maximus, pedal ganglia are shown with Tritonia pedal peptide (TPep) antibodies. Ladder-like cross bridges in the pedal sole are shown with antibodies to both TPep and 5-HT. In Arion ater, pedal ganglia neurons and their axons that form a plexus in the pedal sole are shown with 5-HT antibodies. In Helix aspersa, 5-HT immunoreactive pedal ganglia neurons and a developing pedal sole axon plexus are seen as in A. ater. Axons in this plexus that grow across the pedal sole can be seen growing into pre-existing nerves. No peripheral 5-HT neurons were identified in these three species. This immunoreactive plexus to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa spreads over the pedal sole epithelium. Axons immunoreactive to 5-HT antibodies in A. ater and H. aspersa extend the length of the foot, primarily in the rim, so that activity in these axons cannot provide local patterned input to produce locomotory waves, but may provide modulatory input to pedal sole muscles. PMID:24648204

Longley, Roger D

2014-02-01

205

Species- and size-specific infection of snails by Cyclocoelum mutabile (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae).  

PubMed

Infectivity of Cyclocoelum mutabile miracidia to 9 species and up to 4 size classes of pulmonate snails at 14, 16, and 20 C was studied under laboratory conditions. Of the 9 species examined, 6 (Stagnicola elodes, Lymnaea stagnalis, Gyraulus parvus, Gyraulus circumstriatus, Promenetus exacuous, and Armiger crista) were highly susceptible (infection success > or = 25%), 2 (Physa jennessi and Helisoma trivolvis) had low susceptibility (infection success < 25%, > 0), and 1 (Physa gyrina) was not susceptible to infection. Within highly susceptible species, snail size was negatively related to susceptibility and temperature had variable effects. Infection success was not affected by temperature or snail size in species with low susceptibility. Production of cercariae was negatively correlated with susceptibility among snails of different sizes and species, but was not influenced by snail size for a given species. Among species, metacercariae production was typically higher in lymnaeids than in either planorbids or physids. Results of experiments where miracidia were provided with a choice of 2 different snails suggest that they do not discriminate between species with high and low susceptibility. PMID:7623190

McKindsey, C W; McLaughlin, J D

1995-08-01

206

Models of Snail Locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All snails move over a thin layer of mucus using periodic deformations of their muscular foot. This unusual mode of locomotion can be modeled as a thin film of viscous fluid sandwiched between a flexible membrane and a rigid substrate. We present theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of locomotion via viscous stresses generated in thin films. Study of snail locomotion led us to design and construct several mechanical models: RoboSnail 1 which mimics snail locomotion incorrectly, but still proves to be a valid propulsion device over a thin viscous fluid layer and RoboSnail 2 which mimics land snails and uses forward-propagating compression waves on the base of the foot. Experimental results from the prototype machines are compared with long wavelength numerical and theoretical models.

Chan, Brian; Hosoi, Anette

2003-11-01

207

Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being generated by the undulation of the snail foot that is separated from the free surface by a thin layer of mucus. Here, a lubrication model is used to describe the mucus flow in the limit of small-amplitude interfacial deformations. By assuming the shape of the snail foot to be a traveling sine wave and the mucus to be Newtonian, an evolution equation for the interface shape is obtained and the resulting propulsive force on the snail is calculated. This propulsive force is found to be nonzero for moderate values of the capillary number but vanishes in the limits of high and low capillary number. Physically, this force arises because the snail's foot deforms the free surface, thereby generating curvature pressures and lubrication flows inside the mucus layer that couple to the topography of the foot.

Lee, Sungyon; Bush, John W. M.; Hosoi, A. E.; Lauga, Eric

2008-08-01

208

Lemierre's Syndrome: A Rare Case of Pulmonic Valve Vegetation  

PubMed Central

Lemierre's syndrome is an uncommon complication of pharyngitis commonly associated with an anaerobic gram negative bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum. The syndrome usually affects young healthy adults with the mean age of 20 and is characterized by recent pharyngitis followed by ipsilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis and septic thromboembolism. The treatment is at least 6 weeks of antibiotics; the role of anticoagulation is unclear. The following presentation is a case of Lemierre's syndrome in a 23-year-old healthy individual who is infected by a rare species: Fusobacterium nucleatum. The case is complicated by septic emboli to the lungs and impressive seeding vegetation to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) at the pulmonic valve of the heart. PMID:23573433

Kwan, Clara; Mastrine, Lou; Moskovits, Manfred

2013-01-01

209

Periphyton removal by freshwater micrograzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In various experiments, the freshwater snail species Lymnaea peregra (Müll.), Physa fontinalis (L.), Valvata piscinalis (Müll.) and Bithynia tentaculata (L.) significantly removed periphyton from glass slides, while the two tested crustacean species, Asellus aquaticus (L.) and Gammarus pulex (L.), did not. B. tentaculata removed similar amounts of periphyton accumulated in the field as it did of laboratory-cultured periphyton.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Removal rates

J. E. Vermaat

1993-01-01

210

Guild structure of larval trematodes in the snail Helisoma anceps: patterns and processes at the individual host level.  

PubMed

Factors that influenced the infracommunity structure of trematodes parasitizing the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps were studied over a 15-mo period; the guild included 8 species of parasites. Infracommunities were depauperate, with double patent infections observed in only 7 of 1,485 infected snails; a total of 4,899 was examined. Halipegus occidualis-Haematoloechus longiplexus was the most common dual infection. Both species share the same definitive host and, in both cases, eggs are the infective stage for the snail. Switches and losses of infections in individual snails were observed, suggesting the occurrence of dynamic interactions within the guild. A dominance hierarchy was constructed based on field observations and experimental infections. Echinostomatids were dominant; species without rediae in their life cycles were subordinates. Halipegus occidualis (which has rediae) was intermediate in dominance. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution and abundance of trematode infective stages indicate that not all the snails have the same probability of becoming infected. Habitat structure, behavior of the definitive host, the nature of the infective stages, and snail population dynamics (mortality, recruitment, and size structure) generated spatial and temporal heterogeneity in this system. As a consequence, predictions of the probabilities of interspecific interactions based on an analysis of observed and expected frequencies of multiple infections could be inappropriate unless the potential sources of heterogeneity are considered. PMID:1865259

Fernandez, J; Esch, G W

1991-08-01

211

Genetics, Shell Morphology, and Life History of the Freshwater Pulmonate Limpets Ferrissia rivularis and Ferrissia fragilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weak and variable nature of the shell morphometric criteria by which the North American ancylid limpets Ferrissia rivularis and Ferrissia fragilis are distinguished has led to speculation that they may be ecophenotypic variants. The shells of F. rivularis that we collected from a rocky river in the upper piedmont of South Carolina were significantly higher and wider per length

Robert T. Dillon Jr; Jacob J. Herman

2009-01-01

212

Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

2012-01-01

213

Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).  

PubMed

The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators. PMID:18642077

Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

2008-10-01

214

Induced chemical defenses in a freshwater macrophyte suppress herbivore fitness and the growth of associated microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater macrophyte Cabomba caroliniana induces a chemical defense when attacked by either the crayfish Procambrus clarkii or the snail Pomacea canaliculata. Induction by either consumer lowers the palatability of the plant to both consumers. When offered food ad libitum, snails\\u000a feeding on non-induced C. caroliniana grew 2.6–2.7 times more than those feeding on induced C. caroliniana. Because snails fed

Wendy E. Morrison; Mark E. Hay

2011-01-01

215

Streptococcus Constellatus Community Acquired Pneumonia with Subsequent Isolated Pulmonic Valve Endocarditis and Abscess Formation in a Structurally Normal Heart  

PubMed Central

Pulmonic valve infective endocarditis in isolation is a rare clinical entity. The formation of an abscess in the right ventricular outflow tract as a consequence of vegetations affecting the pulmonic valve in a structurally normal heart is extremely rare and has not been reported. We report a case of isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis complicated by a regional abscess formed within the right ventricular outflow tract caused by Streptococcus Constellatus (S. Constellatus), a member of the Streptococcus Milleri group in a young male whose risk factor was alcohol abuse and he was treated medically, a comprehensive literature review on the subject is also reported. Our case is the first reported in literature with infective endocarditis caused by S. Constellatus affecting the pulmonic valve, and the first with pulmonic valve endocarditis and perivalvular abscess formation in a structurally normal heart. PMID:25031801

Hutchison, Stuart James

2014-01-01

216

UNEP: Freshwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This searchable site, from The United Nations Environment Programme, is a clearinghouse for information about freshwater around the globe. The site provides links to UN reports, background guides on key freshwater issues, and many other resources.

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

217

Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of freshwater biology particularly freshwater macroinvertebrates and their effect on water pollution, covering publications of 1976-77. A list of 158 references is also presented. (HM)

Nalepa, T. F.

1978-01-01

218

Lichen Endozoochory by Snails  

PubMed Central

Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens. PMID:21533256

Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Ruetschi, Jorg; Fischer, Markus

2011-01-01

219

Small Snails, Enormous Elephants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 2 of PDF) introduces learners to the real size of animals using nonstandard measurement. Learners use Unifix cubes and yarn lengths to measure a variety of animals (photos), from the very small like a snail to the very large like an elephant. As an extension, learners can use the cubes to create a bar graph depicting the animals' lengths.

Museum, Chicago C.

2011-01-01

220

Snail size as a determinant of prepatent period duration in Helisoma anceps infected with Halipegus occidualis (Digenea: Hemiuridae).  

PubMed

Pulmonate snails (Helisoma anceps) of varying sizes were exposed to 2, 4, 8, or 16 eggs of Halipegus occidualis and observed over several months to determine the duration of the prepatent period. Infection probability was positively correlated with number of eggs ingested. The number of eggs ingested did not, however, have a significant effect on the duration of the prepatent period, presumably because low infectivity of the eggs (15%) dictated that most patent infections arose from a single miracidium. There was a significant, positive correlation between snail length (measured at time of exposure) and duration of prepatent period, suggesting that density-dependent effects are, in part, responsible for the initiation of cercariae production in H. occidualis. PMID:10958484

Zelmer, D A; Esch, G W

2000-08-01

221

The role of spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition in structuring trematode communities in the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).  

PubMed

We assessed how spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition structure larval trematode communities in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis . To postulate a dominance hierarchy, mark-release-recapture was used to monitor replacements of trematode species within snails over time. In addition, we sampled the trematode community in snails in different ponds in 3 consecutive years. A total of 7,623 snails (10,382 capture events) was sampled in 7 fishponds in the Jind?ich?v Hradec and T?ebo? areas in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) from August 2006 to October 2008. Overall, 39% of snails were infected by a community of 14 trematode species; 7% of snails were infected with more than 1 trematode species (constituting 16 double- and 4 triple-species combinations). Results of the null-model analyses suggested that spatial heterogeneity in recruitment among ponds isolated trematode species from each other, whereas seasonal pulses in recruitment increased species interactions in some ponds. Competitive exclusion among trematodes led to a rarity of multiple infections compared to null-model expectations. Competitive relationships among trematode species were hypothesized as a dominance hierarchy based on direct evidence of replacement and invasion and on indirect evidence. Seven top dominant species with putatively similar competitive abilities (6 rediae and 1 sporocyst species) reduced the prevalence of the other trematode species developing in sporocysts only. PMID:22191581

Soldánová, Miroslava; Kuris, Armand M; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D

2012-06-01

222

The role of spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition in structuring trematode communities in the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed how spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition structure larval trematode communities in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. To postulate a dominance hierarchy, mark-release-recapture was used to monitor replacements of trematode species within snails over time. In addition, we sampled the trematode community in snails in different ponds in 3 consecutive years. A total of 7,623 snails (10,382 capture events) was sampled in 7 fishponds in the Jind?ich?v Hradec and T?ebo? areas in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) from August 2006 to October 2008. Overall, 39% of snails were infected by a community of 14 trematode species; 7% of snails were infected with more than 1 trematode species (constituting 16 double- and 4 triple-species combinations). Results of the null-model analyses suggested that spatial heterogeneity in recruitment among ponds isolated trematode species from each other, whereas seasonal pulses in recruitment increased species interactions in some ponds. Competitive exclusion among trematodes led to a rarity of multiple infections compared to null-model expectations. Competitive relationships among trematode species were hypothesized as a dominance hierarchy based on direct evidence of replacement and invasion and on indirect evidence. Seven top dominant species with putatively similar competitive abilities (6 rediae and 1 sporocyst species) reduced the prevalence of the other trematode species developing in sporocysts only.

Soldánová, Miroslava; Kuris, Armand M.; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D.

2012-01-01

223

Eye to Eye With Garden Snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Snail Unit encourages students to explore the external characteristics and behavior of snails. It effectively gets students past the "ugh, slime" reaction to recognizing individual differences in snails and challenges students to learn enough about the snail to be able to predict their behavior under a variety of conditions. Detailed observations are requested as are preparation and testing of hypotheses. This unit works very well with all levels of students and with heterogeneously grouped students. This Snail Unit consists of six lessons: (1) Introduction to a Snail (2) How do snails move? How fast is a snail's pace? (3) What and how do snails eat? (4) Are snails attracted to, or repelled by particular substances? (5) Can snails be enticed to travel faster or in a certain direction? (6) How are snails like other animals? How are they different?

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Kathy Liu N:Liu;Kathy ORG:Access Excellence REV:2005-04-19 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

224

The ecology of vector snail habitats and mosquito breeding-places  

PubMed Central

The ecology of freshwater snails—in particular those which act as intermediate hosts of bilharziasis—is reviewed in the light of the much more extensive knowledge available on the breeding-places of anopheline mosquitos. Experimental ecological methods are recommended for the field and laboratory investigation of a number of common problems involved in the study of snail habitats and mosquito breeding-places. Among the environmental factors discussed are temperature, oxygen concentration, water movement, pollution and salinity. Sampling methods for estimating populations of both snails and mosquito larvae are also described. An attempt is made to show how malacologists and entomologists alike would benefit from improved facilities for keeping abreast of general developments in the wider field of freshwater ecology. PMID:13596888

Muirhead-Thomson, R. C.

1958-01-01

225

Fish predation and offspring survival in the prosobranch snail Viviparus ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we identified some of the predators of the freshwater snail Viviparus ater and estimated offspring survival to the end of the first summer in a natural population. Newborn V. ater were eaten by the fish Barbus barbus, Rutilus rutilus, Scardinius erythrophtalmus and Tinca tinca. Out of 137 guts of Abramis brama caught in Lake Zürich 1 contained

G. Keller; G. Ribi

1993-01-01

226

Pleistocene glaciation is implicated in the phylogeographical structure of Potamopyrgus antipodarum , a New Zealand snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleistocene glaciation has been identified as an important factor shaping present-day patterns of phylogeographical structure in a diverse array of taxa. The purpose of this study was to use mitochondrial sequence data to address whether Pleistocene glaciation is also a major determinant of phylogeographical patterns in Potamopyrgus antipodarum , a freshwater snail native to New Zealand. We found that haplotypes

MAURINE NEIMAN; CURTIS M. L IVELY

227

VARIATION IN ASEXUAL LINEAGE AGE IN POTAMOPYRGUS ANTIPODARUM, A NEW ZEALAND SNAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asexual lineages are thought to be subject to rapid extinction because they cannot generate recombinant offspring. Accordingly, extant asexual lineages are expected to be of recent derivation from sexual individuals. We examined this prediction by using mitochondrial DNA sequence data to estimate asexual lineage age in populations of a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum ) native to New Zealand and characterized

M. Neiman; J. Jokela; C. M. Lively

2005-01-01

228

The New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) is colonising the artificial lakes of Kaliningrad City, Russia (Baltic Sea Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2008, the New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum was detected in artificial freshwater lakes of Kalinigrad City (Russia), developed in sand and gravel extraction sites. P. antipodarum records along the Baltic coast were previously located in open sea and estuary sites and this is first species' record, in this type of man-made freshwater habitat, for the Baltic Region.

Dmitry Filippenko; Thaddeus K. Graczyk; Mikhail O. Son

2008-01-01

229

Baldomero Olivera: Cone Snail Peptides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever considered the venom of a snail? Most people think of snakes when they think of venom but overlook snails. There are, however, almost 10,000 species of venomous predatory snails according to this engaging lecture from Professor Baldomero Olivera. In his talk, Professor Olivera explores how these venoms have been used to understand the nervous system and develop new drugs. The lecture is divided into three different sections, and visitors shouldn't miss Part 2 ("How a Fish Hunting Snail Captures Its Prey"). Visitors are also welcome to download the entire lecture and the accompanying slides.

Olivera, Baldomero

230

Baldomero Olivera: Cone Snail Peptides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever considered the venom of a snail? Most people think of snakes when they think of venom but overlook snails. There are, however, almost 10,000 species of venomous predatory snails according to this engaging lecture from Professor Baldomero Olivera. In his talk, Professor Olivera explores how these venoms have been used to understand the nervous system and develop new drugs. The lecture is divided into three different sections, and visitors shouldn't miss Part 2 ("How a Fish Hunting Snail Captures Its Prey"). Visitors are also welcome to download the entire lecture and the accompanying slides.

Olivera, Baldomero

2012-01-31

231

O-Glycosylation of snails.  

PubMed

The glycosylation abilities of snails deserve attention, because snail species serve as intermediate hosts in the developmental cycles of some human and cattle parasites. In analogy to many other host-pathogen relations, the glycosylation of snail proteins may likewise contribute to these host-parasite interactions. Here we present an overview on the O-glycan structures of 8 different snails (land and water snails, with or without shell): Arion lusitanicus, Achatina fulica, Biomphalaria glabrata, Cepaea hortensis, Clea helena, Helix pomatia, Limax maximus and Planorbarius corneus. The O-glycans were released from the purified snail proteins by ?-elimination. Further analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and - for the main structures - by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Snail O-glycans are built from the four monosaccharide constituents: N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, mannose and fucose. An additional modification is a methylation of the hexoses. The common trisaccharide core structure was determined in Arion lusitanicus to be N-acetylgalactosamine linked to the protein elongated by two 4-O-methylated galactose residues. Further elongations by methylated and unmethylated galactose and mannose residues and/or fucose are present. The typical snail O-glycan structures are different to those so far described. Similar to snail N-glycan structures they display methylated hexose residues. PMID:22581130

Stepan, Herwig; Pabst, Martin; Altmann, Friedrich; Geyer, Hildegard; Geyer, Rudolf; Staudacher, Erika

2012-05-01

232

Freshwater Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1998 by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the Freshwater Initiative aims "to protect the plants and animals dependent on freshwaters and develop solutions to key causes of freshwater biodiversity decline." To achieve this goal, Freshwater Initiative staff identifies sites that harbor critical aquatic biodiversity, targets conservation activities at several key freshwater sites, and develops expert and informative collaborations to foster freshwater conservation. The homepage is straightforward; the Strategies section outlines the Initiative's fundamental goals and approaches and identifies key regions of interest (see color map). The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) section describes IHA software (not free) used "to statistically characterize environmental regimes" (most commonly used by hydrologists and ecologists to evaluate streamflow data). Finally, a nice selection of links rounds out the site.

