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Sample records for freshwater pulmonate snail

  1. Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snails, Lymnaea luteolo L. , to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1988-08-01

    The current alarm of the impacts of metal pollution on living organisms has received much attention with the tragedy of Minimata and later Niigata, in Japan. Although there has been a great deal of the concern about the acute and chronic toxicities of heavy metals to freshwater fishes and crustaceans but little information is available on the effects of heavy metals to freshwater snails, which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of selected heavy metals to a freshwater pond snail Lymnaea luteolo Lamarck; a locally abundant species and play an important role in the aquatic food chain(s). Static bioassays were conducted with the salts of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc in hard water.

  2. Survival and Growth of Freshwater Pulmonate and Nonpulmonate Snails in 28-Day Exposures to Copper, Ammonia, and Pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Dorman, Rebecca A; Hardesty, Douglas L; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2016-02-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta, Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails. PMID:26747374

  3. Survival and growth of freshwater pulmonate and nonpulmonate snails in 28-day exposures to copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta,Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

  4. Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea luteola L., to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ali, Daoud; Yadav, Phool Gend; Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Huma; Alarifi, Saud; Harrath, Abdul Halim

    2014-06-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles depends on many factors including size, shape, chemical composition, surface area and surface charge. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are likely to enter the aquatic ecosystems because of their multiple applications and pose a health concern for humans and aquatic species. Therefore, we used a freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L (L. luteola) to investigate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs in a static-renewal system for 96 h. AgNPs caused molluscicidal activity in L. luteola, with 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50) (48.10 ?g L(-1)). We have observed that AgNPs (36 ?g L(-1)) elicited a significant (p<0.01) reduction in glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde level and catalase in digestive gland of L. luteola. However, a significant (p<0.01) induction in DNA damage was observed by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis in digestive gland cells treated with AgNPs for 24 and 96 h. These results demonstrate that silver nanoparticles are lethal to freshwater snail L. luteola. The oxidative stress biomarkers and comet assay can successfully be used as sensitive tools of aquatic pollution biomonitoring. PMID:24309155

  5. Chiral Speciation in Terrestrial Pulmonate Snails

    PubMed Central

    Gittenberger, Edmund; Hamann, Thomas D.; Asami, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of data in the literature, the percentages of dextral versus sinistral species of snails have been calculated for western Europe, Turkey, North America (north of Mexico), and Japan. When the family of Clausiliidae is represented, about a quarter of all snail species may be sinistral, whereas less than one per cent of the species may be sinistral where that family does not occur. The number of single-gene speciation events on the basis of chirality, resulting in the origin of mirror image species, is not closely linked to the percentage of sinistral versus dextral species in a particular region. Turkey is nevertheless exceptional by both a high percentage of sinistral species and a high number of speciation events resulting in mirror image species. Shell morphology and genetic background may influence the ease of chirality-linked speciation, whereas sinistrality may additionally be selected against by internal selection. For the Clausiliidae, the fossil record and the recent fauna suggest that successful reversals in coiling direction occurred with a frequency of once every three to four million years. PMID:22532825

  6. Uranium exposure to the tropical duckweed Lemna aequinoctialis and pulmonate snail Amerianna cumingi: fate and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Alicia C; van Dam, Rick A; Houston, Melanie A; Harford, Andrew J; Nou, Suthidha

    2010-08-01

    The discharge of catchment-management water from the Ranger uranium (U) mine into Magela Creek upstream of the Ramsar-listed Magela Floodplain in Kakadu National Park is an important part of the mine's water-management system. Because U is one of the primary toxicants associated with this water, a receiving-water trigger value (TV), based on chronic toxicity data from five local native species, was derived for U. To strengthen the data set underpinning the derivation of the TV, the chronic toxicity of U to two additional tropical freshwater species, duckweed Lemna aequinoctialis (96-hour growth rate), and pulmonate gastropod, Amerianna cumingi (96-hour reproduction), was determined. The fate of U within the test systems was an important component of the study because analysis of U concentrations during the snail tests indicated that a substantial proportion of U (approximately 25%) was being lost from the test solutions when integrated during the entire test duration. Analysis of the snails and their food for U indicated that only a small proportion that was lost from solution was being taken up by the snails. Therefore, the majority of U that was lost was considered unavailable to the snails, and thus the exposure concentrations used to calculate the toxicity estimates were adjusted downward. Integrating the loss of U from the L. aequinoctialis test solutions over time showed that only a small proportion (6% to 13%) was lost during the test: Of that, almost half (2-5%) was taken up by the plants (constituting exposure). Uranium was only moderately toxic to L. aequinoctialis, with no observed-effect concentrations, lowest observed-effect concentrations, and inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 50% effects (IC10 and IC50) values of 226, 404, 207, and 1435 microg/l, respectively. A. cumingi was found to be more sensitive to U than L. aequinoctialis, with NOEC, LOEC, IC10, and IC50 values of 60, 61, 15, and 278 microg/l, respectively. The data for these two additional species will be used to revise the current TV for U in Magela Creek. PMID:20127482

  7. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention. PMID:26573519

  8. An embryonic transcriptome of the pulmonate snail Radix balthica.

    PubMed

    Tills, Oliver; Truebano, Manuela; Rundle, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The pond snail, Radix balthica (Linnaeus 1758), is an emerging model species within ecological developmental biology. While its development has been characterised in detail, genomic resources for embryonic stages are lacking. We applied Illumina MiSeq RNA-seq to RNA isolated from pools of embryos at two points during development. Embryos were cultured in either the presence or absence of predator kariomones to increase the diversity of the transcripts assembled. Sequencing produced 47.2M paired-end reads, assembled into 54,360 contigs of which 73% were successfully annotated. This transcriptome provides an invaluable resource to build a mechanistic understanding of developmental plasticity. PMID:26297600

  9. The Heritability of Shell Morphometrics in the Freshwater Pulmonate Gastropod Physa

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Robert T.; Jacquemin, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan freshwater pulmonate snail Physa acuta hybridizes readily with Physa carolinae in the laboratory, although their F1 progeny are sterile. The two species differ qualitatively in shell shape, the former bearing a more globose shell and the latter more fusiform. We performed a hybridization experiment, measuring a set of 14 traditional (linear) and landmark-based shell morphological variables on even-aged parents and their offspring from both hybrids and purebred control lines. Parent-offspring regression yielded a strikingly high heritability estimate for score on the first relative warp axis, h2 = 0.819 ± 0.073, a result that would seem to confirm the value of geometric morphometrics as a tool for retrieving evolutionary relationships from gastropod shell form. Score on the second relative warp axis was also significantly heritable (h2 = 0.312 ± 0.123), although more moderate, as were scores on second principal components extracted from traditional measurements (correlation h2 = 0.308 ± 0.069, covariance h2 = 0.314 ± 0.050). Although score on the first relative warp axis was significantly correlated with centroid size (p < 0.001), scores on none of the three second axes were so correlated. This result suggests that second axis score might prove especially useful for estimating genetic divergence among mixed-age populations of gastropods sampled from the field. PMID:25876155

  10. The influence of diet on the δ 13C of shell carbon in the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Lowell D.

    2002-02-01

    The influence of diet and atmospheric CO 2 on the carbon isotope composition of shell aragonite and shell-bound organic carbon in the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa raised in the laboratory was investigated. Three separate groups of snails were raised on romaine lettuce (C3 plant, δ 13C=-25.8‰), corn (C4 plant, δ 13C=-10.5‰), and sour orange ( 12C-enriched C3 plant, δ 13C=-39.1‰). The isotopic composition of body tissues closely tracked the isotopic composition of the snail diet as demonstrated previously. However, the isotopic composition of the acid insoluble organic matrix extracted from the aragonite shells does not track diet in all groups. In snails that were fed corn the isotopic composition of the organic matrix was more negative than the body by as much as 5‰ whereas the matrix was approximately 1‰ heavier than the body tissues in snails fed a diet of C3 plant material. These results indicate that isotopic composition of the organic matrix carbon cannot be used as an isotopic substrate for paleodietary reconstructions without first determining the source of the carbon and any associated fractionations. The isotopic composition of the shell aragonite is offset from the body tissues by 12.3‰ in each of the culture groups. This offset was not influenced by the consumption of carbonate and is not attributable to the diffusion of atmospheric CO 2 into the hemolymph. The carbon isotopic composition of shell aragonite is best explained in terms of equilibrium fractionations associated with exchange between metabolic CO 2 and HCO 3 in the hemolymph and the fractionation associated with carbonate precipitation. These results differ from previous studies, based primarily on samples collected in the field, that have suggested atmospheric carbon dioxide contributes significantly to the shell δ 13C. The culture results indicate that the δ 13C of aragonite is a good recorder of the isotopic composition of the snail body tissue, and therefore a better recorder of diet than is the insoluble shell organic carbon. Because the systematic fractionation of carbon isotopes within the snail is temperature dependent, the δ 13C of the shell could provide an independent technique for estimating paleotemperature changes.

  11. Why get big in the cold? Size-fecundity relationships explain the temperature-size rule in a pulmonate snail (Physa).

    PubMed

    Arendt, J

    2015-01-01

    Most ectotherms follow a pattern of size plasticity known as the temperature-size rule where individuals reared in cold environments are larger at maturation than those reared in warm environments. This pattern seems maladaptive because growth is slower in the cold so it takes longer to reach a large size. However, it may be adaptive if reaching a large size has a greater benefit in a cold than in a warm environment such as when size-dependent mortality or size-dependent fecundity depends on temperature. I present a theoretical model showing how a correlation between temperature and the size-fecundity relationship affects optimal size at maturation. I parameterize the model using data from a freshwater pulmonate snail from the genus Physa. Nine families were reared from hatching in one of three temperature regimes (daytime temperature of 22, 25 or 28 °C, night-time temperature of 22 °C, under a 12L:12D light cycle). Eight of the nine families followed the temperature-size rule indicating genetic variation for this plasticity. As predicted, the size-fecundity relationship depended upon temperature; fecundity increases steeply with size in the coldest treatment, less steeply in the intermediate treatment, and shows no relationship with size in the warmest treatment. Thus, following the temperature-size rule is adaptive for this species. Although rarely measured under multiple conditions, size-fecundity relationships seem to be sensitive to a number of environmental conditions in addition to temperature including local productivity, competition and predation. If this form of plasticity is as widespread as it appears to be, this model shows that such plasticity has the potential to greatly modify current life-history theory. PMID:25404100

  12. FRESHWATER SNAILS (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA) OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater gastropod mollusks are represented in North America (north of Mexico) by 15 families, 78 genera and, as treated in this manual, 499 species. They are grouped into two large subclasses, the gill-breathing, operculated Prosobranchia and the lung-breathing, non-operculate...

  13. Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

    2012-01-01

    Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

  14. TREMATODE INFECTION OF FRESHWATER SNAIL, FAMILY BITHYNIIDAE IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Piratae, Supawadee; Khampoosa, Panita; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Viyanant, Vithoon; Ruangsitichai, Jiraporn; Tarbsripair, Pairat; Tesana, Smarn

    2015-05-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is restricted to and requires for its aquatic life cycle only Bithynia snail as first intermediate host but many species of cyprinid fish as second intermediate hosts. A survey in Thailand of trematode infection in freshwater snails of the family Bithyniidae carried out during October 2008 - July 2009 found a total of 5,492 snails, classified into ten species distributed in various geographic areas. Bithyniafuniculata and Gabbia pygmaea were localized to the north, B. s. goniomphalos, Wattebledia siamensis and W. crosseana to northeast and B. s. siamensis, Hydrobioides nassa and G. wykoffi to central region. W. baschi and G. erawanensis was found only in the south and Erawan waterfall, Kanchanaburi Province, respectively. Trematode infection rate was 3.15%. Cercariae were identified as belonging to six types, namely, amartae , monostome, mutabile, O. viverrini, virgulate, and unknown. The prevalence of cercarial infection in B. s. goniomphalos of amartae, mutabile, O. viverrini, virgulate, and unknown type cercaria was 0.55%, 0.74%, 1.07%, 2.87%, and 0.37%, respectively, and in B. s. siamensis monostome (1.10%) and virgulate (0.55%). Only virgulate cercariae were shed from W. crosseana (3.85%) and W. siamensis (5.19%). Cercariae of the unknown type were found in G. wykoffi (1.69%). No infection of O. viverrini cercariae was detected in the other species. PMID:26521513

  15. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Snail, Melanoides tuberculata

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Nadzifah, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae) were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59?mg?L?1, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al). Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor) in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals. PMID:22666089

  16. Snail Snooping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dorothy

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in grades 5-8 learn about snail reproduction by observing and charting the activities of land snails, freshwater snails, and slugs. Instructions to implement and extend the activity are provided. (MDH)

  17. Acute combined exposure to heavy metals (Zn, Cd) blocks memory formation in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Byzitter, Jovita; Lukowiak, Ken; Karnik, Vikram; Dalesman, Sarah

    2012-04-01

    The effect of heavy metals on species survival is well documented; however, sublethal effects on behaviour and physiology are receiving growing attention. Measurements of changes in activity and respiration are more sensitive to pollutants, and therefore a better early indicator of potentially harmful ecological impacts. We assessed the effect of acute exposure (48 h) to two heavy metals at concentrations below those allowable in municipal drinking water (Zn: 1,100 ?g/l; Cd: 3 ?g/l) on locomotion and respiration using the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. In addition we used a novel assessment method, testing the ability of the snail to form memory in the presence of heavy metals in both intact snails, and also snails that had the osphradial nerve severed which connects a chemosensory organ, the osphradium, to the central nervous system. Aerial respiration and locomotion remained unchanged by acute exposure to heavy metals. There was also no effect on memory formation of these metals when administered alone. However, when snails were exposed to these metals in combination memory formation was blocked. Severing the osphradial nerve prevented the memory blocking effect of Zn and Cd, indicating that the snails are sensing these metals in their environment via the osphradium and responding to them as a stressor. Therefore, assessing the ability of this species to form memory is a more sensitive measure of heavy metal pollution than measures of activity, and indicates that the snails' ability to demonstrate behavioural plasticity may be compromised by the presence of these pollutants. PMID:22218978

  18. Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results A total of 2?479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2?479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes. PMID:23620846

  19. Zinc sensitivity of a freshwater snail, Lymnaea luteola L. , in relation to seasonal variations in temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-07-01

    The aquatic environment has numerous physical and chemical parameters that may influence the physiology and chemical toxicity to freshwater organisms. Temperature is one of the these factors having a marked influence on heavy metal toxicity to fishes and macroinvertebrates. There is a limited and scattered information available on temperature induced changes in acute toxicity of zinc compounds to freshwater pond snails. This information is essential because there are large temperature differences with season and latitudes and the aquatic organisms are subjected to seasonal temperature changes of 20-25/sup 0/C or even more. It is proposed to study the effect of seasonal changes in temperature on zinc toxicity to a freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s) and are widely distributed in lakes, ponds and rivers of India.

  20. An overview of freshwater snails in Asia with main focus on Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Madsen, H; Hung, N M

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater snails have received much attention for their role as intermediate hosts for trematodes causing disease in people and animals such as schistosomiasis and various food-borne trematodes. While effective medical treatment exists for some of these diseases there is need for preventive measures to reduce transmission, e.g. control of intermediate hosts because transmission patterns are often complicated due to presence of reservoir final hosts. In order to implement control measures against the intermediate host snails with minimal impact on the freshwater ecosystems and their biodiversity, a profound knowledge on transmission patterns of the trematodes is required and this is partly related to distribution, habitat preferences, and seasonal variation in density of the intermediate host species. Identification of snail species can be problematic on the basis of morphological and anatomical characters alone as some species show morphological plasticity and similarly morphological differentiation of cercariae found in snails may be difficult and this could lead to biased perceptions of intermediate host spectra and transmission patterns. In this paper, we give an overview of the snail families and their medical and veterinary importance in Asia but with main focus on Vietnam. PMID:25149356

  1. Ecotoxicological effect of sublethal exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bakry, Fayez A; Sayed, Dawlat A

    2014-08-01

    Freshwater snails are used as sensitive biomarkers of aquatic ecosystem pollution. The potential impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on aquatic ecosystems have attracted special attention due to their unique properties. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the possible mechanisms of ecotoxicological effects of ZnONPs on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. ZnONPs showed molluscicidal activity against B. alexandrina snails, and the LC50 was 145 ?g/ml. Two tested concentrations of ZnONPs were selected: The first concentration was equivalent to LC10 (7 ?g/ml), and the second was equivalent to LC25 (35 ?g/ml). Exposure to ZnONPs (7 and 35 ?g/ml) for three consecutive weeks significantly induced malondialdehyde and nitric oxide with concomitant decreases in glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase levels in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. Moreover, ZnONPs elicited a significant decrease in total protein and albumin contents coinciding with enhancement of total lipids and cholesterol levels as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. This study highlights the potential ecological implications of ZnONP release in aquatic environments and may serve to encourage regulatory agencies in Egypt to more carefully monitor and regulate the industrial use and disposal of ZnONPs. PMID:24736985

  2. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  3. Scope for growth in a tropical freshwater snail -- Implications for monitoring sublethal toxic stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, P.C.C.; Lam, P.K.S.

    1995-12-31

    Scope for growth (SfG), the difference between the energy input to an organism from its food and the output from respiratory metabolism, has been used as a bioassay for environmental stress in the temperate region. Here, the same technique was applied to a tropical freshwater snail, Brotia hainanensis (Thiaridae), to investigate whether the technique is applicable to biological systems at lower latitudes. In this study, the effects of copper and low pH on the SfG of the snails were examined. The results show that both copper and low pH can significantly reduce the SfG of individual snails through a decrease in the amount of energy absorbed, while the change in energy expenditure is not apparent. It was also found that the SfG assay is most informative at stress levels too low to be detected by the corresponding acute tests.

  4. Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

    2011-12-01

    Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution. PMID:22435158

  5. Predator-Induced Morphological Plasticity Across Local Populations of a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Hollander, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The expression of anti-predator adaptations may vary on a spatial scale, favouring traits that are advantageous in a given predation regime. Besides, evolution of different developmental strategies depends to a large extent on the grain of the environment and may result in locally canalized adaptations or, alternatively, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity as different predation regimes may vary across habitats. We investigated the potential for predator-driven variability in shell morphology in a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, and whether found differences were a specialized ecotype adaptation or a result of phenotypic plasticity. Shell shape was quantified in snails from geographically separated pond populations with and without molluscivorous fish. Subsequently, in a common garden experiment we investigated reaction norms of snails from populations' with/without fish when exposed to chemical cues from tench (Tinca tinca), a molluscivorous fish. We found that snails from fish-free ponds had a narrow shell with a well developed spire, whereas snails that coexisted with fish had more rotund shells with a low spire, a shell morphology known to increase survival rate from shell-crushing predators. The common garden experiment mirrored the results from the field survey and showed that snails had similar reaction norms in response to chemical predator cues, i.e. the expression of shell shape was independent of population origin. Finally, we found significant differences for the trait means among populations, within each pond category (fish/fish free), suggesting a genetic component in the determination of shell morphology that has evolved independently across ponds. PMID:21818264

  6. Accelerated Mutation Accumulation in Asexual Lineages of a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Maurine; Hehman, Gery; Miller, Joseph T.; Logsdon, John M.; Taylor, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and widespread relative to asexual reproduction, meaning that it must also confer profound advantages in order to persist. One theorized benefit of sex is that it facilitates the clearance of harmful mutations, which would accumulate more rapidly in the absence of recombination. The extent to which ineffective purifying selection and mutation accumulation are direct consequences of asexuality and whether the accelerated buildup of harmful mutations in asexuals can occur rapidly enough to maintain sex within natural populations, however, remain as open questions. We addressed key components of these questions by estimating the rate of mutation accumulation in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by mixed sexual/asexual populations. We found that increased mutation accumulation is associated with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum. Our results demonstrate that increased mutation accumulation in asexuals can differentially affect coexisting and ecologically similar sexual and asexual lineages. The accelerated rate of mutation accumulation observed in asexual P. antipodarum provides some of the most direct evidence to date for a link between asexuality and mutation accumulation and implies that mutational buildup could be rapid enough to contribute to the short-term evolutionary mechanisms that favor sexual reproduction. PMID:19995828

  7. Habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Mller, 1774).

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Alexandre; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho; Leal, Gergia Borges Eccard; Baptista, Darclio Fernandes

    2005-04-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus. In the first phase, snails was collected at 12 sites. This sampling sites presented a degree of organic input. In the second phase 33 sampling sites were chosen, covering a variety of lotic and lentic environments. The snail species found at Guapimirim, state of Rio de Janeiro, displayed a marked habitat preference, specially in relation to the physical characteristics of each environment. Other limiting factors for snail distribution at the studied lotic environments were the water current velocity and the amount of organic matter, mainly to Physa marmorata, M. tuberculatus, and Biomphalaria tenagophila. The absence of interactions between M. tuberculatus and another snails could be associated to the distinct spatial distribution of those species and the instability of habitats. This later factor may favor the coexistence of M. tuberculatus with B. glabrata by reduction of population density. In areas of schistosomiasis transmission some habitat modification may add to the instability of the environment, which would make room for the coexistence of M. tuberculatus and Biomphalaria spp. In this way, some of the usual measures for the control of snail hosts would prevent the extinction of populations of Biomphalaria spp. by M. tuberculatus in particular habitats. PMID:16021304

  8. Echinostoma revolutum: Freshwater Snails as the Second Intermediate Hosts in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantima, Kittichai; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province. PMID:23710085

  9. Echinostoma revolutum: freshwater snails as the second intermediate hosts in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chantima, Kittichai; Chai, Jong-Yil; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province. PMID:23710085

  10. Plasticity as Phenotype: G x E Interaction in a Freshwater Snail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunkow, P. E.; Calloway, S. A.

    2005-05-01

    Plasticity in morphological development allows species to accommodate environmental variation experienced during growth; however, genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity per se has been relatively under-studied. We utilized the well-documented plastic response of shell development to predator cues in a freshwater snail to quantify genetic variation for plasticity in growth rate and shell shape. Field-caught pairs of snails reproduced in the laboratory to create families of full siblings, which were then divided and allowed to grow in control and predator cue treatments. Predator (crayfish) cues had significant effects on both size-corrected growth rate and shell shape; family identity also significantly affected both final shell shape and growth rate. The interaction between predator treatment and family identity significantly affected snail growth rate but not final shell shape, suggesting genetic variation in the plastic response to predator cues for a physiological variable (growth rate) but not for a variable known to mechanically reduce the risk of predation (shell shape), at least in this population of snails. The possibility that risk of multiple modes of predation (i.e., both fish and crayfish) in some populations might maintain genetic variation in morphological plasticity is discussed.

  11. Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates). The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges. PMID:21599918

  12. Chemoreception of hunger levels alters the following behaviour of a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Marie; Crane, Adam L

    2015-12-01

    Chemically-mediated orientation is essential for many animals that must locate sites containing resources such as mates or food. One way to find these areas is by using publically-available information from other individuals. We tested a freshwater snail, Physa gyrina, for chemoreception of conspecific cues and predicted they could discriminate between cues based on information regarding hunger levels. We placed 'tracker' snails into a 2-arm arena where they could either follow or avoid an area previously used by a 'marker' snail. The hunger levels of both trackers and markers was manipulated, being either starved or fed. Starved and fed trackers did not differ in their following response when markers were hungry, but starved trackers were significantly more likely to follow fed markers, compared to fed trackers that tended to avoid areas used by fed markers. This outcome suggests that P. gyrina uses conspecific chemical cues to find food and potentially in some situations to avoid intra-specific food competition. PMID:26478254

  13. Mucus secretion by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis limits aluminum concentrations of the aqueous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jugdaohsingh, R.; Thompson, R.P.H.; Powell, J.J.; Campbell, M.M.; Mccrohan, C.R.; White, K.N.

    1998-09-01

    Extracellular mucopolysaccharide (EPS) is a significant component in many waters. Its role in the cycling and mobilization of metals is unclear. In vitro studies were conducted to examine the influence of EPS, secreted by the freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, on soluble water Al concentrations at near-neutral pH. Snails maintained in aerated water of known ion content and added aluminum reduced Al in solution as compared to controls. Although snails accumulated Al into soft tissue, this only accounted for a small percentage of the total reduction. The remaining Al was recovered following acidification of the water. This observation was attributed to pedal EPS secreted by L. stagnalis which is chiefly insoluble and substrate bound. The Al that remained in solution was more labile, possibly due to the influence of soluble EPS. Further experiments with isolated EPS, confirmed that this poorly soluble film binds and reduces Al in solution. The influence of EPS on the solution chemistry and bioavailability of Al and possibly other metals may be important in natural waters.

  14. Development of the Statocyst in the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael; Hejl, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The development of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined from embryo to adult. Special emphasis was put on the growth of the statoconia in the statocysts. In the statocysts of embryonic snails (90-120 h after oviposition) there is not a single statolith but an average of 40-50 statoconia per statocyst. The number of statoconia increases to 385-400 when the snails reach a shell diameter of 4 mm and remains relatively constant thereafter, irrespective of shell size. Small statoconia are found in supporting cells, which suggests that the statoconia are produced within these cells. The average diameter of statoconia and the total mass of statoconia increase with increasing shell diameter. The average number of large statoconia (diameter greater than 7 micrometers) per statocyst continues to increase from 2 to 10 mm animals while the number of small ones (diameter less than 4 micrometers) initially rises and then decreases after 4 mm. These results demonstrate continuous growth of the statoconia in the cyst lumen of Biomphalaria. The single statoconia vibrate in a regular pattern in vivo, indicating beating of the statocyst cilia. The statoconia sink under the influence of gravity to load and stimulate receptor cells which are at the bottom. The length of cilia and the size of statocyst gradually increase as the animal grows. However, the increase in the volume of the statocyst is relatively small compared with the increase in body weight during normal development.

  15. Control of schistosome-transmitting snails in Kenya by the North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Hofkin, B V; Mkoji, G M; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1991-09-01

    Snail-transmitted trematode parasites such as schistosomes and liver flukes assume considerable medical and veterinary significance in tropical Africa. We have observed a strong negative association between the presence of medically important pulmonate snails and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii in freshwater habitats in Kenya. This crayfish, introduced into Kenya around 1970, readily consumes these snails in the laboratory. Field enclosure experiments indicate that crayfish exert a significant negative impact on the abundance of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. It is likely that P. clarkii will continue to spread naturally in Kenya and that schistosome-transmitting snails will be excluded or reduced in numbers where crayfish are present. Procambarus clarkii may represent an alternative, biological means of snail control in East Africa. PMID:1928568

  16. Response to Phosphorus Limitation Varies among Lake Populations of the Freshwater Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Amy C.; Kay, Adam D.; Larkin, Katelyn; Neiman, Maurine

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation typically recognized as higher values of fitness-related traits for native vs. non-native individuals when measured in the native environment - is common in natural populations because of pervasive spatial variation in the intensity and type of natural selection. Although local adaptation has been primarily studied in the context of biotic interactions, widespread variation in abiotic characteristics of environments suggests that local adaptation in response to abiotic factors should also be common. Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a freshwater New Zealand snail that is an important model system for invasion biology and the maintenance of sexual reproduction, exhibits local adaptation to parasites and rate of water flow. As an initial step to determining whether P. antipodarum are also locally adapted to phosphorus availability, we examined whether populations differ in their responses to phosphorus limitation. We found that field-collected juvenile P. antipodarum grew at a lower rate and reached an important size threshold more slowly when fed a relatively low vs. a relatively high- phosphorus diet. We also detected significant across-population variation in individual growth rate. A marginally significant population-by-dietary phosphorus interaction along with a two-fold difference across populations in the extent of suppression of growth by low phosphorus suggests that populations of P. antipodarum may differ in their response to phosphorus limitation. Local adaptation may explain this variation, with the implication that snails from lakes with relatively low phosphorus availability should be less severely affected by phosphorus limitation than snails from lakes with higher phosphorus availability. PMID:24454936

  17. Age-dependent effects of predation risk on reproductive success in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Auld, Josh R; Houser, Ryan

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive performance is often age-dependent, showing patterns of improvement and/or senescence as well as trade-offs with other traits throughout the lifespan. High levels of extrinsic mortality (e.g., from predators) have been shown to sometimes, but not always, select for accelerated actuarial senescence in nature and in the lab. Here, we explore the inductive (i.e., plastic) effects of predation risk (i.e., nonlethal exposure to chemical cues from predators) on the reproductive success of freshwater snails (Physa acuta). Snails were reared either in the presence or absence of chemical cues from predatory crayfish and mated early in life or late in life (a 2 2 factorial design); we measured egg hatching and early post-hatching survival of their offspring. Both age and predation risk reduced reproductive success, illustrating that predation risk can have a cross-generational effect on the early survival of juveniles. Further, the decline in reproductive success was over three times faster under predation risk compared to the no-predator treatment, an effect that stemmed from a disproportionate, negative effect of predation risk on the post-hatching survival instead of hatching rate. We discuss our results in terms of a hypothesized consequence of elevated stress hormone levels. PMID:26345490

  18. DNA Barcode Identification of Freshwater Snails in the Family Bithyniidae from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn; Ruangjirachuporn, Wipaporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Viyanant, Vithoon; Pierossi, Paola; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Tesana, Smarn

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater snails in the family Bithyniidae are the first intermediate host for Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini), the causative agent of opisthorchiasis. Unfortunately, the subtle morphological characters that differentiate species in this group are not easily discerned by non-specialists. This is a serious matter because the identification of bithyniid species is a fundamental prerequisite for better understanding of the epidemiology of this disease. Because DNA barcoding, the analysis of sequence diversity in the 5 region of the mitochondrial COI gene, has shown strong performance in other taxonomic groups, we decided to test its capacity to resolve 10 species/ subspecies of bithyniids from Thailand. Our analysis of 217 specimens indicated that COI sequences delivered species-level identification for 9 of 10 currently recognized species. The mean intraspecific divergence of COI was 2.3% (range 0-9.2 %), whereas sequence divergences between congeneric species averaged 8.7% (range 0-22.2 %). Although our results indicate that DNA barcoding can differentiate species of these medically-important snails, we also detected evidence for the presence of one overlooked species and one possible case of synonymy. PMID:24223896

  19. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass. PMID:19795658

  20. The evolution of reproductive isolation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater snail Physa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cosmopolitan freshwater snail Physa acuta has recently found widespread use as a model organism for the study of mating systems and reproductive allocation. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenies suggest that Physa carolinae, recently described from the American southeast, is a sister species of P. acuta. The divergence of the acuta/carolinae ancestor from the more widespread P. pomilia appears to be somewhat older, and the split between a hypothetical acuta/carolinae/pomilia ancestor and P. gyrina appears older still. Results Here we report the results of no-choice mating experiments yielding no evidence of hybridization between gyrina and any of four other populations (pomilia, carolinae, Philadelphia acuta, or Charleston acuta), nor between pomilia and carolinae. Crosses between pomilia and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 progeny with reduced viability, while crosses between carolinae and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 hybrids of normal viability. A set of mate-choice tests also revealed significant sexual isolation between gyrina and all four of our other Physa populations, between pomilia and carolinae, and between pomilia and Charleston acuta, but not between pomilia and the acuta population from Philadelphia, nor between carolinae and either acuta population. These observations are consistent with the origin of hybrid sterility prior to hybrid inviability, and a hypothesis that speciation between pomilia and acuta may have been reinforced by selection for prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatry. Conclusions We propose a two-factor model for the evolution of postzygotic reproductive incompatibility in this set of five Physa populations consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model of speciation, and a second two-factor model for the evolution of sexual incompatibility. Under these models, species trees may be said to correspond with gene trees in American populations of the freshwater snail, Physa. PMID:21615966

  1. Oxidative stress responses and toxin accumulation in the freshwater snail Radix swinhoei (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) exposed to microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junqian; Xie, Zhicai; Wang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is one of the most common toxins in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. The ecotoxicological effects of MCLR in freshwater ecosystems have been widely documented; however, the physiological effects of MCLR on freshwater snails and the underlying toxicity/detoxification mechanisms have not been well investigated. In this laboratory study, antioxidant system responses in the hepatopancreas and the digestive tract of Radix swinhoei, a typical freshwater snail, exposed to 0.01 mg/L to 2 mg/L MCLR were explored. Antioxidant enzymes, particularly superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), in the digestive tracts were effectively generated at 0.2 and 2 mg/L MCLR. However, SOD and CAT activities in the hepatopancreas were activated only at 0.2 mg/L MCLR. Glutathione (GSH) concentrations in the digestive tracts significantly increased at 0.01 to 0.2 mg/L MCLR; by comparison, GSH concentrations in the hepatopancreas remained stable. No oxidative damage (lipid peroxidations) occurred in the digestive tracts and the hepatopancreas when the snail was exposed to ≤0.2 mg/L MCLR. MCLR accumulation in different snail tissues was also examined. MCLR accumulated in different tissues and showed the following pattern: hepatopancreas > gonads > digestive tracts > muscles. Bioaccumulated concentrations in these four tissues increased as MCLR exposure concentrations increased; by contrast, bioaccumulation factors decreased as MCLR exposure concentrations increased. Our results indicated that R. swinhoei is sensitively responsive to MCLR by changing antioxidant system status to cope with the toxicity. Snails may be vectors of MCs that transfer MCs in eutrophic lakes via food chains or food web. PMID:26362638

  2. Sediment copper bioavailability to freshwater snails in south Florida: risk implications for the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus).

    PubMed

    Frakes, Robert A; Bargar, Timothy A; Bauer, Emily A

    2008-10-01

    Many properties being acquired as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) are heavily contaminated with copper. Estimated copper bioaccumulation in the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has led to the prediction of risk to the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) at some CERP projects. Field study results presented in this paper examine the relationship between copper levels in sediments, snails, and other biota. Copper concentrations in all biota (snails, aquatic vascular plants, and periphyton) were strongly correlated with those in sediments. No correlation with water copper concentrations was evident. Mean copper concentrations in snails ranged from 23.9 mg/kg at the reference site to 732 mg/kg at a high copper site. Calculated biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranged from 36.7 to 7.0 over the range of copper levels in sediments. BSAFs were highest at low copper levels in sediments and declined sharply as copper levels in sediment increased. Risk for the snail kite is discussed in light of the results of this study. PMID:18679796

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

    PubMed

    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-03-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure. PMID:24975387

  4. Distribution of metals and accumulation of lead by different tissues in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Pyatt, F.B.; Pyatt, A.J.; Pentreath, V.W.

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of several metals in different body tissues of the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), collected from an uncontaminated environment, were measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Significant concentrations of the potentially toxic elements manganese, titanium, and copper were detected in all tissues, although they were not detectable in the water sampled at collection; bioaccumulation is thus evidenced. Highest concentrations of manganese and copper were present in the shell, while highest concentrations of titanium were present in the head and foot. Experimental snails were continuously exposed to lead chloride (lead at 5 ppm) for an experimental period of 3 weeks. Both elements were accumulated to different extents by the snail tissues but with high concentrations again in the head of the animals, and chloride also in the visceral hump. No significant alterations in the distribution of the other elements measured were observed in the lead chloride-exposed animals.

  5. Chronic toxicity of lead to three freshwater invertebrates--Brachionus calyciflorus, Chironomus tentans, and Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Grosell, Martin; Gerdes, Robert M; Brix, Kevin V

    2006-01-01

    Chronic lead (Pb) toxicity tests with Brachionus calyciflorus, Chironomus tentans, and Lymnaea stagnalis were performed in artificial freshwaters. The no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC), lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC), and calculated 20% effect concentration (EC20) for the rotifer B. calyciflorus were 194, 284, and 125 microg dissolved Pb/L, respectively. The midge C. tentans was less sensitive, with NOEC and LOEC of 109 and 497 microg dissolved Pb/L, respectively, and the snail L. stagnalis exhibited extreme sensitivity, evident by NOEC, LOEC, and EC20 of 12, 16, and < 4 microg dissolved Pb/L, respectively. Our findings are presented in the context of other reports on chronic Pb toxicity in freshwater organisms. The L. stagnalis results are in agreement with a previous report on pulmonate snails and should be viewed in the context of current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) hardness adjusted water quality criteria of 8 microg Pb/L. The present findings and earlier reports indicate that freshwater pulmonate snails may not be protected by current regulatory standards. Measurements of whole-snail Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations following chronic Pb exposure revealed that Na+ homeostasis is disturbed by Pb exposure in juvenile snails in a complicated pattern, suggesting two physiological modes of action depending on the Pb exposure concentration. Substantially reduced growth in the snails that exhibit very high Ca2+ requirements may be related to reduced Ca2+ uptake and thereby reduced shell formation. PMID:16494229

  6. The Structure of the Statocyst of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The two statocysts are located on the dorsal-lateral side of the left and right pedal ganglion. The statocysts are spherical, fluid-filled capsules with a diameter of approximately 60 microns for young and 110 microns for adult snails. The wall of the cyst is composed of large receptor cells and many smaller supporting cells. The receptor cells bear cilia which are evenly distributed on the apical surface. The cilia have the typical 9+2 internal tubule configuration. Striate rootlets originate from the base of the basal body and run downward into the cytoplasm. Side-roots arise from one side of the basal body and a basal foot from the other. For each receptor cell, the basal foot always points to the periphery of the surface, indicating that the receptor cell is non-polarized. The receptor cells contain cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, compact Golgi bodies and multivesicular bodies. Supporting cells bearing microvilli are interposed between the receptor cells. The junction complex between the supporting cells and the receptor cells is composed of adherens and septate junctions, while between supporting cells only the adherens junctions are present. The static nerve arises from the lateral side of the cyst and contains axons in which parallel neurotubules and mitochondria are found. The axons arise directly from the base of the receptor cells without synapse. In the cyst lumen there are unattached statoconia. The statoconia have a plate-like or concentric membranous ring structure. Based on the morphology, the function of the statocyst in Biomphalaria is discussed.

  7. Responses of oxidative stress biomarkers and DNA damage on a freshwater snail (Bellamya aeruginosa) stressed by ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shimei; Wang, Yingying; Zhou, Qixing; Chen, Cuihong

    2013-08-01

    Ethylbenzene is classified as a priority pollutant; however, toxicity data, especially those regarding sublethal toxicity, are rarely reported on gastropods. The present work was performed to elucidate the sublethal effects of ethylbenzene using a freshwater snail, Bellamya aeruginosa (Reeve), exposed to ethylbenzene for 21 days followed by a 17-day recovery period. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were used as biomarkers to evaluate oxidative stress in hepatopancreas of snails. In addition, alkaline comet assay was applied to determine the genotoxicity of ethylbenzene in hepatopancreas of snails. These biomarkers and DNA damage exhibited various responses to ethylbenzene in the tested snails. SOD and CAT activities were almost significantly stimulated during the exposure period. As exposure time was prolonged beyond 7 days, CAT activity gradually became significantly increased at higher doses of ethylbenzene. GSH concentration was positively and linearly related with exposure dose. MDA concentration was significantly greater than that in the control only under the lowest treatment after a 7-day exposure. Alkaline comet assay showed that ethylbenzene could significantly induce DNA damage in hepatopancreas of snails, and there was a good dose- and time-response in DNA damage, indicating potential genotoxicity of ethylbenzene on snails. At the end of the recovery period, the repair of DNA damage was not yet completed, showing that DNA repair requires more time. The findings from this study could indicate that SOD, GST, and GSH seem to be effective oxidative biomarkers for snails exposed to ethylbenzene in the short term. CAT proved to be a valuable discriminating biomarker in subchronic exposure to ethylbenzene, but MDA was not a suitable oxidative biomarker for exposure to ethylbenzene in either the short or long term. Alkaline comet assay was efficient tool with which to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of ethylbenzene. PMID:23568747

  8. Temporal variation in prevalence and abundance of metacercariae in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis in Chany Lake, West Siberia, Russia: long-term patterns and environmental covariates.

    PubMed

    Yurlova, Natalia I; Vodyanitskaya, Svetlana N; Serbina, Elena A; Biserkov, Valko Y; Georgiev, Boyko B; Chipev, Nesho H

    2006-04-01

    Infrapopulations of trematode metacercariae were monitored in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis over 17 yr (1982-1999) at Chany Lake, Novosibirskaya Oblast', Russia. Eighteen trematode species were recorded. Patterns of occurrence varied from 4 species (Echinoparyphium aconiatum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Moliniella anceps, and Cotylurus cornutus) that persisted at relatively high prevalence (> 60% of samples) across sites, seasons, and years, to species that were very rare and sporadic in occurrence. The stability of the 4 common species was probably because of their occurrence either in a wide range of definitive hosts or in a host adapted to the extreme abiotic changes that occurred from year to year in these wetlands. The prevalence and mean abundance of C. cornutus were negatively correlated with water level in the wetlands; its prevalence was also correlated with water temperature. The mean abundance of M. anceps was positively correlated with water level. The most probable explanation for the cyclic dynamics of infections of the common species is change in population sizes and densities of definitive and intermediate hosts, which mediated cyclic alterations in water levels. PMID:16729680

  9. Chronic toxicity of tributyltin to development and reproduction of the European freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

    PubMed

    Leung, Kenneth M Y; Grist, Eric P M; Morley, Neil J; Morritt, David; Crane, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Chronic toxicity, growth and reproduction were measured in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to waterborne bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) over a range of four nominal concentrations (0-10microg TBTl(-1)). Egg development was completely inhibited at 10microg TBTl(-1), whilst abnormal embryonic development was observed at 1microg TBTl(-1). For the solvent control and the 0.01microg TBTl(-1)treatment group, normal development of L. stagnalis was observed. Survivorship of hatchlings was significantly reduced by TBT at 1microgl(-1) while inhibition of shell growth of L. stagnalis was also observed at this concentration. The data were used to determine intrinsic growth rates (r) using two theoretical approaches (the Euler-Lotka equation and a Leslie Matrix). Both approaches showed that survival, fecundity and population growth rate were reduced at 1microg TBTl(-1). Interestingly, at 0.01microg TBTl(-1) snails showed a higher fecundity and growth rate than in the solvent control. The TBT concentration at which the r would equal zero (ECr(0)) and the population NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration) were estimated. The population NOEC was defined as either the lower 95% confidence or lower 95% pointwise percentile limit of the ECr(0). Values obtained using the two different approaches were similar and thus a geometric mean was calculated to obtain a final representative population NOEC value for L. stagnalis of 2745ng TBTl(-1). The present data together with chronic toxicity TBT data for freshwater organisms, obtained from peer-reviewed literature, were used to construct a species sensitivity distribution (SSD). A predicted no effect concentration was then derived from the SSD (hazardous concentration at 5%, i.e., HC5 or 95% protection level). This SSD was compared with the SSD derived from saltwater species datasets. The HC5 value for saltwater species (3.55ng TBTl(-1); lower confidence limit: 1.93ng TBTl(-1)) was significantly lower than that for freshwater species (30.13ng TBTl(-1); lower confidence limit: 9.23ng TBTl(-1)), indicating that saltwater species are probably more susceptible to TBT than their freshwater counterparts. PMID:16876231

  10. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Zachar, Nicholas; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology. PMID:24278240

  11. Neuro-Endocrine Control of Reproduction in Hermaphroditic Freshwater Snails: Mechanisms and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates are used extensively as model species to investigate neuro-endocrine processes regulating behaviors, and many of these processes may be extrapolated to vertebrates. However, when it comes to reproductive processes, many of these model species differ notably in their mode of reproduction. A point in case are simultaneously hermaphroditic molluscs. In this review I aim to achieve two things. On the one hand, I provide a comprehensive overview of the neuro-endocrine control of male and female reproductive processes in freshwater snails. Even though the focus will necessarily be on Lymnaea stagnalis, since this is the best-studied species in this respect, extensions to other species are made wherever possible. On the other hand, I will place these findings in the actual context of the whole animal, after all these are simultaneous hermaphrodites. By considering the hermaphroditic situation, I uncover a numbers of possible links between the regulation of the two reproductive systems that are present within this animal, and suggest a few possible mechanisms via which this animal can effectively switch between the two sexual roles in the flexible way that it does. Evidently, this opens up a number of new research questions and areas that explicitly integrate knowledge about behavioral decisions (e.g., mating, insemination, egg laying) and sexual selection processes (e.g., mate choice, sperm allocation) with the actual underlying neuronal and endocrine mechanisms required for these processes to act and function effectively. PMID:21088700

  12. Mineralogy of shells from two freshwater snails Belgrandiella fontinalis and B kuesteri.

    PubMed

    Medaković, Davorin; Slapnik, Rajko; Popović, Stanko; Grzeta, Biserka

    2003-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to study the mineral composition of shells of snails Belgrandiella fontinalis and Belgrandiella kuesteri collected from three freshwater springs in northeastern Slovenia. The fractions of aragonite, calcite, dolomite and quartz in particular shells were determined. The analysed shells consisted of two or more distinct inorganic layers. The outer shell layer for both species and all sampling localities contained aragonite. The outer layer of B. fontinalis collected at one locality, also contained a small fraction of calcite ( approximately 1 molar%) besides the dominant aragonite. Calcite was identified in the inner layer(s) of both species (2 to 3 molar%), while quartz was found only in B. kuesteri (5-7 molar%). However, both species sampled at one locality showed the presence of dolomite (approx. 20 molar%) in the inner layer(s). The presence of dolomite in the shells of adult gastropods and even molluscs is unusual. A possible formation mechanism and specific ecological factor that could influence the precipitation of dolomite in the shells of different Belgrandiella species is discussed. PMID:12507615

  13. Uptake and distribution of copper sulfate and its effect on the respiration rate of the hemocyanin-producing freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolmarans, C.T.; Yssel, E.

    1988-08-01

    Copper sulfate was one of the earliest compounds suggested as a molluscicide and although several new compounds have since been developed, copper sulfate is still widely used against freshwater snail intermediate hosts of trematode parasites causing bilharzia. However, the toxic effect that copper sulfate may have on these species has not yet been investigated adequately. This incomplete picture of the action of copper sulfate on freshwater snails is further complicated by the fact that some of these snail species have hemocyanin (a protein containing copper) as respiration pigment. Because of the existence of a copper metabolic pathway, these species may handle external copper differently from those species with hemoglobin as respiration pigment. In the present study, the uptake of external copper in the form of copper sulfate, as well as the effect of this ion on respiration rate, was investigated in Lymnaea natalensis, the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. This snail possesses hemocyanin as respiratory pigment.

  14. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and genotoxicity induced by silver nanoparticles in freshwater snail Lymnea luteola L.

    PubMed

    Ali, Daoud

    2014-12-01

    Silver is one of the most toxic metals to freshwater aquatic organisms. Limited efforts have been made to study apoptosis and genotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in freshwater snail Lymnea luteola L. (L. luteola). Therefore, the present investigation was aimed to study the induction of apoptosis and DNA damage by AgNPs in L. luteola. AgNPs showed molluscicidal activity against L. luteola and three concentrations of AgNPs were selected, the concentration I (4 ?g/l), concentration II (12 ?g/l), and the concentration III (24 ?g/l). Induction of oxidative stress in snail hemolymph was observed by a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels at different concentration of AgNPs, and on the other hand, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased at lower concentrations but decreased in higher concentration of AgNPs. Catalase (CAT) activity was also decreased at lower concentrations and increased in higher concentration of AgNPs. Flow cytometry data showed that AgNPs exposed hemocyte cells promote apoptotic and necrotic-mediated cell death when AgNPs concentrations were 12 and 24 ?g/l compared to control. DNA damage scores increased with the exposure levels of AgNPs, and dose- and time-dependent effects were observed. A significant positive correlation was observed among reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, and DNA damage. The study suggests that ROS may be involved in inducing apoptosis and DNA damage in the AgNPs exposed hemocyte cells of L. luteola. This study demonstrates that AgNPs is lethal to freshwater snail L. luteola. PMID:25351851

  15. Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Bdir, Sami; Adwan, Ghaleb

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia II and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance. PMID:23569759

  16. Prostaglandin E1, prostaglandin E2, and endotoxin failure to produce fever in the Japanese freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Y; Nagasaka, T

    1988-01-01

    The thermopreferendum (preferred temperature) of the Japanese freshwater snail (Semisulcospira libertina) was determined in an aquatic temperature gradient after injection of prostaglandin E1, prostaglandin E2, and LPS. Injected doses of each pyrogen ranged from a toxic dose to less than 1/20th of the toxic dose. Toxic effect of the highest doses of pyrogen disappeared within 120 min. No fever occurred during the 150 min observation following the pyrogen injection. The present results support the hypothesis that fever was selected as a way of defending against infection only after the period of the emergence of the molluscus, i.e., the early Cambrian period. PMID:3172578

  17. Adaptive responses and latent costs of multigeneration cadmium exposure in parasite resistant and susceptible strains of a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A; Roesijadi, G

    2010-11-01

    Population response to anthropogenic activities will be influenced by prior adaptation to environmental conditions. We tested how parasite-resistant and -susceptible strains of the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, responded to cadmium and elevated temperature challenges after having been exposed to low-level cadmium continuously for multiple generations. Snails exposed to cadmium for three generations were removed for the fourth generation, and challenged in the fifth generation with (1) chronic cadmium exposure over the entire life cycle; (2) lethal cadmium exposure of adults; and (3) elevated temperature challenge of adults. The parasite susceptible NMRI strain is more cadmium tolerant than the parasite resistant BS90 strain and remained more tolerant than BS90 throughout this study. Additionally, NMRI exhibited greater adaptive capacity for cadmium than BS90 and became more tolerant of both chronic and lethal cadmium challenges, while BS90 became more tolerant of lethal cadmium challenge only. Fitness costs, reflected in population growth rate, were not apparent in fifth generation snails maintained in control conditions. However, costs were latent and expressed as decreased tolerance to a secondarily imposed temperature stress. Adaptation to prior selection pressures can influence subsequent adaptation to anthropogenic stresses and may have associated costs that reduce fitness in novel environments. PMID:20703799

  18. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 282%, paramphistomes 628% and Schistosoma bovis 48%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas. PMID:26152614

  19. Metabolomics to Explore Imidacloprid-Induced Toxicity in the Central Nervous System of the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Stel, Jente M; de Boer, Jacob; Lamoree, Marja H; Leonards, Pim E G

    2015-12-15

    Modern toxicology is seeking new testing methods to better understand toxicological effects. One of the most concerning chemicals is the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Although imidacloprid is designed to target insects, recent studies have shown adverse effects on nontarget species. Metabolomics was applied to investigate imidacloprid-induced sublethal toxicity in the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The snails (n = 10 snails) were exposed for 10 days to increasing imidacloprid concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?g/L). The comparison between control and exposure groups highlighted the involvement and perturbation of many biological pathways. The levels of several metabolites belonging to different metabolite classes were significantly changed by imidacloprid exposure. A change in the amino acids and nucleotide metabolites like tryptophan, proline, phenylalanine, uridine, and guanosine was found. Many fatty acids were down-regulated, and the levels of the polyamines, spermidine and putrescine, were found to be increased which is an indication of neuron cell injury. A turnover increase between choline and acetylcholine led us to hypothesize an increase in cholinergic gene expression to overcome imidacloprid binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Metabolomics revealed imidacloprid induced metabolic changes at low and environmentally relevant concentration in a nontarget species and generated a novel mechanistic hypothesis. PMID:26509427

  20. Adaptive responses and latent costs of multigeneration cadmium exposure in parasite resistant and susceptible strains of a freshwater snail

    SciTech Connect

    Salice, Christopher J.; Anderson, Todd; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-11-01

    Population response to anthropogenic activities will be influenced by prior adaptation to environmental conditions. We tested how parasite-resistant and -susceptible strains of a freshwater snail responded to cadmium and elevated temperature challenges after having been exposed to low-level cadmium continuously for multiple generations. Snails exposed to cadmium for three generations were removed for the fourth generation, and challenged in the fifth generation with (1) chronic cadmium exposure over the entire life cycle, (2) acute cadmium exposure of adults, and (3) elevated temperature challenge of adults. The parasite susceptible NMRI strain is more cadmium tolerant than the parasite resistant BS90 strain and remained more tolerant than BS90 throughout this study. Additionally, NMRI exhibited greater adaptive capacity for cadmium than BS90 and became more tolerant of both chronic and acute cadmium challenges, while BS90 became more tolerant of acute cadmium challenge only. Fitness costs, reflected in population growth rate, were not apparent in fifth generation snails maintained in cadmium-free conditions. However, costs were latent and expressed as decreased tolerance to a secondarily imposed temperature stress. Adaptation to prior selection pressures can influence subsequent adaptation to anthropogenic stresses and may have associated costs that reduce fitness in novel environments.

