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1

Turbulent friction in a boundary layer of compressible gas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main processes of turbulent momentum and heat transfer in the developed flow of a compressible gas are considered. Results are presented on the dependence of the relative friction coefficient on the temperature factor and on the Mach number. An analysis is made of the theoretical and experimental distributions of air velocity in the turbulent boundary layer on a cylinder. Calculations using the proposed turbulent-viscosity model agree well with experimental data.

Dobrocheev, O. V.; Motulevich, V. P.

1987-10-01

2

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before

Kudrolli, Arshad

3

Effect of boundary vibration on the frictional behavior of a dense sheared granular layer

We report results of 3D Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations aiming at investigating the role of the boundary vibration in inducing frictional weakening in sheared granular layers. We study the role of different vibration amplitudes applied at various shear stress levels, for a granular layer in the stick-slip regime and in the steady-sliding regime. Results are reported in terms of friction drops and kinetic energy release associated with frictional weakening events. We find that larger vibration amplitude induces larger frictional weakening events. The results show evidence of a threshold below which no induced frictional weakening takes place. Friction drop size is found to be dependent on the shear stress at the time of vibration. A significant increase in the ratio between the number of slipping contacts to the number of sticking contacts in the granular layer is observed for large vibration amplitudes. These vibration-induced contact rearrangements enhance particle mobilization and induces a friction drop and kinetic energy release. This observation provides some insight into the grain-scale mechanisms of frictional weakening by boundary vibration in a dense sheared granular layer. In addition to characterizing the basic physics of vibration induced shear weakening, we are attempting to understand how a fault fails in the earth under seismic wave forcing. This is the well know phenomenon of dynamic earthquake triggering. We believe that the granular physics are key to this understanding.

B. Ferdowsi; M. Griffa; R. A. Guyer; P. A. Johnson; J. Carmeliet

2014-01-24

4

Measuring skin friction with Preston tubes in boundary-layer flows with additional parameters

For determining local skin friction forces near a wall, a surface pitot technique based on the Preston tube method is presented which allows the experimental determination of wall shear stress in boundary layers even when additional parameters are introduced such as an adverse pressure gradient, wall roughness, and heat transfer. The technique is based on the mathematical treatment of stagnation

W. Nitsche

1981-01-01

5

Skin friction measurements with Preston tubes in boundary layers with additional parameters

A measurement-technique based on the Preston tube method of determining local skin friction by wall pitot tubes is presented, which allows the measurement of wall shear stresses in boundary layers affected by additional parameters such as adverse pressure gradient, wall roughness and heat transfer. The method is based on a mathematical treatment of the dynamic pressure field ahead of the

W. Nitsche

1980-01-01

6

Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.

Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2012-01-01

7

Friction law and turbulent properties in a laboratory Ekman boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use spin-up/spin-down laboratory experiments to study the neutrally stratified Ekman boundary layer. The experiments are performed in the 13 m diameter, 1 m deep Coriolis rotating tank of the LEGI in Grenoble, France. A global flow rotation is produced by an initial change in the tank rotation speed. It then slowly decays under the effect of Ekman friction, evolving from the turbulent state to the laminar state. It is checked that the Ekman layer itself remains in a quasi-steady state during this decay. The velocity is measured by Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) at two scales: the global rotation in a horizontal plane, and the vertical profile inside the boundary layer, where the three velocity components are obtained by stereoscopic PIV. The friction law is obtained by relating the decay rate of the bulk velocity to the velocity itself. This method is justified by the fact that this bulk velocity is independent of height beyond the top of the boundary layer (a few cm), as expected from the Taylor-Proudman theorem for rotating fluids. The local measurements inside the boundary layer provide profiles of the mean velocity and Reynolds stress components, in particular the cross-isobar angle between the interior and near surface velocities. In the laminar regime, good agreement is obtained with the classical Ekman's theory, which validates the method. In the turbulent regime, the results are found consistent with the classical Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) model based on the von Karman logarithmic layer. Our experiments therefore indicate that this theory, in principle valid for very large Reynolds numbers, is already relevant close to the transitional regimes. A fit of the empirical coefficients A and B appearing in this theory yields A = 3.3 and B = 3.0. Extrapolating the results to the atmospheric case gives a friction velocity u* about 12% higher than the traditional fit for the ABL. We may safely deduce that for the oceanic bottom boundary layer, corresponding to lower Reynolds numbers than the atmosphere, our result provides a correct estimate within 10%. The previous laboratory results of Caldwell et al. ["A laboratory study of the turbulent Ekman layer," Geophys. Fluid Dyn. 3, 125-160 (1972), 10.1080/03091927208236078] provided frictions velocities about 20% higher than in our experiments, and slightly higher cross-isobar angles. We attribute this difference to the higher vortical Rossby number Rot in those experiments, and maybe also to roughness effects. We take into account the effect of this vortical Rossby number within the framework of the Ekman layer (Rot ? 0) by replacing the tank rotation rate by the fluid rotation rate.

Sous, D.; Sommeria, J.; Boyer, D.

2013-04-01

8

Measuring skin friction with Preston tubes in boundary-layer flows with additional parameters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For determining local skin friction forces near a wall, a surface pitot technique based on the Preston tube method is presented which allows the experimental determination of wall shear stress in boundary layers even when additional parameters are introduced such as an adverse pressure gradient, wall roughness, and heat transfer. The technique is based on the mathematical treatment of stagnation pressure at the Preston tube and allows the computation of calibration curves and the determination of skin friction by means of iteration from known wall laws taking into account the appropriate boundary layer similarity parameters. The technique was experimentally checked in a rough pipe, an intensively heated or cooled flat plate, and with a flat plate erected with adverse pressure gradient.

Nitsche, W.

1981-05-01

9

A probe for measuring skin friction in disturbed turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to alleviate difficulties encountered in obtaining accurate measurement and detailed surveys of skin friction in turbulent boundary layers, a new probe has been developed, similar to a Stanton tube in design. The probe incorporates a hinge system that allows it to be lifted and replaced repeatedly at different locations for flat plate surveys. Tests were performed to measure probe sensitivity to length of delay and sampling times, angular displacement, surface roughness and leading edge geometry, to provide guidelines for assuring maximum possible accuracy and repeatability. The probe was calibrated against a Preston tube in an undisturbed turbulent boundary layer and performed successfully in streamwise skin friction surveys downstream of drag reduction ribbons.

Fulcher, Karen L.; Haritonidis, Joseph H.

1992-01-01

10

Skin friction measurements with Preston tubes in boundary layers with additional parameters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement-technique based on the Preston tube method of determining local skin friction by wall pitot tubes is presented, which allows the measurement of wall shear stresses in boundary layers affected by additional parameters such as adverse pressure gradient, wall roughness and heat transfer. The method is based on a mathematical treatment of the dynamic pressure field ahead of the Preston tube. By using the well known laws of the wall it is possible to calculate the Preston tube calibration curves as well as to determine the local shear stresses iteratively with respect to similarity parameters of the boundary layer. The method is tested in a rough-walled pipe, on a strongly heated or cooled flat plate and a flat plate with adverse pressure gradient.

Nitsche, W.

1980-06-01

11

A skin friction model for axisymmetric turbulent boundary layers along long thin circular cylinders

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only a few engineering design models are presently available that adequately depict the axisymmetric skin friction (Cf) maturity along long thin turbulent cylinders. This deficit rests essentially on the experimental and numerical difficulties of measuring (or computing) the spatial evolution of the thin cylinder turbulence. Consequently, the present axisymmetric Cf models have questionable accuracy. Herein, we attempt to formulate a more robust Cf model that owns acceptable error. The formulation is founded on triple integration of the governing equation system that represents a thin cylinder turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at statistical steady-state in appropriate dimensionless units. The final model requires only the radius-based Reynolds number (Rea) and transverse curvature (?/a) as input parameters. We tuned the accompanying coefficients empirically via an expanded statistical database (over 60 data points) that house new Cf values from large-eddy simulations (LES). The LES computations employed a turbulence inflow generation procedure that permits spatial resolution of the TBL at low-high Reynolds numbers and transverse curvatures. Compared to the new skin friction database, the Cf model revealed averaged predictive errors under 5% with a 3.5% standard deviation. Apart from owning higher values than the flat plate TBL, the most distinguishing characteristic of the axisymmetric skin friction is its rising levels when the boundary layer thickness exceeds the cylinder radius. All Cf levels diminish with increasing Reynolds number. These unique features differentiate the axisymmetric TBL along thin cylinders as a separate canonical flow when compared to the turbulent wall shear-layers of channels, pipes, and planar-type geometries.

Jordan, Stephen A.

2013-07-01

12

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossing-shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 deg at Mach 3 and 15 deg at Mach 3.85. The measurements were made using a laser interferometer skin-friction meter, a device that determines the wall shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin-friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction center line. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k-epsilon model, are compared with the experimental results for the Mach 3.85, 15-deg interaction case. Although the k-epsilon model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin-friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near-surface flow in this complex interaction.

Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.; Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.

1994-06-01

13

We investigate the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before it increases and saturates to a value which depends on the roughness of the sliding surface. We use an index-matched interstitial liquid to probe the internal motion of the grains with fluorescence imaging in a regime where the liquid has no significant effect on the measured friction. The shear profiles obtained as a function of depth show decrease in slip near the sliding surface as the layer thickness is increased. We propose that the friction depends on the degree of grain confinement relative to the sliding surfaces.

Saloome Siavoshi; Ashish V. Orpe; Arshad Kudrolli

2005-12-22

14

A calibration is deduced for the measurement of skin friction by means of a small circular pitot tube attached to a surface. The analysis is primarily concerned with laminar boundary layer but limits are suggested for which the calibration is expected to be approximately valid for both laminar and turbulent flows.

D. I. A. Poll

1983-01-01

15

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calibration is deduced for the measurement of skin friction by means of a small circular pitot tube attached to a surface. The analysis is primarily concerned with laminar boundary layer but limits are suggested for which the calibration is expected to be approximately valid for both laminar and turbulent flows.

Poll, D. I. A.

1983-03-01

16

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure based on the method of similar solutions is presented by which the skin friction, heat transfer, and boundary-layer thickness in a laminar hypersonic flow with pressure gradient may be rapidly evaluated if the pressure distribution is known. This solution, which at present is. restricted to power-law variations of pressure with surface distance, is presented for a wide range of exponents in the power law corresponding to both favorable and adverse pressure gradients. This theory has been compared to results from heat-transfer experiments on blunt-nose flat plates and a hemisphere cylinder at free-stream Mach numbers of 4 and 6.8. The flat-plate experiments included tests made at a Mach number of 6.8 over a range of angle of attack of +/- 10 deg. Reasonable agreement of the experimental and theoretical heat-transfer coefficients has been obtained as well as good correlation of the experimental results over the entire range of angle of attack studied. A similar comparison of theory with experiment was not feasible for boundary-layer-thickness data; however, the hypersonic similarity theory was found to account satisfactorily for the variation in boundary-layer thickness due to local pressure distribution for several sets of measurements.

Bertram, Mitchel H.; Feller, William V.

1959-01-01

17

The authors present results of an experimental investigation of the correlations and readings of a Pitot tube in measuring velocity in a turbulent boundary layer. A new calibration relation is proposed for measuring surface friction.

E. U. Repik; V. K. Kuzenkov; N. P. Mikhailova

1985-01-01

18

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present results of an experimental investigation of the correlations and readings of a Pitot tube in measuring velocity in a turbulent boundary layer. A new calibration relation is proposed for measuring surface friction.

Repik, E. U.; Kuzenkov, V. K.; Mikhailova, N. P.

1985-06-01

19

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-flight measurements of boundary layer and skin friction data were made on YF-12 airplanes for Mach numbers between 2.0 and 3.0. Boattail pressures were also obtained for Mach numbers between 0.7 and 3.0 with Reynolds numbers up to four hundred million. Boundary layer data measured along the lower fuselage centerline indicate local displacement and momentum thicknesses can be much larger than predicted. Skin friction coefficients measured at two of five lower fuselage stations were significantly less than predicted by flat plate theory. The presence of large differences between measured boattail pressure drag and values calculated by a potential flow solution indicates the presence of vortex effects on the upper boattail surface. At both subsonic and supersonic speeds, pressure drag on the longer of two boattail configurations was equal to or less than the pressure drag on the shorter configuration. At subsonic and transonic speeds, the difference in the drag coefficient was on the order of 0.0008 to 0.0010. In the supersonic cruise range, the difference in the drag coefficient was on the order of 0.002. Boattail drag coefficients are based on wing reference area.

Fisher, D. F.

1978-01-01

20

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossingshock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symmetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 degrees at Mach 3 and 15 degrees at Mach 4. The measurements were made using a Laser Interferometer Skin Friction (LISF) meter; a device which determines the wail shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction centerline. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k- model, are compared to the experimental results for the Mach 4, 15 degree interaction case. While the k- model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near surface flow in this complex interaction.

Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.

1993-01-01

21

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossingshock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symmetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 degrees at Mach 3 and 15 degrees at Mach 4. The measurements were made using a Laser Interferometer Skin Friction (LISF) meter; a device which determines the wail shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction centerline. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k-~ model, are compared to the experimental results for the Mach 4, 15 degree interaction case. While the k-~ model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near surface flow in this complex interaction.

Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.

1993-07-01

22

Skin-friction coefficient of turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth-wall with transverse square grooves was investigated. Four grooved-wall cases were investigated. The four grooved-wall configurations are single 5mm square grooved-wall, and 5mm square grooves spaced 10, 20 and 40 element widths apart in the streamwise direction. Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) was used for the mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements. The

R. Wahidi; W. Chakroun; S. Al-Fahed

2005-01-01

23

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skin temperatures, shearing forces, surface static pressures, and boundary layer pitot pressures and total temperatures were measured on a hollow cylinder 3.04 meters long and 0.437 meter in diameter mounted beneath the fuselage of the YF-12A airplane. The data were obtained at a nominal free stream Mach number of 3.0 and at wall-to-recovery temperature ratios of 0.66 to 0.91. The free stream Reynolds number had a minimal value of 4.2 million per meter. Heat transfer coefficients and skin friction coefficients were derived from skin temperature time histories and shear force measurements, respectively. Boundary layer velocity profiles were derived from pitot pressure measurements, and a Reynolds analogy factor of 1.11 was obtained from the measured heat transfer and skin friction data. The skin friction coefficients predicted by the theory of van Driest were in excellent agreement with the measurements. Theoretical heat transfer coefficients, in the form of Stanton numbers calculated by using a modified Reynolds analogy between skin friction and heat transfer, were compared with measured values. The measured velocity profiles were compared to Coles' incompressible law-of-the-wall profile.

Quinn, R. D.; Gong, L.

1978-01-01

24

Skin-friction coefficient of turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth-wall with transverse square grooves was investigated. Four grooved-wall cases were investigated. The four grooved-wall configurations are single 5mm square grooved-wall, and 5mm square grooves spaced 10, 20 and 40 element widths apart in the streamwise direction. Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) was used for the mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements. The skin-friction coefficient determined from the velocity profile increases sharply just downstream of the groove. This overshoot is followed by an undershoot and then relaxation back to the smooth-wall value. This behavior is observed in most grooved-wall cases. Integrating the skin-friction coefficient in the streamwise direction indicates that there is an increase in the overall drag in all the grooved-wall cases.

Wahidi, R.; Chakroun, W.; Al-Fahed, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat (Kuwait)

2005-11-01

25

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.

Barr, P. K.

1980-01-01

26

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present dynamic solutions for the seismogenic layer of the India-Eurasia collision zone. We exploit a forward dynamic modeling approach, where body force distributions, inferred lateral variations in linear effective viscosity, and known far-field velocity boundary conditions are defined. Body forces are the differences in gravity potential energy per unit area (GPE), which are calculated as the depth integral of vertical stress from the surface down to a common depth reference (20 km below sea level). In our models of the seismogenic layer, depth-integrated viscosities are proportional to the assumed long-term friction on faults and inversely proportional to the long-term strain rates. Lateral variations in linear effective viscosity of the modeled layer span over 5 orders of magnitude. The velocity boundary conditions are defined using long-term plate motion estimates. Self-consistent dynamic strain rate tensor solutions to the force-balance equations were solved and tested for best-fit match with kinematic strain rate and velocity fields of central and east Asia defined by a large set of Quaternary fault observations. We investigate models using a range of long-term fault friction coefficients from 0.02 - 1.0 under hydrostatic pore pressure conditions. Assessment of fitness of the dynamic solutions to deformation indicators is evaluated using four measures. The forward dynamic strain rate tensor styles are scored by misfit to the kinematic strain rate tensor styles inferred from Kostrov summation of Quaternary fault observations. The ratio of dynamic strain rates to kinematic model strain rates are compared. Dynamic model velocity fields are scored via reduced chi-square misfit with the long-term kinematic model velocity field defined by Quaternary fault observations. Dynamic model velocity fields are scored via reduced chi-square misfit with GPS velocity observations. Preliminary results indicate that models defined with low fault friction (0.05 < ? < 0.40) achieve a better fit to Quaternary deformation indicators than models with models with high fault friction coefficients. Such models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within the Tibetan Plateau. Conversely, deviatoric stresses associated with boundary conditions dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies within Tarim Basin and the Tien Shan.

Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.

2009-12-01

27

The atmospheric boundary layer

In this book, the author successfully reviews the current state of affairs in boundary-layer meteorology research. The book is organized into nine chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to the topic of the atmospheric boundary layer. The second chapter is a survey of turbulence theory. The third chapter reviews the similarity relationships that have been formulated for the various scaling regimes in the boundary layer. Chapter 4 deals with the deviations of the homogeneous boundary layer. In chapter 5 the boundary conditions for the atmospheric boundary layers are considered, that is, the energy fluxes at the earth's surface. In chapter 6 the characteristics and dynamics are discussed for the various prototypes of the atmospheric boundary layer, such as the convective and the stable boundary layer. Boundary-layer clouds are the subject of chapter 7. The final chapters, 8 and 9, discuss the use of boundary-layer meteorology in formulating parameterization schemes. In the preface of the book, the author states that his goal is to provide a book for researchers in atmospheric and associated sciences. The book will be an asset to any scientist active in boundary-layer meteorology or a related field.

Garratt, J.R.

1992-01-01

28

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rheological model and a thermodynamic model are proposed for describing the melting of an ultrathin lubricant film between atomically flat solid surfaces. Hysteresis phenomena are considered, allowing for the stress and strain dependence of the lubricant shear modulus. The self-similar regime of lubricant melting is studied taking the additive noncorrelated noise of basic parameters into account. The regions of dry, sliding, and stick-slip friction are determined in the phase diagram. Shear stress time series are obtained by numerically analyzing the Langevin equation and are then subjected to multifractal fluctuation analysis. The dependence of the stationary friction force on the lubricant temperature and on the shear velocity of rubbing surfaces is investigated.

Khomenko, Alexei V.; Lyashenko, I. A.

2012-10-01

29

The atmospheric boundary layer

In this book, the author successfully reviews the current state of affairs in boundary-layer meteorology research. The book is organized into nine chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to the topic of the atmospheric boundary layer. The second chapter is a survey of turbulence theory. The third chapter reviews the similarity relationships that have been formulated for the various

J. R. Garratt

1992-01-01

30

Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.

Reichardt, H.

1943-01-01

31

Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.

Cheskidov, Alexey

32

Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction

Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

Blau, P.J.

1993-01-01

33

Investigation of lubricants under boundary friction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous observations of such lubrication processes within range of boundary friction on journal bearings and gear tooth profiles have strengthened the supposition that it should be possible to study the attendant phenomena with engineering methods and equipment. These considerations formed the basis of the present studies, which have led to the discovery of relations governing the suitability of bearing surfaces and the concept of "lubricating quality."

Heidebroek, E; Pietsch, E

1942-01-01

34

Boundary layer simulator improvement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.

Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.

1989-01-01

35

Boundary layer simulator improvement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick boundary layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.

Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.

1984-01-01

36

Boundary layer stability calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper numerical calculation of the spatial stability of disturbances in the parallel and nonparallel Blasius boundary layers is considered. Chebyshev polynomials are used for discretization. The problem with the boundary condition at infinity is overcome, and the resulting nonlinear matrix eigenvalue problem is attacked directly. The secondary eigenvalue problem for three-dimensional disturbances is shown to be uniformly stable, and particular solutions of this problem generated by the Orr-Sommerfeld equation are shown. A numerical solution of the nonparallel problem is considered using Chebyshev polynomials. The matrix equations are analyzed directly and the problem of uniqueness of the nonparallel correction is settled by careful application of the Fredholm alternative. Nonparallel corrections to the streamwise eigenfunction are shown.

Bridges, Thomas J.; Morris, Philip J.

1987-01-01

37

Boundary layer transition studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-01-01

38

Boundary layer transition studies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-02-01

39

Boundary layer manipulators at high Reynolds numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airfoil large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices were tested on an axisymmetric body in the Langley Two Tank up to speeds of 50 ft/sec. NACA-0009, NACA-2412, E-193, and Clark Y contours were tested in single and tandem configurations. At the higher Reynolds numbers local skin friction downstream of the devices showed minimal reductions O (10 percent) and total body drag was increased 1 to 3 percent. At lower Reynolds numbers skin-friction reductions as large as 25 percent were measured and total body drag tended toward net reductions. The loss of effectiveness with increasing Reynolds number of conventional, outer layer devices suggests a decoupling of the outer and inner scales in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers.

Anders, J. B.

1990-01-01

40

Modeling the urban boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.

Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

41

Orthogonal Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study is made for boundary-layer flows of different strengths intersecting each other at right angles. Analytic solutions are found for orthogonally interesecting Bickley jets, wall jets, wakes, and uniform shear flows. The equations for intersecting Blasius boundary layers and mixing layers are found and solved numerically. In all cases the development of the boundary-layer thickness for flow in the x-z plane is proportional to a fractional power of (x + z). Extensions of the work are envisioned to include plate transpiration and stretching for the wall-bounded flows.

Weidman, Patrick

2011-11-01

42

Mechanical properties of inclined frictional granular layers

We investigate the mechanical properties of inclined frictional granular layers prepared with different protocols by means of DEM numerical simulations. We perform an orthotropic elastic analysis of the stress response to a localized overload at the layer surface for several substrate tilt angles. The distance to the unjamming transition is controlled by the tilt angle $\\alpha$ with respect to the critical angle $\\alpha_c$. We find that the shear modulus of the system decreases with $\\alpha$, but tends to a finite value as $\\alpha \\to \\alpha_c$. We also study the behaviour of various microscopic quantities with $\\alpha$, and show in particular the evolution of the contact orientation with respect to the orthotropic axes and that of the distribution of the friction mobilisation at contact.

A. P. F. Atman; P. Claudin; G. Combe; G. H. B. Martins

2014-01-31

43

Boundary and mixed lubrication friction modeling under forming process conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-scale friction model for large-scale forming simulations is presented. A framework has been developed for the boundary and mixed lubrication regime, including the effect of surface changes due to normal loading, sliding and straining the underlying bulk material. Adhesion and ploughing effects have been accounted for to characterize friction conditions on the micro scale. To account for the lubricant effects special hydrodynamic contact elements have been developed. Pressure degrees of freedom are introduced to capture the pressure values which are computed by a finite element discretization of the 2D averaged Reynolds equations. The boundary friction model and the hydrodynamic friction model have been coupled to cover the boundary and mixed lubrication regime. To prove the numerical efficiency of the multi-scale friction model, finite element simulations have been carried out on a top hat section. The computed local friction coefficients show to be dependent on the punch stroke, punch speed and location in the product, and are far from constant. The location and range of friction coefficient values are in the order of what to expect from practice. The agreement between the numerical results and the experiments for different lubrication types and amount of lubrication is good. The multi-scale friction model proves to be stable, and compared to a Coulomb-based FE simulation, with only a modest increase in computation time.

Meinders, V. T.; Hol, J.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

2013-12-01

44

Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

1991-01-01

45

Asymptotic similarity in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent boundary layer is one of the most fundamental and important applications of fluid mechanics. Despite great practical interest and its direct impact on frictional drag among its many important consequences, no theory absent of significant inference or assumption exists. Numerical simulations and empirical guidance are used to produce models and adequate predictions, but even minor improvements in modeling parameters or physical understanding could translate into significant improvements in the efficiency of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles. Classically, turbulent boundary layers and fully-developed turbulent channels and pipes are considered members of the same "family," with similar "inner" versus "outer" descriptions. However, recent advances in experiments, simulations, and data processing have questioned this, and, as a result, their fundamental physics. To address a full range of pressure gradient boundary layers, a new approach to the governing equations and physical description of wall-bounded flows is formulated, using a two variable similarity approach and many of the tools of the classical method with slight but significant variations. A new set of similarity requirements for the characteristic scales of the problem is found, and when these requirements are applied to the classical "inner" and "outer" scales, a "similarity map" is developed providing a clear prediction of what flow conditions should result in self-similar forms. An empirical model with a small number of parameters and a form reminiscent of Coles' "wall plus wake" is developed for the streamwise Reynolds stress, and shown to fit experimental and numerical data from a number of turbulent boundary layers as well as other wall-bounded flows. It appears from this model and its scaling using the free-stream velocity that the true asymptotic form of u'2 may not become self-evident until Retheta ? 275,000 or delta+ ? 105, if not higher. A perturbation expansion made possible by the novel inclusion of the scaled streamwise coordinate is used to make an excellent prediction of the shear Reynolds stress in zero pressure gradient boundary layers and channel flows, requiring only a streamwise mean velocity profile and the new similarity map. Extension to other flows is promising, though more information about the normal Reynolds stresses is needed. This expansion is further used to infer a three layer structure in the turbulent boundary layer, and modified two layer structure in fully-developed flows, by using the classical inner and logarithmic profiles to determine which portions of the boundary layer are dominated by viscosity, inertia, or turbulence. A new inner function for U+ is developed, based on the three layer description, providing a much more simplified representative form of the streamwise mean velocity nearest the wall.

Duncan, Richard D.

46

Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.

Cairns, Iver H.

1995-01-01

47

Unsteady turbulent boundary layer analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The governing equations for an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a swept infinite cylinder, composed of a continuity equation, a pair of momentum equations and a pair of turbulent energy equations which include upstream history efforts, are solved numerically. An explicit finite difference analog to the partial differential equations is formulated and developed into a computer program. Calculations were made for a variety of unsteady flows in both two and three dimensions but primarily for two dimensional flow fields in order to first understand some of the fundamental physical aspects of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. Oscillating free stream flows without pressure gradient, oscillating retarded free stream flows and monotonically time-varying flows have all been studied for a wide frequency range. It was found that to the lowest frequency considered, the lower frequency bound being determined by economic considerations (machine time), there were significant unsteady effects on the turbulent boundary layer.

Singleton, R. E.; Nash, J. F.; Carl, L. W.; Patel, V. C.

1973-01-01

48

Tropical cyclone boundary layer shocks

This paper presents numerical solutions and idealized analytical solutions of axisymmetric, $f$-plane models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. In the numerical model, the boundary layer radial and tangential flow is forced by a specified pressure field, which can also be interpreted as a specified gradient balanced tangential wind field $v_{\\rm gr}(r)$ or vorticity field $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$. When the specified $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$ field is changed from one that is radially concentrated in the inner core to one that is radially spread, the quasi-steady-state boundary layer flow transitions from a single eyewall shock-like structure to a double eyewall shock-like structure. To better understand these structures, analytical solutions are presented for two simplified versions of the model. In the simplified analytical models, which do not include horizontal diffusion, the $u(\\partial u/\\partial r)$ term in the radial equation of motion and the $u[f+(\\partial v/\\partial r)+(v/r)]$ term in the tangential equat...

Slocum, Christopher J; Taft, Richard K; Schubert, Wayne H

2014-01-01

49

Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in Large-Eddy Simulations

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and atmospheric dispersion models rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer. We use large-eddy simulations (LES) of moderately stable boundary layers to characterize the effects of various physical processes on stable boundary layers. The stable boundary layer height is assumed to be a function of surface friction velocity, geostrophic wind, Monin-Obukhov length, and the strength of the temperature inversion atop the stable boundary layer. This temperature inversion induces gravity waves with a frequency determined by the strength of the temperature inversion.

Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J K

2004-03-29

50

Compressible turbulent boundary layer interaction experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four phases of research results are reported: (1) experiments on the compressible turbulent boundary layer flow in a streamwise corner; (2) the two dimensional (2D) interaction of incident shock waves with a compressible turbulent boundary layer; (3) three dimensional (3D) shock/boundary layer interactions; and (4) cooperative experiments at Princeton and numerical computations at NASA-Ames.

Settles, G. S.; Bogdonoff, S. M.

1981-01-01

51

Boundary layer on a circular cylinder in axial flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-similar solutions are presented for the boundary layer on a circular cylinder in axial flow, using a Keller-Box numerical scheme to solve for velocity components rather than a stream function. The solutions extend earlier results considerably and cover a wide range of cylinder radii from very small (needle case) to very large (Blasius case). Velocity profiles, skin friction, and boundary-layer thickness parameters are presented and compared with earlier results. The results are given in sufficient detail to provide useful guidelines for engineering applications.

Sawchuk, S. P.; Zamir, M.

1992-06-01

52

Modelling the transitional boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.

Narasimha, R.