2001-01-01

233

Obtaining Ilyanassa snail embryos.  

PubMed

The marine gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta is a long-standing and very useful model for studies of embryonic development. It is an especially important model for spiralian development, and for studies of asymmetric cell division. The embryos are amenable to classic embryological manipulation techniques as well as a growing number of molecular approaches. Ilyanassa is also an important model for studies of metamorphosis, the ecology of parasitism, the effects of environmental contaminants on morphology and sexual function, and comparative neurobiology. Ilyanassa adults are readily obtainable and easy to keep in the laboratory. Although the normal spawning season for Ilyanassa is during early summer, they can produce high-quality embryos nearly year-round in the laboratory. Snails collected in the late fall, winter, or spring can be induced to deposit zygotes before the natural spawning season by warming them to room temperature, and snails collected before the natural spawning season can be made to postpone zygote deposition until needed (up to at least 6 mo) by maintaining them in tanks in a cold room at 4 degrees C-8 degrees C. This protocol describes how to induce embryo production in Ilyanassa snails, collect the embryos, and rear them to the stage required for study. PMID:20147126

Gharbiah, Maey; Cooley, James; Leise, Esther M; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

2009-04-01

234

Characterization of the pigmented shell-forming proteome of the common grove snail Cepaea nemoralis  

PubMed Central

Background With a diversity of pigmented shell morphotypes governed by Mendelian patterns of inheritance, the common grove snail, Cepaea nemoralis, has served as a model for evolutionary biologists and population geneticists for decades. Surprisingly, the molecular mechanisms by which C. nemoralis generates this pigmented shelled diversity, and the degree of evolutionary conservation present between molluscan shell-forming proteomes, remain unknown. Results Here, using next generation sequencing and high throughput proteomics, we identify and characterize the major proteinaceous components of the C. nemoralis shell, the first shell-proteome for a pulmonate mollusc. The recent availability of several marine molluscan shell-proteomes, and the dataset we report here, allow us to identify 59 evolutionarily conserved and novel shell-forming proteins. While the C. nemoralis dataset is dominated by proteins that share little to no similarity with proteins in public databases, almost half of it shares similarity with proteins present in other molluscan shells. In addition, we could not find any indication that a protein (or class of proteins) is directly associated with shell pigmentation in C. nemoralis. This is in contrast to the only other partially characterized molluscan-shell pigmentation mechanism employed by the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Conclusions The unique pulmonate shell-forming proteome that we report here reveals an abundance of both mollusc-specific and pulmonate-specific proteins, suggesting that novel coding sequences, and/or the extensive divergence of these sequences from ancestral sequences, supported the innovation of new shell types within the Conchifera. In addition, we report here the first evidence that molluscs use independently evolved mechanisms to pigment their shells. This proteome provides a solid foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterization of these shell-forming proteins can be conducted. PMID:24684722

2014-01-01

235

Parasites alter host phenotype and may create a new ecological niche for snail hosts  

PubMed Central

By modifying the behaviour and morphology of hosts, parasites may strongly impact host individuals, populations and communities. We examined the effects of a common trematode parasite on its snail host, Batillaria cumingi (Batillariidae). This widespread snail is usually the most abundant invertebrate in salt marshes and mudflats of the northeastern coast of Asia. More than half (52.6%, n=1360) of the snails in our study were infected. We found that snails living in the lower intertidal zone were markedly larger and exhibited different shell morphology than those in the upper intertidal zone. The large morphotypes in the lower tidal zone were all infected by the trematode, Cercaria batillariae (Heterophyidae). We used a transplant experiment, a mark-and-recapture experiment and stable carbon isotope ratios to reveal that snails infected by the trematode move to the lower intertidal zone, resume growth after maturation and consume different resources. By simultaneously changing the morphology and behaviour of individual hosts, this parasite alters the demographics and potentially modifies resource use of the snail population. Since trematodes are common and often abundant in marine and freshwater habitats throughout the world, their effects potentially alter food webs in many systems. PMID:16777719

Miura, Osamu; Kuris, Armand M; Torchin, Mark E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Chiba, Satoshi

2006-01-01

236

Integrating nonindigenous aquatic plant control with protection of snail kite nests in Florida.  

PubMed

The endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) feeds primarily on the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) in Florida. The nonindigenous, floating water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) impede kites from finding snails. Effective control of these aquatic plants in the littoral zone of central and south Florida lakes benefits kites by maintaining open foraging habitat. However, incidental herbicide spraying of nesting substrates result in nest collapse when kites breed in nonwoody, emergent plants [cattail (Typha spp.) and giant bulrush (Scirpus validus)] in the outer littoral zone during lower lake levels. Many endangered species recovery plans and their implementation have experienced problems due to inaction and/or noncooperation by various governmental agencies and their personnel. Herein, we describe the development and implementation of a buffer zone strategy to prevent secondary impacts from an aquatic plant control program to snail kites nesting on lakes in central and south Florida. A strategy was jointly developed by personnel of five state and federal agencies to control herbicide application near kite nesting areas during the normal breeding season. Although requiring various modifications during its implementation, this cooperative effort successfully integrated aquatic plant control objectives with snail kite conservation on Lake Okeechobee during 1988. The program was expanded the following year to lakes Kissimmee and Tohopekaliga. Since the implementation of the snail kite impact preclusion program, no nest loss was attributed to incidental herbicide applications on lakes Okeechobee, Kissimmee, and Tohopekaliga. PMID:11436998

Rodgers, J A; Smith, H T; Thayer, D D

2001-07-01

237

A Somatically Diversified Defense Factor, FREP3, Is a Determinant of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, owes its continued success to freshwater snails that support production of prolific numbers of human-infective cercariae. Encounters between schistosomes and snails do not always result in the snail becoming infected, in part because snails can mount immune responses that prevent schistosome development. Fibrinogen-related protein 3 (FREP3) has been previously associated with snail defense against digenetic trematode infection. It is a member of a large family of immune molecules with a unique structure consisting of one or two immunoglobulin superfamily domains connected to a fibrinogen domain; to date fibrinogen containing proteins with this arrangement are found only in gastropod molluscs. Furthermore, specific gastropod FREPs have been shown to undergo somatic diversification. Here we demonstrate that siRNA mediated knockdown of FREP3 results in a phenotypic loss of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 of 70 (21.4%) snails of the resistant BS-90 strain of Biomphalaria glabrata. In contrast, none of the 64 control BS-90 snails receiving a GFP siRNA construct and then exposed to S. mansoni became infected. Furthermore, resistance to S. mansoni was overcome in 22 of 48 snails (46%) by pre-exposure to another digenetic trematode, Echinostoma paraensei. Loss of resistance in this case was shown by microarray analysis to be associated with strong down-regulation of FREP3, and other candidate immune molecules. Although many factors are certainly involved in snail defense from trematode infection, this study identifies for the first time the involvement of a specific snail gene, FREP3, in the phenotype of resistance to the medically important parasite, S. mansoni. The results have implications for revealing the underlying mechanisms involved in dictating the range of snail strains used by S. mansoni, and, more generally, for better understanding the phenomena of host specificity and host switching. It also highlights the role of a diversified invertebrate immune molecule in defense against a human pathogen. It suggests new lines of investigation for understanding how susceptibility of snails in areas endemic for S. mansoni could be manipulated and diminished. PMID:22479663

Hanington, Patrick C.; Forys, Michelle A.; Loker, Eric S.

2012-01-01

238

Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. (Digenea: Notocotylidae)from Biomphalaria peregrina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Notocotylus was found parasiting a freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria peregrina. Naturally infected snails were collected from two temporary ponds in the Nahuel Huapí National Park in Patagonia. The characteristics of the larval stages are presented. Experimental adults were recovered from the intestinal caeca of ducks and chicks. Adults of Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. exhibit an aspinose

Verónica Flores; Norma Brugni

2005-01-01

239

Common effect of the mucus transferred during mating in two dart-shooting snail species from different families.  

PubMed

Several taxa of pulmonate land snails exhibit a conspicuous mating behaviour, the shooting of so-called love darts. During mating, such land snail species stab a mating partner with a mucus-coated dart. It has previously been shown that the sperm donor physiologically influences the sperm recipient via the mucus covering the dart and thereby decreases the number of sperm digested by the recipient. However, the generality of this effect of the dart's mucus is unclear, because almost all the previous studies on the effect of the mucus used the brown garden snail Cornu aspersum from the family Helicidae. Therefore, the relationship between the acquisition of the mucus effect on the recipient and the evolution of the dart itself, and its mucus, is still open to debate. To test the commonality of the physiological effect of the dart mucus, we examined this in Euhadra peliomphala, a species from the Bradybaenidae family, and compared our findings with the results of previous work using C. aspersum. Our experiments showed that in E. peliomphala, the dart mucus had a physiological effect and lowered the accessibility of the gametolytic organ, as found in C. aspersum. This indicates that in various dart-bearing species the mucus from the dart glands targets the same organ and that the inhibition of sperm digestion has played a crucial role in the evolution of the dart and its mucus. PMID:24671965

Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi; Koene, Joris M

2014-04-01

240

Cost of autotomy drives ontogenetic switching of anti-predator mechanisms under developmental constraints in a land snail  

PubMed Central

Autotomy of body parts offers various prey animals immediate benefits of survival in compensation for considerable costs. I found that a land snail Satsuma caliginosa of populations coexisting with a snail-eating snake Pareas iwasakii survived the snake predation by autotomizing its foot, whereas those out of the snake range rarely survived. Regeneration of a lost foot completed in a few weeks but imposed a delay of shell growth. Imprints of autotomy were found in greater than 10 per cent of S. caliginosa in the snake range but in only less than 1 per cent out of it, simultaneously demonstrating intense predation by the snakes and high efficiency of autotomy for surviving snake predation in the wild. However, in experiments, mature S. caliginosa performed autotomy less frequently. Instead of the costly autotomy, they can use defensive denticles on the inside of their shell apertures. Owing to the constraints from the additive growth of shells, most pulmonate snails can produce these denticles only when they have fully grown up. Thus, this developmental constraint limits the availability of the modified aperture, resulting in ontogenetic switching of the alternative defences. This study illustrates how costs of adaptation operate in the evolution of life-history strategies under developmental constraints PMID:23034702

Hoso, Masaki

2012-01-01

241

Interganglionic dendrites constitute an output pathway from the procerebrum of the snail Achatina fulica.  

PubMed

The procerebrum is an olfactory processing region that occupies approximately one-third of the total brain area in pulmonate gastropod molluscs. It has many unusual features, including a development separate from the rest of the brain and the absence of axons belonging to its intrinsic neurons. We have investigated the input and output pathways of the procerebrum in the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica by using hexamminecobalt chloride as a selective label. Both the tentacle nerve and the cerebropedal connective nerve contribute to a fine neural plexus that is distributed throughout the neuropile region of the procerebrum. The fibers from the tentacle nerve are predominantly presynaptic, whereas those from the cerebropedal connective are predominantly postsynaptic. The postsynaptic fibers (dendrites) were traced to two groups of nerve cells (total number, 20-25) near the ventral surface of the ipsilateral pedal ganglion. No evidence was obtained for any other numerically significant output pathway from the procerebrum. Since locomotion is known to be controlled by the pedal ganglion, these results provide an anatomical substrate for the strong influence of olfaction on locomotor behavior in snails. The pathway is unusual in that the dendrites are interganglionic and can be as long as 5 mm. PMID:2732357

Chase, R; Tolloczko, B

1989-05-01

242

Red blood with blue-blood ancestry: Intriguing structure of a snail hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic enigma of snail hemoglobin, its isolated occurrence in a single gastropod family, the Planorbidae, and the lack of sequence data, stimulated the present study. We present here the complete cDNA and predicted amino acid sequence of two hemoglobin polypeptides from the planorbid Biomphalaria glabrata (intermediate host snail for the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni). Both isoforms contain 13 different, cysteine-free globin domains, plus a small N-terminal nonglobin “plug” domain with three cysteines for subunit dimerization (total Mr ? 238 kDa). We also identified the native hemoglobin molecule and present here a preliminary 3D reconstruction from electron microscopical images (3 nm resolution); it suggests a 3 × 2-mer quaternary structure (Mr ? 1.43 MDa). Moreover, we identified a previously undescribed rosette-like hemolymph protein that has been mistaken for hemoglobin. We also detected expression of an incomplete hemocyanin as trace component. The combined data show that B. glabrata hemoglobin evolved from pulmonate myoglobin, possibly to replace a less-efficient hemocyanin, and reveals a surprisingly simple evolutionary mechanism to create a high molecular mass respiratory protein from 78 similar globin domains. PMID:16877545

Lieb, Bernhard; Dimitrova, Konstantina; Kang, Hio-Sun; Braun, Sabrina; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Martin, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Saenz, Steven A.; Adema, Coen M.; Markl, Jurgen

2006-01-01

243

Freshwater Wetlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

244

Freshwater macroinvertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Major aspects of the biology of freshwater macroinvertebrates with emphasis on man-induced environmental changes were reviewed in this report with 183 references. The effects of both chemical and physical environmental alteration are examined. The population dynamics of the macroinvertebrates are controlled by factors such as food and feeding habits, periodicity and drift, productivity and animal-sediment interactions.(KRM)

Quigley, M.A.

1982-06-01

245

Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern nevada springs.  

PubMed

Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 +/- 0.2 percent modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO(3)(-) with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to freshwater biogenic carbonates. PMID:17783523

Riggs, A C

1984-04-01

246

Effect of DDT and MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) on reproduction of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L  

SciTech Connect

Reproduction is the single most important function in the life cycle of an organism. Successful reproduction determines fitness of organisms. The inability of an organism to complete any one stage of the reproductive process severely reduces its lifetime reproductive success. Disruptions in the reproduction will ultimately affect the abundance and distribution of the species. Therefore, laboratory tests of long-term impact of sublethal pollutant concentrations on organisms preferably is done on the reproductive success. Pollutants of diverse structure may affect the reproductive system which is sensitive to toxic agents. Certain pollutants, notably the organochlorine compounds, have been shown to affect the male and female reproductive systems. The authors have studied the effect of sublethal concentrations of DDT and the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the reproductive output of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis under a 2-mon exposure period.

Woin, P.; Broenmark, C. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

1992-01-01

247

Antidepressants cause foot detachment from substrate in five species of marine snail.  

PubMed

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are released into aquatic ecosystems through discharged sewage wastewater. Antidepressants are among those APIs often detected in wastewater effluent and have been recently reported to cause foot detachment from the substrate in freshwater snails. We tested the effects of four commonly prescribed antidepressants {fluoxetine ("Prozac"), fluvoxamine ("Luvox"), venlafaxine ("Effexor"), and citalopram ("Celexa") on adhesion to the substrate in five species of marine snails, three from the Pacific coast (Chlorostoma funebralis, Nucella ostrina, Urosalpinx cinerea) and two species from the Atlantic coast (Tegula fasciatus and Lithopoma americanum) of North America representing three different gastropod families. All antidepressants tested induced foot detachment from the substrate in all snail species in a mainly dose-dependent manner (p < 0.04-0.00000001). The lowest LOECs (lowest observed effect concentration) for antidepressants and snails were recorded for Lithopoma in 43.4 ?g/L (100 nM) fluvoxamine and Chlorostoma in 157 ?g/L (500 nM) venlafaxine and 217 ?g/L (500 nM) fluvoxamine. The trochids and turbinids were 2-10× more sensitive to the antidepressants than the muricids. Latency to detachment was also dose dependent, with the fastest average times to detach seen in Chlorostoma and Lithopoma (7.33 and 13.16 min respectively in 3.13 mg/L venlafaxine). The possible physiological mechanisms regulating antidepressant-induced foot detachment in marine snails and the possible ecological consequences are discussed. PMID:23218553

Fong, Peter P; Molnar, Nikolett

2013-03-01

248

RNA-Seq Reveals Infection-Induced Gene Expression Changes in the Snail Intermediate Host of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the Greater Mekong sub-region of Thailand. Despite the severe public health impact of Opisthorchis-induced CCA, knowledge of the molecular interactions occurring between the parasite and its snail intermediate host is scant. The examination of differences in gene expression profiling between uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos could provide clues on fundamental pathways involved in the regulation of snail-parasite interplay. Methodology/Principal Findings Using high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analyses, we characterized the transcriptomes of uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiling allowed the identification of 7,655 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), associated to 43 distinct biological pathways, including pathways associated with immune defense mechanisms against parasites. Amongst the DEGs with immune functions, transcripts encoding distinct proteases displayed the highest down-regulation in Bithynia specimens infected by O. viverrini; conversely, transcription of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and actins was significantly up-regulated in parasite-infected snails when compared to the uninfected counterparts. Conclusions/Significance The present study lays the foundation for functional studies of genes and gene products potentially involved in immune-molecular mechanisms implicated in the ability of the parasite to successfully colonize its snail intermediate host. The annotated dataset provided herein represents a ready-to-use molecular resource for the discovery of molecular pathways underlying susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini and for comparative analyses with pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of other platyhelminths including schistosomes. PMID:24676090

Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Sotillo, Javier; Tesana, Smarn; Laha, Thewarach; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Nolan, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

249

Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 47:2 (2005) 111115 111 Balaban, Philadelphia/Rehovot  

E-print Network

- fertilization rate in the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate snail, Physa acuta ROBERT T. DILLON, JR., THOMAS E ova and spermatozoa ("autosperm") which are delivered down a common hermaphrodite duct. The hermaphrodite duct terminates in a region called the carrefour in freshwater (basommatophoran) pulmo- nates

Dillon, Robert T.

250

Freshwater Molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater mollusc shells are among the best and most extensively preserved fossils in lacustrine sediments. These molluscs\\u000a are useful because they occur in a broad range of paleoenvironments. As a result, they have been used to reconstruct former\\u000a stream confluences, provide a basis for biostratigraphic zonation of sedimentary sequences in lake basins, and reconstruct\\u000a habitat and climatic conditions. Because many

Barry B. Miller; Michael J. S. Tevesz

251

A study on snail location by Fasciola hepatica using radioisotopically labelled miracidia.  