  1. Ecotoxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes to freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L.: Impacts on oxidative stress and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Daoud; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Huma

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but there is very limited data on ecogenotoxicity to aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to determine eco-geno toxic effects of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in fresh water snail, Lymnea luteola (L. luteola). A static test system was used to expose L. luteola to a freshwater control, 0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.46 mg/L SWCNTs for up to 4 days. SWCNTs changed a significant reduction in glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase with in hepatopancreas of L. luteola. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and catalase showed dose- and time-dependent and statistically significant increase in hepatopancreas during SWCNTs exposure compared with control. However, a significant (p?freshwater snail L. luteola. The oxidative stress and comet assay can successfully be used as sensitive tools of aquatic pollution biomonitoring. PMID:24449093

  2. The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  3. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  4. Biochemical responses to the toxicity of the biocide abamectin on the freshwater snail Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Zhou, Chune; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2014-03-01

    The toxic effects of abamectin (ABM), an anthelmintic drug, on the snail, Physa Acuta, and the biochemical responses to the exposure stress were evaluated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in snail soft tissues (head, foot, visceral mass, and the mantle) for up to 96h of exposure to 3.4, 9.6, 19.2, or 27.4?gL(-1) of ABM. The results showed that SOD and GST activities were promoted by ABM-exposure at the earlier periods of treatment (12-48h) while these activites were inhibited at the end of test. The tendency of CAT activity was similar to that of SOD, but it increased at the end of test. MDA levels of the snail soft tissues increased in all treatment groups, including the recovery group, indicating that lipid peroxidation occurred in snail soft tissues. ABM-exposure inhibited AChE activity. However, NOS activities increased by ABM-exposure. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes and AChE from the snail soft tissues resumed the normal levels after 96h of recovery period, but MDA level did not attain the original level. This study provides information on the biochemical mechanism of ABM toxicity on the snail. PMID:24507123

  5. EFFECTS OF COPPER, NICKEL AND ZINC ON THREE SPECIES OF OREGON FRESHWATER SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three snail species collected from western Oregon were exposed to metals - Juga plicifera and Lithoglyphus virens, which inhabit cool coastal streams, and Physa gyrina, which is found in Willamette Valley ponds. J. plicifera were exposed in flow-through laboratory tests to copper...

  6. A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake

    PubMed Central

    Pešić, Vladimir; Glöer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Karucia sublacustrina a new species of freshwater snails (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) is described based on material collected from Skadar Lake (Montenegro, Albania). The new species belongs to monotypic genus Karucia gen. n. The shell morphology and body shape of the new genus resembles Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 and Grossuana Radoman, 1973, from which it differs in the larger shells with relatively slim and a slightly, but clearly shouldered body whorl. The number of gastropods from Skadar Lake basin tallies now 50 species. The adjusted rate of gastropod endemicity for Skadar Lake basin is estimated to be 38%. By compiling faunal and taxonomic data we also aim to provide information of relevance as to conservation efforts. PMID:23794834

  7. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  8. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ana López-Serrano; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R; Luoma, Samuel N

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important. PMID:24641838

  9. Gross mismatch between thermal tolerances and environmental temperatures in a tropical freshwater snail: climate warming and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Polgar, Gianluca; Khang, Tsung Fei; Chua, Teddy; Marshall, David J

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between acute thermal tolerance and habitat temperature in ectotherm animals informs about their thermal adaptation and is used to assess thermal safety margins and sensitivity to climate warming. We studied this relationship in an equatorial freshwater snail (Clea nigricans), belonging to a predominantly marine gastropod lineage (Neogastropoda, Buccinidae). We found that tolerance of heating and cooling exceeded average daily maximum and minimum temperatures, by roughly 20°C in each case. Because habitat temperature is generally assumed to be the main selective factor acting on the fundamental thermal niche, the discordance between thermal tolerance and environmental temperature implies trait conservation following 'in situ' environmental change, or following novel colonisation of a thermally less-variable habitat. Whereas heat tolerance could relate to an historical association with the thermally variable and extreme marine intertidal fringe zone, cold tolerance could associate with either an ancestral life at higher latitudes, or represent adaptation to cooler, higher-altitudinal, tropical lotic systems. The broad upper thermal safety margin (difference between heat tolerance and maximum environmental temperature) observed in this snail is grossly incompatible with the very narrow safety margins typically found in most terrestrial tropical ectotherms (insects and lizards), and hence with the emerging prediction that tropical ectotherms, are especially vulnerable to environmental warming. A more comprehensive understanding of climatic vulnerability of animal ectotherms thus requires greater consideration of taxonomic diversity, ecological transition and evolutionary history. PMID:25526660

  10. Contrasting the distribution of phenotypic and molecular variation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Tian-Bi, Y-NT; Jarne, P; Konan, J-NK; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation was investigated by confronting phenotypic and molecular variation in the highly selfing freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We sampled seven natural populations separated by a few kilometers, and characterized by different habitat regimes (permanent/temporary) and openness (open/closed). A genetic analysis based on five microsatellite markers confirms that B. pfeifferi is a selfer (s?0.9) and exhibits limited variation within populations. Most pairwise FST were significant indicating marked population structure, though no isolation by distance was detected. Families from the seven populations were monitored under laboratory conditions over two generations (G1 and G2), allowing to record several life-history traits, including growth, fecundity and survival, over 25 weeks. Marked differences were detected among populations for traits expressed early in the life cycle (up to sexual maturity). Age and size at first reproduction had high heritability values, but such a trend was not found for early reproductive traits. In most populations, G1 snails matured later and at a larger size than G2 individuals. Individuals from permanent habitats matured at a smaller size and were more fecund than those from temporary habitats. The mean phenotypic differentiation over all populations (QST) was lower than the mean genetic differentiation (FST), suggesting stabilizing selection. However, no difference was detected between QST and FST for both habitat regime and habitat openness. PMID:23321708

  11. Use of DGT and conventional methods to predict sediment metal bioavailability to a field inhabitant freshwater snail (Bellamya aeruginosa) from Chinese eutrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongbin; Cai, Yongjiu; Duan, Hongtao; Gao, Junfeng; Fan, Chengxin

    2014-01-15

    In this study, we used the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and conventional methods (including SEM-AVS models, BCR sequential extraction and total metal concentrations) to assess sediment Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb bioavailability to field inhabitant freshwater snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) from Chinese eutrophic lakes. The performance of these methods and the relationship between DGT measurements and conventional methods were evaluated. The results showed that DGT-measured metal concentrations have weak correlations with results from tests using SEM-AVS models as well as sequentially extracted European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) metal fractions. Among the methods used, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb measured by DGT were significantly correlated with metal concentrations in the tissue of snails, while SEM-AVS could predict Cr, Ni and Pb bioavailability well, but not SEM-AVS/fOC. Finally, BCR sequential extraction and total metal concentrations only correlated well with Pb bioavailability to snails. Overall, the results of this study indicated that DGT performed best in predicting metal accumulation in snails and which could be used to predict sediment metal bioavailability to field inhabitant snails from freshwater lake sediments due to their simple manipulation and validity. PMID:24295770

  12. The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Takougang, Innocent; Barbazan, Phillipe; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Noumi, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon & Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources. PMID:18441407

  13. The development of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822).

    PubMed

    Mozzer, L R; Coaglio, A L; Dracz, R M; Ribeiro, V M A; Lima, W S

    2015-11-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that infects the heart and pulmonary artery and its branches of domestic and wild canids. The parasite can use several species of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs as intermediate hosts, although susceptibility varies. Pomacea canaliculata is a mollusc found in lakes, swamps and rivers in South America. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility, parasite growth, oviposition and larval development of 282 P. canaliculata infected with 500 A. vasorum first-instar larvae (L1). From day 5 post-infection (pi) to day 30 pi, seven specimens per day were sacrificed to recover the larval instars. We compared 50 egg masses from infected and uninfected molluscs to determine the number of eggs per clutch, the hatching rate and the growth of the molluscs. The percentage of recovered larvae ranged from 39.17% to 67.5%. First-stage larvae (L1) were found until day 19 pi, second-stage larvae (L2) were found from days 11 to 25 pi, and third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered only after day 19 pi. Infected snails exhibited the most eggs during spawning, although the rate of hatching and shell size were lower in the infected snails compared with controls. This is the first report of an experimental infection of P. canaliculata with A. vasorum, and the results confirm the non-specificity of the nematode in relation to the intermediate host and indicate the importance of epidemiological surveys of this parasite and mollusc. PMID:26442708

  14. Molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2011-04-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula fruit powder against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The molluscicidal activity of T. chebula fruit powder (96 h LC(50):93.59 mg L(-1)) was more pronounced than that of S. mukorossi fruit powder (96 h LC(50):119.57 mg L(-1)). Ethanolic extracts of S. mukorossi and T. chebula fruit powder were more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of S. mukorossi fruit powder (24h LC(50):2.75 mg L(-1)) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit powder (24h LC(50):124.06 mg L(-1)). The 96 h LC(50) of column-purified fraction of S. mukorossi fruit powder was 5.43 mg L(-1) whereas those of T. chebula fruit powder was 7.49 mg L(-1). Column, thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in S. mukorossi and T. chebula is saponin (96 h LC(50):1.31 mg L(-1)) and tannic acid (96 h LC(50):1.64 mg L(-1)), respectively. These plants may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail L. acuminata. PMID:21215991

  15. Discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in sexual and asexual lineages of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    PubMed

    Paczesniak, Dorota; Jokela, Jukka; Larkin, Katelyn; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-09-01

    The presence and extent of mitonuclear discordance in coexisting sexual and asexual lineages provides insight into 1) how and when asexual lineages emerged, and 2) the spatial and temporal scales at which the ecological and evolutionary processes influencing the evolution of sexual and asexual reproduction occur. Here, we used nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and a mitochondrial gene to characterize phylogeographic structure and the extent of mitonuclear discordance in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This New Zealand freshwater snail is often used to study the evolution and maintenance of sex because obligately sexual and obligately asexual individuals often coexist. While our data indicate that sexual and asexual P. antipodarum sampled from the same lake population are often genetically similar, suggesting recent origin of these asexuals from sympatric sexual P. antipodarum, we also found significantly more population structure in sexuals vs. asexuals. This latter result suggests that some asexual lineages originated in other lakes and/or in the relatively distant past. When comparing mitochondrial and nuclear population genetic structure, we discovered that one mitochondrial haplotype ('1A') was rare in sexuals, but common and widespread in asexuals. Haplotype 1A frequency and nuclear genetic diversity were not associated, suggesting that the commonness of this haplotype cannot be attributed entirely to genetic drift and pointing instead to a role for selection. PMID:23957656

  16. Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. . Ecotoxicology Group)

    1994-09-01

    Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

  17. Mode of origin differentially influences the fitness of parthenogenetic freshwater snails

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G

    2005-01-01

    How parthenogenetic lineages arise from sexual ancestors may strongly influence their persistence over evolutionary time. Hybrid parthenogens often have elevated heterozygosity and ploidy, thus making it difficult to disentangle the influence of reproductive mode, hybridity and ploidy on their relative fitness. By comparing the relative fitness of both hybrid and non-hybrid parthenogens to their sexual ancestors, further insight may be gained into how these three factors influence the maintenance of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction. In the present study, hybrid and non-hybrid parthenogenetic and sexual snails (Campeloma sp.) were compared for the following characteristics: female size-fecundity curves, offspring size, survivorship, and growth. Compared to nearby sexual populations, triploid hybrid parthenogens from the Florida Gulf coast have similar fecundity and offspring size, five-times higher survivorship, and 60% higher growth. Relative to nearby sexual populations, non-hybrid parthenogenetic C. limum from the Atlantic coast have significantly higher fecundity, smaller offspring size, similar survivorship and slightly lower growth. Given the considerable fitness advantages of parthenogens, especially hybrid parthenogens, it is enigmatic as to why these parthenogens occupy marginal natural habitats. PMID:16191628

  18. Effects of copper, nickel, and zinc on three species of Oregon freshwater snails

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Stinchfield, A.; Savonen, C.; Chapman, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three snail species collected from western Oregon were exposed to metals - Juga plicifera and Lithoglyphus virens, which inhabit cool coastal streams, and Physa gyrina, which is found in Willamette Valley ponds. J. plicifera were exposed in flow-through laboratory tests to copper and nickel, L. virens were exposed to copper, and P. gyrina were exposed to nickel and zinc. J. plicifera has a 96-h LC50 (50% of the test group died) of 0.015 mg/L for copper and a no observed effect level (NOEL, mortality not significantly different from that in control groups) of 0.006 mg/L (30-d survival). J. plicifera had a 96-h LC50 for nickel of 0.237 mg/L and a NOEL of 0.124 mg/L. L. virens had a 96-h LC50 for copper of 0.008 mg/L and a NOEL of less than 0.008 mg/L. P. gyrina had a 96-h LC50 for nickel of 0.239 mg/L, a 96-h LC50 for zinc of 1.274 mg/L and a NOEL for zinc of 0.570 mg/L.

  19. Higher rate of tissue regeneration in polyploid asexual versus diploid sexual freshwater snails

    PubMed Central

    Krois, Nicole R.; Cherukuri, Anvesh; Puttagunta, Nikhil; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-01-01

    Characterizing phenotypic differences between sexual and asexual organisms is a critical step towards understanding why sexual reproduction is so common. Because asexuals are often polyploid, understanding how ploidy influences phenotype is directly relevant to the study of sex and will provide key insights into the evolution of ploidy-level variation. The well-established association between genome size and cell cycle duration, evidence for a link between genome size and tissue regeneration rate and the growing body of research showing that ploidy influences growth rate and gene expression led us to hypothesize that healing and tissue regeneration might be affected by ploidy-level variation. We evaluated this hypothesis by measuring the rate of regeneration of antenna tissue of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by frequent coexistence between diploid sexuals and polyploid asexuals. Antennae of triploid and presumptive tetraploid asexuals regenerated more rapidly than the antennae of diploid sexuals, but regeneration rate did not differ between triploids and tetraploids. These results suggest either that ploidy elevation has nonlinear positive effects on tissue regeneration and/or that factors associated directly with reproductive mode affect regeneration rate more than ploidy level. The results of this study also indicate that the lower ploidy of sexual P. antipodarum is unlikely to confer advantages associated with more rapid regeneration. PMID:23843218

  20. Environmental versus anthropogenic effects on population adaptive divergence in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Boutard, Anthony; Cte, Jessica; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Collinet, Marc; Coutellec, Marie-Agns

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using Q(ST)-F(ST) comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean F(ST) = 0.291), five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment. PMID:25207985

  1. Environmental versus Anthropogenic Effects on Population Adaptive Divergence in the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Boutard, Anthony; Cte, Jessica; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Collinet, Marc; Coutellec, Marie-Agns

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using QST -FST comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean FST?=?0.291), five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment. PMID:25207985

  2. North American Paleozoic land snails with a summary of other Paleozoic nonmarine snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solem, Alan; Yochelson, Ellis Leon

    1979-01-01

    Land snails from the Paleozoic of North America are known from the coal fields of eastern Canada, from the Dunkard basin west of the Allegheny Mountains, and from the western margin of the Illinois basin. The earliest finds were made about 125 years ago; essentially no new information has been recorded for a century. Large collections of Anthracopupa from the Dunkard basin sparked inquiry into the land snails from the other two areas. Studies using the SEM (scanning electron microscope) have provided considerable insight into microdetails of shell structure, which allow systematic assignment of these gastropods. All may be assigned to extant families, except one, for which insufficient material allows only superfamily assignment. The prosobranch Dawsonella is confirmed as being a terrestrial neritacean gastropod. To date, it is known only from the upper Middle Pennsylvanian of Illinois and Indiana. All the other Paleozoic land snails are stylommatophoran pulmonates; their current classification as nonmarine cyclophoraceans is not correct. Restudy of material from the Joggins section of Nova Scotia indicates that representatives of two ordinal groups of pulmonates appeared simultaneously in upper Lower Pennsylvanian strata; the oldest land prosobranch is found in only very slightly younger rocks. Zonites (Conulus) priscus is reassigned to the new genus Protodiscus in the extant family Discidae. Dendropupa is placed within the family Enidae, Anthraaopupa is placed in the family Tornatellinidae, and 'Pupa' bigsbii is assigned to the superfamily Pupillacea. All four of these family-level taxa are diverse and belong to two orders within the superorder Stylommatophora, heretofore considered a derived rather than an ancestral stock. Anthracopupa ohioensis Whitfield is a highly variable species, and two other species Naticopsis (?) diminuta and A.(?) dunkardona, both named by Stauffer and Schroyer, are placed in synonymy with it. To obtain taxonomic data to support the family placement of Anthracopupa, growth forms of modern pupillid and tornatellinid snails have been distinguished. The apertural barriers in Anthracopupa are identical in placement and growth pattern with those of living Tornatellinidae and independently confirm the family placement derived from study of the general form. One new species, A. sturgeoni, has been named. Anthracopupa is found most commonly in thin limestones interpreted as having been deposited in pools into which the small shells floated. Dendropupa is most commonly found in erect tree stumps that were covered by rapid sedimentation. Both environments are similar to those in which the shells of allied living species may be found today, and the fossils support environmental interpretations made entirely from lithology. A survey of the few European occurrences of Paleozoic land snails indicates that both Anthracopupa and Dendropupa occur in Lower Permian strata; Anthracopupa is known from beds as old as Westphalian B. These genera cannot be used for determining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary. Both the long local stratigraphic range of A. brittanica and D. vetusta reported in the literature and the moderately long range and great variability of A. ohioensis suggest that the land snails have little stratigraphic utility. On the other hand, the occurrence of these land snails in the late Paleozoic of the Northern Hemisphere provides further fossil evidence suggestive of a closed Atlantic Ocean at that time. A comparison of the Paleozoic and the present distributions of land -snail families on both sides of the Atlantic provides some interesting data on geographic shifts of organisms. Finally, the assignment of the earliest land snails to extant taxa at the family level indicates that the subclass Pulmonata has been very conservative in its evolution after initial radiation. A few notes on Paleozoic freshwater snails complete this survey.

  3. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid detection of Clonorchis sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wen, T; Lai, D-H; Wen, Y-Z; Wu, Z-D; Yang, T-B; Yu, X-B; Hide, G; Lun, Z-R

    2013-09-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is a key foodborne zoonosis, which is mainly found in China, Korea and Vietnam. Detection of this parasite from the second intermediate host, the freshwater fish is the common method for epidemiological surveys of this parasite, but is time consuming, labour intensive and easily leads to misdiagnosis. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable molecular method for the diagnosis of C. sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails, based on a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The specific amplified fragment from genomic DNA of C. sinensis did not cross-react with those from other relevant trematodes and a range of hosts (freshwater fish, shrimps and snails) of C. sinensis living in similar environments. The detection limit of the LAMP method was as low as 10 fg which was 1000 times more sensitive than conventional PCR, which was also demonstrated by successful application to field samples. These results show that the LAMP method is a more sensitive tool than conventional PCR for the detection of C. sinensis infection in the first intermediate hosts and, due to a simpler protocol, is an ideal molecular method for field-based epidemiological surveys of this parasite. PMID:23870065

  4. Phylogeny, taxonomy, genetics and global heritage ranks of an imperilled, freshwater snail genus Lithasia (Pleuroceridae).

    PubMed

    Minton, Russell L; Lydeard, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Numerous aquatic species are threatened with extinction from habitat elimination or modification. One particularly imperilled group is the freshwater gastropod family Pleuroceridae. Pleurocerids reach their greatest diversity in the southeastern United States, and many species are currently considered extinct, endangered or threatened. One issue hindering efforts to implement conservation management plans for imperilled pleurocerid species is that the taxonomy is in an abysmal state. The taxonomy of pleurocerids is currently based on late 19th- and early 20th-century studies, which used a typological or morphospecies concept. Most biologists today doubt the validity of many of the currently recognized species; however, this does not stop them from assigning conservation ranks in an attempt to determine which species are imperilled or currently stable. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the pleurocerid genus Lithasia using morphological and mitochondrial DNA sequence (mtDNA) data in an attempt to delimit species boundaries and test previous taxonomic schemes. We found that the current taxonomy of Lithasia does not reflect species diversity adequately within the genus, with two new undescribed species being discovered. The conservation status ranks of the new, undescribed species are imperilled and would have been overlooked had we relied on the conventional taxonomy. Additionally, the undescribed species' conservation ranks that were previously apparently secure became vulnerable due to being inappropriately assigned as members of formerly widely distributed species instead of the imperilled status they warrant and vice versa, as some taxa that were considered imperilled are now thought to be modestly stable. Our study suggests that conservation ranks should be considered suspect at best in taxonomically poorly known groups until the taxa are reviewed using modern systematic methods. PMID:12492879

  5. First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis).

    PubMed

    Berry, John P; Lind, Owen

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, including both direct (e.g., drinking water) and indirect (e.g., bioaccumulation in food webs) routes, is emerging as a potentially significant threat to human health. We investigated cyanobacterial toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the microcystins (MCYST) and the "paralytic shellfish toxins" (PST), in Lago Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico). Lago Catemaco is a tropical lake dominated by Cylindrospermopsis, specifically identified as Cylindrospermopsis catemaco and Cylindrospermopsis philippinensis, and characterized by an abundant, endemic species of snail (Pomacea patula catemacensis), known as "tegogolos," that is both consumed locally and commercially important. Samples of water, including dissolved and particulate fractions, as well as extracts of tegogolos, were screened using highly specific and sensitive ELISA. ELISA identified CYN and PST at low concentrations in only one sample of seston; however, both toxins were detected at appreciable quantities in tegogolos. Calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAF) support bioaccumulation of both toxins in tegogolos. The presence of CYN in the phytoplankton was further confirmed by HPLC-UV and LC-MS, following concentration and extraction of algal cells, but the toxin could not be confirmed by these methods in tegogolos. These data represent the first published evidence for CYN and the PST in Lago Catemaco and, indeed, for any freshwater system in Mexico. Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health. PMID:19651152

  6. Effects of landfill leachate effluent and bisphenol A on glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in the gills and digestive glands of the freshwater snail Bellamya purificata.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangli; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang; Yang, Lihua; Lan, Chongyu

    2008-02-01

    Environmental contaminants with estrogenic activity have recently attracted attention due to their potential detrimental effects on the reproduction of human and wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of endogenous glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes as biomarkers of exposure to landfill leachate effluent and bisphenol A (BPA) in the freshwater snail, Bellamya purificata. Following exposure to 1%, 5% and 10% landfill leachate effluent and 1, 10, 50 and 100mugl(-1) BPA for 0, 2, 7 and 15d, activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and levels of total glutathione were measured in the gills and digestive glands of the snails. GST and total glutathione were the most sensitive parameters in both exposure scenarios. GST activities increased by about 80%, while total glutathione decreased to 70% and 80% in the gills and digestive glands, respectively. In contrast, SeGPx and GR activities remained at the same levels in all the treatment groups compared with those of controls. The results indicated that among glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes, GST activity and total glutathione level, which showed dose-dependent dynamics, could be used as biomarkers of aquatic ecosystems contaminated with landfill leachate. PMID:17881034

  7. Detection and quantification of schistosome DNA in freshwater snails using either fluorescent probes in real-time PCR or oligochromatographic dipstick assays targeting the ribosomal intergenic spacer.

    PubMed

    Kane, Richard A; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Leclipteux, Thierry; Evraerts, Jonathan; Standley, Claire J; Allan, Fiona; Betson, Martha; Kaba, Rehana; Mertens, Pascal; Laurent, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    Several DNA probes were designed for use in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to target sequence variation within the ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) of schistosomes. A sub-section of the IGS (∼300bp) was amplified, with cross-specific primers, after which group-specific fluorescent, locked nucleic acid probes were assessed for their ability to differentiate and quantify DNA from Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni group parasites. A number of fluorescent probe candidates were screened and validated against genomic DNA from adult schistosome worms and laboratory infected freshwater snails. Two fluorescent, locked nucleic acid probes ShaemLNA5 and SmanLNA2, of 20-26bp in length, were identified and found to be effective in providing evidence of infection in field-collected snails. To adapt these real-time PCR assays for more resource-poor laboratory settings, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed and primer/probe combinations were modified for use in oligochromatography, a DNA 'dipstick' technology. An appropriate dipstick was developed, inclusive of internal amplification and amplicon migration controls that could be of particular importance for assessing schistosome transmission dynamics. These assays and tools also have future potential for use in detection of schistosome infections in humans and livestock. PMID:22100540

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina uninfected or infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and/or Echinostoma liei in Egypt: the potential use of this snail as a bioindicator of pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, O M S; Mossa, A-T H; El Einin, H M A

    2014-12-01

    In spite of using aquatic snails as bioindicators for water pollution, little attention has been paid to the effect of parasitism upon the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in these organisms. The present study therefore aimed to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in trematode-infected Biomphalaria alexandrina collected from Kafer Alsheikh and Menofia provinces, Egypt, with uninfected snails from the same sites, in order to assess the effect of parasitism on the use of these snails as bioindicators. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft parts and shells of snails were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the heavy metal profile in snails infected with Echinostoma liei was very different from that in snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The total concentration of heavy metals in E. liei-infected snails collected from Kafer Alsheikh or Menofia province was greater than in uninfected snails. In contrast, the total concentration of heavy metals in S. mansoni-infected snails was reduced compared with uninfected snails. In conclusion, the status of snails with respect to parasitic infection must be taken into consideration when these snails are used as bioindicators. PMID:23710821

  9. A Snail Perspective on the Biogeography of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Origin and Intra-Island Dispersal of the Viviparous Freshwater Gastropod Tylomelania

    PubMed Central

    von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Bjrn; Marwoto, Ristiyanti M.; Glaubrecht, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The complex geological history of the Indonesian island Sulawesi has shaped the origin and subsequent diversification of its taxa. For the endemic freshwater snail Tylomelania a vicariant origin from the Australian margin has been hypothesized. Divergence time estimates from a mtDNA phylogeny based on a comprehensive island-wide sampling of Tylomelania fit regional tectonic constraints and support the out-of-Australia vicariance hypothesis. The Banggai-Sula region of the Sula Spur, the Australian promontory colliding with West Sulawesi during the Miocene, is identified as a possible source area for the colonization of Sulawesi by the ancestor of Tylomelania. The molecular phylogeny also shows a rapid diversification of Tylomelania into eight major lineages with very little overlap in their distribution on the island. Haplotype networks provide further evidence for a strong spatial structure of genetic diversity in Tylomelania. Distribution boundaries of the major lineages do at best partially coincide with previously identified contact zones for other endemic species groups on Sulawesi. This pattern has likely been influenced by the poor dispersal capabilities and altitudinal distribution limits of this strict freshwater inhabitant. We suggest that late Miocene and Pliocene orogeny in large parts of Sulawesi has been the vicariant event driving primary diversification in Tylomelania. PMID:24971564

  10. Where are the South American freshwater turtle blood flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae)? The first morphological and molecular analysis of spirorchiid cercariae from freshwater snails in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    Trematodes belonging to the family Spirorchiidae are blood parasites mainly of turtles with a worldwide distribution. These flukes were recently reported in some marine turtles from South America, where the occurrence of spirorchiids in freshwater definitive and intermediate hosts is so far unknown. In the present study, three morphotypes of brevifurcate apharyngeate distome cercariae found in freshwater molluscs from an urban reservoir in Brazil were used for morphological and molecular (nuclear 28S rDNA) evaluation. Two morphotypes of cercariae, probably congeneric species, were found in 12/17,465 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. and differ from each other by body size and sequences (0.1%). They present morphology similar to North American freshwater spirorchiids (Spirorchis spp.), however surprisingly molecular data reveals that these lineages are more closely related to marine spirorchiids. A third species found in 2/777 Pomacea sp. differs morphologically from all previously described spirorchiid cercariae and genetically from spirorchiids with available sequences (16-19%), grouping in the phylogenetic tree with freshwater North American species. This is the first report of freshwater spirorchiids in South America and the first molecular confirmation of the involvement of a caenogastropod in the life cycle of spirorchiids. PMID:26253761

  11. Impact of the redox-cycling herbicide diquat on transcript expression and antioxidant enzymatic activities of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Boutard, Anthony; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Vassaux, Danile; Lagadic, Laurent; Coutellec, Marie-Agns

    2013-01-15

    The presence of pesticides in the environment results in potential unwanted effects on non-target species. Freshwater organisms inhabiting water bodies adjacent to agricultural areas, such as ditches, ponds and marshes, are good models to test such effects as various pesticides may reach these habitats through several ways, including aerial drift, run-off, and drainage. Diquat is a non-selective herbicide used for crop protection or for weed control in such water bodies. In this study, we investigated the effects of diquat on a widely spread aquatic invertebrate, the holarctic freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Due to the known redox-cycling properties of diquat, we studied transcript expression and enzymatic activities relative to oxidative and general stress in the haemolymph and gonado-digestive complex (GDC). As diquat is not persistent, snails were exposed for short times (5, 24, and 48 h) to ecologically relevant concentrations (22.2, 44.4, and 222.2 ?g l(-1)) of diquat dibromide. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the transcription of genes encoding catalase (cat), a cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod), a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (gpx), a glutathione reductase (gred), the retinoid X receptor (rxr), two heat shock proteins (hsp40 and hsp70), cortactin (cor) and the two ribosomal genes r18S and r28s. Enzymatic activities of SOD, Gpx, Gred and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were investigated in the GDC using spectrophoto/fluorometric methods. Opposite trends were obtained in the haemolymph depending on the herbicide concentration. At the lowest concentration, effects were mainly observed after 24 h of exposure, with over-transcription of cor, hsp40, rxr, and sod, whereas higher concentrations down-regulated the expression of most of the studied transcripts, especially after 48 h of exposure. In the GDC, earlier responses were observed and the fold-change magnitude was generally much higher: transcription of all target genes increased significantly (or non-significantly for cat) after 5 h of exposure, and went back to control levels afterwards, suggesting the onset of an early response to oxidative stress associated to the unbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes. Although increases obtained for Gred and SOD activities were globally consistent with their respective transcript expressions, up-regulation of transcription was not always correlated with increase of enzymatic activity, indicating that diquat might affect steps downstream of transcription. However, constitutive levels of enzymatic activities were at least maintained. In conclusion, diquat was shown to affect expression of the whole set of studied transcripts, reflecting their suitability as markers of early response to oxidative stress in L. stagnalis. PMID:23237706

  12. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  13. Disjunct distributions of freshwater snails testify to a central role of the Congo system in shaping biogeographical patterns in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The formation of the East African Rift System has decisively influenced the distribution and evolution of tropical Africa’s biota by altering climate conditions, by creating basins for large long-lived lakes, and by affecting the catchment and drainage directions of river systems. However, it remains unclear how rifting affected the biogeographical patterns of freshwater biota through time on a continental scale, which is further complicated by the scarcity of molecular data from the largest African river system, the Congo. Results We study these biogeographical patterns using a fossil-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny of the gastropod family Viviparidae. This group allows reconstructing drainage patterns exceptionally well because it disperses very poorly in the absence of existing freshwater connections. Our phylogeny covers localities from major drainage basins of tropical Africa and reveals highly disjunct sister-group relationships between (a) the endemic viviparids of Lake Malawi and populations from the Middle Congo as well as between (b) the Victoria region and the Okavango/Upper Zambezi area. Conclusions The current study testifies to repeated disruptions of the distribution of the Viviparidae during the formation of the East African Rift System, and to a central role of the Congo River system for the distribution of the continent’s freshwater fauna during the late Cenozoic. By integrating our results with previous findings on palaeohydrographical connections, we provide a spatially and temporarily explicit model of historical freshwater biogeography in tropical Africa. Finally, we review similarities and differences in patterns of vertebrate and invertebrate dispersal. Amongst others we argue that the closest relatives of present day viviparids in Lake Malawi are living in the Middle Congo River, thus shedding new light on the origin of the endemic fauna of this rift lake. PMID:24597925

  14. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, Tasha; Croteau, Marie-Nole; Rmer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R; Luoma, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO(3) and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO(3). Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (k(uw), l?g(-1)?d(-1)??SE) varied from 3.1??0.7 to 0.2??0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3??0.02 to 1.3??0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag. PMID:25676617

  15. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoiber, Tasha L.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Romer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO3 and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO3. Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (kuw, l g-1 d-1 ± SE) varied from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 0.2 ± 0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3 ± 0.02 to 1.3 ± 0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag.

  16. Histopathological effects of copper on selected epithelial tissues of snails

    SciTech Connect

    Wolmarans, C.T.; van Aardt, W.J.; Coetzee, J.

    1986-06-01

    The exposure of freshwater snails to copper sulfate has several harmful effects on the snails. These effects include several physiological disturbances as well as certain behavioral and histological changes. On the strength of these findings it was decided to investigate, by means of transmission electron microscopy, whether histological changes occur in the surface epithelium of the snail Bulinus tropicus after exposure to copper sulfate.

  17. Digenean trematode infections of native freshwater snails and invasive Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the Grand Teton National Park/John D. Rockefeller Memorial Parkway Area.

    PubMed

    Adema, C M; Lun, C-M; Hanelt, B; Seville, R S

    2009-02-01

    Outside its native range, the invasive New Zealand mud snail (NZMS), Potamopyrgus antipodarum, is rarely reported to harbor parasites. To test this observation, 7 sites along the Snake River and Polecat Creek in the Grand Teton National Park/John D Rockefeller Memorial Parkway area (Wyoming) were surveyed for native aquatic snails, NZMS, and associated digenean trematodes, in July 2005. At 6 sites, native snails harbored patent digenean infections; within 2 hr, < or =10% of lymnaeid snails shed furcocercariae or xiphidiocercariae, and < or =42% of physid snails released furcocercariae or echinostome cercariae. Partial 18S rDNA sequences were recovered from several furcocercariae. Potamopyrgus antipodarum was present at, and collected from, 5 sites. Polymerase chain reaction assays targeting digenean rDNA sequences in DNA extracted from pools of 150 NZMS snails did not detect parasites. The examination of 960 NZMS by overnight shedding yielded 1 occurrence of (surface-encysted) metacercariae of an unclassified notocotylid (based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequences). The dissection of 150 ethanol-fixed NZMS (30/site) revealed 2 types of digenean metacercariae encysted in tissues of 5 snails from Polecat Creek. Thus, invasive NZMS may serve as first and second intermediate host for digenean parasites. PMID:18576875

  18. Pulmonic Ingressive Speech in Shetland English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundkvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of pulmonic ingressive speech, a severely understudied phenomenon within varieties of English. While ingressive speech has been reported for several parts of the British Isles, New England, and eastern Canada, thus far Newfoundland appears to be the only locality where researchers have managed to provide substantial

  19. Pulmonic Ingressive Speech in Shetland English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundkvist, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of pulmonic ingressive speech, a severely understudied phenomenon within varieties of English. While ingressive speech has been reported for several parts of the British Isles, New England, and eastern Canada, thus far Newfoundland appears to be the only locality where researchers have managed to provide substantial…

  20. Snail Trails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

  1. Snail Trails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial

  2. Snails home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

  3. Snail Shell

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Plant seems to be a Heliotropum sp. Huge snail shells litter the wetland around Asuncion Bay. Near 251549S, 573747W. La plantita detrs del caracol parece ser un Heliotropium sp., Boraginaceae....

  4. [Food consumption, production and energy evaluation in Helix aspersa müller (a terrestrial pulmonated gasteropod)].

    PubMed

    Charrier, M; Daguzan, J

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative study of feeding in Helix aspersa Müller (Gastropod, Pulmonate) is made in the laboratory with a view to apply the resulted obtained to its rearing in a warmed room. From the birth of the snails to six months old, two methods are applied: one ponderous, the other energetic, allowing us to draw up a nutritional budget. --The parameters are: daily rates of consommation, fecal production and assimilation; monthly production rate, efficiency of assimilation and finally gross and net growth efficiencies. The evolution of these parameters, seems to be dependant on the stage of growth of the snail, and on a physiological phenomenon present in Helix aspersa living in the field. PMID:7416661

  5. Assessment of mercury toxicity by the changes in oxygen consumption and ion levels in the freshwater snail, Pila globosa, and the mussel, Lamellidens marginalis

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaramakrishna, B.; Radhakrishnaiah, K.; Suresh, A. )

    1991-06-01

    There are many studies on mercury toxicity in freshwater fishes but very few on freshwater molluscs (Wright 1978) though they serve as bio-indicators of metal pollution. A few reports on marine gastropods and bivalves indicated the importance of these animals in metal toxicity studies. Hence, in the present study, the level of tolerance of the freshwater gastropod Pila globosa and of a freshwater bivalve Lamellidens marginalis mercury at lethal and sublethal levels was determined and compared with the rate of whole animal oxygen consumption and the level of sodium, potassium and calcium ions in the hepatopancreas and the foot of these animals. As the period of exposure is one of the important factors in toxicity studies, the level of tolerance was determined at 120 hours of exposure and the other parameters were analyzed at 1, 3 and 5 days in lethal and at 1, 7 and 15 days in sublethal concentrations.

  6. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40.6% of all infections followed by echinostome cercariae (35.0%) and xiphidiocercariae (17.3%). Bithynia fuschiana and M. tuberculata had the most diverse trematode fauna. C. sinensis was not recorded in this study. The VAC pond system in this area, is very important for transmission of minute intestinal trematodes while they play little role in transmission of C. sinensis as its intermediate hosts, bithynid snails, rarely occur in these ponds. From a public health perspective this is positive as the effects of infections with intestinal trematodes are considered mild. On the other hand it is possible that even such subtle effects could have importance in public health as transmission is very intense in the area. And this in combination with the aquaculture importance, reduced marketability of fishes with high metacercariae loads, warrants that control efforts against these trematodes are initiated to reduce transmission in this production system. PMID:20457118

  7. Snail Shell

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Plant seems to be a Heliotropum sp. Huge snail shells litter the wetland around Asuncion Bay. Near 25°15’49’’S, 57°37’47’’W. La plantita detrás del caracol parece ser un Heliotropium sp., Boraginaceae....

  8. Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

  9. Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the

  10. Genetic Basis of Differential Heat Resistance between Two Species of Congeneric Freshwater Snails: Insights from Quantitative Proteomics and Base Substitution Rate Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Huawei; Sun, Jin; Fang, Ling; Luan, Tiangang; Williams, Gray A; Cheung, Siu Gin; Wong, Chris K C; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-10-01

    We compared the heat tolerance, proteomic responses to heat stress, and adaptive sequence divergence in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata and its noninvasive congener Pomacea diffusa. The LT50 of P. canaliculata was significantly higher than that of P. diffusa. More than 3350 proteins were identified from the hepatopancreas of the snails exposed to acute and chronic thermal stress using iTRAQ-coupled mass spectrometry. Acute exposure (3 h exposure at 37 C with 25 C as control) resulted in similar numbers (27 in P. canaliculata and 23 in P. diffusa) of differentially expressed proteins in the two species. Chronic exposure (3 weeks of exposure at 35 C with 25 C as control) caused differential expression of more proteins (58 in P. canaliculata and 118 in P. diffusa), with many of them related to restoration of damaged molecules, ubiquitinating dysfunctional molecules, and utilization of energy reserves in both species; but only in P. diffusa was there a shift from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism. Analysis of orthologous genes encoding the differentially expressed proteins revealed two genes having clear evidence of positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) and seven candidates for more detailed analysis of positive selection (Ka/Ks between 0.5 and 1). These nine genes are related to energy metabolism, cellular oxidative homeostasis, signaling, and binding processes. Overall, the proteomic and base substitution rate analyses indicate genetic basis of differential resistance to heat stress between the two species, and such differences could affect their further range expansion in a warming climate. PMID:26290311

  11. Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda. PMID:18280060

  12. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Retinal arterial macroaneurysm with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patient support For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry Genetic testing PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder ... Calgary Retina Consultants: Retinal Arterial Macroaneurysm Genetic Testing Registry: Retinal arterial macroaneurysm with supravalvular pulmonic stenosis MedlinePlus ...

  14. Linking embryo toxicity with genotoxic responses in the freshwater snail Physa acuta: single exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, fluoxetine, bisphenol A, vinclozolin and exposure to binary mixtures with benzo(a)pyrene.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Aparicio, Natalia; Fernández, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Genotoxic effects on fauna after waterborne pollutant exposure have been demonstrated by numerous research programmes. Less effort has been focused on establishing relationship between genotoxicity and long-term responses at higher levels of biological organization. Taking into account that embryos may be more sensitive indicators of reproductive impairment than alterations in fertility, we have developed two assays in multiwell plates to address correlations between embryo toxicity and genotoxicity. The potential teratogenicity was assessed by analyzing abnormal development and mortality of Physa acuta at embryonic stage. Genotoxicity was measured by the micronucleus (MN) test using embryonic cells. Our results showed that linkage between genotoxicity and embryo toxicity depends on mechanisms of action of compounds under study. Embryo toxic responses showed a clear dose-related tendency whereas no clear dose-dependent effect was observed in micronucleus induction. The higher embryo toxicity was produced by benzo(a)pyrene exposure followed by fluoxetine and bisphenol A. Vinclozolin was the lower embryo toxic compound. Binary mixtures with BaP always resulted in higher embryo toxicity than single exposures but antagonistic effects were observed for MN induction. Benzo(a)pyrene produced the higher MN induction at 0.04 mg/L, which also produced clear embryo toxic effects. Fluoxetine did not induce cytogenetic effects but 0.25mg/L altered embryonic development. Bisphenol A significantly reduced hatchability at 0.5mg/L while MN induction appeared with higher treatments than those that start causing teratogenicity. Much higher concentration of vinclozolin (5mg/L) reduced hatchability and induced maximum MN formation. In conclusion, while validating one biomarker of genotoxicity and employing one ecologically relevant effect, we have evaluated the relative sensitivity of a freshwater mollusc for a range of chemicals. The embryo toxicity test is a starting point for the development of a life cycle test with freshwater snails even for undertaking multigeneration studies focused on transgenerational effects. PMID:22417675

  15. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  16. Unravelling the riddle of Radix: DNA barcoding for species identification of freshwater snail intermediate hosts of zoonotic digeneans and estimating their inter-population evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Scott P; Lim, Rivka M; Dukes, Juliet P; Kett, Stephen M; Cook, Richard T; Walker, Anthony J; Kirk, Ruth S

    2015-10-01

    Radix spp. are intermediate host snails for digenean parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Within this genus, species differentiation using shell and internal organ morphology can result in erroneous species identification, causing problems when trying to understand the population biology of Radix. In the present study, DNA barcoding, using cox1 and ITS2 sequences, identified populations of Radix auricularia and Radix balthica from specimens originally morphologically identified as Radix peregra from the UK. Assessment of cox1 and ITS2 as species identification markers showed that, although both markers differentiated species, cox1 possessed greater molecular diversity and higher phylogenetic resolution. Cox1 also proved useful for gaining insights into the evolutionary relationships of Radix species populations. Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks of cox1 indicated that R. auricularia appeared to have invaded the UK several times; some haplotypes forming a distinct UK specific clade, whilst others are more akin to those found on mainland Europe. This was in contrast to relationships between R. balthica populations, which had low molecular diversity and no distinct UK specific haplotypes, suggesting recent and multiple invasions from mainland Europe. Molecular techniques therefore appear to be crucial for distinguishing Radix spp., particularly using cox1. This barcoding marker also enables the population biology of Radix spp. to be explored, and is invaluable for monitoring the epidemiology of fluke diseases especially in the light of emerging diseases and food security. PMID:26196736

  17. Severe pulmonic valve regurgitation due to histoplasma endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Merri; Lin, Peter T; Pislaru, Sorin V

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 67-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome, disseminated histoplasmosis, and mitral valve replacement presented with dyspnea and peripheral edema. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated abnormal pulmonic valve with possible vegetation. Color flow imaging showed laminar flow from main pulmonary artery into right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in diastole. The continuous wave Doppler signal showed dense diastolic envelope with steep deceleration slope. These findings were consistent with severe pulmonic valve regurgitation, possibly due to endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated an echodense mass attached to the pulmonic valve. The mitral valve bioprosthesis appeared intact. Bacterial and fungal blood cultures were negative; however, serum histoplasma antigen was positive. At surgery, the valve appeared destroyed by vegetations. Gomori methenamine silver-stains showed invasive fungal hyphae and yeast consistent with a dimorphic fungus. Valve cultures grew one colony of filamentous fungus. Itraconazole was continued based on expert infectious diseases diagnosis. After surgery, dyspnea and ankle edema resolved. To the best of our knowledge, histoplasma endocarditis of pulmonic valve has not been previously reported. Isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis is rare, accounting for about 2% of infectious endocarditis (IE) cases. Fungi account for about 3% of cases of native valve endocarditis. Characterization of pulmonary valve requires thorough interrogation with 2D and Doppler echocardiography techniques. Parasternal RVOT view allowed visualization of the pulmonary valve and assessment of regurgitation severity. As an anterior structure, it may be difficult to image with transesophageal echocardiography. Mid-esophageal right ventricular inflowoutflow view clearly showed the pulmonary valve and vegetation. Learning points Identification and characterization of pulmonary valve abnormalities require thorough interrogation with 2D and Doppler echocardiography techniques.Isolated pulmonary valve IE is rare and requires high index of suspicion. Histoplasma capsulatum IE is rare and requires high index of suspicion. PMID:26693325

  18. Biodiversity of trematodes in their intermediate mollusc and fish hosts in the freshwater ecosystems of Europe.

    PubMed

    Faltýnková, Anna; Sures, Bernd; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    We analysed two novel databases containing 2,380 and 8,202 host-parasite-locality records for trematode parasites of molluscs and fishes, respectively, to assess the biodiversity of trematodes in their intermediate mollusc and fish hosts in the freshwater environment in Europe. The "mollusc" dataset covers large numbers of pulmonate (29 spp.), "prosobranch" (15 spp.) and bivalve (11 spp.) molluscs acting as first intermediate hosts for 171 trematode species of 89 genera and 35 families. Of these, 23 and 40 species utilise freshwater fishes as definitive and second intermediate hosts, respectively. The most frequently recorded families are the Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899, Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 and Schistosomatidae Stilles & Hassal, 1898, and the most frequently recorded species are Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819), D. pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 and Echinoparyphium recurvatum (von Linstow, 1873). Four snail species harbour extremely rich trematode faunas: Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) (41 spp.); Planorbis planorbis (L.) (39 spp.); Radix peregra (O.F. Müller) (33 spp.); and R. ovata (Draparnaud) (31 spp.). The "fish" dataset covers 99 fish species of 63 genera and 19 families acting as second intermediate hosts for 66 species of 33 genera and nine families. The most frequently recorded families are the Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886, Strigeidae Railliet, 1919 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most frequently recorded species are Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819), Tylodelphys clavata (von Nordmann, 1832) and Posthodiplostomum cuticola (von Nordmann, 1832). Four cyprinid fishes exhibit the highest species richness of larval trematodes: Rutilus rutilus (L.) (41 spp.); Abramis brama (L.) (34 spp.); Blicca bjoerkna (L.) (33 spp.); and Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.) (33 spp.). Larval stages of 50 species reported in fish are also reported in freshwater molluscs, thus indicating a relatively good knowledge of the life-cycles of fish trematodes in Europe. We provide host-parasite lists for 55 species of molluscs with a European distribution comprising 413 host-parasite associations. PMID:26898591

  19. The convoluted evolution of snail chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilthuizen, M.; Davison, A.

    2005-11-01

    The direction that a snail (Mollusca: Gastropoda) coils, whether dextral (right-handed) or sinistral (left-handed), originates in early development but is most easily observed in the shell form of the adult. Here, we review recent progress in understanding snail chirality from genetic, developmental and ecological perspectives. In the few species that have been characterized, chirality is determined by a single genetic locus with delayed inheritance, which means that the genotype is expressed in the mother's offspring. Although research lags behind the studies of asymmetry in the mouse and nematode, attempts to isolate the loci involved in snail chirality have begun, with the final aim of understanding how the axis of left-right asymmetry is established. In nature, most snail taxa (>90%) are dextral, but sinistrality is known from mutant individuals, populations within dextral species, entirely sinistral species, genera and even families. Ordinarily, it is expected that strong frequency-dependent selection should act against the establishment of new chiral types because the chiral minority have difficulty finding a suitable mating partner (their genitalia are on the ‘wrong’ side). Mixed populations should therefore not persist. Intriguingly, however, a very few land snail species, notably the subgenus Amphidromus sensu stricto, not only appear to mate randomly between different chiral types, but also have a stable, within-population chiral dimorphism, which suggests the involvement of a balancing factor. At the other end of the spectrum, in many species, different chiral types are unable to mate and so could be reproductively isolated from one another. However, while empirical data, models and simulations have indicated that chiral reversal must sometimes occur, it is rarely likely to lead to so-called ‘single-gene’ speciation. Nevertheless, chiral reversal could still be a contributing factor to speciation (or to divergence after speciation) when reproductive character displacement is involved. Understanding the establishment of chirality, the preponderance of dextral species and the rare instances of stable dimorphism is an important target for future research. Since the genetics of chirality have been studied in only a few pulmonate species, we also urge that more taxa, especially those from the sea, should be investigated.