1990-01-01

53

Boundary Layer Heights from CALIOP

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is focused on the development of a planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrieval algorithm for CALIOP and validation studies. Our current approach uses a wavelet covariance transform analysis technique to find the top of the boundary layer. We use the methodology similar to that found in Davis et. al. 2000, ours has been developed to work with the lower SNR data provided by CALIOP, and is intended to work autonomously. Concurrently developed with the CALIOP algorithm we will show results from a PBL height retrieval algorithm from profiles of potential temperature, these are derived from Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay (AMDAR) observations. Results from 5 years of collocated AMDAR - CALIOP retrievals near O'Hare airport demonstrate good agreement between the CALIOP - AMDAR retrievals. In addition, because we are able to make daily retrievals from the AMDAR measurements, we are able to observe the seasonal and annual variation in the PBL height at airports that have sufficient instrumented-aircraft traffic. Also, a comparison has been done between the CALIOP retrievals and the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) PBL height retrievals acquired during the GoMACCS experiment. Results of this comparison, like the AMDAR comparison are favorable. Our current work also involves the analysis and verification of the CALIOP PBL height retrieval from the 6 year CALIOP global data set. Results from this analysis will also be presented.

Kuehn, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Roubert, L.

2012-12-01

54

Study of boundary-layer transition using transonic-cone preston tube data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laminar boundary layer on a 10 degree cone in a transonic wind tunnel was studied. The inviscid flow and boundary layer development were simulated by computer programs. The effects of pitch and yaw angles on the boundary layer were examined. Preston-tube data, taken on the boundary-layer-transition cone in the NASA Ames 11 ft transonic wind tunnel, were used to develope a correlation which relates the measurements to theoretical values of laminar skin friction. The recommended correlation is based on a compressible form of the classical law-of-the-wall. The computer codes successfully simulates the laminar boundary layer for near-zero pitch and yaw angles. However, in cases of significant pitch and/or yaw angles, the flow is three dimensional and the boundary layer computer code used here cannot provide a satisfactory model. The skin-friction correlation is thought to be valid for body geometries other than cones.

Reed, T. D.; Moretti, P. M.

1980-01-01

55

PIV Measurements of a Shock Wave\\/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction

Particle Image Velocimetry is used to investigate the interaction between an incident planar shock wave and turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate at Mach 2.1. The mean velocity profile and deduced skin friction coefficient of the undisturbed boundary layer show good agreement with theory. A particle response assessment establishes the fidelity of the tracer particles. The interaction region

R. A. Humble; F. Scarano; B. W. van Oudheusden; M. Tuinstra

2006-01-01

56

Boundary layer theory and subduction

Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth`s mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the `rigid lid` style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth`s mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.

Fowler, A.C. [Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

1993-12-01

57

Supersonic separated turbulent boundary - layer over a wavy wall

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction method is developed for calculating distributions of surface heating rates, pressure and skin friction over a wavy wall in a two-dimensional supersonic flow. Of particular interest is the flow of thick turbulent boundary layers. The surface geometry and the flow conditions considered are such that there exists a strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow. First, using the interacting turbulent boundary layer equations, the problem is formulated in physical coordinates and then a reformulation of the governing equations in terms of Levy-Lees variables is given. Next, a numerical scheme for solving interacting boundary layer equations is adapted. A number of modifications which led to the improvement of the numerical algorithm are discussed. Finally, results are presented for flow over a train of up to six waves at various flow conditions.

Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.

1977-01-01

58

Active Boundary Layer Trip for Supersonic Flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has been full of excitement and success for the hypersonic community thanks to various Scramjet ground tests and launches. These studies have shown promising potentials but the viability to perform commercial flights at Mach 8 is still to be demonstrated. An ideal Scramjet is one which is capable of self- starting over a wide range of angles of attack and Mach number. The Scramjet designer has to ensure that the boundary layer over the inlet ramp is fully turbulent where shocks impact, hence reducing the risks of chocked flow conditions. Most studies have issued the efficiency of roughness trip to trigger the boundary layer transition. At hypersonic speed, heat transfer and drag dramatically increase resulting in skin friction averaging at 40% of the overall drag. This study investigates the possibility of triggering transition using perpendicular air jets on a flat plate place in a hypersonic cross-flow. Experiments were conducted in the von Karman Institute hypersonic blow down wind tunnel H3. This facility is mounted with a Mach 6 contoured nozzles and provides flows with Reynolds number in the range of 10x106/m to 30x106/m. The model consist of a flat plate manufactured with a built -in settling chamber, equipped with a pressure tap and a thermocouple to monitor the jet conditions. A first flat plate was manufactured with a black-coated Plexiglas top, for surface heat transfer measurement using an infrared camera. On the second model, a Upilex sheet equipped with 32 thin film gages was glued, time dependent heat transfer measurements up to 60kHz. The jet injection conditions have been varied and a Mach number of 5.5 kept constant. The flow topology was investigated using fast schlieren techniques and oil flow, in order to gain a better understanding.

Schloegel, F.; Panigua, G.; Tirtey, S.

2009-01-01

59

Diamagnetic boundary layers: A kinetic theory

We present a kinetic theory for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential ‘discontinuities’ in a collisionless magnetized plasma such as those observed in the solar wind. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary, one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found

J. Lemaire; L. F. Burlaga

1976-01-01

60

Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

2005-01-01

61

Three-dimensional boundary layers approaching separation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of semi-similar solutions of the laminar boundary layer equations is applied to several flows in which the boundary layer approaches a three-dimensional separation line. The solutions obtained are used to deduce the nature of three-dimensional separation. It is shown that in these cases separation is of the "ordinary" type. A solution is also presented for a case in which a vortex is embedded within the three-dimensional boundary layer.

Williams, J. C., III

1976-01-01

62

Turbulent boundary layers with secondary flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental analysis of the boundary layer on a plane wall, along which the flow occurs, whose potential flow lines are curved in plane parallel to the wall is discussed. According to the equation frequently applied to boundary layers in a plane flow, which is usually obtained by using the pulse law, a generalization is derived which is valid for boundary layers with spatial flow. The wall shear stresses were calculated with this equation.

Grushwitz, E.

1984-01-01

63

An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

1972-01-01

64

Atmospheric tides on Venus. III - The planetary boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diurnal solar heating of Venus' surface produces variable temperatures, winds, and pressure gradients within a shallow layer at the bottom of the atmosphere. The corresponding asymmetric mass distribution experiences a tidal torque tending to maintain Venus' slow retrograde rotation. It is shown that including viscosity in the boundary layer does not materially affect the balance of torques. On the other hand, friction between the air and ground can reduce the predicted wind speeds from about 5 to about 1 m/sec in the lower atmosphere, more consistent with the observations from Venus landers and descent probes. Implications for aeolian activity on Venus' surface and for future missions are discussed.

Dobrovolskis, A. R.

1983-10-01

65

The boundary layer on a finite flat plate

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of finding the flow over a finite flat plate aligned with a uniform free stream is revisited. Multigrid is used to obtain accurate numerical solutions up to a Reynolds number of 4000. Fourier boundary conditions keep the computational domain small, with no loss of accuracy. Near the trailing edge, excellent agreement with first-order triple-deck theory is found. However, previous comparisons between computations, experiments, and triple-deck theory are shown to be misleading: In fact, triple-deck theory only accounts for half the drag excess (that part not due to the first-order Blasius boundary layer) even at R=4000. The remainder is shown to be due to, among other things, a large displacementlike effect in the boundary layer, i.e., an O(R-1) increase in skin friction extending over the whole plate.

McLachlan, Robert I.

1991-02-01

66

Turbulent boundary-layer structure of flows over freshwater biofilms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the turbulent boundary-layer for flows over freshwater biofilms dominated by the diatom Tabellaria flocculosa was investigated. Biofilms were grown on large test plates under flow conditions in an Australian hydropower canal for periods up to 12 months. Velocity-profile measurements were obtained using LDV in a recirculating water tunnel for biofouled, smooth and artificially sandgrain roughened surfaces over a momentum thickness Reynolds number range of 3,000-8,000. Significant increases in skin friction coefficient of up to 160 % were measured over smooth-wall values. The effective roughnesses of the biofilms, k s, were significantly higher than their physical roughness measured using novel photogrammetry techniques and consisted of the physical roughness and a component due to the vibration of the biofilm mat. The biofilms displayed a k-type roughness function, and a logarithmic relationship was found between the roughness function and roughness Reynolds number based on the maximum peak-to-valley height of the biofilm, R t. The structure of the boundary layer adhered to Townsend's wall-similarity hypothesis even though the scale separation between the effective roughness height and the boundary-layer thickness was small. The biofouled velocity-defect profiles collapsed with smooth and sandgrain profiles in the outer region of the boundary layer. The Reynolds stresses and quadrant analysis also collapsed in the outer region of the boundary layer.

Walker, J. M.; Sargison, J. E.; Henderson, A. D.

2013-12-01

67

Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.

White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.

1975-01-01

68

Numerical studies in boundary-layer stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of interactive-boundary-layer theory and thin-layer Navier-Stokes methods to problems in Blasius boundary-layer stability is investigated. First, the classical linear stability problem, based on the parallel flow approximation, is solved and results are compared to those obtained from a solution to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Then studies on the nonlinear evolution of localized disturbances in the Blasius boundary layer are carried out using two different, three-dimensional, unsteady, interactive-boundary-layer models and a thin-layer Navier-Stokes model. Results are, whenever possible, compared to those obtained from the full Navier-Stokes equations. A simple, yet very efficient, method of solving the unsteady incompressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is introduced and it drastically reduced the computational time, relative to comparable studies based on the full Navier-Stokes equations.

Yahiaoui, Mondher

69

AIAA 20042128 Boundary Layer Flow Control Using

AIAA 2004Â2128 Boundary Layer Flow Control Using AC Discharge Plasma Actuators Jamey Jacob, Propulsion Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH J. Estevadeordal ISSI, Dayton, OH AIAA 2nd FlowÂ4344 #12;Boundary Layer Flow Control Using AC Discharge Plasma Actuators Jamey Jacob Mechanical Engineering

Jacob, Jamey

70

8, 1074910790, 2008 Boundary-layer top

lidar, a vertical-wind Doppler lidar, and ac- companying radiosonde profiling of temperatureACPD 8, 10749Â10790, 2008 Boundary-layer top from lidar H. Baars et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions Continuous monitoring of the boundary-layer top with lidar H. Baars, A

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

71

Shock-like structures in the tropical cyclone boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents high horizontal resolution solutions of an axisymmetric, constant depth, slab boundary layer model designed to simulate the radial inflow and boundary layer pumping of a hurricane. Shock-like structures of increasing intensity appear for category 1-5 hurricanes. For example, in the category 3 case, the u>(?u/?r>) term in the radial equation of motion produces a shock-like structure in the radial wind, i.e., near the radius of maximum tangential wind the boundary layer radial inflow decreases from approximately 22 m s-1 to zero over a radial distance of a few kilometers. Associated with this large convergence is a spike in the radial distribution of boundary layer pumping, with updrafts larger than 22 m s-1 at a height of 1000 m. Based on these model results, it is argued that observed hurricane updrafts of this magnitude so close to the ocean surface are attributable to the dry dynamics of the frictional boundary layer rather than moist convective dynamics. The shock-like structure in the boundary layer radial wind also has important consequences for the evolution of the tangential wind and the vertical component of vorticity. On the inner side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is essentially zero, while on the outer side of the shock the tangential wind tendency is large due to the large radial inflow there. The result is the development of a U-shaped tangential wind profile and the development of a thin region of large vorticity. In many respects, the model solutions resemble the remarkable structures observed in the boundary layer of Hurricane Hugo (1989).

Williams, Gabriel J.; Taft, Richard K.; McNoldy, Brian D.; Schubert, Wayne H.

2013-06-01

72

Transitional and turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our direct numerical simulation of an incompressible, nominally zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer from momentum thickness Reynolds number 80-1950. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature solid surface and the free-stream is also simulated with molecular Prandtl number Pr=1. Skin-friction coefficient and other boundary layer parameters follow the Blasius solutions prior to the onset of turbulent spots. Throughout the entire flat-plate, the ratio of Stanton number and skin-friction St/Cf deviates from the exact Reynolds analogy value of 0.5 by less than 1.5%. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses agree with experimental data over an extended turbulent region downstream of transition. Normalized rms wall-pressure fluctuation increases gradually with the streamwise growth of the turbulent boundary layer. Wall shear stress fluctuation, ?w,rms'+, on the other hand, remains constant at approximately 0.44 over the range, 800

Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz

2010-08-01

73

A synergetic model describing the state of an ultrathin lubricant layer squeezed between two atomically smooth solid surfaces operating in the boundary friction mode has been developed further. To explain the presence of different operation modes of the system for various sets of its main parameters, the mathematical analysis of the synergetic model is carried out. The type of functioning a tribological system is described in accordance with the stability character of singular points, and the diagrams distinguishing various operation modes are obtained. Phase portraits corresponding to different stability types are plotted for all diagram areas. A stick-slip mode of motion that is often observed experimentally is described.

Iakov A. Lyashenko; Nataliia N. Manko

2014-01-17

74

Transient response of a turbulent boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique feature of the present ensemble-averaged measurements of a turbulent boundary layer's transient response to a spontaneous change in the free stream velocity distribution, is that the test boundary layer is a standard, steady, flat plate turbulent boundary layer at the entrance to the unsteady region, and is then subjected to sudden changes in free stream velocity distribution in the test section. These water tunnel tests were controlled by minicomputer. It is noted that the boundary layer development was relatively slow, with a characteristic time that was greater than the free stream time-of-flight by a factor of as much as 3. Response varied dramatically across the boundary layer, and the evolution of the turbulent stress field occurred on the same time scale as that of the ensemble-averaged velocity field.

Parikh, P. G.; Jayaraman, R.; Reynolds, W. C.; Carr, L. W.

1983-01-01

75

Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for ?windd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where ?wind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

Nobel, Park S.

1974-01-01

76

Stable Layers in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field experimental studies on the establishment and growth of the nocturnal stable layer near the ground were made in January, 1998 using a tethered balloon at a site in Phoenix, Arizona. Days and nights with clear skies and light surface winds were of particular interest because small particle and carbon monoxide concentrations can be high during such times. Closest to the ground a shallow stable layer 20 meters deep with a buoyancy frequency (N) of 0.05 1/s rapidly developed before sundown. The height of this layer and N remained constant throughout the night. Above the 20-meter level, there was a transition layer which was also stable with N = 0.025 1/s. This transition layer grew throughout the night and reached 120 meters by dawn. Above the transition layer was a neutrally stable (residual) layer left over from the previous day. An unsteady layer 10 to 100 m thick with N = 0.025 1/s was also found at the top of the troposphere with the neutrally stable troposphere below and the stable stratosphere above. The growth and/or decay of turbulence in such stable layers will be discussed in light of recent theoretical developments.

Mahalov, A.; Berman, N. S.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Yu, F.; Pardyjak, E.

1998-11-01

77

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The free convection boundary layer flow on a solid sphere with convective boundary conditions has been investigated. The basic equations of boundary layer are transformed into a non-dimensional form and reduced to nonlinear systems of partial differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the wall temperature, the local heat transfer coefficient and the local skin friction coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles of the fluid. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for Prandtl number, Pr = 0.7 7 and 100, the conjugate parameter y = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and the coordinate running along the surface of the sphere, 0° <= x <= 120° are analyzed and discussed.

Alkasasbeh, H. T.; Salleh, M. Z.; Tahar, R. M.; Nazar, R.

2014-04-01

78

Turbulent boundary layers subjected to multiple curvatures and pressure gradients

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of abruptly applied cycles of curvatures and pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layers are examined experimentally. Two two-dimensional curved test surfaces are considered: one has a sequence of concave and convex longitudinal surface curvatures and the other has a sequence of convex and concave curvatures. The choice of the curvature sequences were motivated by a desire to study the asymmetric response of turbulent boundary layers to convex and concave curvatures. The relaxation of a boundary layer from the effects of these two opposite sequences has been compared. The effect of the accompaying sequences of pressure gradient has also been examined but the effect of curvature dominates. The growth of internal layers at the curvature junctions have been studied. Measurements of the Gortler and corner vortex systems have been made. The boundary layer recovering from the sequence of concave to convex curvature has a sustained lower skin friction level than in that recovering from the sequence of convex to concave curvature. The amplification and suppression of turbulence due to the curvature sequences have also been studied.

Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Ahmed, Anwar

1993-01-01

79

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphide layers were prepared on the surface of AISI 1045 steel by ion sulphurization. The anti-scuffing, friction-reducing, and wear-resistant behavior of these sulphurized surfaces were investigated systematically using a ball-on-disc wear tester with engine oil as a lubricant. SEM, EDX, XPS, and AES were used to examine the morphologies and compositions of wear scars and boundary films. Sulphide layers improved anti-scuffing properties remarkably at low sliding velocities, and exhibited good friction-reducing and wear-resistant effects. During friction the sulphide layer promoted the growth of oxide, and iron sulphide could be decomposed and regenerated to form FeS again on the rubbing surface. An appropriately thick sulphide layer optimizes the sulphur-to-oxygen concentration in the boundary film resulting in the highest load-bearing capacity, and shows that thicker sulphide layers are unnecessary.

Ning, Zhang; Da-Ming, Zhuang; Jia-Jun, Liu; Xiao-Dong, Fang; Ming-Xi, Guan

2001-09-01

80

The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is

James W. Telford

1980-01-01

81

Computation of the shock-wave boundary layer interaction with flow separation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The boundary layer concept is used to describe the flow near the wall. The external flow is approximated by a pressure displacement relationship (tangent wedge in linearized supersonic flow). The boundary layer equations are solved in finite difference form and the question of the presence and unicity of the solution is considered for the direct problem (assumed pressure) or converse problem (assumed displacement thickness, friction ratio). The coupling algorithm presented implicitly processes the downstream boundary condition necessary to correctly define the interacting boundary layer problem. The algorithm uses a Newton linearization technique to provide a fast convergence.

Ardonceau, P.; Alziary, T.; Aymer, D.

1980-01-01

82

A drag reduction method for turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method to reduce skin friction drag in a turbulent boundary layer is presented. The technique combines the beneficial effects of a longitudinally ribbed surface and suction. The streamwise grooves act as a nucleation site causing a focusing of low-speed streaks over the peaks. Suction is then applied intermittently through longitudinal slots located at selected locations along those peaks to obliterate the low-speed regions and to prevent bursting. During the first phase of the present research, selective suction from a single streamwise slot was used to eliminate either a single burst-like event or a periodic train of artificially generated bursts in laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The experiments were conducted using a flat plate towed in an 18-m water channel. Flow visualization and hot-film probe measurements were used together with pattern recognition algorithms to demonstrate the feasibility of the drag-reducing method.

Gad-El-hak, Mohamed; Blackwelder, Ron F.

1987-01-01

83

A preliminary assessment of the Titan planetary boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a preliminary assessment of the characteristic features of the Titan planetary boundary are addressed. These were derived from the combined application of a patched Ekman surface layer model and Rossby number similarity theory. Both these models together with Obukhov scaling, surface speed limits and saltation are discussed. A characteristic Akman depth of approximately 0.7 km is anticipated, with an eddy viscosity approximately equal to 1000 sq cm/s, an associated friction velocity approximately 0.01 m/s, and a surface wind typically smaller than 0.6 m/s. Actual values of these parameters probably vary by as much as a factor of two or three, in response to local temporal variations in surface roughness and stability. The saltation threshold for the windblown injection of approximately 50 micrometer particulates into the atmosphere is less than twice the nominal friction velocity, suggesting that dusty breezes might be an occassional feature of the Titan meteorology.

Allison, Michael

1992-01-01

84

Molecular origins of friction. The force on adsorbed layers

Simulations and perturbation theory are used to study the molecular origins of an ideal model system, a layer of adsorbed molecules sliding over a substrate. These calculations reproduce several surprising features of experimental results. In most cases, the frictional force on a solid monolayer has a different form from that observed between macroscopic solids. No threshold force or static friction is needed to initiate sliding; instead, the velocity is proportional to the force. As in experiments, incommensurate solid layers actually slide more readily than fluid layers. A comparison of experiment, simulation, and analytic results shows that dissipation arises from anharmonic coupling between phonon modes and substrate-induced deformations in the adsorbate. 19 refs.

Cieplak, M.; Smith, E.D.; Robbins, M.O. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-08-01

85

Multiple solutions of a boundary layer problem

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laminar boundary layer flow on a continuous moving porous flat plate with suction or injection is governed by the nonlinear differential equation f?(?)+f(?)f?(?)=0, with boundary conditions f(0)=-C,f'(0)=?,f'(+?)=1, where ? is the similarity variable, f( ?) is related to the stream function, and C and ? are constants. This paper presents a rigorous proof of the existence of multiple solutions to the boundary value problem by a shooting method on [0, ?).

Lu, Chunqing

2007-08-01

86

Thunderstorm influence on boundary layer winds

THUNDERSTORM INFLUENCE ON BOUNDARY LAYER WINDS A Thesis by JILL MARIE SCHMIDT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major... Subject: Meteorology THUNDERSTORM INFLUENCE ON BOUNDARY LAYER WINDS A Thesis by JILL MARIE SCHMIDT Approved as to style and content by: James R. Scog s (Chairman of Committee) Kenneth C. Brundidge (Member) Qmer . Jenklns (Member) James R...

Schmidt, Jill Marie

2012-06-07

87

with the help of two grids of 93 and 71 percent porosity respectively. Skin friction was determined from the measured boundary layer profiles. A rake of Preston tubes was used to measure spanwise skin friction distribution on both surfaces. Goertler vortices...

Syed, Irshad Hussain

2012-06-07

88

Formation of a boundary layer in steady-state blood flow.

This paper is devoted to a study of boundary layer formation in the steady flow of blood through the human aorta. Blood is treated as an incompressible fluid. Consideration is given to a flat-top velocity profile which combines the potential flow with the boundary layer; expressions for the displacement thickness, skin-friction and pressure in the entry region are derived. PMID:3392972

Misra, J C; Kar, B K

1988-05-01

89

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically required for such problems.

Sarlak, H.; Sørensen, J. N.; Mikkelsen, R.

2012-09-01

90

Characterization of internal boundary layer capacitors

Internal boundary layer capacitors were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy and by microscale electrical measurements. Data are given for the chemical and physical characteristics of the individual grains and boundaries, and their associated electric and dielectric properties. Segregated internal boundary layers were identified with resistivities of 10/sup 12/-10/sup 13/ ..cap omega..-cm. Bulk apparent dielectric constants were 10,000-60,000. A model is proposed to explain the dielectric behavior in terms of an equivalent n-c-i-c-n representation of ceramic microstructure, which is substantiated by capacitance-voltage analysis.

Park, H. D.; Payne, D. A.

1980-05-01

91

Stability of spatially developing boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new formulation of the stability of boundary-layer flows in pressure gradients is presented, taking into account the spatial development of the flow. The formulation assumes that disturbance wavelength and eigenfunction vary downstream no more rapidly than the boundary-layer thickness, and includes all terms of O(1) and O(R(exp -1)) in the boundary-layer Reynolds number R. Although containing the Orr-Sommerfeld operator, the present approach does not yield the Orr-Sommerfeld equation in any rational limit. In Blasius flow, the present stability equation is consistent with that of Bertolotti et al. (1992) to terms of O(R(exp -1)). For the Falkner-Skan similarity solutions neutral boundaries are computed without the necessity of having to march in space. Results show that the effects of spatial growth are striking in flows subjected to adverse pressure gradients.

Govindarajan, Rama

1993-07-01

92

Thermosolutal Marangoni Forced Convection Boundary Layers

An analysis is made for the forced convection thermal and solute concentration Marangoni boundary layers (thin dissipative layers) that can be formed along the surface, which separates two immiscible fluids in surface driven flows when the appropriately defined Reynolds number is large enough. Similarity equations for the case in which an external pressure gradient is imposed are derived. These equations

I. Pop; A. Postelnicu; T. Gro?an

2001-01-01

93

F-16XL ship #1 - CAWAP boundary layer rakes and hot film on left wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows the boundary layer hot film and the boundary layer rakes on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

1996-01-01

94

Mathematical model of a kinetic boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional (plane) problem of a hypersonic kinetic boundary layer developing on a thin body in the case of a homogeneous polyatomic gas flow with no dissociation or electron excitation is considered assuming that energy exchange between translational and internal molecular degrees of freedom is easy. (The approximation of a hypersonic kinetic boundary layer arises from the kinetic theory of gases and, within the thin-layer model, takes into account the strong nonequilibrium of the hypersonic flow with respect to translational and internal degrees of freedom of the gas particles.) A method is proposed for constructing the solution of the given kinetic problem in terms of a given solution of an equivalent well-studied classical Navier-Stokes hypersonic boundary layer problem (which is traditionally formulated on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations).

Ankudinov, A. L.

2014-06-01

95

Dynamics of Thin Astrophysical Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the modal structure and angular momentum transport mechanisms of astrophysical boundary layers. We focus on the case where the accretion disk extends all the way to surface of the star and the boundary layer is thin in comparison with the stellar radius. Such a scenario is applicable, for example, to weakly magnetized neutron stars and white dwarfs, for which the strength of the magnetic field outside the star is too small to disrupt the disk and funnel matter to the poles. Within the boundary layer, material rotating at the Keplerian velocity within the disk slows down to the rotational velocity inside the star. This generates intense velocity gradients and makes the boundary layer susceptible to shear instabilities. By performing a linear stability analysis for the simplified case of a plane-parallel, compressible shear layer, we argue that astrophysical boundary layers are unstable to the sonic instability. This instability is part of a more general class of acoustic instabilities that includes the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. We confirm the predictions of our linear stability analysis by running a suite of simulations in 2D and 3D, with and without stratification, and with and without magnetic field. In our numerical experiments, we find that acoustic modes excited by the sonic instability persist even in the nonlinear regime. We explain the morphological properties and derive analytic formulas for the pattern speed of these acoustic modes. Our work has significant implications for semianalytic models describing the structure and spectral emission from boundary layers. Typically, these models adopt a local, effective viscosity prescription for the angular momentum transport. However, in our simulations we find that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is facilitated by acoustic modes. In this scenario, accreting material inside the boundary layer loses angular momentum to sound waves that propagate into both the star and the disk. Since transport of angular momentum by waves is inherently nonlocal, our work invites the construction of new phenomenological models of the boundary layer in which angular momentum is transported by waves rather than by an anomalous viscosity.

Belyaev, Mikhail Alexander

96

Some Basic Aspects of Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appraisal is made of existing solutions of magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations for stagnation flow and flat-plate flow, and some new solutions are given. Since an exact solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics requires complicated simultaneous treatment of the equations of fluid flow and of electromagnetism, certain simplifying assumptions are generally introduced. The full implications of these assumptions have not been brought out properly in several recent papers. It is shown in the present report that for the particular law of deformation which the magnetic lines are assumed to follow in these papers a magnet situated inside the missile nose would not be able to take up any drag forces; to do so it would have to be placed in the flow away from the nose. It is also shown that for the assumption that potential flow is maintained outside the boundary layer, the deformation of the magnetic lines is restricted to small values. The literature contains serious disagreements with regard to reductions in heat-transfer rates due to magnetic action at the nose of a missile, and these disagreements are shown to be mainly due to different interpretations of reentry conditions rather than more complicated effects. In the present paper the magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equation is also expressed in a simple form that is especially convenient for physical interpretation. This is done by adapting methods to magnetic forces which in the past have been used for forces due to gravitational or centrifugal action. The simplified approach is used to develop some new solutions of boundary-layer flow and to reinterpret certain solutions existing in the literature. An asymptotic boundary-layer solution representing a fixed velocity profile and shear is found. Special emphasis is put on estimating skin friction and heat-transfer rates.

Hess, Robert V.

1959-01-01

97

Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations

This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

Bruce Albrecht

2004-09-15

98

The kinematics of turbulent boundary layer structure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.

Robinson, Stephen Kern

1991-01-01

99

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of placing a parallel-plate turbulence manipulator in a boundary layer are documented through flow visualization and hot wire measurements. The boundary layer manipulator was designed to manage the large scale structures of turbulence leading to a reduction in surface drag. The differences in the turbulent structure of the boundary layer are summarized to demonstrate differences in various flow properties. The manipulator inhibited the intermittent large scale structure of the turbulent boundary layer for at least 70 boundary layer thicknesses downstream. With the removal of the large scale, the streamwise turbulence intensity levels near the wall were reduced. The downstream distribution of the skin friction was also altered by the introduction of the manipulator.

Corke, T. C.; Guezennec, Y.; Nagib, H. M.

1981-01-01

100

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of stability theory, its chief results, and the physical mechanisms at work are presented. The stability theory of the laminar boundary determines whether a small disturbance introduced into the boundary layer will amplify or damp. If the disturbance damps, the boundary layer remains laminar. If the disturbance amplifies, and by a sufficient amount, then transition to turbulence eventually takes place. The stability theory establishes those states of the boundary layer which are most likely to lead to transition, identifys those frequencies which are the most dangerous, and indicates how the external parameters can best be changed to avoid transition.

Mack, L. M.

1967-01-01

101

Numerical simulation of supersonic boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present contribution reviews some of the recent progress obtained at our group in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible boundary layer transition. Elements of the different simulation approaches and numerical techniques employed are surveyed. Temporal and spatial simulations, as well as comparisons with results obtained from Parabolized Stability Equations, are discussed. DNS results are given for flat plate boundary layers in the Mach number range 1.6 to 4.5. A temporal DNS at Mach 4.5 has been continued through breakdown all the way to the turbulent stage. In addition results obtained with a recently developed extended temporal DNS approach are presented, which takes into account some nonparallel effects of a growing boundary layer. Results from this approach are quite close to those of spatial DNS, while preserving the efficiency of the temporal DNS.