PubMed

A number of common freshwater molluscs were exposed to Fasciola hepatica miracidia labelled in vivo with radioselenium. Radioactivity was rapidly incorporated in all lymnaeid species tested (L. stagnalis, L. tomentosa and L. truncatula) whereas no radioactivity could be demonstrated in non-lymnaeid pulmonate species (Aplexa hypnorum, Physa acuta, Physa fontinalis, Anisus vortex, Gyraulus albus and Planorbis planorbis) or in the prosobranchs Valvata cristata and Valvata piscinalis. However, the prosobranchs Bithynia leachii, Bithynia tentaculata and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi showed a slow but significant uptake of radioactivity which was presumably explained by uptake of labelled miracidia through a 'filter-feeding' mechanism. Sphaerium corneum, a true filter-feeder, showed a similar course of uptake of radioactivity. PMID:1264488

Nansen, P; Frandsen, F; Christensen, N O

1976-04-01

252

Isolation of microcercous cercariae from snails caught in an endemic focus of Paragonimus uterobilateralis in Liberia, West Africa.  

PubMed

Microcercous cercariae have been recovered from the snail Homorus (Striosubulina) striatella RANG. which were collected in a focus of human lung fluke disease in Liberia, West Africa, and are here described. Metacercariae of Paragonimus uterobilateralis were isolated from freshwater crabs (Liberonautes latidactylus) captured at the same location, and at the same time, as the infected snails. The dimensions of the Liberian cercariae have been found to differ markedly from those of a cercaria from Cameroon previously described as that of Paragonimus africanus. The structure and dimensions of the Liberian cercariae clearly resemble those of the cercariae of other species of Paragonimus from Asia and America. PMID:2740730

Sachs, R; Cumberlidge, N

1989-03-01

253

Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.  

PubMed

The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm. PMID:22466422

Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

2012-05-01

254

Echocardiographic changes following balloon valvuloplasty in valvular pulmonic and aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

Nineteen patients with pulmonary valvular stenosis and two with aortic valvular stenosis, aged 20 days to 12 years, were studied before and after balloon dilatation valvuloplasty (BDV) by M-mode, 2-D, pulsed wave (PW) and continuous wave (CW) Doppler, and color flow mapping echocardiography. In those with pulmonary stenosis, a dome-shaped valve was found in 16(84%) of 19 cases before BDV, and the valve remained dome shaped only in 4(27%) of 15 after procedure (P less than 0.001). Restricted valve motion which was noted in 18(95%) of 19 before BDV, persisted only in 2(13%) of 15 after procedure (P less than 0.001). Thickening of the pulmonic valve and poststenotic dilatation of the main pulmonary artery stayed almost unchanged. The pressure gradient across the pulmonic valve measured by cardiac catheterization and CW Doppler agreed well (r = 0.862). Echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary regurgitation was detected in 1(25%) of 4 patients before, and 7(50%) of 14 after BDV. In two patients with aortic stenosis, the echocaardiograms showed the valve was thickened and dome-shaped. Following BDV, echocardiographic evidence of mild aortic regurgitation was observed only in one patient who had had such a regurgitationn before BDV. The diameter of the valve annulus measured on 2-D echo and angiocardiograms correlated well (r = 0.912), and it stayed unchanged following BDV. It is concluded that 2-D and Doppler echocardiographic examinations proved to be useful in the measurement of valve annulus, delineation of stenotic semilunar valves and monitoring of the efficacy of BDV. PMID:2637610

Hsu, Y H; Lue, H C; Wang, J K; Wu, M H; Wang, N K

1989-01-01

255

Population genetic structure of the schistosome-vector snail Bulinus globosus: examining the role of genetic drift, migration and human activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulinus globosus, one of the intermediate hosts of the genus Schistosoma, is an hermaphrodite freshwater snail species. This species occupies different kinds of environments in Africa, which are generally subjected to large variations in water availability. The mating system of this species is outcrossing, although selfing has been suggested for one population. Here we investigate the genetic structure of populations

F Njiokou; B Delay; C Bellec; E K N'Goran; G Yapi Yapi; P Jarne

1994-01-01

256

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

257

Trematode parasites infect or die in snail hosts  

PubMed Central

The Red Queen hypothesis is based on the assumption that parasites must genetically match their hosts to infect them successfully. If the parasites fail, they are assumed to be killed by the host's immune system. Here, we tested this using sympatric (mostly susceptible) and allopatric (mostly resistant) populations of a freshwater snail and its trematode parasite. We determined whether parasites which do not infect are either killed or passed through the host's digestive tract and remain infectious. Our results show that parasites do not get a second chance: they either infect or are killed by the host. The results suggest strong selection against parasites that are not adapted to local host genotypes. PMID:20961880

King, Kayla C.; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M.

2011-01-01

258

Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ? MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ? TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition.

Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)] [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

2013-03-22

259

Freshwater Flow Charts - 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following: (1) Explanation of Charts Showing Freshwater Flow in 1995; (2) Estimated U.S. Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (3) Estimated California Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (4) Estimated New Mexico Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); and (5) Web locations and credits.

Kaiper, G V

2003-11-21

260

Modelling spatial distribution of snails transmitting parasitic worms with importance to human and animal health and analysis of distributional changes in relation to climate.  

PubMed

The environment, the on-going global climate change and the ecology of animal species determine the localisation of habitats and the geographical distribution of the various species in nature. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of such changes on snail species not only of interest to naturalists but also of importance to human and animal health. The spatial distribution of freshwater snail intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and paramphistomiasis (i.e. Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis) were modelled by the use of a maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent). Two snail observation datasets from Zimbabwe, from 1988 and 2012, were compared in terms of geospatial distribution and potential distributional change over this 24-year period investigated. Climate data, from the two years were identified and used in a species distribution modelling framework to produce maps of predicted suitable snail habitats. Having both climate- and snail observation data spaced 24 years in time represent a unique opportunity to evaluate biological response of snails to changes in climate variables. The study shows that snail habitat suitability is highly variable in Zimbabwe with foci mainly in the central Highveld but also in areas to the South and West. It is further demonstrated that the spatial distribution of suitable habitats changes with variation in the climatic conditions, and that this parallels that of the predicted climate change. PMID:24893011

Pedersen, Ulrik B; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Soko, White; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K

2014-05-01

261

Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382

2013-01-01

262

Fungal farming in a snail  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.

2003-01-01

263

Radix auricularia coreana: natural snail host of Clinostomum complanatum in Korea.  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey was carried out to determine the first intermediate host of Clinostomum complanatum among freshwater snails in Korea. Two species of snails belonging to the family Lymnaeidae were collected in Kaum-ji (pond), Uisong-gun, Kyongsangbuk-do. Twelve (0.9%) out of 1,273 Radix auricularia coreana examined were found to liberate cercariae of C. complanatum, which were identified by morphological characteristics and experimental infections in freshwater fish. Pseudorasbora parva. The cercariae were brevifurcate and clinostomatoid. They had a transparent dorsal fin, a well developed penetrating organ and a pair of eye spots. The body measured 119-147 x 33-36 microns, tail stem, 275-370 x 19-26 microns, and furcae, 72-104 microns. Rediae were demonstrated in the infected snail after crushing. Redia, 527-1,630 microns long and 121-368 microns wide, contained 10-45 germ balls and cercariae in various developmental stages. The metacercariae recovered from fish experimentally infected with C. complanatum cercariae were morphologically identical to those from naturally infected fish. PMID:9529857

Chung, D I; Kong, H H; Joo, C Y

1998-03-01

264

Exploring Species Level Taxonomy and Species Delimitation Methods in the Facultatively Self-Fertilizing Land Snail Genus Rumina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae) and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light) are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA) sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1) DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2) Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3) the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4) the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5) the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected. PMID:23577154

Prevot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Backeljau, Thierry

2013-01-01

265

Atrazine does not affect algal biomass or snail populations in microcosm communities at environmentally relevant concentrations.  

PubMed

The herbicide atrazine is a photosynthetic inhibitor used around the world in agricultural applications. Contamination of surface waters adjacent to treated areas can directly reduce growth of nontarget aquatic autotrophs, but the severity of impacts is highly dependent on species sensitivity and exposure concentration. Secondary effects resulting from macrophyte or phytoplankton decline may include an expansion of the more tolerant periphyton community. Recently, this shift in the autotrophic community has been proposed as a mechanism for increased rates of parasite infections in amphibians via augmented populations of aquatic snails which act as intermediate hosts to larval trematodes. To further clarify this relationship, an outdoor microcosm study was conducted to examine the effects of atrazine on primary production and snail populations over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations. In July 2009, 15 experimental ponds were treated to achieve initial concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 30, and 100 µg/L atrazine. Over a period of 73 d, measures were taken of macrophyte, phytoplankton, and periphyton biomass, growth, and fecundity of caged snails (Physella spp. and Stagnicola elodes) and free-living snails (Physella spp.). Except for declines in macrophyte biomass at the highest treatment level, no consistent relationships were found between atrazine concentration and any measured parameter. Comparison of these results with previous findings highlights the variability of responses to atrazine exposure between similarly constructed freshwater communities, even at concentrations up to 20 times higher than sustained environmental levels. PMID:21567448

Baxter, Leilan R; Moore, Dana L; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L

2011-07-01

266

Advice of the rose: experimental coevolution of a trematode parasite and its snail host.  

PubMed

Understanding host-parasite coevolution requires multigenerational studies in which changes in both parasite infectivity and host susceptibility are monitored. We conducted a coevolution experiment that examined six generations of interaction between a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and one of its common parasites (the sterilizing trematode, Microphallus sp.). In one treatment (recycled), the parasite was reintroduced into the same population of host snails. In the second treatment (lagged), the host snails received parasites from the recycled treatment, but the addition of these parasites did not begin until the second generation. Hence any parasite-mediated genetic changes of the host in the lagged treatment were expected to be one generation behind those in the recycled treatment. The lagged treatment thus allowed us to test for time lags in parasite adaptation, as predicted by the Red Queen model of host-parasite coevolution. Finally, in the third treatment (control), parasites were not added. The results showed that parasites from the recycled treatment were significantly more infective to snails from the lagged treatment than from the recycled treatment. In addition, the hosts from the recycled treatment diverged from the control hosts with regard to their susceptibility to parasites collected from the field. Taken together, the results are consistent with time lagged, frequency-dependent selection and rapid coevolution between hosts and parasites. PMID:17300434

Koskella, Britt; Lively, Curtis M

2007-01-01

267

Production of apple snail for space diet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g of body weight within two or three month from its egg. Several hundreds of egg are laid by one snail. It start egg laying after three months from hatching. In order to harvest 50 g for every day's meal, 3 m2 is required for rearing space. Eating apple snail and establishing its rearing system might save the food crisis on Earth.

Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

268

THE IONIC BASIS OF THE RESTING POTENTIAL IN A CROSS-STRIATED MUSCLE OF THE AQUATIC SNAIL LYMNAEA STAGNALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The mean resting potential in the heart ventricle muscle cells of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis was found to be —61-2 ± 3*5 (..) mV (ranging from — 56mV to — 68mV). The average intracellular potassium concentration was estimated to be 51 -5 ± 14-6 (..) m (ranging from 27-8 m to 77-3 m). The membrane of the heart

B. L. BREZDEN; D. R. GARDNER

1984-01-01

269

Predator avoidance and immune defence: costs and trade-offs in snails.  

PubMed Central

Organisms are often confronted by both predators and pathogens. Defending against such widely divergent enemies requires more than one type of defence. Multiple defences, however, raise the possibility of trade-offs among defences. We tested for such trade-offs by manipulating the level of predator-avoidance behaviour and immune function in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Our results show that predator avoidance and immune function had clear costs in terms of reproduction and survival. Further, we show that increased levels of predator-avoidance behaviour reduced the snails' ability to defend against potential pathogens. Predator-avoidance behaviour may thus have the additional indirect cost of reduced immunocompetence and increased susceptibility to pathogens. Our results suggest that ecological factors (e.g. predator density) may considerably modify the expression and costs of immune defences. PMID:10687823

Rigby, M C; Jokela, J

2000-01-01

270

Ultrastructural analysis of the morphology and function of the spermatheca of the pulmonate slug Arion subfuscus.  

PubMed

A study of the histology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the spermatheca of Arion subfuscus in different stages of its life cycle shows that the spermatheca, an accessory organ of the femal genital tract of pulmonates, is a spherical-shaped organ lined with a columnar and non-ciliated epithelium surrounded by a thin network of connective tissue with some muscle fibres. The narrow epithelial cells possess numerous microvilli that, excepting young specimens, are provided with long, thin and generally curved, membranous process. Golgi apparatus, RER and mitochondria are abundant. Basal infolds are not very deep. In specimens killed two days after-copula, the spermatheca is swollen and its lumen is full of degenerating spermatozoa, mucus masses and spermatophore fragments. The apex of the cell is rich in granules with varied content, including multivesicular bodies. In specimens killed two weeks after-copula there are numerous endocytic vesicles in the apex and big vacuoles containing lipid. It is considered that after mating the excess of exogenous spermatozoa and copulatory seminal fluids are digested in the spermatheca. First, there is extracellular digestion that may be carried out by the enzymes contained in the multivesicular bodies exocytosed to the lumen, as well as by the enzymes secreted in apocrine vesicles. The partially digested materials would then be absorbed by endocytosis and further digested intracellularly. The great accumulation of lipid in the epithelial cells two weeks after mating suggest that the spermatheca could be involved in lipid synthesis, acting as a reserve organ. PMID:18621166

Gomez, B J; Angulo, E; Zubiaga, A M

1991-01-01

271

Morphological and molecular characterization of lymnaeid snails and their potential role in transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated. PMID:24516270

Dung, Bui Thi; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

2013-12-01

272

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Lymnaeid Snails and Their Potential Role in Transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated. PMID:24516270

Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

2013-01-01

273

Pleistocene phylogeography and phylogenetic concordance in cold-adapted spring snails (Bythinella spp.).  

PubMed

Previous studies on Pleistocene phylogeography of European taxa are biased towards (i) vertebrates, (ii) terrestrial taxa, (iii) single species, and (iv) taxa that survived the Pleistocene in southern refugia. Relatively little is known about whether evolutionary patterns of vertebrate and terrestrial taxa are also applicable to freshwater invertebrates, whether cold-adapted freshwater species could survive in extensive permafrost areas without retreating into refugia, and whether Pleistocene phylogeographical patterns are influenced by phylogeny. Here, the widespread and species-rich European spring snail genus Bythinella Moquin-Tandon, 1856 is utilized in an attempt to mitigate this bias. These strongly cold-adapted freshwater animals mostly occur in springs--highly isolated habitats that are relatively unaffected by anthropogenic influences. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA sequence data were conducted in 458 specimens from 142 populations occurring throughout Europe. The study provides evidence that most Bythinella spp. survived the Pleistocene in restricted northern glacial refugia that largely correspond to refugia previously recognized for other European biota. However, survival of Bythinella spp. in extensive permafrost areas outside of refugia can likely be rejected. Low dispersal ability and the isolation and fragmentation of spring habitats, as well as the distribution of perennial springs within permafrost regions, may account for this result. Tests involving a total of 29 nominal species showed that phylogenetically closely related Bythinella species did not occupy similar refugia. This lack of phylogenetic concordance could possibly be explained by the stochasticity of survival and dispersal in spring snails. PMID:19254305

Benke, M; Brändle, M; Albrecht, C; Wilke, T

2009-03-01

274

Climate and pH Predict the Potential Range of the Invasive Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum) in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species’ overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail’s extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5) are detrimental to the snail’s survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas), which are predicted to preclude the snail’s establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species. PMID:23451090

Byers, James E.; McDowell, William G.; Dodd, Shelley R.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Wilde, Susan B.

2013-01-01

275

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Galba pervia (Gastropoda: Mollusca), an Intermediate Host Snail of Fasciola spp  

PubMed Central

Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes and the gene rearrangements are increasingly used as molecular markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Contributing to the complete mt genomes of Gastropoda, especially Pulmonata, we determined the mt genome of the freshwater snail Galba pervia, which is an important intermediate host for Fasciola spp. in China. The complete mt genome of G. pervia is 13,768 bp in length. Its genome is circular, and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, 22 genes for tRNA. The mt gene order of G. pervia showed novel arrangement (tRNA-His, tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Tyr change positions and directions) when compared with mt genomes of Pulmonata species sequenced to date, indicating divergence among different species within the Pulmonata. A total of 3655 amino acids were deduced to encode 13 protein genes. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.05%), followed by Phe (11.24%), Ser (10.76%) and IIe (8.346%). Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis), all revealed that the families Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae are closely related two snail families, consistent with previous classifications based on morphological and molecular studies. The complete mt genome sequence of G. pervia showed a novel gene arrangement and it represents the first sequenced high quality mt genome of the family Lymnaeidae. These novel mtDNA data provide additional genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, population genetics and phylogeographics of freshwater snails, as well as for understanding interplay between the intermediate snail hosts and the intra-mollusca stages of Fasciola spp.. PMID:22844544

Huang, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Jun; Song, Hui-Qun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

276

Clinal variation in shell morphology of the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum along two hill?country streams in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremely polymorphic gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum is widespread in freshwater habitats throughout New Zealand. This study describes morphological variation of P. antipodarum along two streams in Waikato (North Island, New Zealand), and explores relationships between morphology and selected environmental variables (temperature, conductivity, pH, flow, shade, vegetation). Along each stream, fully grown snails were collected at 11 sites extending from the

Martin Haase

2003-01-01

277

Accumulation and distributions of 137Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of 137Cs . Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K+ in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K+ concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated 137Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g-1. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K+ in water.

Suseno, Heny

2014-10-01

278

International Freshwater Agreements  

E-print Network

Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements #12;#12;Copyright © 2002, United Nations Environment.na.unep.net www.unep.org The Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements was compiled under the direction and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "The World's International Freshwater

Wolf, Aaron

279

Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails.  

PubMed

The roles of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the natural tolerance of environmental stresses that impose changes in oxygen availability and oxygen consumption on animals is discussed with a particular focus on the biochemistry of estivation and metabolic depression in pulmonate land snails. Despite reduced oxygen consumption and PO2 during estivation, which should also mean reduced production of oxyradicals, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, increased in 30 day-estivating snails. This appears to be an adaptation that allows the snails to deal with oxidative stress that takes place during arousal when PO2 and oxygen consumption rise rapidly. Indeed, oxidative stress was indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation damage products accumulating in hepatopancreas within minutes after arousal was initiated. The various metabolic sites responsible for free radical generation during arousal are still unknown but it seems unlikely that the enzyme xanthine oxidase plays any substantial role in this despite being implicated in oxidative stress in mammalian models of ischemia/reperfusion. We propose that the activation of antioxidant defenses in the organs of Otala lactea during estivation is a preparative mechanism against oxidative stress during arousal. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes have also observed under other stress situations in which the actual production of oxyradicals should decrease. For example, antioxidant defenses are enhanced during anoxia exposure in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (10 h at 5 degrees C) and leopard frogs Rana pipiens (30 h at 5 degrees C) and during freezing exposure (an ischemic condition due to plasma freezing) in T. sirtalis parietalis and wood frogs Rana sylvatica. It seems that enhancement of antioxidant enzymes during either anoxia or freezing is used as a preparatory mechanism to deal with a physiological oxidative stress that occurs rapidly within the early minutes of recovery during reoxygenation or thawing. Thus, a wide range of stress tolerant animals display coordinated changes in antioxidant defenses that allow them to deal with oxidative stress that occurs as part of natural cycles of stress/recovery that alter oxygen levels in tissues. The molecular mechanisms that trigger and regulate changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in these species are still unknown but could prove to have key relevance for the development of new intervention strategies in the treatment of cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injuries in humans. PMID:9787804

Hermes-Lima, M; Storey, J M; Storey, K B

1998-07-01

280

Successful treatment of a congenital pulmonic valvular stenosis in a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) by percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty.  