  20. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  1. Snail Shell Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

  2. Pulmonic stenosis caused by single coronary artery in dogs: four cases (1965-1984).

    PubMed

    Buchanan, J W

    1990-01-01

    Single right coronary artery (CA) associated with pulmonic stenosis was found in 3 English Bulldogs and a Boxer, suggesting a genetic predisposition for the associated anomalies. The left main coronary branch arose from the single right CA, encircled the pulmonic root over hypoplastic pulmonic valves at the level of the obstruction, and appeared to be the primary cause of underlying pulmonic stenosis. Patch-graft surgery to relieve pulmonic stenosis caused death in 1 dog when the unrecognized anomalous CA was served during the procedure. The anomalous left CA was detectable by use of angiocardiography in all 4 dogs and was recognized before surgery in 2 of them. In 1 dog, a right ventricle-to-pulmonary trunk-bridging conduit was implanted to improve outflow from the right side of the heart. PMID:2295544

  3. Evolution of Pulmonate Gastropod Mitochondrial Genomes: Comparisons of Gene Organizations of Euhadra, Cepaea and Albinaria and Implications of Unusual Trna Secondary Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, N.; Ueshima, R.; Terrett, J. A.; Yokobori, S. I.; Kaifu, M.; Segawa, R.; Kobayashi, T.; Numachi, K. I.; Ueda, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Watanabe, K.; Thomas, R. H.

    1997-01-01

    Complete gene organizations of the mitochondrial genomes of three pulmonate gastropods, Euhadra herklotsi, Cepaea nemoralis and Albinaria coerulea, permit comparisons of their gene organizations. Euhadra and Cepaea are classified in the same superfamily, Helicoidea, yet they show several differences in the order of tRNA and protein coding genes. Albinaria is distantly related to the other two genera but shares the same gene order in one part of its mitochondrial genome with Euhadra and in another part with Cepaea. Despite their small size (14.1-14.5 kbp), these snail mtDNAs encode 13 protein genes, two rRNA genes and at least 22 tRNA genes. These genomes exhibit several unusual or unique features compared to other published metazoan mitochondrial genomes, including those of other molluscs. Several tRNAs predicted from the DNA sequences possess bizarre structures lacking either the T stem or the D stem, similar to the situation seen in nematode mt-tRNAs. The acceptor stems of many tRNAs show a considerable number of mismatched basepairs, indicating that the RNA editing process recently demonstrated in Euhadra is widespread in the pulmonate gastropods. Strong selection acting on mitochondrial genomes of these animals would have resulted in frequent occurrence of the mismatched basepairs in regions of overlapping genes. PMID:9055084

  4. Differences in snail ecology lead to infection pattern variation of Echinostoma spp. larval stages.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael R; Luth, Kyle E; Esch, Gerald W

    2014-09-01

    The infection patterns of parasites are often tied to host behavior. Although most studies have investigated definitive hosts and their parasites, intermediate host behavior may play a role in shaping the distribution and accumulation of parasites, particularly the larval stages. In an attempt to answer this question, more than 4,500 pulmonate snails were collected from 11 states in the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern United States in the summer of 2012. These snails were necropsied and echinostome metecercariae were commonly observed infecting the snails as 2(nd) intermediate hosts (20.0%). The snails included species of 3 genera with distinct differences in the infection patterns of Echinostoma spp. metacercariae among them. Physa spp. (comprising of P. acuta and P. gyrina) snails exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of infection (23.5%) than both Lymnaea columella (11.6%) and Helisoma spp. (comprising of H. anceps and H. trivolvis) (14.2%; P < 0.05), with no difference in prevalence observed between the latter 2 genera (P > 0.05). The intensity of metacercariae within the snail hosts was significantly different between the 3 genera (P < 0.05), with L. columella having the highest intensity (24.3 5.6), followed by Physa spp. (15.2 1.5) and Helisoma spp. (5.0 0.9). Differences in prevalence and intensity were also observed when the different snail families co-habited the same body of water. The disparities in infection patterns are likely due to distinct differences in the behavioral and feeding ecology of the snail hosts. PMID:25119366

  5. Copper toxicity to the fresh water snail, Lymnaea luteola

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, N.M.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-07-01

    Haemocyanins are found in arthropoda and mollusca and show a copper content characteristic for each phylum. Heavy metal accumulation by mollusks is widely reported. Approximately one third of the enzymes either required addition of a metal ion as a cofactor in order to exhibit maximum activity or contained a slightly bound metal ion which appeared to be involved in the catalytic process. Copper is the only metal which has been detected in significant amounts in amino oxidase. The present study is designed to evaluate the influence of such copper, which is of such common occurrence in biological material, on some of the lipolytic enzymes of fresh water pulmonate snail, Lymnaea luteola when added to ambient medium. The present study also highlights the possible detoxification mechanism prevailing in this fresh water mollusk.

  6. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (P<0.05). Different habitats had different snail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B.s. goniomphalos snail ecology. PMID:24561073

  7. Snail Chirality: The Unwinding.

    PubMed

    Maderspacher, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Most snails are coiled clockwise, but in some species rare genetic variants with reverse coiling occur. Now, a molecular determinant of coiling direction has been identified, the cytoskeletal regulator formin. PMID:26954445

  8. Lemierre's Syndrome: A Rare Case of Pulmonic Valve Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Clara; Mastrine, Lou; Moskovits, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an uncommon complication of pharyngitis commonly associated with an anaerobic gram negative bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum. The syndrome usually affects young healthy adults with the mean age of 20 and is characterized by recent pharyngitis followed by ipsilateral internal jugular vein thrombosis and septic thromboembolism. The treatment is at least 6 weeks of antibiotics; the role of anticoagulation is unclear. The following presentation is a case of Lemierre's syndrome in a 23-year-old healthy individual who is infected by a rare species: Fusobacterium nucleatum. The case is complicated by septic emboli to the lungs and impressive seeding vegetation to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) at the pulmonic valve of the heart. PMID:23573433

  9. Pathogenesis of single right coronary artery and pulmonic stenosis in English Bulldogs.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, J W

    2001-01-01

    English Bulldogs are the most common breed to have pulmonic stenosis. Previous studies showed that this congenital heart abnormality in Bulldogs frequently is caused by a circumpulmonary left coronary artery originating from a single right coronary artery. Fetal anasarca also occurs often in Bulldogs and might represent congestive heart failure, but the cause is unknown. To determine if fetal anasarca is associated with a coronary anomaly and pulmonic stenosis, major coronary arteries were studied in 6 bulldog puppies with fetal anasarca. Five of the puppies had normal coronary arteries, and this led to the conclusion that fetal anasarca usually is not associated with major coronary abnormalities or pulmonic stenosis. The 6th puppy had single right coronary artery with circumpulmonary left coronary artery and moderate subvalvular pulmonic stenosis. Serial section histology suggests that the underlying cause of this syndrome is malformation of the left aortic sinus (of Valsalva) and inversion of the proximal segment of the left main coronary artery. PMID:11300591

  10. Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2008-10-01

    The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators. PMID:18642077

  11. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  12. Ten new complete mitochondrial genomes of pulmonates (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and their impact on phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reconstructing the higher relationships of pulmonate gastropods has been difficult. The use of morphology is problematic due to high homoplasy. Molecular studies have suffered from low taxon sampling. Forty-eight complete mitochondrial genomes are available for gastropods, ten of which are pulmonates. Here are presented the new complete mitochondrial genomes of the ten following species of pulmonates: Salinator rhamphidia (Amphiboloidea); Auriculinella bidentata, Myosotella myosotis, Ovatella vulcani, and Pedipes pedipes (Ellobiidae); Peronia peronii (Onchidiidae); Siphonaria gigas (Siphonariidae); Succinea putris (Stylommatophora); Trimusculus reticulatus (Trimusculidae); and Rhopalocaulis grandidieri (Veronicellidae). Also, 94 new pulmonate-specific primers across the entire mitochondrial genome are provided, which were designed for amplifying entire mitochondrial genomes through short reactions and closing gaps after shotgun sequencing. Results The structural features of the 10 new mitochondrial genomes are provided. All genomes share similar gene orders. Phylogenetic analyses were performed including the 10 new genomes and 17 genomes from Genbank (outgroups, opisthobranchs, and other pulmonates). Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses, based on the concatenated amino-acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, produced the same topology. The pulmonates are paraphyletic and basal to the opisthobranchs that are monophyletic at the tip of the tree. Siphonaria, traditionally regarded as a basal pulmonate, is nested within opisthobranchs. Pyramidella, traditionally regarded as a basal (non-euthyneuran) heterobranch, is nested within pulmonates. Several hypotheses are rejected, such as the Systellommatophora, Geophila, and Eupulmonata. The Ellobiidae is polyphyletic, but the false limpet Trimusculus reticulatus is closely related to some ellobiids. Conclusions Despite recent efforts for increasing the taxon sampling in euthyneuran (opisthobranchs and pulmonates) molecular phylogenies, several of the deeper nodes are still uncertain, because of low support values as well as some incongruence between analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and those based on individual genes (18S, 28S, 16S, CO1). Additional complete genomes are needed for pulmonates (especially for Williamia, Otina, and Smeagol), as well as basal heterobranchs closely related to euthyneurans. Increasing the number of markers for gastropod (and more broadly mollusk) phylogenetics also is necessary in order to resolve some of the deeper nodes -although clearly not an easy task. Step by step, however, new relationships are being unveiled, such as the close relationships between the false limpet Trimusculus and ellobiids, the nesting of pyramidelloids within pulmonates, and the close relationships of Siphonaria to sacoglossan opisthobranchs. The additional genomes presented here show that some species share an identical mitochondrial gene order due to convergence. PMID:21985526

  13. Isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis presenting as neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Goud, Aditya; Abdelqader, Abdelhai; Dahagam, Chanukya; Padmanabhan, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a unique case of a 52-year-old man with no history of intravenous drug use or dental procedures who presented with neck pain, 2 weeks of fevers, chills, night sweats, cough, and dyspnea found to have isolated pulmonic valve (PV) endocarditis. The patient did not have an associated murmur, which is commonly seen in right-sided infectious endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a thickened PV leaflet, with subsequent transesophageal echocardiogram showing a PV mass. Speciation of blood cultures revealed Streptococcus oralis. In right-sided infective endocarditis, usually the tricuspid valve is involved; however, in our case the tricuspid valve was free of any mass or vegetation. The patient did meet Duke criteria and was thus started on long-term intravenous antibiotics for infectious endocarditis. The patient's symptoms quickly improved with antibiotics. A careful history and evaluating the patient's risk factors are key in earlier detection of infective endocarditis (IE). Because of early detection and a high index of suspicion, the patient had no further complications and did not require any surgery. In conclusion, clinical suspicion of right-sided IE should be high in patients who present with persistent fevers and pulmonary symptoms in order to reduce the risk of complications, and to improve outcomes. PMID:26653697

  14. Synchronous and Non-Synchronous Semelparity in Sibling Species of Pulmonates.

    PubMed

    Nyumura, Nobuhiro; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Diverse life histories have been documented in terrestrial pulmonates, which inhabit different regions in climate. Life history traits are often phenotypically plastic and vary depending on the environment. Thus, surveys using designs that control for the confounding effects of environment are needed to evaluate the evolutionary differences between populations of closely related species in the wild. We examined the life histories of sibling species of terrestrial pulmonate within two regions of similar climates. Bradybaena pellucida (BP) is endemic to Japanese islands, and has recently been expanding its distribution northeastward, whereas B. similaris (BS) has been introduced by humans into temperate and tropical regions worldwide. We found that these species exhibit discrete differences in population dynamics and life cycle, despite their close relatedness. The annual life cycle of BP is synchronized among individuals in a population. Thus, BP is univoltine with discontinuous generation. In contrast, BS individuals do not synchronize their growth or reproduction, and thus exhibit overlapping generations. Our results indicate that synchronized and non-synchronized population dynamics diverge relatively rapidly in semelparous pulmonates. This type of difference has not been documented in pulmonate life history, and may have been overlooked because only a few studies have explicitly compared life cycles of closely related species within the same climate. Our results provide a basis for further studies of life history evolution in pulmonates. PMID:26245224

  15. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  16. The role of spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition in structuring trematode communities in the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Kuris, Armand M.; Scholz, Tomáš; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed how spatial and temporal heterogeneity and competition structure larval trematode communities in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. To postulate a dominance hierarchy, mark-release-recapture was used to monitor replacements of trematode species within snails over time. In addition, we sampled the trematode community in snails in different ponds in 3 consecutive years. A total of 7,623 snails (10,382 capture events) was sampled in 7 fishponds in the Jindřichův Hradec and Třeboň areas in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) from August 2006 to October 2008. Overall, 39% of snails were infected by a community of 14 trematode species; 7% of snails were infected with more than 1 trematode species (constituting 16 double- and 4 triple-species combinations). Results of the null-model analyses suggested that spatial heterogeneity in recruitment among ponds isolated trematode species from each other, whereas seasonal pulses in recruitment increased species interactions in some ponds. Competitive exclusion among trematodes led to a rarity of multiple infections compared to null-model expectations. Competitive relationships among trematode species were hypothesized as a dominance hierarchy based on direct evidence of replacement and invasion and on indirect evidence. Seven top dominant species with putatively similar competitive abilities (6 rediae and 1 sporocyst species) reduced the prevalence of the other trematode species developing in sporocysts only.

  17. The feeding habits of the snail kite in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were observed intermittently from 1967-1980 in Florida, USA. Approximately 97% of all observed foraging bouts were over marshes having sparse emergent vegetation. The visually-hunting kite was unable to forage over floating mats of exotic water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Male kites had shorter hunting bouts than females. For still-hunting, the birds' perches ranged from 0.15-4.6 m high and captures occurred an average of 5.8 m from perches. Females were significantly more successful (70%) for course-hunting than males (48%), but I found no difference for still-hunting. Birds tended to forage throughout the day, except for occasional inactive periods by some individuals during midday. On cooler days, foraging commenced slightly later in the morning than on warmer days. Kites probably capture freshwater apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) as deep as 16 cm. Capture rates for adults generally ranged from 1.7-3.4 snails per hour. Kites usually foraged over a common hunting area, and defense of foraging sites was rare. Handling of snails, from the kite's arrival at the feeding perch unit consumption, averaged 2.7 min, with no significant difference between sexes. However, adult females were more efficient at the extraction portion of this process than were adult males. Snails were usually extracted before being brought to the nest, except in the latter part of the nestling period when some snails were extracted at or near the nest and some were brought intact. Adults feed small chicks bill to bill, and both parents generally shared equally in care of the young, except at two nests where the females did 67% or more of the feeding. Mean length of snails taken by kites was 42.8 mm (range 25.2-71.3 n=697) and mean diameter was 45.8 mm (range 27.4-82.4, n=697). The most common size classes tkaen were 30-60 mm in length and diameter. Nutritional and gross energy values were determined for apple snails. Female snails with albumen glands removed (versus males or mixed samples of both sexes of complete tissue or with viscera removed) had the highest caloric value (.hivin.x=4.04 kcal/g, n=10). Kites cast pellets, a behavior documented here for the first time.

  18. Streptococcus Constellatus Community Acquired Pneumonia with Subsequent Isolated Pulmonic Valve Endocarditis and Abscess Formation in a Structurally Normal Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Stuart James

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonic valve infective endocarditis in isolation is a rare clinical entity. The formation of an abscess in the right ventricular outflow tract as a consequence of vegetations affecting the pulmonic valve in a structurally normal heart is extremely rare and has not been reported. We report a case of isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis complicated by a regional abscess formed within the right ventricular outflow tract caused by Streptococcus Constellatus (S. Constellatus), a member of the Streptococcus Milleri group in a young male whose risk factor was alcohol abuse and he was treated medically, a comprehensive literature review on the subject is also reported. Our case is the first reported in literature with infective endocarditis caused by S. Constellatus affecting the pulmonic valve, and the first with pulmonic valve endocarditis and perivalvular abscess formation in a structurally normal heart. PMID:25031801

  19. RELATIVE EFFECTS OF PREDATION AND FACILITATION IN CONTROLLING THE DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF AN INTERTIDAL PULMONATE SNAIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results will allow managers to better predict potential effects of eutrophication and predator depletion (e.g., recent declines in crab populations) on salt marsh structure and function and to formulate effective long-term plans to sustain this resource.

  20. Habitat requirements of the pulmonate land snails Trochulus oreinos oreinos and Cylindrus obtusus endemic to the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Michael; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Haring, Elisabeth; Sattmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The habitat needs and potential threats to Trochulus oreinos oreinos (Wagner 1915) and Cylindrus obtusus (Draparnaud 1805) were assessed by comparing vegetation maps and our own records. We selected four sites from which we had adequate samples and for which exact vegetation maps were available: the mountains Hoch-schwab, Schneealpe, Rax and Schneeberg. Both taxa prefer open dry alpine grassland with diggable soil and/or stones. T. oreinos oreinos is restricted to subalpine and alpine boulder societies and Caricetum firmae. While C. obtusus dwells on several communities of plants, it seems to be bound to unconsolidated stony ground. As both taxa prefer naturally forest-free areas, they are not affected by structural changes of the habitat, such as reforestation caused by the abandonment of grazing and the shift of vegetation zones. But it has to be considered that T. oreinos oreinos and C. obtusus are limited by microclimatic factors, as they prefer cooler habitats. The mountains Schneealpe, Rax and Schneeberg, reaching barely 2000 m in height, are on the climatic limit of the species distribution. Therefore, the investigated taxa are vulnerable to the upward shift of climate zones. T. oreinos oreinos shows striking similarities in its habitat preference to the Swiss endemic T. biconicus, as both taxa prefer the same dry alpine habitats which are quite different to those of other representatives of the genus, which prefer damp habitats. PMID:25729612

  1. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de Len, Francisco J Garca

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  2. Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalepa, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of freshwater biology particularly freshwater macroinvertebrates and their effect on water pollution, covering publications of 1976-77. A list of 158 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Proteomic profile of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails upon infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini

    PubMed Central

    Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Tesana, Smarn; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Laha, Thewarach; Mulvenna, Jason; Grams, Rudi; Loukas, Alex; Sotillo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos acts as the first intermediate host for the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, the major cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in Northeast Thailand. The undisputed link between CCA and O. viverrini infection has precipitated efforts to understand the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions with a view to ultimately developing new control strategies to combat this carcinogenic infection. To date most effort has focused on the interactions between the parasite and its human host, and little is known about the molecular relationships between the liver fluke and its snail intermediate host. In the present study we analyse the protein expression changes in different tissues of B. siamensis goniomphalos induced by infection with larval O. viverrini using iTRAQ labelling technology. We show that O. viverrini infection downregulates the expression of oxidoreductases and catalytic enzymes, while stress-related and motor proteins are upregulated. The present work could serve as a basis for future studies on the proteins implicated in the susceptibility/resistance of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini, as well as studies on other pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of various parasitic flukes that infect humans. PMID:25284051

  4. Studying snails and stream health

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1992-01-01

    A type of snail (Elimia) that is abundant in most streams in east Tennessee is noticeably absent in contaminated Oak Ridge streams, indicating a significant level of pollution. Such a snail could serve as a sensitive indicator of and contributor to improved water quality in Oak Ridge streams as remediation programs take effect.

  5. An artificial perch to help Snail Kites handle an exotic Apple Snail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.

  6. Characterization of the pigmented shell-forming proteome of the common grove snail Cepaea nemoralis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With a diversity of pigmented shell morphotypes governed by Mendelian patterns of inheritance, the common grove snail, Cepaea nemoralis, has served as a model for evolutionary biologists and population geneticists for decades. Surprisingly, the molecular mechanisms by which C. nemoralis generates this pigmented shelled diversity, and the degree of evolutionary conservation present between molluscan shell-forming proteomes, remain unknown. Results Here, using next generation sequencing and high throughput proteomics, we identify and characterize the major proteinaceous components of the C. nemoralis shell, the first shell-proteome for a pulmonate mollusc. The recent availability of several marine molluscan shell-proteomes, and the dataset we report here, allow us to identify 59 evolutionarily conserved and novel shell-forming proteins. While the C. nemoralis dataset is dominated by proteins that share little to no similarity with proteins in public databases, almost half of it shares similarity with proteins present in other molluscan shells. In addition, we could not find any indication that a protein (or class of proteins) is directly associated with shell pigmentation in C. nemoralis. This is in contrast to the only other partially characterized molluscan-shell pigmentation mechanism employed by the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Conclusions The unique pulmonate shell-forming proteome that we report here reveals an abundance of both mollusc-specific and pulmonate-specific proteins, suggesting that novel coding sequences, and/or the extensive divergence of these sequences from ancestral sequences, supported the innovation of new shell types within the Conchifera. In addition, we report here the first evidence that molluscs use independently evolved mechanisms to pigment their shells. This proteome provides a solid foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterization of these shell-forming proteins can be conducted. PMID:24684722

  7. A GUIDE TO FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS OF THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE GENUS PISIDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented here are keys and notes on distribution and ecology for the freshwater snails (Gastropoda), mussels (Unionidae), and fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae) which have been collected from the Laurentian Great Lakes. Including subspecies and forms, 121 taxa are discussed: 47 Gast...

  8. Alterations of biochemical indicators in hepatopancreas of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, from paddy fields in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wu, Jui-Pin; Hsieh, Tsung-Chih; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    The freshwater golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snails' wide distribution, high abundance, and sensitivity to environmental pollution make them a potential bioindicator for environmental contamination. In this study, the biochemical status of golden apple snails collected from paddy fields throughout the island of Taiwan was examined. This study found that the biochemical status of apple snails collected from paddy fields differed from that of animals bred and maintained in the laboratory. Furthermore, certain biochemical endpoints of the snails collected from the paddy fields before and after agricultural activities were also different-hemolymphatic vitellogenin protein was induced in male snail after exposure to estrogen-like chemicals, the hepatic monooxygenase (1.97 +/- 0.50 deltaA(650mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and glutathione S transferase (0.02 +/- 0.01 delta A(340mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) snails exposed to pesticides, as well as the hepatopancreatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase (450.00 +/- 59.40 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and alanine aminotransferase (233.27 +/- 42.09 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) decreased the indicating that xenobiotics destroyed hepatopancreatic. The above findings reveal that apple snail could be used as a practical bioindicator to monitor anthropogenic environmental pollution. PMID:25004751

  9. Muscle versus Snail: Muscle wins.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Sergio; Tepass, Ulrich

    2016-01-18

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) are often governed by the transcription factor Snail and entail the loss of apical junctions from epithelial cells. In this issue, Weng and Wieschaus (2016. J Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201508056) report that actomyosin contractility can strengthen junctions to override Snail-dependent junctional disassembly and postpone EMT during Drosophila melanogaster gastrulation. PMID:26754649

  10. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  11. Extending the record of bis-γ-pyrone polypropionates from marine pulmonate mollusks.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marianna; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Wang, Jian-Rong; Cirillo, Ilaria; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert; Mollo, Ernesto; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2013-11-22

    The isolation and structure elucidation of 10 unreported polypropionate metabolites (compounds 6-15), structurally related to either ilikonapyrone (1) or onchidione (3), from two onchidiid pulmonate mollusk species are discussed. Structure elucidation was achieved by NMR spectroscopy and chemical correlation with model compounds. Evaluation of in vitro growth-inhibitory properties in human cancer cells was also carried out on some of the isolated polypropionates including previously reported onchidione metabolites. PMID:24180210

  12. Impacts of an Invasive Snail (Tarebia granifera) on Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Streams: The Role of Riparian Deforestation in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Jennifer M.; Snider, Sunny B.; MacNeill, Keeley; Gilliam, James F.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species and habitat degradation are two major catalysts of environmental change and often occur simultaneously. In freshwater systems, degradation of adjacent terrestrial vegetation may facilitate introduced species by altering resource availability. Here we examine how the presence of intact riparian cover influences the impact of an invasive herbivorous snail, Tarebia granifera, on nitrogen (N) cycling in aquatic systems on the island of Trinidad. We quantified snail biomass, growth, and N excretion in locations where riparian vegetation was present or removed to determine how snail demographics and excretion were related to the condition of the riparian zone. In three Neotropical streams, we measured snail biomass and N excretion in open and closed canopy habitats to generate estimates of mass- and area-specific N excretion rates. Snail biomass was 2 to 8 times greater and areal N excretion rates ranged from 3 to 9 times greater in open canopy habitats. Snails foraging in open canopy habitat also had access to more abundant food resources and exhibited greater growth and mass-specific N excretion rates. Estimates of ecosystem N demand indicated that snail N excretion in fully closed, partially closed, and open canopy habitats supplied 2%, 11%, and 16% of integrated ecosystem N demand, respectively. We conclude that human-mediated riparian canopy loss can generate hotspots of snail biomass, growth, and N excretion along tropical stream networks, altering the impacts of an invasive snail on the biogeochemical cycling of N. PMID:22761706

  13. Susceptibility of Snails to Infection with Schistosomes is influenced by Temperature and Expression of Heat Shock Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Matty; Elhelu, O; Smith, M; Haugen, B; Miller, A; Raghavan, N; Wellman, C; Cousin, C; Dixon, F; Mann, V; Rinaldi, G; Ittiprasert, W; Brindley, PJ

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata is the obligate intermediate host for the transmission of the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni the causative agent of the chronic debilitating neglected tropical disease, schistosomiasis. We showed previously that in juvenile snails, early and significant induction of stress manifested by the expression of stress proteins, Hsp 70, Hsp 90 and reverse transcriptase (RT) of the non- LTR retrotransposon, nimbus, is a characteristic feature of juvenile susceptible NMRI but not resistant BS-90 snails. These latter, however, could be rendered susceptible after mild heat shock at 32C, revealing that resistance in the BS-90 resistant snail to schistosomes is a temperature dependent trait. Here we tested the hypothesis that maintenance of BS-90 resistant snails at the permissive temperature for several generations affects the resistance phenotype displayed at the non-permissive temperature of 25C. The progeny of BS-90 snails bred and maintained through several generations (F1 to F4) at 32C were susceptible to the schistosome infection when returned to room temperature, shedding cercariae at four weeks post-infection. Moreover, the study of expression levels of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 protein by ELISA and western blot analysis, showed that this protein is also differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant snails, with susceptible snails expressing more protein than their resistant counterparts after early exposure to wild-type but not to radiation-attenuated miracidia. These data suggested that in the face of global warming, the ability to sustain a reduction in schistosomiasis by using refractory snails as a strategy to block transmission of the disease might prove challenging since non-lethal elevation in temperature, affects snail susceptibility to S. mansoni. PMID:26504668

  14. METHODS FOR CONDUCTING SNAIL (APLEXA HYPNORUM) EMBRYO THROUGH ADULT EXPOSURES: EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND REDUCED PH LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two separate embryo through adult exposures were conducted with cadmium and with reduced pH levels to validate various test methodologies and to determine the feasibility of testing and ease of handling the freshwater snail (Aplexa hypnorum) in a test system designed for fish bio...

  15. Common effect of the mucus transferred during mating in two dart-shooting snail species from different families.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi; Koene, Joris M

    2014-04-01

    Several taxa of pulmonate land snails exhibit a conspicuous mating behaviour, the shooting of so-called love darts. During mating, such land snail species stab a mating partner with a mucus-coated dart. It has previously been shown that the sperm donor physiologically influences the sperm recipient via the mucus covering the dart and thereby decreases the number of sperm digested by the recipient. However, the generality of this effect of the dart's mucus is unclear, because almost all the previous studies on the effect of the mucus used the brown garden snail Cornu aspersum from the family Helicidae. Therefore, the relationship between the acquisition of the mucus effect on the recipient and the evolution of the dart itself, and its mucus, is still open to debate. To test the commonality of the physiological effect of the dart mucus, we examined this in Euhadra peliomphala, a species from the Bradybaenidae family, and compared our findings with the results of previous work using C. aspersum. Our experiments showed that in E. peliomphala, the dart mucus had a physiological effect and lowered the accessibility of the gametolytic organ, as found in C. aspersum. This indicates that in various dart-bearing species the mucus from the dart glands targets the same organ and that the inhibition of sperm digestion has played a crucial role in the evolution of the dart and its mucus. PMID:24671965

  16. Histamine Immunoreactive Elements in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of the Snail, Biomphalaria spp., Intermediate Host for Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohamed R.; Mohamed, Azza H.; Osman, Gamalat Y.; Sharaf El-Din, Ahmed T.; Mossalem, Hanan S.; Delgado, Nadia; Torres, Grace; Roln-Martnez, Solymar; Miller, Mark W.; Croll, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine appears to be an important transmitter throughout the Animal Kingdom. Gastropods, in particular, have been used in numerous studies establishing potential roles for this biogenic amine in the nervous system and showing its involvement in the generation of diverse behaviours. And yet, the distribution of histamine has only previously been described in a small number of molluscan species. The present study examined the localization of histamine-like immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral nervous systems of pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria. This investigation demonstrates immunoreactive cells throughout the buccal, cerebral, pedal, left parietal and visceral ganglia, indicative of diverse regulatory functions in Biomphalaria. Immunoreactivity was also present in statocyst hair cells, supporting a role for histamine in graviception. In the periphery, dense innervation by immunoreactive fibers was observed in the anterior foot, perioral zone, and other regions of the body wall. This study thus shows that histamine is an abundant transmitter in these snails and its distribution suggest involvement in numerous neural circuits. In addition to providing novel subjects for comparative studies of histaminegic neurons in gastropods, Biomphalaria is also the major intermediate host for the digenetic trematode parasite, which causes human schistosomiasis. The study therefore provides a foundation for understanding potential roles for histamine in interactions between the snail hosts and their trematode parasites. PMID:26086611

  17. Cost of autotomy drives ontogenetic switching of anti-predator mechanisms under developmental constraints in a land snail

    PubMed Central

    Hoso, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy of body parts offers various prey animals immediate benefits of survival in compensation for considerable costs. I found that a land snail Satsuma caliginosa of populations coexisting with a snail-eating snake Pareas iwasakii survived the snake predation by autotomizing its foot, whereas those out of the snake range rarely survived. Regeneration of a lost foot completed in a few weeks but imposed a delay of shell growth. Imprints of autotomy were found in greater than 10 per cent of S. caliginosa in the snake range but in only less than 1 per cent out of it, simultaneously demonstrating intense predation by the snakes and high efficiency of autotomy for surviving snake predation in the wild. However, in experiments, mature S. caliginosa performed autotomy less frequently. Instead of the costly autotomy, they can use defensive denticles on the inside of their shell apertures. Owing to the constraints from the additive growth of shells, most pulmonate snails can produce these denticles only when they have fully grown up. Thus, this developmental constraint limits the availability of the modified aperture, resulting in ontogenetic switching of the alternative defences. This study illustrates how costs of adaptation operate in the evolution of life-history strategies under developmental constraints PMID:23034702

  18. Cost of autotomy drives ontogenetic switching of anti-predator mechanisms under developmental constraints in a land snail.

    PubMed

    Hoso, Masaki

    2012-12-01

    Autotomy of body parts offers various prey animals immediate benefits of survival in compensation for considerable costs. I found that a land snail Satsuma caliginosa of populations coexisting with a snail-eating snake Pareas iwasakii survived the snake predation by autotomizing its foot, whereas those out of the snake range rarely survived. Regeneration of a lost foot completed in a few weeks but imposed a delay of shell growth. Imprints of autotomy were found in greater than 10 per cent of S. caliginosa in the snake range but in only less than 1 per cent out of it, simultaneously demonstrating intense predation by the snakes and high efficiency of autotomy for surviving snake predation in the wild. However, in experiments, mature S. caliginosa performed autotomy less frequently. Instead of the costly autotomy, they can use defensive denticles on the inside of their shell apertures. Owing to the constraints from the additive growth of shells, most pulmonate snails can produce these denticles only when they have fully grown up. Thus, this developmental constraint limits the availability of the modified aperture, resulting in ontogenetic switching of the alternative defences. This study illustrates how costs of adaptation operate in the evolution of life-history strategies under developmental constraints. PMID:23034702

  19. Study of the diet effect on ? 13C of shell carbonate of the land snail Helix aspersa in experimental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metref, S.; Rousseau, D.-D.; Bentaleb, I.; Labonne, M.; Vianey-Liaud, M.

    2003-06-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the influence of the metabolic CO 2 derived from the diet and of the atmospheric CO 2 on the shell carbonate ? 13C of the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa maxima raised under controlled conditions. Adult snails were analyzed and compared with three hatching and 1-day old young snails stemming from the same breeding. One day after, the 2-day old individuals were raised during 1 month. Three groups of gastropods were fed with fresh lettuce (C 3 plant, ? 13C=-27.49), three groups with corn (C 4 plant, ? 13C=-11.7), and three groups ate alternately both (C 3+C 4). The difference between the average ? 13C values of the adult snails on the one hand and the hatched and 1-day old snails on the other hand indicates a depletion of 2.47. Therefore, the isotopic parents-offspring signal is not preserved. The depleted ingested albumen by the snail embryo in the egg during the building of the shell could explain this depletion. The C 3 diet experiment gave the expected isotopic composition difference between the diet (lettuce) and the shells (average ? 13C shell-lettuce=13.750.52). This result shows a clear diet effect on the isotopic composition of the snail shells. For the C 4 experiment, the difference in carbon isotope composition between the corn and the shell (? 13C shell-corn) yielded an average value of 4.890.87. The main result is that ? 13C is not constant and appears to depend on the type of ingested food. Several hypotheses can arise from this study to explain the different fractionations: (a) differences in the quality of the two diets, (b) differences in turnover rate for C 3 and C 4 feeders. The groups regularly fed with mixed diet yielded ? 13C values showing a preferential use of C 3 food for most values. The C 3-C 4 mixed dietary alternation probably led snails to use mainly the lettuce instead of the corn powder.

  20. Small Molecules in the Cone Snail Arsenal.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jorge L B; Lin, Zhenjian; Imperial, Julita S; Antunes, Agostinho; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Olivera, Baldomero M; Schmidt, Eric W

    2015-10-16

    Cone snails are renowned for producing peptide-based venom, containing conopeptides and conotoxins, to capture their prey. A novel small-molecule guanine derivative with unprecedented features, genuanine, was isolated from the venom of two cone snail species. Genuanine causes paralysis in mice, indicating that small molecules and not just polypeptides may contribute to the activity of cone snail venom. PMID:26421741

  1. Effect of DDT and MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) on reproduction of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L

    SciTech Connect

    Woin, P.; Broenmark, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Reproduction is the single most important function in the life cycle of an organism. Successful reproduction determines fitness of organisms. The inability of an organism to complete any one stage of the reproductive process severely reduces its lifetime reproductive success. Disruptions in the reproduction will ultimately affect the abundance and distribution of the species. Therefore, laboratory tests of long-term impact of sublethal pollutant concentrations on organisms preferably is done on the reproductive success. Pollutants of diverse structure may affect the reproductive system which is sensitive to toxic agents. Certain pollutants, notably the organochlorine compounds, have been shown to affect the male and female reproductive systems. The authors have studied the effect of sublethal concentrations of DDT and the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the reproductive output of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis under a 2-mon exposure period.

  2. Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern Nevada springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 ?? 0.2 percent modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO3- with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to freshwater biogenic carbonates.

  3. Antidepressants cause foot detachment from substrate in five species of marine snail.

    PubMed

    Fong, Peter P; Molnar, Nikolett

    2013-03-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are released into aquatic ecosystems through discharged sewage wastewater. Antidepressants are among those APIs often detected in wastewater effluent and have been recently reported to cause foot detachment from the substrate in freshwater snails. We tested the effects of four commonly prescribed antidepressants {fluoxetine ("Prozac"), fluvoxamine ("Luvox"), venlafaxine ("Effexor"), and citalopram ("Celexa") on adhesion to the substrate in five species of marine snails, three from the Pacific coast (Chlorostoma funebralis, Nucella ostrina, Urosalpinx cinerea) and two species from the Atlantic coast (Tegula fasciatus and Lithopoma americanum) of North America representing three different gastropod families. All antidepressants tested induced foot detachment from the substrate in all snail species in a mainly dose-dependent manner (p < 0.04-0.00000001). The lowest LOECs (lowest observed effect concentration) for antidepressants and snails were recorded for Lithopoma in 43.4 μg/L (100 nM) fluvoxamine and Chlorostoma in 157 μg/L (500 nM) venlafaxine and 217 μg/L (500 nM) fluvoxamine. The trochids and turbinids were 2-10× more sensitive to the antidepressants than the muricids. Latency to detachment was also dose dependent, with the fastest average times to detach seen in Chlorostoma and Lithopoma (7.33 and 13.16 min respectively in 3.13 mg/L venlafaxine). The possible physiological mechanisms regulating antidepressant-induced foot detachment in marine snails and the possible ecological consequences are discussed. PMID:23218553

  4. Plasma N-Terminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Dogs with Pulmonic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Keiya; HORI, Yasutomo; CHIMURA, Syuuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The detailed information between plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measuring plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with PS and to determine whether plasma NT-proBNP concentration could be used to assess disease severity. This retrospective study enrolled 30 client-owned, untreated dogs with PS (asymptomatic [n=23] and symptomatic [n=7]) and 11 healthy laboratory beagles. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were recorded. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using commercial laboratories. Compared to the healthy control dogs, cardiothoracic ratio was significantly increased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. Similarly, the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to aorta was significantly decreased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. The pulmonic pressure gradient in the symptomatic PS dogs was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic PS dogs. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly elevated in the symptomatic PS dogs compared to the healthy control dogs and the asymptomatic PS dogs. Furthermore, the Doppler-derived pulmonic pressure gradient was significantly correlated with the plasma NT-proBNP concentration (r=0.78, r2=0.61, P<0.0001). Plasma NT-proBNP concentration >764 pmol/l to identify severe PS had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration increased by spontaneous PS, i.e. right-sided pressure overload and can be used as an additional method to assess the severity of PS in dogs. PMID:24561377

  5. Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-05-01

    The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm. PMID:22466422

  6. Freshwater Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides descriptions about freshwater wetlands, such as marshes, swamps, and bogs. Contains three learning activities which deal with unusual wetland plants, the animals and plants in a typical marsh, and the effects of a draught on a swamp. Included are reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  7. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition.

  8. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  9. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.52g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  10. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g of body weight within two or three month from its egg. Several hundreds of egg are laid by one snail. It start egg laying after three months from hatching. In order to harvest 50 g for every day's meal, 3 m2 is required for rearing space. Eating apple snail and establishing its rearing system might save the food crisis on Earth.

  11. Light-dependent and -independent behavioral effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a land snail are consistent with a parametric resonance mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W.; Kavaliers, M.; Cullen, A.P.

    1997-05-01

    Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been shown to attenuate endogenous opioid peptide mediated antinociception or analgesia in the terrestrial pulmonate snail, Cepaea nemoralis. Here the authors examine the roles of light in determining this effect and address the mechanisms associated with mediating the effects of the ELF magnetic fields in both the presence and absence of light. Specifically, they consider whether the magnetic field effects involve an indirect induced electric current mechanism or a direct effect such as a parametric resonance mechanism (PRM). They exposed snails in both the presence and absence of light at three different frequencies (30, 60, and 120 Hz) with static field values (B{sub DC}) and ELF magnetic field amplitude (peak) and direction (B{sub AC}) set according to the predictions of the PRM for Ca{sup 2+}. Analgesia was induced in snails by injecting them with an enkephalinase inhibitor, which augments endogenous opioid (enkephalin) activity. They found that the magnetic field exposure reduced this opioid-induced analgesia significantly more if the exposure occurred in the presence rather than the absence of light. However, the percentage reduction in analgesia in both the presence and absence of light was not dependent on the ELF frequency. This finding suggests that in both the presence and the absence of light the effect of the ELF magnetic field was mediated by a direct magnetic field detection mechanism such as the PRM rather than an induced current mechanism.

  12. Growth, fecundity and glycogen utilization in Lymnaea palustris exposed to atrazine and hexachlorobenzene in freshwater mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Baturo, W.; Lagadic, L.; Caquet, T.

    1995-03-01

    Freshwater mesocosms were used to study the long-term sublethal effects of atrazine and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on a basommatophoran gastropod, Lymnaea palustris (Mueller). Growth, fecundity, and biochemical parameters related to polysaccharide metabolism of pesticide-exposed snails were compared with those of control animals maintained in untreated mesocosms. HCB inhibited body growth and stimulated egg production, whereas atrazine had no relevant effect on these physiological parameters. Also, HCB stimulated the activity of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes, suggesting that changes in the metabolism of reserve polysaccharides (glycogen) may be involved in the inhibition of growth and increase of fecundity. In contrast, atrazine had no effect on the metabolism of polysaccharides. It is concluded that the effects of HCB are related to its neurotoxicity that would have affected the neurohormonal control of growth and reproduction of exposed snails. It is suggested that polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes may be used as biomarkers to predict the effects of neurotoxic pesticides on freshwater snail populations.

  13. Exploring species level taxonomy and species delimitation methods in the facultatively self-fertilizing land snail genus Rumina (gastropoda: pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Prévot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae) and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light) are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA) sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1) DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2) Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3) the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4) the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5) the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected. PMID:23577154

  14. Exploring Species Level Taxonomy and Species Delimitation Methods in the Facultatively Self-Fertilizing Land Snail Genus Rumina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Prévot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae) and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light) are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA) sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1) DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2) Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3) the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4) the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5) the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected. PMID:23577154

  15. Study of the diet effect on d13C of shell carbonate of the land snail Helix aspersa in experimental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metref, S.; Rousseau, D. D.; Bentaleb, I.; Labonne, M.; Vianey-Liaud, M.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the influence of the metabolic CO2 derived from the diet and of the atmospheric CO2 on the shell carbonate d13C of the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa maxima raised under controlled conditions. Adult snails were analyzed and compared with three hatching and one-day young snails stemming from the same breeding. One day after, the two-days old individuals were raised during one month. Three groups of gastropods were fed with fresh lettuce (C3 plant, d13C = -27.49 ppt), three groups with corn (C4 plant, d13C = -11.7 ppt), and three groups ate both (C3 + C4). The difference between the mean d13C values of the adult snails on one hand and the hatched and one-day snails on the other hand indicates a depletion of 2.47 . Therefore, the isotopic parents offspring signal is not preserved. The depleted ingested albumen by the snail embryo in the egg during the built of the shell could explain this depletion. The C3 diet experiment gave the expected isotopic composition difference between the diet (lettuce) and the shells (mean D13Cshell-Lettuce = 13.75 ppt +- 0.52). This result shows a clear diet effect on the isotopic composition of the snail shells. For the C4 experiment, the difference in carbon isotope composition between the corn and the shell (D13Cshell-corn) yielded a mean value of 4.89 ppt +- 0.87. The main result is that D13C is not constant and appears to depend on the type of ingested food. Several hypothesis can raise from this study to explain the different fractionations : a) The differences in quality of the two diets seem to have placed the animals in different growth states, b) Differences in turnover rate for C3 and C4 feeders. The groups regularly fed with mixed diet yielded d13C values, showing a preferential use of C3 food for the most values. The C3-C4 mixed dietary alternation probably led snails to use mainly the lettuce instead of the corn powder.

  16. Modelling spatial distribution of snails transmitting parasitic worms with importance to human and animal health and analysis of distributional changes in relation to climate.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ulrik B; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Soko, White; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2014-05-01

    The environment, the on-going global climate change and the ecology of animal species determine the localisation of habitats and the geographical distribution of the various species in nature. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of such changes on snail species not only of interest to naturalists but also of importance to human and animal health. The spatial distribution of freshwater snail intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and paramphistomiasis (i.e. Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis) were modelled by the use of a maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent). Two snail observation datasets from Zimbabwe, from 1988 and 2012, were compared in terms of geospatial distribution and potential distributional change over this 24-year period investigated. Climate data, from the two years were identified and used in a species distribution modelling framework to produce maps of predicted suitable snail habitats. Having both climate- and snail observation data spaced 24 years in time represent a unique opportunity to evaluate biological response of snails to changes in climate variables. The study shows that snail habitat suitability is highly variable in Zimbabwe with foci mainly in the central Highveld but also in areas to the South and West. It is further demonstrated that the spatial distribution of suitable habitats changes with variation in the climatic conditions, and that this parallels that of the predicted climate change. PMID:24893011

  17. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): physiological and molecular studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  18. Controlling slugs and snails in orchids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slugs and snails are pests of orchids, preferring tender plant tissues such as flowers and root tips. Unlike many insect pests which feed only on certain types of plants, most species of slugs and snails are generalists, feeding on green plants, algae, fungi, decaying plant matter, or decaying anima...

  19. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2005-01-01

    Land snails are common invertebrates that fascinate children. Unfortunately, they are seldom used for activities in the science classroom. Snails are inexpensive, take up little space in the classroom, and require only low maintenance, and their learning dividends can be enormous. For example, students can use them in inquiry-based activities that…

  20. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (1012 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382

  1. Echocardiographic changes following balloon valvuloplasty in valvular pulmonic and aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y H; Lue, H C; Wang, J K; Wu, M H; Wang, N K

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen patients with pulmonary valvular stenosis and two with aortic valvular stenosis, aged 20 days to 12 years, were studied before and after balloon dilatation valvuloplasty (BDV) by M-mode, 2-D, pulsed wave (PW) and continuous wave (CW) Doppler, and color flow mapping echocardiography. In those with pulmonary stenosis, a dome-shaped valve was found in 16(84%) of 19 cases before BDV, and the valve remained dome shaped only in 4(27%) of 15 after procedure (P less than 0.001). Restricted valve motion which was noted in 18(95%) of 19 before BDV, persisted only in 2(13%) of 15 after procedure (P less than 0.001). Thickening of the pulmonic valve and poststenotic dilatation of the main pulmonary artery stayed almost unchanged. The pressure gradient across the pulmonic valve measured by cardiac catheterization and CW Doppler agreed well (r = 0.862). Echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary regurgitation was detected in 1(25%) of 4 patients before, and 7(50%) of 14 after BDV. In two patients with aortic stenosis, the echocaardiograms showed the valve was thickened and dome-shaped. Following BDV, echocardiographic evidence of mild aortic regurgitation was observed only in one patient who had had such a regurgitationn before BDV. The diameter of the valve annulus measured on 2-D echo and angiocardiograms correlated well (r = 0.912), and it stayed unchanged following BDV. It is concluded that 2-D and Doppler echocardiographic examinations proved to be useful in the measurement of valve annulus, delineation of stenotic semilunar valves and monitoring of the efficacy of BDV. PMID:2637610

  2. Environmental calcium modifies induced defences in snails.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Simon D; Spicer, John I; Coleman, Ross A; Vosper, Jo; Soane, Julie

    2004-02-01

    Inducible defences are adaptive phenotypes that arise in response to predation threats. Such plasticity incurs costs to individuals, but there has been little interest in how such induced traits in animals may be constrained by environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that calcium availability interacts with predation cues to modify snail shell growth and form. Small snails increased their growth and were heavier when exposed to fish chemical cues, but this response was calcium limited. There was also an interactive effect of fish cues and calcium on the shell growth of larger snails, but shell strength and aperture narrowness were affected by calcium alone. For small snails, behavioural avoidance was greatest for snails exhibiting least morphological plasticity, suggesting a trade-off. There was no trade-off of somatic growth with plasticity. We suggest that the expression of defensive traits in molluscs can be constrained by calcium availability, which has implications for molluscan ecology and evolution. PMID:15101422

  3. Modeling apple snail population dynamics on the Everglades landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, Phil; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Romanach, Stephanie; Suir, Kevin J.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of model output to empirical data indicate the need for more data to better understand, and eventually parameterize, several aspects of snail ecology in support of EverSnail. A primary value of EverSnail is its capacity to describe the relative response of snail abundance to alternative hydrologic scenarios considered for Everglades water management and restoration.

  4. Cysteine-Rich Atrial Secretory Protein from the Snail Achatina achatina: Purification and Structural Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Shabelnikov, Sergey; Kiselev, Artem

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of cardiac bioactive peptides and their functions in molluscs, soluble proteins expressed in the heart and secreted into the circulation have not yet been reported. In this study, we describe an 18.1-kDa, cysteine-rich atrial secretory protein (CRASP) isolated from the terrestrial snail Achatina achatina that has no detectable sequence similarity to any known protein or nucleotide sequence. CRASP is an acidic, 158-residue, N-glycosylated protein composed of eight alpha-helical segments stabilized with five disulphide bonds. A combination of fold recognition algorithms and ab initio folding predicted that CRASP adopts an all-alpha, right-handed superhelical fold. CRASP is most strongly expressed in the atrium in secretory atrial granular cells, and substantial amounts of CRASP are released from the heart upon nerve stimulation. CRASP is detected in the haemolymph of intact animals at nanomolar concentrations. CRASP is the first secretory protein expressed in molluscan atrium to be reported. We propose that CRASP is an example of a taxonomically restricted gene that might be responsible for adaptations specific for terrestrial pulmonates. PMID:26444993

  5. Mathematical simulation of an aquatic snail population*

    PubMed Central

    Jobin, W. R.; Michelson, E. H.