Guo, Y.; Adams, N. A.; Sandham, N. D.; Kleiser, L.

1994-01-01

102

Friction, Frontogenesis, and the Stratification of the Surface Mixed Layer LEIF THOMAS*

Friction, Frontogenesis, and the Stratification of the Surface Mixed Layer LEIF THOMAS* Department restratification resulting from frontogenesis in regions of confluent flow. Frictional forces acting of friction versus frontogenesis in the restratification of the mixed layer and are tested using numerical

Thompson, Andrew

103

Effect of boundary layer on thrust deduction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that methods of computing thrust deduction usually ignore viscous effects and assume that the flow field of the ship and propeller is irrotational. The computed values of the thrust deduction with and without the boundary layer and wake were compared. A streamlined body of revolution was selected, and a sink on the axis behind the body was used as a simple mechanism to simulate the suction at the stern induced by a propeller. When the boundary layer and wake are present, the thick boundary near the tail of the body is first calculated by a previously developed method in which the equation of a thick boundary layer and wake are solved numerically by finite differences, and the outer irrotational flow is obtained as the solution of an integral equation. An iteration procedure in which the inner and outer flows are successively adjusted converges to the desired solution. It was found that results obtained in the wake were not sufficiently accurate, so that a momentum analysis using a special control volume was used to calculate the viscous drag with and without the sink. The calculated values of the thrust deuction are C sub D = 0.00021 from irrotational flow and 0.00043 from the boundary layer potential-flow interaction method.

Dinavahi, S. P. G.; Landweber, L.

1981-11-01

104

Effect of Surface Thermal Perturbations on Compressible Boundary Layer Stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition is a critical issue for re-entry and sustained hypersonic cruise vehicles. Turbulent wall heating rates can increase several orders of magnitude compared to laminar rates and skin friction drag can become a major component of the overall drag. We analyze approaches to modulate transition by altering the stability features of the boundary layer through the use of thermal perturbations. To this end, high-fidelity numerical simulations to generate basic states for Mach 1.5 and Mach 5.6 flat plate boundary layers with and without thermal bumps. Linear Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) are solved using the STABL software suite to establish the flow stability characteristics under baseline (no excitation), constant and pulsed bump cases for each freestream Mach number. The effects are described in terms of neutral curves showing amplification for various frequencies versus Reynolds number. The three-dimensional flow structure is also examined near the breakdown to turbulence flow region to gain insight into the final stages of transition.

Alba, Christopher; Gaitonde, Datta

2009-11-01

105

Boundary layer response to wind gusts

recording and reduction. Velocity fluctuations in the test nocti. on and in tho boundary layer wore naasured using hot sire ~ters of conventional oon figuration. Two hot wires, 0. 0002 inches in dianaxor aad 0. 060 inches long ware fahricat?I at Texas k... the valves or the tunnel. In general, mechanically induced noise ves loss than xha hot wire amplifier noise level and vss& therefore, ignored. Tha boundary layer traverse mechanism, figure 4, consisted of a depth microeetex' mounted under tbo wind tunnel...

Morland, Bruce Thomas

2012-06-07

106

Determination of boundary-layer parameters using a vertical gill anemometer

The paper presents a simple method to compute the stability parameter Z\\/L and boundary-layer parameters such as friction velocity U * and surface heat flux Q 0 on an operational basis. The method is based on the autocorrelation function of the vertical velocity which is relatively insensitive to averaging times except for very large lag times. Eddy correlation techniques on

P. K. Misra

1979-01-01

107

MEASUREMENT OF WALL SHEAR STRESS IN TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS USING AN OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRY METHOD

. The wall shear stress is calculated by measuring the velocity from a Pitot tube xed on the wall and a wall turbulent boundary layers. A calibration chart is required and the most commonly used is that of Pa- tel not depend on the law of the wall and preferably one which does not require calibration. A skin friction

Marusic, Ivan

108

Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.

Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

1977-01-01

109

TURBULENCE IN SUPERSONIC AND HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYERS

TURBULENCE IN SUPERSONIC AND HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYERS Alexander J. Smits and M. Pino Martin in supersonic and hypersonic flow where the effects of compressibility have a direct influence on the turbulence. Experimental and DNS results are presented and compared. Key words: Turbulence, supersonic, hypersonic, shocks

MartÃn, Pino

110

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable

Meng Wang

1994-01-01

111

Goertler instability of a hypersonic boundary layer

The Goertler instability of a hypersonic boundary layer and its influence on the wall heat transfer are experimentally analyzed. Measurements, made in a wind tunnel by means of a computerized infrared (IR) imaging system, refer to the flow over two-dimensional concave walls. Wall temperature maps (that are interpreted as surface flow visualizations) and spanwise heat transfer fluctuations are presented. Measured

L. de Luca; G. Cardone; D. Aymer de la Chevalerie; A. Fonteneau

1993-01-01

112

Thick diffusion limit boundary layer test problems

We develop two simple test problems that quantify the behavior of computational transport solutions in the presence of boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial grid. In particular we study the quantitative effects of 'contamination' terms that, according to previous asymptotic analyses, may have a detrimental effect on the solutions obtained by both discontinuous finite element (DFEM) and characteristic-method (CM) spatial discretizations, at least for boundary layers caused by azimuthally asymmetric incident intensities. Few numerical results have illustrated the effects of this contamination, and none have quantified it to our knowledge. Our test problems use leading-order analytic solutions that should be equal to zero in the problem interior, which means the observed interior solution is the error introduced by the contamination terms. Results from DFEM solutions demonstrate that the contamination terms can cause error propagation into the problem interior for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids, and that this error is much worse for non-orthogonal grids. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of previous analyses. We conclude that these boundary layer test problems and their variants are useful tools for the study of errors that are introduced by unresolved boundary layers in diffusive transport problems. (authors)

Bailey, T. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-095, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Adams, M. L. [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)

2013-07-01

113

Boundary Layer Transition on X-43A

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the first fully integrated scramjet propulsion systems by the Hyper-X (X-43A) program have provided the means with which to verify the original design methodologies and assumptions. As part of Hyper-X s propulsion-airframe integration, the forebody was designed to include a spanwise array of vortex generators to promote boundary layer transition ahead of the engine. Turbulence at the inlet is thought to provide the most reliable engine design and allows direct scaling of flight results to groundbased data. Pre-flight estimations of boundary layer transition, for both Mach 7 and 10 flight conditions, suggested that forebody boundary layer trips were required to ensure fully turbulent conditions upstream of the inlet. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the thermocouple measurements used to infer the dynamics of the transition process during the trajectories for both flights, on both the lower surface (to assess trip performance) and the upper surface (to assess natural transition). The approach used in the analysis of the thermocouple data is outlined, along with a discussion of the calculated local flow properties that correspond to the transition events as identified in the flight data. The present analysis has confirmed that the boundary layer trips performed as expected for both flights, providing turbulent flow ahead of the inlet during critical portions of the trajectory, while the upper surface was laminar as predicted by the pre-flight analysis.

Berry, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wurster, Kathryn; Bittner, Robert

2008-01-01

114

A Vertically Resolved Planetary Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increase of the vertical resolution of the GLAS Fourth Order General Circulation Model (GCM) near the Earth's surface and installation of a new package of parameterization schemes for subgrid-scale physical processes were sought so that the GLAS Model GCM will predict the resolved vertical structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) for all grid points.

Helfand, H. M.

1984-01-01

115

Effect of boundary layer on thrust deduction

It is noted that methods of computing thrust deduction usually ignore viscous effects and assume that the flow field of the ship and propeller is irrotational. The computed values of the thrust deduction with and without the boundary layer and wake were compared. A streamlined body of revolution was selected, and a sink on the axis behind the body was

S. P. G. Dinavahi; L. Landweber

1981-01-01

116

Advection in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent numerical simulations of accretion disk boundary layers have shown qualitatively the importance tance of advected energy in the inner region of the disk. In this short paper we present quantitative results of advective boundary layers in the optically thick regime. Numerical results are obtained for various systems, by means of a one-dimensional time-dependent numerical code. At high accretion mass rates, dot-M approx. = 10(exp -4) solar mass/yr, or low values of the viscosity parameter, alpha approx. = 0.001-0.01 (characteristic of FU Orionis systems and some symbiotic stars), the optical thickness in the inner part of the disk becomes very large (tau much greater than 1). The disk, unable to cool efficiently, becomes geometrically thick (H/r approx. = 0.5). The energy dissipated in the dynamical boundary layer is radiated outward to larger radii and advected into the star. The boundary-layer luminosity is only a fraction of its expected value; the rest of the energy is advected into the star. The fraction of the advected energy is zeta = L(sub adv)/L(sub acc) approx. = 0.1 in symbiotic stars (accretion onto a low-mass main-sequence star) and zeta approx. = 0.2 in FU Ori systems (accretion onto a pre-main sequence star).

Godon, Patrick

1997-01-01

117

Frictional figures of merit for single layered nanostructures.

We determine the frictional figures of merit for a pair of layered honeycomb nanostructures, such as graphane, fluorographene, MoS2 and WO2 moving over each other, by carrying out ab initio calculations of interlayer interaction under constant loading force. Using the Prandtl-Tomlinson model we derive the critical stiffness required to avoid stick-slip behavior. We show that these layered structures have low critical stiffness even under high loading forces due to their charged surfaces repelling each other. The intrinsic stiffness of these materials exceeds critical stiffness and thereby the materials avoid the stick-slip regime and attain nearly dissipationless continuous sliding. Remarkably, tungsten dioxide displays a much better performance relative to others and heralds a potential superlubricant. The absence of mechanical instabilities leading to conservative lateral forces is also confirmed directly by the simulations of sliding layers. PMID:22540600

Cahangirov, S; Ataca, C; Topsakal, M; Sahin, H; Ciraci, S

2012-03-23

118

Boundary Layer for the Navier-Stokes-alpha Model of Fluid Turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, which is an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. Matching these parameters with the skin-friction coefficient and the Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, we get an agreement of the solutions with experimental data in the laminar and transitional boundary layers, as well as in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.

Cheskidov, A.

119

Accretion disk boundary layers in cataclysmic variables. 1: Optically thick boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop numerical models of accretions disks in cataclysmic variables (CVs), including and emphasizing the boundary layer region where the accretion disk meets the accreting white dwarf. We confine ourselves to solutions where the boundary layer region is vertically optically thick, and find that these solutions share several common features. The angular and radial velocities of the accreting material drop rapidly in a dynamical boundary layer, which has a radial width approximately 1%-3% of the white dwarf radius. The energy dissipated in this region diffuses through the inner part of the disk and is radiated from the disk surface in a thermal boundary layer, which has a radial width comparable to the disk thickness, approximately 5%-15% of the white dwarf radius. We examine the dependence of the boundary layer structure on the mass accretion rate, the white dwarf mass and rotation rate, and the viscosity parameter alpha. We delineate the boundary between optically thick and optically thin boundary layer solutions as a function of these parameters and suggest that by means of a careful comparison with observations it may be possible to estimate alpha in CVs. We derive an expression for the total boundary layer luminosities as a function of the parameters and show that it agrees well with the luminosites of our numerical solutions. Finally, we calcuate simple blackbody continuum spectra of the boundary layer and disk emission for our solutions and compare these to soft X-ray, EUV, and He II emission-line observations of CVs. We show that, through such comparisons, it may be possible to determine the rotation rates of the accreting stars in CVs, and perhaps also the white dwarf masses and the accretion rates. The spectra are quite insensitive to alpha, so the uncertainty in this parameter does not affect such comparisons.

Popham, Robert; Narayan, Ramesh

1995-01-01

120

Experimental study of the boundary layer over an airfoil in plunging motion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an experimental study on the boundary layer over an airfoil under steady and unsteady conditions. It specifically deals with the effect of plunging oscillation on the laminar/turbulent characteristics of the boundary layer. The wind tunnel measurements involved surfacemounted hot-film sensors and boundary-layer rake. The experiments were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.42×106 to 0.84 × 106 and the reduced frequency was varied from 0.01 to 0.11. The results of the quasi-wall-shear stress as well as the boundary layer velocity profiles provided important information about the state of the boundary layer over the suction surface of the airfoil in both static and dynamic cases. For the static tests, boundary layer transition occurred through a laminar separation bubble. By increasing the angle of attack, disturbances and the transition location moved toward the leading edge. For the dynamic tests, earlier transition occurred with increasing rather than decreasing effective angle of attack. The mean angle of attack and the oscillating parameters significantly affected the state of the boundary layer. By increasing the reduced frequency, the boundary layer transition was promoted to the upstroke portion of the equivalent angle of attack, but the quasi skin friction coefficient was decreased.

Marzabadi, F. Rasi; Soltani, M. R.

2012-04-01

121

Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re? = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re? < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.

Eitel-Amor, G.; Flores, O.; Schlatter, P.

2014-04-01

122

Logarithmic boundary layers in strong Taylor-Couette turbulence.

We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to Re=2×106) (Ta=6.2×10(12)) using high-resolution particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry. We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von Kármán log law u+=1/? lny+ +B. The von Kármán constant ? is found to depend on the driving strength Ta and for large Ta asymptotically approaches ??0.40. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around y+?12 and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log dependence of y+ as also found for channel and pipe flows. PMID:23848878

Huisman, Sander G; Scharnowski, Sven; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

2013-06-28

123

Logarithmic boundary layers in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to $\\text{Ta}=6.2 \\times 10^{12}$ using high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV). We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von K\\'arm\\'an log law $u^+ = \\frac 1\\kappa \\ln y^+ +B$. The von K\\'arm\\'an constant $\\kappa$ is found to depend on the driving strength $\\text{Ta}$ and for large $\\text{Ta}$ asymptotically approaches $\\kappa \\approx 0.40$. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around $y^+ \\approx 12$ and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log-dependence of $y^+$ as also found for channel and pipe flows [1,2].

Huisman, Sander G; Cierpka, Christian; Kahler, Christian J; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

2013-01-01

124

Stability of boundary layers along curved surfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of a boundary layer along a curved wall was first studied by Gortler (27) in 1940. Further investigations have been conducted since 1980. An important contribution was made by Hall (29), when he first proposed a more rigorous approach to this problem. Gortler had used a simple approximation which allowed him to reduce the problem to a set of ordinary differential equations. However such an assumption ignored the growth of the boundary layer, which Hall showed could not be neglected. Hall then rederived the formulation to obtain a set of partial differential equations. We solved the system of equations, including the nonlinear terms, with a method proposed by Herbert (3), called the Parabolic Stability Equations (PSE). The flow is divided into a basic profile, which satisfies the Prandtl boundary layer equations, and a perturbation. We compared our results for the Blasius profile with those of Bottaro, Klinnmann, and Zebib (8) and found excellent agreement between our calculations and their finite- volume simulations. We then applied our code to the wall jet profile. We were able to capture the growth of steady vortices, located in the inner region of the jet for a concave wall, and the outer region for a convex wall, as predicted by Florian's (20) linear inviscid argument. Our calculations were in good agreement with Matsson's (49) experimental results. We also studied the influence of crossflow on a boundary layer. Crossflow might lead to streamwise vortices along a flat plate, and contrary to Gortler vortices, crossflow vortices are co-rotating instead of counter-rotating. We investigated the interactions between these two types of vortices and compared the results with experimental measurements obtained by Bippes (4). The final part of the thesis is the simulation of the secondary time-dependent instability originating from the shear profiles created by the primary streamwise vortices. The onset of the instability is studied by marching both in space and time. If no forcing is prescribed the time-dependent code predicts a steady solution. Time-dependent boundary conditions are then applied by solving the linear stability problem at some streamwise location to obtain the most dangerous streamwise perturbation velocity and the corresponding frequency. We found that the varicose mode is more amplified in the streamwise direction than the sinuous mode. Similarly, if both modes are included in the initial conditions, the varicose mode is still dominant. Furthermore, as the flow evolves downstream, the unsteady behavior exhibits a more complex time-dependence, which was also observed in the experiments of Swearingen and Blackwealder (66). In our computations, higher harmonics are observed near the wall and propagate into the boundary layer.

Le Cunff, Cedric

125

BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

126

Leading edge effects on boundary layer receptivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical calculations are presented for the incompressible flow over a parabolic cylinder. The computational domain extends from a region upstream of the body downstream to the region where the Blasius boundary layer solution holds. A steady mean flow solution is computed and the results for the scaled surface vorticity, surface pressure and displacement thickness are compared to previous studies. The unsteady problem is then formulated as a perturbation solution starting with and evolving from the mean flow. The response to irrotational time harmonic pulsation of the free stream is examined. Results for the initial development of the velocity profile and displacement thickness are presented. These calculations will be extended to later times to investigate the initiation of instability waves within the boundary layer.

Gatski, Thomas B.; Kerschen, Edward J.

127

Boundary layer flow in Trombe wall ducts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite difference material solution technique for the boundary layer equations with an eddy viscosity formulation for turbulence is developed for two-dimensional free convection duct flows. Heat transfer and mass flow rates for air are determined for ducts of uniform but unequal surface temperatures characteristic of Trombe wall ducts. The effect of vents through the wall are modeled as an external pressure drop. Correlations of Nusselt versus Grashof numbers using the duct height as the reference length reduce the heat transfer results for a given vent restriction to a single curve for duct aspect ratios from 10 to 100. Limits to the solution due to the onset of downward flow of air near the cooler surface and the consequent breakdown of the boundary layer assumption are presented.

Pratt, R.; Karaki, S.

1980-07-01

128

X-33 HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION

Boundary layer and aeroheating characteristics of several X-33 configurations have been experimentally examinedin the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Global surface heat transfer distributions, surface streamlinepatterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013-scale models at Mach 6 in air. Parametric variations includeangles-of-attack of 20-deg, 30-deg, and 40-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.9 to 6.6 million; andbody-flap

Scott A. Berry; Thomas J. Horvath; Brian R. Hollis; Richard A. Thompson; H. Harris Hamilton

1999-01-01

129

The boundary layer on compressor cascade blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some redesign of the cascade facility was necessary in order to incoporate the requirements of the LDA system into the design. Of particular importance was the intended use of a combination of suction upstream of the blade pack with diverging pack walls, as opposed to blade pack suction alone, for spanwise dimensionality control. An ARL blade was used to redo some tests using this arrangement. Preliminary testing and boundary layer measurements began on the double circular arc blades.

Deutsch, S.

1981-01-01

130

Entropy Production in Relativistic Jet Boundary Layers

Hot relativistic jets, passing through a background medium with a pressure gradient p \\propto r^{-\\eta} where 2 power. In previous work, we developed a self-similar description of the boundary layer assuming isentropic flow, but we found that such models respect global energy conservation only for the special case \\eta = 8/3. Here we demonstrate that models with \\eta tidal disruption events and gamma-ray bursts from ...

Kohler, Susanna

2014-01-01

131

Boundary Layer Control for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active and passive methods for tripping hypersonic boundary layers have been examined in NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels using a Hyper-X model. This investigation assessed several concepts for forcing transition, including passive discrete roughness elements and active mass addition (or blowing), in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air and the 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnels. Heat transfer distributions obtained via phosphor thermography, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. The comparisons between the active and passive methods for boundary layer control were conducted at test conditions that nearly match the Hyper-X nominal Mach 7 flight test-point of an angle-of-attack of 2-deg and length Reynolds number of 5.6 million. For passive roughness, the primary parametric variation was a range of trip heights within the calculated boundary layer thickness for several trip concepts. The passive roughness study resulted in a swept ramp configuration, scaled to be roughly 0.6 of the calculated boundary layer thickness, being selected for the Mach 7 flight vehicle. For the active blowing study, the manifold pressure was systematically varied (while monitoring the mass flow) for each configuration to determine the jet penetration height, with schlieren, and transition movement, with the phosphor system, for comparison to the passive results. All the blowing concepts tested, which included various rows of sonic orifices (holes), two- and three-dimensional slots, and random porosity, provided transition onset near the trip location with manifold stagnation pressures on the order of 40 times the model surface static pressure, which is adequate to ensure sonic jets. The present results indicate that the jet penetration height for blowing was roughly half the height required with passive roughness elements for an equivalent amount of transition movement.

Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.; Horvath, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

132

Oblique-shock\\/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction

The present numerical investigation uses well-resolved large-eddy simulations to study the low-frequency unsteady motions observed in shock-wave\\/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. Details about the numerical aspects of the simulations and the subsequent data analysis can be found in three papers by the authors (Theo. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 23:79--107 (2009); Shock Waves, 19(6):469--478 (2009) and J. of Fluid Mech. (2011)). The fluid dynamics video

Emile Touber; Neil D. Sandham

2010-01-01

133

Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary-layer development

A two-layer model of soil hydrology and thermodynamics is combined with a one-dimensional model of the planetary boundary layer to study various interactions between evolution of the boundary layer and soil moisture transport. Boundary-layer moistening through surface evaporation reduces the potential and actual surface evaporation as well as the boundary-layer growth. With more advanced stages of soil drying, the restricted

H.-L. Pan; L. Mahrt

1987-01-01

134

Turbulent boundary layers in long computational domains

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series of numerical simulations of spatially evolving turbulent boundary layers is discussed. The very long computational domain starts at a low Re?=180, where laminar-turbulent transition is initiated, reaching up to the (computationally very) high Re?=8500. In the domain, the boundary layer develops naturally from the tripping location to the higher Reynolds numbers without any re-injection or recycling procedures. In consequence, this computational setup allows us to study, e.g., the mean flow development and the scaling behavior of the fluctuating energy free from pseudo-periodic effects. However, such domains require a large number of grid points; in the present case up to 10 billion for running well-resolved large-eddy simulation. The present results show excellent agreement with wind-tunnel experiments at similar Re and previous (lower-Re) simulations (both direct and large- eddy simulations). The mean velocity profiles closely follow the correlation proposed by Monkewitz et al. (2007), just about reaching the plateau in the log-law diagnostic function. In a second part, three-dimensional visualizations of the evolving turbulent boundary layer are discussed with special focus on the persistence of transitional flow structures towards higher Reynolds numbers, having a highly unordered appearance.

Schlatter, Philipp; Li, Qiang; Oerlue, Ramis; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Henningson, Dan S.

2011-11-01

135

Shock-wave boundary layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the shock-wave boundary-layer interaction problem. A detailed physical description of the phenomena for transonic and supersonic speed regimes is given based on experimental observations, correlations, and theoretical concepts. Approaches for solving the problem are then reviewed in depth. Specifically, these include: global methods developed to predict sudden changes in boundary-layer properties; integral or finite-difference methods developed to predict the continuous evolution of a boundary-layer encountering a pressure field induced by a shock wave; coupling methods to predict entire flow fields; analytical methods such as multi-deck techniques; and finite-difference methods for solving the time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations used to predict the development of entire flow fields. Examples are presented to illustrate the status of the various methods and some discussion is devoted to delineating their advantages and shortcomings. Reference citations for the wide variety of subject material are provided for readers interested in further study.

Delery, J.; Marvin, J. G.; Reshotko, E.

1986-01-01

136

Stick-slip friction and energy dissipation in boundary lubrication.

Shearing of a simple nonpolar film, right after the liquid-to-solid phase transition under nanometer confinement, is studied by using a liquid-vapor molecular dynamics simulation method. We find that, in contrast with the shear melting and recrystallization behavior of the solidlike phase during the stick-slip motion, interlayer slips within the film and wall slips at the wall-film interface are often observed. The ordered solidified film is well maintained during the slip. Through the time variations of the frictional force and potential energy change within the film, we find that both the friction dissipation during the slip and the potential energy decay after the slip in the solidified film take a fairly large portion of the total energy dissipation. PMID:22107235

Lei, Yajie; Leng, Yongsheng

2011-09-30

137

We consider the nonlinear boundary layer to the Boltzmann equation for cutoff soft potential with physical boundary condition, i.e., the Dirichlet boundary condition with weak diffuse effect. Under the assumption that the distribution function of gas particles tends to a global Maxwellian in the far field, we will show the boundary layer exist if the boundary data satisfy the solvability

Jie Sun; Qianzhu Tian

2011-01-01

138

Numerical Simulations of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical schemes for supersonic flows tend to use large amounts of artificial viscosity for stability. This tends to damp out the small scale structures in the flow. Recently some low-dissipation methods have been proposed which selectively eliminate the artificial viscosity in regions which do not require it. This work builds upon the low-dissipation method of Subbareddy and Candler which uses the flux vector splitting method of Steger and Warming but identifies the dissipation portion to eliminate it. Computing accurate fluxes typically relies on large grid stencils or coupled linear systems that become computationally expensive to solve. Unstructured grids allow for CFD solutions to be obtained on complex geometries, unfortunately, it then becomes difficult to create a large stencil or the coupled linear system. Accurate solutions require grids that quickly become too large to be feasible. In this thesis a method is proposed to obtain more accurate solutions using relatively local data, making it suitable for unstructured grids composed of hexahedral elements. Fluxes are reconstructed using local gradients to extend the range of data used. The method is then validated on several test problems. Simulations of boundary layer transition are then performed. An elliptic cone at Mach 8 is simulated based on an experiment at the Princeton Gasdynamics Laboratory. A simulated acoustic noise boundary condition is imposed to model the noisy conditions of the wind tunnel and the transitioning boundary layer observed. A computation of an isolated roughness element is done based on an experiment in Purdue's Mach 6 quiet wind tunnel. The mechanism for transition is identified as an instability in the upstream separation region and a comparison is made to experimental data. In the CFD a fully turbulent boundary layer is observed downstream.

Bartkowicz, Matthew David

139

Role of Helicity In Stability of The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of helicity was introduced in magnetic hydrodynamics in the 1960s. Later, it was recognized that helicity plays a notable role in the usual "terrestrialT hydrodynamics, supporting the stability of structures and determining the develop- ment and destruction of intense vortices similar to tornadoes, tropical cyclones, cloud streets, etc. The Earth's rotation and surface friction generate a large-scale geostrophic wind rotating with height, referred to as the Ekman flow or the Ekman spiral. The Ek- man flow is helical and obviously produces helicity of the turbulent flow component. In turn, the helical properties of turbulence may change the structure of the Reynolds stress tensor, which affects steady-state regimes, including the Ekman flow itself. The self-consistent, semi-empirical model of the Ekman boundary layer with allowance for the helicity of the turbulent velocity field has been constructed. The model is de- velopment of the Monin model. Helicity reduces the mean turbulent energy, modifies the Ekman flow, diminishes the turn angle of the Ekman spiral and increases the effec- tive depth of the boundary layer. These effects are direct reflection of reduction of the energy flow to the small scales in helical turbulence. The turbulent helicity account- ing raises a dynamic inflection point instability threshold. The threshold of parallel instability on the contrary is slightly lowered. Thus essentially grow unstable modes increments. There are changes in scales and orientation of the unstable modes. The comparison with classical and modern boundary layer models and observation data on secondary roll circulation is discussed.

Chkhetiani, O. G.; Ponomarev, V. M.; Khapaev, A. A.

140

System Identification and Active Control of a Turbulent Boundary Layer

An experimental investigation is made into the active control of the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer using a linear control scheme. System identification in the boundary layer provides optimal transfer ...

Rathnasingham, Ruben

141

The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {? _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{? _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{? _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/?}}^{{1/2}}, ? w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements of widely varying sizes are combined this paper shows how the surface roughness parameter, z 0, can be calculated for an ideal case of a random distribution of vertical cylinders of the same height. To treat a water surface, with various sized waves, such an approach modified to treat the surface by the superposition of various sized roughness elements, is likely to be helpful. Such a theory is particularly desirable when such a surface is changing, as the ocean does when the wind varies. The formula, 2 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE2.gif {0.118}/{a_s C_D }< z_0< {0.463}/{a_s C_D (u^* )} is the result derived here. It applies to cylinders of radius, r, and number, m, per unit boundary area, where a s = 2rm, is the area of the roughness elements, per unit area perpendicular to the wind, per unit distance downwind. The drag coefficient of the cylinders is C D . The smaller value of z o is for large Reynolds numbers where the larger scale turbulence at the surface dominates, and the drag coefficient is about constant. Here the flow between the cylinders is intermittent. When the Reynolds number is small enough then the intermittent nature of the turbulence is reduced and this results in the average velocity at each level determining the drag. In this second case the larger limit for z 0 is more appropriate.

Telford, James W.

1980-03-01

142

Relaxation of an unsteady turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate in an expansion tube

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented for the relaxation of a turbulent boundary layer on a semi-infinite flat plate after passage of a shock wave and a trailing driver gas-driven gas interface. The problem has special application to expansion-tube flows. The flow-governing equations have been transformed into the Crocco variables, and a time-similar solution is presented in terms of the dimensionless distance-time variable alpha and the dimensionless velocity variable beta. An eddy-viscosity model, similar to that of time-steady boundary layers, is applied to the inner and outer regions of the boundary layer. A turbulent Prandtl number equal to the molecular Prandtl number is used to relate the turbulent heat flux to the eddy viscosity. The numerical results, obtained by using the Gauss-Seidel line-relaxation method, indicate that a fully turbulent boundary layer relaxes faster to the final steady-state values of heat transfer and skin friction than a laminar boundary layer. The results also give a fairly good estimate of the local skin friction and heat transfer for near steady-flow conditions.