PubMed

A 3-yr-old intact female snow leopard (Uncia uncia) was evaluated for progressive apathy, lethargy, and decreased appetite. Cardiac auscultation revealed a left basal grade IV/VI systolic ejection murmur, and an echocardiogram confirmed a severe pulmonic valvular stenosis (pressure gradient of 98 mm Hg). The lesion was managed by balloon valvuloplasty, resulting in a marked pressure gradient reduction (30 mm Hg). The cat recovered well, and clinical signs resolved. This is the first description of a pulmonary valve stenosis and management with balloon valvuloplasty in a wild felid. PMID:21370661

Chai, Norin; Behr, Luc; Chetboul, Valérie; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Wedlarski, Rudy; Tréhiou-Sechi, Emilie; Gouni, Vassiliki; Misbach, Charlotte; Petit, Amandine M P; Bourgeois, Aude; Hazan, Thierry; Borenstein, Nicolas

2010-12-01

281

Aquatic Toxicology 150 (2014) 3644 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive aquatic organism tested to date for Ni. We undertook a series, ion homeostasis, acid-base balance, and nickel uptake in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis Som Niyogia, , Kevin V. Brixb , Martin Grosellc a Department of Biology, University

Grosell, Martin

282

Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C; Miller, André N; Bridger, Joanna M

2014-01-01

283

Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C.; Miller, Andre N.; Bridger, Joanna M.

2014-01-01

284

Effects of the herbicide atrazine's metabolites on host snail mortality and production of trematode cercariae.  

PubMed

Environmental stressors have the potential to greatly impact the transmission of parasites with complex, multi-host life cycles such as those of trematodes. The commonly used herbicide atrazine has been shown to affect the susceptibility of second intermediate hosts (such as larval amphibians) to trematode infection, as well as the longevity and infectivity of the free-swimming cercariae, but not eggs or the free-swimming miracidia that infect the gastropod first intermediate hosts. However, we do not know if this pesticide influences the survival of infected snails or whether it affects cercariae production within, or emergence from, these hosts. In addition, previous studies of host-parasite dynamics have only examined the parent atrazine compound, not any of the long-lasting metabolites commonly present in water bodies. Here, we report that a concentration of 0.33 µg/L of an atrazine metabolite, desethyl atrazine, increased the mortality of freshwater gastropods ( Stagnicola elodes ) infected with a gymnocephalus type of cercaria but not that of uninfected snails or those harboring a mature or dormant infection of Echinoparyphium sp. In contrast, 2 wk of exposure to desethyl atrazine did not affect the emergence of gymnocephalus cercariae from snails, although a trend for a decrease in the emergence of Echinoparyphium sp. cercariae was observed. We suggest that simultaneous trematode infection and exposure to contaminants may represent a significant combined stress to gastropods, but this is likely parasite species-specific as well as dependent on whether cercariae are being actively produced. PMID:21554070

Koprivnikar, Janet; Walker, Patrick A

2011-10-01

285

Secondary flow velocity patterns in a pulmonary artery model with varying degrees of valvular pulmonic stenosis: pulsatile in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterize in detail the secondary flow velocity patterns in an in vitro model of a human (adult) pulmonary artery with varying degrees of valvular pulmonic stenosis. A two-dimensional laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) system was used to map the flow fields in the main (MPA), left (LPA), and right (RPA) branches of the pulmonary artery model. The study was conducted in the Georgia Tech right heart pulse duplicator system. A pair of counter-rotating secondary flows were observed in each daughter branch in which the fluid moved outwardly along the side walls and then circled back inwardly toward the center of the vessel. For the case of the "normal" valve, the two counter-rotating secondary flows were symmetric about the centerline. The strength of secondary flows in the RPA was much stronger than in the LPA. However, as the pulmonic valve became more stenotic, the two counter-rotating secondary flows in both the LPA and RPA were no longer symmetric. In addition, the strength of secondary flows in both daughter branches increased with increasing degree of valvular stenosis. The increment in the LPA was, however, greater than in the RPA. The study demonstrates the importance of analyzing complex biological flows from a three-dimensional viewpoint. PMID:2308309

Sung, H W; Yoganathan, A P

1990-02-01

286

The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China  

PubMed Central

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. PMID:23901377

Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

2013-01-01

287

EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata  

PubMed Central

The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

Yadav, Ram P.; Singh, Ajay

2014-01-01

288

EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

2014-09-01

289

The effect of dietary protein source on growth and carcass composition in juvenile Australian freshwater crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feed trial was conducted for 12 weeks on juvenile Australian freshwater crayfish (Cherax destructor) (mean weight (SE) 0.82 (0.02)g) maintained on five isoenergetic diets with a protein content of 30%. Diets differed in the primary source of protein used, with meat, snail, soybean, yabby, and zooplankton meals comprising the major protein ingredient, varying from 56–60% of total protein. Mean

Paul L. Jones; Sena S. De Silva; Brad D. Mitchell

1996-01-01

290

Introduction, distribution, spread, and impacts of exotic freshwater gastropods in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the patterns of distribution, vectors of introduction, and potential ecological impacts of freshwater exotic species\\u000a in Texas over the last 45 years. Currently, five species of exotic gastropods are established: channeled-type applesnail (Pomacea insularum), red-rim melania (Melanoides tuberculatus), quilted melania (Tarebia granifera), giant rams-horn snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and Chinese mysterysnail (Cipangopaludina\\u000a chinensis). In contrast to the northern part of

Alexander Y. Karatayev; Lyubov E. Burlakova; Vadim A. Karatayev; Dianna K. Padilla

2009-01-01

291

Host specificity of Austropeplea ollula (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) to miracidial infection with a human intestinal fluke Neodiplostomum seoulense (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) in Korea.  

PubMed

Three species of freshwater pulmonate snails of Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula, and Fossaria truncatula. Of these 3 species, only A. ollula was naturally infected with Neodiplostomum seoulense cercariae (prevalence, 0.3%). In experiments with the laboratory-reared snails, A. ollula was found to be susceptible to the N. seoulense miracidia (prevalence, 10%). This is the first report of A. ollula as the first molluscan intermediate host for N. seoulense in Korea. PMID:12099442

Chung, P R; Jung, Y; Park, Y K; Hwang, M G

2002-06-01

292

Phenotypic diversity, population structure and stress protein-based capacitoring in populations of Xeropicta derbentina, a heat-tolerant land snail species.  

PubMed

The shell colour of many pulmonate land snail species is highly diverse. Besides a genetic basis, environmentally triggered epigenetic mechanisms including stress proteins as evolutionary capacitors are thought to influence such phenotypic diversity. In this study, we investigated the relationship of stress protein (Hsp70) levels with temperature stress tolerance, population structure and phenotypic diversity within and among different populations of a xerophilic Mediterranean snail species (Xeropicta derbentina). Hsp70 levels varied considerably among populations, and were significantly associated with shell colour diversity: individuals in populations exhibiting low diversity expressed higher Hsp70 levels both constitutively and under heat stress than those of phenotypically diverse populations. In contrast, population structure (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) did not correlate with phenotypic diversity. However, genetic parameters (both within and among population differences) were able to explain variation in Hsp70 induction at elevated but non-pathologic temperatures. Our observation that (1) population structure had a high explanatory potential for Hsp70 induction and that (2) Hsp70 levels, in turn, correlated with phenotypic diversity while (3) population structure and phenotypic diversity failed to correlate provides empirical evidence for Hsp70 to act as a mediator between genotypic variation and phenotype and thus for chaperone-driven evolutionary capacitance in natural populations. PMID:24609822

Di Lellis, Maddalena A; Sereda, Sergej; Geißler, Anna; Picot, Adrien; Arnold, Petra; Lang, Stefanie; Troschinski, Sandra; Dieterich, Andreas; Hauffe, Torsten; Capowiez, Yvan; Mazzia, Christophe; Knigge, Thomas; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Krais, Stefanie; Wilke, Thomas; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

2014-11-01

293

Testosterone levels and fecundity in the hermaphroditic aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to testosterone and endocrine disruptors.  

PubMed

Endocrine disruptors are known to alter endogenous free and esterified levels of androgenic and estrogenic steroid hormones in aquatic mollusks. The origin of steroids in these animals, however, remains controversial. In the present study, free and esterified testosterone concentrations were measured in the hermaphroditic aquatic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to molecules known for their androgenic (testosterone and tributyltin), anti-androgenic (cyproterone-acetate), and estrogenic (chlordecone) properties, by reference to their mode of action in vertebrates. In parallel, snail oviposition and fecundity were followed over a 21-d exposure period. Testosterone exposure resulted in increased esterified testosterone levels, whereas free testosterone concentrations remained stable. In contrast, cyproterone-acetate significantly increased the free form of testosterone with no changes in the esterified form, whereas chlordecone showed a tendency to reduce (though not significantly) esterified testosterone concentrations without changing free testosterone levels. Finally, tributyltin did not alter testosterone homeostasis. The production of egg clutches and eggs was significantly reduced only in the snails exposed to the highest concentrations of chlordecone (19.6?µg/L) and tributyltin (94.2?ng Sn/L). Overall, the present study demonstrates that uptake of testosterone from the exposure medium occurs in L. stagnalis. Moreover, it shows that cyproterone-acetate and, to a lesser extent, chlordecone can alter endogenous testosterone levels in this freshwater snail. However, the relationship between hormonal changes and snail reproduction has not been established. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1740-1745. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23564527

Giusti, Arnaud; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Lagadic, Laurent

2013-08-01

294

Bioaccumulation and effects of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the deposit-feeding snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  

PubMed

Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most widely used engineered NPs and are thus likely to end up in the environment, predominantly in sediments. Copper oxide NPs have been found to be toxic to a variety of (mainly pelagic) organisms, but to differing degrees. In the present study, the influence of CuO NP shape on bioavailability and toxicity in the sediment-dwelling freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum was examined. In 2 separate studies, snails were exposed to either clean sediment or sediment spiked with either aqueous Cu or CuO NPs of different shapes (rods, spheres, or platelets) at 240?µg Cu/g dry weight of sediment (nominal). In neither of the studies was survival found to be related to Cu form (i.e., free ion vs particle) or shape, whereas snail growth was severely influenced by both form and shape. Reproduction was affected (by CuO NP spheres and aqueous Cu) only when estimated as the total number (live plus dead) of juveniles produced per snail per week. Both the aqueous and particulate forms of Cu were available for uptake by snails when mixed into sediment. However, Cu body burden was not directly related to observed effects. The present study stresses the need for both a better understanding of uptake mechanisms and internal distribution pathways of NPs and an assessment of long-term consequences of NP exposure. PMID:24862446

Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Banta, Gary; Misra, Superb K; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

2014-09-01

295

Snail1 Expression Is Required for Sarcomagenesis12  

PubMed Central

Snail1 transcriptional repressor is a major inducer of epithelial-to mesenchymal transition but is very limitedly expressed in adult animals. We have previously demonstrated that Snail1 is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), preventing their premature differentiation. Now, we show that Snail1 controls the tumorigenic properties of mesenchymal cells. Increased Snail1 expression provides tumorigenic capabilities to fibroblastic cells; on the contrary, Snail1 depletion decreases tumor growth. Genetic depletion of Snail1 in MSCs that are deficient in p53 tumor suppressor downregulates MSC markers and prevents the capability of these cells to originate sarcomas in immunodeficient SCID mice. Notably, an analysis of human sarcomas shows that, contrarily to epithelial tumors, these neoplasms display high Snail1 expression. This is particularly clear for undifferentiated tumors, which are associated with poor outcome. Together, our results indicate a role for Snail1 in the generation of sarcomas. PMID:24947186

Alba-Castellon, Lorena; Batlle, Raquel; Franci, Clara; Fernandez-Acenero, Maria J.; Mazzolini, Rocco; Pena, Raul; Loubat, Jordina; Alameda, Francesc; Rodriguez, Rufo; Curto, Josue; Albanell, Joan; Munoz, Alberto; Bonilla, Felix; Ignacio Casal, J.; Rojo, Federico; Garcia de Herreros, Antonio

2014-01-01

296

Exposure of the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to herbicide boosts output and survival of parasite infective stages.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants can modulate levels of parasitic infections in aquatic animals by suppressing host immunity or through some other mechanisms. One such mechanism could involve increases in either the quantity or quality of infective stages produced by parasites. We investigated the effect of exposure of infected snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, to different concentrations of the widely-used herbicide glyphosate, on (i) the production of infective cercariae by three trematode species, Coitocaecum parvum, Apatemon sp. and an undescribed renicolid, and (ii) the survival of cercariae of the latter species. For all three trematode species, infected snails exposed over a month to low (0.36 mg a.i. L(-1)) or medium (3.6 mg a.i. L(-1)) formulated glyphosate concentrations released between 1.5 and 3 times more cercariae per day than snails under control conditions. The similar pattern seen in all trematodes suggests a general weakening of the host benefiting any of its parasites rather than some parasite species-specific mechanism. In addition, the survival of renicolid cercariae improved with increasing glyphosate concentrations, with cercariae living about 50% longer in the medium concentration (3.6 mg a.i. L(-1)) than in control conditions. Our results demonstrate a clear interaction between glyphosate pollution and parasitism by trematodes in freshwater systems, occurring at glyphosate concentrations recorded in aquatic habitats, and within the environmental exposure limit allowed in New Zealand freshwaters. Future risk assessments and toxicity tests need to consider indirect impacts resulting from infections to invertebrate and vertebrate species penetrated by cercariae and serving as second intermediate hosts of trematodes. PMID:24533309

Hock, Sabrina D; Poulin, Robert

2012-12-01

297

BIODIVERSITY Conservation biogeography of freshwater  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Conservation biogeography of freshwater fishes: recent progress and future implications of their distributions are far reaching (Darwin, 1839; Wallace, 1876). Freshwater fishes exemplify. These factors underlie an interesting observation: at regional to global scales, most freshwater fishes occupy

GarcĂ­a-Berthou, Emili

298

Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of the chiton Chiton iatricus (Polyplacophora: Mollusca) and the marine pulmonate Onchidium verruculatum (Gastropoda: Mollusca) in relation to their reproductive cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of two molluses, gonochoric Chiton iatricus and a marine pulmonate, Ochnidium verruculatum inhabiting the same tropical area, but having different modes of reproduction, were studied. Protein is the major biochemical component stored in C. iatricus, whereas lipid is predominantly stored in O. verruculatum. The correlation between these quantifications and the annual reproductive cycles of

U. D. Deshpande; R. Nagabhushanam

1983-01-01

299

Induced chemical defenses in a freshwater macrophyte suppress herbivore fitness and the growth of associated microbes.  

PubMed

The freshwater macrophyte Cabomba caroliniana induces a chemical defense when attacked by either the crayfish Procambrus clarkii or the snail Pomacea canaliculata. Induction by either consumer lowers the palatability of the plant to both consumers. When offered food ad libitum, snails feeding on non-induced C. caroliniana grew 2.6-2.7 times more than those feeding on induced C. caroliniana. Because snails fed less on induced plants, this could be a behavioral effect (reduced feeding), a physiological effect of the induced metabolites on the consumer, or both. To assess these possibilities, we made artificial diets with lipid extracts of induced versus non-induced C. caroliniana and restricted control snails to consuming only as much as treatment snails consumed. Growth measured as shell diameter was significantly lower on the diet containing extract from induced, as opposed to non-induced, plants; change in snail mass was more variable and showed a similar, but non-significant, trend. Thus, snails may reduce feeding on induced plants to avoid suppression of fitness. The induced defenses also suppressed growth of co-occurring microbes that might attack the plant through herbivore-generated feeding scars. When two bacteria and three fungi isolated from C. caroliniana surfaces were cultured with the lipid extract from induced and non-induced C. caroliniana, both extracts inhibited the microbes, but the induced extract was more potent against three of the five potential pathogens. Thus, induced plant defenses can act against both direct consumers and microbes that might invade the plant indirectly through herbivore-generated wounds. PMID:20927537

Morrison, Wendy E; Hay, Mark E

2011-02-01

300

Snail–periphyton interactions in a prairie lacustrine wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of nutrients and macrophytes on snail grazers and periphyton in a prairie wetland food web. Snails (Gyraulus circumstriatus) and periphyton in large enclosures in a lacustrine wetland, Delta Marsh, MB, Canada were subjected to two experimental treatments, nutrient addition (nitrogen, phosphorus) and macrophyte exclusion (using a porous geotextile carpet) during July and August. Snail biomass

B. J. Hann; C. J. Mundy; L. G. Goldsborough

2001-01-01

301

Snail-periphyton interactions in a prairie lacustrine wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of nutrients and macrophytes on snail grazers and periphyton in a prairie wetland food web. Snails (Gyraulus circumstriatus) and periphyton in large enclosures in a lacustrine wetland, Delta Marsh, MB, Canada were subjected to two experimental treatments, nutrient addition (nitrogen, phosphorus) and macrophyte exclusion (using a porous geotextile carpet) during July and August. Snail biomass

B. J. Hann; C. J. Mundy; L. G. Goldsborough

2001-01-01

302

Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

1997-09-01

303

Biodiversity of freshwater fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 600 species of freshwater fungi with more known from temperate, as compared to tropical regions. These includeca 340 ascomycetes, 300 deuteromycetes, and a number of lower fungi which are not discussed here.Aniptodera, Annulatascus, Massarina, Ophioceras andPseudohalonectria are common freshwater ascomycetes, which appear to be well adapted for this lifestyle either in their ascospore types or their

T K Goh; K D Hyde

1996-01-01

304

Epigenetic Regulation of EMT: The Snail Story  

PubMed Central

While the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role during development, its deregulation can adversely promote tumor metastasis. The phenotypic and cellular plasticity of EMT indicates that it is subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, we try to embrace recent findings on the mechanisms of the transcription factor Snail-mediated E-cadherin silencing, which is a hallmark of EMT. Our studies as well as those of others have clearly demonstrated that Snail can recruit multiple chromatin enzymes including LSD1, HDAC1/2, PRC2, G9a and Suv39H1 to the E-cadherin promoter. These enzymes function in a highly orchestrated fashion to generate heterochromatin and promote DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-mediated DNA methylation at the promoter region. Disruption of the connection between Snail and these chromatin-modifying enzymes may represent an efficient strategy for the treatment of EMT-related diseases. PMID:23888971

Lin, Yiwei; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P.