    1967-01-01

    Techniques for controlling the intermediate snail hosts of schistosomiasis have had to be evaluated by field trials, since the complexity of snail population dynamics has so far made it impossible to predict the effects of these techniques and thereby avoid costly field testing. However, in laboratory studies with Biomphalaria glabrata it was found that the fecundity of these snails was directly proportional to F/NV, where F is the total amount of food in the habitat, N the number of snails, and V the volume of the habitat. The use of this fecundity variable together with data published on snail longevity and fecundity made it possible to construct a mathematical model of a snail population which may eventually be useful for evaluating snail control methods. For preliminary verification of the model, its predictions were compared with a published history of a population of Bulinus globosus in a small pond. The general agreement of the predicted and observed population data indicated that the basic structure of the model was sound. PMID:5301741

  6. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Lymnaeid Snails and Their Potential Role in Transmission of Fasciola spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; The, Dang Tat; Loan, Ho Thi; Losson, Bertrand; Caron, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae play an important role in the transmission of fascioliasis worldwide. In Vietnam, 2 common lymnaeid species, Lymnaea swinhoei and Lymnaea viridis, can be recognized on the basis of morphology, and a third species, Lymnaea sp., is known to exist. Recent studies have raised controversy about their role in transmission of Fasciola spp. because of confusion in identification of the snail hosts. The aim of this study is, therefore, to clarify the identities of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam by a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. The molecular analyses using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA clearly showed that lymnaeids in Vietnam include 3 species, Austropeplea viridis (morphologically identified as L. viridis), Radix auricularia (morphologically identified as L. swinhoei) and Radix rubiginosa (morphologically identified as Lymnaea sp.). R. rubiginosa is a new record for Vietnam. Among them, only A. viridis was found to be infected with Fasciola spp. These results provide a new insight into lymnaeid snails in Vietnam. Identification of lymnaeid snails in Vietnam and their role in the liver fluke transmission should be further investigated. PMID:24516270

  7. Climate and pH Predict the Potential Range of the Invasive Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum) in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Byers, James E.; McDowell, William G.; Dodd, Shelley R.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Wilde, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snails extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5) are detrimental to the snails survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas), which are predicted to preclude the snails establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species. PMID:23451090

  8. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Galba pervia (Gastropoda: Mollusca), an Intermediate Host Snail of Fasciola spp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Jun; Song, Hui-Qun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes and the gene rearrangements are increasingly used as molecular markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Contributing to the complete mt genomes of Gastropoda, especially Pulmonata, we determined the mt genome of the freshwater snail Galba pervia, which is an important intermediate host for Fasciola spp. in China. The complete mt genome of G. pervia is 13,768 bp in length. Its genome is circular, and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, 22 genes for tRNA. The mt gene order of G. pervia showed novel arrangement (tRNA-His, tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Tyr change positions and directions) when compared with mt genomes of Pulmonata species sequenced to date, indicating divergence among different species within the Pulmonata. A total of 3655 amino acids were deduced to encode 13 protein genes. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.05%), followed by Phe (11.24%), Ser (10.76%) and IIe (8.346%). Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis), all revealed that the families Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae are closely related two snail families, consistent with previous classifications based on morphological and molecular studies. The complete mt genome sequence of G. pervia showed a novel gene arrangement and it represents the first sequenced high quality mt genome of the family Lymnaeidae. These novel mtDNA data provide additional genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, population genetics and phylogeographics of freshwater snails, as well as for understanding interplay between the intermediate snail hosts and the intra-mollusca stages of Fasciola spp.. PMID:22844544

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Oncomelania hupensis after Molluscicide Treatment by Next-Generation Sequencing: Implications for Biology and Future Snail Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin Ping; Xiong, Tao; Xu, Xing Jian; Jiang, Ming Sen; Dong, Hui Fen

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis. This disease is endemic in the Far East, especially in mainland China. Because niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN), the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used as the main snail control method for over two decades. Recently, a novel molluscicide derived from niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS), has been developed and proven to have the same molluscicidal effect as WPN, with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN. The mechanism by which these molluscicides cause snail death is not known. Here, we report the next-generation transcriptome sequencing of O. hupensis; 145,008,667 clean reads were generated and assembled into 254,286 unigenes. Using GO and KEGG databases, 14,860 unigenes were assigned GO annotations and 4,686 unigenes were mapped to 250 KEGG pathways. Many sequences involved in key processes associated with biological regulation and innate immunity have been identified. After the snails were exposed to LDS and WPN, 254 unigenes showed significant differential expression. These genes were shown to be involved in cell structure defects and the inhibition of neurohumoral transmission and energy metabolism, which may cause snail death. Gene expression patterns differed after exposure to LDS and WPN, and these differences must be elucidated by the identification and annotation of these unknown unigenes. We believe that this first large-scale transcriptome dataset for O. hupensis will provide an opportunity for the in-depth analysis of this biomedically important freshwater snail at the molecular level and accelerate studies of the O. hupensis genome. The data elucidating the molluscicidal mechanism will be of great benefit in future snail control efforts. PMID:25775015

  10. De Novo transcriptome analysis of Oncomelania hupensis after molluscicide treatment by next-generation sequencing: implications for biology and future snail interventions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin Ping; Xiong, Tao; Xu, Xing Jian; Jiang, Ming Sen; Dong, Hui Fen

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis. This disease is endemic in the Far East, especially in mainland China. Because niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN), the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used as the main snail control method for over two decades. Recently, a novel molluscicide derived from niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS), has been developed and proven to have the same molluscicidal effect as WPN, with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN. The mechanism by which these molluscicides cause snail death is not known. Here, we report the next-generation transcriptome sequencing of O. hupensis; 145,008,667 clean reads were generated and assembled into 254,286 unigenes. Using GO and KEGG databases, 14,860 unigenes were assigned GO annotations and 4,686 unigenes were mapped to 250 KEGG pathways. Many sequences involved in key processes associated with biological regulation and innate immunity have been identified. After the snails were exposed to LDS and WPN, 254 unigenes showed significant differential expression. These genes were shown to be involved in cell structure defects and the inhibition of neurohumoral transmission and energy metabolism, which may cause snail death. Gene expression patterns differed after exposure to LDS and WPN, and these differences must be elucidated by the identification and annotation of these unknown unigenes. We believe that this first large-scale transcriptome dataset for O. hupensis will provide an opportunity for the in-depth analysis of this biomedically important freshwater snail at the molecular level and accelerate studies of the O. hupensis genome. The data elucidating the molluscicidal mechanism will be of great benefit in future snail control efforts. PMID:25775015

  11. Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C.; Miller, Andr N.; Bridger, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

  12. Freshwater ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Straskraba, M.; Gnauck, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    Ecosystem analysis and ecological modelling is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary branch of science used in theoretical developments in ecology and having practical applications in environmental protection. In this book, the authors introduce new holistic, particularly cybernetic, concepts into ecosystem theory and modelling, and provide a concise treatment of mathematical modelling of freshwater ecosystems which covers methods, subsystem models, applications and theoretical developments. Part 1 begins with a brief introduction to the principles of systems theory and their applications to ecosystems, and provides a summary of various methods of systems analysis. In Part 11 emphasis is laid on the pelagic processes in standing water, characterised by relatively uninvolved structures from which models can be readily developed. Part 111 describes applications of the technique of modelling to solutions of theoretical and practical problems, with different modelling methods and objectives being used in the various chapters. More recent developments in the methods and theory of ecosystem modelling are covered in Part 1V which also includes a discussion of future trends.

  13. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.

  14. Accumulation and distributions of 137Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-10-01

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of 137Cs . Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K+ in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K+ concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated 137Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g-1. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K+ in water.

  15. The role of Snail in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bethany N.; Odero-Marah, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer in men. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which cancer cells invade and migrate, and is characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin and increased expression of mesenchymal proteins such as vimentin; EMT is also associated with resistance to therapy. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been extensively studied and reported in cancers such as breast and colon; however, its role in prostate cancer is not as widely reported. The purpose of this review is to put together recent facts that summarize Snail signaling in human prostate cancer. Snail is overexpressed in prostate cancer and its expression and activity is controlled via phosphorylation and growth factor signaling. Snail is involved in its canonical role of inducing EMT in prostate cancer cells; however, it plays a role in non-canonical pathways that do not involve EMT such regulation of bone turnover and neuroendocrine differentiation. Thus, studies indicate that Snail signaling contributes to prostate cancer progression and metastasis and therapeutic targeting of Snail in prostate cancer holds promise in ?future. PMID:23076049

  16. The cephalic sensory organ in veliger larvae of pulmonates (Gastropoda: Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Schaefer, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    The apical area of larvae of four primitive pulmonate species was investigated by means of serial ultrathin and light microscope sections. Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) were found in the larvae of Onchidium cf. branchiferum (Onchidiidae) and Laemodonta octanfracta (Ellobiidae), while no trace of the organ was present in the larvae of Ovatella myosotis (Ellobiidae) or Williamia radiata (Siphonariidae). TEM investigation revealed very similar CSOs in O. cf. branchiferum and L. octanfracta, with characteristic putative sensory cell types: ampullary cells with an internal ampulla containing densely packed cilia, para-ampullary cells with external cilia parallel to the surface, and ciliary tuft cells, bearing short ciliary tufts. The epithelium covering the organ has a thick microvillar border with microvilli laterally bearing a pair of electron-dense accumulations and a glycocalyx with interspersed flat plaque-like elements. While homologues of all major elements of the CSO can be found in other gastropod taxa, for example caenogastropods and opisthobranchs, the homology of the ampullary cell with similar cells in nongastropods appears unlikely. The CSO of L. octanfracta is associated with an additional structure, an epithelial external protrusion, lying ventral to the CSO. The absence of the organ in W. radiata weakens hypotheses on the organ's function of examining settlement conditions and velar control. PMID:11746470

  17. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  18. Comparative Phylogenetic Studies on Schistosoma japonicum and Its Snail Intermediate Host Oncomelania hupensis: Origins, Dispersal and Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Stephen W.; Ibaraki, Motomu; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Nihei, Naoko; Janies, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosoma japonicum causes major public health problems in China and the Philippines; this parasite, which is transmitted by freshwater snails of the species Oncomelania hupensis, causes the disease intestinal schistosomiasis in humans and cattle. Researchers working on Schistosoma in Africa have described the relationship between the parasites and their snail intermediate hosts as coevolved or even as an evolutionary arms race. In the present study this hypothesis of coevolution is evaluated for S. japonicum and O. hupensis. The origins and radiation of the snails and the parasite across China, and the taxonomic validity of the sub-species of O. hupensis, are also assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings The findings provide no evidence for coevolution between S. japonicum and O. hupensis, and the phylogeographical analysis suggests a heterochronous radiation of the parasites and snails in response to different palaeogeographical and climatic triggers. The results are consistent with a hypothesis of East to West colonisation of China by Oncomelania with a re-invasion of Japan by O. hupensis from China. The Taiwan population of S. japonicum appears to be recently established in comparison with mainland Chinese populations. Conclusions/Significance The snail and parasite populations of the western mountain region of China (Yunnan and Sichuan) appear to have been isolated from Southeast Asian populations since the Pleistocene; this has implications for road and rail links being constructed in the region, which will breach biogeographical barriers between China and Southeast Asia. The results also have implications for the spread of S. japonicum. In the absence of coevolution, the parasite may more readily colonise new snail populations to which it is not locally adapted, or even new intermediate host species; this can facilitate its dispersal into new areas. Additional work is required to assess further the risk of spread of S. japonicum. PMID:26230619

  19. Freshwater molluscs as indicators of bioavailability and toxicity of metals in surface-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.F.; Collins, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Freshwater molluscs--snails and bivalves--have been used frequently as bioindicator organisms. With increasing needs for research on contaminant effects in freshwater ecosystems, this kind of biomonitoring is likely to develop further in the future. Molluscs can be used effectively for studies of both organic and inorganic contaminants; this review focuses on studies involving bioaccumulation and toxicity of metals. Two important advantages of snails and bivalves over most other freshwater organisms for biomonitoring research are their large size and limited mobility. In addition, they are abundant in many types of freshwater environments and are relatively easy to collect and identify. At metal concentrations that are within ranges common to natural waters, they are generally effective bioaccumulators of metals. Biomonitoring studies with freshwater molluscs have covered a wide diversity of species, metals, and environments. The principal generalization that can be drawn from this research is that bioaccumulation and toxicity are extremely situation dependent; hence, it is difficult to extrapolate results from any particular study to other situations where the biological species or environmental conditions are different. Even within one species, individual characteristics such as size, life stage, sex, and genotype can have significant effects on responses to contaminants. The bioavailability of the metal is highly variable and depends on pH, presence of organic ligands, water hardness, and numerous other controlling factors. Despite this variability, past studies provide some general principles that can facilitate planning of research with freshwater snails and bivalves as metal bioindicators. These principles may also be useful in understanding and managing freshwater ecosystems.

  20. Snail1 Expression Is Required for Sarcomagenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Castelln, Lorena; Batlle, Raquel; Franc, Clara; Fernndez-Aceero, Mara J.; Mazzolini, Rocco; Pea, Ral; Loubat, Jordina; Alameda, Francesc; Rodrguez, Rufo; Curto, Josu; Albanell, Joan; Muoz, Alberto; Bonilla, Flix; Ignacio Casal, J.; Rojo, Federico; Garca de Herreros, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Snail1 transcriptional repressor is a major inducer of epithelial-to mesenchymal transition but is very limitedly expressed in adult animals. We have previously demonstrated that Snail1 is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), preventing their premature differentiation. Now, we show that Snail1 controls the tumorigenic properties of mesenchymal cells. Increased Snail1 expression provides tumorigenic capabilities to fibroblastic cells; on the contrary, Snail1 depletion decreases tumor growth. Genetic depletion of Snail1 in MSCs that are deficient in p53 tumor suppressor downregulates MSC markers and prevents the capability of these cells to originate sarcomas in immunodeficient SCID mice. Notably, an analysis of human sarcomas shows that, contrarily to epithelial tumors, these neoplasms display high Snail1 expression. This is particularly clear for undifferentiated tumors, which are associated with poor outcome. Together, our results indicate a role for Snail1 in the generation of sarcomas. PMID:24947186

  1. Identification and characterization of a goose-type lysozyme from sewage snail Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunhai; He, Hongxuan

    2014-08-01

    Freshwater snail Physa acuta has been considered as an important invasive species and medical mollusc. Field investigation has shown that this snail could survive better than other snails in polluted water bodies. To understand the immune mechanisms of P. acuta, suppression subtractive hybridization hepatopancreas cDNA library has been constructed with bacterial challenge. In this study, a full-length cDNA of a novel goose-type lysozyme (PALysG) has been identified from P. acuta by EST and RACE technique. The conservative structure domains share high homology with other molluscan g-type lysozymes including the SLT domain, the substrate binding sites, the catalytic residues, three alpha-helices structures and six molluscan specific cysteines. Meanwhile, PALysG is the first record of goose-type lysozyme in Gastropoda. Real-time PCR indicated that PALysG mRNA had been expressed significantly at high levels in hepatopancreas for 8-48 h. PALysG recombinant protein displayed the lytic activity of g-type lysozyme with other organisms against Micrococcus lysodikicus. PMID:24882016

  2. Phenotypic diversity, population structure and stress protein-based capacitoring in populations of Xeropicta derbentina, a heat-tolerant land snail species.

    PubMed

    Di Lellis, Maddalena A; Sereda, Sergej; Geißler, Anna; Picot, Adrien; Arnold, Petra; Lang, Stefanie; Troschinski, Sandra; Dieterich, Andreas; Hauffe, Torsten; Capowiez, Yvan; Mazzia, Christophe; Knigge, Thomas; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Krais, Stefanie; Wilke, Thomas; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2014-11-01

    The shell colour of many pulmonate land snail species is highly diverse. Besides a genetic basis, environmentally triggered epigenetic mechanisms including stress proteins as evolutionary capacitors are thought to influence such phenotypic diversity. In this study, we investigated the relationship of stress protein (Hsp70) levels with temperature stress tolerance, population structure and phenotypic diversity within and among different populations of a xerophilic Mediterranean snail species (Xeropicta derbentina). Hsp70 levels varied considerably among populations, and were significantly associated with shell colour diversity: individuals in populations exhibiting low diversity expressed higher Hsp70 levels both constitutively and under heat stress than those of phenotypically diverse populations. In contrast, population structure (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) did not correlate with phenotypic diversity. However, genetic parameters (both within and among population differences) were able to explain variation in Hsp70 induction at elevated but non-pathologic temperatures. Our observation that (1) population structure had a high explanatory potential for Hsp70 induction and that (2) Hsp70 levels, in turn, correlated with phenotypic diversity while (3) population structure and phenotypic diversity failed to correlate provides empirical evidence for Hsp70 to act as a mediator between genotypic variation and phenotype and thus for chaperone-driven evolutionary capacitance in natural populations. PMID:24609822

  3. The Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata, a Novel Vector of the Rat Lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its Introduction, Spread, and Control in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. PMID:23901377

  4. Testosterone levels and fecundity in the hermaphroditic aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to testosterone and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Clia; Lagadic, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Endocrine disruptors are known to alter endogenous free and esterified levels of androgenic and estrogenic steroid hormones in aquatic mollusks. The origin of steroids in these animals, however, remains controversial. In the present study, free and esterified testosterone concentrations were measured in the hermaphroditic aquatic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to molecules known for their androgenic (testosterone and tributyltin), anti-androgenic (cyproterone-acetate), and estrogenic (chlordecone) properties, by reference to their mode of action in vertebrates. In parallel, snail oviposition and fecundity were followed over a 21-d exposure period. Testosterone exposure resulted in increased esterified testosterone levels, whereas free testosterone concentrations remained stable. In contrast, cyproterone-acetate significantly increased the free form of testosterone with no changes in the esterified form, whereas chlordecone showed a tendency to reduce (though not significantly) esterified testosterone concentrations without changing free testosterone levels. Finally, tributyltin did not alter testosterone homeostasis. The production of egg clutches and eggs was significantly reduced only in the snails exposed to the highest concentrations of chlordecone (19.6?g/L) and tributyltin (94.2?ng Sn/L). Overall, the present study demonstrates that uptake of testosterone from the exposure medium occurs in L. stagnalis. Moreover, it shows that cyproterone-acetate and, to a lesser extent, chlordecone can alter endogenous testosterone levels in this freshwater snail. However, the relationship between hormonal changes and snail reproduction has not been established. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1740-1745. 2013 SETAC. PMID:23564527

  5. Epigenetic Regulation of EMT: The Snail Story

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiwei; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P.

    2014-01-01

    While the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role during development, its deregulation can adversely promote tumor metastasis. The phenotypic and cellular plasticity of EMT indicates that it is subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, we try to embrace recent findings on the mechanisms of the transcription factor Snail-mediated E-cadherin silencing, which is a hallmark of EMT. Our studies as well as those of others have clearly demonstrated that Snail can recruit multiple chromatin enzymes including LSD1, HDAC1/2, PRC2, G9a and Suv39H1 to the E-cadherin promoter. These enzymes function in a highly orchestrated fashion to generate heterochromatin and promote DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-mediated DNA methylation at the promoter region. Disruption of the connection between Snail and these chromatin-modifying enzymes may represent an efficient strategy for the treatment of EMT-related diseases. PMID:23888971

  6. Effects of endosulfan and ethanol on the reproduction of the snail Biomphalaria tenagophila: a multigeneration study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Paumgartten, Francisco Jose Roma

    2009-04-01

    Endosulfan (END) is an insecticide used in agriculture and as a wood preservative. Since END is practically insoluble in water, ethanol (ETOH) is often employed as a carrier solvent to spike it in the test medium in aquatic toxicity assays. In this study were investigated the effects of END and ETOH on the reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria tenagophila exposed over three successive generations. END (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mg L(-1)) was dissolved in the medium water using ETOH (up to 19.8 mg L(-1)) as carrier solvent. ETOH (19.8, 198, 1980 mg L(-1)) alone was tested as well. Adult snails (F(0)-generation) were exposed to END and ETOH for 8 weeks. The F(1)-generation continued to be exposed from embryo to reproductive maturity, while their descendants (F(2)) were exposed until day 10 after spawning. Effects on the fecundity (8-week production of eggs and egg-masses) of mature F(0) and F(1) snails were evaluated. Developmental toxicity was investigated in F(1) and F(2) embryos. END at the highest level tested (0.1 mg L(-1)) inhibited egg production by F(0) and F(1) snails. ETOH at levels 198 mg L(-1) also reduced fecundity of F(0) and F(1) an effect that was apparently aggravated by exposure over successive generations. END 0.1 mg L(-1) increased mortality and malformations and decreased hatching among F(1) embryos. ETOH drastically reduced the proportion of hatchings among F(2) embryos. The study-derived NOECs (no-observed-effect-concentrations) for END was 0.01 mg L(-1) (reduction in fecundity), and for ETOH were 19.8 mg L(-1) for reduction in fecundity and <19.8 mg L(-1) for developmental toxicity (hatching retardation). PMID:19138786

  7. Relationships between nutrient enrichment, pleurocerid snail density and trematode infection rate in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Voshell, J. Reese, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Summary 1. Nutrient enrichment is a widespread environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems. Eutrophic conditions caused by nutrient enrichment may result in a higher prevalence of infection by trematode parasites in host populations, due to greater resource availability for the molluscan first intermediate hosts. 2. This study examined relationships among land use, environmental variables indicating eutrophication, population density of the pleurocerid snail, Leptoxis carinata, and trematode infections. Fifteen study sites were located in streams within the Shenandoah River catchment (Virginia, U.S.A.), where widespread nutrient enrichment has occurred. 3. Snail population density had a weak positive relationship with stream water nutrient concentration. Snail population density also increased as human activities within stream catchments increased, but density did not continue to increase in catchments where anthropogenic disturbance was greatest. 4. Cercariae from five families of trematodes were identified in L. carinata, and infection rate was generally low (<10%). Neither total infection rate nor the infection rate of individual trematode types showed a positive relationship with snail population density, nutrients or land use. 5. There were statistically significant but weak relationships between the prevalence of infection by two trematode families and physical and biological variables. The prevalence of Notocotylidae was positively related to water depth, which may be related to habitat use by definitive hosts. Prevalence of Opecoelidae had a negative relationship with orthophosphate concentration and a polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration. Transmission of Opecoelid trematodes between hosts may be inhibited by eutrophic conditions. 6. Leptoxis carinata appears to be a useful species for monitoring the biological effects of eutrophication and investigating trematode transmission dynamics in lotic systems.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J.

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  9. Enzyme Inhibition by Molluscicidal Components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. in the Nervous Tissue of Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Preetee; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) on certain enzymes in the nervous tissue of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata Lamarck (Lymnaeidae). In vivo and in vitro treatments of trimyristin and myristicin (active molluscicidal components of Myristica fragrans Houtt.) significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP/ALP) activities in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata. The inhibition kinetics of these enzymes indicates that both the trimyristin and myristicin caused competitive noncompetitive inhibition of AChE. Trimyristin caused uncompetitive and competitive/noncompetitive inhibitions of ACP and ALP, respectively whereas the myristicin caused competitive and uncompetitive inhibition of ACP and ALP, respectively. Thus results from the present study suggest that inhibition of AChE, ACP, and ALP by trimyristin and myristicin in the snail Lymnaea acuminata may be the cause of the molluscicidal activity of Myristica fragrans. PMID:21048864

  10. Molecular study for detecting the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) in northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Imani-Baran, Abbas; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Malekzadeh Viayeh, Reza; Paktarmani, Razieh

    2012-10-26

    Fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in Iran. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana in northwestern Iran. The snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from May to December 2010 and identified. A fragment of 618 bp of 28s rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using DraII and AvaII enzymes. PCR-RFLP patterns revealed that 3.12% of the snails were infected with F. gigantica. It was also found that the infected snails had a limited distribution over the water bodies located in the central part of the region. It was concluded that PCR-RFLP was a reliable approach to detect Fasciola infection in pond snails and may be useful to establish control measures for livestock and humans' fasciolosis in the region. PMID:22579498

  11. Mate desertion in the snail kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

  12. Differential role of Snail1 and Snail2 zinc fingers in E-cadherin repression and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Villarejo, Ana; Corts-Cabrera, Alvaro; Molina-Ortz, Patricia; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

    2014-01-10

    Snail1 (Snail) and Snail2 (Slug) are transcription factors that share a similar DNA binding structure of four and five C2H2 zinc finger motifs (ZF), respectively. Both factors bind specifically to a subset of E-box motifs (E2-box: CAGGTG/CACCTG) in target promoters like the E-cadherin promoter and are key mediators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, there are differences in the biological actions, in binding affinities to E-cadherin promoter, and in the target genes of Snail1 and Snail2, although the molecular bases are presently unknown. In particular, the role of each Snail1 and Snail2 ZF in the binding to E-boxes and in EMT induction has not been previously explored. We have approached this question by modeling Snail1 and Snail2 protein-DNA interactions and through mutational and functional assays of different ZFs. Results show that Snail1 efficient repression and binding to human and mouse E-cadherin promoter as well as EMT-inducing ability require intact ZF1 and ZF2, while for Snail2, either ZF3 or ZF4 is essential for those functions. Furthermore, the differential distribution of E2-boxes in mouse and human E-cadherin promoters also contributes to the differential Snail factor activity. These data indicate a non-equivalent role of Snail1 and Snail2 ZFs in gene repression, contributing to the elucidation of the molecular differences between these important EMT regulators. PMID:24297167

  13. How Stress Alters Memory in Smart Snails

    PubMed Central

    Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive ability varies within species, but whether this variation alters the manner in which memory formation is affected by environmental stress is unclear. The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as model species in studies of learning and memory. The majority of those studies used a single laboratory strain (i.e. the Dutch strain) originating from a wild population in the Netherlands. However, our recent work has identified natural populations that demonstrate significantly enhanced long-term memory (LTM) formation relative to the Dutch strain following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour. Here we assess how two populations with enhanced memory formation (i.e. smart snails), one from Canada (Trans Canada 1: TC1) and one from the U.K. (Chilton Moor: CM) respond to ecologically relevant stressors. In control conditions the Dutch strain forms memory lasting 13 h following a single 0.5 h training session in our standard calcium pond water (80 mg/l [Ca2+]), whereas the TC1 and CM populations formed LTM lasting 5+ days following this training regime. Exposure to low environmental calcium pond water (20 mg/l [Ca2+]), which blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, reduced LTM retention to 24 h in the TC1 and CM populations. Crowding (20 snails in 100 ml) immediately prior to training blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, and also did so in TC1 and CM populations. Therefore, snails with enhanced cognitive ability respond to these ecologically relevant stressors in a similar manner to the Dutch strain, but are more robust at forming LTM in a low calcium environment. Despite the two populations (CM and TC1) originating from different continents, LTM formation was indistinguishable in both control and stressed conditions. This indicates that the underlying mechanisms controlling cognitive differences among populations may be highly conserved in L. stagnalis. PMID:22384220

  14. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community. PMID:18217942

  15. Effect of pond water depth on snail populations and fish-borne zoonotic trematode transmission in juvenile giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) aquaculture nurseries.

    PubMed

    Thien, P C; Madsen, H; Nga, H T N; Dalsgaard, A; Murrell, K D

    2015-12-01

    Infection with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) is an important public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia. People become infected with FZT when eating raw or undercooked fish that contain the infective stage (metacercariae) of FZT. The parasites require specific freshwater snails as first intermediate host and a variety of fish species, both wild caught and cultured, as second intermediate host. Aquaculture production has grown almost exponentially in SE Asia and in order to produce fish free from FZT metacercariae, it is important to mitigate factors promoting transmission to fish. Here we report results from a cross-sectional study to look at the association between pond depth and infection with FZT in giant gourami nursery ponds. Density of intermediate host snails was positively associated with pond depth (count ratio associated with a 1m increase in pond depth was 10.4 (95% C.L.: 1.61-67.1, p<0.5)) and this may partly explain the higher prevalence and intensity of FZT infection in juvenile fish. High fry stocking density (>200 fry m(-3)) was associated with lower host snail density (count ratio=0.15) than low stocking density (<100 fry m(3)). Ponds stocked with 100-200 fry m(-3) had snail counts 0.76 (95% C.L.: 0.33-1.75, p n.s.) of those in ponds stocked with fry density of <100 fry m(-3). Since density of intermediate snail hosts was associated with FZT transmission to fish, effort should be taken to reduce snail density prior to stocking the fry, but focus should also be on habitats surrounding ponds as transmission may occur through cercariae produced outside ponds and carried into ponds with water pumped into ponds. PMID:26209455

  16. Freshwater mussels of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James D.; Butler, Robert S.; Warren, Gary L.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive guide to all aspects of the freshwater mussel fauna in Florida,Freshwater Mussels of Floridacovers the ecology, biology, distribution, and conservation of the many species of bivalve mollusks in the Sunshine State. In the past three decades, researchers, the public, businesses that depend on wildlife, and policy makers have given more attention to the threatened natural diversity of the Southeast, including freshwater mussels. This compendium meets the increasingly urgent need to catalog this imperiled group of aquatic organisms in the United States.

  17. Estrogen alters the profile of the transcriptome in river snail Bellamya aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kun; Liu, Ruizhi; An, Li-Hui; Luo, Ying-Feng; LeBlanc, Gerald A

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the transcriptome dynamics of the freshwater river snail Bellamya aeruginosa exposed to 17?-estradiol (E2) using the Roche/454 GS-FLX platform. In total, 41,869 unigenes, with an average length of 586bp, representing 36,181 contigs and 5,688 singlets were obtained. Among them, 18.08, 36.85, and 25.47% matched sequences in the GenBank non-redundant nucleic acid database, non-redundant protein database, and Swiss protein database, respectively. Annotation of the unigenes with gene ontology, and then mapping them to biological pathways, revealed large groups of genes related to growth, development, reproduction, signal transduction, and defense mechanisms. Significant differences were found in gene expression in both liver and testicular tissues between control and E2-exposed organisms. These changes in gene expression will help in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the response to physiological stress in the river snail exposed to estrogen, and will facilitate research into biological processes and underlying physiological adaptations to xenoestrogen exposure in gastropods. PMID:25398503

  18. Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Miyasato, P A; Kawano, T; Freitas, J C; Berlinck, R G S; Nakano, E; Tallarico, L F

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria play a major role as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. While Biomphalaria spp. control by molluscicides is one of the main strategies to reduce the snail population in infected areas, there are few effective molluscicides commercially available. Natural products may be considered as potentially useful and safe molluscicides. We have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of 12 extracts from ten marine organisms on adult and embryonic stages of Biomphalaria glabrata. Only extracts of the red algae Liagora farinosa and of the sponge Amphimedon viridis presented molluscicidal activity. Lethal concentration (LC)(50) values obtained were 120 ?g/mL for L. farinosa CH(2)Cl(2) extract (apolar fraction) and 20 ?g/mL for A. viridis extract and halitoxin. The polar alga fraction and halitoxin had no effect on B. glabrata embryos. The algae apolar fraction was active on B. glabrata in all embryonic development stages, with LC(50) values for blastulae at 42 ?g/mL, gastrulae at 124 ?g/mL, trochophore at 180 ?g/mL, and veliger at 222 ?g/mL. This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity. PMID:22205347

  19. On the Ultrastructure and Function of Rhogocytes from the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Spiecker, Lisa; Messerschmidt, Claudia; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Landfester, Katharina; Markl, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Rhogocytes, also termed “pore cells”, occur as solitary or clustered cells in the connective tissue of gastropod molluscs. Rhogocytes possess an enveloping lamina of extracellular matrix and enigmatic extracellular lacunae bridged by cytoplasmic bars that form 20 nm diaphragmatic slits likely to act as a molecular sieve. Recent papers highlight the embryogenesis and ultrastructure of these cells, and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Rhogocytes are the site of hemocyanin or hemoglobin biosynthesis in gastropods. Based on electron microscopy, we recently proposed a possible pathway of hemoglobin exocytosis through the slit apparatus, and provided molecular evidence of a common phylogenetic origin of molluscan rhogocytes, insect nephrocytes and vertebrate podocytes. However, the previously proposed secretion mode of the respiratory proteins into the hemolymph is still rather hypothetical, and the possible role of rhogocytes in detoxification requires additional data. Although our previous study on rhogocytes of the red-blooded (hemoglobin-containing) freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provided much new information, a disadvantage was that the hemoglobin molecules were not unequivocally defined in the electron microscope. This made it difficult to trace the exocytosis pathway of this protein. Therefore, we have now performed a similar study on the rhogocytes of the blue-blooded (hemocyanin-containing) freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The intracellular hemocyanin could be identified in the electron microscope, either as individual molecules or as pseudo-crystalline arrays. Based on 3D-electron microscopy, and supplemented by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and stress response experiments, we provide here additional details on the structure and hemocyanin biosynthesis of rhogocytes, and on their response in animals under cadmium and starvation stress. Moreover, we present an advanced model on the release of synthesized hemocyanin molecules through the slit apparatus into the hemolymph, and the uptake of much smaller particles such as cadmium ions from the hemolymph through the slit apparatus into the cytoplasm. PMID:26488403

  20. The role of DDX3 in regulating Snail.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mianen; Song, Ling; Zhou, Tong; Gillespie, G Yancey; Jope, Richard S

    2011-03-01

    DDX3, a DEAD box protein family member, appears to promote the progression of some cancers, which may partly result from its impedance of death receptor-mediated apoptosis. We found that another mechanism by which DDX3 may aid cancer progression is by promoting increased levels of the transcription factor Snail. Snail represses expression of cellular adhesion proteins, leading to increased cell migration and metastasis of many types of cancer. Knockdown of DDX3 levels by shRNA reduced basal levels of Snail in HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and this was associated with reduced cell proliferation and migration. Snail protein and mRNA levels were increased by treatment with the HDAC inhibitors sodium butyrate or trichostatin A, and these increases were attenuated in cells with DDX3 knocked down. Treatment of cells with camptothecin was discovered to increase Snail protein levels, and this increase was diminished in cells with DDX3 knocked down. Analysis of 31 patient glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) samples revealed a significant correlation between the levels of DDX3 and Snail. Thus, DDX3 is required for basal Snail expression and increases in Snail induced by HDAC inhibitors or camptothecin, indicating that this action of DDX3 may contribute to its promotion of the progression of some cancers. PMID:21237216

  1. The freshwater biodiversity crisis.

    PubMed

    Brautigam, A

    1999-01-01

    This article concerns the threat on freshwater ecosystems, which harbor a disproportionate amount of the world's biodiversity. In many parts of the world, freshwater ecosystems are already degraded from a range of human activities, including water extraction, pollution and physical alteration. The data that showed a biodiversity crisis in ecosystems included species loss and breakdown of the ecological processes and resources. Furthermore, several case studies were cited to illustrate the status of freshwater diversity. Numerous reasons for freshwater biodiversity loss were mentioned, which included pollution from pesticides and agricultural and mine run-off, and physical alteration through channelization and impoundments that affected the hydrology and benthic habitat. Despite the successful establishment of institutions to conserve water birds and wetland habitats, there was a lower priority for conservation of freshwater biodiversity in terms of species and habitats. This bias has had important and serious implications for allocation of resources to increase the knowledge and understanding of freshwater ecosystems, as well as for the adequacy of impact assessments for development projects affecting them. PMID:12349584

  2. Experimental infection of the digeneans to some congeneric snail species radiated in a single water system: Relative importance of local evolution and phylogenetic constraint.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Misako

    2016-06-01

    To determine the relative importance of local adaptation caused by host-parasite coevolution and resource tracking by the parasites, the susceptibility of the freshwater snail genus Semisulcospira to the digenean parasite genus Genarchopsis was investigated experimentally. Four snail species endemic to the Lake Biwa system in Japan and two non-endemic species were investigated. All but one species was also tested for local variation in susceptibility. Parasites were obtained from Takashima (mix population of Genarchopsis gigi and Genarchopsis chubuensis) and Nagahama (G. chubuensis). In endemic Semisulcospira, closely related specie pairs (Semisulcospira habei and Semisulcospira niponica, Semisulcospira decipiens and Semisulcospira nakasekoae) showed similar susceptibilities to parasites from both localities. S. habei and S. niponica were highly susceptible to parasites from Takashima, but were resistant to parasites from Nagahama. S. decipiens and S. nakasekoae showed moderate susceptibility to parasites from both localities. None of the endemic snail species showed a clear local variation in susceptibility. These results show that the susceptibility of endemic Semisulcospira to Genarchopsis is conservative and can be regarded as an example of resource-tracking. One of the non-endemic snails, Semisulcospira libertina, showed local variation in susceptibility. This variation was not related to the sympatry of the parasites used for the experimental infection, suggesting that it was not the result of local adaptation by parasites. PMID:26773868

  3. Nimbus (BgI): An active non-LTR retrotransposon of the Schistosoma mansoni snail host Biomphalaria glabrata?

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Nithya; Tettelin, Herv; Miller, Andr; Hostetler, Jessica; Tallon, Luke; Knight, Matty

    2009-01-01

    The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is closely associated with the transmission of human schistosomiasis. An ecologically sound method has been proposed to control schistosomiasis using genetically modified snails to displace endemic, susceptible ones. To assess the viability of this form of biological control, studies towards understanding the molecular makeup of the snail relative to the presence of endogenous mobile genetic elements are being undertaken since they can be exploited for genetic transformation studies. We previously cloned a 1.95 Kb BamHI fragment in B. glabrata (BGR2) with sequence similarity to the human long interspersed nuclear element (LINE or L1). A contiguous, full-length sequence corresponding to BGR2, hereafter-named nimbus (BgI), has been identified from a B. glabrata bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Sequence analysis of the 65,764 bp BAC insert contained one full-length, complete nimbus (BgI) element (element I), two full-length elements (elements II and III) containing deletions and flanked by target site duplications and 10 truncated copies. The intact nimbus (BgI) contained two open reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2) encoding the characteristic hallmark domains found in non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons belonging to the I clade; a nucleic acid binding protein in ORF1 and an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, reverse transcriptase and RNase H in ORF2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nimbus (BgI) is closely related to Drosophila (I factor), mosquito Aedes aegypti (MosquI) and chordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (CiI) retrotransposons. Nimbus (BgI) represents the first complete mobile element characterized from a mollusk that appears to be transcriptionally active and is widely distributed in snails of the neotropics and the Old World. PMID:17521654

  4. Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds. PMID:23285303

  5. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on snail growth and trace metal transfer in the soil-plant-snail food chain.

    PubMed

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frdric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Alaoui-Soss, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-11-01

    Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge. PMID:26165994

  6. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally. An age structure and size of snail population are optimized on the base of individual growth and metabolic characteristics with the help of the second submodel "Population". In this simulation a daily amount of snail meat consumed by crewmembers is a guideline which specifies population productivity. Also, the daily amount of snail meat may have an optional value. Prescribed population characteristics are used in the third submodel "Mass balance" to equalize input and output mass flow rates of snail facility. In this submodel we add a water and ash to the organic masses of feed, meat, feces, shell and eggs. Moreover, masses of calcium carbonate and potable water are added to the left side of mass balance equations. Mass of calcium carbonate is distributed among shell, feces and eggs. Summarizing the twelve equations for each snail age, we get the mass balance equation for the snail facility. All simulations are performed by using Solver Add-In for Excel 2007.

  7. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert P., Jr.; King, Everett Louis, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  8. Morphological and Genetic Variation Between the Japanese Populations of the Amphidromous Snail Stenomelania crenulata (Cerithioidea: Thiaridae).

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Hiroka; Kano, Yasunori

    2014-09-01

    Freshwater gastropods often have limited dispersal capability and small geographic ranges, and face severe threats from habitat loss and degradation. However, in addition to the scarcity of knowledge on their life history traits, species taxonomy has not been adequately resolved and boundaries between intra- and interspecific variation remain unclear for many taxa. One such example of an indeterminate species boundary with implications for conservation issues is the relationship between the thiarid snails Stenomelania crenulata in Okinawa and southwards (ranked as CR+EN in the 2012 Japanese Red List) and S. rufescens in mainland Japan (VU). The results of our multi-disciplinary investigation into variation in the shell morphology and mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS-1) gene sequences suggest that S. rufescens represents a geographic variant and a junior synonym of S. crenulata. The widespread geographic range of S. crenulata, spanning a few thousand kilometers north to south, is possible due to an amphidromous life cycle that involves a marine planktotrophic larval phase and upstream migration after settlement in estuaries. Nevertheless, there is recognizable morphological and genetic differentiation between distant populations, probably reflecting a relatively short pelagic duration and possibly also infrequent transoceanic dispersal; metamorphic competence is achieved in two weeks in full seawater and even more rapidly in brackish water. The Okinawan population, with only a few known localities, therefore deserves the high conservation priority; conservation efforts need to involve the proper maintenance of migration pathways including all marine, brackish and freshwater environments. PMID:25186931

  9. Rare and endangered species: freshwater gastropods of southern New England

    SciTech Connect

    Jokinen, E.H.; Pondick, J.

    1981-01-01

    The rare and endangered species of freshwater gastropods of southern New England are reported on based upon data collected over the past four years. Field sampling was concentrated in Connecticut but included parts of southern Massachusetts east to Cape Code (69 55 W to 73 45'W, 40 00'N). Water chemistry data were collected along with the snails. Collection methods and water analysis techniques have been described elsewhere by Jokinen (The Nautilus 92:156-160, 1978). Voucher specimens have been placed in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, The Florida State Museum, and the Museum of Zoology, the University of Michigan. Acid rain poses a threat to poorly buffered habitats. 6 references, 1 table.

  10. METHODS FOR EXCLUDING SLUGS AND SNAILS ON EXPORTED HORTICULTURAL COMMODITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly, slugs and snails (mollusks) are recognized as important quarantine pests threatening agriculture, export markets and the environment. This increased awareness results from the rapid spread of damaging species concurrent with higher levels of international trade of horticultural commodi...

  11. Some aspects of snail ecology in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    de Meillon, B.; Frank, G. H.; Allanson, B. R.

    1958-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the preliminary results of a recent ecological survey of some rivers in the Transvaal, Union of South Africa. Representative samples of the molluscan fauna of the rivers were collected and chemical analyses of the river waters were carried out. In addition, such characteristics as current speed, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, and amount of oxygen absorbed from potassium permanganate were determined. No evidence was obtained to show that the chemical composition of natural, unpolluted waters plays any part in determining vector snail habitats. Current speed was found to have some effect, bilharzia vector snails not being found in fast-flowing waters. Of the other factors, turbidity was shown to be of some importance, probably because it affects the growth of the algae on which certain snails seem to depend for their proper development, and severe pollution with sewage and industrial wastes also appeared to have an adverse affect on the snail population. PMID:13573112

  12. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  13. Apple Snail: a Bio Cleaner of the Water Free Surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassiri, Golnaz

    2005-11-01

    Oil spills from tankers represent a threat for shorelines and marine life. Despite continuing research, there has been little change in the fundamental technology for dealing with oil spills. An experimental investigation of the feeding strategy of Apple snails from the water free surface, called surface film feeding, is being studied motivated by the need to develop new techniques to recover oil spills. To feed on floating food (usually a thin layer of microorganisms), the apple snail forms a funnel with its foot and pulls the free surface toward the funnel. High speed imaging and particle image velocimetry were used in the present investigation to measure the free surface motion and to investigate the mechanism used by the apple snails to pull the free surface. The results suggest that the snail pulls the free surface via the wavy motion of the muscles in its funnel.

  14. Pan-European phylogeography of the aquatic snail Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda: Neritidae).

    PubMed

    Bunje, Paul M E

    2005-12-01

    Investigating the geographical distribution of genetic lineages within species is critical to our understanding of how species evolve. As many species inhabit large and complex ranges, it is important that phylogeographical research take into account the entire range of widespread species to clarify how myriad extrinsic variables have affected their evolutionary history. Using phylogenetic, nested clade, and mismatch distribution analyses on a portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, I demonstrate that the wide-ranging freshwater snail Theodoxus fluviatilis possesses in parallel many of the phylogeographical patterns seen in less widespread freshwater species of Europe. Fragmentary forces play a major part in structuring the range of this species, with 12 of 14 geographically structured nested clades displaying a distribution consistent with fragmentation or restricted dispersal. Certain regions of southern Europe harbour the majority of genetic diversity (total haplotype diversity, H = 0.87), particularly Italy (H = 0.87) and areas surrounding the Black Sea (H = 0.81). Post-Pleistocene range expansion is pronounced, with the majority of northern European populations (95% of sample sites) having arisen from northern Italian individuals that initially colonized northern Germany. Additionally, two highly divergent haplotype lineages present in northern Germany imply that there were at least two postglacial recolonization routes. Estuaries may also provide a means of dispersal given that no genetic differentiation was found between estuarine populations and neighbouring freshwater populations. Taken together, these data reveal a species with a complex genetic history resulting from the fragmentary effects of European geology as well as continuous and discrete range expansion related to their aquatic biology. PMID:16313596

  15. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  16. LIFE CYCLE OF THE FRESHWATER SNAIL 'CAMPELOMA DECISUM' (VIVIPARIDAE) IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campeloma decisum reared in Minnesota Lake Superior water grew consistently well when clam meat or commercial fish food was provided and a substrate of sand or mud was present. Food alone, or the substrate alone, was generally ineffective in promoting growth. Thick substrates wer...

  17. The fossil land and freshwater snails of Gndlkofen (Middle Miocene, Germany).

    PubMed

    Salvador, Rodrigo B

    2014-01-01

    The molluscan fauna from the Middle Miocene (MN 5-6) fossil site of Gndlkofen in southern Germany was first reported by Gall (1980: Mitt. Bayer. Staatssaml. Palont. hist. Geol., 20, 51-77). He listed 34 continental gastropod species, which were neither figured nor properly described in many cases. Here a revision of his identifications is presented, with a full description of the material and illustration of the best preserved specimens. Following this revision, 20 species are listed for Gndlkofen. Unfortunately, part of the original material was missing and the record of a few species could not be confirmed. The depositional environment seems to have been a temporary water body, like an oxbow lake, surrounded by a humid and warm forest and scrubland. PMID:24872183

  18. Modulation of defensive reflex conditioning in snails by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Andrianov, Vyatcheslav V; Bogodvid, Tatiana K; Deryabina, Irina B; Golovchenko, Aleksandra N; Muranova, Lyudmila N; Tagirova, Roza R; Vinarskaya, Aliya K; Gainutdinov, Khalil L

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning in snails.Daily injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan before a training session in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by the "neurotoxic" analog of serotonin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, restored the ability of snails to learn.After injection of the "neurotoxic" analogs of serotonin 5,6- and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine as well as serotonin, depolarization of the membrane and decrease of the threshold potential of premotor interneurons was observed. We studied the role of serotonin in the mechanisms of learning in terrestrial snails. To produce a serotonin deficit, the "neurotoxic" analogs of serotonin, 5,6- or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6/5,7-DHT) were used. Injection of 5,6/5,7-DHT was found to disrupt defensive reflex conditioning. Within 2 weeks of neurotoxin application, the ability to learn had recovered. Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning and daily injections of 5-HTP in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by 5,7-DHT restored the snail's ability to learn. We discovered that injections of the neurotoxins 5,6/5,7-DHT as well as serotonin, caused a decrease in the resting and threshold potentials of the premotor interneurons LPa3 and RPa3. PMID:26557063

  19. Modulation of defensive reflex conditioning in snails by serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Andrianov, Vyatcheslav V.; Bogodvid, Tatiana K.; Deryabina, Irina B.; Golovchenko, Aleksandra N.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Tagirova, Roza R.; Vinarskaya, Aliya K.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning in snails.Daily injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan before a training session in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by the “neurotoxic” analog of serotonin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, restored the ability of snails to learn.After injection of the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin 5,6- and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine as well as serotonin, depolarization of the membrane and decrease of the threshold potential of premotor interneurons was observed. We studied the role of serotonin in the mechanisms of learning in terrestrial snails. To produce a serotonin deficit, the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin, 5,6- or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6/5,7-DHT) were used. Injection of 5,6/5,7-DHT was found to disrupt defensive reflex conditioning. Within 2 weeks of neurotoxin application, the ability to learn had recovered. Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning and daily injections of 5-HTP in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by 5,7-DHT restored the snail's ability to learn. We discovered that injections of the neurotoxins 5,6/5,7-DHT as well as serotonin, caused a decrease in the resting and threshold potentials of the premotor interneurons LPa3 and RPa3. PMID:26557063

  20. Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as Δ47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate δ18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell δ18O to calculate snail body water δ18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water δ18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water δ18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.

  1. Acidification of freshwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Cresser, M.S.; Edwards, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume gives an account that draws not only on the main branches of chemistry but also on soil physics, chemistry, hydrology, meteorology, geography, geology, plant physiology, soil microbiology and zoology. The author examine the numerous interacting physical, chemical, and biological, processes that regulate the acidity of freshwaters, a phenomenon that has various causes, including precipitation; acidifying pollutions; and the interaction of plants, soils and water. The relative importance of the different processes is examined.

  2. The Hypoxia-controlled FBXL14 Ubiquitin Ligase Targets SNAIL1 for Proteasome Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Vias-Castells, Rosa; Beltran, Manuel; Valls, Gabriela; Gmez, Irene; Garca, Jos Miguel; Montserrat-Sents, Brbara; Baulida, Josep; Bonilla, Flix; de Herreros, Antonio Garca; Daz, Vctor M.