Gurta, R. N.; Trimpi, R. L.

1974-01-01

143

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical solution for the steady free convection boundary layer flow near the lower stagnation point of a horizontal circular cylinder subjected to a convective boundary condition, where the heat is supplied to the fluid through a bounding surface with a finite heat capacity are presented in this paper. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed using non-similar variables into non-similar equations and were solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. The solutions are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, the local wall temperature, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles with two the variations of two parameters, namely the conjugate parameter ? and the Prandtl number Pr.

Sarif, Norhafizah Md; Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Tahar, Razman Mat; Nazar, Roslinda

2014-06-01

144

Three-dimensional hypersonic shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data for a series of three-dimensional shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction flows at Mach 8.2 are presented. The test bodies, composed of sharp fins fastened to a flat plate test surface, were designed to generate flows with varying degrees of pressure gradient, boundary-layer separation, and turning angle. The data include surface pressure, heat transfer, and skin friction distributions as well as limited mean flowfield surveys in both the undisturbed and interaction regimes. The data were obtained for the purpose of validating computational models of these hypersonic interactions.

Kussoy, M. I.; Horstman, K. C.

1993-01-01

145

Sound radiation due to boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes progress made to date towards calculations of noise produced by the laminar-turbulence transition process in a low Mach number boundary layer formed on a rigid wall. The primary objectives of the study are to elucidate the physical mechanisms by which acoustic waves are generated, to clarify the roles of the fluctuating Reynolds stress and the viscous stress in the presence of a solid surface, and to determine the relative efficiency as a noise source of the various transition stages. In particular, we will examine the acoustic characteristics and directivity associated with three-dimensional instability waves, the detached high-shear layer, and turbulent spots following a laminar breakdown. Additionally, attention will be paid to the unsteady surface pressures during the transition, which provide a source of flow noise as well as a forcing function for wall vibration in both aeronautical and marine applications.

Wang, Meng

1993-01-01

146

Laminar Boundary Layers in Convective Heat Transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the high-Rayleigh-number regime and infinite-Prandtl-number limit, i.e., we consider a fluid in a container that is exposed to strong heating of the bottom and cooling of the top plate in the absence of inertia effects. While the dynamics in the bulk are characterized by a chaotic heat flow, close to the horizontal walls, the fluid is essentially motionless. We derive local bounds on the temperature field in the boundary layers and prove that the temperature profile is essentially linear. The results depend only logarithmically on the system parameters. An important tool in our analysis is a new Hardy-type estimate for the convecting velocity field, which yields control of the fluid motion in the layer. The bounds on the temperature field are derived via local maximal regularity estimates for convection-diffusion equations.

Seis, Christian

2013-12-01

147

Sound Radiation from a Turbulent Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the restriction of incompressibility in the turbulence problem is relaxed, the phenomenon of energy radiation in the form of sound from the turbulent zone arises. In order to calculate this radiated energy, it is shown that new statistical quantities, such as time-space correlation tensors, have to be known within the turbulent zone in addition to the conventional quantities. For the particular case of the turbulent boundary layer, indications are that the intensity of radiation becomes significant only in supersonic flows. Under these conditions, the recent work of Phillips is examined together with some experimental findings of the author. It is shown that the qualitative features of the radiation field (intensity, directionality) as predicted by the theory are consistent with the measurements; however, even for the highest Mach number flow, some of the assumptions of the asymptotic theory are not yet satisfied in the experiments. Finally, the question of turbulence damping due to radiation is discussed, with the result that in the Mach number range covered by the experiments, the energy lost from the boundary layer due to radiation is a small percentage of the work done by the wall shearing stresses.

Laufer, J.

1961-01-01

148

X-33 Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer and aeroheating characteristics of several X-33 configurations have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Global surface heat transfer distributions, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.013-scale models at Mach 6 in air. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 20-deg, 30-deg, and 40-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.9 to 6.6 million; and body-flap deflections of 0, 10 and 20-deg. The effects of discrete and distributed roughness elements on boundary layer transition, which included trip height, size, location, and distribution, both on and off the windward centerline, were investigated. The discrete roughness results on centerline were used to provide a transition correlation for the X-33 flight vehicle that was applicable across the range of reentry angles of attack. The attachment line discrete roughness results were shown to be consistent with the centerline results, as no increased sensitivity to roughness along the attachment line was identified. The effect of bowed panels was qualitatively shown to be less effective than the discrete trips; however, the distributed nature of the bowed panels affected a larger percent of the aft-body windward surface than a single discrete trip.

Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hollis, Brian R.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hamilton, H. Harris, II

1999-01-01

149

Halogen chemistry in the trosopheric boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine and bromine chemistry can affect the lower troposphere in several important ways: (1), change the oxidizing capacity by destroying ozone and affecting the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), react efficiently with dimethyl sulphide (in the marine boundary layer) and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), form ultra-fine particles (iodine oxides are highly condensable), which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei and hence affect climate. This paper will report measurements of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 , made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), in several contrasting environments: equatorial clean mid-ocean (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar boundary layer (Halley Bay, Antarctica and Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. The concentrations of IO in coastal Antarctica, and coastlines rich in certain species of macro-algae, are large enough (> 10 pptv) to promote ultra-fine particle formation. Recently, the first satellite measurements of IO, using the SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT, have been reported by two groups; their results will be compared with the ground-based measurements.

Plane, John M. C.; Mahajan, Anoop; Oetjen, Hilke

150

Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar transitional state. The effects of large free stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers are examined both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The flow is computed over a flat plate and curved surface. while many applications operate in the transonic regime. Due the nature of their numerical scheme, a non-conservation formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is a non-trivial extension to compute flow fields in the transonic regime. This project aims at better understanding the effects of large free-stream turbulence in compressible boundary layers at mach number both in the subsonic and transonic regime using direct numerical simulations. The present project aims at computing the flow over a flat plate and curved surface. This research will provide data which can be used to clarify mechanisms leading to transition in an environment with high free stream turbulence. This information is useful for the development of turbulence models, which are of great importance for CFD applications, and are currently unreliable for more complex flows, such as transitional flows.

Vandervegt, J. J.

1992-01-01

151

The diversity of friction behavior between bi-layer graphenes.

For relative sliding between two rigid graphene sheets that are interacted on by a van der Waals force, we show that the friction behavior is significantly dependent on the interlayer separation distance h. Around the equilibrium interlayer distance he, the friction behavior exactly obeys a linear law. When h is far smaller than he, the linear friction behavior transforms to overlinear behavior. On the other hand, when h is larger than he, there is another critical value of the interlayer distance, hc; when h is larger than he and smaller than hc, the friction behavior transforms from linear to sublinear behavior; however, when h is larger than hc, the coefficient of friction becomes negative. Further, the different friction behaviors are found to be well described by a universal power law, ? = ?*(? + ?0)(n). PMID:24457559

Liu, Ze

2014-02-21

152

Determination of boundary-layer parameters using a vertical gill anemometer

The paper presents a simple method to compute the stability parameter Z\\/L and boundary-layer parameters such as friction velocity U* and surface heat flux Q0 on an operational basis. The method is based on the autocorrelation function of the vertical velocity which is relatively insensitive to averaging times except for very large lag times. Eddy correlation techniques on the other

P. K. Misra

1979-01-01

153

Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow

Experimental results from a study of surface roughness effects on polymer drag reduction in a zero-pressure gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are presented. Both slot-injected polymer and homogeneous polymer ocean cases were considered over a range of flow conditions and surface roughness. Balance measurements of skin friction drag reduction are presented. Drag reductions over 60% were measured for both the

H. L. Petrie; S. Deutsch; T. A. Brungart; A. A. Fontaine

2003-01-01

154

Friction-term response to boundary-condition type in flow models

The friction-slope term in the unsteady open-channel flow equations is examined using two numerical models based on different formulations of the governing equations and employing different solution methods. The purposes of the study are to analyze, evaluate, and demonstrate the behavior of the term in a set of controlled numerical experiments using varied types and combinations of boundary conditions. Results of numerical experiments illustrate that a given model can respond inconsistently for the identical resistance-coefficient value under different types and combinations of boundary conditions. Findings also demonstrate that two models employing different dependent variables and solution methods can respond similarly for the identical resistance-coefficient value under similar types and combinations of boundary conditions. Discussion of qualitative considerations and quantitative experimental results provides insight into the proper treatment, evaluation, and significance of the friction-slope term, thereby offering practical guidelines for model implementation and calibration.

Schaffranek, R.W.; Lai, C.

1996-01-01

155

SUPERSONIC SHEAR INSTABILITIES IN ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDARY LAYERS

Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized astrophysical objects often proceeds via a boundary layer (BL) that forms near the object's surface, in which the rotation speed of the accreted gas changes rapidly. Here, we study the initial stages of formation for such a BL around a white dwarf or a young star by examining the hydrodynamical shear instabilities that may initiate mixing and momentum transport between the two fluids of different densities moving supersonically with respect to each other. We find that an initially laminar BL is unstable to two different kinds of instabilities. One is an instability of a supersonic vortex sheet (implying a discontinuous initial profile of the angular speed of the gas) in the presence of gravity, which we find to have a growth rate of order (but less than) the orbital frequency. The other is a sonic instability of a finite width, supersonic shear layer, which is similar to the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. It has a growth rate proportional to the shear inside the transition layer, which is of order the orbital frequency times the ratio of stellar radius to the BL thickness. For a BL that is thin compared to the radius of the star, the shear rate is much larger than the orbital frequency. Thus, we conclude that sonic instabilities play a dominant role in the initial stages of nonmagnetic BL formation and give rise to very fast mixing between disk gas and stellar fluid in the supersonic regime.

Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

2012-06-20

156

Supersonic Shear Instabilities in Astrophysical Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized astrophysical objects often proceeds via a boundary layer (BL) that forms near the object's surface, in which the rotation speed of the accreted gas changes rapidly. Here, we study the initial stages of formation for such a BL around a white dwarf or a young star by examining the hydrodynamical shear instabilities that may initiate mixing and momentum transport between the two fluids of different densities moving supersonically with respect to each other. We find that an initially laminar BL is unstable to two different kinds of instabilities. One is an instability of a supersonic vortex sheet (implying a discontinuous initial profile of the angular speed of the gas) in the presence of gravity, which we find to have a growth rate of order (but less than) the orbital frequency. The other is a sonic instability of a finite width, supersonic shear layer, which is similar to the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. It has a growth rate proportional to the shear inside the transition layer, which is of order the orbital frequency times the ratio of stellar radius to the BL thickness. For a BL that is thin compared to the radius of the star, the shear rate is much larger than the orbital frequency. Thus, we conclude that sonic instabilities play a dominant role in the initial stages of nonmagnetic BL formation and give rise to very fast mixing between disk gas and stellar fluid in the supersonic regime.

Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.

2012-06-01

157

Investigation of turbulent boundary layer structures using Tomographic PIV

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV) data were acquired in the logarithmic region of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer flow at friction Reynolds number Re? = 1160. Experiments were conducted in a suction type wind tunnel seeded with olive oil particles of diameter ˜ 1?m. The volume of interest was illuminated by two Nd:YAG laser beams expanded with appropriate optics into sheets of 8mm thickness in the wall-normal direction (z). Images were acquired by four 2k x 2k pixel cameras, and correlation of reconstructed fields provided the full velocity gradient tensor in a volume of 0.7? x 0.7? x 0.07?, which resolved the region z^+ = 70-150 in the log layer. Various vortex identification techniques, such as Galilean decomposition and iso-surfaces of two- and three-dimensional swirl, were utilized to visualize and analyze the eddy structures present in instantaneous fields. The results of the present study will be compared to results from earlier experimental studies that relied on planar PIV data only to identify vortices and vortex packets as well as from a direct numerical simulation of fully developed channel flow at comparable Re?.

Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Longmire, Ellen; Wieneke, Bernd

2008-11-01

158

A study of the effects of Lebu devices on turbulent boundary layer drag

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial measurements of the changes in local skin friction, velocity profile shape, and turbulence structure which result from the placement of tandem plates parallel to the wall in the outer region of thick turbulent boundary layers were made. Using a tunnel with a .75 m x 1.2 m x 7.3 m test section, which diverged so as to keep the pressure gradient less than 2x1000/ft, on the test wall, a skin friction reduction of approximately 30% was measured at xi/h = 62. This relaxed to a reduction of approximately 16% at xi/h = 124 for h/delta M = .6. The c sub f measurements for both the normal and modified boundary layers were obtained by measuring the slope of the velocity profile within the linear sublayer. Visual results indicated a continued presence of strong large eddy structure downstream of the devices. Local skin friction reduction of 12% at xi/h = 62 was also obtained with the manipulators above the boundary layer at y/delta m = 1.1.

Falco, R. E.

1983-01-01

159

Digital image filtering in visualized boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of two-dimensional low-pass matched filtering is presented for use in objective processing of digitized flow visualization images in order to identify instantaneous large-scale organized structures in turbulent boundary layers. The images were digitally acquired simultaneously with the outputs of a two-dimensional rake of hot-wire sensors in the field of view of the digital camera. Two-dimensional low wavenumber analysis brought out patterns in the visualization images which consisted of slender inclined structures having an average streamwise scale of 100-200 v/u (tau) and a length on the order of 1-2 delta. The similarly processed two-dimensional streamwise velocity reconstructions reveal similar features. The ensemble statistics indicate that these inclined features brought out by this processing may be a basic flow module in higher Reynolds number flows which links the so-called wall 'bursting' process and the larger outer scale motions.

Corke, T. C.

1984-01-01

160

Streamwise vortices in heated boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nonlinear instability of the boundary layer on a heated flat plate placed in an oncoming flow is investigated. Such flows are unstable to stationary vortex instabilities and inviscid traveling wave disturbances governed by the Taylor-Goldstein equation. For small temperature differences the Taylor-Goldstein equation reduces to Rayleigh's equation. When the temperature difference between the wall and free stream is small the preferred mode of instability is a streamwise vortex. It is shown in this case that the vortex, assumed to be of small wavelength, restructures the underlying mean flow to produce a profile which can be massively unstable to inviscid traveling waves. The mean state is shown to be destabilized or stabilized to inviscid waves depending on whether the Prandtl number is less or greater than unity.

Hall, Philip

1992-01-01

161

Modelling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer (SBL) is tested for self-similar properties of the flow and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is diagnostic, based on the K-theory approach, with a semi-empirical form of the mixing length, and empirical stability functions of the Richardson number. The model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions, satisfied in the entire SBL. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum allowable turbulent heat flux in the SBL. Numerical experiments show that the development of "horse-shoe" shaped, fixed-elevation hodographs in the interior of the SBL around sunrise is controlled by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing.

Sorbjan, Zbigniew

2014-06-01

162

The evolution of a friction surface geometry with initially directed microscale grooves on a nanoscale polished surface in ring-on-block sliding contact is studied experimentally. Reduced wear and friction is observed when the orientation of grooves coincides with the direction of sliding. A new compressive-vacuum hypothesis of friction force nature under a condition of boundary lubrication is proposed, which successfully explains the observed phenomena. Grooves supply lubricant into the contact zone and facilitate its devacuumization, which lead to substantial reduction of surface wear. The obtained results enable developing optimized roughness profiles of friction surfaces to create high-performance durable friction units. PMID:24872807

2014-01-01

163

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a friction surface geometry with initially directed microscale grooves on a nanoscale polished surface in ring-on-block sliding contact is studied experimentally. Reduced wear and friction is observed when the orientation of grooves coincides with the direction of sliding. A new compressive-vacuum hypothesis of friction force nature under a condition of boundary lubrication is proposed, which successfully explains the observed phenomena. Grooves supply lubricant into the contact zone and facilitate its devacuumization, which lead to substantial reduction of surface wear. The obtained results enable developing optimized roughness profiles of friction surfaces to create high-performance durable friction units.

Stelmakh, Alexander U.; Pilgun, Yuriy V.; Kolenov, Sergiy O.; Kushchev, Alexey V.

2014-05-01

164

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

Wang, Meng

1994-12-01

165

Acoustics of laminar boundary layers breakdown

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer flow transition has long been suggested as a potential noise source in both marine (sonar-dome self noise) and aeronautical (aircraft cabin noise) applications, owing to the highly transient nature of process. The design of effective noise control strategies relies upon a clear understanding of the source mechanisms associated with the unsteady flow dynamics during transition. Due to formidable mathematical difficulties, theoretical predictions either are limited to early linear and weakly nonlinear stages of transition, or employ acoustic analogy theories based on approximate source field data, often in the form of empirical correlation. In the present work, an approach which combines direct numerical simulation of the source field with the Lighthill acoustic analogy is utilized. This approach takes advantage of the recent advancement in computational capabilities to obtain detailed information about the flow-induced acoustic sources. The transitional boundary layer flow is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations without model assumptions, thus allowing a direct evaluation of the pseudosound as well as source functions, including the Lighthill stress tensor and the wall shear stress. The latter are used for calculating the radiated pressure field based on the Curle-Powell solution of the Lighthill equation. This procedure allows a quantitative assessment of noise source mechanisms and the associated radiation characteristics during transition from primary instability up to the laminar breakdown stage. In particular, one is interested in comparing the roles played by the fluctuating volume Reynolds stress and the wall-shear-stresses, and in identifying specific flow processes and structures that are effective noise generators.

Wang, Meng

1994-01-01

166

Boundary-layer and shock-layer solutions to singularly perturbed boundary-value problems

This dissertation concerns the study of certain singularly perturbed boundary value problems. In the first part of this dissertation (Chapters 2 and 3), a singularly perturbed nonlinear system of differential equations are considered over a compact interval, subject to general boundary conditions that allow the coupling of the boundary values at the different endpoints. It is shown, subject to suitable conditions, that there exists solutions of boundary-layer type, i.e., solutions that experience a rapid variation at one or both endpoints. In the second part (Chapter 4), a singularly perturbed second-order scalar differential equation is considered over a compact interval subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. Subject to suitable conditions, there exist solutions of shock-layer type, i.e., solutions that experience a rapid transition at an interior point. For both the singularly perturbed system and the second-order scalar equation, a proposed approximate solution is constructed using the O'Malley construction, and a Riccati transformation is then used in a direct construction of the Green function for linearization of the problem about the proposed approximate solution.

Jeffries, J.S.

1987-01-01

167

Boundary layer flow and heat transfer past a moving plate with suction and injection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of an incompressible steady boundary layer flow past a permeable semi-infinite flat plate moving in a free stream is discussed in this paper. In addition to the mass transfer from the plate (suction or injection), the viscous dissipation term is also included into the energy equation. The solutions of the transformed ordinary differential equations are obtained numerically using an implicit finite-difference method. The numerical results are given for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number for various values of the suction/injection parameter ?, ratio of the wall velocity to the free stream velocity parameter ?, Prandtl number Pr and Eckert number Ec. It is found that suction increases the heat transfer by decreasing the thermal boundary layer thickness and the reverse happens for injection. Furthermore, it is also found that the boundary layer equations have non-unique (dual) solutions in some cases.

Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan

2014-06-01

168

Navier-Stokes equations in 3D thin domains with Navier friction boundary condition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we study the 3D Navier-Stokes equations with Navier friction boundary condition in thin domains. We prove the global existence of strong solutions to the 3D Navier-Stokes equations when the initial data and external forces are in large sets as the thickness of the domain is small. We generalize the techniques developed to study the 3D Navier-Stokes equations in thin domains, see [G. Raugel, G. Sell, Navier-Stokes equations on thin 3D domains I: Global attractors and global regularity of solutions, J. Amer. Math. Soc. 6 (1993) 503-568; G. Raugel, G. Sell, Navier-Stokes equations on thin 3D domains II: Global regularity of spatially periodic conditions, in: Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations and Their Application, College de France Seminar, vol. XI, Longman, Harlow, 1994, pp. 205-247; R. Temam, M. Ziane, Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensional thin domains with various boundary conditions, Adv. Differential Equations 1 (1996) 499-546; R. Temam, M. Ziane, Navier-Stokes equations in thin spherical shells, in: Optimization Methods in Partial Differential Equations, in: Contemp. Math., vol. 209, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1996, pp. 281-314], to the Navier friction boundary condition by introducing a new average operator M in the thin direction according to the spectral decomposition of the Stokes operator A. Our analysis hinges on the refined investigation of the eigenvalue problem corresponding to the Stokes operator A with Navier friction boundary condition.

Hu, Changbing

169

Turbulent Boundary Layer in High Rayleigh Number Convection in Air

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra =1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re ?200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal.

du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian

2014-03-01

170

Turbulent eddy viscosity modeling in transonic shock/boundary-layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment of turbulence effects on transonic shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction is addressed within the context of a triple deck approach valid for arbitrary practical Reynolds numbers between 1000 and 10 billion. The modeling of the eddy viscosity and basic turbulent boundary profile effects in each deck is examined in detail using Law-of-the-Wall/Law-of-the-Wake concepts as the foundation. Results of parametric studies showing how each of these turbulence model aspects influences typical interaction zone property distributions (wall pressure, displacement thickness and local skin friction) are presented and discussed.

Inger, G. R.

1989-01-01

171

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all previous numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms have neglected surface uxes of heat, moisture, and momentum as well as horizontal inhomogeneities in the near-storm environment from resulting dry boundary layer convection. This investigation uses coupled radiation and land-surface schemes within an idealized cloud model to identify the effects of organized boundary layer convection in the form of horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) on the strength, structure, and evolution of simulated supercell thunderstorms. The in uence of HCRs and the importance of their orientation relative to storm motion is tested by comparing simulations with a convective boundary layer (CBL) against those with a horizontally homogeneous base state having the same mean environment. The impact of anvil shading on the CBL is tested by comparing simulations with and without the effects of clouds in the radiative transfer scheme. The results of these simulations indicate that HCRs provide a potentially important source of environmental vertical vorticity in the sheared, near-storm boundary layer. These vorticity perturbations are amplified both beneath the main supercell updraft and along the trailing out ow boundary, leading to the formation of occasionally intense misovortices. HCRs perpendicular to storm motion are found to have a detrimental effect on the strength and persistence of the lowlevel mesocyclone, particularly during its initial development. Though the mean environment is less supportive of low-level rotation with a wind profile conducive to HCRs oriented parallel to storm motion, such HCRs are found to often enhance the low-level mesocyclone circulation. When anvil shading is included, stabilization results in generally weaker low-level mesocyclone circulation, regardless of HCR orientation. Moreover, HCRs diminish in the near-storm environment such that the effects of HCRs on the supercell are mitigated. HCRs are also shown to be a necessary condition for the formation of so-called "feeder clouds" and anking line convection in these simulations. These findings suggest potentially important rami fications regarding both non-mesocyclone and mesocyclone tornadoes in supercell thunderstorms in an environment with active boundary layer convection.

Nowotarski, Christopher J.

172

Electromagnetic precipitation and ducting of particles in turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for analyzing magnetic migration of particles in turbulent flows is applied to the prediction of particle trajectories and densities in turbulent aerodynamic boundary layers. Results for conditions typical of aircraft with 30-40 micron particles indicate a large upstream collection and a 5% loss of particles during one pass through the boundary layer. The capacity of the magnetic field to achieve a balance with turbulent diffusion in confining the particles to the boundary layer is discussed.

Davey, K. R.; Melcher, J. R.

1980-01-01

173

F-16XL ship #1 - CAWAP boundary layer rakes and hot film on left wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows the boundary layer hot film and the boundary layer rakes on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

1996-01-01

174

Fuselage boundary layer effects on sound propagation and scattering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a fuselage and its boundary layer on sound propagation to the fuselage surface and on sound scattering in the farfield were analyzed. A hard-wall infinite cylinder with a boundary layer of both velocity and temperature variations was modeled to simulate the fuselage of an aircraft in flight. Examples for a monopole noise source outside the boundary layer showed considerable noise attenuation on the cylindrical surface forward of the source and much less effect on the downstream side. Data from a transonic wind tunnel test showed the same trends. For enroute and airport community noise, the boundary layer alters the interference pattern caused by the fuselage.

Lu, H. Y.

1989-04-01

175

Incorporation of the planetary boundary layer in atmospheric models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics discussed include the following: perspectives on planetary boundary layer (PBL) measurements; current problems of PBL parameterization in mesoscale models; and convective cloud-PBL interactions.

Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Wyngaard, John; Pielke, Roger; Krueger, Steve

1993-01-01

176

Existence for a Class of Non–Newtonian Fluids with a Nonlocal Friction Boundary Condition

We deal with a variational inequality describing the motion of incompressible fluids, whose viscous stress tensors belong\\u000a to the subdifferential of a functional at the point given by the symmetric part of the velocity gradient, with a nonlocal\\u000a friction condition on a part of the boundary obtained by a generalized mollification of the stresses. We establish an existence\\u000a result of

L. Consiglieri

2006-01-01

177

Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.

Malik, M. R.; Li, F.

1992-01-01

178

Characterization of Surface and Grain Boundary Layer of Barium Titanate.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this investigation was to characterize the surface layer of ceramic particles and the grain boundary layer of ceramic materials by a few selected electrical and optical experiments, observe their unusual changes, if any, and infer from them ...

A. K. Goswami

1970-01-01

179

Secondary instabilities in compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary instabilities are examined in compressible boundary layers at Mach numbers M(sub infinity) = 0, 0.8, 1.6, and 4.5. It is found that there is a broad-band of highly unstable 3-d secondary disturbances whose growth rates increase with increasing primary wave amplitude. At M(sub infinity) is less than or equal to 1.6, fundamental resonance dominates at relatively high (2-d) primary disturbance amplitude, while subharmonic resonance is characterized by a low (2-d) primary amplitude. At M(sub infinity) = 4.5, the subharmonic instability which arises from the second mode disturbance is the strongest type of secondary instability. The influence of the inclination, theta, of the primary wave with respect to the mean flow direction on secondary instability is investigated at M(sub infinity) = 1.6 for small to moderate values of theta. It is found that the strongest fundamental instability occurs when the primary wave is inclined at 10 deg to the mean flow direction, although a 2-d primary mode yields the most amplified subharmonic. The subharmonic instability at a high value of theta (namely, theta = 45 deg) is also discussed. Finally, a subset of the secondary instability results are compared against direct numerical simulations.

Ng, Lian; Erlebacher, Gordon

1990-01-01

180

Effect of sound on boundary layer stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are conducted in the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel with a zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate model that has a 67:1 elliptical leading edge. Boundary-layer measurements are made of the streamwise fluctuating-velocity component in order to identify the amplified T-S waves that are forced by downstream-travelling, sound waves. Measurements are taken with circular 3-D roughness elements placed at the Branch 1 neutral stability point for the frequency under consideration, and then with the roughness element downstream of Branch 1. These roughness elements have a principal chord dimension equal to 2(lambda)(sub TS)/pi, of the T-S waves under study and are 'stacked' in order to resemble a Gaussian height distribution. Measurements taken just downstream of the roughness (with leading-edge T-S waves, surface roughness T-S waves, instrumentation sting vibrations and the Stokes wave subtracted) show the generation of 3-D-T-S waves, but not in the characteristic heart-shaped disturbance field predicted by 3-D asymptotic theory. Maximum disturbance amplitudes are found on the roughness centerline. However, some near-field characteristics predicted by numerical modelling are observed.

Saric, William S. (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Shelly Anne

1993-01-01

181

D": The Enigmatic Magmatic Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures and dynamics of the basal region of Earth's mantle lie at the crux of a broad suite of geophysical questions. These include: how Earth's silicate mantle and iron-rich core interact; how volcanic hot spots are generated; how (and at what rate) heat is transported from Earth's deepest interior; and how the Earth's silicate mantle has differentiated through time. The seismically anomalous lowermost 200-300 km of Earth's mantle are characterized by both small or negative changes in velocity with depth, and seismic discontinuities about 250 km above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), and 5-40 km directly above the core. The origin of the former discontinuity remains unclear, but it is likely that it marks the top of the anomalous region at the base of the mantle. The latter discontinuity, characterized by decreases in compressional wave velocity of about -10 percent and changes in shear velocity of about -30 percent (the Ultra-Low Velocity Zone, or ULVZ), is most readily explained by the presence of 5-30 percent partial melt in this zone. The key issue associated with the presence of partial melt at the absolute base of Earth's mantle is not why there is melt present at this depth--this is simply a natural consequence of intercepting the solidus of the basal material--but rather why the melt has not segregated from the coexisting solids into a pure melt layer. The apparent maintenance of a mixture of solid and liquid at the base of Earth's mantle strongly implies that the density difference between melt and solid under these conditions is vanishingly small, and that the solid and liquid compositions have evolved to the point where they coexist at the same depth. Moreover, the partially molten slurry is unlikely to be completely confined to the base of the mantle. The negative shear velocity and small compressional velocity gradients throughout the bulk of D", when coupled with the probable small values of the temperature derivatives of the elastic properties of minerals at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary, are most readily explained by the ubiquitous presence of a small fraction of partial melt (less than 1 percent) distributed throughout the lowermost 200-300 km of the mantle. Seismic evidence indicates that some of this melt may be confined within lamellae distributed at variable depths within D".This ubiquity of melt within the bottom boundary layer of Earth's mantle implies that the geodynamics of the bottom of the mantle is unlikely to be dominated by the solid-state convective circulation present within the bulk of Earth's mantle, but instead by classical magmatic processes: magma ascent and re-equilibration, fractional crystallization, and ubiquitous dissolution and reprecipitation.

Williams, Q.