2014-01-01

305

Production and Characterization of Ehrlichia risticii, the Agent of Potomac Horse Fever, from Snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) in Aquarium Culture and Genetic Comparison to Equine Strains  

PubMed Central

We report on the production and characterization of Ehrlichia risticii, the agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF), from snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) maintained in aquarium culture and compare it genetically to equine strains. Snails were collected from stream waters on a pasture in Siskiyou County, Calif., where PHF is enzootic and were maintained for several weeks in freshwater aquaria in the laboratory. Upon exposure to temperatures above 22°C the snails released trematode cercariae tentatively identified as virgulate cercariae. Fragments of three different genes (genes for 16S rRNA, the groESL heat shock operon, and the 51-kDa major antigen) were amplified from cercaria lysates by PCR and sequenced. Genetic information was also obtained from E. risticii strains from horses with PHF. The PCR positivity of snail secretions was associated with the presence of trematode cercariae. Sequence analysis of the three genes indicated that the source organism closely resembled E. risticii, and the sequences of all three genes were virtually identical to those of the genes of an equine E. risticii strain from a property near the snail collection site. Phylogenetic analyses of the three genes indicated the presence of geographical E. risticii strain clusters. PMID:9620368

Reubel, Gerhard H.; Barlough, Jeffrey E.; Madigan, John E.

1998-01-01

306

A comparative study on neurosecretion demonstrated by the alcian blue-alcian yellow technique in three terrestrial pulmonates (Stylommatophora).  

PubMed

Neurosecretion was studied in the central ganglia of three terrestrial pulmonates (Deroceras reticulatum, Arion hortensis, and Helix aspersa) with the alcian blue-alcian yellow (AB/AY) staining method. A number of neurosecretory cell types were distinguished in all three species (D. reticulatum: 9, A. hortensis: 11, H. aspersa: 13) With AB/AY the cells stain different shades of green and yellow. The histochemical differences reflect ultrastructural differences: the cell types contain elementary granules of different size and appearance. Some cell types form distinct groups of up to 50 cells, while others occur in smaller groups or as single cells. Neurosecretory axons could only be traced in a few cases to the probable neurohaemal areas. Based on the following criteria: (1) staining properties of cells (2) size of cells, (3) position of cells in the ganglia, it appears that the neurosecretory systems of the three species show great similarity, although some differences are apparent. PMID:6157474

Wijdenes, J; van Minnen, J; Boer, H H

1980-01-01

307

Long-term effects of ammonia on the behavioral activity of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).  

PubMed

An appropriate approach to assess the effect of toxicants on aquatic animals is to monitor behavioral endpoints, as they are a link between physiological and ecological processes. A group that can be exposed long-term to low toxic concentrations is benthic macroinvertebrates, as their mobility in aquatic ecosystems is relatively limited. Therefore, the study of behavioral long-term effects in this group is suitable from an ecological point of view, as behavioral effects can appear before mortality. During the last decades there has been an increase in ammonia concentrations in freshwater ecosystems, threatening aquatic animals. The present study focuses on the long-term effects (40 days) of nonionized ammonia on the behavioral activity of the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. One control and three ammonia concentrations (0.02, 0.07, and 0.13 mg N-NH(3)/L) were used in triplicate, and the activity of snails (as mean time to start normal movement) and immobility were recorded for each treatment after 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of continuous exposure to nonionized ammonia. The results show that P. antipodarum presented a high tolerance to lethal long-term effects of nonionized ammonia, as no animal died during the bioassay. However, the behavioral activity of snails was a very sensitivity endpoint, as a mean nonionized ammonia concentration of 0.07 mg N-NH(3)/L affected P. antipodarum. The results are discussed and compared with the available literature on long-term effects of ammonia on freshwater macroinvertebrates. Additionally, the ammonia water quality criteria, NOECs, LOECs, and long-term LCs are discussed on the basis of the current available data for freshwater macroinvertebrates. PMID:19039513

Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2009-05-01

308

Novel pharmacological targets from Indian cone snails.  

PubMed

The oceans are a source of combinatorial library of unique natural products, 'not found in the terrestrial environment'. Marine invertebrates such as sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, tunicates (Urochordata) and their associated microorganisms are the major representatives of promising bioactive compounds. Among these, the predatory molluscan cone snails have evolved with highly structured small and complex array of peptides (more than 50,000) linked to their prey capture and defence. These peptides have become a valuable source of neuro pharmacological targets as many of them selectively modulate ion channels and transporters. A group of scientists from United States, Europe, Australia, Israel and China have been characterized drugs for neuropathic pain and pharmacological targets from the peptides of a few cone snail species. Several are now in Clinical and preclinical development. Less than 1% of the cono peptides are pharmacologically characterized. India has a diversity of 20-30% of total cone snail species distributed worldwide. A group of Indian Scientists have made promising drug discovery programs from Conus peptides. This review will focus on the Conus peptides from Indian cone snails species, their neuro pharmacological targets and future directions. PMID:21222583

Ramasamy, M Santhana; Manikandan, S

2011-02-01

309

Mate desertion in the snail kite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

1988-01-01

310

Transatlantic Freshwater Aqueduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a technical and geopolitical reappraisal of a macro-engineering proposal to plumb Earth’s freshwater, siphoning\\u000a some of it from a region of surplus (Amazon River Basin) to a region of shortage (arid northern Africa) via his positively buoyant (subsurface floating) seabed-anchored Transatlantic Freshwater Aqueduct. Two different routes for\\u000a the pipeline, of length 4,317 and 3,745 km, respectively, have been

Viorel Badescu; Dragos Isvoranu; Richard B. Cathcart

2010-01-01

311

Effects of Stream Chemistry on the Distribution, Growth, and Diatom Colonization of the Freshwater Limpet, Ferrissia rivularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater limpet, Ferrisla rivularis, was found in several watersheds in south-central and south-western Pennsylvania. Shell size was not significantly correlated with stream pH, calcium, iron, or manganese concentrations. Limpets tolerated stream iron concentrations up to 0.36 mg\\/l and manganese concentrations up to 0.25 mg\\/l. The shells of these snails were quickly and heavily colonized by adherent or embedded diatoms,

S. T. Keating; R. S. Prezant

1998-01-01

312

In situ cage experiments with Potamopyrgus antipodarum—A novel tool for real life exposure assessment in freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ experiments are an important tool within ecotoxicological research but there is a lack of suitable methodologies especially for freshwater invertebrate species. Within this study, a novel in situ methodology with Potamopyrgus antipodarum was developed. Snails were inserted into cages, made of Plexiglas measuring 7×9×7cm3 and fixed with stainless steel pins into the sediment at the relevant sampling sites.

Claudia Schmitt; Christian Vogt; Bram Van Ballaer; Rikke Brix; Annelies Suetens; Mechthild Schmitt-Jansen; Eric de Deckere

2010-01-01

313

Biogeography: molecular trails from hitch-hiking snails.  

PubMed

Darwin was fascinated by the transportation of land snails across great swathes of open ocean by birds--he even immersed snails in sea water to see how long they would survive. Here we follow a molecular phylogenetic trail that reveals the incredible transequatorial dispersal of the land snail Balea from Europe to the Azores and the Tristan da Cunha islands, and back again. This long-distance dispersal is unexpected for what are proverbially considered the most pedestrian of creatures. PMID:16437103

Gittenberger, Edmund; Groenenberg, Dick S J; Kokshoorn, Bas; Preece, Richard C

2006-01-26

314

Bisphenol A Induces Superfeminization in the Ramshorn Snail (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 ?g/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27°C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20°C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20°C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions. PMID:16818258

Oehlmann, Jorg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

2006-01-01

315

Author's personal copy Exposure of the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to herbicide  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Exposure of the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to herbicide boosts output investigated the effect of exposure of infected snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, to different concentrations

Poulin, Robert

316

DNA strand breaks detected in embryos of the adult snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and in neonates exposed to genotoxic chemicals.  

PubMed

We tested the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which is a species that has already been used for endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) to determine whether early life stages of aquatic organisms are sensitive to genotoxic chemicals. For this purpose, we first developed the alkaline comet assay on adults, embryos, and neonates. The comet assay protocol was validated on both embryonic cells exposed in vitro to hydrogen peroxide and adult snails in the reproducing stage exposed to methyl methane sulfonate. During the latter experiment, DNA strand breaks were investigated on both embryonic cells and on adult gill cells. The second part of this study investigated the stability of DNA strand breaks in adult reproducing snails and neonates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and bisphenol A for 8 days. Hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA strand breaks in vitro in isolated embryonic cells. Exposure of adult reproducing snails to methyl methane sulfonate for 24h induced DNA strand breaks in embryos. Bisphenol A induced a significant increase in the DNA strand-break level in whole embryonic cells and whole neonate cells. Cd was genotoxic for both embryos and neonates during the exposure time and also after 7 days of depuration, suggesting that Cd could inhibit DNA repair enzymes. These preliminary results on this original model have encouraged us to consider the impact of genotoxic environmental contaminants on the F1 generation. PMID:22717255

Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Revel, Messika; Garric, Jeanne

2012-10-15

317

A simple method for culturing neonatal Biomphalaria glabrata snails.  

PubMed

A simplified method for the culture of neonatal Biomphalaria glabrata snails on a diet of the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. has been developed. Previous studies reported using Nostoc sp. grown on a mud-based medium to feed neonatal snails; this medium is difficult to prepare and gives inconsistent growth between laboratories due to variations in the soil used in its preparation. Here, we report the use of Bg-11 medium supplemented with sodium nitrate for the culture of Nostoc sp. as a food source for neonatal B. glabrata snails. Bacteria grown in the medium may be maintained in continuous culture and used exclusively as the nutrient source for neonatal snails. Neonatal snails fed with these bacteria exhibit a growth rate of 1-2 mm per week and may be transferred to standard culture conditions after 2-3 wk. Survival of neonatal snails after 2 wk on the Nostoc sp. diet was 60-80%, while survival after switching to standard culture conditions approached 100%. Analysis of the growth rate and survival of neonatal snails maintained on Nostoc sp., as well as the growth rate, survival, and sexual maturation of the resulting juvenile snails, showed that snails maintained using this method are phenotypically comparable to those maintained under other standard laboratory conditions. PMID:21506830

Vasta, James D; Lesage, Karen E; Fried, Bernard

2011-08-01

318

Epiphragmin, the major protein of epiphragm mucus from the vineyard snail, Cernuella virgata.  

PubMed

The organic fraction of epiphragm mucus from the snail Cernuella virgata (Mollusca: Helicidae) consists predominantly of protein (17-23 dry wt.%) rather than carbohydrate (< or =0.4-2.0 dry wt.%), and the former underpins epiphragm membrane structure. The major protein ('epiphragmin') has an apparent molecular mass of approximately 86 kDa and is encoded by a cDNA (Genbank accession EF602752) which specifies a secreted protein of 81.2 kDa. The central region of the epiphragmin polypeptide is a coiled coil-forming region which is homologous to part of AglZ, a bacterial filament-forming protein. Coiled coil-driven self-assembly of epiphragmin probably underpins the formation of sheets in epiphragm membranes and the ability of epiphragm mucus to serve as an adhesive. The C-terminal region of epiphragmin is a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) that is homologous to the fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) found in the hemolymph of freshwater snails. The material properties of epiphragm membranes resemble those of bovine ligament elastin. Wooden lap-joints bonded by rehydrated epiphragm fragments developed dry shear strength values of 1.4+/- 0.1 MPa. PMID:17604201

Li, Dongmei; Graham, Lloyd D

2007-10-01

319

Fascioliasis of livestock and snail host for Fasciola in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia.  

PubMed

Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica was a serious problem for sheep and alpacas in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia. In some provinces close to Lake Titicaca, the raising of sheep was forced to discontinue, because infection with the fluke made it unprofitable and almost impossible. It was proved that in the Altiplano Region, two species of freshwater snails, Lymnaea viatrix and L. cubensis var., served as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica. In some subtropical areas of Bolivia, these snails could not be found, although other Lymnaea sp. was widely distributed there. As it is possible for Lymnaea sp. to be intermediate host for the fluke, further studies are required on the identification. Acute fascioliasis of sheep occurred in the Altiplano Region principally during a period from May to July, or the dry season. In some areas, the mortality rate of infected sheep was roughly estimated as 15 to 25% annually. Contamination with Fasciola metacercariae of herbage and semi-aquatic plants grown in a swamp in one of these areas was biologically assessed, using guinea pigs. Plants of Compositae and Eleocharis sp. were contaminated most intensely and those of Senicio sp. and Vallisneria sp. carried a fairly large number of cysts, while plants of Scirpus sp. and Ranunclaceae carried only a few cysts. No signs of Fasciola infection were observed in any animal given the plants of Liliaceae. PMID:1182037

Ueno, H; Arandia, R; Morales, G; Medina, G

1975-01-01

320

A monosynaptic connection between identified snail neurons.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological and morphological studies of a monosynaptic connection are performed on specimens of the isolated CNS of the snail Achatina fulica, using the standard techniques of intracellular leading-off and neuron stimulation and intracellular pressure injection of cobalt chloride. The presence of a monosynaptic connection between two identified neurons is demonstrated both in the physiological experiment and by means of the intracellular dye. PMID:2366937

Berezhnaya, L A; Balaban, P M

1990-01-01

321

How a single gene twists a snail.  

PubMed

The gastropod Lymnaea has unique features, that is, chirality, sinistrality, or dextrality, is displayed externally as well as internally, and is hereditary, being determined by a single-locus that functions maternally at the very early embryonic stage. Both sinistral and dextral snails exist in nature with the dextral one being dominant. Thus, the genus Lymnaea is an ideal target for studying chiromorphogenesis. This article gives a brief overview of the current state of research on chiromorphogenesis of Lymnaea (L.) stagnalis, mainly focusing on our own studies. Breeding experiments were performed and embryonic development was closely observed for the both chiralities. By fluorescently labeling filamentous actin and microtubules, cytoskeletal dynamics of spiral cleavages for the sinistral and dextral embryos were shown not to be mirror images of each other at the critical third-cleavage. The spiral deformation and spindle inclination were uniquely observed only in the dominant dextral embryos, and they were shown to be strongly linked to the gene determining the direction of chirality. Based on these findings, we created fertile snails of situs inversus by micromanipulation at the third-cleavage. Surprisingly, the arrangement of the blastomere regulates asymmetric expression of nodal-Pitx genes in later development. The expression patterns display interesting similarity and dissimilarity with those of the vertebrates. Thus, study of L. stagnalis has given an insight into "how a single gene twists a snail." PMID:24994072

Kuroda, Reiko

2014-10-01

322

Variation of snail's abundance in two water bodies harboring strains of Pseudosuccinea columella resistant and susceptible to Fasciola hepatica miracidial infection, in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba.  

PubMed

The abundance of freshwater snails in two rural sites of Pinar del Río, Cuba, which harbor Pseudosuccinea columella susceptible and resistant to miracidia of Fasciola hepatica was followed for one year. Susceptible snails were found in the most anthropic site (IPA) whereas the resistant population inhabited the most preserved one (El Azufre). Only two snail species coexisted with P. columella at IPA site (Physa cubensis and Tarebia granifera) while five species were found at El Azufre, including an endemic from that province (Hemisinus cubanianus). Populations of both resistant and susceptible snails showed stable densities throughout the year, although the susceptible strain attained higher abundance. The highest densities were observed in April-May 2004 for the susceptible population whereas the resistant strain attained its highest abundance in January 2004. No record of Fossaria cubensis was made and the thiarid T. granifera occurred only at low densities. One of the sampled sites (IPA) meets all the conditions for the first report of P. columella naturally infected with larvae of F. hepatica. PMID:16410958

Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Hernandez, Dagmar F; Sánchez, Jorge

2005-11-01

323

Biomes: Freshwater and Seawater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. Students conduct research by sampling organisms in a nearby freshwater habitat to determine how an organism's behavior and adaptation relate to its habitat, and how freshwater habitats have different characteristics depending on whether water is still or moving. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

324

Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

Rye, Robert P., Jr.; King, Everett Louis, Jr.

1976-01-01

325

Freshwater and Marine Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Freshwater and Marine Image Bank is an ongoing digital collection of images related to freshwater and marine topics, in all their diversity. It includes images of fish, shellfish, and marine mammals, pictures of fish hatcheries and dams and vessels, materials related to polar exploration, regional and traditional fisheries, and limnological (freshwater) subjects. Its scope is global.

Washington, University O.

2010-02-16

326

Barriers, repellents and antifeedants for slug and snail control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various products with potential for slug and snail control in horticulture and agriculture. The products tested were cinnamamide, copper ammonium carbonate, garlic, aluminium and copper foil, a mulch, ureaformaldehyde and the proprietary products SnailBan® and Tex-R® matting. The trials were carried out using the slug Deroceras panormitanum (Lessona and Pollonera,

I Schüder; G. Port; J. Bennison

2003-01-01

327

Vineyard snail Cernuella virgata Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Vineyard snail Cernuella virgata Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The vineyard snail

328

Snail silencing effectively suppresses tumour growth and invasiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor Snail has been recently proposed as an important mediator of tumour invasion because of its role in downregulation of E-cadherin and induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMT). This behaviour has led to the consideration of Snail as a potential therapeutic target to block tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence for this hypothesis. We show that silencing

D Olmeda; M Jordá; H Peinado; Á Fabra; A Cano

2007-01-01

329

DECOMPOSITION IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the sources and composition of organic matter and the decomposition of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM) in freshwater ecosystems. The main points to emerge from the review are listed below.1. Terrestrial plant material is an important source of allochthonous POM in lotlc systems.2. In lentic systems important autochthonous sources of DOM are the algae

R. D. Robarts

1986-01-01

330

Freshwater Marsh. Habitat Pac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans and student data sheets, and a poster. The overview describes how the freshwater marsh is an important natural resource for plant, animal, and human populations and how the destruction of marshes causes…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

331

Rare and endangered species: freshwater gastropods of southern New England  

SciTech Connect

The rare and endangered species of freshwater gastropods of southern New England are reported on based upon data collected over the past four years. Field sampling was concentrated in Connecticut but included parts of southern Massachusetts east to Cape Code (69 55 W to 73 45'W, 40 00'N). Water chemistry data were collected along with the snails. Collection methods and water analysis techniques have been described elsewhere by Jokinen (The Nautilus 92:156-160, 1978). Voucher specimens have been placed in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, The Florida State Museum, and the Museum of Zoology, the University of Michigan. Acid rain poses a threat to poorly buffered habitats. 6 references, 1 table.