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor SNAIL1 is a master regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. SNAIL1 is a very unstable protein, and its levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ?-TrCP1 that interacts with SNAIL1 upon its phosphorylation by GSK-3?. Here we show that SNAIL1 polyubiquitylation and degradation may occur in conditions precluding SNAIL1 phosphorylation by GSK-3?, suggesting that additional E3 ligases participate in the control of SNAIL1 protein stability. In particular, we demonstrate that the F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXl14 interacts with SNAIL1 and promotes its ubiquitylation and proteasome degradation independently of phosphorylation by GSK-3?. In vivo, inhibition of FBXl14 using short hairpin RNA stabilizes both ectopically expressed and endogenous SNAIL1. Moreover, the expression of FBXl14 is potently down-regulated during hypoxia, a condition that increases the levels of SNAIL1 protein but not SNAIL1 mRNA. FBXL14 mRNA is decreased in tumors with a high expression of two proteins up-regulated in hypoxia, carbonic anhydrase 9 and TWIST1. In addition, Twist1 small interfering RNA prevents hypoxia-induced Fbxl14 down-regulation and SNAIL1 stabilization in NMuMG cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate the existence of an alternative mechanism controlling SNAIL1 protein levels relevant for the induction of SNAIL1 during hypoxia. PMID:19955572

  3. A conserved role for Snail as a potentiator of active transcription

    PubMed Central

    Rembold, Martina; Ciglar, Lucia; Yáñez-Cuna, J. Omar; Zinzen, Robert P.; Girardot, Charles; Jain, Ankit; Welte, Michael A.; Stark, Alexander; Leptin, Maria; Furlong, Eileen E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factors of the Snail family are key regulators of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions, cell morphogenesis, and tumor metastasis. Since its discovery in Drosophila ∼25 years ago, Snail has been extensively studied for its role as a transcriptional repressor. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Snail can positively modulate transcriptional activation. By combining information on in vivo occupancy with expression profiling of hand-selected, staged snail mutant embryos, we identified 106 genes that are potentially directly regulated by Snail during mesoderm development. In addition to the expected Snail-repressed genes, almost 50% of Snail targets showed an unanticipated activation. The majority of “Snail-activated” genes have enhancer elements cobound by Twist and are expressed in the mesoderm at the stages of Snail occupancy. Snail can potentiate Twist-mediated enhancer activation in vitro and is essential for enhancer activity in vivo. Using a machine learning approach, we show that differentially enriched motifs are sufficient to predict Snail's regulatory response. In silico mutagenesis revealed a likely causative motif, which we demonstrate is essential for enhancer activation. Taken together, these data indicate that Snail can potentiate enhancer activation by collaborating with different activators, providing a new mechanism by which Snail regulates development. PMID:24402316

  4. A conserved role for Snail as a potentiator of active transcription.

    PubMed

    Rembold, Martina; Ciglar, Lucia; Yez-Cuna, J Omar; Zinzen, Robert P; Girardot, Charles; Jain, Ankit; Welte, Michael A; Stark, Alexander; Leptin, Maria; Furlong, Eileen E M

    2014-01-15

    The transcription factors of the Snail family are key regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, cell morphogenesis, and tumor metastasis. Since its discovery in Drosophila ?25 years ago, Snail has been extensively studied for its role as a transcriptional repressor. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Snail can positively modulate transcriptional activation. By combining information on in vivo occupancy with expression profiling of hand-selected, staged snail mutant embryos, we identified 106 genes that are potentially directly regulated by Snail during mesoderm development. In addition to the expected Snail-repressed genes, almost 50% of Snail targets showed an unanticipated activation. The majority of "Snail-activated" genes have enhancer elements cobound by Twist and are expressed in the mesoderm at the stages of Snail occupancy. Snail can potentiate Twist-mediated enhancer activation in vitro and is essential for enhancer activity in vivo. Using a machine learning approach, we show that differentially enriched motifs are sufficient to predict Snail's regulatory response. In silico mutagenesis revealed a likely causative motif, which we demonstrate is essential for enhancer activation. Taken together, these data indicate that Snail can potentiate enhancer activation by collaborating with different activators, providing a new mechanism by which Snail regulates development. PMID:24402316

  5. Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 1342 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90 head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This simple animal model offers the possibility to describe general subcellular mechanisms of nervous system's response to conditions on Earth and in space. PMID:21479267

  6. Antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences during estivation and arousal in the South American apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Tosi, Martín E Rinaldi; Abud, María A; Calderón, María L; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-02-15

    The invasive Pomacea canaliculata estivates during periods of drought and should cope with harmful effects of reoxygenation during arousal. We studied thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and reduced glutathione), and heat shock protein expression (Hsc70, Hsp70 and Hsp90) in (1) active control snails, (2) snails after 45 days of estivation, and (3) aroused snails 20 min and (4) 24 h after water exposure, in midgut gland, kidney and foot. Both kidney and foot (but not the midgut gland) showed a TBARS increase during estivation and a decrease after arousal. Tissue SOD and CAT did not change in any experimental groups. Uric acid increased during estivation in all tissues, and it decreased after arousal in the kidney. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid, remained constant in the midgut gland but it decreased in the kidney until 20 min after arousal; however, allantoin levels rose in both kidney and foot 24 h after arousal. Reduced glutathione decreased during estivation and arousal, in both midgut gland and kidney, and it remained constant in the foot. Hsc70 and Hsp70 kidney levels were stable during the activity-estivation cycle and Hsp90 expression decreases during estivation and recovers in the early arousal. In foot, the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was high during activity and estivation periods and disminished after arousal. Results indicate that a panoply of antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences may be involved during the activity-estivation cycle in this freshwater gastropod. PMID:23077161

  7. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm Tubifex tubifex (Muller)

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Salts of various metals are being released in ever increasing amounts into the aquatic environment from mining operations, metal processing facilities, chemical industries and other similar sources. Although there has been considerable study of the acute and chronic toxicities of metals to freshwater fishes, crustaceans and snails, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Tubificid worms are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. It is suggested that tubificid worms are an important element in the aquatic environment and therefore their use as a bioassay organism is logical one. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of various metals to a fresh-water tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  8. Lactic acid microflora of the gut of snail Cornu aspersum

    PubMed Central

    Koleva, Zdravka; Dedov, Ivaylo; Kizheva, Joana; Lipovanska, Roxana; Moncheva, Penka; Hristova, Petya

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal lactic acid microflora of the edible snail Cornu aspersum was studied by culture-based methods and was phenotypically and molecularly characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates was investigated. Snails in different stages of development were collected from farms located in several regions of Bulgaria. One hundred twenty-two isolates, belonging to the group of LAB, were characterized morphologically and were divided into four groups. Representative isolates from each morphological type were subjected to phenotypic characterization and molecular identification. The snail gut lactic acid microflora was composed by Enterococcus (17 isolates), Lactococcus (12 isolates), Leuconostoc (7 isolates), Lactobacillus (18 isolates) and Weissella (1 isolate). The species affiliation of Lactococcus lactis (12), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (4) and Lactobacillus plantarum (2) was confirmed by species-specific primers. The Lactobacillus isolates were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus brevis (12), L. plantarum (2), Lactobacillus graminis (1) and Lactobacillus curvatus (3). The species L. brevis, L. graminis and L. curvatus were found in snails in a phase of hibernation, whereas L. plantarum was identified both in active and hibernation phases. Antibacterial activity (bacteriocine-like) was shown only by one strain of L. mesentereoides P4/8 against Propionibacterium acnes. The present study showed that the LAB are a component of the microbial communities in the snail digestive system. This is the first report on Lactobacillus strains detected in the gut of C. aspersum. PMID:26019550

  9. Reproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Barsi, Alpar; Dugu, Mal; Collinet, Marc; Thom, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Clia; Roig, Benoit; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2013-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed to compare the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the range of 0?ng Sn/L to 600?ng Sn/L. Tests were performed on the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis, a freshwater snail in which effects of TPT were unknown. Survival, shell length, and reproduction were monitored in a 21-d semistatic test. Frequency of abnormal eggs was assessed as an additional endpoint. Triphenyltin hampered survival while TBT did not. Major effects on shell solidity and reproduction were observed for both compounds, reproductive outputs being more severely hampered by TBT than by TPT. Considering the frequency of abnormal eggs allowed increasing test sensitivity, because snail responses to TBT could be detected at concentrations as low as 19?ng Sn/L. However, the putative mode of action of the 2 compounds could not be deduced from the structure of the molecules or from the response of apical endpoints. Sensitivity of L. stagnalis to TBT and TPT was compared with the sensitivity of prosobranch mollusks with different habitats and different reproductive strategies. PMID:23450754

  10. Behavior of technetium in freshwater environments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    In a previous study, /sup 95m/Tc, as a pertechnetate, was released to a small, experimental, freshwater pond, and the concentrations were determined in biotic and abiotic components of the pond ecosystem. A simple mathematical model was developed to predict the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in fish and snails. Results from this study indicated that uptake through the food chain was an important source of technetium to the higher trophic levels (i.e., fish). In the current study, an experimental pond was spiked with /sup 95m/Tc in the pertechnetate form, and the concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were measured in the lower trophic levels. Emphasis was placed on measuring the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and the aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis. Fish were excluded from the pond to allow the development of a large zooplankton population. The concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in water decreased from 0.75 Bq/mL 1 h after the pond was spiked, to 0.21 Bq/mL at 20 d. Throughout the experiment, at least 98% of the /sup 95m/Tc in the water was in the dissolved fraction (0.4 ..mu..m). Zooplankton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, having concentration factors (Bq/g sample wet wt. divided by Bq/g water) ranging from 3 at 4 h to 36 at 20 d. Concentration factors ranged from 3 to 8 for benthic insects and from 1 to 62 for the aquatic macrophyte.

  11. 14-3-3 binding sites in the snail protein are essential for snail-mediated transcriptional repression and epithelial-mesenchymal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhaoyuan; Peng, Hongzhuang; White, David E; Wang, Pu; Lieberman, Paul M; Halazonetis, Thanos; Rauscher, Frank J

    2010-06-01

    The Snail transcription factor is a repressor and a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) events in normal embryonic development and during tumor metastases. Snail directly regulates genes affecting cell adhesion, motility, and polarity. Invasive tumor cells express high levels of Snail, which is a marker for aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Transcriptional repression and EMT induction by Snail requires binding to its obligate corepressor, the LIM protein Ajuba. It is unclear how this complex is assembled and maintained on Snail target genes. Here we define functional 14-3-3 binding motifs in Snail and Ajuba, which selectively bind 14-3-3 protein isoforms. In Snail, an NH(2)-terminal motif in the repression domain cooperates with a COOH-terminal, high-affinity motif for binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Coordinate mutation of both motifs abolishes 14-3-3 binding and inhibits Snail-mediated gene repression and EMT differentiation. Snail, 14-3-3 proteins, and Ajuba form a ternary complex that is readily detected through chromatin immunoprecipitation at the endogenous E-cadherin promoter. Collectively, these data show that 14-3-3 proteins are new components of the Snail transcriptional repression machinery and mediate its important biological functions. PMID:20501852

  12. New scope on the relationship between rotifers and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    PubMed Central

    Mossallam, Shereen Farouk; Amer, Eglal Ibrahim; Abou-El-Naga, Iman Fathy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of rotifer internalization into snail tissue on the development of schistosomes. Methods Susceptible laboratory-bred Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina) snails were exposed to lab-maintained rotifers; Philodina spp., two weeks before and after being infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) miracidia. The consequent histopathological impact on snail tissues and cercarial biology were investigated before and after emergence from snails. Results Contamination of B. alexandrina snails with philodina, two weeks before miracidial exposure, was found to hinder the preliminary development of S. mansoni cercariae inside the snail tissues. Furthermore, when snails were contaminated with rotifers two weeks post miracidial exposure; growth of already established cercariae was found to be retarded. The consequent influence of internalized rotifers within the snail tissue was clearly reflected on cercarial emergence, activity and infectivity along the four weeks duration of shedding. In the present study, comparison of snail histopathological findings and altered cercarial biology observed between the experimental and control groups indicated that the rotifers may have affected the levels of snail's energy reservoirs, which eventually was found to have had an adverse impact on reproduction, growth and survival of the parasite within the snail host, coupled with its performance outside the snail. Conclusions In future biological control strategies of schistosomiasis, ritifers should be considered as a parasitic scourge of humanity. PMID:23905015

  13. Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising. PMID:15841274

  14. Effects of pollution on freshwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.L.; Harden, M.J.; Leonard, E.N.; Roush, T.H; Spehar, D.L.; Stephan, C.E.; Pickering, Q.H.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    This review includes subjects in last year's reviews on effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates and effects of pollution on freshwater fish and amphibians. This review also includes information on the effects of pollution on freshwater plants. 625 references.

  15. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Miyazaki, Jun; Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake ; Nishizawa, Haruki; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Leach, Richard; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 ; Wang, Kai

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3 occupied the proximal promoter regions of both Snail and hCG within BeWo cells. Furthermore, we examined MTA3 expression in placental trophoblast by immunohistochemistry and found that MTA3 expression was higher in villous cytotrophoblasts versus syncytiotrophoblasts, which supports an inverse association of MTA3 with hCG expression. Lastly, using the well-characterized trophoblast fusion model, we examined MTA3 and hCG levels in forskolin-treated BeWo cells and found that MTA3 down-regulation was accompanied by an up-regulation of hCG. These data further suggest that MTA3 is repressing placental hCG expression. In summary, MTA3 plays a critical role in repressing hCG and Snail in placenta trophoblast and its deregulation is associated with preeclampsia.

  16. Implanted biofuel cell operating in a living snail.

    PubMed

    Halmkov, Lenka; Halmek, Jan; Bocharova, Vera; Szczupak, Alon; Alfonta, Lital; Katz, Evgeny

    2012-03-21

    Implantable biofuel cells have been suggested as sustainable micropower sources operating in living organisms, but such bioelectronic systems are still exotic and very challenging to design. Very few examples of abiotic and enzyme-based biofuel cells operating in animals in vivo have been reported. Implantation of biocatalytic electrodes and extraction of electrical power from small living creatures is even more difficult and has not been achieved to date. Here we report on the first implanted biofuel cell continuously operating in a snail and producing electrical power over a long period of time using physiologically produced glucose as a fuel. The "electrified" snail, being a biotechnological living "device", was able to regenerate glucose consumed by biocatalytic electrodes, upon appropriate feeding and relaxing, and then produce a new "portion" of electrical energy. The snail with the implanted biofuel cell will be able to operate in a natural environment, producing sustainable electrical micropower for activating various bioelectronic devices. PMID:22401501

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in sediment and freshwater fish in U.S. Arctic lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, S.M.; Gubala, C.P.; Landers, D.H.; Lasorsa, B.K.; Crecelius, E.A.; Curtis, L.R.

    1997-04-01

    Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]) were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated lakes in other Arctic regions and more temperate locations. For example, concentrations of Hg and Ni were 175 ng/g and 250 ng/g dry weight, respectively, in Feniak Lake surface sediment. If any anthropogenic enrichment has occurred, it is not distinguishable from background variability based on surface sediment to down core comparisons. With the exception of Hg, the site rank order of metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediment and freshwater fish tissue among lakes is not consistent. This suggests that a number of physical, chemical, and physiological parameters mediate metal bioavailability and uptake in these systems. Maximum concentrations of most metals in fish from this study are equal to or higher than those collected from remote Arctic lakes and rivers in Canada, Finland, and Russia. Muscle Hg concentrations in excess of 1 {micro}g/g wet weight were observed in lake trout from Feniak Lake, which has no identified Hg source other than naturally Hg-enriched sediments. Fish diet seems to influence some heavy metal burdens, as evidenced by the higher concentrations of some metals in lake trout compared to grayling, and differences among lakes for lake trout. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn burdens were higher in lakes where snails were consumed by trout compared to lakes without snails.

  18. Natural parasitic infection of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Keawjam, R S; Poonswad, P; Upatham, E S; Banpavichit, S

    1993-03-01

    Golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata, were collected once a month during a year to search for their natural parasites. The collections were made at two localities having different ecological environments. Of 576 collected snails from a canal, 176 individuals (30.6%) were infected by three groups of metacercariae. These parasites were amphistome, distome and echinostome metacercariae, which had prevalences of 23.5, 19.5 and 0.5%, respectively. The incidence of infection was highest (68.4% in October) when the snail population was composed of the old, juvenile and young Pomacea. Amphistome metacercariae were found most frequently and echinostome metacercariae the least frequently; both parasites were localized in the foot muscle of the snails and had a Shannon index of zero. The range of amphistomes was 1 to 115 with the mean +/- SD of 1 +/- 2 and 95% CL of 1, 2. Distome metacercariae were found primarily in the heart (range: 1-13), and also in the foot muscle (range: 1-5) and kidney (range: 1-14), with a Shannon index of 0.4. The means +/- SD (with 95% CL) were 3 +/- 4 (95% CL = 1, 5), 3 +/- 4 (95% CL = 2, 4) and 2 +/- 1 (95% CL = 1, 2) for the foot muscle, heart and kidney, respectively. The snails from a pond, another locality, had a low proportion of infected individuals. Of 605 snails, only 24 individuals (4.0%) were infected, with the prevalence of amphistomes, distomes and echinostomes being 0.8, 1.8 and 2.1%, respectively. The incidence of infection for each month was zero or less than 10%, except in May when it was 30.2%. PMID:8362292

  19. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mrd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFS?). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFS? was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFS? was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFS?Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFS?.

  20. Effects of trematode parasitism on the shell morphology of snails from flow and nonflow environments.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-03-01

    The primary function of the gastropod shell is protection. However, shells that function well in one environment may be maladaptive in another. Upon infection, the snail shell protects internal parasites and it is to the parasite's advantage to optimize, or not interfere with, shell functionality. However, parasites, particularly trematodes, are often pathogenic and it is not clear if parasitism will induce environment-dependent or -independent changes to gastropod shells. We conducted a field study and a complementary laboratory experiment to examine the effects of trematode parasitism on shell characteristics (shape, size, and crush resistance) of Physa acuta snails in flow and nonflow environments using geometric morphometrics and crush assays. Field results indicate wetland (nonflow) snails had large, crush resistant shells with narrow apertures and tall spires. In contrast, stream (flow) snails had small, weak shells with wide apertures and short spires. Parasitism had no apparent effect on the crush resistance of wetland snails but significantly reduced the crush resistance of stream snails. Parasitism had no significant effect on overall shell shape in stream or wetland snails. Similar to the results of our field study, nonflow tank snails had significantly more crush resistant shells than flow tank snails. Additionally, the shapes of flow and nonflow tank snails significantly differed where nonflow tank snails resembled wetland snails and flow tank snails resembled stream snails. For laboratory snails, parasitism reduced crush resistance regardless of flow/nonflow treatment. Our results demonstrate that habitat and/or flow treatment was the primary factor affecting P. acuta shell morphology and that trematode parasitism played a secondary role. J. Morphol. 277:316-325, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26606527

  1. Movements of florida apple snails in relation to water levels and drying events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Miller, S.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea Paludosa) apparently have only a limited tolerance to wetland drying events (although little direct evidence exists), but their populations routinely face dry downs under natural and managed water regimes. In this paper, we address speculation that apple snails respond to decreasing water levels and potential drying events by moving toward refugia that remain inundated. We monitored the movements of apple snails in central Florida, USA during drying events at the Blue Cypress Marsh (BC) and at Lake Kissimmee (LK). We monitored the weekly movements of 47 BC snails and 31 LK snails using radio-telemetry. Snails tended to stop moving when water depths were 10 cm. Snails moved along the greatest positive depth gradient (i.e., towards deeper water) when they encountered water depths between 10 and 20 cm. Snails tended to move toward shallower water in water depths ???50 cm, suggesting that snails were avoiding deep water areas such as canals and sloughs. Of the 11 BC snails originally located in the area that eventually went dry, three (27%) were found in deep water refugia by the end of the study. Only one of the 31 LK snails escaped the drying event by moving to deeper water. Our results indicate that some snails may opportunistically escape drying events through movement. The tendency to move toward deeper water was statistically significant and indicates that this behavioral trait might enhance survival when the spatial extent of a dry down is limited. However, as water level falls below 10 cm, snails stop moving and become stranded. As the spatial extent of a dry down increases, we predict that the number of snails stranded would increase proportionally. Stranded Pomacea paludosa must contend with dry marsh conditions, possibly by aestivation. Little more than anecdotal information has been published on P. paludosa aestivation, but it is a common adaptation among other apple snails (Caenogastropoda: Ampullaridae). ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  2. Sperm in "parhenogenetic" freshwater gastrotrichs.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M J; Levy, D P

    1979-07-20

    Freshwater members of the phylum Gastrotricha have been considered obligate parthenogens. In Lepidodermelia squammata, the species for which there is most evidence for parthenogenesis, sperm have been discovered. This finding will necessitate reexamination of the nature of sexuality and life cycles and of the concept of "species" in freshwater gastrotrichs. PMID:17747043

  3. Nuclear ubiquitination by FBXL5 modulates Snail1 DNA binding and stability

    PubMed Central

    Vias-Castells, Rosa; Fras, lex; Robles-Lanuza, Estefana; Zhang, Kun; Longmore, Gregory D.; Garca de Herreros, Antonio; Daz, Vctor M.

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor Snail1 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition, repressing epithelial markers and activating mesenchymal genes. Snail1 is an extremely labile protein degraded by the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-ligases ?-TrCP1/FBXW1 and Ppa/FBXL14. Using a short hairpin RNA screening, we have identified FBXL5 as a novel Snail1 ubiquitin ligase. FBXL5 is located in the nucleus where it interacts with Snail1 promoting its polyubiquitination and affecting Snail1 protein stability and function by impairing DNA binding. Snail1 downregulation by FBXL5 is prevented by Lats2, a protein kinase that phosphorylates Snail1 precluding its nuclear export but not its polyubiquitination. Actually, although polyubiquitination by FBXL5 takes place in the nucleus, Snail1 is degraded in the cytosol. Finally, FBXL5 is highly sensitive to stress conditions and is downregulated by iron depletion and ?-irradiation, explaining Snail1 stabilization in these conditions. These results characterize a novel nuclear ubiquitin ligase controlling Snail1 protein stability and provide the molecular basis for understanding how radiotherapy upregulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducer Snail1. PMID:24157836

  4. Snail as a Potential Target Molecule in Cardiac Fibrosis: Paracrine Action of Endothelial Cells on Fibroblasts Through Snail and CTGF Axis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sae-Won; Won, Joo-Yun; Kim, Woo Jean; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Youn, Seock-Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to myocardium induces death of cardiomyocytes and destroys the vasculature, leading to cardiac fibrosis that is mainly mediated by the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the collagen deposition. Snail involvement in fibrosis is well known; however, the contribution of Snail to cardiac fibrosis during I/R injury and its underlying mechanisms have not been defined. We showed that I/R injury to mouse hearts significantly increases the expression of Snail. An in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (Hy/Reoxy) experiment showed that the cell source of Snail induction is endothelial cells rather than cardiac fibroblasts (cFibroblasts) or cardiomyoblasts. When Snail was overexpressed in endothelial cells, they underwent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) but showed very poor capacity for collagen synthesis. Instead, reoxygenation- or Snail overexpression-mediated EndMT-like cells noticeably stimulated transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts via secretion of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The injection of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, a selective Snail inhibitor, remarkably suppressed collagen deposition and cardiac fibrosis in mouse I/R injury, and significantly improved cardiac function and reduced Snail and CTGF expression in vivo. Our findings suggested a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication between EndMT-like cells and fibroblasts for fibrosis induction and implicated Snail as a potential target molecule in cardiac fibrosis after I/R injury. PMID:23760445

  5. Bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of Pb and Cd and growth effects in the green garden snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778), after dietary exposure to the metals alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Mleiki, Anwar; Irizar, Amaia; Zaldibar, Beñat; El Menif, Najoua Trigui; Marigómez, Ionan

    2016-03-15

    The present study was aimed at determining bioaccumulation and cell and tissue distribution of Pb and Cd in the green garden snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778), exposed to different nominal dietary concentrations of Pb (25, 100 and 2500mgPb/kg), Cd (5, 10 and 100mgCd/kg) and their combination (25mg Pb+10mgCd/kg and 2500mg Pb+100mgCd/kg) for 1 and 8wk. Pb and Cd were bioaccumulated in the digestive gland in a dose-dependent manner and the degree of effects on growth was related to the level of exposure, though metal-metal interactions were observed after treatment with mixtures of Pb and Cd. The present results are absolutely comparable to those obtained in other terrestrial pulmonates in other regions and therefore they absolutely support that C. apertus is suitable as biomonitor for the assessment of the Pb and Cd levels and their biological effects in soil ecosystems in Northern Africa. PMID:26780140

  6. Allelopathy in freshwater cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leo, Pedro N; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D; Vasconcelos, Vtor M

    2009-01-01

    Freshwater cyanobacteria produce several bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse chemical structure, which may achieve high concentrations in the aquatic medium when cyanobacterial blooms occur. Some of the compounds released by cyanobacteria have allelopathic properties, influencing the biological processes of other phytoplankton or aquatic plants. These kinds of interactions are more easily detectable under laboratory studies; however their ecological relevance is often debated. Recent research has discovered new allelopathic properties in some cyanobacteria species, new allelochemicals and elucidated some of the allelopathic mechanisms. Ecosystem-level approaches have shed some light on the factors that influence allelopathic interactions, as well as how cyanobacteria may be able to modulate their surrounding environment by means of allelochemical release. Nevertheless, the role of allelopathy in cyanobacteria ecology is still not well understood, and its clarification should benefit from carefully designed field studies, chemical characterization of allelochemicals and new methodological approaches at the "omics" level. PMID:19863381

  7. Snail Shells in a Practical Application of Statistical Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Stephen W.; Shepherd, Deborah K.; Williams-Hart, Tara; Gossett, Dalton R.; Crnkovic, Amanda C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based upon a laboratory exercise designed for biology students in secondary schools or those taking introductory biology laboratory courses in colleges and universities. This exercise requires a set of calipers, a calculator and populations of snail shells collected either from the wild or obtained from a biological supply house. The

  8. SNAILs promote G1 phase in selected cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Lan; Xue, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Lin; Deng, Lei; Shang, Yan-Na; Liu, Fang; Mo, Xian-Ming; Lu, You

    2015-11-01

    Cells can acquire a stem-like cell phenotype through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, it is not known which of the stem-like cancer cells are generated by these phenotype transitions. We studied the EMT-inducing roles of SNAILs (the key inducers for the onset of EMT) in selected cancer cells (lung cancer cell line with relatively stable genome), in order to provide more implications for the investigation of EMT-related phenotype transitions in cancer. However, SNAILs fail to induce completed EMT. In addition, we proved that Snail accelerates the early G1phase whereas Slug accelerates the late G1phase. Blocking G1phase is one of the basic conditions for the onset of EMT-related phenotype transitions (e.g., metastasis, acquring stemness). The discovery of this unexpected phenomenon (promoting G1phase) typically reveals the heterogeneity of cancer cells. The onset of EMT-related phenotype transitions in cancer needs not only the induction and activation of SNAILs, but also some particular heredity alterations (genetic or epigenetic alterations, which cause heterogeneity). The new connection between heredity alteration (heterogeneity) and phenotype transition suggests a novel treatment strategy, the heredity alteration-directed specific target therapy. Further investigations need to be conducted to study the relevant heredity alterations. PMID:26352801

  9. MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF VULGARONE B AGAINST RAM'S HORN SNAIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ram's horn snail (Planorbdella trivolvis) is an intermediate host for a digenetic trematode (Bolbophorus confusus) that has recently been discovered to be a significant problem in commercial catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. In these catf...

  10. Snail Shells in a Practical Application of Statistical Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Stephen W.; Shepherd, Deborah K.; Williams-Hart, Tara; Gossett, Dalton R.; Crnkovic, Amanda C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based upon a laboratory exercise designed for biology students in secondary schools or those taking introductory biology laboratory courses in colleges and universities. This exercise requires a set of calipers, a calculator and populations of snail shells collected either from the wild or obtained from a biological supply house. The…

  11. Fossil snail shells tell story about Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    Ancient and modern snail shells have given scientists a unique look at the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, confirming that parts of the plateau have actually lost elevation over time, despite its immense height. A new paper detailing the research was published on 29 August in the Geological Society of America Bulletin (doi:10.1130/B31000.1).

  12. Palatability studies of snail and slug poison baits, using dogs.

    PubMed

    Kitchell, R L; Schubert, T A; Mull, R L; Knaak, J B

    1978-07-01

    In 1975, the California Department of Food and Agriculture required registered manufacturers of snail and slug baits to present data showing the unattractiveness of these products to dogs, in order to reduce the number deaths in dogs due to poisoning by eating these baits. A cooperative project involving the University of California, the California Department of Food and Agriculture, and the snail and slug bait manufacturers was designed to assist the manufacturers in assessing the palatability of their products by dogs and to develop criteria for the regulatory agencies to use to ensure that the products they were registering were unattractive to dogs. The studies showed that most recently formulated baits were relatively unpalatable for dogs. A 2-panel consumption testing procedure was developed and is being used by the California Department of Food and Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency as criteria for registration. Current reports indicate a dramatic decrease in snail and slug bait poisonings in California after these criteria were established as requirements for registration of snail and slug baits. PMID:670059

  13. Food Choice in the Common Snail (Helix Aspersa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; Howell, Pauline

    1985-01-01

    The easily obtained common snail shows interesting dietary preferences which can be the source of several simple experiments. Specific student instructions are given for quantitative and comparative studies using cabbage, lettuce, carrot, rutabaga, and onion. Suggestions for laboratory setup and further work are included. (DH)

  14. Flying shells: historical dispersal of marine snails across Central America.

    PubMed

    Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jacobs, David K; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2012-03-22

    The geological rise of the Central American Isthmus separated the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans about 3 Ma, creating a formidable barrier to dispersal for marine species. However, similar to Simpson's proposal that terrestrial species can 'win sweepstakes routes'-whereby highly improbable dispersal events result in colonization across geographical barriers-marine species may also breach land barriers given enough time. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether intertidal marine snails have crossed Central America to successfully establish in new ocean basins. We used a mitochondrial DNA genetic comparison of sister snails (Cerithideopsis spp.) separated by the rise of the Isthmus. Genetic variation in these snails revealed evidence of at least two successful dispersal events between the Pacific and the Atlantic after the final closure of the Isthmus. A combination of ancestral area analyses and molecular dating techniques indicated that dispersal from the Pacific to the Atlantic occurred about 750 000 years ago and that dispersal in the opposite direction occurred about 72 000 years ago. The geographical distribution of haplotypes and published field evidence further suggest that migratory shorebirds transported the snails across Central America at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico. Migratory birds could disperse other intertidal invertebrates this way, suggesting the Central American Isthmus may not be as impassable for marine species as previously assumed. PMID:21920976

  15. Tahitian tree snail mitochondrial clades survived recent mass extirpation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehwan; Burch, John B; Jung, Younghun; Coote, Trevor; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; O Foighil, Diarmaid

    2007-07-01

    Oceanic islands frequently support endemic faunal radiations that are highly vulnerable to introduced predators [1]. This vulnerability is epitomized by the rapid extinction in the wild of all but five of 61 described Society Islands partulid tree snails [2], following the deliberate introduction of an alien biological control agent: the carnivorous snail Euglandina rosea[3]. Tahiti's tree snail populations have been almost completely extirpated and three of the island's eight endemic Partula species are officially extinct, a fourth persisting only in captivity [2]. We report a molecular phylogenetic estimate of Tahitian Partula mitochondrial lineage survival calibrated with a 1970 reference museum collection that pre-dates the predator's 1974 introduction to the island [4]. Although severe winnowing of lineage diversity has occurred, none of the five primary Tahitian Partula clades present in the museum samples is extinct. Targeted conservation measures, especially of montane refuge populations, may yet preserve a representative sub-sample of Tahiti's endemic tree snail genetic diversity in the wild. PMID:17610827

  16. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the cone snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea).

    PubMed

    Puillandre, N; Bouchet, P; Duda, T F; Kauferstein, S; Kohn, A J; Olivera, B M; Watkins, M; Meyer, C

    2014-09-01

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Clade; the others are divided between the Small Major Clade (?12%), the Conus californicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (?3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper. PMID:24878223

  17. Bioaccumulation and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in an experimental freshwater pond

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    An acute release of /sup 95m/Tc was made to a small experimental freshwater pond to determine the behavior of technetium in a freshwater ecosystem. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of /sup 95m/Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 d. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that /sup 95m/Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated /sup 95m/Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dpm/g dry wt) 4 h after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated /sup 95m/Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating /sup 95m/Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 d, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 121 for snails. The estimated size of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the /sup 95m/Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the /sup 95m/Tc accumulated in the biota.

  18. Pseudosuccinea columella: age resistance to Calicophoron daubneyi infection in two snail populations

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Yasser; Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Individual infections of Egyptian and French Pseudosuccinea columella with five miracidia of Calicophoron daubneyi were carried out to determine whether this lymnaeid was capable of sustaining larval development of this parasite. On day 42 post-exposure (at 23C), infected snails were only noted in groups of individuals measuring 1 or 2mm in height at miracidial exposure. Snail survival in the 2-mm groups was significantly higher than that noted in the 1-mm snails, whatever the geographic origin of snail population. In contrast, prevalence of C. daubneyi infection was significantly greater in the 1-mm groups (1520% versus 3.44.0% in the 2-mm snails). Low values were noted for the mean shell growth of infected snails at their death (3.14.0mm) and the mean number of cercariae (<9 in the 1-mm groups, <19 in the 2-mm snails). No significant differences between snail populations and snails groups were noted for these last two parameters. Most infected snails died after a single cercarial shedding wave. Both populations of P. columella showed an age resistance to C. daubneyi infection and only juveniles measuring 2mm or less in shell height at exposure can ensure larval development of this digenean up to cercarial shedding. PMID:25664810

  19. Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2011-11-01

    In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery. PMID:22079832

  20. Snail and serpinA1 promote tumor progression and predict prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Hwa; Lee, Ja Rang; Kim, Hye Kyung; Jo, Hong-jae; Kim, Hyun Sung; Oh, Nahmgun; Song, Geun Am; Park, Do Youn

    2015-01-01

    The role of Snail and serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 (serpinA1) in tumorigenesis has been previously identified. However, the exact role and mechanism of these proteins in progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) are controversial. In this study, we investigated the role of Snail and serpinA1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and examined the mechanisms through which these proteins mediate CRC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis of 528 samples from patients with CRC showed that elevated expression of Snail or serpinA1 was correlated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. Moreover, we detected a correlation between Snail and serpinA1 expression. Functional studies performed using the CRC cell lines DLD-1 and SW-480 showed that overexpression of Snail or serpinA1 significantly increased CRC cell invasion and migration. Conversely, knockdown of Snail or serpinA1 expression suppressed CRC cell invasion and migration. ChIP analysis revealed that Snail regulated serpinA1 by binding to its promoter. In addition, fibronectin mediated Snail and serpinA1 signaling was involved in CRC cell invasion and migration. Taken together, our data showed that Snail and serpinA1 promoted CRC progression through fibronectin. These findings suggested that Snail and serpinA1 were novel prognostic biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets in CRC. PMID:26015410

  1. Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aguirre-Macedo, Maria Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery.

  2. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent. PMID:24735873

  3. Overexpression of Snail in retinal pigment epithelial triggered epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Min; Xu, Ding; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Fang

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • First reported overexpression of Snail in RPE cells could directly trigger EMT. • Further confirmed the regulator role of Snail in RPE cells EMT in vitro. • Snail may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent the fibrosis of PVR. - Abstract: Snail transcription factor has been implicated as an important regulator in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) during tumourigenesis and fibrogenesis. Our previous work showed that Snail transcription factor was activated in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and may contribute to the development of retinal fibrotic disease such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). However, whether Snail alone has a direct role on retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition has not been investigated. Here, we analyzed the capacity of Snail to drive EMT in human RPE cells. A vector encoding Snail gene or an empty vector were transfected into human RPE cell lines ARPE-19 respectively. Snail overexpression in ARPE-19 cells resulted in EMT, which was characterized by the expected phenotypic transition from a typical epithelial morphology to mesenchymal spindle-shaped. The expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) were down-regulated, whereas mesenchymal markers a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and fibronectin were up-regulated in Snail expression vector transfected cells. In addition, ectopic expression of Snail significantly enhanced ARPE-19 cell motility and migration. The present data suggest that overexpression of Snail in ARPE-19 cells could directly trigger EMT. These results may provide novel insight into understanding the regulator role of Snail in the development of retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  4. Reversing the Resistance Phenotype of the Biomphalaria glabrata Snail Host Schistosoma mansoni Infection by Temperature Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Knight, Matty

    2012-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails that display either resistant or susceptible phenotypes to the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni provide an invaluable resource towards elucidating the molecular basis of the snail-host/schistosome relationship. Previously, we showed that induction of stress genes either after heat-shock or parasite infection was a major feature distinguishing juvenile susceptible snails from their resistant counterparts. In order to examine this apparent association between heat stress and snail susceptibility, we investigated the effect of temperature modulation in the resistant snail stock, BS-90. Here, we show that, incubated for up to 4 hrs at 32C prior to infection, these resistant snails became susceptible to infection, i.e. shedding cercariae at 5 weeks post exposure (PE) while unstressed resistant snails, as expected, remained resistant. This suggests that susceptibility to infection by this resistant snail phenotype is temperature-sensitive (ts). Additionally, resistant snails treated with the Hsp 90 specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA) after heat stress, were no longer susceptible to infection, retaining their resistant phenotype. Consistently, susceptible snail phenotypes treated with 100 mM GA before parasite exposure also remained uninfected. These results provide direct evidence for the induction of stress genes (heat shock proteins; Hsp 70, Hsp 90 and the reverse transcriptase [RT] domain of the nimbus non-LTR retrotransposon) in B. glabrata susceptibility to S. mansoni infection and characterize the resistant BS-90 snails as a temperature-sensitive phenotype. This study of reversing snail susceptibility phenotypes to S. mansoni provides an opportunity to directly track molecular pathway(s) that underlie the B. glabrata snail's ability to either sustain or destroy the S. mansoni parasite. PMID:22577362

  5. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

    PubMed Central

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman Fathy; Sadaka, Hayam Abd El-Monem; Amer, Eglal Ibrahim; Diab, Iman Hassan; Khedr, Safaa Ibrahim Abd El-Halim

    2015-01-01

    Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalaria species,Biomphalaria alexandrina represents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrina snails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoni infection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalaria control. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control. PMID:26061235

  6. Metabolic acceleration in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Elke I.; Ducrot, V.; Jager, T.; Koene, J.; Lagadic, L.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Under constant environmental conditions, most animals tend to grow following the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Deviations from this curve can point to changes in the environment that the animals experience, such as food limitation when the available food is not sufficient or suitable. However, such deviations can also point to a phenomenon called metabolic acceleration, which is receiving increasing attention in the field of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) modeling. Reasons for such an acceleration are usually changes in shape during ontogeny, which cause changes in the surface area to volume ratio of the organism. Those changes, in turn, lead to changes in some of the model parameters that have length in their dimension. The life-history consequences of metabolic acceleration as implemented in the DEB theory are an s-shaped growth curve (when body size is expressed as a length measure) and a prolongation of the hatching time. The great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was earlier found to be food limited during the juvenile phase in laboratory experiments conducted under classical ecotoxicity test protocols. The pond snail has isomorphic shell growth but yet does not exhibit the expected von Bertalanffy growth curve under food limitation. When applying the standard DEB model to data from such life-cycle experiments, we also found that the hatching time is consistently underestimated, which could be a sign of metabolic acceleration. We here present an application of the DEB model including metabolic acceleration to the great pond snail. We account for the simultaneous hermaphroditism of the snail by including a model extension that describes the relative investment into the male and female function. This model allowed us to adequately predict the life history of the snail over the entire life cycle. However, the pond snail does not change in shape substantially after birth, so the original explanation for the metabolic acceleration does not hold. Since the change in shape is not the only explanation for metabolic acceleration in animals, we discuss the possible other explanations for this pattern in L. stagnalis.

  7. Current advances on the study of snail-snail interactions, with special emphasis on competition process.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, J R; dos Santos, M B

    1995-01-01

    Field work research on population dynamic of snails from the regions of Belo Horizonte and Lagoa Santa give much information about interactions among two or more species of mollusks: Pomacea haustrum, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea and Melanoides tuberculata. Data ranging from two years to several decades ago suggest that the Pampulha reservoir is like a cemetery of B. glabrata and B. straminea, species that coexist for more than 14 years in a small part of a stream, whereas only B. glabrata lives in all the streams of the basin. In the last ten to twenty years B. tenagophila has coexisted with P. haustrum and M. tuberculata in the Serra Verde ponds and in the Pampulha dam. However these species have not settled in any of the brooks, except temporarily. The data suggest that the kind of biotope and the habitat conditions are decisive factors for the permanence of each species in its preferencial biotope. B. glabrata, natural from streams and riverheads, quickly disappears from the reservoirs and ponds where it coexists with other species for a short time, independently of the competitive process. Competition needs to be better studied, since in Central America and Caribean islands this kind of study has favored the biological control of planorbid species. PMID:8531669

  8. Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Marta; Boncela, Joanna; Perreau, Corinne; Karamanou, Konstantina; Chatron-Colliet, Aurore; Proult, Isabelle; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Chakravarti, Shukti; Maquart, François-Xavier; Kowalska, M Anna; Wegrowski, Yanusz; Brézillon, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1) melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment. PMID:26930497

  9. Measurement of Selected Enzymatic Activities in Solanum nigrum-Treated Biomphalaria arabica Snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Daihan, Sooad

    In the present study, glucose, acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), α-amylase and lipase were measured for the first time in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria arabica snails, molluscan intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Also, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against this snail species. The tested enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. While ALP and amylase were slightly affected, ACP and lipase were significantly altered. Glucose as an important energy source for a successful schistosome-snail relationship was significantly reduced in molluscicide-treated snails. In conclusion, sublethal concentration of the molluscicide showed potent effect in disturbing snail biochemistry which may render them physiologically unsuitable for the developing of schistosome parasite. This could be considered as a promising strategy to control the disease.

  10. Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stasiak, Marta; Boncela, Joanna; Perreau, Corinne; Karamanou, Konstantina; Chatron-Colliet, Aurore; Proult, Isabelle; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Chakravarti, Shukti; Maquart, François-Xavier; Kowalska, M. Anna; Wegrowski, Yanusz; Brézillon, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1) melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment. PMID:26930497

  11. Incidence of Parastrongylus cantonensis larvae in different fresh water snails in Dakahlia Governorate.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, A M; el-Hamshary, Eman M; el-Shewy, Khalid M; Rifaat, Manal M A; el-Sharkawy, Iman M A

    2002-08-01

    Samples of snails were collected from different water bodies in Dakahlia governorate to assess a survey on the naturally infected snails and their infection rate with the Parastrongylus cantonensis larvae. The nematode P. cantonensis is associated in the etiology of eosinophilic meningeoencephalitis of man. Lanistes carinatus showed the highest rate of infection with 19-400 larvae per snail. Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, Bulinus truncatus, Lymnaea cailliaudi (natalensis), L. alexandrina, and Cleopatra cyclostomoides were found naturally infected with the larvae of P. cantonensis for the first time in Egypt. The number of larvae per infected snail varied depending on the snail type. The highest rate (39.2%) of infected snails was collected from the end canals at Tanneekh and the lowest in the river Nile (12.5%). PMID:12214935

  12. Removal of corallivorous snails as a proactive tool for the conservation of acroporid corals

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Margaret W.; Bright, Allan J.; Cameron, Caitlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Corallivorous snail feeding is a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral, Acropora palmata, accounting for roughly one-quarter of tissue loss in monitored study plots over seven years. In contrast with larger threats such as bleaching, disease, or storms, corallivory by Coralliophila abbreviata is one of the few direct sources of partial mortality that may be locally managed. We conducted a field experiment to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of snail removal. Long-term monitoring plots on six reefs in the upper Florida Keys were assigned to one of three removal treatments: (1) removal from A. palmata only, (2) removal from all host coral species, or (3) no-removal controls. During the initial removal in June 2011, 436 snails were removed from twelve 150 m2 plots. Snails were removed three additional times during a seven month removal phase, then counted at five surveys over the next 19 months to track recolonization. At the conclusion, snails were collected, measured and sexed. Before-After-Control-Impact analysis revealed that both snail abundance and feeding scar prevalence were reduced in removal treatments compared to the control, but there was no difference between removal treatments. Recolonization by snails to baseline abundance is estimated to be 3.7 years and did not differ between removal treatments. Recolonization rate was significantly correlated with baseline snail abundance. Maximum snail size decreased from 47.0 mm to 34.6 mm in the removal treatments. The effort required to remove snails from A. palmata was 30 diver minutes per 150 m2 plot, compared with 51 min to remove snails from all host corals. Since there was no additional benefit observed with removing snails from all host species, removals can be more efficiently focused on only A. palmata colonies and in areas where C. abbreviata abundance is high, to effectively conserve A. palmata in targeted areas. PMID:25469321

  13. Creosote compounds in snails obtained from Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Snails, Thais haemostoma, were collected from two areas offshore in Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site. Tissue from the snails was extracted to isolate the lipophilic compounds and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Along with naturally occurring compounds, the snail tissue contained large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds, such as phenanthrene, acridine, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, and benzo[a]pyrene. Many of these compounds were characteristic of creosote contamination associated with the onshore hazardous-waste site.

  14. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Bennetts, R.E.; Morton, Alexandra

    1997-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century (Rood et al. 1993). Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem's food web. Recent research by Malley et al. (1996) has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida.

  16. Sexual selection maintains whole-body chiral dimorphism in snails

    PubMed Central

    SCHILTHUIZEN, M.; CRAZE, P. G.; CABANBAN, A. S.; DAVISON, A.; STONE, J.; GITTENBERGER, E.; SCOTT, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the vast majority of higher animals are fixed for one chiral morph or another, the cause for this directionality is known in only a few cases. In snails, for example, rare individuals of the opposite coil are unable to mate with individuals of normal coil, so directionality is maintained by frequency-dependent selection. The snail subgenus Amphidromus presents an unexplained exception, because dextral (D) and sinistral (S) individuals occur sympatrically in roughly equal proportions (so-called antisymmetry) in most species. Here we show that in Amphidromus there is sexual selection for dimorphism, rather than selection for monomorphism. We found that matings between D and S individuals occur more frequently than expected by chance. Anatomical investigations showed that the chirality of the spermatophore and the female reproductive tract probably allow a greater fecundity in such inter-chiral matings. Computer simulation confirms that under these circumstances, sustained dimorphism is the expected outcome. PMID:17714311

  17. Silver bioaccumulation dynamics in a freshwater invertebrate after aqueous and dietary exposures to nanosized and ionic Ag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    le Croteau, Marie-Noe; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    We compared silver (Ag) bioavailability and toxicity to a freshwater gastropod after exposure to ionic silver (Ag+) and to Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) capped with citrate or with humic acid. Silver form, exposure route, and capping agent influence Ag bioaccumulation dynamics in Lymnaea stagnalis. Snails efficiently accumulated Ag from all forms after either aqueous or dietary exposure. For both exposure routes, uptake rates were faster for Ag+ than for Ag NPs. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from Ag NPs mixed with diatoms (assimilation efficiency (AE) ranged from 49 to 58%) and from diatoms pre-exposed to Ag+ (AE of 73%). In the diet, Ag NPs damaged digestion. Snails ate less and inefficiently processed the ingested food, which adversely impacted their growth. Loss rates of Ag were faster after waterborne exposure to Ag NPs than after exposure to dissolved Ag+. Once Ag was taken up from diet, whether from Ag+ or Ag NPs, Ag was lost extremely slowly. Large Ag body concentrations are thus expected in L. stagnalis after dietborne exposures, especially to citrate-capped Ag NPs. Ingestion of Ag associated with particulate materials appears as the most important vector of uptake. Nanosilver exposure from food might trigger important environmental risks.

  18. Activity of the mangrove snail Cerithidea decollata (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in a warm temperate South African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Alan N.; Dickens, John

    2012-08-01

    A population of Cerithidea decollata, an intertidal marine gastropod usually found within mangroves, was studied within an area of Juncus kraussii in the upper reaches of the warm temperate Knysna estuary, which is at the southern-most limit of the recorded distribution of this snail. Activity (migratory and homing behaviour, distances travelled during foraging) of the snails was monitored over spring and neap tides in four seasons. Migratory patterns of the snails were affected by season, time of low tide (day vs night), tidal magnitude (spring vs neap) and zonation. In the summer and spring, a greater proportion of snails migrated from J. kraussii leaves onto the mud during the day at spring low tide. During neap tides in these two seasons, most snails did not climb J. kraussii leaves and remained on the mud, which was nearly always exposed. In autumn a few snails only were active and in winter snails were almost completely inactive, probably due to low air temperatures. Snails travelled greater distances on the mud on spring tides, during the diurnal low tides, and in the summer. No snails were found to home to individual J. kraussii leaves; however, homing behaviour was recorded to wooden poles within the Juncus wetland.

  19. Fasciola hepatica in Snails Collected from Water-Dropwort Fields using PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwang-Yong; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Rok; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Cha, Guang-Ho; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that causes zoonosis mainly in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Fascioliasis has been reported in Korea; however, determining F. hepatica infection in snails has not been done recently. Thus, using PCR, we evaluated the prevalence of F. hepatica infection in snails at 4 large water-dropwort fields. Among 349 examined snails, F. hepatica-specific internal transcribed space 1 (ITS-1) and/or ITS-2 markers were detected in 12 snails and confirmed using sequence analysis. Morphologically, 213 of 349 collected snails were dextral shelled, which is the same aperture as the lymnaeid snail, the vectorial host for F. hepatica. Among the 12 F. hepatica-infected snails, 6 were known first intermediate hosts in Korea (Lymnaea viridis and L. ollula) and the remaining 6 (Lymnaea sp.) were potentially a new first intermediate host in Korea. It has been shown that the overall prevalence of the snails contaminated with F. hepatica in water-dropwort fields was 3.4%; however, the prevalence varied among the fields. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of F. hepatica infection using the vectorial capacity of the snails in Korea. PMID:25548416

  20. Analysis of Snail1 function and regulation by Twist1 in palatal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Ruest, L. Bruno; Svoboda, Kathy K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Palatal fusion is a tightly controlled process which comprises multiple cellular events, including cell movement and differentiation. Midline epithelial seam (MES) degradation is essential to palatal fusion. In this study, we analyzed the function of Snail1 during the degradation of the MES. We also analyzed the mechanism regulating the expression of the Snail1 gene in palatal shelves. Palatal explants treated with Snail1 siRNA did not degrade the MES and E-cadherin was not repressed leading to failure of palatal fusion. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (Tgf?3) regulated Snail1 mRNA, as Snail1 expression decreased in response to Tgf?3 neutralizing antibody and a PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Twist1, in collaboration with E2A factors, regulated the expression of Snail1. Twist1/E47 dimers bond to the Snail1 promoter to activate expression. Without E47, Twist1 repressed Snail1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that Tgf?3 may signal through Twist1 and then Snail1 to downregulate E-cadherin expression during palatal fusion. PMID:23424071

  1. Snail Is a Critical Mediator of Invadosome Formation and Joint Degradation in Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lauzier, Annie; Lavoie, Roxane R; Charbonneau, Martine; Gouin-Boisvert, Béatrice; Harper, Kelly; Dubois, Claire M

    2016-02-01

    Progressive cartilage destruction, mediated by invasive fibroblast-like synoviocytes, is a central feature in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Members of the Snail family of transcription factors are required for cell migration and invasion, but their role in joint destruction remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that Snail is essential for the formation of extracellular matrix-degrading invadosomal structures by synovial cells from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and RA patients. Mechanistically, Snail induces extracellular matrix degradation in synovial cells by repressing PTEN, resulting in increased phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Of significance, Snail is overexpressed in synovial cells and tissues of CIA rats and RA patients, whereas knockdown of Snail in CIA joints prevents cartilage invasion and joint damage. Furthermore, Snail expression is associated with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene signature characteristic of transglutaminase 2/transforming growth factor-β activation. Transforming growth factor-β and transglutaminase 2 stimulate Snail-dependent invadosome formation in rat and human synoviocytes. Our results identify the Snail-PTEN platelet-derived growth factor receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase axis as a novel regulator of the prodestructive invadosome-forming phenotype of synovial cells. New therapies for RA target inflammation, and are only partly effective in preventing joint damage. Blocking Snail and/or its associated gene expression program may provide an additional tool to improve the efficacy of treatments to prevent joint destruction. PMID:26704941

  2. Low genetic diversity in a snail intermediate host (Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krass, 1848) and schistosomiasis transmission in the Senegal River Basin.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G; Noble, L R; Rollinson, D; Southgate, V R; Webster, J P; Jones, C S

    2010-01-01

    Population genetic perturbations of intermediate hosts, often a consequence of human pressure on environmental resources, can precipitate unexpectedly severe disease outbreaks. Such disturbances are set to become increasingly common following range changes concomitant with climate shifts, dwindling natural resources and major infrastructure changes such as hydroprojects. Construction of the Diama dam in the Senegal River Basin (SRB) reduced river salinity, enabling the freshwater snail intermediate host Biomphalaria pfeifferi to rapidly expand its distribution. A serious public health problem ensued, with an epidemic of intestinal schistosomiasis occurring in the previously schistosome-free Richard-Toll region within 2 years. The current study aimed to assess the population variability of B. pfeifferi in the SRB, and speculate upon its subsequent impact on host-parasite interactions following such engineered ecological change. Genetic variation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed little population differentiation in SRB snails compared with those from natural habitats in Zimbabwe, where Schistosoma mansoni transmission is much lower. 'Open' SRB habitats are associated with greater water contact, smaller population sizes and less genetic diversity, with sites downstream of Richard-Toll showing greater inter- and intrapopulation variation, concomitant with less frequent human contact. These observations may be explained by rapid expansion into pristine habitat selecting for high fecundity genotypes at the expense of schistosome resistance, presenting S. mansoni with genetically homogenous highly fecund susceptible populations around the focal point, promoting development of a highly compatible host-parasite relationship. Longitudinal study of such systems may prove important in predicting public health risks engendered by future environmental engineering projects. PMID:20025653

  3. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 S/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 S/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 S/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures.