2003-12-01

182

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Kathleen Cummings Dominguez at the Illinois Institute of Technology provides a lesson plan on the concepts of friction. It describes a lesson plan which will engage students in active classroom learning.

Dominguez, Kathleen C.

2010-03-17

183

Scaling of high-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers in the National Diagnostic Facility

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velocity, shear stress and Reynolds stress were measured using hot-wire anemometry in three distinct turbulent boundary layers in the National Diagnostic Facility and have demonstrated some new and unique features of these layers up to a momentum thickness Reynolds number of 50,000. In agreement with the literature, mean velocity profiles showed that the so-called logarithmic region grew continuously for increasing Reynolds number for all of the boundary layers confirming an extended disparity between small and large scale motions. It was also observed from the mean velocity profiles that minor surface roughness elements of less than 3 viscous lengths caused a noticeable overshoot of the log-law line as the Reynolds number increased. Detailed spectra computed from long time-series of the streamwise velocity revealed a bi-modal distribution of energy in the boundary layer close to the wall, within the viscous and buffer layers, asserting that the large-scale, low-frequency motions of the boundary layer are important in the near-wall region. Direct shear stress measurements using wire-on-wall and MEMS sensors have been compared to the Clauser prediction of friction velocity and demonstrated scaling consistent with or better then Clauser friction velocity. The measured wall shear stress was found to be higher than the values inferred from the Clauser approach with a diminishing discrepancy as the boundary layer developed far downstream towards very high Reynolds numbers. Also, it was demonstrated that the Clauser scaling tends to mask the streamwise (Resb{x}) dependencies of the boundary layer quantities that were observed repeatedly when the mean and fluctuating quantities were scaled with the measured friction velocity. Instantaneous velocity and Reynolds stress time-series were filtered based on the collapse and the bi-modal structure of the streamwise velocity spectra to extract details concerning the inner and outer scaling of the turbulence quantities. It was observed for both the streamwise turbulence and the Reynolds stress that the overlap region grows continuously with Reynolds number. This overlap region scaled with inner variables at the lowest Reynolds numbers, but at the higher Reynolds numbers, the growth of the overlap region was attributed to an increase in the amount of large scale motion present. Further, the near-wall turbulent bursting frequency was investigated using the same filtering techniques and showed that inner-variable scaling collapsed the bursting frequency very well when the largest scales were filtered from the time-series. The scaled bursting frequency was shown to be independent of the detection threshold level and the high-pass filtering cut-off frequency over the range 10

Hites, Michael Hubert

184

Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical dynamic model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the non-zero vorticity. The generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for an arbitrary number of components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers. Different types of transport mechanisms are dominant on the different levels of the layers.

Nurgaliev, Ildus

185

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1).

Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

186

Computation of Hypersonic Double Wedge Shock / Boundary Layer Interaction

Computation of Hypersonic Double Wedge Shock / Boundary Layer Interaction B. Reinartz and J analysis of hypersonic inlet flows has been initiated. For an air breathing hypersonic propulsion system with thick hypersonic boundary layers causes large separation zones that reduce the captured mass flow

187

Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer Yin-Chiu Kan , Clara and hypersonic turbulent boundary layer datasets from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Contour plots and Marusic5 and Mathis, Hutchins and Marusic16 ). In contrast to supersonic and hypersonic flow regimes

MartÃn, Pino

188

2-D airfoil tests including side wall boundary layer measurements

The data presented in this contribution were obtained in the DLR Transonic Wind Tunnel Braunschweig. The intent of the experiment was to provide data giving information on the development of the TWB-side wall boundary layer in the presence of a typical transonic airfoil model for further investigation of the influence of the side wall boundary layer on 2-D airfoil measurements.

W. Bartelheimer; K. H. Horstmann; W. Puffert-Meissner

1994-01-01

189

Fluctuating boundary layer on a heated horizontal plate

Summary The paper deals with the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a horizontal plate whose temperature differs from that of ambient fluid. The basic flow is purely induced by buoyancy which is caused by the difference of temperature in the plate and the fluid. The oscillation in the plate temperature causes a time dependent boundary layer flow and

P. Singh; V. P. Sharma; U. N. Misra

1978-01-01

190

Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer on curved surfaces

Heat transfer measurements for a turbulent boundary layer on a convex and concave, constant-temperature surface are presented. The heat transferred on the convex surface was found to be less than that for a flat surface, while the heat transferred to the boundary layer on the concave surface was greater. It was also found that the heat transferred on the convex

R. E. Mayle; M. F. Blair; F. C. Kopper

1979-01-01

191

Boundary layer receptivity mechanisms relevant to laminar flow control

Receptivity processes by which free-stream acoustic waves generate instability waves in boundary layers are investigated. Concentration is placed on mechanisms associated with local regions of short scale variation in wall suction or admittance distribution. These mechanisms are relevant to laminar flow control technology, in which suction is utilized to control the growth of boundary layer instabilities. The receptivity process requires

Meelan Choudhari

1990-01-01

192

Numerical investigation of condensing steam flow in boundary layers

The paper describes a numerical method for the prediction of condensing steam flow within compressible boundary layers. The method is based on a simple stream function technique, which enables straightforward integration of the nucleation and droplet growth equations in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Calculations show how viscous dissipation and reduced expansion rate within a typical boundary layer influence nucleation

A. J White

2000-01-01

193

A New View on Origin, Role and Manipulation of Large Scales in Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of passive 'manipulators' for altering the large scale turbulent structures in boundary layers was investigated. Utilizing smoke wire visualization and multisensor probes, the experiment verified that the outer scales could be suppressed by simple arrangements of parallel plates. As a result of suppressing the outer scales in turbulent layers, a decrease in the streamwise growth of the boundary layer thickness was achieved and was coupled with a 30 percent decrease in the local wall friction coefficient. After accounting for the drag on the manipulator plates, the net drag reduction reached a value of 20 percent within 55 boundary layer thicknesses downstream of the device. No evidence for the reoccurrence of the outer scales was present at this streamwise distance thereby suggesting that further reductions in the net drag are attainable. The frequency of occurrence of the wall events is simultaneously dependent on the two parameters, Re2 delta sub 2 and Re sub x. As a result of being able to independently control the inner and outer boundary layer characteristics with these manipulators, a different view of these layers emerged.

Corke, T. C.; Nagib, H. M.; Guezennec, Y. G.

1982-01-01

194

Symmetries in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is the development of a new theory which enables the algorithmic computation of all self-similar mean velocity profiles. The theory is based on Liegroup analysis and unifies a large set of self-similar solutions for the mean velocity of stationary parallel turbulent shear flows. The results include the logarithmic law of the wall, an algebraic law, the viscous sublayer, the linear region in the middle of a Couette flow and in the middle of a rotating channel flow, and a new exponential mean velocity profile not previously reported. Experimental results taken in the outer parts of a high Reynolds number flat-plate boundary layer, strongly support the exponential profile. From experimental as well as from DNS data of a turbulent channel flow the algebraic scaling law could be confirmed in both the center region and in the near wall region. In the case of the logarithmic law of the wall, the scaling with the wall distance arises as a result of the analysis and has not been assumed in the derivation. The crucial part of the derivation of all the different mean velocity profiles is to consider the invariance of the equation for the velocity fluctuations at the same time as the invariance of the equation for the velocity product equations. The latter is the dyad product of the velocity fluctuations with the equation for the velocity fluctuations. It has been proven that all the invariant solutions are also consistent with similarity of all velocity moment equations up to any arbitrary order.

Oberlack, M.

1996-01-01

195

Local boundary layer scales in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

We compute fully local boundary layer scales in three-dimensional turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. These scales are directly connected to the highly intermittent fluctuations of the fluxes of momentum and heat at the isothermal top and bottom walls and are statistically distributed around the corresponding mean thickness scales. The local boundary layer scales also reflect the strong spatial inhomogeneities of both boundary layers due to the large-scale, but complex and intermittent, circulation that builds up in closed convection cells. Similar to turbulent boundary layers, we define inner scales based on local shear stress which can be consistently extended to the classical viscous scales in bulk turbulence, e.g. the Kolmogorov scale, and outer scales based on slopes at the wall. We discuss the consequences of our generalization, in particular the scaling of our inner and outer boundary layer thicknesses and the resulting shear Reynolds number with respect to Rayleigh number. The mean outer thickness s...

Scheel, Janet D

2014-01-01

196

Friction welding of dissimilar metal joints with intermediate layers

Purpose: Metals such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum and also tantalum and tungsten must be protected at elevated temperatures from the effects of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. For this reason, it is of interest, both from the innovative and practical points of view, to investigate the possibility of using the process of friction welding to produce joints in these

A. Ambroziak; M. Korzeniowski; P. Kustro?

197

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional differential analysis is developed to approximate the turbulent boundary layer on a compressor blade element with strong adverse pressure gradients, including the separated region with reverse flow. The predicted turbulent boundary layer thicknesses and velocity profiles are in good agreement with experimental data for a cascade blade, even in the separated region.

Schmidt, J. F.; Todd, C. A.

1974-01-01

198

The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows

We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

2008-08-11

199

Boundary Layer Rolls Observed Above and Below a Jet in a Marine Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have flown a coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) on the Cirpas Twin Otter off the California coast near Monterey since 2003. One scientific purpose of these flights is to understand the relationship between the turbulent fluxes measured on the aircraft or on other platforms and the observed structure of the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two common features are found in the MBL flow: (1) a strong jet at approximately 200 m above the sea surface; and (2) organized large eddies (OLE) in the form of roll vortices that are approximately aligned along the mean wind direction. On two flights (April 13, 2007 and September 30, 2012), the DWL data indicated that roll OLE existed simultaneously both above and below the jet. The DWL winds suggest that the OLE in these layers are sometimes independent and sometimes connected. Standard flux data are obtained on the Twin Otter at flight level, which is nominally 300 m. The 10 Hz wind and temperature data exhibit variability at spatial scales corresponding to the OLE wavelength. We have constructed a nonlinear theoretical model that includes triad wave-wave interactions to test the hypothesis that rolls could form both above and below the jet. This model shows that this is possible and that the rolls in the two layers could have unique characteristics compared to standard boundary layer rolls. The model further shows that the rolls above and below the jet are due to separate instabilities that interact. This is consistent with the observations of both connected and independent OLE above and below the jet. Contrast-enhanced DWL line-of-sight winds. Jet maximum 200 m below aircraft. Typical resonant triad solution for rolls above and below a PBL jet.

Foster, R. C.; Emmitt, G. D.; Godwin, K.; Greco, S.

2013-12-01

200

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a turbulent unsteady boundary layer with a mean pressure gradient strong enough to induce separation, in order to complete the extend results obtained for the flat plate configuration is presented. The longitudinal component of the velocity is measured using constant temperature hot wire anemometer. The region where negative velocities exist is investigated with a laser Doppler velocimeter system with BRAGG cells. The boundary layer responds by forced pulsation to the perturbation of potential flow. The unsteady effects observed are very important. The average location of the zero skin friction point moves periodically at the perturbation frequency. Average velocity profiles from different instants in the cycle are compared. The existence of a logarithmic region enables a simple calculation of the maximum phase shift of the velocity in the boundary layer. An attempt of calculation by an integral method of boundary layer development is presented, up to the point where reverse flow starts appearing.

Houdeville, R.; Cousteix, J.

1979-01-01

201

F-16XL ship #1 - CAWAP boundary layer hot film, left wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows the boundary layer hot film on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Hot film is used to measure temperature changes on a surface. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

1996-01-01

202

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation demonstrates, through an animated, narrated slide-show, how frictional forces, including air resistance, can affect the motion of an object. This resource also includes an interactive test and review of the material. One is also able to download "myskoool" which allows allows one to download lessons to run offline and use anytime.

203

Structural changes in the surface layers of aluminum nitride during friction

The present work gives the results of electron microscope studies on surface structures forming during the friction of A1N. Aluminum nitride, similar to the previously studied TiC [2], is a refractory compound with considerable low-temperature plasticity [4]. In this respect, we can expect differences from TiC relative to the behavior of the frictional surface layer. The aluminum nitride samples were

A. N. Pilyankevich; V. F. Britun; Yu. G. Tkachenko; V. K. Yulyugin

1984-01-01

204

Friction force studies on layered materials using an Atomic Force Microscope

We have studied friction force versus normal load on the nanometer scale on three layered materials which are expected to exhibit different mechanical properties: 2H-MoS2, 2H-NbSe2, ?-MoO3. Different behaviours have been observed, such as plastic deformation and local wear. Under well-defined conditions there exists an analogy between nanoscopic experimental results and macroscopic friction results predicted by models (Amontons' law for

H. Klein; D. Pailharey; Y. Mathey

1997-01-01

205

Frictional sliding in layered rock: laboratory-scale experiments

The work is part of the rock mechanics effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program. The laboratory-scale experiments are intended to provide high quality data on the mechanical behavior of jointed structures that can be used to validate complex numerical models for rock-mass behavior. Frictional sliding between simulated rock joints was studied using phase shifting moire interferometry. A model, constructed from stacks of machined and sandblasted granite plates, contained a central hole bore normal to the place so that frictional slip would be induced between the plates near the hole under compressive loading. Results show a clear evolution of slip with increasing load. Since the rock was not cycled through loading- unloading, the quantitative differences between the three data sets are probably due to a ``wearing-in`` effect. The highly variable spatial frequency of the data is probably due to the large grain size of the granite and the stochastic frictional processes. An unusual feature of the evolution of slip with increasing load is that as the load gets larger, some plates seem to return to a null position. Figs, 6 refs.

Buescher, B.J.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S.

1996-09-01

206

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The forced mixing process of a turbulent boundary layer in an axisymmetric annular diffuser using conventional wing-like vortex generators was studied. Flow field measurements were made at four axial locations downstream of the vortex generators. At each axial location, a total of 25 equally spaced profiles were measured behind three consecutive vortex generators which formed two pairs of vortex generators. Hot film anemometry probes measured the boundary layer turbulence structure at the same locations where pressure measurements were made. Both single and cross film probes were used. The diffuser turbulence data was teken only for a nominal inlet Mach number of 0.3. Three vortex generator configurations were tested. The differences between configurations involved changes in size and relative vortex generator positions. All three vortex generator configurations tested provided increases in diffuser performance. Distinct differences in the boundary layer integral properties and skin friction levels were noted between configurations. The axial turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress profiles measured displayed similarities in trends but differences in levels for the three configurations.

Shaw, R. J.

1979-01-01

207

Implementation of wall boundary conditions for transpiration in F3D thin-layer Navier-Stokes code

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical boundary conditions for mass injection/suction at the wall are incorporated in the thin-layer Navier-Stokes code, F3D. The accuracy of the boundary conditions and the code is assessed by a detailed comparison of the predictions of velocity distributions and skin-friction coefficients with exact similarity solutions for laminar flow over a flat plate with variable blowing/suction, and measurements for turbulent flow past a flat plate with uniform blowing. In laminar flow, F3D predictions for friction coefficient compare well with exact similarity solution with and without suction, but produces large errors at moderate-to-large values of blowing. A slight Mach number dependence of skin-friction coefficient due to blowing in turbulent flow is computed by F3D code. Predicted surface pressures for turbulent flow past an airfoil with mass injection are in qualitative agreement with measurements for a flat plate.

Kandula, M.; Martin, F. W., Jr.

1991-01-01

208

Further Improvements to Nozzle Boundary Layer Calculations in BLIMPJ

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Further improvements made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods by accounting for condensed phase, thick boundary layer and free stream turbulence effects are discussed. The condensed phase effects were included through species composition effect considered via input to the code and through particle damping effect considered via a turbulence model. The thrust loss calculation procedure for thick boundary layer effects was improved and the optimization of net thrust with respect to nozzle length was performed. The effects of free stream turbulence were approximately modeled in the turbulence model.

Praharaj, S. C.; Gross, Klaus W.

1989-01-01

209

Shock wave-boundary layer interactions in rarefied gas flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical study is presented, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, of shock wave-boundary layer interactions in low density supersonic flows. Test cases include two-dimensional, axially-symmetric and three-dimensional flows. The effective displacement angle of the boundary layer is calculated for representative flat plate, wedge, and cone flows. The maximum pressure, shear stress, and heat transfer in the shock formation region is determined in each case. The two-dimensional reflection of an oblique shock wave from a flat plate is studied, as is the three-dimensional interaction of such a wave with a sidewall boundary layer.

Bird, G. A.

1991-01-01

210

Role of friction in pattern formation in oscillated granular layers Sung Joon Moon, # J. B. Swift grains. Our molecular dynamics simuÂ lations reveal that friction is essential for realistic modeling at a container acceleration about 30% smaller than that observed in experiments and simulations with friction

Texas at Austin. University of

211

Role of friction in pattern formation in oscillated granular layers Sung Joon Moon,* J. B. Swift as there are no elastic grains. Our molecular dynamics simulations reveal that friction is essential for realistic with friction. More importantly, even though square and hexagonal patterns form for a wide range

Texas at Austin. University of

212

Conical similarity of shock/boundary layer interactions generated by swept fins

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric experimental study has been made of the class of 3D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions generated by swept-leading-edge fins. The fin sweepback angles ranged from 0 to 65 deg at angles of attack of 5, 9, and 15 deg. Two equilibrium 2D turbulent boundary layers with a free-stream Mach number of 2.95 and a Reynolds number of 6.3 x 10 to the 7th/m were used as incoming flow conditions. All the resulting interactions were found to possess conical symmetry of surface pressures and skin friction lines beyond an initial inception zone. Further, these interactions revealed a simple similarity based on inviscid shock strength irrespective of fin sweepback or angle of attack.

Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.

1983-01-01

213

Investigation of blown boundary layers with an improved wall jet system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements were made in a two dimensional incompressible wall jet submerged under a thick upstream boundary layer with a zero pressure gradient and an adverse pressure gradient. The measurements included mean velocity and Reynolds stresses profiles, skin friction, and turbulence spectra. The measurements were confined to practical ratios (less than 2) of the jet velocity to the free stream velocity. The wall jet used in the experiments had an asymmetric velocity profile with a relatively higher concentration of momentum away from the wall. An asymmetric jet velocity profile has distinct advantages over a uniform jet velocity profile, especially in the control of separation. Predictions were made using Irwin's (1974) method for blown boundary layers. The predictions clearly show the difference in flow development between an asymmetric jet velocity profile and a uniform jet velocity profile.

Saripalli, K. R.; Simpson, R. L.

1980-01-01

214

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An implicit finite difference method has been applied to tangential slot injection into supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows. In addition, the effects induced by the interaction between the boundary layer displacement thickness and the external pressure field are considered. In the present method, three different eddy viscosity models have been used to specify the turbulent momentum exchange. One model depends on the species concentration profile and the species conservation equation has been included in the system of governing partial differential equations. Results are compared with experimental data at stream Mach numbers of 2.4 and 6.0 and with results of another finite difference method. Good agreement was generally obtained for the reduction of wall skin friction with slot injection and with experimental Mach number and pitot pressure profiles. Calculations with the effects of pressure interaction included showed these effects to be smaller than effects of changing eddy viscosity models.

Miner, E. W.; Lewis, C. H.

1972-01-01

215

Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES

Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.

Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J

2004-06-15

216

Heat Transmission in the Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present paper which deals with the heat transfer between the gas and the wall for large temperature drops and large velocities use is made of the method of Dorodnitsyn of the introduction of a new independent variable, with this difference, however, that the relation between the temperature field (that is, density) and the velocity field in the general case considered is not assumed given but is determined from the solution of the problem. The effect of the compressibility arising from the heat transfer is thus taken into account (at the same time as the effect of the compressibility at the large velocities). A method is given for determining the coefficients of heat transfer and the friction coefficients required in many technical problems for a curved wall in a gas flow at large Mach numbers and temperature drops. The method proposed is applicable both for Prandtl number P = 1 and for P not equal to 1.

Kalikhman, L. E.

1949-01-01

217

An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers at high Mach number and Reynolds numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skin friction, heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained in laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers on flat plates at Mach numbers from 7 to 13 at wall-to-free stream stagnation temperature ratios from 0.1 to 0.3. Measurements in laminar flows were in excellent agreement with the theory of Cheng. Correlations of the transition measurements with measurements on flight vehicles and in ballistic ranges show good agreement. Our transition measurements do not correlate well with those of Pate and Schueler. Comparisons have been made between the skin friction and heat transfer measurements and the theories of Van Driest, Eckert and Spalding and Chi. These comparisons reveal in general that at the high end of our Mach number range (10-13) the theory of Van Driest is in best agreement with the data, whereas at lower Mach numbers (6.5-10) the Spalding Chi theory is in better agreement with the measurements.

Holden, M. S.

1972-01-01

218

A boundary-layer model for Mars - Comparison with Viking lander and entry data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1D boundary-layer model of Mars based on a momentum equation that describes friction, pressure gradient, and Coriolis forces is presented. Frictional forces and convective heating are computed using the level-2 turbulence closure theory of Mellor and Yamada (1974). The model takes into account the radiative effects of CO2 gas and suspended dust particles. Both radiation and convection depend on surface temperatures which are computed from a surface heat budget. Model predictions are compared with available observations from Viking landers. It is concluded that, in general, the model reproduces the basic features of the temperature data. The agreement is particularly good at entry time for the V L-2 site, where the model and observations are within several degrees at all levels for which data are available.

Haberle, R. M.; Houben, H. C.; Hertenstein, R.; Herdtle, T.

1993-06-01

219

Bifurcation Behaviour in the Reverse-Flow Boundary Layer with Special Injection or Suction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifurcation solutions are numerically presented for reverse flow boundary layer equations with special suction/injection by utilizing similarity transformation and shooting technique. The results indicate that both superior solution and inferior solution are noticeable. The skin friction and shear stress for the superior solution decrease with the increases of the ratio of surface velocity to free stream velocity and suction/injection. The behaviour is opposite to that for the inferior solution. Both the skin frictions for the superior and inferior solutions decrease with increasing the power law parameter. The inferior solution approaches the superior solution with increasing the velocity ratio and suction/injection. When power law is unit and suction/injection is zero, the superior solution approaches the classical Blasius solution as the velocity ratio approaches zero.

Zheng, Lian-Cun; Zhang, Xin-Xin; He, Ji-Cheng

2003-01-01

220

On the vertical lifting of dust in a convective unstable atmospheric boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the density Q of vertical mass flux of sand (dust) in the convective atmospheric boundary layer as a function of the number density N of convective elements (including vortices), friction velocity u *, and vertical (turbulent) buoyancy flux B is proposed. It is shown that the flux Q is proportional to the product of the square root of B and the sixth power of u *. This finding is consistent with empirical dependences Q( u *) reported in the literature. We discuss two methods for experimentally determining density N when the lifting of dust occurs, mainly due to (terrestrial and Martian) dust devils.

Kurgansky, M. V.

2014-07-01

221

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whilst recent developments of nanotechnology are being exploited by chemists and marine biologists to understand how the completely environmentally friendly foul release coatings can control marine biofouling and how they can be developed further, the understanding of the hydrodynamic performances of these new generation coatings is being overlooked. This paper aims to investigate the relative boundary layer, roughness and drag characteristics of some novel nanostructured coatings, which were developed through a multi-European and multi-disciplined collaborative research project AMBIO (2010), within the framework of turbulent flows over rough surfaces. Zero-pressure-gradient, turbulent boundary layer flow measurements were conducted over flat surfaces coated with several newly developed nanostructured antifouling paints, along with some classic reference surfaces and a state-of-the-art commercial coating, in the Emerson Cavitation Tunnel (ECT) of Newcastle University. A large flat plane test bed that included interchangeable flat test sections was used for the experiments. The boundary layer data were collected with the aid of a two-dimensional DANTEC Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system. These measurements provided the main hydrodynamic properties of the newly developed nanostructured coatings including local skin friction coefficients, roughness functions and Reynolds stresses. The tests and subsequent analysis indicated the exceptionally good frictional properties of all coatings tested, in particular, the drag benefit of some new nanostructured coatings in the Reynolds number range investigated. The rapidly decreasing roughness function trends of AKZO19 and AKZO20 as the ks^{ + } increases were remarkable along with the dissimilar roughness function character of all tested coatings to the well-known correlation curves warranting further research at higher Reynolds numbers. The wall similarity concept for the Reynolds stresses was only validated for the transitionally rough surfaces from (y + \\varepsilon)^{ + } ? 100 up to the end of the boundary layer.

Ünal, U?ur Oral; Ünal, Burcu; Atlar, Mehmet

2012-06-01

222

The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near ? = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near ? = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to ? = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to ? = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 ?m. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

2011-01-01

223

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider slip with friction and penetration with resistance boundary conditions in the steady state Navier-Stokes equations. This paper describes some aspects of the implementation of these boundary conditions for finite element discretizations. Numerical tests on two- and three-dimensional channel flows across a step using the slip with friction boundary condition study the influence of the friction parameter on the position of the reattachment point and the reattachment line of the recirculating vortex, respectively.

John, Volker

2002-10-01

224

Further studies of unsteady boundary layers with flow reversal

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One set of calculations was performed using the first order, time dependent turbulent boundary layer equations, and extended earlier work by Nash and Patel to a wider range of flows. Another set of calculations was performed for laminar flow using the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The results of the calculations confirm previous conclusions concerning the existence of a regime of unseparated flow, containing an embedded region of reversal, which is accessible to first order boundary layer theory. However, certain doubts are cast on the precise nature of the events which accompany the eventual breakdown of the theory due to singularity onset. The earlier view that the singularity appears as the final event in a sequence involving rapid thickening of the boundary layer and the formation of a localized region of steep gradients is called into question by the present results. It appears that singularity onset is not necessarily preceded by rapid boundary layer thickening, or even necessarily produces immediate thickening.

Nash, J. F.

1976-01-01

225

Interacting turbulent boundary layer over a wavy wall

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two dimensional supersonic flow of a thick turbulent boundary layer over a train of relatively small wave-like protuberances is considered. The flow conditions and the geometry are such that there exists a strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow. The problem cannot be solved without inclusion of interaction effects due to the occurrence of the separation singularity in classical boundary layer methods. The interacting boundary layer equations are solved numerically using a time-like relaxation method with turbulence effects represented by the inclusion of the eddy viscosity model. Results are presented for flow over a train of up to six waves for Mach numbers of 10 and 32 million/meter, and wall temperature rations (T sub w/T sub 0) of 0.4 and 0.8. Limited comparisons with independent experimental and analytical results are also given. Detailed results on the influence of small protuberances on surface heating by boundary layers are presented.

Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.

1977-01-01

226

Performance of a boundary layer ingesting propulsion system

This thesis presents an assessment of the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft propulsion system, with embedded engines, in the presence of aircraft fuselage boundary layer ingestion (BLI). The emphasis is on defining ...

Plas, Angélique (Angélique Pascale)

2006-01-01

227

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING BASED UPON BOUNDARY LAYER PARAMETERIZATION

Characteristic scaling parameters in the planetary boundary layer have been applied to estimate the dispersion of nonbuoyant gaseous pollutants. Vertical and lateral spread are treated separately, and the choice of parameters for the dispersion models depends upon the actual stat...

228

Examining A Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer at Low Reynolds Number

The purpose of the current study was to answer several questions related to hypersonic, low Reynolds number, turbulent boundary layers, of which available data related to turbulence quantities is scarce. To that end, a unique research facility...

Semper, Michael Thomas

2013-05-15

229

Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Idealized Urban Roughness

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaussian model of plume dispersion is commonly used for pollutant concentration estimates. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, barely account for terrain configuration and surface roughness. Large-scale roughness elements (e.g. buildings in urban areas) can substantially modify the ground features together with the pollutant transport in the atmospheric boundary layer over urban roughness (also known as the urban boundary layer, UBL). This study is thus conceived to investigate how urban roughness affects the flow structure and vertical dispersion coefficient in the UBL. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is carried out to examine the plume dispersion from a ground-level pollutant (area) source over idealized street canyons for cross flows in neutral stratification. A range of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, covering the regimes of skimming flow, wake interference, and isolated roughness, is employed to control the surface roughness. Apart from the widely used aerodynamic resistance or roughness function, the friction factor is another suitable parameter that measures the drag imposed by urban roughness quantitatively. Previous results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling also support the aforementioned approach for both two- and three-dimensional roughness elements. Comparing the UBL plume behaviour, the LES results show that the pollutant dispersion strongly depends on the friction factor. Empirical studies reveal that the vertical dispersion coefficient increases with increasing friction factor in the skimming flow regime (lower resistance) but is more uniform in the regimes of wake interference and isolated roughness (higher resistance). Hence, it is proposed that the friction factor and flow regimes could be adopted concurrently for pollutant concentration estimate in the UBL over urban street canyons of different roughness.

Wong, Colman C. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho

2013-05-01

230

Prehistory of Instability in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer

. The initial phase of hypersonic boundary-layer transition comprising excitation of boundary-layer modes and their downstream\\u000a evolution from receptivity regions to the unstable region (instability prehistory problem) is considered. The disturbance\\u000a spectrum reveals the following features: (1) the first and second modes are synchronized with acoustic waves near the leading\\u000a edge; (2) further downstream, the first mode is synchronized with

Alexander V. Fedorov; Andrew P. Khokhlov

2001-01-01

231

Acoustic sources in the low Mach number turbulent boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sources of sound production in a low Mach number turbulent boundary layer are examined. The sources are shown to be quadrupole in nature and to result from supersonically convecting wave-number components of the fluctuating Reynolds' normal stresses. The primary Tollmien-Schlichting instability of the boundary layer is found to radiate no sound. Analysis of various vortical phenomena suggests that the primary source is the process of formation of horseshoe vortices, with viscous sublayer bursts a possible secondary source.