Jokinen, E.H.; Pondick, J.

1981-01-01

332

Phenotypic plasticity of the introduced New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, compared to sympatric native snails.  

PubMed

Phenotypic plasticity is likely to be important in determining the invasive potential of a species, especially if invasive species show greater plasticity or tolerance compared to sympatric native species. Here in two separate experiments we compare reaction norms in response to two environmental variables of two clones of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, isolated from the United States, (one invasive and one not yet invasive) with those of two species of native snails that are sympatric with the invader, Fossaria bulimoides group and Physella gyrina group. We placed juvenile snails in environments with high and low conductivity (300 and 800 mS) in one experiment, and raised them at two different temperatures (16 °C and 22 °C) in a second experiment. Growth rate and mortality were measured over the course of 8 weeks. Mortality rates were higher in the native snails compared to P. antipodarum across all treatments, and variation in conductivity influenced mortality. In both experiments, reaction norms did not vary significantly between species. There was little evidence that the success of the introduced species is a result of greater phenotypic plasticity to these variables compared to the sympatric native species. PMID:24699685

Levri, Edward P; Krist, Amy C; Bilka, Rachel; Dybdahl, Mark F

2014-01-01

333

Implications of water hardness in ecotoxicological assessments for water quality regulatory purposes: a case study with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).  

PubMed

Water hardness is a property depending on the presence of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium and magnesium. Among the strategies for water quality monitoring, ecotoxicological assays are performed to minimize impacts and classify water bodies. For these laboratory evaluations parameters are previously defined in the guidelines, including water hardness for both cultivation and testing medium. The present work was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of water hardness on the survival and reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and discuss the influence of natural water hardness on the results of ecotoxicological tests with these environmental samples. Comparing the groups it was possible to observe that those maintained in waters with least hardness had lower reproductive success, while the groups maintained in highest hardness showed better reproduction. These data show that waters with low hardness make the reproduction of the snail B. glabrata unfeasible, and this reveal a problem for ecotoxicity assays using natural water samples. PMID:25055099

Oliveira-Filho, E C; Caixeta, N R; Simplício, N C S; Sousa, S R; Aragăo, T P; Muniz, D H F

2014-02-01

334

The Mitochondrial Genome of the Venomous Cone Snail Conus consors  

PubMed Central

Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription. PMID:23236512

Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stocklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

2012-01-01

335

A SNAIL'S SPACE SETS A SNAIL'S PACE: MOVEMENT RATES OF LAVIGERIA GASTROPODS IN LAKE TANGANYIKA, EAST AFRICA  

E-print Network

A SNAIL'S SPACE SETS A SNAIL'S PACE: MOVEMENT RATES OF LAVIGERIA GASTROPODS IN LAKE TANGANYIKA gastropods are diverse and common in the benthos of Lake Tanganyika. We used in situ studies of marked of three closely related species of gastropods in Lake Tanganyika. In addition to potential interspecific

McIntyre, Peter

336

To flee or not to flee? Risk assessment by a marine snail in multiple cue environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine snails have two predator avoidance strategies: withdrawing into the refuge of their shells and fleeing by crawling away. Here we exposed the marine snail, Nucella ostrina, to water-borne cues from injured prey and a common predatory crab, singly and in combination. We determined whether snails avoided cues from the different cue sources and quantified how long snails spent in

Megan E. Mach; Paul E. Bourdeau

337

Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally. An age structure and size of snail population are optimized on the base of individual growth and metabolic characteristics with the help of the second submodel "Population". In this simulation a daily amount of snail meat consumed by crewmembers is a guideline which specifies population productivity. Also, the daily amount of snail meat may have an optional value. Prescribed population characteristics are used in the third submodel "Mass balance" to equalize input and output mass flow rates of snail facility. In this submodel we add a water and ash to the organic masses of feed, meat, feces, shell and eggs. Moreover, masses of calcium carbonate and potable water are added to the left side of mass balance equations. Mass of calcium carbonate is distributed among shell, feces and eggs. Summarizing the twelve equations for each snail age, we get the mass balance equation for the snail facility. All simulations are performed by using Solver Add-In for Excel 2007.

Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

338

Freshwater Pollution and Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyĂÂs 2008 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org. This laboratory experiment teaches students the effects of pollutants on water quality and the impact it has on living organisms through fresh water quality testing of different environmental sources. Students should have some prior knowledge of the properties of water and a basic understanding of freshwater resources before beginning this activity. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to: know how pollutants affect freshwater sources, interpret the most efficient tests to perform on water samples based on where the water originates, and analyze the affects pollutants have on water quality.

Michael Griffin (Brogden Middle School)

2008-08-01

339

Acidification of freshwaters  

SciTech Connect

This volume gives an account that draws not only on the main branches of chemistry but also on soil physics, chemistry, hydrology, meteorology, geography, geology, plant physiology, soil microbiology and zoology. The author examine the numerous interacting physical, chemical, and biological, processes that regulate the acidity of freshwaters, a phenomenon that has various causes, including precipitation; acidifying pollutions; and the interaction of plants, soils and water. The relative importance of the different processes is examined.

Cresser, M.S.; Edwards, A.C.

1987-01-01

340

Freshwater wetlands and wildlife  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a product of the Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife symposium held in Charleston, South Carolina, on March 24--27, 1986 and contains 94 papers. The stimulus for the symposium came from our interest in augmenting the findings of the long-term research programs on freshwater wetlands and wildlife that have been carried out on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The symposium provided a forum on an international scale for the exchange of data about freshwater ecosystems: their functions, uses, and their future. The papers in this volume address issues related to natural, man-managed, and degraded ecosystems. The volume is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the functions and values of wetlands, including their use as habitat for plants and animals, their role in trophic dynamics, and their basic processes. The second section treats the subject of their status and management, including techniques for assessing their value, laws for protecting them, and plans for properly managing them. Individual papers will be indexed and entered separately on the energy data base.

Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W. (eds.)

1989-01-01

341

The Role of Snail in EMT and Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved process in which polarized, immotile epithelial cells lose adherent and tight junctions, and become migratory mesenchymal cells. As a key transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression in EMT, Snail plays an important role in embryonic development and cancer progression. Emerging evidences indicate that Snail confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell-like traits, and promotes drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. In this review, we summarize recent developments underlying the regulation and functions of Snail in tumor progression, and discuss new approaches against EMT in preventing metastatic cancers. PMID:24168186

Chai, Kequn; Ying, Xuhua; Zhou, Binhua P.

2014-01-01

342

Seasonal changes in cryoprotectants concentrations in Helix pomatia snails.  

PubMed

Terrestrial snails are often exposed to freezing. Therefore, we investigated seasonal shifts in hemolymph concentrations of cryoprotectants such as glycerol and glucose. We also investigated whether summer acclimation to cold and short-day photoperiod induced synthesis of cryoprotectants in Helix pomatia snails. Concentrations of the both cryoprotectants were elevated in winter and reduced in summer. These changes, however, were not correlated with shifts in liver glycogen content. Summer acclimation to cold (5 degrees C) and short-day photoperiod evoked a selective increase in glycerol concentration. In conclusion, glycerol may play a role in adaptation of the snails to winter cold and glucose is rather unlikely to provide the cryoprotection. PMID:17242476

Nowakowska, A; Caputa, M; Rogalska, J

2006-11-01

343

Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm Tubifex tubifex (Muller)  

SciTech Connect

Salts of various metals are being released in ever increasing amounts into the aquatic environment from mining operations, metal processing facilities, chemical industries and other similar sources. Although there has been considerable study of the acute and chronic toxicities of metals to freshwater fishes, crustaceans and snails, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Tubificid worms are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. It is suggested that tubificid worms are an important element in the aquatic environment and therefore their use as a bioassay organism is logical one. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of various metals to a fresh-water tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

Khangarot, B.S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-06-01

344

Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as ?47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate ?18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell ?18O to calculate snail body water ?18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water ?18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water ?18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.

Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.

2013-12-01

345

Toxic effect of two common Euphorbiales latices on the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous and serially purified latex extracts of plants Euphorbia pulcherima and Euphorbia hirta (family Euphorbiaceae) have potent molluscicidal activity. Sub-lethal doses (40 and 80% of LC50) of aqueous and partially purified latex extracts of both the plants also significantly alter the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) and the activity of enzyme

Sunil Kumar Singh; R. P Yadav; Digvijay Singh; Ajay Singh

2004-01-01

346

UNCORRECTED Resistance in introduced populations of a freshwater snail to native  

E-print Network

, Pullman, WA, USA Introduction Introduced species experience dramatic ecological chan- ges that should lead., 2002). Introduced species can be used to address these responses to the absence of co-evolved enemies of increased competitive ability hypothesis; host­parasite interactions; introduced species; resistance

347

High tolerance to abiotic stressors and invasion success of the slow growing freshwater snail, Melanoides tuberculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has been conducted to determine traits common to invasive species with the goal of predicting, preventing,\\u000a or managing invasions. The importance of physiological tolerance to abiotic stressors in the ability of invasive species to\\u000a establish and displace native species has been hypothesized to be important although there are few actual tests of the hypothesis\\u000a in the literature. In

Scott M. WeirChristopher; Christopher J. Salice

348

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

349

Encapsulation of foreign materials experimentally introduced into the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encapsulation of experimentally introduced material was studied in Lymnaea stagnalis. Abiotic (yvelon sponge) and biotic materials (autografts, allografts and xenografts) were implanted into the cephalopedal blood sinus.

T. Sminia; Elly Borghart-Reinders; A. W. van de Linde

1974-01-01

350

FISH 315 FRESHWATER FISHERIES TECHNIQUES MAYMESTER 2014  

E-print Network

FISH 315 FRESHWATER FISHERIES TECHNIQUES MAYMESTER 2014 Instructor Teaching Assistant Dr. Trent M, sample collection and handling, and data processing and analysis techniques for freshwater fishes understanding of basic principles and develop proficiency using techniques associated with freshwater fish

Sikes, Derek S.

351

Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail.  

PubMed

Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour. PMID:17327203

Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

2007-05-01

352

Astronomers Follow Distant Galaxy at a Snail's Pace  

NSF Publications Database

... Press Release 05-027Astronomers Follow Distant Galaxy at a Snail's Pace M33 tracked across the sky ... radio-optical composite of M33, the first galaxy to have its motion tracked across the sky.

353

Behavior of technetium in freshwater environments  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study, /sup 95m/Tc, as a pertechnetate, was released to a small, experimental, freshwater pond, and the concentrations were determined in biotic and abiotic components of the pond ecosystem. A simple mathematical model was developed to predict the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in fish and snails. Results from this study indicated that uptake through the food chain was an important source of technetium to the higher trophic levels (i.e., fish). In the current study, an experimental pond was spiked with /sup 95m/Tc in the pertechnetate form, and the concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were measured in the lower trophic levels. Emphasis was placed on measuring the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and the aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis. Fish were excluded from the pond to allow the development of a large zooplankton population. The concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in water decreased from 0.75 Bq/mL 1 h after the pond was spiked, to 0.21 Bq/mL at 20 d. Throughout the experiment, at least 98% of the /sup 95m/Tc in the water was in the dissolved fraction (0.4 ..mu..m). Zooplankton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, having concentration factors (Bq/g sample wet wt. divided by Bq/g water) ranging from 3 at 4 h to 36 at 20 d. Concentration factors ranged from 3 to 8 for benthic insects and from 1 to 62 for the aquatic macrophyte.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; DeAngelis, D.L.

1984-01-01

354

Reproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed to compare the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the range of 0?ng Sn/L to 600?ng Sn/L. Tests were performed on the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis, a freshwater snail in which effects of TPT were unknown. Survival, shell length, and reproduction were monitored in a 21-d semistatic test. Frequency of abnormal eggs was assessed as an additional endpoint. Triphenyltin hampered survival while TBT did not. Major effects on shell solidity and reproduction were observed for both compounds, reproductive outputs being more severely hampered by TBT than by TPT. Considering the frequency of abnormal eggs allowed increasing test sensitivity, because snail responses to TBT could be detected at concentrations as low as 19?ng Sn/L. However, the putative mode of action of the 2 compounds could not be deduced from the structure of the molecules or from the response of apical endpoints. Sensitivity of L. stagnalis to TBT and TPT was compared with the sensitivity of prosobranch mollusks with different habitats and different reproductive strategies. PMID:23450754

Giusti, Arnaud; Barsi, Alpar; Dugué, Maël; Collinet, Marc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Roig, Benoit; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

2013-07-01

355

Effects of Acid Water on Shells, Embryos, and Juvenile Survival of Planorbella trivolvis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): A Laboratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults of the freshwater pulmonate snail Planorbella trivolvis were maintained in aquaria at four pH levels of approximately 4.9, 5.9, 6.8 and 7.8. Adult mortality was moderate over 82 days (10–32%) and not related to the magnitude of pH reduction. Decrease in both shell calcium per unit tissue dry weight and shell calcium per unit maximum shell diameter were significantly

R. Douglas Hunter

1988-01-01

356

Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The database includes 150 water related treaties and 39 US compacts. The International Treaties and Compacts section is searchable by nation, basin, issues, conflict resolution mechanisms, non-water linkages, and date. US Compacts are searchable by state, basin, focus and date. For all treaties or compacts there is a summary of the agreement, the parties involved, allocations if applicable and other information pertinent to a specific agreement. There is also information available on indigenous approaches to water conflict resolution, a digitized inventory of the world's river basins with data about those basins, and a bibliography featuring publications about transboundary freshwater dispute resolution.

357

Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of lichen-grazing snails,Balea perversa, Chondria clienta, andHelicigona lapicida, all from the Swedish island of Öland, were found to sequester lichen compounds when feeding on the crustous lichen speciesAspicila calcarea, Caloplaca flavovirescens, Lecanora muralis, Physcia adscendens, Tephromela atra, andXanthoria parietina. The lichen compounds detected in the soft bodies of the snail species analyzed included the anthraquinone parietin, the depside

Sonja Hesbacher; Bruno Baur; Anette Baur; Peter Proksch

1995-01-01

358

The lipids of slugs and snails: Evolution, diet and biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable gap in current knowledge of the lipid composition of snails and slugs, both of which belong to the\\u000a phylum Mollusca. We have therefore analyzed the sterol and fatty acid compositions of three species of slugs and three species\\u000a of snails. The sterols of slugs included eight different sterols: cholesterol contributed 76–85% of the total sterols, brassicasterol

Ning Zhu; Xiaonan Dai; Don S. Lin; William E. Connor

1994-01-01

359

United Nations Environment Programme: Freshwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to information on equitable and sustainable management of freshwater resources around the world. Topics include water scarcity, irrigated agriculture, water and sanitation, water quality, groundwater, transboundary water management, water and ecosystems, floods and droughts, and urban water. There are also case studies, global assessments of freshwater resources, policy documents, and information on conferences and other events.

360

In situ cage experiments with Potamopyrgus antipodarum--a novel tool for real life exposure assessment in freshwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

In situ experiments are an important tool within ecotoxicological research but there is a lack of suitable methodologies especially for freshwater invertebrate species. Within this study, a novel in situ methodology with Potamopyrgus antipodarum was developed. Snails were inserted into cages, made of Plexiglas measuring 7 × 9 × 7 cm(3) and fixed with stainless steel pins into the sediment at the relevant sampling sites. During the experiment physico-chemical properties of the water and concentrations of metals, PAHs and PCBs were measured in the sediment. The growth and survival of the snails was not affected, but the reproduction increased significantly at one of the most polluted sites. The increase in reproduction was neither correlated with physico-chemical parameters, nor with the concentrations of the different compounds, but maybe related to certain groups of estrogenic compounds. The study demonstrates the excellent applicability of this novel in situ test. PMID:20674024

Schmitt, Claudia; Vogt, Christian; Van Ballaer, Bram; Brix, Rikke; Suetens, Annelies; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; de Deckere, Eric

2010-10-01

361

Heavy metal accumulation in sediment and freshwater fish in U.S. Arctic lakes  

SciTech Connect

Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]) were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated lakes in other Arctic regions and more temperate locations. For example, concentrations of Hg and Ni were 175 ng/g and 250 ng/g dry weight, respectively, in Feniak Lake surface sediment. If any anthropogenic enrichment has occurred, it is not distinguishable from background variability based on surface sediment to down core comparisons. With the exception of Hg, the site rank order of metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediment and freshwater fish tissue among lakes is not consistent. This suggests that a number of physical, chemical, and physiological parameters mediate metal bioavailability and uptake in these systems. Maximum concentrations of most metals in fish from this study are equal to or higher than those collected from remote Arctic lakes and rivers in Canada, Finland, and Russia. Muscle Hg concentrations in excess of 1 {micro}g/g wet weight were observed in lake trout from Feniak Lake, which has no identified Hg source other than naturally Hg-enriched sediments. Fish diet seems to influence some heavy metal burdens, as evidenced by the higher concentrations of some metals in lake trout compared to grayling, and differences among lakes for lake trout. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn burdens were higher in lakes where snails were consumed by trout compared to lakes without snails.

Allen-Gil, S.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; Gubala, C.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Landers, D.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.; Lasorsa, B.K.; Crecelius, E.A. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Div., Sequim, WA (United States); Curtis, L.R. [East Tennessee State Univ., Johnson City, TN (United States)

1997-04-01

362

Bisphenol A induces superfeminization in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis(Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at environmentally relevant concentrations.  

PubMed

Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 microg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27 degrees C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20 degrees C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20 degrees C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions. PMID:16818258

Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A

2006-04-01

363

Trematode fauna of prosobranch snails of the genus Semisulcospira in Lake Biwa and the connected drainage system.  

PubMed

The parasite fauna of prosobranch snails of the genus Semisulcospira was surveyed in Lake Biwa and the adjacent water system. One aspidogastrean and 28 digenetic trematode taxa were detected in 19209 snails consisting of 10 morphological species. There was no trematode species peculiar to members of the subgenus Biwamelania that is endemic to the Lake Biwa water system. However, one species, Notocotylus magniovatus, was found only in the non-endemic subgenus Semisulcospira. Of 23 digenean taxa detected in more than one host, 13 were distributed in both the lake and the tributaries. Seven of these had host taxa, more than 1% of which were infected with the parasite in both the lake and the tributaries, four had such hosts only in the tributaries, and two had no such hosts. Three species detected only in Lake Biwa were previously reported from other rivers in Japan. In the seven species detected only in the tributaries, two species had life cycles that could be maintained only in rivers. These results indicate that the core areas for the distribution of parasites of Semisulcospira are tributaries, and the lake is a sink for these species. These results contradict the expectation that the parasite fauna should be richer in the lake than in tributaries because the lake is a stable habitat over a geological time scale and has more divergent freshwater animals than the adjacent water system. PMID:12543144

Urabe, Misako

2003-03-01

364

Development of an embryo toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis using the model substance tributyltin and common solvents.  