  4. Function of insulin in snail brain in associative learning.

    PubMed

    Kojima, S; Sunada, H; Mita, K; Sakakibara, M; Lukowiak, K; Ito, E

    2015-10-01

    Insulin is well known as a hormone regulating glucose homeostasis across phyla. Although there are insulin-independent mechanisms for glucose uptake in the mammalian brain, which had contributed to a perception of the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ for decades, the finding of insulin and its receptors in the brain revolutionized the concept of insulin signaling in the brain. However, insulin's role in brain functions, such as cognition, attention, and memory, remains unknown. Studies using invertebrates with their open blood-vascular system have the promise of promoting a better understanding of the role played by insulin in mediating/modulating cognitive functions. In this review, the relationship between insulin and its impact on long-term memory (LTM) is discussed particularly in snails. The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis has the ability to undergo conditioned taste aversion (CTA), that is, it associatively learns and forms LTM not to respond with a feeding response to a food that normally elicits a robust feeding response. We show that molluscan insulin-related peptides are up-regulated in snails exhibiting CTA-LTM and play a key role in the causal neural basis of CTA-LTM. We also survey the relevant literature of the roles played by insulin in learning and memory in other phyla. PMID:26233474

  5. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.

    PubMed

    Booth, David J; Gribben, Paul; Parkinson, Kerryn

    2015-06-15

    In urban areas, cigarette butts are the most common discarded refuse articles. In marine intertidal zones, they often fall into tidepools. We tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate in a laboratory experiment, where snails were exposed to various leachate concentrations. Mortality was very high, with all species showing 100% mortality at the full leachate concentration (5 butts per litre and 2h soak time) after 8days. However, Austrocochlea porcata showed higher mortality than the other 2 species at lower concentrations (10%, 25%) which may affect the relative abundance of the 3 snails under different concentrations of leachate pollution. Also, sublethal effects of leachate on snail activity were observed, with greater activity of Nerita atramentosa than the other 2 species at higher concentrations, suggesting it is more resilient than the other 2 species. While human health concerns predominate with respect to smoking, we show strong lethal and sublethal (via behavioural modifications) impacts of discarded butts on intertidal organisms, with even closely-related taxa responding differently. PMID:25913792

  6. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman Fathy; Sadaka, Hayam Abd El-Monem; Amer, Eglal Ibrahim; Diab, Iman Hassan; Khedr, Safaa Ibrahim Abd El-Halim

    2015-08-01

    Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control. PMID:26061235

  7. Plagiorchis elegans (Trematoda) and incompatible snail hosts: implications for snail life history traits and biocontrol of human schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Daoust, Simon P; Mader, Brian J; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Rau, Manfred E

    2009-12-01

    We examined the effect of Plagiorchis elegans on egg production and survival on Bulinus truncatus and Helisoma trivolvis trivolvis. Both species are incompatible hosts for P. elegans. Helisoma t. trivolvis occurs sympatrically with P. elegans; B. truncatus does not. Overall, P. elegans had no effect on survivorship or egg production in H. t. trivolvis or on the survivorship of B. truncatus. Its effect on egg production in B. truncatus was transitory; egg production was reduced by 50% for 5 wk following exposure but returned to normal thereafter. Neither egg production nor survivorship was affected in adult H. t. trivolvis. Egg production ceased at 14 wk post-exposure (PE), but resumed when the snails were paired. Young H. t. trivolvis also produced eggs after exposure, but later than the adults and only after they had been paired with another snail. This suggests that a need for periodic cross-fertilization in H. t. trivolvis rather than the effect of the parasite is responsible for the cessation of egg production in this species. Survivorship in young H. t. trivolvis was significantly higher in exposed snails between wk 7 to 10 PE than in controls. PMID:19566345

  8. A Population Growth Trend Analysis for Neotricula aperta, the Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mekongi, after Construction of the Pak-Mun Dam

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Stephen W.; Upatham, E. Suchart

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth. Methodology/Principal Findings Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy. Conclusions/Significance The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work. PMID:24244775

  9. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN REDUCES THE ACCUMULATION OF TESTOSTERONE AS FATTY ACID ESTERS IN THE MUD SNAIL (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated wit...

  10. Submerged Macrophytes Mitigate Direct and Indirect Insecticide Effects in Freshwater Communities

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, William R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings suggest that facilitating macrophytes could be an important strategy for buffering freshwater communities from insecticides, though consideration of their impacts on animal species is necessary. PMID:25978686

  11. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    PubMed

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings suggest that facilitating macrophytes could be an important strategy for buffering freshwater communities from insecticides, though consideration of their impacts on animal species is necessary. PMID:25978686

  12. Inhabitants of the Fresh-Water Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Joseph; Schroeder, Marlene

    This learner's guide is designed to assist middle school students in studying freshwater organisms. Following a brief introduction to freshwater ecology, simple line drawings facilitate the identification of plants and animals common to Florida's freshwater ecosystems. Emphasis of the short text which accompanies each illustration is upon the…

  13. Inhabitants of the Fresh-Water Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Joseph; Schroeder, Marlene

    This learner's guide is designed to assist middle school students in studying freshwater organisms. Following a brief introduction to freshwater ecology, simple line drawings facilitate the identification of plants and animals common to Florida's freshwater ecosystems. Emphasis of the short text which accompanies each illustration is upon the

  14. High Incidence of Noonan Syndrome Features Including Short Stature and Pulmonic Stenosis in Patients carrying NF1 Missense Mutations Affecting p.Arg1809: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation.

    PubMed

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Xie, Jing; Gomes, Alicia; Sharp, Angela; Callens, Tom; Chen, Yunjia; Liu, Ying; Cochran, Meagan; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Atkin, Joan; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barnett, Christopher P; Crenshaw, Melissa; Bartholomew, Dennis W; Basel, Lina; Bellus, Gary; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Bialer, Martin G; Bick, David; Blumberg, Bruce; Cortes, Fanny; David, Karen L; Destree, Anne; Duat-Rodriguez, Anna; Earl, Dawn; Escobar, Luis; Eswara, Marthanda; Ezquieta, Begona; Frayling, Ian M; Frydman, Moshe; Gardner, Kathy; Gripp, Karen W; Hernndez-Chico, Concepcion; Heyrman, Kurt; Ibrahim, Jennifer; Janssens, Sandra; Keena, Beth A; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Leppig, Kathy; McDonald, Marie; Misra, Vinod K; Mulbury, Jennifer; Narayanan, Vinodh; Orenstein, Naama; Galvin-Parton, Patricia; Pedro, Helio; Pivnick, Eniko K; Powell, Cynthia M; Randolph, Linda; Raskin, Salmo; Rosell, Jordi; Rubin, Karol; Seashore, Margretta; Schaaf, Christian P; Scheuerle, Angela; Schultz, Meredith; Schorry, Elizabeth; Schnur, Rhonda; Siqveland, Elizabeth; Tkachuk, Amanda; Tonsgard, James; Upadhyaya, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C; Wallace, Stephanie; Williams, Charles; Zackai, Elaine; Zonana, Jonathan; Lazaro, Conxi; Claes, Kathleen; Korf, Bruce; Martin, Yolanda; Legius, Eric; Messiaen, Ludwine

    2015-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders, affecting 1:3,000 worldwide. Identification of genotype-phenotype correlations is challenging because of the wide range clinical variability, the progressive nature of the disorder, and extreme diversity of the mutational spectrum. We report 136 individuals with a distinct phenotype carrying one of five different NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809. Patients presented with multiple caf-au-lait macules (CALM) with or without freckling and Lisch nodules, but no externally visible plexiform neurofibromas or clear cutaneous neurofibromas were found. About 25% of the individuals had Noonan-like features. Pulmonic stenosis and short stature were significantly more prevalent compared with classic cohorts (P<0.0001). Developmental delays and/or learning disabilities were reported in over 50% of patients. Melanocytes cultured from a CALM in a segmental NF1-patient showed two different somatic NF1 mutations, p.Arg1809Cys and a multi-exon deletion, providing genetic evidence that p.Arg1809Cys is a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocytes and causes a pigmentary phenotype. Constitutional missense mutations at p.Arg1809 affect 1.23% of unrelated NF1 probands in the UAB cohort, therefore this specific NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation will affect counseling and management of a significant number of patients. PMID:26178382

  15. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments.

    PubMed

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-09-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. PMID:26116678

  16. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber , Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. PMID:26116678

  17. Infection with schistosome parasites in snails leads to increased predation by prawns: implications for human schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Scott J; De Leo, Giulio A; Wood, Chelsea L; Sokolow, Susanne H

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis - a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people across the globe - is primarily transmitted between human definitive hosts and snail intermediate hosts. To reduce schistosomiasis transmission, some have advocated disrupting the schistosome life cycle through biological control of snails, achieved by boosting the abundance of snails' natural predators. But little is known about the effect of parasitic infection on predator-prey interactions, especially in the case of schistosomiasis. Here, we present the results of laboratory experiments performed on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria glabrata snails to investigate: (i) rates of predation on schistosome-infected versus uninfected snails by a sympatric native river prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, and (ii) differences in snail behavior (including movement, refuge-seeking and anti-predator behavior) between infected and uninfected snails. In predation trials, prawns showed a preference for consuming snails infected with schistosome larvae. In behavioral trials, infected snails moved less quickly and less often than uninfected snails, and were less likely to avoid predation by exiting the water or hiding under substrate. Although the mechanism by which the parasite alters snail behavior remains unknown, these results provide insight into the effects of parasitic infection on predator-prey dynamics and suggest that boosting natural rates of predation on snails may be a useful strategy for reducing transmission in schistosomiasis hotspots. PMID:26677260

  18. A pilot study testing a natural and a synthetic molluscicide for controlling invasive apple snails (Pomacea maculata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this study snails were exposed to two mollusc...

  19. Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

  20. Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and

  1. The non-native faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) makes the leap to Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European-origin faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) has been present in the lower Great Lakes since the late 1800s but only very recently reached Lake Superior. Surveys from 2011 through 2013 found faucet snail to be abundant and wide-spread in the St. Louis River Estuary wi...

  2. THE PREFERENCE OF MOLLUSK EATING FISH FOR THREE AQUATIC SNAILS THAT VECTOR FISH TREMATODES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melanoides tuberculata, Planorbella trivolvis and Physella heterostropha are three aquatic snails which host trematodes that can infect both cultured and wild populations of fish causing serious problems. These three snail species were offered to black carp Mylopharngodon pisceus, redear sunfish Le...

  3. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  4. Local adaptation of the trematode Fasciola hepatica to the snail Galba truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfuss, G.; Vignoles, P.; Rondelaud, D.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental infections of six riverbank populations of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if the poor susceptibility of these populations to this digenean might be due to the scarcity or the absence of natural encounters between these snails and the parasite. The first three populations originated from banks frequented by cattle in the past (riverbank group) whereas the three others were living on islet banks without any known contact with local ruminants (islet group). After their exposure, all snails were placed in their natural habitats from the end of October up to their collection at the beginning of April. Compared to the riverbank group, snails, which died without cercarial shedding clearly predominated in the islet group, while the other infected snails were few in number. Most of these last snails released their cercariae during a single shedding wave. In islet snails dissected after their death, the redial and cercarial burdens were significantly lower than those noted in riverbank G. truncatula. Snails living on these islet banks are thus able to sustain larval development of F. hepatica. The modifications noted in the characteristics of snail infection suggest the existence of an incomplete adaptation between these G. truncatula and the parasite, probably due to the absence of natural contact between host and parasite. PMID:22910670

  5. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE RAMS-HORN SNAIL IN COMMERCIAL FISH PONDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematodes can cause massive infections in fish. The most promising approach for the control of these infections is the reduction or elimination of snails that vector these parasites. This poster is a summary of information from several research efforts aimed at controlling rams-horn snails in com...

  6. [Effect of the population density on growth and regeneration in the snail Achatina fulica].

    PubMed

    Sidel'nikov, A P; Stepanov, I I

    2000-01-01

    In the laboratory, the growth rate of the giant African snail Achatina fulica, as estimated by the weight and shell length was shown to decrease when the population density increased from 10 to 60 snails/m2 of the total terrarium area for five months. In the second experiment, when the population density increased from 48 to 193 snails/m2, the growth rate had already decreased by six weeks. In the groups with a high population density the feeding behavior was weakened, expressed by a greater amount of nonconsumed food, according to visual observations, than in the groups with lower population densities. At the population density of 10 to 60 snails/m2, the proliferative activity in the course of the optic tentacle regeneration, as expressed by the mitotic index, did not differ reliably within five months. In the second experiment, the mitotic indices at the population densities of 96 and 193 snails/m2 within 1.5 months exceeded that of 48 snails/m2. Recommendations are given concerning the population density from the viewpoint of commercial growth of the snails. It was proposed that, based on the analysis of the mechanism underlying the inhibition of feeding behavior in populations with extra high densities, one may develop a new approach to the production of chemical agents to control land snails as agricultural pests. PMID:11042956

  7. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  8. EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURE TO FOREST PESTICIDES ON THE BROWN GARDEN SNAIL HELIX ASPERSA MULLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. cephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg/...

  9. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  10. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  11. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  12. Mutations in Snail Family Genes Enhance Craniosynostosis of Twist1 Haplo-insufficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Kathleen F.; Gridley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In Drosophila, mutations in the Twist gene interact with mutations in the Snail gene. We show that the mouse Twist1 mutation interacts with Snai1 and Snai2 mutations to enhance aberrant cranial suture fusion, demonstrating that genetic interactions between genes of the Twist and Snail families have been conserved during evolution. PMID:15802514

  13. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (< 50% after eight weeks dry). Field surveys showed that 77% of egg production occurs in April-June. Our hydrologic analyses of six peninsular Florida wetlands showed that most dry downs overlapped a portion of the peak snail breeding season, and 70% of dry downs were ??? 12 weeks in duration. Dry down timing can affect recruitment by truncating annual egg production and stranding juveniles. Dry down survival rates and seasonal patterns of egg cluster production helped define a range of hydrologic conditions that support robust apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  14. Sex ratio and susceptibility of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Banpavichit, S; Keawjam, R S; Upatham, E S

    1994-06-01

    Golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata, were collected at two localities having different ecological environments. In both canal and pond, P. canaliculata males were found more than females during the dry season (summer and winter). In the canal, the male snails were highest in number (86.67%) in May. When rain started, they began decreasing and were lowest at 33.33% in August. Of 575 snails collected, 30.6% were infected by one or more of the three groups of amphistome, distome and echinostome metacercariae. There were two high peaks of infection in April and October, as 60.7% and 68.4%, respectively, during which there were more males than females. The average number of parasites per snail which was highest at 54 was found in the medium-sized males (25 out of 35 males) in October. The number of parasites per snail was significantly correlated with the collected males (p < 0.01), but such relationship was not occurred with the females. Of the females, only the large-sized individuals were infected. In the pond, the female snails were present in much greater numbers than the males during the reproductive time (June-September). The females were highest (94.23%) in August. Only 24 (4.0%) of 605 snails were infected; most of the infected snails were large. PMID:7855663

  15. Studies on the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira on schistosomiasis transmitting snails.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Abdel-Gawad, Mahfouz M; El-Nahas, Hanan A; Osman, Nadia S

    2015-04-01

    In the search for new molluscicidal plants for controlling the snail vectors of schistosomiasis, laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira plants against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Results indicated that both plants have promising molluscicidal activity as the LC90 of the dry powder of both plants was 120 ppm. Both plants showed marked cercaricidal and miracidicidal potencies against S. mansoni larvae. The LC90 of both plants (120 ppm) killed most B. alexandrina eggs within 24 h of exposure. The sub-lethal concentrations of both plants markedly suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails and the mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and the exposure period up to 10 successive weeks. The accumulative toxic effect of these concentrations was continuous during the recovery period. Also, the reproductive rates of exposed snails were greatly affected even through the recovery period. This depression in reproductive ability of snails was accompanied by histological damage in the hermaphrodite glands of exposed snails. Meanwhile, the growth of snails was estimated weekly and it showed great inhibition in exposed snails comparing with the control ones. PMID:26012228

  16. Snail/beta-catenin signaling protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia attack

    SciTech Connect

    Scherbakov, Alexander M.; Stefanova, Lidia B.; Sorokin, Danila V.; Semina, Svetlana E.; Berstein, Lev M.; Krasil’nikov, Mikhail A.

    2013-12-10

    The tolerance of cancer cells to hypoxia depends on the combination of different factors – from increase of glycolysis (Warburg Effect) to activation of intracellular growth/apoptotic pathways. Less is known about the influence of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated pathways on the cell sensitivity to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Snail signaling, one of the key EMT pathways, in the mediating of hypoxia response and regulation of cell sensitivity to hypoxia, using as a model in vitro cultured breast cancer cells. Earlier we have shown that estrogen-independent HBL-100 breast cancer cells differ from estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells with increased expression of Snail1, and demonstrated Snail1 involvement into formation of hormone-resistant phenotype. Because Snail1 belongs to hypoxia-activated proteins, here we studied the influence of Snail1 signaling on the cell tolerance to hypoxia. We found that Snail1-enriched HBL-100 cells were less sensitive to hypoxia-induced growth suppression if compared with MCF-7 line (31% MCF-7 vs. 71% HBL-100 cell viability after 1% O{sub 2} atmosphere for 3 days). Snail1 knock-down enhanced the hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell proliferation giving the direct evidence of Snail1 involvement into cell protection from hypoxia attack. The protective effect of Snail1 was shown to be mediated, at least in a part, via beta-catenin which positively regulated expression of HIF-1-dependent genes. Finally, we found that cell tolerance to hypoxia was accompanied with the failure in the phosphorylation of AMPK – the key energy sensor, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between AMPK and Snail/beta-catenin signaling. Totally, our data show that Snail1 and beta-catenin, besides association with loss of hormone dependence, protect cancer cells from hypoxia and may serve as an important target in the treatment of breast cancer. Moreover, we suggest that the level of these proteins as well the level of AMPK phosphorylation may be considered as predictors of the tumor sensitivity to anti-angiogenic drugs. - Highlights: • Snail1 protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia. • Protective effect of Snail1 is mediated via β-catenin/HIF-1 pathway. • Snail/β-catenin signaling is negatively controlled by the energy sensor – AMPK. • The failure in AMPK phosphorylation drives cells to the hypoxia-tolerant state.

  17. Studies on carbohydrates extracted from native and chemically treated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    PubMed

    Nabih, I; Rizk, M; Soliman, A M

    1992-07-01

    1. Carbohydrates were extracted from total tissue extracts of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and were analyzed to their monosaccharides using GLC. 2. The snails were chemically treated with thioxanthone derivatives (compounds I, II, III) and the change in the monosaccharide constituents of their carbohydrates was investigated. 3. The isolated monosaccharides from native and chemically pretreated snails were injected into mice and their protective effects were examined after infection of mice with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. 4. The results showed that the main monosaccharides in carbohydrates of snails were galactose, glucose, fucose and mannose and that chemical treatment caused a drop in the galactose content. 5. Moreover, monosaccharide fractions from snails treated with compound III were the most effective in inducing protection against Schistosoma infection in mice. PMID:1360350

  18. Protein synthesis-dependent reactivation of a contextual conditioned reflex in the common snail.

    PubMed

    Gainutdinova, T Kh; Tagirova, R R; Ismailova, A I; Muranova, L N; Gainutdinov, Kh L; Balaban, P M

    2006-02-01

    We report here a study of the effects of blockade of protein synthesis with anisomycin during reactivation of a contextual conditioned reflex in the common snail. The amplitudes of the defensive reactions of snails to standard tactile stimulation before training were identical in two conditions: 1) testing of responses of snails fixed by the shell to a plastic ball floating in water and 2) on the surface of the terrarium glass. After applying electric shocks to the snails' skin for 5 days, a significant difference in responses reflecting the formation of a contextual conditioned reflex was seen in only one of the contexts. Placing trained snails in the same context (reminding) two days after training with simultaneous injection of anisomycin led to significant weakening of training, while control injections of physiological saline produced no such changes. These data suggest that the mechanisms of memory consolidation after training and reminding are not identical. PMID:16380834

  19. Ecological control of the snail host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Santos, Benjamin C.

    1961-01-01

    Ecological measures for the control of Oncomelania quadrasi have been in effect over a large part of the municipality of Palo, Leyte, Philippines, since the end of 1956. These measures involve draining, ponding or filling snail habitats. The results show that complete eradication of the snails is possible where complete control of water is achieved; less radical measures always leave a greater or smaller fraction of the snail population. In the area where control was planned, reductions of 50%, 80% and 85.7% were observed by mid-year 1957, 1958 and 1959 respectively. The figures include four large snail populations not subjected to control measures, but within the planned area; if these are omitted, 95% of the snails had been eliminated by July 1959. The measures used are expensive, but result in benefits in land reclamation and improved land use sufficient to offset the high cost. PMID:20604106

  20. A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.

    PubMed

    Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2012-10-15

    Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms. PMID:23014569

  1. Acute toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to sensitive freshwater insects, mollusks, and a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Soucek, D J; Dickinson, A

    2012-02-01

    Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important. PMID:21877224

  2. Effects of an exotic prey species on a native specialist: example of the snail kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cattau, Christopher E.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite acknowledging that exotic species can exhibit tremendous influence over native populations, few case studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of exotic prey species on native predators. We examined the effects of the recently introduced island apple snail (Pomacea insularum) on the foraging behavior and energetics of the endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) in Florida. We conducted time-activity budgets: (i) on kites foraging for native Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) in major wetland units within the kites' range that had not been invaded by the exotic island apple snail and (ii) on kites foraging for exotic apple snails in Lake Tohopekaliga, the only major wetland utilized by the snail kite that had suffered a serious invasion of P. insularum. When foraging for P. insularum, snail kites dropped a greater proportion of snails, and they experienced increased handling times and decreased consumption rates; however, kites foraging for P. insularum also spent a smaller proportion of the day in flight. Estimates of net daily energy balances between kites feeding on P. insularum versus P. paludosa were comparable for adults, but juveniles experienced energetic deficiencies when feeding on the exotic snail. Due to this discrepancy, we hypothesize that wetlands invaded by P. insularum, such as Lake Tohopekaliga, may function as ecological traps for the snail kite in Florida by attracting breeding adults but simultaneously depressing juvenile survival. This study highlights the conservation implications and importance of elucidating the effects that exotic species have on native specialists, especially those that are endangered, because subtle influences on behavior may have significant population consequences.

  3. Effects of an exotic prey species on a native specialist: Eexample of the snail kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cattau, Christopher E.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite acknowledging that exotic species can exhibit tremendous influence over native populations, few case studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of exotic prey species on native predators. We examined the effects of the recently introduced island apple snail (Pomacea insularum) on the foraging behavior and energetics of the endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) in Florida. We conducted time-activity budgets: (i) on kites foraging for native Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) in major wetland units within the kites' range that had not been invaded by the exotic island apple snail and (ii) on kites foraging for exotic apple snails in Lake Tohopekaliga, the only major wetland utilized by the snail kite that had suffered a serious invasion of P. insularum. When foraging for P. insularum, snail kites dropped a greater proportion of snails, and they experienced increased handling times and decreased consumption rates; however, kites foraging for P. insularum also spent a smaller proportion of the day in flight. Estimates of net daily energy balances between kites feeding on P. insularum versus P. paludosa were comparable for adults, but juveniles experienced energetic deficiencies when feeding on the exotic snail. Due to this discrepancy, we hypothesize that wetlands invaded by P. insularum, such as Lake Tohopekaliga, may function as ecological traps for the snail kite in Florida by attracting breeding adults but simultaneously depressing juvenile survival. This study highlights the conservation implications and importance of elucidating the effects that exotic species have on native specialists, especially those that are endangered, because subtle influences on behavior may have significant population consequences. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.

    PubMed

    Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2012-01-01

    Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from damaging C. fruticosa and benefit to the cut foliage industry to sustain its export quality. PMID:23885439

  5. Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    San Martns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, Jos Luis; Pranto, Honorio

    2009-10-01

    Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

  6. Protumorigenic effects of Snail-expression fibroblasts on colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alberto; Herrera, Mercedes; Alba-Castelln, Lorena; Silva, Javier; Garca, Vanesa; Loubat-Casanovas, Jordina; Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Miguel Garca, Jos; Rodriguez, Rufo; Gil, Beatriz; Ma Jess Citores; Ma Jess Larriba; Ignacio Casal, J; de Herreros, Antonio Garca; Bonilla, Flix; Pea, Cristina

    2014-06-15

    Snail1 is a transcriptional factor that plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in the acquisition of invasive properties by epithelial cells. In colon tumors, Snail1 expression in the stroma correlates with lower specific survival of cancer patients. However, the role(s) of Snail1 expression in stroma and its association with patients' survival have not been determined. We used human primary carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) or normal fibroblasts (NFs) and fibroblast cell lines to analyze the effects of Snail1 expression on the protumorigenic capabilities in colon cancer cells. Snail1 expression was higher in CAFs than in NFs and, as well as ?-SMA, a classic marker of activated CAFs. Moreover, in tumor samples from 50 colon cancer patients, SNAI1 expression was associated with expression of other CAF markers, such as ?-SMA and fibroblast activation protein. Interestingly, coculture of CAFs with colon cells induced a significant increase in epithelial cell migration and proliferation, which was associated with endogenous SNAI1 expression levels. Ectopic manipulation of Snail1 in fibroblasts demonstrated that Snail1 expression controlled migration as well as proliferation of cocultured colon cancer cells in a paracrine manner. Furthermore, expression of Snail1 in fibroblasts was required for the coadjuvant effect of these cells on colon cancer cell growth and invasion when coxenografted in nude mice. Finally, cytokine profile changes, particularly MCP-3 expression, in fibroblasts are put forward as mediators of Snail1-derived effects on colon tumor cell migration. In summary, these studies demonstrate that Snail1 is necessary for the protumorigenic effects of fibroblasts on colon cancer cells. PMID:24242829

  7. Controllable Snail-Paced Light in Biological Bacteriorhodopsin Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Pengfei; Rao, D.V.G.L.N.

    2005-12-16

    We observe that the group velocity of light is reduced to an extremely low value of 0.091 mm/s in a biological thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at room temperature. By exploiting unique features of a flexible photoisomerization process for coherent population oscillation, the velocity is all-optically controlled over an enormous span, from snail-paced to normal light speed, with no need of modifying the characteristics of the incident pulse. Because of the large quantum yield for the photoreaction in this biochemical system, the ultraslow light is observed even at low light levels of microwatts, indicating high energy efficiency.

  8. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.K.; DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  9. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days. PMID:21033402

  10. Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482

  11. Nuclear Sex-Determining Genes Cause Large Sex-Ratio Variation in the Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary maintenance of genetic sex-ratio variation is enigmatic since genes for biased sex ratios are disadvantageous in finite populations (the Verner effect). However, such variation could be maintained if a small number of nuclear sex-determining genes were responsible, although this has not been fully demonstrated experimentally. Brood sex ratios of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata are highly variable among parents, but population sex ratios are near unity. In this study, the effect of each parent on the brood sex ratio was investigated by exchanging partners among mating pairs. There were positive correlations between sex ratios of half-sib broods of the common mother (r = 0.42) or of the common father (r = 0.47). Moreover, the correlation between full-sib broods was very high (r = 0.92). Thus, both parents contributed equally to the sex-ratio variation, which indicates that nuclear genes are involved and their effects are additive. Since the half-sib correlations were much stronger than the parentoffspring regressions previously obtained, the variation was caused by zygotic sex-determining genes rather than by parental sex-ratio genes. The number of relevant genes appears to be small. PMID:17057241

  12. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  13. [Lipids composition and speed of energy metabolism in gastropods].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S

    2008-01-01

    Lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, Buccinum undatum from the White Sea was studied. The species differ in ecology, particularly in trophic nabits and motor activity. The content of triacilglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina the activity of which depends on the tide level. The phospholipids content in digestive gland does not differ in quantity in all cases and does not relate to type of feeding or resource quality. In a pedal muscle of marine species the quantity of common phospholipids is higher in comparison with the freshwater ones. The amount of total phospholipids in pedal muscle correlates with mass of metabolic inert formation which constitutes a part of whole mass of snails. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell. This hypothesis is supported by the higher specific rate of oxygen consumption in marine snails than in freshwaters. PMID:19140337

  14. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    PubMed

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation. PMID:22222749

  15. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  16. Reproduction and demography of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Chandler, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An 18-year study of reproduction and survival of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) has revealed the following: extremely poor nesting success (only 13.6% of nests found at the nest-building stage successful); extremely long breeding seasons (some reproductive activity in almost all months in good years); frequent multiple brooding and frequent multiple brooding and frequent renesting after failure; low egg hatchability (81%); high failure rates due to nest collapse, desertion, and predation; extremely high survival of juveniles and adults under good water conditions; and high vulnerability to drought due to near total dependency on a single species of drought-sensitive snail for food. Despite low nesting success, the species has increased rapidly under good conditions, mainly because of multiple nesting attempts within long breeding seasons and high survival rates of free-flying birds. Nesting success varied significantly between regions and nest substrates, but not as a function of seasons or solitary vs. colonial nesting. While nesting success was reduced in low water years, this effect was at least partly due to heavy use of poor nest substrates under such conditions. Clutch size and numbers of young per successful nest varied with regions, but not as a function of seasons or water levels. The effects of coloniality on clutch size and numbers of young were inconsistent. Significant effects of nest-substrate types on clutch size and numbers of young were apparently artifacts of substrate differences between regions.

  17. Snail Family Transcription Factors Are Implicated in Thyroid Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Robert G.; Vicente-Dueas, Carolina; Gonzlez-Herrero, Ines; Anderson, Catriona; Flores, Teresa; Hughes, Sharon; Tselepis, Chris; Ross, James A.; Snchez-Garca, Isidro

    2007-01-01

    E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression is reduced in thyroid carcinomas by primarily unknown mechanisms. In several tissues, SNAIL (SNAI1) and SLUG (SNAI2) induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition by altering target gene transcription, including CDH1 repression, but these transcription factors have not been studied in thyroid carcinoma. Recently, our group has provided direct evidence that ectopic SNAI1 expression induces epithelial and mesenchymal mouse tumors. SNAI1, SNAI2, and CDH1 expression were analyzed in thyroid-derived cell lines and samples of human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of SNAI1 expression on CDH1 transcription was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in ori-3 cells. Thyroid carcinoma development was analyzed in CombitTA-Snail mice, in which SNAI1 levels are up-regulated. SNAI1 and SNAI2 were not expressed in cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, or in normal human thyroid samples, but were highly expressed in cell lines derived from thyroid carcinomas, in human thyroid carcinoma samples, and their metastases. SNAI1 expression in ori-3 cells repressed CDH1 transcription. Combi-TA mice developed papillary thyroid carcinomas, the incidence of which was increased by concomitant radiotherapy. In conclusion, SNAI1 and SNAI2 are ectopically expressed in thyroid carcinomas, and aberrant expression in mice is associated with papillary carcinoma development. PMID:17724139

  18. Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

    2006-12-01

    The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed. PMID:17023028

  19. Allying with armored snails: the complete genome of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Satoshi; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yohey; Murakami, Shun-ichi; Watanabe, Tamaki; Fujiyoshi, So; Mino, Sayaka; Sawabe, Tomoo; Maeda, Takahiro; Makita, Hiroko; Nemoto, Suguru; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Watanabe, Hiromi; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea vents harbor dense populations of various animals that have their specific symbiotic bacteria. Scaly-foot gastropods, which are snails with mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, have a gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont in their enlarged esophageal glands and diverse epibionts on the surface of their scales. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The endosymbiont genome displays features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and insertion elements. The genome encodes functions commonly found in deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs such as sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. Stable carbon isotope (13C)-labeling experiments confirmed the endosymbiont chemoautotrophy. The genome also includes an intact hydrogenase gene cluster that potentially has been horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacteria. Notable findings include the presence and transcription of genes for flagellar assembly, through which proteins are potentially exported from bacterium to the host. Symbionts of snail individuals exhibited extreme genetic homogeneity, showing only two synonymous changes in 19 different genes (13?810 positions in total) determined for 32 individual gastropods collected from a single colony at one time. The extremely low genetic individuality in endosymbionts probably reflects that the stringent symbiont selection by host prevents the random genetic drift in the small population of horizontally transmitted symbiont. This study is the first complete genome analysis of gastropod endosymbiont and offers an opportunity to study genome evolution in a recently evolved endosymbiont. PMID:23924784

  20. Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Thomas W. N.; Curry, Beth; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Hansen, Edmond; Karcher, Michael; Lee, Craig; Rudels, Bert; Spreen, Gunnar; de Steur, Laura; Stewart, Kial D.; Woodgate, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Large freshwater anomalies clearly exist in the Arctic Ocean. For example, liquid freshwater has accumulated in the Beaufort Gyre in the decade of the 2000s compared to 1980-2000, with an extra ≈ 5000 km3 - about 25% - being stored. The sources of freshwater to the Arctic from precipitation and runoff have increased between these periods (most of the evidence comes from models). Despite flux increases from 2001 to 2011, it is uncertain if the marine freshwater source through Bering Strait for the 2000s has changed, as observations in the 1980s and 1990s are incomplete. The marine freshwater fluxes draining the Arctic through Fram and Davis straits are also insignificantly different. In this way, the balance of sources and sinks of freshwater to the Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), and Baffin Bay shifted to about 1200 ± 730 km3 yr- 1 freshening the region, on average, during the 2000s. The observed accumulation of liquid freshwater is consistent with this increased supply and the loss of freshwater from sea ice. Coupled climate models project continued freshening of the Arctic during the 21st century, with a total gain of about 50,000 km3 for the Arctic, CAA, and Baffin Bay (an increase of about 50%) by 2100. Understanding of the mechanisms controlling freshwater emphasizes the importance of Arctic surface winds, in addition to the sources of freshwater. The wind can modify the storage, release, and pathways of freshwater on timescales of O(1-10) months. Discharges of excess freshwater through Fram or Davis straits appear possible, triggered by changes in the wind, but are hard to predict. Continued measurement of the fluxes and storage of freshwater is needed to observe changes such as these.

  1. Bacterial induction of Snail1 contributes to blood-brain barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brandon J.; Hancock, Bryan M.; Bermudez, Andres; Cid, Natasha Del; Reyes, Efren; van Sorge, Nina M.; Lauth, Xavier; Smurthwaite, Cameron A.; Hilton, Brett J.; Stotland, Aleksandr; Banerjee, Anirban; Buchanan, John; Wolkowicz, Roland; Traver, David; Doran, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the CNS that results when blood-borne bacteria are able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal meningitis; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate bacterial BBB disruption and penetration are not well understood. Here, we found that infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) with GBS and other meningeal pathogens results in the induction of host transcriptional repressor Snail1, which impedes expression of tight junction genes. Moreover, GBS infection also induced Snail1 expression in murine and zebrafish models. Tight junction components ZO-1, claudin 5, and occludin were decreased at both the transcript and protein levels in hBMECs following GBS infection, and this repression was dependent on Snail1 induction. Bacteria-independent Snail1 expression was sufficient to facilitate tight junction disruption, promoting BBB permeability to allow bacterial passage. GBS induction of Snail1 expression was dependent on the ERK1/2/MAPK signaling cascade and bacterial cell wall components. Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative Snail1 homolog in zebrafish elevated transcription of tight junction protein–encoding genes and increased zebrafish survival in response to GBS challenge. Taken together, our data support a Snail1-dependent mechanism of BBB disruption and penetration by meningeal pathogens. PMID:25961453

  2. Bacterial induction of Snail1 contributes to blood-brain barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brandon J; Hancock, Bryan M; Bermudez, Andres; Del Cid, Natasha; Reyes, Efren; van Sorge, Nina M; Lauth, Xavier; Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Hilton, Brett J; Stotland, Aleksandr; Banerjee, Anirban; Buchanan, John; Wolkowicz, Roland; Traver, David; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the CNS that results when blood-borne bacteria are able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal meningitis; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate bacterial BBB disruption and penetration are not well understood. Here, we found that infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) with GBS and other meningeal pathogens results in the induction of host transcriptional repressor Snail1, which impedes expression of tight junction genes. Moreover, GBS infection also induced Snail1 expression in murine and zebrafish models. Tight junction components ZO-1, claudin 5, and occludin were decreased at both the transcript and protein levels in hBMECs following GBS infection, and this repression was dependent on Snail1 induction. Bacteria-independent Snail1 expression was sufficient to facilitate tight junction disruption, promoting BBB permeability to allow bacterial passage. GBS induction of Snail1 expression was dependent on the ERK1/2/MAPK signaling cascade and bacterial cell wall components. Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative Snail1 homolog in zebrafish elevated transcription of tight junction protein-encoding genes and increased zebrafish survival in response to GBS challenge. Taken together, our data support a Snail1-dependent mechanism of BBB disruption and penetration by meningeal pathogens. PMID:25961453

  3. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat. PMID:24081640

  4. Temperature dependence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in first intermediate host snail, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos.

    PubMed

    Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Piratae, Supawadee; Khampoosa, Panita; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Laha, Thewarach; Grams, Rudi; Loukas, Alex; Tesana, Smarn

    2015-01-01

    Determining of the success of a parasite's infectiveness in its snail host clearly depends on environmental conditions. Temperature, one of the most influential factors impinging on metabolism of cold-blooded animals, is believed to be an important factor in parasitic infection in snails. In order to elucidate the influence of temperature, sex and size of snails on infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini to its first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, 960 snails were divided into 2 groups by sex. Each group was subdivided by their size into small and medium sub-groups. Each snail was fed with embryonated uterine-eggs of O. viverrini at different temperatures (16-37C, 3C intervals). Dissections were carried out 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days thereafter and detection of O. viverrini infection was undertaken by PCR using specific primers. Infection was strongly temperature-dependent, as temperature increases of 1C resulted in increased odds of infection 5.4% (P<0.01). A temperature of 34C gave the highest rate of infection of 44.14%. We also found that the odds of infection in small sized snails was 39.8% higher relative to medium sized snails (P<0.05). Relative to day 1, the decrease in the odds of infection was detected when the day post infection was longer (P<0.01). Proportion of infection in female was not different to male significantly. PMID:24161535

  5. Snail1 is involved in the renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Jun; Monkawa, Toshiaki Tsuji, Mihoko; Inukai, Mai; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Matsuhiko

    2007-10-12

    The pathological significance of the tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney diseases is becoming increasingly recognized, and the transcription factor Snail1 plays a critical role in EMT. The results of this study show that Snail1 mRNA and protein were upregulated in the tubular epithelial cells of the obstructed kidneys in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction and in human proximal tubule HKC-8 cells treated with TGF-{beta}1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) regulates the Snail1 level by degrading Snail1 protein. The level of the phosphorylated inactive form of GSK-3{beta} was increased in the tubular epithelial cells of the obstructed kidney. TGF-{beta}1 increased the phosphorylated form of GSK-3{beta} in HKC-8 cells, and inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by the selective inhibitors lithium and TDZD-8 caused Snail1 protein to accumulate. This study demonstrated that Snail1 is involved in renal tubular EMT and that TGF-{beta}1 regulates Snail1 at the transcription and protein degradation levels.

  6. Taken to the limit--Is desiccation stress causing precocious encystment of trematode parasites in snails?

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Katie; Poulin, Robert

    2015-12-01

    When hosts experience environmental stress, the quantity and quality of resources they provide for parasites may be diminished, and host longevity may be decreased. Under stress, parasites may adopt alternative strategies to avoid fitness reductions. Trematode parasites typically have complex life cycles, involving asexual reproduction in a gastropod first intermediate host. A rare phenomenon, briefly mentioned in the literature, and termed 'precocious encystment' involves the next stage in the parasites' life cycle (metacercarial cyst) forming within the preceding stage (redia), while still inside the snail. In the trematode Parorchis sp. NZ using rocky shore snails exposed to long periods outside water, we hypothesised that this might be an adaptive strategy against desiccation, preventing parasite emergence from the snail. To test this, we first investigated the effect of prolonged desiccation on the survival of two species of high intertidal snails. Secondly, we measured the reproductive output (cercarial production) of the parasite under wet and dry conditions. Finally, we quantified the influence of desiccation stress on the occurrence of precocious encystment. Snail mortality was higher under dry conditions, indicating stress, and it was somewhat exacerbated for infected snails. Parasite reproductive output differed between wet and dry conditions, with parasites of snails kept in dry conditions producing more cercariae when placed in water. Little variation was observed in the occurrence of precocious encystment, although some subtle patterns emerged. Given the stresses associated with living in high intertidal environments, we discuss precocious encystment as a possible stress response in this trematode parasite. PMID:26344863

  7. Fossil land snails of East Africa and their palaeoecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickford, Martin

    1995-04-01

    This study deals with the Neogene and extant land snails of tropical East Africa and their implications for interpreting the paleoenvironments of the numerous localities at which they have been found. Of major significance to the study is the intimate association between the terrestrial molluscs and the rich mammalian faunas, hominoids included, of East Africa. Thus, palaeoecological reconstructions based on land snails are directly applicable to the mammalian faunas. Palaeoecological reconstructions are proposed for most of the Lower and Middle Miocene hominoids, including Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, Limnopithecus, Micropithecus, Nyanzapithecus, Kenyapithecus and others, and for the mid-Pliocene Australopithecus from Laetoli, Tanzania. The departure point for the palaeoecological reconstructions is a comprehensive study of extant terrestrial molluscs of East Africa, the habitat preferences of which are well documented. All the fossil gastropods studied comprise extant genera and even species, so the usual problems regarding the application of actualism to fossil assemblages is avoided. Furthermore, the fossil gastropod assemblages resemble extant ones, confirming their utility for such reconstructions. Among the parameters examined are rainfall, altitude, vegetation cover and type and zoogeography. A further point of interest is that the samples are more than adequate for the purposes of the study, many of the fossil localities having yielded several thousand specimens. Finally, more than 40% of the extant genera of East Africa have now been recognized in the fossil state. The molluscs are thus, by far, the best represented biological group known in the fossil record of Africa and as such hold great potential for understanding the past. This study ends with reconstructions of the palaeoecology of numerous fossiliferous localities in East Africa which have yielded molluscs and mammals. Changes through the geological column are documented and the habitat preferences of hominoid taxa are proposed. The study suggests, for example, that Proconsul major lived in humid tropical forest, Proconsul nyanzae inhabited dry tropical forest or closed woodland, Kenyapithecus africanus occurredin semi-arid steppe to woodland, and Australopithecus afarensis at Laetoli lived in savannah/steppe in which there were watercourses fringed by riparian forest. This paper is illustrated with distribution maps and drawings of the more than 40 snail taxa represented in the collections. The distribution maps illustrate the extant distribution of taxa, as well as the fossil localities at which they have been recovered. It represents a major advance in the study of tropical African Neogene palaeoecology, and will undoubtedly have many applications in future studies of African palaeoeforas and palaeofaunas.

  8. Observations on the distribution of freshwater mollusca and chemistry of the natural waters in the south-eastern Transvaal and adjacent northern Swaziland*

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, C. H. J.; Frank, G. H.

    1964-01-01

    An extensive survey of the molluscan fauna and of the chemistry of the freshwaters of the Eastern Transvaal Lowveld has revealed no simple correlation between the two. The waters fall into four fairly distinct and geographically associated groups chiefly characterized by their calcium and magnesium content. The frequency of the two intermediate hosts of bilharziasis was found to be roughly proportional to the hardness of the water but as the latter, in this area, is associated with altitude and this again with temperature and stream gradient it is thought highly probable that the distribution of these snails is the result of the interaction of a complex of factors. None of the individual chemical constituents in any of the waters examined is regarded as outside the tolerance range of these snails. It is also concluded that under natural conditions this area would have had few waterbodies suitable for colonization by these snails but that the expansion of irrigation schemes has created ideal conditions for their rapid establishment throughout the area. PMID:14163962

  9. Pesticide concentrations in snail kite eggs and nestlings in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    From 1970-1977, unhatched snail kite eggs and young that were found dead at nests in Florida were analyzed by gas chromatography for residues of organochlorine pollutants. The 1970 and 1974 material showed measurable amounts of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and dieldrin. Dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues were less than 0.1 ppm in the eggs and were detected in only one sample of muscle tissue at 0.11 ppm. Concentrations in ppm wet weight of p,p'-DDE, p,p' DDD, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, and PCB for two samples of muscle and three of brain tissue (all 1977 material) were not detected at the limit of quantification (0.05 ppm).

  10. Evening roosts of the snail kite in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 36 roost sites of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were studied in southern Florida, of which four (11%) were used regularly for 6 or more years. Major roosts were also used as nesting sites. All roosts were in flooded marshes and 33 (91.6%) were in stands of coastal-plain willow. Population increase and the number of roosts were strongly correlated. The number of kites arriving at roosts before sunset was smaller than arriving after sunset (37.8:62.2%), and gray birds (adult and subadult males) generally went to roost earlier than brown birds (all females and immature males). Rites tended to go to roost earlier on cloudy days. Morning departure from roosts was over a much shorter time than arrivals in the afternoon. Ninety-two percent of the kite roosts were also used by other species of birds for roosting, 8 1% of which were eight species of herons.

  11. Solar radio-transmitters on snail kites in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of one- and two-stage solar radio-transmitters in tracking the movements and survival of adult and fledgling Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were evaluated between 1979 and 1983 in southern Florida. Transmitters were attached to birds with back-pack arrangements using teflon ribbon straps. Accessory plastic shields minimized feather coverage of the solar cells. Intact transmitters were seen on birds up to 47 mo after installation. Operating lives ranged from 8 to 21 mo for one-stage, and 10 to 14 mo for two-stage transmitters. Because survival of adult and nestling radio-marked kites was high, we conclude that our transmitter-attachment method had little effect on the birds.

  12. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Unternaehrer, JuliJ.; Zhao, Rui; Kim, Kitai; Cesana, Marcella; Powers, JohnT.; Ratanasirintrawoot, Sutheera; Onder, Tamer; Shibue, Tsukasa; Weinberg, RobertA.; Daley, GeorgeQ.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) entails a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). While attempting to dissect the mechanism of MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown (KD) of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factor SNAI1 (SNAIL) paradoxically reduced, while overexpression enhanced, reprogramming efficiency in human cells and in mouse cells, depending on strain. We observed nuclear localization of SNAI1 at an early stage of fibroblast reprogramming and using mouse fibroblasts expressing a knockin SNAI1-YFP reporter found cells expressing SNAI1 reprogrammed at higher efficiency. We further demonstrated that SNAI1 binds the let-7 promoter, which may play a role in reduced expression of let-7 microRNAs, enforced expression of which, early in the reprogramming process, compromises efficiency. Our data reveal an unexpected role for the EMT factor SNAI1 in reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency. PMID:25316190

  13. Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate pesticides and other contaminants. Biomarker data on individual fish, generated at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center (Lafayette, La.), included percent white blood cells in whole blood, spleen weight to body weight ratio, liver weight to body weight ratio, condition factor, splenic macrophage aggregates, and liver microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Fish age was estimated by comparing total lengths with values from the same species in the Southeast United States as determined from the literature. Contaminant analyses were coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Analytical Control Facility (Laurel, Md.), where residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and trace elements were determined. The organic contaminant data were generated at the Mississippi State University Chemical Lab (Mississippi State, Miss.), and the inorganic contaminant data were generated by the Texas A&M University Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (College Station, Tex.). Statistical tests were performed to assess relationships among contaminants, fish age, fish species, and collection sites.

  14. Bioluminescent signals spatially amplified by wavelength-specific diffusion through the shell of a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Deheyn, Dimitri D; Wilson, Nerida G

    2011-07-22

    Some living organisms produce visible light (bioluminescence) for intra- or interspecific visual communication. Here, we describe a remarkable bioluminescent adaptation in the marine snail Hinea brasiliana. This species produces a luminous display in response to mechanical stimulation caused by encounters with other motile organisms. The light is produced from discrete areas on the snail's body beneath the snail's shell, and must thus overcome this structural barrier to be viewed by an external receiver. The diffusion and transmission efficiency of the shell is greater than a commercial diffuser reference material. Most strikingly, the shell, although opaque and pigmented, selectively diffuses the blue-green wavelength of the species bioluminescence. This diffusion generates a luminous display that is enlarged relative to the original light source. This unusual shell thus allows spatially amplified outward transmission of light communication signals from the snail, while allowing the animal to remain safely inside its hard protective shell. PMID:21159673

  15. Loss of polarity protein AF6 promotes pancreatic cancer metastasis by inducing Snail expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Renxu; Peng, Zhiyong; Wang, Yanmei; Ji, Weiwei; Guo, Jingyu; Song, Lele; Dai, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Wu, Yanjun; Wan, Xinjian; Shao, Chenghao; Zhan, Lixing

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a particularly lethal form of cancer with high potential for metastasis to distant organs. Disruption of cell polarity is a hallmark of advanced epithelial tumours. Here we show that the polarity protein AF6 (afadin and MLLT4) is expressed at low levels in PC. We demonstrate that depletion of AF6 markedly promotes proliferation and metastasis of PC cells through upregulation of the expression of Snail protein, and this requires the nuclear localization of AF6. Furthermore, AF6 deficiency in PC cells leads to increased formation of a Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2)-FOXE1 complex on the promoter region of Snail gene, and activation of Snail expression. Altogether, our data established AF6 as a potential inhibitor of metastasis in PC cells. Targeting the Dvl2-FOXE1-Snail signalling axis may thus represent a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:26013125

  16. Bioluminescent signals spatially amplified by wavelength-specific diffusion through the shell of a marine snail

    PubMed Central

    Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Wilson, Nerida G.