Hardin, Jay C.

1991-01-01

232

Observations on streamwise vortices in laminar and turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequent but often unsuspected presence of streamwise vortices in nominally two dimensional laminar and turbulent boundary layers and some of their consequences are described. Since there is no body of systematic information on streamwise vortices imbedded in boundary layers, a number of issues concerning their occurrence and behavior are discussed in the form of a set of succinct observations. Desirable experimental and numerical research to remedy the current lack of knowledge is recommended.

Morkovin, M. V.

1979-01-01

233

Shock wave oscillation driven by turbulent boundary layer fluctuations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure fluctuations due to the interaction of a shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer were investigated. A simple model is proposed in which the shock wave is convected from its mean position by velocity fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer. Displacement of the shock is assumed limited by a linear restoring mechanism. Predictions of peak root mean square pressure fluctuation and spectral density are in excellent agreement with available experimental data.

Plotkin, K. J.

1972-01-01

234

New algebraic approaches to classical boundary layer problems

Classical non-steady boundary layer equations are fundamental nonlinear partial differential equations in the boundary layer\\u000a theory of fluid dynamics. In this paper, we introduce various schemes with multiple parameter functions to solve these equations\\u000a and obtain many families of new explicit exact solutions with multiple parameter functions. Moreover, symmetry transformations\\u000a are used to simplify our arguments. The technique of moving

Xiao Ping Xu

2011-01-01

235

A multidisciplinary optimization method for designing boundary layer ingesting inlets

The Blended-Wing-Body is a conceptual aircraft design with rear-mounted, over-wing engines. Two types of engine installations have been considered for this aircraft. One installation is quite conventional with podded engines mounted on pylons. The other installation has partially buried engines with boundary layer ingesting inlets. Although ingesting the low-momentum flow in a boundary layer can improve propulsive efficiency, poor inlet

David Leonard Rodriguez

2001-01-01

236

Study on ground clutter prevention fences for boundary layer radars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low elevation sidelobe suppression algorithm based on the uniform physical theory of diffraction (PTD) is developed to simulate ground clutter prevention fences for boundary layer radars (BLRs). As applications to the algorithm, the most suitable fence is achieved for the lower troposphere radar (LTR) and the L-28 boundary layer radar, respectively. The developed algorithm can also be applied to other radar systems where reducing low elevation sidelobes is desired.

Rao, Qinjiang; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukao, Shoichiro

2003-04-01

237

Evaluation of boundary lubricants using steady-state wear and friction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A friction and wear study was made at 20 C to establish operating limits and procedures for obtaining improved reproducibility and reliability in boundary lubrication testing. Ester base and C-other base fluids were used to lubricate a pure iron rider in sliding contact with a rotating M-50 steel disk in a pin-on-disk apparatus. Results of a parametric study with varying loads and speeds slowed that satisfactory test conditions for studying the direction and wear characteristics in the boundary lubrication regime with this test device were found to be 1 kilogram load; 7 to 9 meters-per-minute (50 rpm) surface speed; dry air test atmosphere (less than 100 ppm H2O); and use of a time stepwise procedure for measuring wear. Highly reproducible steady-state wear rates resulted from the two fluid studies which had a linearity of about 99 percent after initially higher wear rates and friction coefficients during run-in periods of 20 to 40 minutes.

Loomis, W. R.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

1981-01-01

238

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic resolution images of the mineral astrophyllite have been obtained using the electric double layer technique [Sokolov, I.Yu., Henderson, G.S., Wicks, F.J., Applied Physics Letters 70 (1997) 17] and when immersed in water. Both friction and height images were recorded simultaneously. We find that when scanning in water, the primary contribution to the image contrast comes from the friction force, in agreement with previously published studies. However, when scanning in the presence of an electric double layer (EDL), the image contrast is primarily the result of vertical force. These results remain valid over a large range of load forces.

Sokolov, I. Yu; Henderson, G. S.

2000-04-01

239

Study of stirred layers on 316L steel created by friction stir processing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured materials are known to exhibit attractive properties, especially in the mechanical field where high hardness is of great interest. The friction stir process (FSP) is a recent surface engineering technique derived from the friction stir welding method (FSW). In this study, the FSP of an 316L austenitic stainless steel has been evaluated. The treated layers have been characterized in terms of hardness and microstructure and these results have been related to the FSP operational parameters. The process has been analysed using a Response Surface Method (RSM) to enable the stirred layer thickness prediction.

Langlade, C.; Roman, A.; Schlegel, D.; Gete, E.; Folea, M.

2014-08-01

240

Turbulent boundary layer in high Rayleigh number convection in air.

Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re?200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal. PMID:24724653

du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian

2014-03-28

241

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of transpired turbulent boundary layers in zero and adverse pressure gradients has been carried out. Profiles of: (1) the mean velocity, (2) the three intensities of the turbulent fluctuations, and (3) the Reynolds stress were obtained by hot-wire anemometry. The friction coefficients were measured by using an integrated form of the boundary layer equation to extrapolate the measured shear stress profiles to the wall.

Anderson, P. S.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

1972-01-01

242

Dayside boundary layer under northward IMF: A Cluster perspective

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) was formed by high-latitude reconnection when the IMF is northward. To study the relationship between the low-latitude boundary layer and high-latitude boundary layer under northward IMF condition, we present statistical results based on 3 years of data obtained by Cluster when these spacecraft were in the vicinity of the dayside magnetopause during northward IMF. In total 341 cases of Cluster crossing of Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) and High Latitude Boundary Layer (HLBL) (according to the definition by Phan et al [1996a,b]) have been analyzed in detail in order to study the relation between the LLBL and the HLBL. The plasma density, temperature, velocity, energetic particle flux and magnetic field geometry change across the magnetopause under northward IMF were analyzed by a superposed epoch analysis. It has been suggested [Zong et al, 2004] that the solar wind plasma density decreases in the magnetospheric boundary region in an exponential mannerwith an e-folding distance of 1000 km during northward IMF in a case study. In this statistical study, we explore further the relation between the distance to magnetopause and the penetration of solar wind plasma inside the magnetopause. Phan, T. D., and G. Paschmann, Low-latitude dayside magnetopause and boundary layer for high magnetic sheath: 1. Structure and motion, J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7801-7815, 1996 Phan, T. D., G. Paschmann, and B. U. O. Sonnerup, Low-latitude dayside magnetopause and boundary layer for high magnetic sheath: 2. Occurrence of magnetic reconnection, J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7817-7828, 1996 Zong, Q.-G., T. A. Fritz, H. Spence, K. Oksavik, Z.-Y. Pu, A. Korth, and P. W. Daly, Energetic particle sounding of the magnetopause: A contribution by Cluster/RAPID, J. Geophys. Res.,109, A04207, 2004

Zhang, H.; Fritz, T.; Zong, Q.; Daly, P.

2004-12-01

243

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability of the OVERFLOW code to accurately compute high-speed turbulent boundary layers and turbulent shock-boundary layer interactions is being evaluated. Configurations being investigated include a Mach 2.87 flat plate to compare experimental velocity profiles and boundary layer growth, a Mach 6 flat plate to compare experimental surface heat transfer,a direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Mach 2.25 for turbulent quantities, and several Mach 3 compression ramps to compare computations of shock-boundary layer interactions to experimental laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and hot-wire data. The present paper describes outlines the study and presents preliminary results for two of the flat plate cases and two small-angle compression corner test cases.

Oliver, A. B.; Lillard, R. P.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Lyrintizis, A. S.

2006-01-01

244

ON AERODYNAMIC AND BOUNDARY LAYER RESISTANCES WITHIN DRY DEPOSITION MODELS

There have been many empirical parameterizations for the aerodynamic and boundary layer resistances proposed in the literature, e.g. those of the Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model (MLM) used with the nation-wide dry deposition network. Many include arbitrary constants or par...

245

Stabilization of Hypersonic Boundary Layers by Porous Coatings

A second-mode stability analysis has been performed for a hypersonic boundary layer on a wall covered by a porous coating with equally spaced cylindrical blind microholes. Massive reduction of the second mode amplié - cation is found to be due to the disturbance energy absorption by the porous layer. This stabilization effect was demonstrated by experiments recently conducted on a

Alexander V. Fedorov; Norman D. Malmuth; Adam Rasheed; Hans G. Hornung

2001-01-01

246

Methodology for automatic boundary layer detection using ground penetrating radar

Ground penetrating radars are u of application. A challenging task is t interpretation of measurement data wherefore experts' help is necessary. In this paper an au layer detection based on selective time-freq proposed. Developed algorithms are tested on acquired with an integrated GPR system o excavator in open cast mining. Keywords—Automatic boundary layer frequency analysis; GPR; open cast mining I.

Tobias Mathiak; Martin Kesting; Ludger Overmeyer; Veronika Gau

2011-01-01

247

Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.

Reed, Helen L.

1995-01-01

248

Feasibility study of optical boundary layer transition detection method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high sensitivity differential interferometer was developed to locate the region where the boundary layer flow undergoes transition from laminar to turbulent. Two laboratory experimental configurations were used to evaluate the performance of the interferometer: open shear layer, and low speed wind tunnel turbulent spot configuration. In each experiment, small temperature fluctuations were introduced as the signal source. Simultaneous cold wire measurements were compared with the interferometer data. The comparison shows that the interferometer is sensitive to very weak phase variations in the order of 0.001 the laser wavelength. An attempt to detect boundary layer transition over a flat plate at NASA-Langley Unitary Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the interferometer system was performed. The phase variations during boundary layer transition in the supersonic wind tunnel were beyond the minimum signal-to-noise level of the instrument.

Azzazy, M.; Modarress, D.; Trolinger, J. D.

1986-01-01

249

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of kappa-omega models to predict compressible turbulent skin friction in hypersonic boundary layers is investigated. Although uncorrected two-equation models can agree well with correlations for hot-wall cases, they tend to perform progressively worse - particularly for cold walls - as the Mach number is increased in the hypersonic regime. Simple algebraic models such as Baldwin-Lomax perform better compared to experiments and correlations in these circumstances. Many of the compressibility corrections described in the literature are summarized here. These include corrections that have only a small influence for kappa-omega models, or that apply only in specific circumstances. The most widely-used general corrections were designed for use with jet or mixing-layer free shear flows. A less well-known dilatation-dissipation correction intended for boundary layer flows is also tested, and is shown to agree reasonably well with the Baldwin-Lomax model at cold-wall conditions. It exhibits a less dramatic influence than the free shear type of correction. There is clearly a need for improved understanding and better overall physical modeling for turbulence models applied to hypersonic boundary layer flows.

Rumsey, C. L.

2009-01-01

250

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are prone to inaccuracies associated with incorrectly formulated physical models. Common in CFD is the spurious treatment as locally laminar flow regions as turbulent, resulting in incorrect turbulent-boundary-layer profiles, separated-flow behavior, and local skin-friction coefficients. The combined effects impacts global measures like drag, lift coefficient, and wake intensity. Recently, Menter & Langtry (AIAA 47 2009)

Adam Lavely; Michael Kinzel; Ganesh Vijayakumar; James Brasseur; Eric Paterson; Jules Lindau

2010-01-01

251

Dense gas boundary layer experiments: Visualization, pressure measurements, concentration evaluation

This technical report describes methods that were applied to investigate turbulent boundary layers generated by inviscid, baroclinic effects. The Cranz-Schardin 24-sparks camera was used to visualize the interactions of a planar shock wave with a Freon R12-layer. The shock propagates more slowly in the Freon layer than in air because of its smaller sound speed. This causes the shock front

H. Reichenbach; P. Neuwald; A. L. Kuhl

1992-01-01

252

Screening of selective radiation in a boundary layer

An analysis of numerous calculations of the flow and radiative-convective heat exchange in a hypersonic shock layer near a blunt body, both at an impermeable surface [1] and in the presence of ablation [1–4], made it possible to establish some relationships connected with the screening in the boundary layer of radiation from the high-temperature part of the shock layer. It

T. V. Kondranin; I. N. Kuz'minskii

1978-01-01

253

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the mathematical model for free convection boundary layer flow in a micropolar fluid near the lower stagnation point of a solid sphere with convective boundary conditions, in which the heat is supplied through a bounding surface of finite thickness and finite heat capacity, is considered. The transformed and reduced boundary layer equations in the form of ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical solutions are obtained for the local wall temperature and the local skin friction coefficient, as well as the velocity, angular velocity and temperature profiles. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the material or micropolar parameter K, the Prandtl number Prand the conjugate parameter ?are analyzed and discussed.

Alkasasbeh, Hamzeh Taha; Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Tahar, Razman Mat; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan

2014-06-01

254

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.

Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli

1991-01-01

255

Diamagnetic boundary layers - A kinetic theory. [for collisionless magnetized plasmas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A kinetic theory is presented for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma, such as those observed in the solar wind. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases are considered in which the magnetic-field intensity, direction, or both, changed across the layer. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii, and the field changed smoothly, although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. These results are consistent with observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU.

Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L. F.

1976-01-01

256

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One objective of the Advanced Undersea Vehicle (AUV) program is to design a low drag vehicle. The approach in this investigation is boundary layer control by means of an annular suction slot located on the afterbody. Although wind tunnel data showed significant reduction in propulsive power over conventional shapes, an attempt was made to achieve further reduction by means of forebody shaping. Two methods were used to vary the geometric parameters for this analysis. The direct method, based on the mathematical development of the Series 58 bodies, allows the definition of a shape by a fifth-order polynomial based on the four fundamental parameters of fineness ratio, nose radius of curvature, location of maximum thickness, and prismatic coefficient. The inverse method allows various velocity distributions to define the body shape. The shapes derived by this method have flat velocity distributions and show similar trends to the polynomial shapes (about 3-percent reduction in propulsive power). The range of fineness ratios analyzed was from 1 to 10 at a volume-based Reynolds number of 3.2 million. In the range of 2.5 to 8, fineness ratio did not affect propulsive power more than 6 percent. A maximum improvement of 3 percent as shown by varying the meridian section.

Neumann, B. J.

1983-07-01

257

PIV experiments in rough-wall, laminar-to-turbulent, oscillatory boundary-layer flows

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploratory measurements of oscillatory boundary layers were conducted over a smooth and two different rough beds spanning the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes using a multi-camera 2D-PIV system in a small oscillatory-flow tunnel (Admiraal et al. in J Hydraul Res 44(4):437-450, 2006). Results show how the phase lag between bed shear stress and free-stream velocity is better defined when the integral of the momentum equation is used to estimate the bed shear stress. Observed differences in bed shear stress and phase lag between bed shear stress and free-stream velocity are highly sensitive to the definition of the bed position ( y = b). The underestimation of turbulent stresses close to the wall is found to explain such differences when using the addition of Reynolds and viscous stresses to define both the bed shear stress and the phase lag. Regardless of the flow regime, in all experiments, boundary-layer thickness reached its maximum value at a phase near the flow reversal at the wall. Friction factors in smooth walls are better estimated using a theoretical equation first proposed by Batchelor (An introduction to fluid dynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1967) while the more recent empirical predictor of Pedocchi and Garcia (J Hydraul Res 47(4):438-444, 2009a) was found to be appropriate for estimating friction coefficients in the laminar-to-turbulent transition regime.

Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Mier, Jose M.; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Bateman, Allen; Garcia, Marcelo H.

2014-01-01

258

The electrophoresis of a soft particle comprising a rigid core and a charged porous membrane layer in a narrow space is modeled. This simulates, for example, the capillary electrophoresis of biocolloids such as cells and microorganisms, and biosensor types of device. We show that, in addition to the boundary effect, the effects of double-layer polarization (DLP) and the electroosmotic retardation flow can be significant, yielding interesting electrophoretic behaviors. For example, if the friction coefficient of the membrane layer and/or the boundary is large, then the DLP effect can be offset by the electroosmotic retardation flow, making the particle mobility to decrease with increasing double layer thickness, which is qualitatively consistent with many experimental observations in the literature, but has not been explained clearly in previous analyses. In addition, depending upon the thickness of double layer, the friction of the membrane layer of a particle can either retard or accelerate its movement, an interesting result which has not been reported previously. This work is the first attempt to show solid evidence for the influence of a boundary on the effect of DLP and the electrophoretic behavior of soft particles. The model proposed is verified by the experimental data in the literature. The results of numerical simulation provide valuable information for the design of bio-analytical apparatus such as nanopore-based sensing applications and for the interpretation of relevant experimental data. PMID:21840182

Yeh, Li-Hsien; Fang, Kuo-Ying; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tseng, Shiojenn

2011-12-01

259

Characterizing Boundary Layer Properties for Estimating Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to develop, evaluate and improve methodologies for quantification of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban areas through a multi-year modeling and observational study. The study incorporates measurements of greenhouse gases from periodic aircraft observations as well as from a surface-based network of towers in the area. Recently, we installed a scanning Doppler lidar east of downtown Indianapolis to characterize boundary layer properties important for the aircraft and modeling studies. A scan sequence, including conical scans, vertical scans along two orthogonal directions, and zenith staring is repeated every 20 minutes. The lidar measurements of the radial velocity and backscatter intensity are processed to estimate boundary layer depth, turbulent mixing, aerosol distribution, and wind speed and direction. These lidar-derived boundary layer parameters are used in conjunction with the aircraft greenhouse gas concentration measurements in mass-balance studies and for investigating model performance. The lidar wind profile measurements can also be ingested into models to improve inverse flux estimates. We present here an overview of the first several months of lidar observations from Indianapolis, including performance evaluation, comparison with model estimates, diurnal and seasonal variability of the measurements, and use of the data for model ingest. We also discuss different techniques for estimating boundary layer depth from the observations and the application for mass-balance studies, and introduce plans for deploying a second instrument to study horizontal variability of the measured boundary layer properties.

Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Miles, N. L.; Whetstone, J. R.

2013-12-01

260

Linear and nonlinear PSE for compressible boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compressible stability of growing boundary layers is studied by numerically solving the partial differential equations under a parabolizing approximation. The resulting parabolized stability equations (PSE) account for nonparallel as well as nonlinear effects. Evolution of disturbances in compressible flat-plate boundary layers are studied for freestream Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 4.5. Results indicate that the effect of boundary-layer growth is important for linear disturbances. Nonlinear calculations are performed for various Mach numbers. Two-dimensional nonlinear results using the PSE approach agree well with those from direct numerical simulations using the full Navier-Stokes equations while the required computational time is less by an order of magnitude. Spatial simulation using PSE were carried out for both the fundamental and subharmonic type breakdown for a Mach 1.6 boundary layer. The promising results obtained show that the PSE method is a powerful tool for studying boundary-layer instabilities and for predicting transition over a wide range of Mach numbers.

Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1993-01-01

261

Strong vortex/boundary layer interactions. I - Vortices high

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed measurements with hot-wires and pressure probes are presented for the interaction between a turbulent longitudinal vortex pair with 'common flow' down, and a turbulent boundary layer. The interaction has a larger value of the vortex circulation parameter, and therefore better represents many aircraft/vortex interactions, than those studied previously. The vortices move down towards the boundary layer, but only the outer parts of the vortices actually enter it. Beneath the vortices the boundary layer is thinned by lateral divergence to the extent that it almost ceases to grow. Outboard of the vortices the boundary layer is thickened by lateral convergence. The changes in turbulence structure parameters in the boundary layer appear to be due to the effects of 'extra-rate-of-strain' produced by lateral divergence (or convergence) and by free-stream turbulence. The effect of the interaction on the vortices (other than the inviscid effect of the image vortices below the surface) is small. The flow constitutes a searching test case for prediction methods for three-dimensional turbulent flows.

Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.

1993-01-01

262

Spectral Gap Energy Transfer in Atmospheric Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements of atmospheric turbulence energy spectra show E(k) ~ k-3 slopes at synoptic scales (~ 600 km - 2000 km) and k-5/3 slopes at the mesoscales (< 400 km). The -5/3 spectra is presumably related to 3D turbulence which is dominated by the classical Kolmogrov energy cascade. The -3 spectra is related to 2D turbulence, which is dominated by strong forward scatter of enstrophy and weak forward scatter of energy. In classical 2D turbulence theory, it is expected that a strong backward energy cascade would develop at the synoptic scale, and that circulation would grow infinitely. To limit this backward transfer, energy arrest at macroscales must be introduced. The most commonly used turbulence models developed to mimic the above energy transfer include the energy backscatter model for 2D turbulence in the horizontal plane via Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models, dissipative URANS models in the vertical plane, and Ekman friction for the energy arrest. One of the controversial issues surrounding the atmospheric turbulence spectra is the explanation of the generation of the 2D and 3D spectra and transition between them, for energy injection at the synoptic scales. Lilly (1989) proposed that the existence of 2D and 3D spectra can only be explained by the presence of an additional energy injection in the meso-scale region. A second issue is related to the observations of dual peak spectra with small variance in meso-scale, suggesting that the energy transfer occurs across a spectral gap (Van Der Hoven, 1957). Several studies have confirmed the spectral gap for the meso-scale circulations, and have suggested that they are enhanced by smaller scale vertical convection rather than by the synoptic scales. Further, the widely accepted energy arrest mechanism by boundary layer friction is closely related to the spectral gap transfer. This study proposes an energy transfer mechanism for atmospheric turbulence with synoptic scale injection, wherein the generation of 2D and 3D spectra is explained using spectral gap energy transfer. The existence of the spectral gap energy transfer is validated by performing LES for the interaction of large scale circulation with a wall, and studying the evolution of the energy spectra both near to and far from the wall. Simulations are also performed using the Advanced Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF-ARW) for moist zonal flow over Gaussian ridge, and the energy spectra close and away from the ground are studied. The energy spectra predicted by WRF-ARW are qualitatively compared with LES results to emphasize the limitations of the currently used turbulence parameterizations. Ongoing validation efforts include: (1) extending the interaction of large scale circulation with wall simulations to finer grids to capture a wider range of wavenumbers; and (2) a coupled 2D-3D simulation is planned to predict the entire atmospheric turbulence spectra at a very low computational expense. The overarching objective of this study to develop turbulence modeling capability based on the energy transfer mechanisms proposed in this study. Such a model will be implemented in WRF-ARW, and applied to atmospheric simulations, for example the prediction of moisture convergence patterns at the meso-scale in the southeast United States (Tao & Barros, 2008).

Bhushan, S.; Walters, K.; Barros, A. P.; Nogueira, M.

2012-12-01

263

Use of Boundary Layer Transition Detection to Validate Full-Scale Flight Performance Predictions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full-scale flight performance predictions can be made using CFD or a combination of CFD and analytical skin-friction predictions. However, no matter what method is used to obtain full-scale flight performance predictions knowledge of the boundary layer state is critical. The implementation of CFD codes solving the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain these predictions is still a time consuming, expensive process. In addition, to ultimately obtain accurate performance predictions the transition location must be fixed in the CFD model. An example, using the M2.4-7A geometry, of the change in Navier-Stokes solution with changes in transition and in turbulence model will be shown. Oil flow visualization using the M2.4-7A 4.0% scale model in the 14'x22' wind tunnel shows that fixing transition at 10% x/c in the CFD model best captures the flow physics of the wing flow field. A less costly method of obtaining full-scale performance predictions is the use of non-linear Euler codes or linear CFD codes, such as panel methods, combined with analytical skin-friction predictions. Again, knowledge of the boundary layer state is critical to the accurate determination of full-scale flight performance. Boundary layer transition detection has been performed at 0.3 and 0.9 Mach numbers over an extensive Reynolds number range using the 2.2% scale Reference H model in the NTF. A temperature sensitive paint system was used to determine the boundary layer state for these conditions. Data was obtained for three configurations: the baseline, undeflected flaps configuration; the transonic cruise configuration; and, the high-lift configuration. It was determined that at low Reynolds number conditions, in the 8 to 10 million Reynolds number range, the baseline configuration has extensive regions of laminar flow, in fact significantly more than analytical skin-friction methods predict. This configuration is fully turbulent at about 30 million Reynolds number for both 0.3 and 0.9, Mach numbers. Both the transonic cruise and the high-lift configurations were fully turbulent aft of the leading-edge flap hingeline at all Reynolds numbers.

Hamner, Marvine; Owens, L. R., Jr.; Wahls, R. A.; Yeh, David

1999-01-01

264

Wet but not slippery: boundary friction in tree frog adhesive toe pads

Tree frogs are remarkable for their capacity to cling to smooth surfaces using large toe pads. The adhesive skin of tree frog toe pads is characterized by peg-studded hexagonal cells separated by deep channels into which mucus glands open. The pads are completely wetted with watery mucus, which led previous authors to suggest that attachment is solely due to capillary and viscous forces generated by the fluid-filled joint between the pad and the substrate. Here, we present evidence from single-toe force measurements, laser tweezer microrheometry of pad mucus and interference reflection microscopy of the contact zone in Litoria caerulea, that tree frog attachment forces are significantly enhanced by close contacts and boundary friction between the pad epidermis and the substrate, facilitated by the highly regular pad microstructure. PMID:16971337

Federle, W; Barnes, W.J.P; Baumgartner, W; Drechsler, P; Smith, J.M

2006-01-01

265

Anisotropic Mesh Adaptivity for Turbulent Flows with Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent flows are found everywhere in nature and are studied, analyzed and simulated using various experimental and numerical tools. For computational analysis, a variety of turbulence models are available and the accuracy of these models in capturing the phenomenon depends largely on the mesh spacings, especially near the walls, in the boundary layer region. Special semi-structured meshes called "mesh boundary layers" are widely used in the CFD community in simulations of turbulent flows, because of their graded and orthogonal layered structure. They provide an efficient way to achieve very fine and highly anisotropic mesh spacings without introducing poorly shaped elements. Since usually the required mesh spacings to accurately resolve the flow are not known a priori to the simulations, an adaptive approach based on a posteriori error indicators is used to achieve an appropriate mesh. In this study, we apply the adaptive meshing techniques to turbulent flows with a focus on boundary layers. We construct a framework to calculate the critical wall normal mesh spacings inside the boundary layers based on the flow physics and the knowledge of the turbulence model. This approach is combined with numerical error indicators to adapt the entire flow region. We illustrate the effectiveness of this hybrid approach by applying it to three aerodynamic flows and studying their superior performance in capturing the flow structures in detail. We also demonstrate the capabilities of the current developments in parallel boundary layer mesh adaptation by applying them to two internal flow problems. We also study the application of adaptive boundary layer meshes to complex geometries like multi element wings. We highlight the advantage of using such techniques for superior wake and tip region resolution by showcasing flow results. We also outline the future direction for the adaptive meshing techniques to be useful to the large scale flow computations.

Chitale, Kedar C.

266

Method for laminar boundary layer transition visualization in flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a method of visualizing laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface. A liquid crystal coating is formulated using an unencapsulated liquid crystal operable in a temperature bandwidth compatible with the temperature environment around the test surface. The liquid crystal coating is applied to the test surface, which is preferably pretreated by painting with a flat, black paint to achieve a deep matte coating, after which the surface is subjected to a liquid or gas flow. Color change in the liquid crystal coating is produced in response to differences in relative shear stress within the boundary layer around the test surface. The novelty of this invention resides in the use of liquid crystals which are sensitive to shear stress to show aerodynamic phenomena such as a boundary layer transition, shock location, and laminar separation bubbles around a test surface.

Holmes, Bruce J. (inventor); Gall, Peter D. (inventor)

1988-01-01

267

Numerical Simulations of Wake/Boundary Layer Interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct and large-eddy simulations of the interaction between the wake of a circular cylinder and a flat-plate boundary layer are conducted. Two Reynolds numbers are examined. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re(sub theta) achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established.

Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Balaras, Elias

2003-01-01

268

Simple turbulence models and their application to boundary layer separation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements in the boundary layer and wake of a stalled airfoil are presented in two coordinate systems, one aligned with the airfoil chord, the other being conventional boundary layer coordinates. The NACA 4412 airfoil is studied at a single angle of attack corresponding to maximum lift, the Reynolds number based on chord being 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power. Turbulent boundary layer separation occurred at the 85 percent chord position. The two-dimensionality of the flow was documented and the momentum integral equation studied to illustrate the importance of turbulence contributions as separation is approached. The assumptions of simple eddy-viscosity and mixing-length turbulence models are checked directly against experiment. Curvature effects are found to be important as separation is approached.

Wadcock, A. J.

1980-01-01

269

Three dimensional boundary layer separation in supersonic flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of a detailed experimental investigation of three dimensional boundary layer separation in supersonic flow. In investigating three dimensional effects on supersonic separation, models were chosen which exhibited departures from two dimensional flow in the simplest way. The plane compression corner was replaced by a plate attached to a swept back wedge formed by two obliquely intersecting planes. Maintaining a constant tunnel Mach number of 2.5, surface pressure measurements were made on these models at static orifices spaced along the centerline and along three parallel lines. The flow parameters in the boundary layer and separated regions adjacent to the model surface were measured by traversing hot wire and pitot probes. The traverses were taken across the boundary layer and reversed flow regions in a direction normal to the body surface; they were made in several vertical planes, including the plane of symmetry.

Bachalo, W. D.; Holt, M.

1976-01-01

270

Blow-up and control of marginally separated boundary layers.