PubMed

The development of a chronic mollusc toxicity test is a current work item on the agenda of the OECD. The freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is one of the candidate snail species for such a test. This paper presents a 21-day chronic toxicity test with L. stagnalis, focussing on embryonic development. Eggs were collected from freshly laid egg masses and exposed individually until hatching. The endpoints were hatching success and mean hatching time. Tributyltin (TBT), added as TBT-chloride, was chosen as model substance. The selected exposure concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 10 ?g TBT/L (all as nominal values) and induced the full range of responses. The embryos were sensitive to TBT (the NOEC for mean hatching time was 0.03 ?g TBT/L and the NOEC for hatching success was 0.1 ?g TBT/L). In addition, data on maximum limit concentrations of seven common solvents, recommended in OECD aquatic toxicity testing guidelines, are presented. Among the results, further findings as average embryonic growth and mean hatching time of control groups are provided. In conclusion, the test presented here could easily be standardised and is considered useful as a potential trigger to judge if further studies, e.g. a (partial) life-cycle study with molluscs, should be conducted. PMID:22846768

Bandow, Cornelia; Weltje, Lennart

2012-10-01

365

The geographic mosaic of sex and infection in lake populations of a New Zealand snail at multiple spatial scales.  

PubMed

Understanding how sexual and asexual forms of the same species coexist is a challenge for evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis predicts that sex is favored by parasite-mediated selection against common asexual genotypes, leading to the coexistence of sexual and asexual hosts. In a geographic mosaic, where the risk of infection varies in space, the theory also predicts that sexual reproduction would be positively correlated with disease prevalence. We tested this hypothesis in lake populations of a New Zealand freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, by comparing pairwise difference matrices for infection frequency and male frequency using partial Mantel tests. We conducted the test at three spatial scales: among lakes on the South Island, among depths within an intensively sampled lake (Lake Alexandrina), and within depths at Lake Alexandrina. We found that the difference in infection risk and the difference in the proportion of sexual snails were significantly and positively correlated at all spatial scales. Our results thus suggest that parasite-mediated selection contributes to the long-term coexistence of sexual and asexual individuals in coevolutionary hotspots, and that the "warmth" of hotspots can vary on small spatial scales. PMID:24021401

Vergara, Daniela; Lively, Curtis M; King, Kayla C; Jokela, Jukka

2013-10-01

366

Energy allocation patterns in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in response to cadmium exposure and Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of both parasitism and environmental stress on the growth, reproduction, and survival of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Resource allocation strategies may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. Using the planorbid snail B. alexandrina and Schistosoma mansoni, this hypothesis was examined by raising snails fed the same diet under two stressors (infection and Cd exposure). The snails divided into four groups, uninfected, infected, Cd-exposed uninfected, and Cd-exposed infected snails. Egg production, growth, and survival of the snails were monitored over a 9-week period postinfection. Inhibition of snail reproductive activity by parasitism results in increased snail growth in the first week postinfection, termed gigantism, during which the snail is hypothesized to allocate excess energy normally used for reproduction to somatic growth. Infection status and Cd exposure had significant effects on snail growth and reproduction. The infected and Cd-exposed infected snails exhibiting reduced survival relative to snails of other treatments. It was found that parasite development influenced by Cd exposure. Results of this study suggest that energy allocation patterns are context-dependent in B. alexandrina snails, influenced by infection and Cd exposure. PMID:16256110

Ibrahim, Mohamed Moussa

2006-01-01

367

Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity  

PubMed Central

Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13–42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This simple animal model offers the possibility to describe general subcellular mechanisms of nervous system's response to conditions on Earth and in space. PMID:21479267

Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

2011-01-01

368

INTRODUCTION Predator avoidance in aquatic snails is facilitated by surfacing and  

E-print Network

Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), exhibit emergence behavior to escape predation but when the predatory threat.010132 Fluid and osmolyte recovery in the common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis following full pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis sacrifices 40­

Grosell, Martin

369

The Decline of Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the risks that freshwater ecosystems face and how species nearby are affected by dams, dredging, and channelization of streams. It points out that even though freshwater ecosystems are limited in extent, covering about 1 percent of the Earth's surface, they are highly diverse and contain a disproportionally large number of the world's species. Statistics are given to illustrate the increase in waterways that have been altered for navigation. Some actions that are being taken to reduce threats to freshwater ecosystems are also mentioned.

1999-01-01

370

Differential regulation of Snail by hypoxia and hyperglycemia in human proximal tubule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centrality of the transcriptional regulator Snail in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), known to occur in models of diabetic nephropathy, has not been established. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF?1) is induced in diabetic nephropathy and induces both Snail and EMT. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are known to induce Snail, independent of TGF?1. Notch induction is integral to Snail induction and EMT

Siska Sumual; Sonia Saad; Owen Tang; Rachel Yong; Stella McGinn; Xin-Ming Chen; Carol A. Pollock

2010-01-01

371

Simultaneous multiple species testing: Acute toxicity of 13 chemicals to 12 diverse freshwater amphibian, fish, and invertebrate families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This test series developed methods for testing a compliment of aquatic organisms in a single test that satisfies the freshwater acute toxicity requirements for setting water quality criteria. Species tested included fathead minnowsPimephales promelas, rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri, bluegillLepomis macrochirus, channel catfishIctalurus punctatus, goldfishCarassius auratus, white suckerCatostomus commersoni, daphnidDaphnia magna, midgeTanytarsus dissimilis, crayfishOrconectes immunis, snailAplexa hypnorum, tadpoleXenopus laevis, and leechNephelopsis obscura.

Gary W. Holcombe; Gary L. Phipps; Abdul H. Sulaiman; Alex D. Hoffman

1987-01-01

372

Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.  

PubMed

Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence. PMID:19267648

Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

2008-12-01

373

Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present.  

PubMed

The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was "a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds", Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail "preparations" were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising. PMID:15841274

Bonnemain, Bruno

2005-03-01

374

Experimental analysis of diet specialization in the snail kite: the role of behavioral conservatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined factors maintaining extreme diet specialization in the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis), a medium-sized hawk which feed almost exclusively on Pomacea snails, by determining why during some months kites eat crabs (Dilocarcinus dentatus) in the Ilanos of Venezuela. We offered snails and crabs of different sizes to wild free-flying birds to develop estimates for a prey choice model. Handling

S. R. Beissinger; T. J. Donnay; R. Walton

1994-01-01

375

Lats2 kinase potentiates Snail1 activity by promoting nuclear retention upon phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Snail1 is a central regulator of epithelial cell adhesion and movement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during embryo development; a process reactivated during cancer metastasis. While induction of Snail1 transcription precedes EMT induction, post-translational regulation of Snail1 is also critical for determining Snail1's protein level, subcellular localization, and capacity to induce EMT. To identify novel post-translational regulators of Snail1, we developed a live cell, bioluminescence-based screen. From a human kinome RNAi screen, we have identified Lats2 kinase as a novel regulator of Snail1 protein level, subcellular localization, and thus, activity. We show that Lats2 interacts with Snail1 and directly phosphorylates Snail1 at residue T203. This occurs in the nucleus and serves to retain Snail1 in the nucleus thereby enhancing its stability. Lats2 was found to positively influence cellular EMT and tumour cell invasion, in a Snail1-dependent manner. Indeed during TGF?-induced EMT Lats2 is activated and Snail1 phosphorylated at T203. Analysis in mouse and zebrafish embryo development confirms that Lats2 acts as a positive modulator of Snail1 protein level and potentiates its in vivo EMT activity. PMID:21952048

Zhang, Kun; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Yabuta, Norikazu; Owen, Robert J; Mingot, Jose M; Nojima, Hiroshi; Nieto, M Angela; Longmore, Gregory D

2012-01-01

376

Differences between blood cells of juvenile and adult specimens of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood cells (amoebocytes) of juvenile and adult specimens of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were compared. Juvenile snails contain fewer circulating amoebocytes per µl haemolymph. However, a higher percentage of these cells shows mitotic activity, as determined by incorporation of 3H-thymidine in vitro. Relatively more amoebocytes of juvenile snails have the characteristics of less differentiated cells: they are small and

Ronald Dikkeboom; Wil P. W. Knaap; Elisabeth A. Meuleman; Taede Sminia

1984-01-01

377

The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and

Fouad Yousif; Georg Lämmler

1975-01-01

378

Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present  

PubMed Central

The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising. PMID:15841274

2005-01-01

379

Snail controls the mesenchymal phenotype and drives erlotinib resistance in Oral epithelial and HNSCC cells  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The presence of regional metastases in HNSCC patients is a common and adverse event associated with poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate HNSCC metastasis may enable identification of novel therapeutic targets. Our recent work on human HNSCC tissues underlies Snail’s role as a molecular prognostic marker for HNSCC. Snail positivity is significantly predictive of poorly differentiated, lymphovascular invasive, as well as regionally metastatic tumors. We recently reported the role of Snail in the inflammation-induced promotion of EMT in HNSCC. However, other important Snail-dependent malignant phenotypes have not been fully explored. Here, we investigate the capacity of Snail to drive EMT in human oral epithelial cell lines, and its ability to confer drug resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Snail was overexpressed HNSCC and oral epithelial cell lines. AIG assays, wound healing assays, invasion & migration assays, spheroid modeling, and cell survival assays were performed. RESULTS The overexpression of Snail in human HNSCC and oral epithelial cell lines drives EMT. The sole transfection of Snail confers the expression of a mesenchymal molecular signature including down-regulation of the epithelial adherens, such as E-cadherin and ?-catenin, and induction of mesenchymal markers, Snail overexpressing cell lines demonstrate rapid growth in Anchorage-independent growth assays; a decreased capacity to form tight spheroids; increased resistance to erlotinib; and have an increased capacity for invasion. CONCLUSION Snail controls the mesenchymal phenotype and drives erlotinib resistance in HNSCC cells. Snail may prove to be a useful marker in predicting EGFR inhibitor responsiveness. PMID:22568942

Dennis, Miranda; Wang, Guanyu; Luo, Jie; Lin, Yuan; Dohadwala, Mariam; Sidell, Douglas; DeConde, Adam; Abemayor, Elliot; Elashoff, David A.; Sharma, Sherven; Dubinett, Steven M.; St John, Maie A.

2014-01-01

380

Bioaccumulation and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in an experimental freshwater pond  

SciTech Connect

An acute release of /sup 95m/Tc was made to a small experimental freshwater pond to determine the behavior of technetium in a freshwater ecosystem. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of /sup 95m/Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 d. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that /sup 95m/Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated /sup 95m/Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dpm/g dry wt) 4 h after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated /sup 95m/Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating /sup 95m/Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 d, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 121 for snails. The estimated size of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the /sup 95m/Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the /sup 95m/Tc accumulated in the biota.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

1981-01-01

381

Building a better snail: Lubrication and adhesive locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many gastropods, such as slugs and snails, crawl via an unusual mechanism known as adhesive locomotion. We investigate this method of propulsion using two mathematical models: one for direct waves and one for retrograde waves. We then test the effectiveness of both proposed mechanisms by constructing two mechanical crawlers. Each crawler uses a different mechanical strategy to move on a thin layer of viscous fluid. The first uses a flexible flapping sheet to generate lubrication pressures in a Newtonian fluid, which in turn propel the mechanical snail. The second generates a wave of compression on a layer of Laponite, a non-Newtonian, finite-yield stress fluid with characteristics similar to those of snail mucus. This second design can climb smooth vertical walls and perform an inverted traverse.

Chan, Brian; Balmforth, N. J.; Hosoi, A. E.

2005-11-01

382

Interference with Fasciola hepatica snail finding by various aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Previous studies using radioactive miracidia have shown that a number of non-host snails and bivalves, interposed as 'decoys' in linear test channels, may interfere with the capacity of Fasciola hepatica miracidia to infect Lymnaea truncatula. Applying similar experimental principles, the role of several other potential interferents have been analysed in the present study. Daphnia pulex (Cladocera) and larvae of Corethra sp. (Diptera) exercised significant interfering effects by protecting 'target' snails from infection. Evidence suggested that this effect was a result of their normal predatory behaviour. Other organisms including Herpobdella testacea and Helobdella stagnalis (Hirudinea), Acellus aquaticus (Isopoda), Planaria lugubris (Turbellaria) and L. truncatula egg clusters failed to interfere with miracidial host-finding. Nor did P. lugubris and L. truncatula 'conditioned water' interfere with the capacity of the miracidia to infect their host snail. PMID:876683

Christensen, N O; Nansen, P; Frandsen, F

1977-06-01

383

Ontogenetic reaction norm for binary traits: the timing of phallus development in the snail Bulinus truncatus.  

PubMed

The ontogenetic trajectory of plastic binary traits may provide valuable insights into their evolutionary rate of change. In this paper, the timing of the plastic response of a temperature-dependent sexual polymorphism, aphally, is investigated in the freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus. Aphally is defined as the loss of the male copulatory organ in otherwise hermaphroditic animals. Individuals from two inbred lines were switched at various times during their early development between 25 and 30 degrees C, and their phally status ascertained, in order to evaluate the parameters characterising the ontogenetic reaction norm of aphally to temperature. A series of nested models including parameters for the onset, offset, and the intensity of the response to temperature were fitted to the data, allowing for a wide range of reaction norms. One genotype did not show any variation in aphally ratio with switching temperature, while a switch-point model (onset and offset corresponding to the same developmental point in time) best fitted the second genotype. The results suggest that the plasticity of aphally is expressed before eggs hatch. Their consequences on the evolution of aphally are discussed. More generally, the methodology proposed here can be used to analyse variation in ontogenetic parameters of discrete traits. PMID:11986869

Ostrowski, M-F; Jarne, P; Berticat, O; David, P

2002-05-01

384

Characterization of transcriptomes from sexual and asexual lineages of a New Zealand snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum).  

PubMed

Understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction is one of the central challenges of evolutionary biology, yet we know very little about how sex influences molecular evolution. The New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum is ideally suited to address this knowledge gap because obligately sexual individuals often coexist with multiple independently derived obligately asexual lineages. This unusual situation allows direct comparisons both between sexual and asexual P. antipodarum and across populations that differ in the relative frequency of sexual individuals. As such, P. antipodarum has received a great deal of attention as a model system for the maintenance of sex in nature and is also used as a model for environmental toxicology and biological invasions. Molecular genetic resources for P. antipodarum will thus be useful to investigators in a variety of biological fields. We used 454 sequencing of cDNA libraries to generate transcriptomes from two sexual and two asexual P. antipodarum lineages. A de novo assembly of 116.7 Mb of sequence reads produced 41 396 contigs, and sequence similarity-based Gene Ontology annotations were obtained for 3740 contigs. We detected 408 315 SNP loci and 7315 microsatellite loci, which together represent the first genome-scale resource available for P. antipodarum. Raw 454 read sequences, contig sequences, annotation data and polymorphism data are publicly available in a searchable online database and for download at http://www.biology.uiowa.edu/neiman/transcriptome.php. PMID:23280235

Wilton, Peter R; Sloan, Daniel B; Logsdon, John M; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Neiman, Maurine

2013-03-01

385

Sensitivity to phosphorus limitation increases with ploidy level in a New Zealand snail.  

PubMed

Evolutionary and ecological factors that explain natural variation in ploidy level remain poorly understood. One intriguing possibility is that nutrient costs associated with higher per-cell nucleic acid content could differentially influence the fitness of different ploidy levels. Here, we test this hypothesis by determining whether access to phosphorus (P), a main component of nucleic acids, differentially affects growth rate in asexual freshwater snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) that differ in ploidy. As expected if larger genomes generate higher dietary P requirements, tetraploid P. antipodarum experienced a more than twofold greater reduction in growth rate in low-P versus high-P conditions relative to triploids. Mirroring these results, tetraploid P. antipodarum also had a significant reduction in body P content under low P relative to high P, whereas triploid body P content was unaffected. Taken together, these results set the stage for the possibility that P availability could influence the distribution and relative frequency of P. antipodarum of different ploidy levels. These findings could be applicable to many other animal taxa featuring ploidy-level variation, which includes many mixed sexual/asexual taxa. PMID:23617926

Neiman, Maurine; Kay, Adam D; Krist, Amy C

2013-05-01

386

Prioritized phenotypic responses to combined predators in a marine snail.  

PubMed

Although many species face numerous predators in nature, the combined impact of multiple predators on the inducible defenses of prey has rarely been studied. Prey may respond with an intermediate phenotype that balances the risk from several sources or may simply respond to the most dangerous predator. I examined the separate and combined effects of the presence of shell-breaking (crabs, Cancer productus) and shell-entry (seastars, Pisaster ochraceus) predators fed conspecific snails on the defensive shell morphology and antipredator behavior of a marine snail (Nucella lamellosa). When exposed to each feeding predator separately, snails responded with a combination of morphological defenses that reflect the attack mode of the predator and a generalized behavioral response. Snails responded to feeding crabs by increasing refuge use and producing a thick, rotund shell. Snails responded to feeding seastars with increased refuge use but produced elongate shells with high spires that allowed for greater retraction of the soft tissue. Seastar-induced phenotypes reduced susceptibility to seastars relative to crab-induced phenotypes, but crab-induced phenotypes did not significantly reduce susceptibility to crabs, indicating an asymmetrical functional trade-off. When feeding predators were combined, snails produced a morphological phenotype similar to that expressed in the presence of the predator that imposed the highest mortality at the population level, suggesting that predator-induced morphology was prioritized according to predation risk. These results suggest that prioritizing conflicting defenses according to predator danger may be a common strategy for prey responding to combined predators, particularly in conjunction with generalized behavioral responses that reduce overall risk in multiple-predator environments. PMID:19569380

Bourdeau, Paul E

2009-06-01

387

Purification and characterization of an antibacterial factor from snail mucus.  