    2011-01-01

    Some living organisms produce visible light (bioluminescence) for intra- or interspecific visual communication. Here, we describe a remarkable bioluminescent adaptation in the marine snail Hinea brasiliana. This species produces a luminous display in response to mechanical stimulation caused by encounters with other motile organisms. The light is produced from discrete areas on the snail's body beneath the snail's shell, and must thus overcome this structural barrier to be viewed by an external receiver. The diffusion and transmission efficiency of the shell is greater than a commercial diffuser reference material. Most strikingly, the shell, although opaque and pigmented, selectively diffuses the blue-green wavelength of the species bioluminescence. This diffusion generates a luminous display that is enlarged relative to the original light source. This unusual shell thus allows spatially amplified outward transmission of light communication signals from the snail, while allowing the animal to remain safely inside its hard protective shell. PMID:21159673

  17. Gastropod-Borne Helminths: A Look at the Snail-Parasite Interplay.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Alessio; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Colella, Vito; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    More than 300 million people suffer from a range of diseases caused by gastropod-borne helminths, predominantly flatworms and roundworms, whose life cycles are characterized by a diversified ecology and epidemiology. Despite the plethora of data on these parasites, very little is known of the fundamental biology of their gastropod intermediate hosts, or of the interactions occurring at the snail-helminth interface. In this article, we focus on schistosomes and metastrongylids of human and animal significance, and review current knowledge of snail-parasite interplay. Future efforts aimed at elucidating key elements of the biology and ecology of the snail intermediate hosts, together with an improved understanding of snail-parasite interactions, will aid to identify, plan, and develop new strategies for disease control focused on gastropod intermediate hosts. PMID:26740470

  18. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN). Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution. PMID:22703871

  19. BrainSnail: A dynamic information display system for the Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Telefont, Martin; Asaithambi, Asai

    2009-01-01

    Scientific reference management has become crucial in rapidly expanding fields of biology. Many of the reference management systems currently employed are reference centric and not object/process focused. BrainSnail is a reference management/knowledge representation application that tries to bridge disconnect between subject and reference in the fields of neuropharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. BrainSnail has been developed with considering both individual researcher and research group efforts. PMID:19293992

  20. STAT3 integrates cooperative Ras and TGF-β signals that induce Snail expression.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, M; Endo, K; Furuya, S; Minami, M; Fukasawa, A; Imamura, T; Miyazawa, K

    2016-02-25

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial morphological event that occurs during the progression of epithelial tumors. EMT can be induced by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in certain kinds of cancer cells through the induction of Snail, a key regulator of EMT. We have previously found that TGF-β remarkably induces Snail expression in cooperation with Ras signals; however, the underlying mechanism of this synergism has not yet been determined. Here, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acts as a mediator that synergizes TGF-β and Ras signals. The overexpression of STAT3 enhanced Snail induction, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of STAT3 inhibited it. The STAT3-YF mutant, which has Tyr 705 substituted with Phe, did not enhance Snail induction. Several STAT3 mutants lacking transcriptional activity also failed to enhance it; however, the putative STAT3-binding elements in the Snail promoter regions were not required for STAT3-mediated Snail induction. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3) inhibited the enhanced Snail promoter activity induced by TGF-β and Ras. The interaction between PIAS3 and STAT3 was reduced by TGF-β in cells harboring oncogenic Ras, whereas TGF-β promoted the binding of PIAS3 to Smad3, a crucial mediator of TGF-β signaling. Therefore, these findings suggest that STAT3 enhances Snail induction when it is dissociated from PIAS3 by TGF-β in cooperation with Ras signals. PMID:25961936

  1. Effect of 2450 MHz microwave radiation on the ultrastructure of snail neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, S.L.; Neilly, J.P.; Lin, J.C.; Kriho, V.

    1986-01-01

    An electron microscopical study of snail neurons was undertaken to verify whether any ultrastructural alterations accompany microwave-induced electrophysiological changes observed in these neurons. Subesophageal ganglia from Helix aspersa snails were exposed to 2450 MHz microwave radiation in vitro at SAR 12.9 mW/g for 60 minutes. It was found that exposure at 21 degrees C causes minor changes in Golgi complexes and slight swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Shading decreases the abundance of the herbivorous California horn snail, Cerithidea californica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorda, Julio; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the intertidal zone in estuaries of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico is covered with vascular vegetation. Shading by these vascular plants influences abiotic and biotic processes that shape benthic community assemblages. We present data on the effects of shading on the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica. This species is important because it is the most common benthic macrofaunal species in these systems and acts as an obligate intermediate host of several species of rematode parasites that infect several other species. Using observational and experimental studies, we found a negative effect of shade on the distribution and abundance of the California horn snail. We hypothesized that shading reduces the abundance of the epipelic diatoms that the snails feeds on, causing snails to leave haded areas. We observed a negative relationship between vascular plant cover, sub-canopy light levels, and snail density in Mugu Lagoon. Then we experimentally manipulated light regimes, by clipping vegetation and adding shade structures, and found higher snail densities at higher light levels. In Goleta Slough, we isolated the effect of shade from vegetation by documenting a negative relationship between the shade created by two bridges and diatom and snail densities. We also found that snails moved the greatest distances over shaded channel banks compared to unshaded channel banks. Further, we documented the effect of water depth and channel bank orientation on shading in this system. An additional effect of shading is the reduction of temperature, providing an alternative explanation for some of our results. These results broaden our knowledge of how variation in the light environment influences the ecology of estuarine ecosystems.

  3. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  4. The effects of wetland habitat structure on Florida apple snail density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karunaratne, L.B.; Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands often support a variety of juxtaposed habitat patches (e.g., grass-, shrub- or tree-dominated) differentially suited to support the inhabiting fauna. The proportion of available habitat types has been affected by human activity and consequently has contributed to degrading habitat quality for some species. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has drawn attention as a critical prey item for wetlands wildlife and as an indicator of wetlands restoration success in peninsular Florida, USA. An apparent contradiction has evolved wherein this species appears intolerant of drying events, but these disturbances may be necessary to maintain suitable habitat structure for apple snails. We recently reported that assertions regarding intolerance to dry downs in this species were inaccurate. Here, we compared snail density in habitats with (wet prairie) and without (slough) emergent macrophytes, as well as evaluating the effects of structural attributes within the broad wet prairie habitat type. Snail densities were greater in prairies relative to sloughs (??2= 12.90, df=1, P=0.0003), often by a factor of two to three. Within wet prairie habitats, we found greater snail densities in Panicum hemitomon as compared to Eleocharis cellulosa (??2=31.45, df=1, P=0.0001). Significantly fewer snails were found in dense E. cellulosa as compared to habitats with lower stem density (??2= 10.73, df=1, P=0.011). Our results indicate that wet prairie habitat supports greater snail densities than nymphaea-dominatd slough. Our results have implications for wetlands water management in that continuous inundation has been shown to convert wet prairie to slough habitat, and we suggest this should be avoided in support of apple snails and their predators. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  5. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  6. Freshwater Ecology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    Freshwater ecosystems include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, and certain types of wetlands. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on freshwater ecology; the guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader or student "on target." Other literature guides related to freshwater…

  7. NATIVE FRESHWATER FISH AND MUSSEL SPECIES RICHNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit.

  8. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  9. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Doxorubicin enhances Snail/LSD1-mediated PTEN suppression in a PARP1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiwei; Kang, Tiebang; Zhou, Binhua P

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Snail not only functions as a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but also mediates cell proliferation and survival. While previous studies have showed that Snail protects tumor cells from apoptosis through transcriptional repression of PTEN, the specific mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Snail cooperates with LSD1 to repress PTEN in a PARP1-dependent manner. Upon doxorubicin treatment, Snail becomes tightly associated with PARP1 through its pADPr-binding motif and is subject to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can enhance Snail-LSD1 interaction and promote the recruitment of LSD1 to PTEN promoter, where LSD1 removes methylation on histone H3 lysine 4 for transcription repression. Furthermore, treatment of tumor cells with PARP1 inhibitor AZD2281 can compromise doxorubicin-induced PTEN suppression and enhance the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin. Together, we proposed a tentative drug-resistant mechanism through which tumor cells defend themselves against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PARP1 inhibitors in combination with DNA damaging reagents might represent a promising treatment strategy targeting tumors with over-activated Snail and LSD1. PMID:24675890

  11. Foraging and refuge use by a pond snail: Effects of physiological state, predators, and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojdak, Jeremy M.

    2009-09-01

    The costs and benefits of anti-predator behavioral responses should be functions of the actual risk of predation, the availability of the prey's resources, and the physiological state of the prey. For example, a food-stressed individual risks starvation when hiding from predators, while a well-fed organism can better afford to hide (and pay the cost of not foraging). Similarly, the benefits of resource acquisition are probably highest for the prey in the poorest state, while there may be diminishing returns for prey nearing satiation. Empirical studies of state-dependent behavior are only beginning, however, and few studies have investigated interactions between all three potentially important factors. Here I present the results of a laboratory experiment where I manipulated the physiological state of pond snails ( Physa gyrina), the abundance of algal resources, and predation cues ( Belostoma flumineum waterbugs consuming snails) in a full factorial design to assess their direct effects on snail behavior and indirect effects on algal biomass. On average, snails foraged more when resources were abundant, and when predators were absent. Snails also foraged more when previously exposed to physiological stress. Snails spent more time at the water's surface (a refuging behavior) in the presence of predation cues on average, but predation, resource levels, and prey state had interactive effects on refuge use. There was a consistent positive trait-mediated indirect effect of predators on algal biomass, across all resource levels and prey states.

  12. Role of Ras signaling in the induction of snail by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kana; Shirakihara, Takuya; Nakano, Ayako; Imamura, Takeshi; Miyazono, Kohei; Saitoh, Masao

    2009-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial morphological event that occurs during the progression of epithelial tumors. EMT can be induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in some tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism whereby Snail, a key regulator of EMT, is induced by TGF-beta in tumor cells. Snail induction by TGF-beta was highly dependent on cooperation with active Ras signals, and silencing of Ras abolished Snail induction by TGF-beta in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. Transfection of constitutively active Ras into HeLa cells led to induction of Snail by TGF-beta, while representative direct targets of TGF-beta, including Smad7 and PAI-1, were not affected by Ras signaling. Using mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or Smad3 or Smad2 mutants, we found that phosphorylation at the linker region of Smad2/3 was not required for the induction of Snail by TGF-beta. Taken together, these findings indicate that Ras and TGF-beta-Smad signaling selectively cooperate in the induction of Snail, which occurs in a Smad-dependent manner, but independently of phosphorylation at the linker region of R-Smads by Ras signaling. PMID:19010789

  13. Snail2/Slug cooperates with Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to regulate neural crest development

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Chih-Liang; Jones, Amanda; Wang, Hengbin; Gerigk, Magda; Nozell, Susan; Chang, Chenbei

    2015-01-01

    Neural crest cells arise from the border of the neural plate and epidermal ectoderm, migrate extensively and differentiate into diverse cell types during vertebrate embryogenesis. Although much has been learnt about growth factor signals and gene regulatory networks that regulate neural crest development, limited information is available on how epigenetic mechanisms control this process. In this study, we show that Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) cooperates with the transcription factor Snail2/Slug to modulate neural crest development in Xenopus. The PRC2 core components Eed, Ezh2 and Suz12 are expressed in the neural crest cells and are required for neural crest marker expression. Knockdown of Ezh2, the catalytic subunit of PRC2 for histone H3K27 methylation, results in defects in neural crest specification, migration and craniofacial cartilage formation. EZH2 interacts directly with Snail2, and Snail2 fails to expand the neural crest domains in the absence of Ezh2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that Snail2 regulates EZH2 occupancy and histone H3K27 trimethylation levels at the promoter region of the Snail2 target E-cadherin. Our results indicate that Snail2 cooperates with EZH2 and PRC2 to control expression of the genes important for neural crest specification and migration during neural crest development. PMID:25617436

  14. Studies of the snail vectors of bilharziasis mansoni in north-eastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Frederico S.; Olivier, Louis

    1958-01-01

    The authors describe the bilharziasis endemic areas in north-eastern Brazil, giving the rainfall and general characteristics of the climate. The life-cycles of the two snail vectors—Australorbis glabratus and Tropicorbis centimetralis—in Pernambuco are described. Considerable attention is given to the effects on the snails of the annual drought, which causes many of the habitats to dry up and seriously affects the snail life-cycles and survival patterns. The snails are able to populate habitats that are dry for 5-7 months every year. They survive during the dry season in the protection of debris, vegetation, etc. A. glabratus is more susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni than is T. centimetralis, but the latter is an effective vector, nevertheless, probably because it often occurs in very large numbers. A. glabratus with mature infections die or lose their infections when removed from the water for 20-30 days. Immature parasites are not killed under the same conditions. Infection with S. mansoni injures the snails and may kill them. It also reduces the reproductive capacity of the vectors, but it does not permanently castrate them. The epidemiological significance of these findings and their meaning in terms of snail control are discussed. PMID:13573116

  15. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  16. Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa mueller

    SciTech Connect

    Schuytema, G.S.; Nebeker, A.V.; Griffis, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13-100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg/kg, were evaluated in 10-day definitive feeding tests. Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) and aminocarb were the most toxic, with 10-day LC50s of 188 and 313 mg/kg, respectively. Paraquat, trichlorfon and fenitrothion had 10-day LC50s of 659, 664, and 7,058 mg/kg respectively. Avoidance of pesticide-containing foods occurred, e.g., 10-day LC50s of >10,000 mg/kg for carbaryl and ethyl parathion. Significant descreases (p<0.05) in snail weight (total, shell-only, body-only) or shell diameter were accompanied by a significant decrease in the amount of food consumed/snail/day. Concentrations of pesticide in tissues were measured in snails exposed to atrazine and azinphosmethyl; there was no bioaccumulation. (Copyright (c) 1994 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.)

  17. Are Sick Individuals Weak Competitors? Competitive Ability of Snails Parasitized by a Gigantism-Inducing Trematode

    PubMed Central

    Seppl, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability. PMID:24205383

  18. Snail mediates medial-lateral patterning of the ascidian neural plate.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Clare; Sirour, Cathy; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi

    2015-07-15

    The ascidian neural plate exhibits a regular, grid-like arrangement of cells. Patterning of the neural plate across the medial-lateral axis is initiated by bilateral sources of Nodal signalling, such that Nodal signalling induces expression of lateral neural plate genes and represses expression of medial neural plate genes. One of the earliest lateral neural plate genes induced by Nodal signals encodes the transcription factor Snail. Here, we show that Snail is a critical downstream factor mediating this Nodal-dependent patterning. Using gain and loss of function approaches, we show that Snail is required to repress medial neural plate gene expression at neural plate stages and to maintain the lateral neural tube genetic programme at later stages. A comparison of these results to those obtained following Nodal gain and loss of function indicates that Snail mediates a subset of Nodal functions. Consistently, overexpression of Snail can partially rescue a Nodal inhibition phenotype. We conclude that Snail is an early component of the gene regulatory network, initiated by Nodal signals, that patterns the ascidian neural plate. PMID:25962578

  19. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in epicardium is independent of Snail1.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Jess C; Travisano, Stanislao; de la Pompa, Jos Luis

    2013-01-01

    The epicardium is the outer epithelial covering the heart. This tissue undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to generate mesenchymal epicardial-derived cells (EPDCs) that populate the extracellular matrix of the subepicardium and contribute to the development of the coronary vessels and cardiac interstitial cells. Although epicardial EMT plays a crucial role in heart development, the molecular regulation of this process is incompletely understood. Here we examined the possible role of the EMT regulator Snail1 in this process. Snail1 is expressed in the epicardium and EPDCs during mouse cardiac development. To determine the function of Snail1 in epicardial EMT, we deleted Snail1 in the epicardium using Wt1- and Tbx18-Cre drivers. Unexpectedly, epicardial-specific Snail1 mutants are viable and fertile and do not display any obvious morphological or functional cardiac abnormalities. Molecular analysis of these mice reveals that epicardial EMT occurs normally, and epicardial derivatives are established in these mutants. We conclude that Snail1 is not required for the initiation and progression of embryonic epicardial EMT. PMID:23097346

  20. Snail Nuclear Transport: the Gateways Regulating Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition?

    PubMed Central

    Muqbil, Irfana; Wu, Jack; Aboukameel, Amro; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Azmi, Asfar S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process (MET) plays central role in organ developmental biology. It is a fine tuned process that when disturbed leads to pathological conditions especially cancers with aggressive and metastatic behavior. Snail is an oncogene that has been well established to be a promoter of EMT through direct repression of epithelial morphology promoter E-cadherin. It can function in the nucleus, in the cytosol and as discovered recently, extracellularly through secretory vesicular structures. The intracellular transport of snail has for long been shown to be regulated by the nuclear pore complex. One of the Karyopherins, importin alpha, mediates snail import, while importin beta/exportin 1 (Xpo1) or chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) is its major nuclear exporter. A number of additional biological regulators are emerging that directly modulate Snail stability by altering its subcellular localization. These observations indicate that targeting the nuclear transport machinery could be an important and as of yet, unexplored avenue for therapeutic intervention against the EMT processes in cancer. In parallel, a number of novel agents that disrupt nuclear transport have recently been discovered and are being explored for their anti-cancer effects in the early clinical settings. Through this review we provide insights on the mechanisms regulating snail subcellular localization and how this impacts EMT. We discuss strategies on how the nuclear transport function can be harnessed to rein in EMT through modulation of snail signaling. PMID:24954011

  1. Specialized insulin is used for chemical warfare by fish-hunting cone snails

    PubMed Central

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Gajewiak, Joanna; Karanth, Santhosh; Robinson, Samuel D.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Douglass, Adam D.; Schlegel, Amnon; Imperial, Julita S.; Watkins, Maren; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Yandell, Mark; Li, Qing; Purcell, Anthony W.; Norton, Raymond S.; Ellgaard, Lars; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 species of venomous cone snails (genus Conus) are highly effective predators of fish. The vast majority of venom components identified and functionally characterized to date are neurotoxins specifically targeted to receptors, ion channels, and transporters in the nervous system of prey, predators, or competitors. Here we describe a venom component targeting energy metabolism, a radically different mechanism. Two fish-hunting cone snails, Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, have evolved specialized insulins that are expressed as major components of their venoms. These insulins are distinctive in having much greater similarity to fish insulins than to the molluscan hormone and are unique in that posttranslational modifications characteristic of conotoxins (hydroxyproline, ?-carboxyglutamate) are present. When injected into fish, the venom insulin elicits hypoglycemic shock, a condition characterized by dangerously low blood glucose. Our evidence suggests that insulin is specifically used as a weapon for prey capture by a subset of fish-hunting cone snails that use a net strategy to capture prey. Insulin appears to be a component of the nirvana cabal, a toxin combination in these venoms that is released into the water to disorient schools of small fish, making them easier to engulf with the snails distended false mouth, which functions as a net. If an entire school of fish simultaneously experiences hypoglycemic shock, this should directly facilitate capture by the predatory snail. PMID:25605914

  2. Overexpression of miR-506 inhibits growth of osteosarcoma through Snail2

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Yuting; Gao, Ningyang; Wang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a prevalent primary bone malignancy and its distal metastasis accounts for the majority of OS-related death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles during cancer metastasis. Thus, elucidation of the involvement of specific miRNAs in the metastasis of OS may provide novel therapeutic targets for OS treatment. Here, we showed that in the OS specimens from patients, the levels of miR-506 were significantly decreased and the levels of Snail2 were significantly increased, compared to the paired normal bone tissue. MiR-506 and Snail2 inversely correlated in patients specimen. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that miR-506 may target the 3-UTR of Snail2 mRNA to inhibit its translation, which was confirmed by luciferase-reporter assay. Moreover, miR-506 overexpression inhibited Snail2-mediated cell invasiveness, while miR-506 depletion increased Snail2-mediated cell invasiveness in OS cells. Together, our data suggest that miR-506 suppression in OS cells may promote Snail2-mediated cancer metastasis. PMID:26885269

  3. Endothelial Snail Regulates Capillary Branching Morphogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular branching morphogenesis is activated and maintained by several signaling pathways. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling is largely presented in arteries, and VEGFR3 signaling is in veins and capillaries. Recent reports have documented that Snail, a well-known epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition protein, is expressed in endothelial cells, where it regulates sprouting angiogenesis and embryonic vascular development. Here, we identified Snail as a regulator of VEGFR3 expression during capillary branching morphogenesis. Snail was dramatically upregulated in sprouting vessels in the developing retinal vasculature, including the leading-edged vessels and vertical sprouting vessels for capillary extension toward the deep retina. Results from in vitro functional studies demonstrate that Snail expression colocalized with VEGFR3 and upregulated VEGFR3 mRNA by directly binding to the VEGFR3 promoter via cooperating with early growth response protein-1. Snail knockdown in postnatal mice attenuated the formation of the deep capillary plexus, not only by impairing vertical sprouting vessels but also by downregulating VEGFR3 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that the Snail-VEGFR3 axis controls capillary extension, especially in vessels expressing VEGFR2 at low levels. PMID:26147525

  4. Research on Dynamic Monitoring (1990-2010) of Schistosomiasis Vector-Snail at Xinmin Beach, Gaoyou Lake, Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoyan; Li, Chuanrong; Tang, Lingli; Zhou, Xiaonong; Ma, Lingling

    2014-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that menaces human health. In terms of impact, this disease is second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease. Oncomelania hupensis (snail) is the unique intermediate host of schistosoma, so monitoring and controlling of the number of snail is key to reduce the risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Remote sensing technology can real-timely access the large-scale environmental factors related to snail breeding and reproduction, and can also provide the efficient information to determine the location, area, and spread tendency of snail. Based on the T-S (Takagi-Sugeno) fuzzy information theory, a quantitative remote sensing monitoring model of snail has been developed in previous wok. In a case study, this paper will take Xinmin beach, Gaoyou Lake as new research area, carry out 20 years (1990 - 2010) dynamic monitoring, to further validate the effectiveness of the T-S Fuzzy RS snail monitoring model.

  5. The biocide tributyltin reduces the accumulation of testosterone as fatty acid esters in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta).

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Meredith P; Wilson, Vickie S; Folmar, Leroy C; Marcovich, Dragoslav T; LeBlanc, Gerald A

    2003-01-01

    Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated with TBT, and direct exposure to testosterone has been shown to cause imposex. We discovered previously that the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta)biotransforms and retains excess testosterone primarily as fatty acid esters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TBT interferes with the esterification of testosterone, resulting in the elevated free (unesterified) testosterone levels associated with imposex. Exposure of snails to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (> or = 1.0 ng/L as tin) significantly increased the incidence of imposex. Total (free + esterified) testosterone levels in snails were not altered by TBT; however, free testosterone levels increased with increasing exposure concentration of TBT. TBT-exposed snails were given [14C

  6. Freshwater Circulation in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. A.; Riser, S.

    2012-12-01

    Based on new estimates, the Bay of Bengal receives a net input of approximately 5000 km3 of freshwater each year. This is primarily supplied by the precipitation and river discharge associated with the southwest monsoon. To balance this input, freshwater must be removed from the bay's surface layer at a mean rate of roughly 0.16 Sverdrup. This relatively large transport of freshwater, which could be of major climatological importance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to construct a seasonal freshwater budget for the Bay of Bengal using available climatological datasets. In particular, we investigate the relative importance of boundary currents, vertical mixing, and interior eddy fluxes in maintaining a closed freshwater budget. These observational findings are compared to simulated outputs from state-of-the-art models such as HYCOM and SODA.

  7. Interannual variations of freshwater in Hornsund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlven, Knut Ola; Falck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Hornsund is a fjord situated at the south-west coast of Spitsbergen. The main goal of this study is to calculate and describe the interannual variations of freshwater content in Hornsund. In addition to this, we aim to trace the freshwater sources to the fjord and calculate the fractional contributions from these by using oxygen isotope data. The mixing between these freshwater sources and oceanic waters is described as well as the general summer hydrography of the fjord. Calculation of freshwater content is based on Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data obtained in July of 2001 to 2014. Oxygen isotope data are obtained in Autumn 2013/2014 and Spring 2014. The freshwater in Hornsund is assumed to be provided by either meteoric freshwater sources (glacial melt/precipitation/river-runoff) or the melting of sea ice. Both sources can be produced locally or advected into the fjord. The fraction of the ?O isotope (??O) is an effective tracer for freshwater sources in the Arctic due to the progressive depletion of this isotope in water molecules during poleward atmospheric transport (Ostlund and Hut, 1984). Calculation of fractional contribution from the two freshwater sources is done based on a method presented in Ostlund and Hut (1984), where the mass-balance, salinity-balance and ??O-balance are utilized to calculate the fractions of seawater, meteoric water and sea ice meltwater. Preliminary results show freshwater content varying between 0.211km and 1.068km, based on a reference salinity of 34.2. In Autumn 2013, meteoric water was the largest contributor of freshwater to the fjord. However, there was a significant contribution of sea ice meltwater which had a deeper vertical distribution than the meteoric water. References: H. G. Ostlund and G. Hut. 1984. Arctic Ocean water mass balance from isotope data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 89(C4):6373-6381

  8. Insights into the evolution of the snail superfamily from metazoan wide molecular phylogenies and expression data in annelids

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Pierre; Hung, Johanne; Bhague, Julien; Le Gouar, Martine; Balavoine, Guillaume; Vervoort, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background An important issue concerning the evolution of duplicated genes is to understand why paralogous genes are retained in a genome even though the most likely fate for a redundant duplicated gene is nonfunctionalization and thereby its elimination. Here we study a complex superfamily generated by gene duplications, the snail related genes that play key roles during animal development. We investigate the evolutionary history of these genes by genomic, phylogenetic, and expression data studies. Results We systematically retrieved the full complement of snail related genes in several sequenced genomes. Through phylogenetic analysis, we found that the snail superfamily is composed of three ancestral families, snail, scratchA and scratchB. Analyses of the organization of the encoded proteins point out specific molecular signatures, indicative of functional specificities for Snail, ScratchA and ScratchB proteins. We also report the presence of two snail genes in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which have distinct expression patterns in the developing mesoderm, nervous system, and foregut. The combined expression of these two genes is identical to that of two independently duplicated snail genes in another annelid, Capitella spI, but different aspects of the expression patterns are differentially shared among paralogs of Platynereis and Capitella. Conclusion Our study indicates that the snail and scratchB families have expanded through multiple independent gene duplications in the different bilaterian lineages, and highlights potential functional diversifications of Snail and ScratchB proteins following duplications, as, in several instances, paralogous proteins in a given species show different domain organizations. Comparisons of the expression pattern domains of the two Platynereis and Capitella snail paralogs provide evidence for independent subfunctionalization events which have occurred in these two species. We propose that the snail related genes may be especially prone to subfunctionalization, and this would explain why the snail superfamily underwent so many independent duplications leading to maintenance of functional paralogs. PMID:19426549

  9. Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dida, Gabriel O.; Gelder, Frank B.; Anyona, Douglas N.; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O.; Adoka, Samson O.; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K.; Owuor, Phillip O.; Ofulla, Ayub V. O.

    2014-01-01

    We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss – the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus – the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss – the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin. PMID:25405008

  10. Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O; Adoka, Samson O; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Phillip O; Ofulla, Ayub V O

    2014-01-01

    We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss - the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus - the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss - the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin. PMID:25405008

  11. Release of Lungworm Larvae from Snails in the Environment: Potential for Alternative Transmission Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Alessio; Colella, Vito; Abramo, Francesca; do Nascimento Ramos, Rafael Antonio; Falsone, Luigi; Brianti, Emanuele; Varcasia, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Knaus, Martin; Fox, Mark T.; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans following the consumption of infected intermediate or paratenic hosts. However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by snail mucus and/or water has also been proposed as a source of the infection for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis). In the meantime, the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are increasingly spreading among cat populations, along with their gastropod intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of alternative transmission pathways for A. abstrusus and T. brevior L3 via the mucus of infected Helix aspersa snails and the water where gastropods died. In addition, the histological examination of snail specimens provided information on the larval localization and inflammatory reactions in the intermediate host. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-four specimens of H. aspersa received ~500 L1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and were assigned to six study groups. Snails were subjected to different mechanical and chemical stimuli throughout 20 days in order to elicit the production of mucus. At the end of the study, gastropods were submerged in tap water and the sediment was observed for lungworm larvae for three consecutive days. Finally, snails were artificially digested and recovered larvae were counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. The anatomical localization of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae within snail tissues was investigated by histology. L3 were detected in the snail mucus (i.e., 37 A. abstrusus and 19 T. brevior) and in the sediment of submerged specimens (172 A. abstrusus and 39 T. brevior). Following the artificial digestion of H. aspersa snails, a mean number of 127.8 A. abstrusus and 60.3 T. brevior larvae were recovered. The number of snail sections positive for A. abstrusus was higher than those for T. brevior. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that A. abstrusus and T. brevior infective L3 are shed in the mucus of H. aspersa or in water where infected gastropods had died submerged. Both elimination pathways may represent alternative route(s) of environmental contamination and source of the infection for these nematodes under field conditions and may significantly affect the epidemiology of feline lungworms. Considering that snails may act as intermediate hosts for other metastrongyloid species, the environmental contamination by mucus-released larvae is discussed in a broader context. PMID:25884402

  12. SNAIL transcription factor increases the motility and invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Luis A; Farfn, Nancy M; Castelln, Enrique A; Contreras, Hctor R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PCa) are increasing, and PCa is almost the second?leading cause of cancer?associated mortality in men. During tumor progression, epithelial cells decrease the number of adhesion molecules, change their polarity and position, rearrange their cytoskeleton and increase their migratory and invasive capacities. These changes are known under the concept of epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is characterized by an upregulation of certain transcription factors, including SNAIL1, which represses genes that are characteristic of an epithelial phenotype, including E?cadherin, and indirectly increase the expression levels of genes, which are associated with the mesenchymal phenotype. It has been suggested that the transcription factor, SNAIL1, decreases the proliferation and increases the migratory and invasive capacities of PCa cell lines. The present study was performed using LNCaP and PC3 cell lines, in which the expression levels of SNAIL1 were increased or silenced through the use of lentiviral vectors. The expression levels of EMT markers were quantified using reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In addition, cell survival was analyzed using an MTS assay; cell proliferation was examined using an antibody targeting Ki?67; migration on plates with 8m pores to allow the passage of cells; and invasiveness was analyzed using a membrane chamber covered in dried basement membrane matrix solution. The levels of apoptosis were determined using a Caspase 3/7 assay containing a substrate modified by caspases3 and7. The results demonstrated that the overexpression and silencing of SNAIL1 decreased cell proliferation and survival. However, the overexpression of SNAIL1 decreased apoptosis, compared with cells with the SNAIL1?silenced cells, in which cell apoptosis increased. The migration and invasive capacities increased in the cells overexpressing SNAIL1, and decreased when SNAIL1 was silenced. In conclusion, PCa cells overexpressing SNAIL1 exhibited characteristics of an EMT phenotype, whereas the silencing of the SNAIL1 transcriptional repressor promoted an epithelial?like phenotype, with decreased migration and invasion, characteristic of mesenchymal cells. PMID:26648419

  13. SNAIL transcription factor increases the motility and invasive capacity of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    OSORIO, LUIS A.; FARFÁN, NANCY M.; CASTELLÓN, ENRIQUE A.; CONTRERAS, HÉCTOR R.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PCa) are increasing, and PCa is almost the second-leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men. During tumor progression, epithelial cells decrease the number of adhesion molecules, change their polarity and position, rearrange their cytoskeleton and increase their migratory and invasive capacities. These changes are known under the concept of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is characterized by an upregulation of certain transcription factors, including SNAIL1, which represses genes that are characteristic of an epithelial phenotype, including E-cadherin, and indirectly increase the expression levels of genes, which are associated with the mesenchymal phenotype. It has been suggested that the transcription factor, SNAIL1, decreases the proliferation and increases the migratory and invasive capacities of PCa cell lines. The present study was performed using LNCaP and PC3 cell lines, in which the expression levels of SNAIL1 were increased or silenced through the use of lentiviral vectors. The expression levels of EMT markers were quantified using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In addition, cell survival was analyzed using an MTS assay; cell proliferation was examined using an antibody targeting Ki-67; migration on plates with 8 µm pores to allow the passage of cells; and invasiveness was analyzed using a membrane chamber covered in dried basement membrane matrix solution. The levels of apoptosis were determined using a Caspase 3/7 assay containing a substrate modified by caspases 3 and 7. The results demonstrated that the overexpression and silencing of SNAIL1 decreased cell proliferation and survival. However, the overexpression of SNAIL1 decreased apoptosis, compared with cells with the SNAIL1-silenced cells, in which cell apoptosis increased. The migration and invasive capacities increased in the cells overexpressing SNAIL1, and decreased when SNAIL1 was silenced. In conclusion, PCa cells overexpressing SNAIL1 exhibited characteristics of an EMT phenotype, whereas the silencing of the SNAIL1 transcriptional repressor promoted an epithelial-like phenotype, with decreased migration and invasion, characteristic of mesenchymal cells. PMID:26648419

  14. Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

  15. Changes in epilithic communities due to individual and combined treatments of zinc and snail grazing in stream mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Genter, R.B.; Colwell, F.S.; Pratt, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    Effects of 0.5 mg/liter zinc (Zn) and snail grazing (400 snails/m2) on density of dominant algal and protozoan taxa, epilithic glucose respiration, and ash-free dry weight (AFDW) were examined using established (12-day colonization) periphyton communities in flow-through stream mesocosms with four treatments (Zn, snails, Zn and snails, control) for 30 days. Grazing and Zn similarly reduced the abundance of 5 of 10 dominant algal taxa and AFDW during the first 10 days of treatment. Abundance of these taxa and AFDW in grazed (ambient Zn) treatments approached control levels after 10 days as the effect due to snails decreased. Decreasing temperatures may have reduced snail activity. Snails, Zn, and the combination of these treatments contributed to higher rates of glucose respiration per unit AFDW. Protozoan species abundance was reduced to less than half by Zn but was unaffected by snails. Although Zn and snails individually altered structural and functional aspects of this microbial community, the effects when both treatments were combined could not always be inferred from the individual effects. Testing individual and combined variables that affect periphyton with a corresponding assessment of population dynamics, biomass, and community functional attributes will enhance understanding of the overall effects of pollutants on periphyton communities.

  16. FBXO11 promotes ubiquitination of the Snail family of transcription factors in cancer progression and epidermal development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Shenoy, Anitha K; Doernberg, Samuel; Chen, Hao; Luo, Huacheng; Shen, Huangxuan; Lin, Tong; Tarrash, Miriam; Cai, Qingsong; Hu, Xin; Fiske, Ryan; Chen, Ting; Wu, Lizi; Mohammed, Kamal A; Rottiers, Veerle; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Lu, Jianrong

    2015-06-28

    The Snail family of transcription factors are core inducers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we show that the F-box protein FBXO11 recognizes and promotes ubiquitin-mediated degradation of multiple Snail family members including Scratch. The association between FBXO11 and Snai1 in vitro is independent of Snai1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of FBXO11 in mesenchymal cells reduces Snail protein abundance and cellular invasiveness. Conversely, depletion of endogenous FBXO11 in epithelial cancer cells causes Snail protein accumulation, EMT, and tumor invasion, as well as loss of estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer cells. Expression of FBXO11 is downregulated by EMT-inducing signals TGF? and nickel. In human cancer, high FBXO11 levels correlate with expression of epithelial markers and favorable prognosis. The results suggest that FBXO11 sustains the epithelial state and inhibits cancer progression. Inactivation of FBXO11 in mice leads to neonatal lethality, epidermal thickening, and increased Snail protein levels in epidermis, validating that FBXO11 is a physiological ubiquitin ligase of Snail. Moreover, in C. elegans, the FBXO11 mutant phenotype is attributed to the Snail factors as it is suppressed by inactivation/depletion of Snail homologs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the FBXO11-Snail regulatory axis is evolutionarily conserved and critically governs carcinoma progression and mammalian epidermal development. PMID:25827072

  17. Proterometra macrostoma (Trematoda: Azygiidae): location of the redia and emergence path from the snail, Elimia semicarinata (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae).

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ronald; Berg, Ericka; Dolan, Julianna; King, Bailey; Martin, Michon; Mehmeti, Franceska

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe (1) the osmotic environment and precise location of the Proterometra macrostoma redia in its snail intermediate host, (2) where retraction of the distome body into the cercarial tail occurs, and (3) the subsequent emergence path of the cercaria out of the snail. Snails, Elimia semicarinata , were collected from North Elkhorn Creek in Scott County, Kentucky and screened daily for patent infections. Live rediae were extracted from infected snails in either artificial pond water (APW) or artificial snail water (ASW) and monitored for changes in morphology and movement every hour over 5 hr at 22 C. Infected and control snails were simultaneously fixed and decalcified in Cal-Ex II, prepared for routine paraffin sectioning, and serial sections subsequently analyzed for rediae and cercariae location. Significantly (?(2) = 42.45; 1 df; P = 0.0001) more rediae showed movement in ASW than in APW after 5 hr, suggesting a host compartment separate from the mantle cavity. Histological sections clearly showed rediae developing in close association with the snail digestive tract, within the peri-intestinal sinus of the snail, and isolated from the mantle cavity by a mantle membrane. Retraction of the distome body into the cercarial tail follows the emergence of the cercaria from the redia. Cercariae then enter the mantle cavity and emerge into fresh water through a siphon-like structure formed by the mantle collar of the snail. PMID:23343411

  18. Influence of copper on the feeding rate, growth and reproduction of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck.

    PubMed

    Pea, Silvia C; Pocsidio, Glorina N

    2007-12-01

    The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 microg/L) reduced the snails' feeding rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 microg/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure at 30 microg/L, snail's growth was significant but thereafter declined. Growth of all snails including control was negligible by day 50 when snails were in the reproductive state. Copper did not affect reproduction. PMID:17999015

  19. A p53/miRNA-34 axis regulates Snail1-dependent cancer cell epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Hyun Sil; Lee, Inhan; Choi, Hyung-Seok; Kang, Shi Eun; Cha, So Young; Ryu, Joo Kyung; Yoon, Dojun; Fearon, Eric R.; Rowe, R. Grant; Lee, Sanghyuk; Maher, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Snail1 is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor whose pathological expression has been linked to cancer cell epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs and the induction of tissue-invasive activity, but pro-oncogenic events capable of regulating Snail1 activity remain largely uncharacterized. Herein, we demonstrate that p53 loss-of-function or mutation promotes cancer cell EMT by de-repressing Snail1 protein expression and activity. In the absence of wild-type p53 function, Snail1-dependent EMT is activated in colon, breast, and lung carcinoma cells as a consequence of a decrease in miRNA-34 levels, which suppress Snail1 activity by binding to highly conserved 3′ untranslated regions in Snail1 itself as well as those of key Snail1 regulatory molecules, including β-catenin, LEF1, and Axin2. Although p53 activity can impact cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair pathways, the EMT and invasion programs initiated by p53 loss of function or mutation are completely dependent on Snail1 expression. These results identify a new link between p53, miR-34, and Snail1 in the regulation of cancer cell EMT programs. PMID:22024162

  20. Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. Methods We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Results Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (≥75% positive nuclear staining) was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P < 0.001), lymph node metastases (P = 0.002), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.002), and perineural invasion (P = 0.002) in the 314 GC patients, and with shorter survival (P = 0.023). cDNA microarray analysis revealed 213 differentially expressed genes in GC tissues with Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Conclusion Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs. PMID:23151184

  1. Food composition and feeding habits of some fresh water fishes in various water systems at Abbassa, Egypt, with special reference to snails transmitting diseases.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abd El-Rahman A; Ismail, Nahed M M

    2005-08-01

    Study of feeding habits of freshwater fishes collected from ponds at World Fish Center (ICLARM) showed that the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus and Forskal catfish, Bagras bayad had the highest proportion of full stomachs (31-58% & 44-45% respectively). In cichlid fishes, the rate of full stomachs was much lower, being 0.0-12.5% and showed higher incidence of empty stomachs that varied from 37.5% for Oreochromis niloticus to 78.3% for Sarotherodon galilaeus. Food items were analyzed by the percentage of point assessment (P%), abundance (N%) and frequency of occurrence (F%). Results of the three methods of analyses (Index of relative importance, I.R.I) emphasized the importance of plants (1214.7) as a major food resource in the stomach of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus followed by shell fragments (628.5), whereas, snail soft bodies were the main food category in the diet of hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus (2539.3). Shell fragments (652) and snail soft bodies (296.9) were the 1st in relative importance as foods of O. aurea. In case of S. galillae, shell fragments (338) came 2nd in I.R.I. after plants (559). Present investigation shows that shell fragments were represented by 11.1% and 15.1% in the diet of African catfish, C. gariepinus by (N%) and (P%) methods, however, they came as the second food item in its diet by I.R.I (1237.3). According to F% method, both shell fragments and Crustacea were present in the diet of C. gariepinus considerable proportions each of 47.4%. Shell fragments were represented by low proportions in the diet of B. bayad 3.9, 2.1 and 22.2 by N%, P% and F% respectively. PMID:16083073

  2. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D. K.; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails. PMID:26925296

  3. Life cycle stages of heterophyid trematodes in Vietnamese freshwater fishes traced by molecular and morphometric methods.

    PubMed

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per W; Dalsgaard, Anders; Jrgensen, Thomas R; Buchmann, Kurt

    2009-03-01

    A survey of digenean zoonotic trematodes infecting snails and fishes in a North Vietnamese freshwater fish culture system revealed shedding of three types of parapleurolophocercous cercariae from the snail host Melanoides tuberculata and the presence of metacercariae within the genus Haplorchis (H. pumilio and H. taichui) and Procerovum sp. in tissues of cultured fishes (silver carp, Indian carp and climbing perch). No morphological characters were able to link the different cercariae specifically to any of the metacercariae. Subsequent molecular work including PCR and sequencing of ribosomal DNA (the ITS2 region) in cercariae and metacercariae associated only one type of the cercariae to the recovered H. pumilio metacercariae. Further, full identity (100%) was found with regard to the ITS sequence of adult H. pumilio obtained from the same North Vietnamese region. None of the cercariae showed sequence identities with H. taichui but more than 99% identity was found between one cercaria type and the Procerovum sp. metacercaria. It was indicated that trematode parasites of farmed fishes may originate from sources outside the fish ponds and may be introduced as free-swimming cercariae when pond water is being replenished by river water. Likewise, cercariae from the ponds may not always result in metacercarial infections of the farmed fishes. The present study frames the needs for including molecular techniques as auxiliary tools when conducting ecological studies of cercariae in complex ecosystems. The parasites recorded in the fish ponds are not only known to affect the health of aquacultured fishes but also the documented zoonotic potential of the diagnosed metacercaria calls for alerts regarding human consumption of raw or inadequately processed fish dishes. PMID:19056180

  4. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  5. Thermal tolerance and climate warming sensitivity in tropical snails.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David J; Rezende, Enrico L; Baharuddin, Nursalwa; Choi, Francis; Helmuth, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to climate change because their thermal tolerance limits generally lie close to current maximum air temperatures. This prediction derives primarily from studies on insects and lizards and remains untested for other taxa with contrasting ecologies. We studied the HCT (heat coma temperatures) and ULT (upper lethal temperatures) of 40 species of tropical eulittoral snails (Littorinidae and Neritidae) inhabiting exposed rocky shores and shaded mangrove forests in Oceania, Africa, Asia and North America. We also estimated extremes in animal body temperature at each site using a simple heat budget model and historical (20 years) air temperature and solar radiation data. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that HCT and ULT exhibit limited adaptive variation across habitats (mangroves vs. rocky shores) or geographic locations despite their contrasting thermal regimes. Instead, the elevated heat tolerance of these species (HCT = 44.5 ± 1.8°C and ULT = 52.1 ± 2.2°C) seems to reflect the extreme temperature variability of intertidal systems. Sensitivity to climate warming, which was quantified as the difference between HCT or ULT and maximum body temperature, differed greatly between snails from sunny (rocky shore; Thermal Safety Margin, TSM = -14.8 ± 3.3°C and -6.2 ± 4.4°C for HCT and ULT, respectively) and shaded (mangrove) habitats (TSM = 5.1 ± 3.6°C and 12.5 ± 3.6°C). Negative TSMs in rocky shore animals suggest that mortality is likely ameliorated during extreme climatic events by behavioral thermoregulation. Given the low variability in heat tolerance across species, habitat and geographic location account for most of the variation in TSM and may adequately predict the vulnerability to climate change. These findings caution against generalizations on the impact of global warming across ectothermic taxa and highlight how the consideration of nonmodel animals, ecological transitions, and behavioral responses may alter predictions of studies that ignore these biological details. PMID:26811764

  6. The Snail repressor is required for PMC ingression in the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Yu; McClay, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In metazoans, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process for placing the mesoderm beneath the ectoderm. Primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) at the vegetal pole of the sea urchin embryo ingress into the floor of the blastocoele from the blastula epithelium and later become the skeletogenic mesenchyme. This ingression movement is a classic EMT during which the PMCs penetrate the basal lamina, lose adherens junctions and migrate into the blastocoele. Later, secondary mesenchyme cells (SMCs) also enter the blastocoele via an EMT, but they accompany the invagination of the archenteron initially, in much the same way vertebrate mesenchyme enters the embryo along with endoderm. Here we identify a sea urchin ortholog of the Snail transcription factor, and focus on its roles regulating EMT during PMC ingression. Functional knockdown analyses of Snail in whole embryos and chimeras demonstrate that Snail is required in micromeres for PMC ingression. Snail represses the transcription of cadherin, a repression that appears evolutionarily conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Furthermore, Snail expression is required for endocytosis of cadherin, a cellular activity that accompanies PMC ingression. Perturbation studies position Snail in the sea urchin micromere-PMC gene regulatory network (GRN), downstream of Pmar1 and Alx1, and upstream of several PMC-expressed proteins. Taken together, our findings indicate that Snail plays an essential role in PMCs to control the EMT process, in part through its repression of cadherin expression during PMC ingression, and in part through its role in the endocytosis that helps convert an epithelial cell to a mesenchyme cell. PMID:17287249

  7. Detection and Genetic Analysis of Noroviruses and Sapoviruses in Sea Snail.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hiroki; Kumazaki, Makoto; Ueki, Satoshi; Morita, Masahiro; Usuku, Shuzo

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred at a restaurant in Yokohama in December 2011. Because many of the customers had consumed raw sea snail, sea snail was suspected to be the source of this outbreak. To determine whether sea snail contains Norovirus (NoV) or Sapovirus (SaV), we analyzed 27 sea snail samples collected over 5months (May, June, August, October, and December 2012) and 59.3% were positive for NoV and/or SaV. The levels of NoV ranged from 1.5נ10(3) to 1.5נ10(5) copies/g tissue, and those of SaV from 1.5נ10(2) to 1.3נ10(3) copies/g tissue. The highest levels were observed in sea snails collected in December. A phylogenetic analysis of the NoVs showed that the viral strains were NoV genotypes GI.4, GI.6, GII.4, GII.12, GII.13, and GII.14, and the SaV strains were genotypes GI.2 and GI.3. The NoV GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants were only detected in December. This variant was a major source of gastroenteritis in Japan in the winter of 2012/2013. In contrast, the NoV GII.4 strains detected in May and June 2012 were not the Sydney 2012 variant. This study demonstrates that sea snail contains multiple genogroups and genotypes of NoV and SaV strains. We conclude that the sea snail presents a risk of gastroenteritis when consumed raw. PMID:26100718

  8. 40 CFR 35.1605-3 - Publicly owned freshwater lake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Publicly owned freshwater lake. 35.1605... Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-3 Publicly owned freshwater lake. A freshwater lake that offers public access to the lake through publicly owned contiguous land so that any person has the same opportunity...

  9. 40 CFR 35.1605-3 - Publicly owned freshwater lake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publicly owned freshwater lake. 35.1605... Owned Freshwater Lakes § 35.1605-3 Publicly owned freshwater lake. A freshwater lake that offers public access to the lake through publicly owned contiguous land so that any person has the same opportunity...

  10. The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagyu, Yoshihito; Tsuji, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

    The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be applied intermittently to reduce the amount of energy that is wasted when the snail is in its shell made of one of the insulator. The minimum electric shock required for controlling snails and the time required for movement after application of electric shock to determine the frequency of each electric shock were investigated using two methods; vertical and horizontal application of the electrical stimulation. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between the strength of electric shock and the reaction of the snails, and electric shock made snails inactive when it was applied 0.35 A/m2 in the horizontal direction and 0.45 A/m2 in the vertical direction with water of 11 mS/m. A positive correlation was also found between electric shock and the reaction of the snails and shell height. In comparison with larger snails, the smaller snails had higher threshold levels against electric current density because their shorter feet tended to have lower voltage dorp. Moreover, the frequency of electric shock should be chosen the minimum duration for the inactive condition, and it was approximately 10 seconds. Consequently the direction of electric current should be in the horizontal direction above 0.35 A/m2 and the frequency of electric shock should be less than 10 seconds for practical use. However, electric shock would have to be maintained at greater than 0.35 A/m2 because snails might become habituated to electric shock and water in paddy field would have high electric conductivity.

  11. Snail mediates invasion through uPA/uPAR and the MAPK signaling pathway in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    RANDLE, DIANDRA D.; CLARKE, SHINEKA; HENDERSON, VERONICA; ODERO-MARAH, VALERIE A.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which cancer cells acquire mesenchymal properties, such as induction of vimentin, while epithelial-associated genes like E-cadherin are lost. This enables cells to be more metastatic. Factors that are able to induce EMT include growth factors such as transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and epidermal growth factor, and transcription factors such as Snail. Snail-induced EMT promotes migration and invasion and we hypothesized that this may be mediated by the activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR). LNCaP, 22Rv1 and ARCaP human prostate cancer (CaP) cells stably transfected with empty vector control (Neo) or constitutively active Snail exhibited increased cell invasion. Superarray analysis revealed an upregulation in uPA and uPAR RNA expression in Snail-transfected ARCaP cells compared with that of a Neo control. In addition, the protein expression levels of Snail, uPA and uPAR were measured by western blot analysis which showed that overexpression of Snail increased uPA and uPAR protein levels. The activity of uPA in conditioned media was measured using an ELISA which revealed that uPA activity was elevated in LNCaP, 22Rv1 and ARCaP cells overexpressing Snail. Additionally, transient silencing of uPAR in ARCaP cells overexpressing Snail using short interfering RNA resulted in abrogation of Snail-mediated invasion. Snail overexpression was associated with increased extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activity, and antagonism of this activity with mitogen-activated protein (MAPK) inhibitor, UO126, inhibited cell invasion and decreased uPA activity. Therefore, Snail-mediated cell invasion in human CaP cells may occur via the regulation of uPA/uPAR and the MAPK signaling pathway.