Interactive solutions for steady two-dimensional laminar marginally separated boundary layers are known to exist up to a critical value Gamma(c) of the controlling parameter (e.g. the angle of attack of a slender airfoil) Gamma only. Here, we investigate three-dimensional unsteady perturbations of such boundary layers, assuming that the basic flow is almost critical, i.e. in the limit Gamma(c)-Gamma-->0. It is then shown that the interactive equations governing such perturbations simplify significantly, allowing, among others, a systematic study of the blow-up phenomenon observed in earlier investigations and the optimization of devices used in boundary-layer control. PMID:16105768

Braun, Stefan; Kluwick, Alfred

2005-05-15

271

A compilation of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experimental data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive literature search was conducted and those experiments related to unsteady boundary layer behavior were cataloged. In addition, an international survey of industrial, university, and governmental research laboratories was made in which new and ongoing experimental programs associated with unsteady turbulent boundary layer research were identified. Pertinent references were reviewed and classified based on the technical emphasis of the various experiments. Experiments that include instantaneous or ensemble averaged profiles of boundary layer variables are stressed. The experimental apparatus and flow conditions are described and summaries of acquired data and significant conclusions are summarized. Measurements obtained from the experiments which exist in digital form were stored on magnetic tape. Instructions are given for accessing these data sets for further analysis.

Carr, L. W.

1981-01-01

272

On subcritical instability of the attachment line boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subcritical instability in the two-dimensional incompressible attachment-line boundary layer remains a topic of debate, after the apparently contradictory results of Hall and Malik (1986) on one hand and Spalart (1988) and Jimenez et al. (1990) on the other. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results are presented, aiming at addressing this question. Extensive numerical experimentation has been performed and all results obtained suggest that the two-dimensional model equations describing leading edge boundary layer (LEBL) flow doe not support solutions growing subcritically in Reynolds number, although the nonlinear neutral loop is seen to bifurcate from its linear counterpart in a manner consistent with the predictions of the theory of Hall and Malik (1986). Nonlinear neutral loops have been obtained suggesting that the two-dimensional model LEBL flow is similar to the classical Blasius boundary layer in terms of the location, in parameter space, of the experimentally observed naturally occurring instability waves.

Theofilis, Vassilios

1994-12-01

273

Hypersonic flow separation in shock wave boundary layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is presented for the experimental data on separated flow in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at hypersonic and supersonic speeds. The data base consists mainly of two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions in compression corners or cylinder-flares, and externally generated oblique shock interactions with boundary layers over flat plates or cylindrical surfaces. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow empirical correlations for incipient separation are reviewed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. The pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in separated turbulent boundary layer shock interaction are also presented and discussed.

Hamed, A.; Kumar, Ajay

1992-01-01

274

Effects of forebody geometry on subsonic boundary-layer stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an effort to develop computational techniques for design of natural laminar flow fuselages, a computational study was made of the effect of forebody geometry on laminar boundary layer stability on axisymmetric body shapes. The effects of nose radius on the stability of the incompressible laminar boundary layer was computationally investigated using linear stability theory for body length Reynolds numbers representative of small and medium-sized airplanes. The steepness of the pressure gradient and the value of the minimum pressure (both functions of fineness ratio) govern the stability of laminar flow possible on an axisymmetric body at a given Reynolds number. It was found that to keep the laminar boundary layer stable for extended lengths, it is important to have a small nose radius. However, nose shapes with extremely small nose radii produce large pressure peaks at off-design angles of attack and can produce vortices which would adversely affect transition.

Dodbele, Simha S.

1990-01-01

275

Three dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into a three-dimensional, curved shock wave interacting with a three-dimensional, curved boundary layer on a slender body is presented. Three different nose profiles mounted on a cylindrical body were tested in a supersonic wind tunnel and numerically simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The conical and hemispherical nose profiles tested were found to generate shock waves of sufficient strength to separate the boundary layer on the cylinder, while the shock wave generated by the ogival profile did not separate the boundary layer. For the separated flow, separation was found to occur predominantly on the windward side of the cylinder with the lee-side remaining shielded from the direct impact of the incident shock wave. A thickening of the boundary layer on the lee-side of all the profiles was observed, and in the conical and hemispherical cases this leads to the re-formation of the incident shock wave some distance away from the surface of the cylinder. A complex reflection pattern off the shock wave/boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) was also identified for the separated flow cases. For comparative purposes, an inviscid simulation was performed using the hemispherical profile. Significant differences between the viscous and inviscid results were noted including the absence of a boundary layer leading to a simplified shock wave reflection pattern forming. The behaviour of the incident shock wave on the lee-side of the cylinder was also affected with the shock wave amalgamating on the surface of the cylinder instead of away from the surface as per the viscous case. Test data from the wind tunnel identified two separation lines present on the cylindrical surface of the hemispherical SWBLI generator. The pair of lines were not explicitly evident in the original CFD simulations run, but were later identified in a high-resolution simulation.

Mowatt, S.; Skews, B.

2011-09-01

276

The frictional behaviors of a variety of fatty esters (methyl oleate (MO), methyl palmitate (MP), methyl laurate (ML), and 2-ethylhexyl oleate (EHO)) and oleic estolide esters (methyl oleic estolide ester (ME) and 2-ethylhexyl oleic estolide ester (EHE)) as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime using steel contacts. Critical additive concentrations were defined and used

Todd L. Kurth; Jeffrey A. Byars; Steven C. Cermak; Brajendra K. Sharma; Girma Biresaw

2007-01-01

277

Numerical Modeling of the Evolving Stable Boundary Layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-column model of the evolving stable boundary layer is tested for the consistency of turbulence parameterization, self-similar properties of the flow, and effects of ambient forcing. The turbulence closure of the model is based on the K-theory approach, with stability functions based on empirical data, and a semi-empirical form of the mixing length. The model has one internal, governing stability parameter, the Richardson number Ri, which dynamically adjusts to the boundary conditions and to external forcing. Model results, expressed in terms of local similarity scales, are universal functions of the Richardson number, i.e. they are satisfied in the entire stable boundary layer, for all instants of time, and all kinds of external forcing. Based on similarity expression, a realizability condition is derived for the minimum turbulent heat flux in the stable boundary layer. Numerical experiments show that the development of 'horse-shoe' shaped, 'fixed-elevation' wind hodographs in the interior of the stable boundary layer are solely caused by effects imposed by surface thermal forcing, and are not related to the inertial oscillation mechanism.

Sorbjan, Z.

2013-12-01

278

Large-eddy simulation of the zero pressure gradient, turbulent boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-eddy simulations (LES) of the zero-pressure gradient, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are presented. The LES combines the stretched-vortex, subgrid-scale (SGS) model with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. Specifically, an approximate analytic integration of the stream-wise momentum equation across the near-wall layer, with inner-scaling used to reduce inertial terms, leads to a hyperbolic partial differential equation for the wall shear stress. This is coupled to an SGS model of streamwise, attached vortices in the presence of the wall, constructed to capture the principal dynamical behavior of longitudinal vortices in wall-normal transport of streamwise momentum. The result is an effective slip-velocity boundary condition for the LES at a raised "virtual wall" together with a dynamical calculation of the K'arm'an constant. Presently we demonstrate LES of the spatially developing, turbulent boundary layer at Reynolds numbers Re? based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness in the range Re?= 10^3 -10^12. At large Re?, the calculated skin-friction coefficient agrees well with the Coles-Fernholz relation.

Inoue, Michio; Pullin, D. I.

2010-11-01

279

Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

2013-01-01

280

Low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model for unsteady turbulent boundary-layer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions used in low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon models suggests that they are not suitable for the near-wall region of unsteady turbulent boundary layers, where the flow is characterized by rapid changes in phase. An improved low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model is developed in this paper. The near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions in this model are formulated as functions of the local turbulent Reynolds numbers instead of the inner variable y(+). The present model also has the correct asymptotic behavior in the near-wall region. The turbulence model has been incorporated in an unsteady boundary-layer code and validated for unsteady turbulent boundary layers with and without adverse pressure gradients. The predictions agree well with the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. For the cases tested, the present model correctly predicts the unsteady near-wall flow and the unsteady shin friction at various frequencies.

Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur; Barnett, Mark

1993-01-01

281

Feasibility of generating an artificial burst in a turbulent boundary layer, phase 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various drag accounts for about half of the total drag on commercial aircraft at subsonic cruise conditions. Two avenues are available to achieve drag reduction: either laminar flow control or turbulence manipulation. The present research deals with the latter approach. The primary objective of Phase 2 research was to investigate experimentally the feasibility of substantially reducing the skin-friction drag in a turbulent boundary layer. The method combines the beneficial effects of suction and a longitudinally ribbed surface. At a sufficiently large spanwise separation, the streamwise grooves act as a nucleation site causing a focusing of low-speed streaks over the peaks. Suction is then applied intermittently through longitudinal slots located at selected locations along those peaks to obliterate the low-speed regions and to prevent bursting. Phase 2 research was divided into two tasks. In the first, selective suction from a single streamwise slot was used to eliminate either a single burst-like event or a periodic train of artificially generated bursts in laminar and turbulent boundary layers that develop on a flat plate towed in a water channel. The results indicate that equivalent values of the suction coefficient as low as 0.0006 were sufficient to eliminate the artificially generated bursts in a laminar boundary layer.

Gad-El-hak, Mohamed

1989-01-01

282

Existence results for nano boundary layer flows with nonlinear Navier boundary condition

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard no slip boundary condition of classical fluid mechanics is no longer valid at the micro- and nano-scale and should be replaced by a boundary condition that allows some degree of tangential slip. In the present work, the classical laminar boundary layer equation of the flow away from the origin past a wedge with the no-slip boundary condition replaced by a nonlinear Navier boundary condition is revisited. This boundary condition includes an arbitrary index parameter, denoted by n>0, which appears in the coefficients of the differential equation to be solved. It is proved corresponding to the value n=1/3, there are exactly three situations for the problem: (i) there is no solution; (ii) there exist two solutions; (iii) there exist four solutions. Furthermore, the exact analytical solution of the problem is given in terms of parabolic cylinder functions for further physical interpretations.

Shivanian, Elyas

2013-12-01

283

Carbon vaporization into a nonequilibrium, stagnation-point boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat transfer to the stagnation point of an ablating carbonaceous heat shield, where both the gas-phase boundary layer and the heterogeneous surface reactions are not in chemical equilibrium, is examined. Specifically, the nonequilibrium changes in the mass fraction profiles of carbon species calculated for frozen flow are studied. A set of equations describing the steady-state, nonequilibrium laminar boundary layer in the axisymmetric stagnation region, over an ablating graphite surface, is solved, with allowance for the effects of finite rate of carbon vaporization.

Suzuki, T.

1978-01-01

284

An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

2001-01-01

285

Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.

Klebanoff, P S

1955-01-01

286

Hypersonic crossing shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data for two three-dimensional intersecting shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction flows at Mach 8.3 are presented. The test bodies, composed of two sharp fins fastened to a flat plate test bed, were designed to generate flows with varying degrees of pressure gradient, boundary-layer separation, and turning angle. The data include surface pressure and heat transfer distributions as well as mean flow field surveys both in the undisturbed and interaction regimes. The data are presented in a convenient form to be used to validate existing or future computational models of these hypersonic flows.

Kussoy, M. I.; Horstman, K. C.; Horstman, C. C.

1993-01-01

287

Interacting boundary-layer solutions for laminar separated flow past airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical solutions of the interacting laminar boundary layer equations are presented for two symmetric airfoils at zero incidence: the NACA 0012 and the NACA 66 sub 3-108 airfoils. The potential flow was computed using Carlson's code, and viscous interaction was treated following a Hilbert integral scheme due to Veldman. Effects of various grid parameters are studied, and pressure and skin friction distributions are compared at several Reynolds numbers. For the NACA 0012 airfoil, Reynolds number is varied from a value just below separation (R sub N = 3000) to a value for which extensive separation occurs (R sub N = 100,000). For the 66 sub 3-018 airfoil, results are given at intermediate values (R sub N - 10,000 and 40,000). The method fails to converge for greater values of Reynolds number, corresponding to the development of very thin well separated shear layers where transition to turbulence would occur naturally.

Burggraf, O. R.

1984-01-01

288

Heat transfer and fluid mechanics measurements in transitional boundary layer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results are presented to document hydrodynamic and thermal development of flat-plate boundary layers undergoing natural transition. Local heat transfer coefficients, skin friction coefficients and profiles of velocity, temperature and Reynolds normal and shear stresses are presented. A case with no transition and transitional cases with 0.68 percent and 2.0 percent free-stream disturbance intensities were investigated. The locations of transition are consistent with earlier data. A late-laminar state with significant levels of turbulence is documented. In late-transitional and early-turbulent flows, turbulent Prandtl number and conduction layer thickness values exceed, and the Reynolds analogy factor is less than, values previously measured in fully turbulent flows.

Wang, T.; Simon, T. W.; Buddhavarapu, J.

1985-01-01

289

Physical description of boundary-layer transition: Experimental evidence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of understanding the origins of turbulent flow and transition to turbulent flow are the most important unsolved problems of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. It is well known that the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of bounded shear layers are fundamentally different from those of free shear layers. Likewise, the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of open systems are fundamentally different from those of closed systems. Because of the influence of indigenous disturbances, surface geometry and roughness, sound, heat transfer, and ablation, it is not possible to develop general prediction schemes for transition location and the nature of turbulent structures in boundary-layer flows. At the present time no mathematical model exists that can predict the transition Reynolds number on a flat plate. The recent progress in this area is encouraging, in that a number of distinct transition mechanisms have been found experimentally. The theoretical work finds them to be amplitude and Reynolds-number dependent. The theory remains rather incomplete with regard to predicting transition. Amplitude and spectral characteristics of the disturbances inside the laminar viscous layer strongly influence which type of transition occurs. The major need in this area is to understand how freestream disturbances are entrained into the boundary layer, i.e., to answer the question of receptivity. We refer receptivity to the mechanism(s) that cause freestream disturbances to enter the boundary layer and create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves.

Saric, William S.

1994-01-01

290

A scaling analysis of the turbulent boundary-layer in a shallow urban lake

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbulent boundary-layer (TBL) has been the focus of countless experimental and numerical studies. Due to its complex nature the dynamics of the TBL are still far from being understood. Thus, to study, in particular the scaling properties of a TBL, we use a three-dimensional velocity time-series measured from an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler(ADCP). The ADCP is particularly useful for analysing the TBL as it is able to measure the 3D velocity in the vertical, 127 cells over 3 meters. The ADCP is positioned next to a storm water discharge point at the bottom of a shallow urban lake in Créteil, a region in Paris. The positioning of the ADCP, in a stable, stratified lake, with a strong turbulent flow occurring close to the surface has given us a unique situation in which a turbulent bounded-layer can be analysed. Vertical profiles measured in the atmospheric boundary-layer are typically intrusive due to the requirement of masts and other complex measuring structures. Moreover atmospheric profilers are normally coarsely spaced in the vertical. In order to analyse the scaling properties of the velocity we compute its energy spectrum. In a log- log plot, if the velocity is scaling, the spectral exponent is its slope. It frequently that in the presence of a boundary-layer, a -1 spectral exponent is observed. Dimensional arguments suggest a -1 spectral exponent when the energy flux becomes dependent on the friction velocity instead of the length-scale. Due to the fine vertical spacing of the measurements we are not only able to observe a -1 spectral exponent, but observe a smooth transition from a free-stream turbulent regime (spectral exponent close to -5/3) to a boundary-layer -1 exponent. Because the transition shows such a strong a depth dependence we are able to propose a general model based on dynamical equations for the scaling exponent as a function of height. This generalised scaling boundary-layer model allows one to easily reproduce the turbulent statistics in the boundary-layer.

Mezemate, Yacine; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Bonhomme, Céline; Soulignac, Frédéric; Lemaire, Bruno; Vinçon Leite, Brigitte

2014-05-01

291

Receptivity of Supersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic Disturbances

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle. The effect of leading-edge thickness is also studied and bluntness is found to stabilize the boundary layer. The relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness.

Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, P.

2005-01-01

292

CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems

Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow are essential for a wide variety of atmospheric studies including pollutant dispersion and deposition. The accuracy of such simulations can be seriously compromised when wall-function roughness modifications based on experimental data for sand-grain roughened pipes and channels are applied at the bottom of the computational domain. This type

Bert Blocken; Ted Stathopoulos; Jan Carmeliet

2007-01-01

293

Large-Scale Streamwise Turbulent Structures in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

Prior research in the field of boundary layer turbulence has identified streamwise-elongated large-scale turbulence structures in both low speed compressible and high speed (M=2.0) flow. No experimental work has been done in any flow of M> or =3...

English, Benjamin L.

2013-04-22

294

Numerical calculations of shock-wave/boundary-layer flow interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents results of calculations for 2-D supersonic turbulent compression corner flows. The results seem to indicate that the newer, improved kappa-epsilon models offer limited advantages over the standard kappa-epsilon model in predicting the shock-wave/boundary-layer flows in the 2-D compression corner over a wide range of corner angles and flow conditions.

Huang, P. G.; Liou, W. W.

1994-01-01

295

Accommodation between transpiring vegetation and the convective boundary layer

A simple scheme is developed to describe how vegetation and the convective boundary layer (CBL) interact during daylight in terms of water and sensible heat exchange. The response of vegetation to a prescribed atmospheric state is defined by a quadratic equation obtained by combining the Penman-Monteith equation with a new relation between surface conductance and transpiration rate based on laboratory

J. L. Monteith

1995-01-01

296

Modelling hyporheic exchange: From the boundary layer to the basin

Modelling hyporheic exchange: From the boundary layer to the basin M.J. Stewardson a , S.B. Grant a processes at the basin-scale including nutrient cycling and retention; movements of organisms to complete hydrological connectivity at the basin-scale but this is not true for the vertical dimension. Understanding

Marusic, Ivan

297

Plasma characteristics of the boundary layer in the Martian magnetosphere

Plasma and magnetic field data from circular orbits of the Phobos 2 spacecraft near Mars are examined to provide a description of the plasma properties of inner regions of the Mars magnetosheath and the boundary layer\\/plasma mantle. The data are analyzed in the VB coordinate system which is reasonable for draping magnetospheres of nonmagnetized planets and comets. It is shown

E. Dubinin; K. Sauer; R. Lundin; O. Norberg; J.-G. Trotignon; K. Schwingenschuh; M. Delva; W. Riedler

1996-01-01

298

Fluid-dynamic boundary layers in CFB boilers

The characteristics of the fluid-dynamic boundary layer (FBL) were studied in the 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler at Chalmers University of Technology. For a comparison, some additional measurements were made in a 165 MW CFB boiler. The FBL consists mainly of the falling film of particles at the furnace wall. The distance from the wall to the zero net

Wennan Zhang; Filip Johnsson; Bo Leckner

1995-01-01

299

Aircraft measurements within the planetary boundary layer over water

The basic overall objective of the program has been to develop a relatively inexpensive airborne sensing system for study of the marine boundary layer in support of the NAVAIR Marine Fog Investigation. This extends into the third dimension measurement of most of the significant parameters which have been studied from ships and land stations. The operational flexibility of the aircraft

R. Markson

1977-01-01

300

EVOLUTION CALCULATIONS FOR TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS APPROACHING EQUILIBRIUM SINK FLOW

EVOLUTION CALCULATIONS FOR TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS APPROACHING EQUILIBRIUM SINK FLOW I. MARUSIC ap- proaching a smooth wall equilibrium sink ow is con- sidered. The closure problem is described gradient parameter where is the displacement thickness, p is the freestream static pressure, 0 is the wall

Marusic, Ivan

301

Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.

Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application. PMID:20157224

Dickinson, B T

2010-03-01

302

Propagation of propeller tone noise through a fuselage boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In earlier experimental and analytical studies, it was found that the boundary layer on an aircraft could provide significant shielding from propeller noise at typical transport airplane cruise Mach numbers. In this paper a new three-dimensional theory is described that treats the combined effects of refraction and scattering by the fuselage and boundary layer. The complete wave field is solved by matching analytical expressions for the incident and scattered waves in the outer flow to a numerical solution in the boundary layer flow. The model for the incident waves is a near-field frequency-domain propeller source theory developed previously for free field studies. Calculations for an advanced turboprop (Prop-Fan) model flight test at 0.8 Mach number show a much smaller than expected pressure amplification at the noise directivity peak, strong boundary layer shielding in the forward quadrant, and shadowing around the fuselage. Results are presented showing the difference between fuselage surface and free-space noise predictions as a function of frequency and Mach number. Comparison of calculated and measured effects obtained in a Prop-Fan model flight test show good agreement, particularly near and aft of the plane of rotation at high cruise Mach number.

Hanson, D. B.; Magliozzi, B.

1984-01-01

303

Boundary layer effects above a Himalayan valley near Mount Everest

Periodical Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounding System observations have been commenced at the Himalayas' northern slope nearby Mount Everest in September 2005. Primarily data sets obtained 25 km remote from the glacier edge are utilized for a preliminary discussion of planetary boundary layer circulation resembling high alpine mountainous regions. Substantial findings include the detection of two wind shears and

Fanglin Sun; Yaoming Ma; Maoshan Li; Weiqiang Ma; Hui Tian; Stefan Metzger

2007-01-01

304

SUPPRESSION DYNAMICS OF A BOUNDARY-LAYER DIFFUSION FLAME

Flame stability, suppression, and extinction phenomena are intrinsically time dependent. Solutions are obtained for unsteady, full Navier-Stokes equations using Barely Implicit Correction to Flux Corrected Transport (BIC- FCT) algorithms for a boundary-layer diffusion flame formed over a flat porous plate, through which a fuel gas is injected uniformly. The solutions include calculation of surface temperature and composition as functions of

Ramagopal Ananth; Chuka C. Ndubizu; P. A. Tatem; Gopal Patnaik; K. Kailasanath

2001-01-01

305

TURBULENCE PARAMETERS IMPACTING DISPERSION IN AN URBAN CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

Turbulence measurements of the three dimensional wind components were collected by an instrumented research aircraft on 7 days in August 1976. These aircraft flights were conducted as part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) urban boundary layer field program in St. Louis,...

306

Turbulent dispersion in the Atmospheric Convective Boundary Layer

The dispersion of a plume in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer is a very complex phenomenon that includes the transport, the mixing and the chemical transformations of the plume material. When a plume is dispersed in the ABL, its shape, evolution, and internal structure are determined by the interaction between the plume and the turbulent eddies that characterize the atmospheric motion.

A. Dosio

2005-01-01

307

Active methods to measure multilayer Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics

The need to characterize in a robust way Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Heights is crucial as in air quality forcast and transport models. Incorrect determination of PBL heights can severely distort the surface level PM2.5 predictions crucial in determining whether New York City is in compliance. It has been amply demonstrated that lidar systems have repeatedly proven to be valuable

Y. Wu; B. Gross

2009-01-01

308

Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl) has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in bromine (often exceeding 50%) relative to conservative tracers, whereas

R. Sander; W. C. Keene; A. A. P. Pszenny; R. Arimoto; G. P. Ayers; E. Baboukas; J. M. Cainey; P. J. Crutzen; R. A. Duce; G. Hönninger; B. J. Huebert; W. Maenhaut; N. Mihalopoulos; V. C. Turekian; R. van Dingenen

2003-01-01

309

ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL ON A BOUNDARY-LAYER-INGESTING INLET

Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is explored as a means to improve overall system performance for a Blended Wing Body configuration. The benefits of BLI for vehicle system performance benefit are assessed with a process derived from first principles suitable for highly-integrated propulsion systems. This performance evaluation process provides a framework within which to assess the benefits of an integrated BLI

Susan Althoff Gorton; Lewis R. Owens; Luther N. Jenkins; Brian G. Allan; Ernest P. Schuster

310

Simulations of Serpentine Plasma Actuators in a Laminar Boundary Layer

as components of active and passive flow control systems. One concern with in applying these actuators of 11 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics #12; Velocity ratio I Integrated value. Introduction Boundary layer control is one aspect of fluid dynamics that is becoming increasingly more

Roy, Subrata

311

ON HYDROMAGNETIC STRESSES IN ACCRETION DISK BOUNDARY LAYERS

Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds with angular frequencies that increase outward in the shearing-sheet framework. We isolate the modes that are unrelated to the standard MRI and provide analytic solutions for the long-term evolution of the resulting shearing MHD waves. We show that, although the energy density of these waves can be amplified significantly, their associated stresses oscillate around zero, rendering them an inefficient mechanism to transport significant angular momentum (inward). These findings are consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations of MHD accretion disk boundary layers and challenge the standard assumption of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity.

Pessah, Martin E. [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Chan, Chi-kwan, E-mail: mpessah@nbi.dk, E-mail: ckch@nordita.org [NORDITA, Roslagstullsbacken 23, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-05-20

312

Higher eigenmodes in the Blasius boundary-layer stability problem

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The higher spatial-stability eigenmodes for the Blasius boundary layer are examined by using asymptotic theory, and an infinite number of modes are found. The asymptotic results are shown to be in close agreement with results from a direct numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld problem. The asymptotic theory would therefore provide an efficient tool in exploratory searches for the eigenvalues.

Hultgren, Lennart S.

1987-01-01

313

Numerical simulation of boundary-layer disturbance evolution

, or interact with, flow- control devices in the form of compliant panels, suction slots evolution in incompressible boundary layers frequently require an assumption of laminar flow experiments, it is usually only possible to maintain laminar flow over a very limited range of Reynolds

Davies, Christopher

314

Calculation of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectra

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an investigation into the suitability of various wavevector-frequency models of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure fluctuations for the prediction of experimental measurements of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectra. Three separate models of the wavevector-frequency spectrum proposed by D. M. Chase in 1980 and 1987 are evaluated. The wavevector-frequency spectral models are integrated numerically using a formulation for the point wall pressure spectrum (based on the work of Uberoi and Kovasznay). The representation of the wall pressure spectrum used accounts for the effect of a finite sized transducer on the measured wall pressure spectrum. By accounting for the area averaging effect of finite sized transducers on the measured turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectra, it was possible to use Chase's rigorous formulations for the wavevector-frequency spectrum instead of the point pressure spectrum representations which assume an infinitely small measurement sensor. Results from the numerical integrations are compared to recent experimental data to determine which model of the wavevector-frequency spectrum most accurately predicts measured turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectra. Data from experiments using fluids with a wide range of physical properties (air, water, and glycerine) are used for comparison purposes. Using the selected model, new empirical constants are established for use in the model for each fluid under consideration. Justification for use of the new empirical constants is given, and current limitations of the wavevector-frequency models are discussed.

Capone, D. E.; Lauchle, G. C.

1993-08-01

315

Numerical Calculations of Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Flow Interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents results of calculations for 2-D supersonic turbulent compression corner flows. The results seem to indicate that the newer, improved kappa-epsilon models offer limited advantages over the standard kappa-epsilon model in predicting the shock-wave/boundary-layer flows in the 2-D compression corner over a wide range of corner angles and flow conditions.

Huang, P. G.; Liou, W. W.

1994-01-01

316

Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of compressible turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculation procedures for compressible turbulent boundary layers were based upon techniques, modeling constants, etc., developed originally for the low speed case. Significant differences and new or altered physics which occur in the compressible case were considered, as compared with the low speed situation. Possible pitfalls and sources of inaccuracy in the calculations were indicated.

1977-01-01

317

Measuring techniques for wall shearing stress in turbulent boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the calibration results and the comparison of various measuring techniques for wall shearing stress measurement, both in compressible and incompressible turbulent boundary layers. Techniques including Preston tube, Stanton tube, sublayer fence, surface hot-film and computational Preston tube method are discussed.

Dai, Changhui; Liu, Tianshu; Teng, Yongguang; Ming, Xiao

1988-05-01

318

ANALYTICAL PARAMETERIZATIONS OF DIFFUSION: THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

A brief review is made of data bases which have been used for developing diffusion parameterizations for the convective boundary layer (CBL). A variety of parameterizations for lateral and vertical dispersion, (sigma sub) and (sigma sub z), are surveyed; some of these include mec...

319

Retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT images using boundary classification.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be an essential imaging modality for ophthalmology and is proving to be very important in neurology. OCT enables high resolution imaging of the retina, both at the optic nerve head and the macula. Macular retinal layer thicknesses provide useful diagnostic information and have been shown to correlate well with measures of disease severity in several diseases. Since manual segmentation of these layers is time consuming and prone to bias, automatic segmentation methods are critical for full utilization of this technology. In this work, we build a random forest classifier to segment eight retinal layers in macular cube images acquired by OCT. The random forest classifier learns the boundary pixels between layers, producing an accurate probability map for each boundary, which is then processed to finalize the boundaries. Using this algorithm, we can accurately segment the entire retina contained in the macular cube to an accuracy of at least 4.3 microns for any of the nine boundaries. Experiments were carried out on both healthy and multiple sclerosis subjects, with no difference in the accuracy of our algorithm found between the groups. PMID:23847738

Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Hauser, Matthew; Sotirchos, Elias S; Calabresi, Peter A; Ying, Howard S; Prince, Jerry L

2013-07-01

320

Measurements Of Turbulence In Boundary-Layer Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental study of turbulence in two boundary-layer flows with adverse gradients of pressure. Flows produced about cylinder oriented with axis along that of low-speed wind tunnel of rectangular cross section. Fluctuations of velocities analyzed with respect to various mathematical models of turbulence.

Driver, David M.