PubMed

The antibacterial factor from the body surface of the African giant snail, Achatina fulica Férussac, was isolated by DEAE-Toyopearl 650M ion exchange chromatography. The isolated preparation exhibited highly positive antibacterial activity both for the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and for the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but it lost such activity when heated at 75 degrees C for 5 min. The antibacterial factor of the snail mucus was a glycoprotein whose molecular weight (MW) was about 160,000. It was composed of two subunits of MW 70,000-80,000. PMID:2866907

Kubota, Y; Watanabe, Y; Otsuka, H; Tamiya, T; Tsuchiya, T; Matsumoto, J J

1985-01-01

388

The effect of ecological parameters on the distribution of snail vectors of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The infestation of the water courses showed 32.5% for Biomphalaria alexandrina and 8.75% for Bulinus truncatus. Ecological parameters, showed non significant variations in the water courses harbouring snail vectors and those free from snails except for conductivity in the habitats harbouring B. truncatus. This variation was more highly significant (p<0.001). Of the examined sites, 11.25% were harbouring B. alexandrina and Lymnaea natalenesis living together and 5% of the sites were harbouring B. truncatus and Physa acuta snails. Snail vectors were distributed with different degrees with aquatic plants reflecting the degree of species preference plants for snails' life. PMID:12557938

Kader, A A

2001-04-01

389

[Schistosomiasis mansoni and distribution of freshwater mollusks in natural bodies of water in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The authors report on the distribution of freshwater mollusks in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and notification of schistosomiasis cases in this municipality from 1995 to 2000. All breeding sites favorable to freshwater mollusks were surveyed, showing the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954), Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848), Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835), Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835), Lymnaea columella Say, 1817, Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839, Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828, and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Some 3,691 specimens of snail hosts for Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 were examined by exposure to artificial light and crushing. No S. mansoni cercariae were found, although other types of cercariae were observed. PMID:12244379

Medeiros, Almir de Souza; Cruz, Oswaldo José da; Fernandez, Monica Ammon

2002-01-01

390

Influence of snail feces and mucus on oviposition and larval behavior ofPherbellia cinerella (Diptera: Sciomyzidae).  

PubMed

Larvae of the sciomyzid flyPherbellia cinerella are voracious predators of terrestrial helicid snails. Eggs are deposited in areas where snails occur and larvae hunt actively for their prey. Snail feces and mucus were tested to determine if they had any kairomone or stimulatory effects onP. cinerella. Adult flies oviposited more frequently on substrates containing fresh snail feces than on substrates containing snail mucus or water (control). However, mucus and feces both stimulated increased search behaviour in first instar larvae. These results are discussed in relation to snail biology, and the potential for augmentation of these flies in areas affected by pest snails. PMID:24227402

Coupland, J B

1996-02-01

391

Nuclear ubiquitination by FBXL5 modulates Snail1 DNA binding and stability  

PubMed Central

The zinc finger transcription factor Snail1 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition, repressing epithelial markers and activating mesenchymal genes. Snail1 is an extremely labile protein degraded by the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-ligases ?-TrCP1/FBXW1 and Ppa/FBXL14. Using a short hairpin RNA screening, we have identified FBXL5 as a novel Snail1 ubiquitin ligase. FBXL5 is located in the nucleus where it interacts with Snail1 promoting its polyubiquitination and affecting Snail1 protein stability and function by impairing DNA binding. Snail1 downregulation by FBXL5 is prevented by Lats2, a protein kinase that phosphorylates Snail1 precluding its nuclear export but not its polyubiquitination. Actually, although polyubiquitination by FBXL5 takes place in the nucleus, Snail1 is degraded in the cytosol. Finally, FBXL5 is highly sensitive to stress conditions and is downregulated by iron depletion and ?-irradiation, explaining Snail1 stabilization in these conditions. These results characterize a novel nuclear ubiquitin ligase controlling Snail1 protein stability and provide the molecular basis for understanding how radiotherapy upregulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducer Snail1. PMID:24157836

Vinas-Castells, Rosa; Frias, Alex; Robles-Lanuza, Estefania; Zhang, Kun; Longmore, Gregory D.; Garcia de Herreros, Antonio; Diaz, Victor M.

2014-01-01

392

A protocol for geographically randomized snail surveys in schistosomiasis fieldwork using the global positioning system.  

PubMed

A protocol was created for performing geographically randomized snail surveys for schistosomiasis research using the global positioning system (GPS). This protocol differs from traditional surveys in its ability to accurately map and measure the spatial distribution of snail habitat. The protocol was used to map irrigation ditches, the primary habitat for Oncomelania hupensis, in two residence areas in Sichuan Province, China. From the 7,450 meters of mapped ditches, snail surveys were performed at 203 random sites along the ditch network. Of these, 116 (57.1%) sites had snails. The total number of living snails captured was 2,014, resulting in an average snail density of 0.27 snails per linear meter of potential habitat. PMID:11425171

Seto, E; Liang, S; Qiu, D; Gu, X; Spear, R C

2001-01-01

393

Functional regulation of Slug/Snail2 is dependent on GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Snail family proteins regulate transcription of molecules for cell-cell adhesion during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Based on putative glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) phosphorylation sites within the Slug/Snail2, we explored the significance of GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation in Slug/Snail2 expression during EMT. Mutation of the putative GSK-3? phosphorylation sites (S92/96A or S100/104A) enhanced the Slug/Snail2-mediated EMT properties of E-cadherin repression and vimentin induction, compared with wild-type Slug/Snail2. S92/96A mutation inhibited degradation of Slug/Snail2 and S100/104A mutation extended nuclear stabilization. Inhibition of GSK-3? activity caused similar effects, as did the phosphorylation mutations. Thus, our study suggests that GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation of Slug/Snail2 controls its turnover and localization during EMT. PMID:22727060

Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Young Mee; Yang, Chang Hee; Cho, Somi K; Lee, Jung Weon; Cho, Moonjae

2012-08-01

394

Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development  

PubMed Central

The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

2014-01-01

395

40 CFR 35.1605-3 - Publicly owned freshwater lake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Publicly owned freshwater lake. 35.1605-3 Section 35.1605-3...Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-3 Publicly owned freshwater lake. A freshwater lake that offers public...

2013-07-01

396

40 CFR 35.1605-3 - Publicly owned freshwater lake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Publicly owned freshwater lake. 35.1605-3 Section 35.1605-3...Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-3 Publicly owned freshwater lake. A freshwater lake that offers public...

2012-07-01

397

40 CFR 35.1605-3 - Publicly owned freshwater lake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Publicly owned freshwater lake. 35.1605-3 Section 35.1605-3...Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-3 Publicly owned freshwater lake. A freshwater lake that offers public...

2010-07-01

398

40 CFR 35.1605-3 - Publicly owned freshwater lake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Publicly owned freshwater lake. 35.1605-3 Section 35.1605-3...Protecting and Restoring Publicly Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-3 Publicly owned freshwater lake. A freshwater lake that offers public...

2011-07-01

399

Snail as a Potential Target Molecule in Cardiac Fibrosis: Paracrine Action of Endothelial Cells on Fibroblasts Through Snail and CTGF Axis  

PubMed Central

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to myocardium induces death of cardiomyocytes and destroys the vasculature, leading to cardiac fibrosis that is mainly mediated by the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the collagen deposition. Snail involvement in fibrosis is well known; however, the contribution of Snail to cardiac fibrosis during I/R injury and its underlying mechanisms have not been defined. We showed that I/R injury to mouse hearts significantly increases the expression of Snail. An in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (Hy/Reoxy) experiment showed that the cell source of Snail induction is endothelial cells rather than cardiac fibroblasts (cFibroblasts) or cardiomyoblasts. When Snail was overexpressed in endothelial cells, they underwent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) but showed very poor capacity for collagen synthesis. Instead, reoxygenation- or Snail overexpression-mediated EndMT-like cells noticeably stimulated transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts via secretion of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The injection of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, a selective Snail inhibitor, remarkably suppressed collagen deposition and cardiac fibrosis in mouse I/R injury, and significantly improved cardiac function and reduced Snail and CTGF expression in vivo. Our findings suggested a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication between EndMT-like cells and fibroblasts for fibrosis induction and implicated Snail as a potential target molecule in cardiac fibrosis after I/R injury. PMID:23760445

Lee, Sae-Won; Won, Joo-Yun; Kim, Woo Jean; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Youn, Seock-Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyo-Soo

2013-01-01

400

Silver bioaccumulation dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate after aqueous and dietary exposures to nanosized and ionic Ag.  

PubMed

We compared silver (Ag) bioavailability and toxicity to a freshwater gastropod after exposure to ionic silver (Ag(+)) and to Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) capped with citrate or with humic acid. Silver form, exposure route, and capping agent influence Ag bioaccumulation dynamics in Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails efficiently accumulated Ag from all forms after either aqueous or dietary exposure. For both exposure routes, uptake rates were faster for Ag(+) than for Ag NPs. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from Ag NPs mixed with diatoms (assimilation efficiency (AE) ranged from 49 to 58%) and from diatoms pre-exposed to Ag(+) (AE of 73%). In the diet, Ag NPs damaged digestion. Snails ate less and inefficiently processed the ingested food, which adversely impacted their growth. Loss rates of Ag were faster after waterborne exposure to Ag NPs than after exposure to dissolved Ag(+). Once Ag was taken up from diet, whether from Ag(+) or Ag NPs, Ag was lost extremely slowly. Large Ag body concentrations are thus expected in L. stagnalis after dietborne exposures, especially to citrate-capped Ag NPs. Ingestion of Ag associated with particulate materials appears as the most important vector of uptake. Nanosilver exposure from food might trigger important environmental risks. PMID:21667957

Croteau, Marie-Noële; Misra, Superb K; Luoma, Samuel N; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

2011-08-01

401

[The monosynaptic connection between identified neurons in the snail].  

PubMed

Monosynaptic connection between two identified neurones was investigated using electrophysiological and morphological methods in preparation of isolated nervous system of the snail Achatina fulica. Intracellular pressure injection of cobalt chloride was used for staining of neuronal branches. Electrophysiologically revealed synaptic connection between two giant neurones was identified to be monosynaptic by morphological methods. PMID:2473579

Berezhnaia, L A; Balaban, P M

1989-01-01

402

Sperm allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the idea that individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snailArianta arbustorumcan control the number of spermatozoa in their spermatophores, we investigated whether they differentially release sperm to virgin or nonvirgin partners with respect to the potential risk of sperm competition in a given mating. The number of sperm transferred ranged from 802620 to 3968800 (X= 2185100;N=91), but was

BRUNO BAUR; ROLF LOCHER; ANETTE BAUR

1998-01-01

403

Land Snail Ecology and Biogeography of Eastern Maine  

E-print Network

to the state fauna (Euconulus alderi, Punctum n.sp., Vertigo cristata, Vertigo malleata, Vertigo morseiLand Snail Ecology and Biogeography of Eastern Maine Vertigo bollesiana Vertigo nylanderi Vertigo in the state (Nesovitrea binneyana, Planogyra asteriscus, Striatura ferrea, Striatura milium, Vertigo

Nekola, Jeffrey C.

404

Carthusian snail Monacha cartusiana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Carthusian snail Monacha cartusiana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets as a prohibited mollusk species by Michigan's plant protection regulations (MDA 2009). Plant hosts A wide variety Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State

405

ORIGINAL PAPER Invasion and production of New Zealand mud snails  

E-print Network

: 30 January 2010 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Species invasions are often during 2006­2007 to gain a functional measure of their role in the ecosys- tem. Snails were first. antipodarum were moderate (0.001­0.030 day-1 ) and strongly related to body size. Mean annual habitat-weighted

Hall Jr., Robert O.

406

Snail Shells in a Practical Application of Statistical Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon a laboratory exercise designed for biology students in secondary schools or those taking introductory biology laboratory courses in colleges and universities. This exercise requires a set of calipers, a calculator and populations of snail shells collected either from the wild or obtained from a biological supply house. The…

Banks, Stephen W.; Shepherd, Deborah K.; Williams-Hart, Tara; Gossett, Dalton R.; Crnkovic, Amanda C.

2007-01-01

407

Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails.  

PubMed

Three species of lichen-grazing snails,Balea perversa, Chondria clienta, andHelicigona lapicida, all from the Swedish island of Öland, were found to sequester lichen compounds when feeding on the crustous lichen speciesAspicila calcarea, Caloplaca flavovirescens, Lecanora muralis, Physcia adscendens, Tephromela atra, andXanthoria parietina. The lichen compounds detected in the soft bodies of the snail species analyzed included the anthraquinone parietin, the depside atranorin, as well as a presumable degradation product of the latter. Other lichen compounds such as (+)-usnic acid or ?-collatolic acid were not found in the soft bodies but were only detected in the feces, suggesting selective uptake of lichen compounds by the snails. In individuals ofC. clienta initially fed on the lichenX. parietina, the amount of sequestered parietin decreased over time on a parietin-free diet but was still detectable in the soft bodies after 28 days. In the ovoviviparous land snail,B. perversa, sequestered parietin was transferred from the mother to the eggs in the reproductive tract. PMID:24234022

Hesbacher, S; Baur, B; Baur, A; Proksch, P

1995-02-01

408

A longitudinal study of schistosome vector snail populations in Liberia.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in populations of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus globosus were observed at 62 locations in Liberia, West Africa. All varieties of water in both urban and rural locations were sampled. A wet season decrease and dry season increase of B. globosus populations in both urban and rural locations, similar to that reported elsewhere in West Africa, was observed. Similar fluctuations of B. pfeifferi populations were noted. The prevalence of schistosome infected vector snails varied markedly between rural and urban locations. At rural sites parasite prevalence followed the appropriate vector snail prevalence. At urban sites a portion of the vector snail population appeared relatively unaffected by seasonal changes. This stable population harbors a reservoir of infected snails that sustain year round transmission. Human infection was sampled in school children in the study area and prevalence of approximately 50% was found for both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. Added to the malacologic information this suggests less than hyperendemic transmission. The data suggest that urban environments should receive priorities for control programs. PMID:572150

Sodeman, W A

1979-05-01

409

Fossil snail shells tell story about Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient and modern snail shells have given scientists a unique look at the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, confirming that parts of the plateau have actually lost elevation over time, despite its immense height. A new paper detailing the research was published on 29 August in the Geological Society of America Bulletin (doi:10.1130/B31000.1).

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

410

Shell colouration and parasite tolerance in two helicoid snail species.  

PubMed

The polymorphism of shell colouration in helicoid snails is a well-known phenomenon attributed to different factors such as predation and climatic effects. Another aspect contributing to this polymorphism could be the interplay of melanin production and phenoloxidase-related immunity. Therefore, in this study we aimed at answering the questions whether there is a differential sensitivity of different snail shell colour morphs to nematode infection, and whether this can be related to differences in phenoloxidase (PO) activity levels using the two helicoid, polymorphic snail species Cepaea hortensis and Cernuella virgata. Snails of both species were artificially infected with the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, and analysed for mortality and PO activity levels. We found C. virgata to be more severely affected by P. hermaphrodita infection than C. hortensis, and the dark C. virgata morphs to be more resistant to lethal effects of this infection than pale morphs. However, these differences in sensitivity to the parasite could not clearly be related to different PO activity levels. PMID:24480673

Scheil, Alexandra E; Hilsmann, Stefanie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

2014-03-01

411

Flying shells: historical dispersal of marine snails across Central America  

PubMed Central

The geological rise of the Central American Isthmus separated the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans about 3 Ma, creating a formidable barrier to dispersal for marine species. However, similar to Simpson's proposal that terrestrial species can ‘win sweepstakes routes’—whereby highly improbable dispersal events result in colonization across geographical barriers—marine species may also breach land barriers given enough time. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether intertidal marine snails have crossed Central America to successfully establish in new ocean basins. We used a mitochondrial DNA genetic comparison of sister snails (Cerithideopsis spp.) separated by the rise of the Isthmus. Genetic variation in these snails revealed evidence of at least two successful dispersal events between the Pacific and the Atlantic after the final closure of the Isthmus. A combination of ancestral area analyses and molecular dating techniques indicated that dispersal from the Pacific to the Atlantic occurred about 750 000 years ago and that dispersal in the opposite direction occurred about 72 000 years ago. The geographical distribution of haplotypes and published field evidence further suggest that migratory shorebirds transported the snails across Central America at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico. Migratory birds could disperse other intertidal invertebrates this way, suggesting the Central American Isthmus may not be as impassable for marine species as previously assumed. PMID:21920976

Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jacobs, David K.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

2012-01-01

412

DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN NOTASPID SNAILS: ACID HUMOR AND EVASIVENESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Notaspid snails are known for their defensive skin secretion of sulfuric acid (pH 1-2) in response to noxious stimuli. We observed acid secretion and behavior in five notaspid species, and studied them in detail in Pleurobranchaea californica. All species secreted acid in response to skin abrasion or compression. Moreover, all species showed stereotypic avoidance behavior to acidified sea water

RHANOR GILLETTE; MAYUKO SAEKI; RONG-CHI HUANG

1991-01-01

413

Freshwater Biology and Pollution Ecology: Training Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is designed to supplement lectures in aquatic biology and pollution ecology. Division is into two main sections, a survey of the freshwater biota and freshwater pollution ecology. The major subheadings include introduction to the biota and the...

R. M. Sinclair

1973-01-01

414

Freshwater Ecoregions of the World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed as a collaborative venture between the Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund, the Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (FEOW) site provides a dynamic visual representation of the Earth's freshwater biodiversity. Visitors to the site can find detailed information about 426 different freshwater systems from China to Chile. First-time users can click on the map of the world on the homepage, or they can also click on the "Highlights" area. Visitors with defined interests can also use the "Find an Ecoregion" section to perform a detailed search across the entire database of regions, and they can also browse by country, major habitat type, and major rivers. It's easy to see how this site would be a terrific resource for ecology students in high school or college.

415

Freshwater Ecology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freshwater ecosystems include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, and certain types of wetlands. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on freshwater ecology; the guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader or student "on target." Other literature guides related to freshwater

Niskern, Diana, Comp.

416

Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects  

E-print Network

Arctic Freshwater Export: Status, Mechanisms, and Prospects Thomas W. N. Hainea, , Beth Currye , R Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Abstract Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre

Haine, Thomas W. N.

417

The biogeography of lower Mesoamerican freshwater fishes  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The biogeography of lower Mesoamerican freshwater fishes Scott A. Smith1 in determining the patterns of distribution and diversity of lower Mesoamerican freshwater fishes. Location We/absence data of primary and secondary LMA freshwater fishes. We conducted subsequent analyses at the spatial

Bermingham, Eldredge

418

GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS  

E-print Network

Chapter 23 GLOBAL CHANGE AND TIDAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS: SCENARIOS AND IMPACTS Scott C. Neubauer Tidal Freshwater Wetlands, edited by Aat Barendregt, Dennis Whigham & Andrew Baldwin 2009, viii + 320pp Publishers GmbH This chapter was originally published in the book ,,Tidal Freshwater Wetlands". The copy

Neubauer, Scott C.

419

Extinction Rates of North American Freshwater Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1900, 123 freshwater animal species have been recorded as extinct in North America. Hun- dreds of additional species of fishes, mollusks, crayfishes, and amphibians are considered imperiled. Using an exponential decay model, we derived recent and future extinction rates for North American freshwater fauna that are five times higher than those for terrestrial fauna. Assuming that imperiled freshwater species

Anthony Ricciardi; Joseph B. Rasmussen

1999-01-01