  12. Effects of trematode parasitism on the behaviour and ecology of a common marine snail (Littorina littorea (L.)).

    PubMed

    Davies, M S.; Knowles, A J.

    2001-06-01

    Cryptocotyle lingua (Creplin) is a digenean trematode parasite of the littoral prosobranch gastropod Littorina littorea (L.). The literature suggests the snails become infected by grazing guano of the final host, the herring gull, Larus argentatus Pontoppidan. The parasite emerges from the snail as free-swimming cercariae. Interactions between the snail and the parasite at cellular and life-history levels are well established, but little is known of the influences the interaction has on the behaviour and the ecology of the snail. We tested the response of the snail to encounters with cercariae, examined the longevity of the guano on-shore and tested the responses of the snail to encounters with guano. Over half the L. littorea tested were able to detect both cercariae and a filtered homogenate of cercariae in conspecific mucus trails, approximately one-third of animals refusing to cross the treatments. Chemoreception by the mouth or foot is considered the most likely means of detection. Guano samples (mean weight 3.22 g) naturally deposited at approximately mid-tide level were completely washed away by one tidal inundation. We consider this period too brief to allow for ingestion of eggs in guano by the snail. Further, snails would not cross guano placed in conspecific trails. Most snails would not cross guano diluted by 10(3)x(10 mg ml(-1)) and some snails could still detect guano diluted by 10(6)x(10 &mgr;g ml(-1)), though all were prepared to cross it. Detection of guano is again believed to be by chemoreception by the mouth or foot. These results are discussed in terms of the mating and aggregating behaviour of L. littorea. Ingestion of the parasite by L. littorea is likely to take place once the guano has washed away as the eggs are negatively buoyant in seawater and may adhere to rock (biofilm) or algal fronds which may be grazed by the snail. PMID:11358576

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Molluscan Hemocyanins from Helix and Rapana Snails.

    PubMed

    Dolashka, Pavlina; Dolashki, Aleksander; Van Beeumen, Jozef; Floetenmeyer, Matthias; Velkova, Lyudmila; Stevanovic, Stefan; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    For the first time the antimicrobial activities of hemocyanins from the molluscs Rapana venosa (RvH) and Helix aspersa (HaH) have been tested. From the hemolymph of the garden snail H. aspersa one structural subunit (?c-HaH ) and eight functional units (FUs, ?c-HaH-a to ?c-HaH-h) were isolated, and their N-terminal sequences and molecular weights, ranging between 45 and 65 kDa, determined. The antimicrobial test of the hemocyanins against different bacteria showed that only two FUs from Rapana, RvH1-b and RvH1-e, exhibit a low inhibition effect against Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast and surprisingly, the structural subunit ?c-HaH of H. aspersa not only shows strong antimicrobial activities against S. aureus and the likewise Gram-positive Streptococcus epidermidis, but also against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. We suggest that this subunit therefore has the potential to become a substitute for the commonly used antibiotics against which bacterial resistance has gradually been developed. PMID:26343131

  14. Local adaptation along a continuous coastline: prey recruitment drives differentiation in a predatory snail.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Eric; Worth, David J

    2010-03-01

    Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, coastal topography, and other stable features of the coastline. Whereas the ecological effects of these oceanographic links are increasingly clear, the possibility that these same bottom-up forces might impose spatially varying selection on consumers has not been addressed. Here, we test the hypothesis that a carnivorous snail (Nucella canaliculata) with direct development is locally adapted to persistent differences in prey recruitment within two adjacent oceanographic regions (northern California and Oregon, USA). Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that snails from Oregon rarely drilled the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus californianus, whereas snails from California readily drilled this prey. To test whether these differences reflect local adaptation, snails from two populations in each region were raised through two laboratory generations to minimize the potential influence of nongenetic effects. We then reciprocally outplanted these F2 generation snails to field enclosures at each of the four sites and monitored their growth for 11 months. Recruitment and availability of preferred prey (the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula and blue mussel Mytilus trossulus) at the experimental sites were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower in California than in Oregon. At the California sites, snails that originated from Oregon sources failed to drill larger M. californianus, encountered few alternative prey, and showed almost no growth. In contrast, snails from California drilled M. californianus and showed substantial growth. These results strongly suggest that the capacity of California snails to drill M. californianus allows these snails to succeed in an oceanographic region where the recruitment of alternative, preferred prey is low. More broadly, our results suggest that persistent spatial variation in recruitment and other oceanographically mediated processes may lead to adaptive differentiation among populations of consumers in adjacent coastal regions. PMID:20426346

  15. Seasonal dynamics of two mortality-related trematodes using an introduced snail.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kristin K; Sorensen, Robert E

    2009-08-01

    Seasonal dynamics of 2 trematode species, Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaeridiotrema globulus, were assessed in relation to life history traits of the parasites and their hosts, as well as abundance of host species and abundance of infective stages. Both of these trematodes are associated with recurrent mortality of migrating waterbirds on the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge. An invasive snail species, Bithynia tentaculata, serves as intermediate host for both trematode species. In total, 2,970 snails were collected at 2 study sites. Prevalence and mean abundance of the 2 trematode species varied among dates and was attributed to several factors, including migration patterns of definitive hosts, snail population dynamics, and seasonal changes in temperature. The surge of new infections of both parasites seems to be due to avian hosts foraging at this site during spring migration. The high prevalence and abundance of metacercariae among the snail population promote mortality among molluscivorous birds by increasing the probability of ingestion of a lethal dose. Additionally, mortality of non-molluscivorous birds can be explained by accidental ingestion of a couple of highly infected snails resulting in a lethal dose. PMID:20049988

  16. Undifferentiated cells in the snail myocardium are capable of DNA synthesis and myodifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Martynova, Marina G; Bystrova, Olga A

    2002-08-01

    Cellular mechanisms of heart-muscle growth in the snail Achatina fulica have been studied using cytophotometry and electron microscopic autoradiography. Cytophotometric DNA measurements showed that the snail cardiomyocytes are mononucleated cells with diploid nuclei. Ultrastructural analysis of the snail myocardium revealed that, in addition to mature myocytes, it contains small roundish undifferentiated cells (UCs) and poorly differentiated muscle cells. EM autoradiography detected silver grains over the nuclei of UCs 2 h after injection of tritiated thymidine ([(3)H]Tdr), while the nuclei of both mature and poorly differentiated myocytes remained unlabeled. In EM autographs of the myocardial tissue fixed 14 days after [(3)H]Tdr administration, labeled myonuclei were evident, which may suggest some myodifferentiation of prelabeled UCs. Many labeled UCs persist for 14 days after a single [(3)H]Tdr injection, suggesting that not all UCs undergo myodifferentiation after passing through the cell cycle, and that those that do not can enter the next cycle. UCs in the snail myocardium presumably provide not only reserve but also stem cells for myocytes. Thus, the heart muscle of the adult snail consists of mononucleated diploid myocytes with blocked proliferative activity and a renewable population of precursor myogenic cells. The results obtained suggest that the growth of this muscle involves a myoblastic mechanism of myogenesis; this mechanism differs from that of vertebrate cardiac muscle growth, which is non-myoblastic-that is, based on proliferation or polyploidization of cardiomyocytes. Evolutionary aspects of cellular mechanisms of the heart-muscle growth are discussed. PMID:12200260

  17. The role of Snail1 transcription factor in colorectal cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Marek; Wyrobiec, Grzegorz; Piecuch, Adam; Dittfeld, Anna; Harabin-Słowińska, Marzena; Boroń, Dariusz; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Snail1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor, which plays a role in colorectal cancer development by silencing E-cadherin expression and inducing epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT tumour cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype that is responsible for their invasive activities. Consequently, Snail1 expression in colorectal cancer is usually associated with progression and metastasis. Some studies revealed that about 77% of colon cancer samples display Snail1 immunoreactivity both in activated fibroblasts and in carcinoma cells that have undergone EMT. Therefore, expression of this factor in the stroma may indicate how many cells possess the abilities to escape from the primary tumour mass, invade the basal lamina and colonise distant target organs. Blocking snail proteins activity has the potential to avert cancer cell metastasis by interfering with such cellular processes as remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, migration and invasion, which are clearly associated with the aggressive phenotype of the disease. Moreover, the link between factors from the snail family and cancer stem cells suggests that inhibitory agents may also prove their potency as inhibitors of cancer recurrence. PMID:26557772

  18. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2?h, 4?h, 6?h, and 8?h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8?h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05?mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8?h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009?mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

  19. Prehistoric inter-archipelago trading of Polynesian tree snails leaves a conservation legacy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taehwan; Burch, John B; Coote, Trevor; Fontaine, Benot; Gargominy, Olivier; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Foighil, Diarmaid O

    2007-11-22

    Inter-archipelago exchange networks were an important aspect of prehistoric Polynesian societies. We report here a novel genetic characterization of a prehistoric exchange network involving an endemic Pacific island tree snail, Partula hyalina. It occurs in the Society (Tahiti only), Austral and Southern Cook Islands. Our genetic data, based on museum, captive and wild-caught samples, establish Tahiti as the source island. The source lineage is polymorphic in shell coloration and contains a second nominal species, the dark-shelled Partula clara, in addition to the white-shelled P. hyalina. Prehistoric inter-island introductions were non-random: they involved white-shelled snails only and were exclusively inter-archipelago in scope. Partulid shells were commonly used in regional Polynesian jewellery, and we propose that the white-shelled P. hyalina, originally restricted to Tahiti, had aesthetic value throughout these archipelagoes. Demand within the Society Islands could be best met by trading dead shells, but a low rate of inter-archipelago exchange may have prompted the establishment of multiple founder populations in the Australs and Southern Cooks. The alien carnivorous land snail Euglandina rosea has recently devastated populations of all 61 endemic species of Society Island partulid snails. Southern Cooks and Australs P. hyalina now represent the only unscathed wild populations remaining of this once spectacular land snail radiation. PMID:17848368

  20. Digenean-gastropod host associations inform on aspects of specific immunity in snails

    PubMed Central

    Adema, C.M.; Loker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Gastropod immunology is informed importantly by the study of the frequent encounters snails endure with digeneans (digenetic trematodes). One of the hallmarks of gastropod-digenean associations is their specificity: any particular digenean parasite species is transmitted by a limited subset of snail taxa. We discuss the nature of this specificity, including its immunological basis. We then review studies of the model gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata indicating that the baseline responses of snails to digeneans can be elevated in a specific manner. Studies incorporating molecular and functional approaches are then highlighted, and are further suggestive of the capacity for specific gastropod immune responses. These studies have led to the compatibility polymorphism hypothesis: the interactions between diversified fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and diverse carbohydrate-decorated polymorphic parasite antigens determine recognition and trigger specific immunity. Complex glycan structures are also likely to play a role in the host specificity typifying snail-digenean interactions. We conclude by noting the dynamic and consequential interactions between snails and digeneans can be considered as drivers of diversification of digenean parasites and in the development and maintenance of specific immunity in gastropods. PMID:25034871

  1. Formin Is Associated with Left-Right Asymmetry in the Pond Snail and the Frog.

    PubMed

    Davison, Angus; McDowell, Gary S; Holden, Jennifer M; Johnson, Harriet F; Koutsovoulos, Georgios D; Liu, M Maureen; Hulpiau, Paco; Van Roy, Frans; Wade, Christopher M; Banerjee, Ruby; Yang, Fengtang; Chiba, Satoshi; Davey, John W; Jackson, Daniel J; Levin, Michael; Blaxter, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria [1, 2]. Here, we report that a disabling mutation in one copy of a tandemly duplicated, diaphanous-related formin is perfectly associated with symmetry breaking in the pond snail. This is supported by the observation that an anti-formin drug treatment converts dextral snail embryos to a sinistral phenocopy, and in frogs, drug inhibition or overexpression by microinjection of formin has a chirality-randomizing effect in early (pre-cilia) embryos. Contrary to expectations based on existing models [3-5], we discovered asymmetric gene expression in 2- and 4-cell snail embryos, preceding morphological asymmetry. As the formin-actin filament has been shown to be part of an asymmetry-breaking switch in vitro [6, 7], together these results are consistent with the view that animals with diverse body plans may derive their asymmetries from the same intracellular chiral elements [8]. PMID:26923788

  2. Formin Is Associated with Left-Right Asymmetry in the Pond Snail and the Frog

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Angus; McDowell, Gary S.; Holden, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Harriet F.; Koutsovoulos, Georgios D.; Liu, M. Maureen; Hulpiau, Paco; Van Roy, Frans; Wade, Christopher M.; Banerjee, Ruby; Yang, Fengtang; Chiba, Satoshi; Davey, John W.; Jackson, Daniel J.; Levin, Michael; Blaxter, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria [1, 2]. Here, we report that a disabling mutation in one copy of a tandemly duplicated, diaphanous-related formin is perfectly associated with symmetry breaking in the pond snail. This is supported by the observation that an anti-formin drug treatment converts dextral snail embryos to a sinistral phenocopy, and in frogs, drug inhibition or overexpression by microinjection of formin has a chirality-randomizing effect in early (pre-cilia) embryos. Contrary to expectations based on existing models [3, 4, 5], we discovered asymmetric gene expression in 2- and 4-cell snail embryos, preceding morphological asymmetry. As the formin-actin filament has been shown to be part of an asymmetry-breaking switch in vitro [6, 7], together these results are consistent with the view that animals with diverse body plans may derive their asymmetries from the same intracellular chiral elements [8]. PMID:26923788

  3. Evaluation of environmental methods to control snails in an irrigation system in Central Morocco.

    PubMed

    Laamrani, H; Khallaayoune, K; Boelee, E; Laghroubi, M M; Madsen, H; Gryseels, B

    2000-08-01

    The Moroccan Ministry of Public Health has launched a programme to eliminate schistosomiasis. One of the components in this process is the control of Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma haematobium. We evaluated three environmentally safe measures to control B. truncatus in siphon boxes, the main breeding sites for these snails in the Tessaout Amont irrigation system. The first method involved covering the siphon boxes to exclude light and reduce algal growth, the second consisted of increasing the frequency of emptying and cleaning the siphon boxes, and the third method increased water velocity to hinder the establishment of the intermediate hosts. The results showed that covering had a pronounced effect on snail and egg mass density, was accepted by the local community and prevented water contact. Cleaning the siphons three times during the irrigation season led to a reduction in snail density although it was not statistically significant and recolonization was rapid. Increasing water velocity by reducing the dimensions of siphon boxes delayed recolonization, but such a control measure can be applied only in specific situations where it does not pose hydraulic problems. The three interventions were selectively effective against B. truncatus, whereas other snails such as Physa acuta and Lymnaea peregra were hardly affected. Covering, the most promising control measure, could be useful in the Moroccan schistosomiasis eradication programme. However, further investigations are needed to assess its impact on water quality. PMID:10995096

  4. Myosin-dependent remodeling of adherens junctions protects junctions from Snail-dependent disassembly.

    PubMed

    Weng, Mo; Wieschaus, Eric

    2016-01-18

    Although Snail is essential for disassembly of adherens junctions during epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), loss of adherens junctions in Drosophila melanogaster gastrula is delayed until mesoderm is internalized, despite the early expression of Snail in that primordium. By combining live imaging and quantitative image analysis, we track the behavior of E-cadherin-rich junction clusters, demonstrating that in the early stages of gastrulation most subapical clusters in mesoderm not only persist, but move apically and enhance in density and total intensity. All three phenomena depend on myosin II and are temporally correlated with the pulses of actomyosin accumulation that drive initial cell shape changes during gastrulation. When contractile myosin is absent, the normal Snail expression in mesoderm, or ectopic Snail expression in ectoderm, is sufficient to drive early disassembly of junctions. In both cases, junctional disassembly can be blocked by simultaneous induction of myosin contractility. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for mechanosensitivity of cell-cell junctions and imply that myosin-mediated tension can prevent Snail-driven EMT. PMID:26754645

  5. Specialized insulin is used for chemical warfare by fish-hunting cone snails.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Gajewiak, Joanna; Karanth, Santhosh; Robinson, Samuel D; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Douglass, Adam D; Schlegel, Amnon; Imperial, Julita S; Watkins, Maren; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Yandell, Mark; Li, Qing; Purcell, Anthony W; Norton, Raymond S; Ellgaard, Lars; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2015-02-10

    More than 100 species of venomous cone snails (genus Conus) are highly effective predators of fish. The vast majority of venom components identified and functionally characterized to date are neurotoxins specifically targeted to receptors, ion channels, and transporters in the nervous system of prey, predators, or competitors. Here we describe a venom component targeting energy metabolism, a radically different mechanism. Two fish-hunting cone snails, Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, have evolved specialized insulins that are expressed as major components of their venoms. These insulins are distinctive in having much greater similarity to fish insulins than to the molluscan hormone and are unique in that posttranslational modifications characteristic of conotoxins (hydroxyproline, γ-carboxyglutamate) are present. When injected into fish, the venom insulin elicits hypoglycemic shock, a condition characterized by dangerously low blood glucose. Our evidence suggests that insulin is specifically used as a weapon for prey capture by a subset of fish-hunting cone snails that use a net strategy to capture prey. Insulin appears to be a component of the nirvana cabal, a toxin combination in these venoms that is released into the water to disorient schools of small fish, making them easier to engulf with the snail's distended false mouth, which functions as a net. If an entire school of fish simultaneously experiences hypoglycemic shock, this should directly facilitate capture by the predatory snail. PMID:25605914

  6. Doxorubicin enhances Snail/LSD1-mediated PTEN suppression in a PARP1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiwei; Kang, Tiebang; Zhou, Binhua P

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Snail not only functions as a master regulator of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), but also mediates cell proliferation and survival. While previous studies have showed that Snail protects tumor cells from apoptosis through transcriptional repression of PTEN, the specific mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Snail cooperates with LSD1 to repress PTEN in a PARP1-dependent manner. Upon doxorubicin treatment, Snail becomes tightly associated with PARP1 through its pADPr-binding motif and is subject to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can enhance Snail–LSD1 interaction and promote the recruitment of LSD1 to PTEN promoter, where LSD1 removes methylation on histone H3 lysine 4 for transcription repression. Furthermore, treatment of tumor cells with PARP1 inhibitor AZD2281 can compromise doxorubicin-induced PTEN suppression and enhance the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin. Together, we proposed a tentative drug-resistant mechanism through which tumor cells defend themselves against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PARP1 inhibitors in combination with DNA damaging reagents might represent a promising treatment strategy targeting tumors with over-activated Snail and LSD1. PMID:24675890

  7. EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive literature review is presented which is concerned with the effects of pollutants (metals, pesticides, detergents, industrial wastes) on freshwater fish; chemical and biological methods for identifying and determining the effects of such pollutants; and the effects of...

  8. Best Management Practices for Freshwater Pond Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter in the book Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture describes freshwater pond aquaculture systems and management practices to reduce environmental impacts of pond aquaculture. Pond aquaculture systems for channel catfish, crawfish, baitfish, hybrid striped bass, and o...

  9. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper in outdoor freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    This study characterizes the effects of copper (Cu) on Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) using a replicated outdoor microcosm design. Soils used in this study were collected from two Cu-enriched citrus agricultural sites in South Florida (Agler property (AGLR) in St. Lucie County and Sunrise Boys property (SRB) in Palm Beach County) and a reference site (Equus property) in St. Lucie County. The study included a 5-week aging phase, an 11 month exposure phase, and a 3 month post-treatment (exposure) phase. The aging phase was initiated by flooding agricultural soils with rainwater in 4 m(3) fiberglass microcosm tanks. Introducing juvenile apple snails (?7 d old) and mosquito fish (2-3 cm) into the microcosm tanks initiated the exposure phase. Survival, growth, and reproduction of apple snails and fish, and Cu uptake in apple snails, fish, and periphyton were determined in this study. Water chemistry (e.g., dissolved Cu concentration, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen concentrations, pH, hardness, alkalinity, etc.) was measured daily or weekly during the study. Initial soil Cu concentrations in Equus, SRB, and AGLR microcosms were 7, 55, and 99 mg/kg dw, respectively. Dissolved Cu concentrations in Equus, SRB and AGLR microcosms at the beginning of the study were 3, 82, and 43 ?g/L, respectively and decreased to low saturation levels of about ?9 ?g/L Cu after the first 3 months of the study. The decrease of dissolved Cu concentrations was likely due to the dilution of rainwater. Snail and fish mortality appeared to be higher in SRB microcosms than in Equus and AGLR microcosms. There was no significant difference in growth of the snails between treatments. Snail growth data followed the von Bertalanffy Model. The maximum shell length, shell height, and shell width of the snails calculated by the von Bertalanffy Model (L(?)) were 2.76, 2.05, and 2.18 cm, respectively. The maximum wet weight was 9.38 g. Growth rate (k) of the snails increased in order of shell height (0.459), shell length (0.550), and shell weight (0.598). There was no reproduction in the snails in any treatments including the reference during the exposure phase. However, Cu did not affect reproduction of fish during this period. Copper concentrations in periphyton from Equus, SRB, and AGLR microcosms ranged from 2 to 62, 31 to 371, and 13 to 478 mg/kg, respectively. Copper concentrations in fish at the beginning, days 30 and 150 of the study ranged from 3.19 to 7.53 mg/kg and were not significantly different from the different treatments. Average Cu concentrations in the soft tissue of dead snails from SRB and AGLR microcosms were 4602 mg/kg dw (ranged from 2913 to 8370 mg/kg dw) and 2824 mg/kg dw (ranged from 2118 to 3600 mg/kg dw), respectively. The Cu concentrations in the soft tissue of dead snails found in this study were higher than the tissue Cu concentrations in live aquatic organisms reported in the literature. These high Cu concentrations in edible apple snail soft tissue might pose a risk to Florida apple snail predators, including the snail kite. The post-exposure phase, with snails exposed to only water (i.e., no soils) showed depuration of copper from apple snails and reproduction in all treatments. PMID:21345490

  10. Use of ice water and salt treatments to eliminate an exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, from small immersible fisheries equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ice water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of fisheries equipment contaminated with a non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. The snail can displace native snails and can transmit trematodes directly to fishes and indirectly to other animals, i...

  11. Human freshwater demand for economic activity and ecosystems in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ferng, Jiun-Jiun

    2007-12-01

    Freshwater is necessary to economic activity, and humans depend on goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems. However, national freshwater management usually focuses on direct use of domestic freshwater. With an increasing scarcity of freshwater, attention has turned to two indirect uses of freshwater by humans. The first indirect use is freshwater used by foreign countries when producing products for export. The second use is freshwater required by local ecosystems: human survival and development depend on goods and services generated in these ecosystems. This work adopted Taiwan as a case study. In addition to two widely recognized ecosystem freshwater demands, evapotranspiration and reversed river flow, this study suggests that freshwater is a constituent of some abiotic components, such as groundwater in aquifers, because excessive withdrawal has already caused significant land subsidence in Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated results show that Taiwan's net imports of freshwater through trade amounts to approximately 25% of its total freshwater use for economic production. Integrating industrial policy, trade policy, and national freshwater management is a useful approach for developing strategies to limit the growing use of freshwater in Taiwan. Policy implications are then developed by further analyzing withdrawal sources of freshwater (domestic and foreign) for supporting economic production in Taiwan and identifying the factors (domestic final demand and export) driving freshwater-intensive products. PMID:17899249

  12. Freshwater Commercial Bycatch: an Understated Conservation Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Graham D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-04-01

    Commercial fisheries bycatch in marine systems has been regarded as a global conservation concern by environmental groups, scientists, government, and the public for decades. Fortunately, some headway has been made to mitigate the negative impacts of bycatch in marine environments. In a survey of the literature, we found that despite freshwater commercial fisheries yields comprising 11% of the global commercial catch, bycatch research focusing on freshwater commercial fisheries represented only {approx}3% of the total bycatch literature. This paucity of research is particularly alarming given that freshwater animals and habitats are some of the world's most imperiled. The limited inland bycatch literature that does exist includes examples of population declines attributed to commercial bycatch (e.g., freshwater dolphins in the Yangtze River in China) and illustrates that in some systems bycatch can be substantial (e.g., lake trout bycatch in the Laurentian Great Lakes). Encouraging results from the marine realm can serve as models for bycatch research in freshwater, and lead to measurable gains in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We summarize existing work on inland bycatch in an effort to draw attention to this understated and understudied conservation problem.

  13. Structural basis for the selective nuclear import of the C2H2 zinc-finger protein Snail by importin ?.

    PubMed

    Choi, Saehae; Yamashita, Eiki; Yasuhara, Noriko; Song, Jinsue; Son, Se-Young; Won, Young Han; Hong, Hye Rim; Shin, Yoon Sik; Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Park, Il Yeong; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Lee, Soo Jae

    2014-04-01

    Snail contributes to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing E-cadherin in transcription processes. The Snail C2H2-type zinc-finger (ZF) domain functions both as a nuclear localization signal which binds to importin ? directly and as a DNA-binding domain. Here, a 2.5? resolution structure of four ZF domains of Snail1 complexed with importin ? is presented. The X-ray structure reveals that the four ZFs of Snail1 are required for tight binding to importin ? in the nuclear import of Snail1. The shape of the ZFs in the X-ray structure is reminiscent of a round snail, where ZF1 represents the head, ZF2-ZF4 the shell, showing a novel interaction mode, and the five C-terminal residues the tail. Although there are many kinds of C2H2-type ZFs which have the same fold as Snail, nuclear import by direct recognition of importin ? is observed in a limited number of C2H2-type ZF proteins such as Snail, Wt1, KLF1 and KLF8, which have the common feature of terminating in ZF domains with a short tail of amino acids. PMID:24699649

  14. Survival of the faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata after chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water bath treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bithynia tentaculata, the faucet snail, is a non indigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia that was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871. The snail’s distribution in the United States has expanded to the mid-Atlantic states and the drainage basin of the Great Lakes and most recently to the Mississippi...

  15. Evolution of the Freshwater Eels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    The freshwater anguillid eels have an unusual life history and world-wide distribution. Questions about the phylogenetic relationships of this group and how their long spawning migrations and larval phase may contribute to their global distribution have not been addressed. This paper is first presentation of molecular phylogeny of Anguilla species, and based on this phylogenetic tree we suggest new aspect of the evolution of this group. Namely, ancestral eels originated during the Eocene or earlier, in the western Pacific Ocean near present-day Indonesia. A group derived from this ancestor dispersed westward, probably by larval transport in the global circum-equatorial current through the northern edge of the Tethys Sea. This group split into the ancestor of the European and American eels, which entered into the Atlantic Ocean, and a second group, which dispersed southward and split into the east African species and Australian species. Thus the world-wide distribution of the eel family can be understood from knowledge of continental drift, ocean currents, a specialized larva and evolutionary forces favoring dispersal and speciation of segregated gene pool.

  16. Commissioned Review. Carbon: freshwater plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Sandquist, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    δ13C values for freshwater aquatic plant matter varies from −11 to −50‰ and is not a clear indicator of photosynthetic pathway as in terrestrial plants. Several factors affect δ13C of aquatic plant matter. These include: (1) The δ13C signature of the source carbon has been observed to range from +1‰ for HCO3− derived from limestone to −30‰ for CO2 derived from respiration. (2) Some plants assimilate HCO3−, which is –7 to –11‰ less negative than CO2. (3) C3, C4, and CAM photosynthetic pathways are present in aquatic plants. (4) Diffusional resistances are orders of magnitude greater in the aquatic environment than in the aerial environment. The greater viscosity of water acts to reduce mixing of the carbon pool in the boundary layer with that of the bulk solution. In effect, many aquatic plants draw from a finite carbon pool, and as in terrestrial plants growing in a closed system, biochemical discrimination is reduced. In standing water, this factor results in most aquatic plants having a δ13C value similar to the source carbon. Using Farquhar's equation and other physiological data, it is possible to use δ13C values to evaluate various parameters affecting photosynthesis, such as limitations imposed by CO2 diffusion and carbon source.

  17. [Factors that can affect the breeding and maintenance of infected snails and the production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae].

    PubMed

    De Souza, C P; Arajo, N; Jannotti, L K; Gazzinelli, G

    1987-01-01

    Mass production of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae was affected by biological and chemical agents. Rotifers and ostracods, snail predators, were identified in our colony. Rotifers were easily eradicated by washing the aquaria and lettuce with diluted solution of acetic acid. On the other hand, ostracods were difficult to eradicate and led to a high level mortality of infected snails (50-60%). Snails maintained in an incubator at constant temperature and total darkness produced maximum shedding when submitted to brightness and high temperature (about 30 degrees C). The number of cercariae shed was practically the same between pH 5-7. Contaminants such as Cu and Pb added to glass distilled water decreased the cercariae production. In conclusion, laboratory maintenance of large number of infected snails for mass production of cercariae is much simpler and more efficient than the conventional technique with running tap water although a high rate of mortality is observed in the snail colony. PMID:3507569

  18. The environmental effects of trace elements concentration in sea snails using atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Amri, F. A.

    2003-05-01

    Water pollution bas increased in heavy industrialised areas. Most industrial water wastes end up in the sea. Monitoring the elemental composition in marine organisms, such as snails, provides the essential elements in living organisms and through the food chain to man. 50 samples of each of two kinds of snails have been collected from the west coast of Libya. Samples were digeste with nitric acid and the concentration of Copper, Iron, Magnesium and Zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results shows that Mg has the highest value while the Copper has the lowest in both kind of snaiis. A pattern of the trace elements concentration was investigated regarding the size and kind of snails.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the reproductive system of the pond snail Physa acuta

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, S.; Egami, N.

    1984-05-01

    Changes in the survival rate in adults and embryos of the pond snail Physa acuta were studied after acute whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation. The LD/sub 50/ value of the adult snails was about 40 kR. The LD/sub 50/ values of the embryos irradiated 0 and 1 day after oviposition were about 0.9 and 2 kR, respectively. Histological changes in the ovotestis, the number of eggs laid, and their hatchability were examined in the irradiated adult snails. A fall and a subsequent recovery were observed for these characteristics after irradiation with 8 kR of ..gamma.. rays. The relative constitution of the germ-cell populations was greatly changed by the same dose of ..gamma.. rays. After depletion, the ovotestis was first repopulated with gonia, and then with oocytes, spermatocytes, and spermatids.

  20. Large-scale facilitation of a sessile community by an invasive habitat-forming snail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Wernberg, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    We provide an example of extensive facilitation of a sessile community throughout an invaded estuary by the invasive snail Batillaria australis. We show that B. australis greatly increases a limiting resource (attachment space) to a community of sessile organisms and estimate that a large part of the invaded estuary now contain ca. 50 times more sessile individuals associated with the invader than all native snails combined. We argue that native snails are unlikely to have been dramatically reduced by the invader, and we therefore suggest that the shell-attached sessile community, as a functional group, has benefitted significantly from this invasion. These results expand the current understanding of how invaded marine systems respond to habitat-forming invaders.

  1. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul

    2011-03-01

    In this second of a two-part series analyzing the evidence for the use of organisms as medicine, the use of a number of different "bugs" (worms, leeches, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders) is detailed. Several live organisms are used as treatments: leeches for plastic surgery and osteoarthritis and the helminths Trichuris suis and Necator americanus for inflammatory bowel disease. Leech saliva is the source of a number of anticoagulants, including the antithrombin agent hirudin and its synthetic analogues, which have been approved for human use. Predatory arthropods, such as certain species of snails, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and ticks provide a trove of potential analgesic peptides in their venom. A synthetic analogue of a snail venom peptide, ziconotide, has been approved for human use and is used as an alternative to opioids in severe pain cases. Arthropods, such as ticks, have venom that contains anticoagulants and centipede venom has a protein that corrects abnormalities in lipid metabolism. PMID:21438646

  2. Lipids in the broodsac of Leucochloridium variae (Digenea, Leucochloridiidae) and its snail host Succinea ovalis.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Beers, K; Lewis, P D

    1993-02-01

    Thin-layer chromatographic analysis was used to examine lipophilic pigments and neutral lipids in the broodsac of Leucochloridium variae and in the tissues of its snail host, Succinea ovalis. Beta-carotene and lutein were not detected in either the parasite or the host on a C-18 reversed phase layer developed in a solvent system of petroleum ether-acetonitrile-methanol (2:4:4). This chromatographic system was able to detect 10 ng of a beta-carotene standard and 100 ng of a lutein standard. The Mangold solvent system on a silica gel plate showed the presence of triacylglycerols, free sterols, and sterol esters as the major neutral lipids in both snail and parasite tissues. As seen in a previous sporocyst-snail relationship, the qualitative neutral lipid profiles of both host and parasite are similar. PMID:8468128

  3. Biochemical studies on the terrestrial snail, Eubania vermiculata (Mller) treated with some pesticides.

    PubMed

    el-Wakil, H B; Radwan, M A

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effects of methomyl, thiodicarb and metaldehyde on total soluble proteins, total lipids and glycogen content, in addition, the activity of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, (GOT), (GPT) glutamic pyruvic transaminase and catalase (CAT) enzymes of terrestrial E. vermiculata snails was studied. The experimental snails were treated with low concentration of 0.2% brain bait w/w of the pesticides for a period of 1,3,5,7 and 10 days. The results showed that methomyl and thiodicarb lead to significant reduction in total soluble proteins, lipids, and glycogen content, while significant increases in the activity of all enzymes tested were noted. Metaldehyde treatment showed no significant effect on total soluble proteins, lipids and GOT level, whereas a significant increase in GPT and CAT enzymes was observed. Also, metaldehyde resulted a significant reduction in glycogen content of snails. PMID:1779124

  4. The molecular phylogeny of freshwater Dothideomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, C.A.; Raja, H.A.; Miller, A.N.; Nelson, P.; Tanaka, K.; Hirayama, K.; Marvanov, L.; Hyde, K.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The freshwater Dothideomycetes species are an ecological rather than taxonomic group and comprise approximately 178 meiosporic and mitosporic species. Due to convergent or parallel morphological adaptations to aquatic habitats, it is difficult to determine phylogenetic relationships among freshwater taxa and among freshwater, marine and terrestrial taxa based solely on morphology. We conducted molecular sequence-based phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal sequences (SSU and/or LSU) for 84 isolates of described and undescribed freshwater Dothideomycetes and 85 additional taxa representative of the major orders and families of Dothideomycetes. Results indicated that this ecological group is not monophyletic and all the freshwater taxa, except three aeroaquatic Tubeufiaceae, occur in Pleosporomycetidae as opposed to Dothideomycetidae. Four clades comprised of only freshwater taxa were recovered. The largest of these is the Jahnulales clade consisting of 13 species, two of which are the anamorphs Brachiosphaera tropicalis and Xylomyces chlamydosporus. The second most speciose clade is the Lindgomycetaceae clade consisting of nine taxa including the anamorph Taeniolella typhoides. The Lindgomycetaceae clade consists of taxa formerly described in Massarina, Lophiostoma, and Massariosphaeria e.g., Massarina ingoldiana, Lophiostoma breviappendiculatum, and Massariosphaeria typhicola and several newly described and undescribed taxa. The aquatic family Amniculicolaceae, including three species of Amniculicola, Semimassariosphaeria typhicola and the anamorph, Anguillospora longissima, was well supported. A fourth clade of freshwater species consisting of Tingoldiago graminicola, Lentithecium aquaticum, L. arundinaceum and undescribed taxon A-369-2b was not well supported with maximum likelihood bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability. Eight freshwater taxa occurred along with terrestrial species in the Lophiostoma clades 1 and 2. Two taxa lacking statistical support for their placement with any taxa included in this study are considered singletons within Pleosporomycetidae. These singletons, Ocala scalariformis, and Lepidopterella palustris, are morphologically distinct from other taxa in Pleosporomycetidae. This study suggests that freshwater Dothideomycetes are related to terrestrial taxa and have adapted to freshwater habitats numerous times. In some cases (Jahnulales and Lindgomycetaceae), species radiation appears to have occurred. Additional collections and molecular study are required to further clarify the phylogeny of this interesting ecological group. PMID:20169028

  5. The endocrine disrupter effect of atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    PubMed

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snail Biomphalaria alexandrina (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17?-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p ? 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p ? 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity. PMID:24215068

  6. Mucus trail tracking in a predatory snail: olfactory processing retooled to serve a novel sensory modality

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kinjal; Shaheen, Nagma; Witherspoon, Jessica; Robinson, Natallia; Harrington, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), a predatory land snail, finds prey snails and potential mates by following their mucus trails. Euglandina have evolved unique, mobile lip extensions that detect mucus and aid in following trails. Currently, little is known of the neural substrates of the trail-following behavior. Methods To investigate the neural correlates of trail following we used tract-tracing experiments in which nerves were backfilled with either nickel-lysine or Lucifer yellow, extracellular recording of spiking neurons in snail procerebra using a multielectrode array, and behavioral assays of trail following and movement toward the source of a conditioned odor. Results The tract-tracing experiments demonstrate that in Euglandina, the nerves carrying mucus signals innervate the same region of the central ganglia as the olfactory nerves, while the electrophysiology studies show that mucus stimulation of the sensory epithelium on the lip extensions alters the frequency and pattern of neural activity in the procerebrum in a manner similar to odor stimulation of the olfactory epithelium on the optic tentacles of another land snail species, Cantareus aspersa (previously known as Helix aspersa). While Euglandina learn to follow trails of novel chemicals that they contact with their lip extensions in one to three trials, these snails proved remarkably resistant to associative learning in the olfactory modality. Even after seven to nine pairings of odorant molecules with food, they showed no orientation toward the conditioned odor. This is in marked contrast to Cantareus snails, which reliably oriented toward conditioned odors after two to three trials. Conclusions The apparent inability of Euglandina to learn to associate food with odors and use odor cues to drive behavior suggests that the capability for sophisticated neural processing of nonvolatile mucus cues detected by the lip extensions has evolved at the expense of processing of odorant molecules detected by the olfactory system. PMID:24653958

  7. Electrophoretic studies on the digestive gland esterases of some biomphalarid and lymnaeid snails

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Emile A.; File, Sharon K.

    1971-01-01

    Because of the problems encountered in the classification of snails of medical importance, biochemical methods have been sought to help clarify the situation. Of these, the separation of the enzymes of adult snails by electrophoresis seems the most promising but very few attempts have been made so far to use the results for taxonomic studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of the enzyme systems of neotropical planorbid and of lymnaeid snails to elucidate their taxonomy and also snail—schistosome relationships at the species and population levels. The findings show the characteristic electrophoretic patterns of digestive gland esterases of the planorbid and lymnaeid snails used, as well as their variation and the level of such variation among certain populations and the consistency of the patterns among others. The results also show that, in general, the extent of variation between some populations of the same species is greater than the differences between species of the same group. However, at the specific level, there are similarities suggesting close relationships between some populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila on the one hand, and of certain populations of B. peregrina and of B. obstructa on the other hand. The present study has thrown some light on the question of electrophoretic variation in enzymes, and the ways in which this can be applied to studies of the genetics of snails. A correlation is suggested between certain patterns that indicate biochemical similarities or differences among the planorbid snail populations and the susceptibility of the species or the population to infection with the schistosomes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 2 PMID:5317015

  8. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  9. Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Casper H A; van der Velde, Gerard; van Lith, Bart; Klaassen, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory) in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia) ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought. PMID:22403642

  10. Experimental Quantification of Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Aquatic Snails in the Gut of Migratory Birds

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.; van der Velde, Gerard; van Lith, Bart; Klaassen, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory) in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia) ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought. PMID:22403642

  11. Differential Spatial Repositioning of Activated Genes in Biomphalaria glabrata Snails Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M.; Knight, Matty

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their nuclear location and becoming up-regulated. This also happens in vivo in live intact snails, where early exposure to miracidia also elicits non-random repositioning of genes. We reveal differences in the nuclear repositioning between the response of parasite susceptible snails as compared to resistant snails and with normal or live, attenuated parasites. Interestingly, the stress response gene heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is only repositioned and then up-regulated in susceptible snails with the normal parasite. This movement and change in gene expression seems to be controlled by the parasite. Other differences in the behaviour of genes support the view that some genes are responding to tissue damage, for example the ferritin genes move and are up-regulated whether the snails are either susceptible or resistant and upon exposure to either normal or attenuated parasite. This is the first time host genome reorganisation has been seen in a parasitic host and only the second time for any pathogen. We believe that the parasite elicits a spatio-epigenetic reorganisation of the host genome to induce favourable gene expression for itself and this might represent a fundamental mechanism present in the human host infected with schistosome cercariae as well as in other host-pathogen relationships. PMID:25211244

  12. Ghrelin promotes renal cell carcinoma metastasis via Snail activation and is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Liu, Yu-Peng; Chan, Yung-Chieh; Su, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Yang, Chung-Shi; Hsiao, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-regulating molecule that promotes growth hormone (GH) release and food intake through growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Recently, high ghrelin levels have been detected in various types of human cancer. Ghrelin expression is observed in proximal and distal renal tubules, where renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arises. However, whether ghrelin is up-regulated and promotes renal cell carcinogenesis remains obscure. In this study, we observed that ghrelin was highly expressed in renal tumours, especially in metastatic RCC. In addition, high ghrelin levels correlated with poor outcome, lymph node and distant metastasis. The addition of ghrelin promoted the migration ability of RCC cell lines 786-0, ACHN and A-498. Furthermore, knockdown of ghrelin expression reduced in vitro migration and in vivo metastasis, suggesting a requirement for ghrelin accumulation in the microenvironment for RCC metastasis. Analysis of microarray signatures using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and MetaCore pointed to the potential regulation by ghrelin of Snail, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. We further observed that Ghrelin increased the expression, nuclear translocation and promoter-binding activity of Snail. Snail silencing blocked the ghrelin-mediated effects on E-cadherin repression and cell migration. Snail-E-cadherin regulation was mediated by GHS-R-triggered Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Pretreatment with PI3K inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, as well as Akt siRNA, decreased ghrelin-induced Akt phosphorylation, Snail promoter binding activity and migration. Taken together, our findings indicate that ghrelin can activate Snail function via the GHS-R-PI3K-Akt axis, which may contribute to RCC metastasis. The microarray raw data were retrieved from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) [KIRC gene expression (IlluminaHiSeq) dataset]. PMID:25925728

  13. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T A; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species"; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest "attack rates" a, shortest "handling times" h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  14. Using snails as bioindicators of heavy metal exposure at a Department of Defense facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, C.; Randolph, J.C.; Henshel, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    Mollusks are useful bioindicators of aquatic contamination. They are easy to identify and handle, are widely distributed, and are known to accumulate heavy metals. The authors evaluated the accumulation of heavy metals in snails at points both upstream and downstream from potential contaminant sources, indigenous snails (Elimia livescens) were collected from an upstream site and placed in plastic mesh cages in 6 sites in 3 watersheds on base, upstream and downstream of 3 potential contamination sources. At each site there were 3 cages containing 12 snails each. In a parallel laboratory study snails were placed in 6 jars in 3 different treatments. One treatment contained stream water taken from the same sites where the snails were collected. The other two treatments had the same stream water spiked with 2 different concentrations of metals. The higher concentration of metals reflected the level of each metal detected in surface water downstream of one of the potentially contaminated sites. The lower metal concentration jars were spiked with metals at 1/2 the concentrations used in the higher level treatment. The animals were left in the cages and the jars for 12 weeks. After being removed from the cages and jars the snails were freeze-dried, weighed whole, then dissected into shelf and organic tissue. Tissue and shell were separately analyzed for metal content. Water and sediment samples were collected in the beginning and end of the field study and also analyzed for heavy metals. The heavy metal analysis was done on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fe, Mn, Pb and Ni have been analyzed. Initial results show that there are differences in the concentrations of the metals in the three watersheds. Also, there is a higher concentration of Fe and Mn in tissue compared to shell, and higher concentration of Pb in shell compared to tissue.

  15. Differential spatial repositioning of activated genes in Biomphalaria glabrata snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M; Knight, Matty

    2014-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their nuclear location and becoming up-regulated. This also happens in vivo in live intact snails, where early exposure to miracidia also elicits non-random repositioning of genes. We reveal differences in the nuclear repositioning between the response of parasite susceptible snails as compared to resistant snails and with normal or live, attenuated parasites. Interestingly, the stress response gene heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is only repositioned and then up-regulated in susceptible snails with the normal parasite. This movement and change in gene expression seems to be controlled by the parasite. Other differences in the behaviour of genes support the view that some genes are responding to tissue damage, for example the ferritin genes move and are up-regulated whether the snails are either susceptible or resistant and upon exposure to either normal or attenuated parasite. This is the first time host genome reorganisation has been seen in a parasitic host and only the second time for any pathogen. We believe that the parasite elicits a spatio-epigenetic reorganisation of the host genome to induce favourable gene expression for itself and this might represent a fundamental mechanism present in the human host infected with schistosome cercariae as well as in other host-pathogen relationships. PMID:25211244

  16. Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, J; Feldmann, G; Slater, E P; Langer, P; Buchholz, M; Ramaswamy, A; Saeger, W; Rothmund, M; Fendrich, V

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate whether Snail is expressed in adrenocortical cancer (ACC) and if its expression is related to patient outcome. One of the best known functions of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail is to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Increasing evidence suggests that EMT plays a pivotal role in tumour progression and metastatic spread. Snail and E-cadherin expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 26 resected ACCs and real-time quantitative RTPCR expression analysis was performed. Data were correlated with clinical outcome and in particular with overall patient survival. Seventeen of 26 (65%) ACC tumour samples expressed Snail when assessed by immunohistochemistry. Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas. Expression levels were confirmed on the mRNA level by Real-TimePCR. Survival rates were significantly decreased in Snail-positive tumours compared to Snail-negative tumours: 10 out of 16 vs one out of eight patients succumbed to disease after a median follow up of 14.5 and 28.5 months, respectively (P=0.03). Patients with Snail-expressing ACCs presented in advanced disease (11 out of 12 vs 6 out of 14, P=0.01) and tend to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients with negative staining (7 out of 11 vs two out of eight, P=0.19). In conclusion, we describe for the first time that Snail is expressed in a large subset of ACCs. Furthermore, Snail expression is associated with decreased survival, advanced disease and higher risk of developing distant metastases. PMID:19018264

  17. Molecular-cellular mechanisms of learning of the common snail.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V P

    1994-01-01

    The development of sensitization and an associative habit of rejection of a specific type of food is accompanied by short-term and long-term changes in behavior, bioelectrical activity, and the dynamics of the content of Ca(b) in the command neurons of defense behavior of the common snail. In approximately an hour from the moment of the beginning of training, behavioral and neurophysiological effects which were similar on the whole were identified during the development of these habits. During the development of sensitization, the responses to test tactile stimulations and to applications of quinine and carrot juice appeared and/or were markedly intensified from 50 through 90 min from the moment of the first sensitizing stimulation. During the development of conditioning, responses to the tactile stimulations and quinine also appeared and/or intensified from 50-60 min, while responses to the conditional stimulus appeared and intensified approximately 30 min later (from 85-95 min). Phases of an initial marked increase, with a subsequent tendency to stabilization, in the level of Ca(b) were observed in the command neurons during a brief period in the development of sensitization; during conditioning a temporary decrease was identified in the content of Ca(b) in response to each combination of stimuli with its subsequent spontaneous decrease at 40-60 min. An increase in the level of Ca(b), beginning during the development of sensitization from 50-60 min, and during conditioning from 85-90 min from the moment of the beginning of training, was observed in the long-term period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7808640

  18. Paraphyly and budding speciation in the hairy snail (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruckenhauser, Luise; Duda, Michael; Bartel, Daniela; Sattmann, Helmut; Harl, Josef; Kirchner, Sandra; Haring, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Delimitation of species is often complicated by discordance of morphological and genetic data. This may be caused by the existence of cryptic or polymorphic species. The latter case is particularly true for certain snail species showing an exceptionally high intraspecific genetic diversity. The present investigation deals with the Trochulus hispidus complex, which has a complicated taxonomy. Our analyses of the COI sequence revealed that individuals showing a T. hispidus phenotype are distributed in nine highly differentiated mitochondrial clades (showing p-distances up to 19%). The results of a parallel morphometric investigation did not reveal any differentiation between these clades, although the overall variability is quite high. The phylogenetic analyses based on 12S, 16S and COI sequences show that the T. hispidus complex is paraphyletic with respect to several other morphologically well-defined Trochulus species (T. clandestinus, T. villosus, T. villosulus and T. striolatus) which form well-supported monophyletic groups. The nc marker sequence (5.8S–ITS2–28S) shows only a clear separation of T. o. oreinos and T. o. scheerpeltzi, and a weakly supported separation of T. clandestinus, whereas all other species and the clades of the T. hispidus complex appear within one homogeneous group. The paraphyly of the T. hispidus complex reflects its complicated history, which was probably driven by geographic isolation in different glacial refugia and budding speciation. At our present state of knowledge, it cannot be excluded that several cryptic species are embedded within the T. hispidus complex. However, the lack of morphological differentiation of the T. hispidus mitochondrial clades does not provide any hints in this direction. Thus, we currently do not recommend any taxonomic changes. The results of the current investigation exemplify the limitations of barcoding attempts in highly diverse species such as T. hispidus. PMID:25170185

  19. Snail control in urban sites in Brazil with slow-release hexabutyldistannoxane and pentachlorophenol*

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, J. V.; Da Silva, C. S. Monteiro; Bulhes, M. S.; Leme, L. A. Paes; Netto, J. A. Da Silva; Gilbert, B.

    1976-01-01

    Slow release formulations of hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were tested for the control of Biomphalaria tenagophila in 52 urban sites in Rio de Janeiro. TBTO acted faster and lasted longer than PCP and at 15 g/m2 it eliminated snails from 76% of the treated sites for 1 year. Water pollution and rate of flow had no significant influence on the molluscicidal properties of either compound, but alkalinity lowered the activity of TBTO. Failure to control snail populations was due mainly to human interference and to the non-treatment of adjacent breeding sites that were temporarily dry and therefore overlooked. PMID:1088356

  20. Aminothiophenedicarboxamides and dicyanothiopheneacetamides as effective synthetic molluscicides against Indoplanorbis exustus snail.

    PubMed

    Kanawade, Shrikant B; Toche, Raghunath B; Patil, Shivaraj P; Desai, Ashok E; Bhamare, Sapana S

    2011-09-01

    New thiophenedicarboxamide 2a-c and dicyanothiopheneacetamide 3a-c derivatives were synthesized and their bioactivity against Indoplanorbis exustus snails was evaluated. The I. exustus snail is a serious host of parasite of genus Schistosoma which infects cattle. Thus reduces livestock productivity and also acts as a source of cercarial dermatitis in human beings. The results obtained show a significant (P < 0.05) molluscicidal activity with LC(50) = 0.6043 ppm for compound 2a and LC(50) = 0.6511 ppm for compound 3a. PMID:21719164