1993-01-01

321

Modeling Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of an ensemble of linear disturbances in boundary-layer flows at various Reynolds numbers is studied through an analysis of the transport equations for the mean disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate. Effects of adverse and favorable pressure-gradients on the disturbance dynamics are also included in the analysis. Unlike the fully turbulent regime where nonlinear phase scrambling of the fluctuations affects the flow field even in proximity to the wall, the early stage transition regime fluctuations studied here are influenced across the boundary layer by the solid boundary. In addition, the dominating dynamics in the disturbance kinetic energy equation is governed by the energy production, pressure-transport and viscous diffusion - also in contrast to the fully turbulent regime. For the disturbance dissipation rate, a dynamic balance exists between the destruction and diffusion of dissipation.

Grosch, C. E.; Gatski, T. B. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

322

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large eddy simulation was used to investigate the very-large-scale motions (VLSM) in the neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer at a very high friction Reynolds number. The vertical height of the computational domain is Lz = 1000 m, which corresponds to the thickness of the boundary layer. The horizontal dimensions of the simulation domain are chosen to be Lx = 32Lz and Ly = 4Lz respectively, in order to contain a sufficient number of large-scale structures. The spatially coherent structures associated with VLSM are characterized through flow visualization and statistical analysis. The instantaneous velocity fields in streamwise/spanwise planes give evidence of streamwise-elongated zones of low speed fluid with negative streamwise velocity fluctuation, which is flanked on either side by similarly elongated high speed ones. The pre-multiplied power spectra and two-point correlations indicate that the scales of these streak-like structures are very large, up to 20Lz in the streamwise direction and Lz in the spanwise direction. These features are similar to what have been found in the logarithmic region of laboratory-scale boundary layers by direct numerical simulations and experiments conducted at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. The three dimensional correlation map and conditional average of the three components of velocity further indicate that the low-speed and high-speed regions possess the same elongated ellipsoid-like structure, which is inclined upward along the streamwise direction, and they are accompanied by counter-rotating roll modes in the cross section perpendicular to the streamwise direction. These findings are in agreement with recent observations made from field campaigns in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Fang, Jiannong; Porté-Agel, Fernando

2014-05-01

323

Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-composite surface layer was fabricated via friction stir processing technique. Commercial AA6082 aluminium alloy extruded bar and nanometric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were subjected to friction stir processing at a substrate travel speed of 80 mm/min and a tool rotation speed of 1000 rpm using a hardened H-13 tool steel. The grain structure and reinforcement particles were investigated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles can be more uniformly dispread in aluminium substrate by increasing the number of processing passes. Also, hardness enhancement of the nano-composite surface layer was found. This is attributed to uniform dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles.

Bozorg, S. F. K.; Zarghani, A. S.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, P.O. Box: 14395-553 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-03-11

324

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) composed of a Nafion membrane and heat-transferred catalyst layers (CLs) were employed in this study. The deformation of MEAs between micro porous layers (MPLs)/gas diffusion layers (GDLs) was investigated in response to humidity cycles. The MEA deformed into wrinkle shapes at lower contact pressures and exhibited bulge deformation at higher contact pressures. Wrinkles were generated by large in-plane swelling after buckling when swelling could not be restricted by the friction force from MPLs. Next, the static friction coefficient between the MEA and MPL was measured, and a friction mechanism was investigated. The static friction coefficient was 0.43 at the contact pressure of 0.22 MPa between the MEA and MPL and increased with the increase in the contact pressure. The surface observation of the MPL after the friction test indicated that a static friction was generated by the contact of the convex MPL and flat CL surface. The static friction force and swelling force were calculated to investigate the effect of the static friction force on the MEA deformation. The static friction force, which was more than 12% of the swelling force, could prevent wrinkles in 33 ?m thick MEA.

Uchiyama, Tomoaki; Kumei, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Toshihiko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

2014-12-01

325

New concepts on the interfacial friction behavior between flat steel ribbon layers

Flat steel ribbon wound pressure vessels are widely used in chemical, petrochemical, and other industries. However, no satisfactory theoretical formulae are available to estimate the additional strengthening induced by the friction between the layers. Effective normal stress in the ribbon wide direction and shear stress are new concepts for describing such strengthening effect. These concepts are analyzed further to obtain expressions for both axial and circumferential bursting pressure, and stresses of the vessel. Comparison with one set of experimental results shows excellent agreement.

Zheng, J.; Zhu, G. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Machinery and Equipment

1995-11-01

326

Structure and properties of white layers formed at high velocities of friction

For the experiments we chose wheel steel 60 (0.60% C; 0.63 Mn; 0.27% Si) and rail steel 75G (0.74~c C; 0.89 Mn; 0.20% Si) with the structure of sorbite formed by quenching. We investigated the white layers formed under service and experimental conditions by dry friction of a wheel on a rail at a sliding velocity of about 20 m\\/sec

E. A. Shur; I. I. Kleshcheva

1978-01-01

327

Linear segmentation algorithm for detecting layer boundary with lidar.

The automatic detection of aerosol- and cloud-layer boundary (base and top) is important in atmospheric lidar data processing, because the boundary information is not only useful for environment and climate studies, but can also be used as input for further data processing. Previous methods have demonstrated limitations in defining the base and top, window-size setting, and have neglected the in-layer attenuation. To overcome these limitations, we present a new layer detection scheme for up-looking lidars based on linear segmentation with a reasonable threshold setting, boundary selecting, and false positive removing strategies. Preliminary results from both real and simulated data show that this algorithm cannot only detect the layer-base as accurate as the simple multi-scale method, but can also detect the layer-top more accurately than that of the simple multi-scale method. Our algorithm can be directly applied to uncalibrated data without requiring any additional measurements or window size selections. PMID:24216909

Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Logan, Timothy

2013-11-01

328

Turbulent boundary layer on a convex, curved surface

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of strong convex curvature on boundary layer turbulence were investigated. The data gathered on the behavior of Reynolds stress suggested the formulation of a simple turbulence model. Three sets of data were taken on two separate facilities. Both rigs had flow from a flat surface, over a convex surface with 90 deg of turning, and then onto a flat recovery surface. The geometry was adjusted so that, for both rigs, the pressure gradient along the test surface was zero - thus avoiding any effects of streamwise acceleration on the wall layers. Results show that after a sudden introduction of curvature, the shear stress in the outer part of the boundary layer is sharply diminished and is even slightly negative near the edge. The wall shear also drops off quickly downstream. In contrast, when the surface suddenly becomes flat again, the wall shear and shear stress profiles recover very slowly towards flat wall conditions.

Gillis, J. C.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

1980-01-01

329

Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary-Layer and Free Sheer Database Datasets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical assessment and compilation of data are presented on attached hypersonic turbulent boundary layers in pressure gradients and compressible turbulent mixing layers. Extensive searches were conducted to identify candidate experiments, which were subjected to a rigorous set of acceptance criteria. Accepted datasets are both tabulated and provided in machine-readable form. The purpose of this database effort is to make existing high quality data available in detailed form for the turbulence-modeling and computational fluid dynamics communities. While significant recent data were found on the subject of compressible turbulent mixing, the available boundary-layer/pressure-gradient experiments are all older ones of which no acceptable data were found at hypersonic Mach numbers.

Settles, Gary S.; Dodson, Lori J.

1993-01-01

330

In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter. PMID:25302782

Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas

2014-01-01

331

In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter. PMID:25302782

Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas

2014-01-01

332

Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

1988-01-01

333

Investigations on entropy layer along hypersonic hyperboloids using a defect boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A defect approach coupled with matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a new set of boundary layer equations. This method ensures a smooth matching of the boundary layer with the inviscid solution. These equations are solved to calculate boundary layers over hypersonic blunt bodies involving the entropy gradient effect. Systematic comparisons are made for both axisymmetric and plane flows in several cases with different Mach and Reynolds numbers. After a brief survey of the entropy layer characteristics, the defect boundary layer results are compared with standard boundary layer and full Navier-Stokes solutions. The entropy gradient effects are found to be more important in the axisymmetric case than in the plane one. The wall temperature has a great influence on the results through the displacement effect. Good predictions can be obtained with the defect approach over a cold wall in the nose region, with a first order solution. However, the defect approach gives less accurate results far from the nose on axisymmetric bodies because of the thinning of the entropy layer.

Brazier, J. P.; Aupoix, B.; Cousteix, J.

1992-01-01

334

On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.

1996-01-01

335

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.

Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao

1951-01-01

336

Grain boundary layers in nanocrystalline ferromagnetic zinc oxide

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete solubility of an impurity in a polycrystal increases with decreasing grain size, because the impurity dissolves not only in the crystallite bulk but also on the grain boundaries. This effect is especially strong when the adsorption layers (or the grain boundary phases) are multilayer. For example, the Mn solubility in the nanocrystalline films (where the size of grains is ˜20 nm) is more than three times greater than that in the ZnO single crystals. The thin nanocrystalline Mn-doped ZnO films in the Mn concentration range 0.1-47 at % have been obtained from organic precursors (butanoates) by the "liquid ceramic" method. They have ferromagnetic properties, because the specific area of the grain boundaries in them is greater than the critical value [B.B. Straumal et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 205206 (2009)]. The high-resolution electron transmission microscopy studies show that the ZnO nanocrystalline grains with the wurtzite lattice are separated by amorphous layers whose thickness increases with the Mn concentration. The morphology of these layers differs greatly from the structure of the amorphous prewetting films on the grain boundaries in the ZnO:Bi2O3 system.

Straumal, B. B.; Myatiev, A. A.; Straumal, P. B.; Mazilkin, A. A.; Protasova, S. G.; Goering, E.; Baretzky, B.

2010-09-01

337

BLSTA: A boundary layer code for stability analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is developed to solve the compressible, laminar boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow, axisymmetric flow, and quasi-three-dimensional flows including the flow along the plane of symmetry, flow along the leading-edge attachment line, and swept-wing flows with a conical flow approximation. The finite-difference numerical procedure used to solve the governing equations is second-order accurate. The flow over a wide range of speed, from subsonic to hypersonic speed with perfect gas assumption, can be calculated. Various wall boundary conditions, such as wall suction or blowing and hot or cold walls, can be applied. The results indicate that this boundary-layer code gives velocity and temperature profiles which are accurate, smooth, and continuous through the first and second normal derivatives. The code presented herein can be coupled with a stability analysis code and used to predict the onset of the boundary-layer transition which enables the assessment of the laminar flow control techniques. A user's manual is also included.

Wie, Yong-Sun

1992-01-01

338

Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the ?-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

L.E. Zakharov

2010-11-22

339

Boundary layer studies related to fusion theory. Final report

The described work studied the boundary between closed and open field lines in EBT geometry, with emphasis on the microstability properties. These properties were established primarily for drift waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The transport due to these modes was evaluated by a self-consistent treatment, using quasilinear models in a plasma diffusion code. The model was benchmarked against the EDT experimental results from ORNL and the sensitivity to transport model established. Viscosity was estimated to be negligible compared with anomalous transport. Drift wave turbulence gave a boundary layer size much more consistent with experiment than either collisional transport or Bohm diffusion.

None

1981-09-29

340

LES of a Stratified Boundary Layer under an Oscillating Current

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical study based on large-eddy simulation (LES) is performed in the case of an oscillating tidal flow with a uniform ambient stratification. Here, the Reynolds number Re?=U0?s/?=1790 (U0= maximum amplitude of the outer flow, ?s= ?2 ?/? is the Stokes layer thickness, ? is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and ? the angular frequency of the oscillatory current), and N?^2/2?= 500 where N? is the buoyancy frequency of the overlying stratified layer. Turbulence appears at a tidal phase of approximately ?/4 and is sustained throughout the deceleration phase (?/2layer between the wall and the thermocline. For both the stratified and unstratified cases, there is a log layer over a significant extent of the tidal cycle. Our unstratified flow results are verified against the numerical simulations of Salon et ; al (2007) %. JFM, 2007, vol 570, 253-296 and experimental data of Jensen et ; al. (1987). %JFM, 1987, vol 206, 256-297. In the presence of stratification, the boundary layer height decreases substantially and the wall shear stress increases slightly with respect to the unstratified case. Stratification effects on boundary layer turbulence and on the thermal field including the formation and collapse of the thermocline will be discussed.

Gayen, Bishakhdatta; Sarkar, Sutanu; Taylor, John

2008-11-01

341

The effects of micro-vortex generators on normal shock wave/boundary layer interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock wave/boundary-layer interactions (SWBLIs) are complex flow phenomena that are important in the design and performance of internal supersonic and transonic flow fields such as engine inlets. This investigation was undertaken to study the effects of passive flow control devices on normal shock wave/boundary layer interactions in an effort to gain insight into the physics that govern these complex interactions. The work concentrates on analyzing the effects of vortex generators (VGs) as a flow control method by contributing a greater understanding of the flowfield generated by these devices and characterizing their effects on the SWBLI. The vortex generators are utilized with the goal of improving boundary layer health (i.e., reducing/increasing the boundary-layer incompressible shape factor/skin friction coefficient) through a SWBLI, increasing pressure recovery, and reducing flow distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane while adding minimal drag to the system. The investigation encompasses experiments in both small-scale and large-scale inlet testing, allowing multiple test beds for improving the characterization and understanding of vortex generators. Small-scale facility experiments implemented instantaneous schlieren photography, surface oil-flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and particle image velocimetry to characterize the effects of an array of microramps on a normal shock wave/boundary-layer interaction. These diagnostics measured the time-averaged and instantaneous flow organization in the vicinity of the microramps and SWBLI. The results reveal that a microramp produces a complex vortex structure in its wake with two primary counter-rotating vortices surrounded by a train of Kelvin- Helmholtz (K-H) vortices. A streamwise velocity deficit is observed in the region of the primary vortices in addition to an induced upwash/downwash which persists through the normal shock with reduced strength. The microramp flow control also increased the spanwise-averaged skin-friction coefficient and reduced the spanwise-averaged incompressible shape factor, thereby improving the health of the boundary layer. The velocity in the near-wall region appears to be the best indicator of microramp effectiveness at controlling SWBLIs. Continued analysis of additional micro-vortex generator designs in the small-scale facility revealed reduced separation within a subsonic diffuser downstream of the normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction. The resulting attached flow within the diffuser from the micro-vortex generator control devices reduces shock wave position and pressure RMS fluctuations within the diffuser along with increased pressure recovery through the shock and at the entrance of the diffuser. The largest effect was observed by the micro-vortex generators that produce the strongest streamwise vortices. High-speed pressure measurements also indicated that the vortex generators shift the energy of the pressure fluctuations to higher frequencies. Implementation of micro-vortex generators into a large-scale, supersonic, axisymmetric, relaxed-compression inlet have been investigated with the use of a unique and novel flow-visualization measurement system designed and successfully used for the analysis of both upstream micro-VGs (MVGs) and downstream VGs utilizing surface oil-flow visualization and pressure-sensitive paint measurements. The inlet centerbody and downstream diffuser vortex-generator regions were imaged during wind-tunnel testing internally through the inlet cowl with the diagnostic system attached to the cowl. Surface-flow visualization revealed separated regions along the inlet centerbody for large mass-flow rates without vortex generators. Upstream vortex generators did reduce separation in the subsonic diffuser, and a unique perspective of the flowfield produced by the downstream vortex generators was obtained. In addition, pressure distributions on the inlet centerbody and vortex generators were measured with pressure-sensitive paint. At low mass-flow ratios the onset of buzz occurs in the lar

Herges, Thomas G.

342

Urban air pollution modelling and measurements of boundary layer height

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An urban field trial has been undertaken with the aim of assessing the performance of the boundary layer height (BLH) determination of two models: the Met Office Unified Model (UM) and a Gaussian-type plume model, ADMS. Pulsed Doppler lidar data were used to measure mixing layer height and cloud base heights for a variety of meteorological conditions over a 3 week period in July 2003. In this work, the daily growth and decay of the BLH from the lidar data and model simulations for 5 days are compared. The results show that although the UM can do a good job of reproducing the boundary layer growth, there are occasions where the BLH is overestimated by 30-100%. Within dispersion models it is the BLH that effectively limits the height to which pollution disperses, so these results have very important implications for pollution dispersion modelling. The results show that correct development of the boundary layer in the UM is critically dependant on morning cloud cover. The ADMS model is used routinely by local authorities in the UK for local air-quality forecasting. The ADMS model was run under three settings; an 'urban' roughness, a 'rural' roughness and a 'transition' roughness. In all cases, the 'urban' setting over estimated the BLH and is clearly a poor predictor of urban BLH. The 'transition' setting, which distinguishes between the meteorological data input site and the dispersion modelling site, gave the best results under the well mixed conditions of the trial.

Davies, F.; Middleton, D. R.; Bozier, K. E.

343

A modeling study of marine boundary layer clouds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds are important components of the earth's climate system. These clouds drastically reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the earth, but have little effect on the emitted infrared radiation on top of the atmosphere. In addition, these clouds are intimately involved in regulating boundary layer turbulent fluxes. For these reasons, it is important that general circulation models used for climate studies must realistically simulate the global distribution of the MBL. While the importance of these cloud systems is well recognized, many physical processes involved in these clouds are poorly understood and their representation in large-scale models remains an unresolved problem. The present research aims at the development and improvement of the parameterization of these cloud systems and an understanding of physical processes involved. This goal is addressed in two ways. One is to use regional modeling approach to validate and evaluate two-layer marine boundary layer models using satellite and ground-truth observations; the other is to combine this simple model with a high-order turbulence closure model to study the transition processes from stratocumulus to shallow cumulus clouds. Progress made in this effort is presented.

Wang, Shouping; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

1993-01-01

344

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results for a two-dimensional separated turbulent boundary layer behind a backward facing step for five different Reynolds numbers are reported. Results are presented in the form of tables, graphs and a floppy disk for an easy access of the data. Reynolds number based on the step height was varied by changing the reference velocity upstream of the step, U(sub o), and the step height, h. Hot-wire measurement techniques were used to measure three Reynolds stresses and four triple-velocity correlations. In addition, surface pressure and skin friction coefficients were measured. All hot-wire measurements were acquired in a measuring domain which excluded recirculating flow region due to the directional insensitivity of hot-wires. The downstream extent of the domain from the step was 51 h for the largest and I 14h for the smallest step height. This significant downstream length permitted extensive study of the flow recovery. Prediction of perturbed flows and their recovery is particularly attractive for popular turbulence models since variations of turbulence length and time scales and flow interactions in different regions are generally inadequately predicted. The data indicate that the flow in the free shear layer region behaves like the plane mixing layer up to about 2/3 of the mean reattachment length when the flow interaction with the wall commences the flow recovery to that of an ordinary turbulent boundary layer structure. These changes of the flow do not occur abruptly with the change of boundary conditions. A reattachment region represents a transitional region where the flow undergoes the most dramatic adjustments to the new boundary conditions. Large eddies, created in the upstream free-shear layer region, are being torn, recirculated, reentrained back into the main stream interacting with the incoming flow structure. It is foreseeable that it is quite difficult to describe the physics of this region in a rational and quantitative manner other than statistical. Downstream of the reattachment point the flow recovers at different rates near the wall, in the newly developing internal boundary layer, and in the outer part of the flow. It appears that Reynolds stresses do not fully recover up to the longest recovery length of 114 h.

Jovic, Srba; Kutler, Paul F. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

345

Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

1988-01-01

346

Reynolds number and pressure gradient effects on compressible turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed investigation of attached supersonic turbulent boundary layers over an extensive range of Reynolds numbers (12 x 10 to the 6th to 314 x 10 to the 6th) is presented. Experimental measurements were obtained for adverse pressure gradients ranging in magnitude from those of previous investigations to those approaching separation. The measurements include mean values of surface pressure and skin-friction, mean-flow profiles, and profiles of the three turbulent velocity fluctuation components and turbulent shear stress. Numerical solutions, employing three turbulence models of various degrees of complexity have been compared with the details of the measured flow fields. Generally, it was found that the more sophisticated turbulence models are superior to a mixing length model for predicting the Reynolds number and pressure gradient effects. However, some details of the turbulent fluctuations as well as the exact Reynolds number trends indicated by the data were not accurately predicted with any of the turbulence models considered.

Acharya, M.; Kussoy, M. I.; Horstman, C. C.

1978-01-01

347

A hybrid RANS/LES framework to investigate spatially developing turbulent boundary layers

A hybrid RANS/LES framework is developed based on a recently proposed Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) model combined with a variant of recycling and rescaling method of generating inflow turbulence. This framework was applied to investigate spatially developing flat plate turbulent boundary layer up to momentum thickness Reynolds number, $R_{\\theta} = 31000$ and the results are compared with the available experimental data. Good agreement was obtained for the global quantities such as mean velocity and skin friction at all momentum thickness Reynolds numbers considered. The trends obtained for the Reynolds stress components are in the right direction. At high $R_{\\theta$}, the shear stress distribution shows significant differences close to the wall indicating scope for further improving the near-wall modeling in such methods.

Arolla, Sunil K

2014-01-01

348

A novel boundary layer sensor utilizing domain switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design and the principles of operation of a novel sensor for the optical detection of a shear stress field induced by air or gas flow on a rigid surface. The detection relies on the effects of shear-induced optical switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals. It is shown that the method overcomes many of the limitations of similar measuring techniques including those using cholesteric liquid crystals. The present method offers a preferred alternative for flow visualization and skin friction measurements in wind-tunnel experiments on laminar boundary layer transition investigations. A theoretical model for the optical response to shear stress is presented together with a schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Parmar, D. S.

1991-01-01

349

Computer program for calculation of real gas turbulent boundary layers with variable edge entropy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual for a computer program which calculates real gas turbulent boundary layers with variable edge entropy on a blunt cone or flat plate at zero angle of attack is presented. An integral method is used. The method includes the effect of real gas in thermodynamic equilibrium and variable edge entropy. A modified Crocco enthalpy velocity relationship is used for the enthalpy profiles and an empirical correlation of the N-power law profile is used for the velocity profile. The skin-friction-coefficient expressions of Spalding and Chi and Van Driest are used in the solution of the momentum equation and in the heat-transfer predictions that use several modified forms of Reynolds analogy.

Boney, L. R.

1974-01-01

350

Direct numerical simulation of supersonic turbulent boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this research were to develop a method by which the spatially developing compressible turbulent boundary layer could be simulated using a temporally developing numerical simulation and to study the physics of the compressible turbulent boundary layer. We take advantage of the technique developed by Spalart (1987, 1988) for the incompressible case. In this technique, it is recognized that the boundary layer exhibits slow growth in the streamwise direction, so the turbulence can be treated as approximately homogeneous in this direction. The slow growth is accounted for with a coordinate transformation and a multiple scale analysis. The result is a modified system of equations (Navier-Stokes plus some extra terms, which we call "slow growth terms") that are homogeneous in both the streamwise and spanwise directions and represent the state of the boundary layer at a given streamwise location (or, equivalently, a given thickness). The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a mixed Fourier and B-spline "spectral" method. The dependent variables are expanded in terms of a Fourier representation in the horizontal directions and a B-spline representation in the wall-normal direction. In the wall-normal direction non-reflecting boundary conditions are used at the freestream boundary, and zero-heat-flux no-slip boundary conditions are used at the wall. This combination of splines and Fourier methods produces a very accurate numerical method. Mixed implicit/explicit time discretization is used. Results are presented for a case with a Mach number of 2.5, and a Reynolds number, based on momentum integral thickness and wall viscosity, of Rsb{thetasp'} = 840. The results show that the van Driest transformed velocity satisfies the incompressible scalings and a narrow logarithmic region is obtained. The results for the turbulence intensities compare well with the incompressible simulations of Spalart. Pressure fluctuations are found to be higher than in incompressible flow. Morkovin's strong Reynolds analogy does not agree with the results of the simulation, however, an analogy is found between the rate of turbulent heat transfer and the rate of turbulent momentum transfer. Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy budgets are computed and compared with the budgets from Spalart's incompressible simulations.

Guarini, Stephen

351

Fluctuating pressure loads under high speed boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroacoustic fatigue is anticipated to control the design of significant portions of the structures of high-speed vehicles. This is due to contemplated long-duration flights at high dynamic pressures and Mach numbers with related high skin temperatures. Fluctuating pressure loads are comparatively small beneath attached turbulent boundary layers, but become important in regions of flow separation such as compression and expansion corners on elevons and rudders. The most intense loads are due to shock/boundary-layer interaction. These flows may occur in the engine-exhaust wall jet and in flows over control surfaces. A brief review is given of available research in these areas with a description of work under way at Langley Research Center.

Zorumski, William E.

1987-01-01

352

Possibilities for drag reduction by boundary layer control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanics of laminar boundary layer transition are reviewed. Drag possibilities for boundary layer control are analyzed using assumed conditions of transition Reynolds number, inlet loss, number of slots, blower efficiency, and duct losses. Although the results of such analysis are highly favorable, those obtained by experimental investigations yield conflicting results, showing only small gains, and sometimes losses. Reduction of this data indicates that there is a lower limit to the quantity of air which must be removed at the slot in order to stabilize the laminar flow. The removal of insufficient air permits transition to occur while the removal of excessive amounts of air results in high power costs, with a net drag increases. With the estimated value of flow coefficient and duct losses equal to half the dynamic pressure, drag reductions of 50% may be obtained; with twice this flow coefficient, the drag saving is reduced to 25%.

Naiman, I.

1946-01-01

353

Nonparallel instability of supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple scaling technique is used to examine the nonparallel instability of supersonic and hypersonic boundary-layer flows to three dimensional (first mode) and two dimensional (second mode) disturbances. The method is applied to the flat plate boundary layer for a range of Mach numbers from 0 to 10. Growth rates of disturbances are calculated based on three different criteria: following the maximum of the mass-flow disturbance, using an integral of the disturbance kinetic energy, and using the integral of the square of the mass-flow amplitude. By following the maximum of the mass-flow disturbance, the calculated nonparallel growth rates are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results at Mach number 4.5.

El-Hady, Nabil M.

1991-01-01

354

3D LDV Measurements in Oscillatory Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oscillatory boundary layer represents a particular case of unsteady wall-bounded flows in which fluid particles follow a periodic sinusoidal motion. Unlike steady boundary layer flows, the oscillatory flow regime and bed roughness character change in time along the period for every cycle, a characteristic that introduces a high degree of complexity in the analysis of these flows. Governing equations can be derived from the general Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of fluids, from which the exact solution for the laminar oscillatory boundary layer is obtained (also known as the 2nd Stokes problem). No exact solution exists for the turbulent case, thus, understanding of the main flow characteristics comes from experimental work. Several researchers have reported experimental work in oscillatory boundary layers since the 1960's; however, larger scale facilities and the development of newer measurement techniques with improved temporal and spatial resolution in recent years provides a unique opportunity to achieve a better understanding about this type of flows. Several experiments were performed in the Large Oscillatory Water and Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) facility at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, for a range of Reynolds wave numbers between 6x10^4 < Rew < 6x10^6 over a flat and smooth bottom. A 3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure instantaneous flow velocities with a temporal resolution up to ~ 1,000 Hz. It was mounted on a 3-axis traverse with a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in all three directions. The closest point to the bottom was measured at z = 0.2 mm (z+ ? 4), which allowed to capture boundary layer features with great detail. In order to achieve true 3D measurements, 2 probes were used on a perpendicular configuration, such that u and w components were measured from a probe on the side of the flume and v component was measured from a probe pointing down through and access window on top of the flume. The top probe was submerged in a water container, such that the focal length remained constant and coincidence in the measurement volume for all 3 components was maintained when traversing the probes along the measurement profiles. Results show the existence of high turbulence levels inside the boundary layer up to about 30 mm away from the bottom. The streamwise component u shows greater intensities closer to the bottom and ahead of the freestream velocity maximum. On the contrary, the vertical component w shows smaller values of turbulent intensity, located higher up in the profile and lagging with respect to the freestream velocity maximum. Meanwhile, the spanwise component v shows similar intensities than w, happening in phase with it, but distributed all along the boundary layer, overlapping the areas of greater intensity of u and w. In addition, wall shear stress and other turbulent magnitudes related to the boundary layer were analyzed from the experimental results obtained through this research.

Mier, J. M.; Garcia, M. H.

2012-12-01

355

Crossing shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional interactions between crossing shock waves generated by symmetric sharp fins and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate are investigated experimentally and theoretically at Mach number 2.95 and freestream unit Reynolds number 1.96 x 10 to the 7th/ft. The incoming boundary layer has a thickness of 4 mm at the location of the fin leading edges. A comparison of experimental and computational results for two sets of fin angles (11 x 11 and 9 x 9 deg) shows general agreement with regard to surface pressure measurements and surface streamline patterns. The principal feature of the streamline structure is a collision of counterrotating vortical structures emanating from near the fin leading edges and meeting at the geometric centerline of the interaction.

Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.; Bogdonoff, S. M.; Horstman, C. C.

1991-01-01

356

VALIDITY OF GENERATION SYSTEM FOR SOLITARY WAVE BOUNDARY LAYER

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is concerning bottom boundary layer beneath solitary wave over smooth beds condition. A new generation system was proposed to generate an oscillatory motion similar to solitary wave in a closed conduit water tunnel using a mechanical system. This generation system facilitates easy measurement of periodical oscillatory motion to replace solitary wave motion with a sufficient tranquil period. The velocities were measured by using a Laser Doppler Veloci-meter (LDV) at 17 to 22 points in the vertical direction. The experiments were accomplished with different velocities under single and periodical oscillatory motion conditions and validations have been done in some various terms of experiment relevant to solitary wave boundary layer. A good agreement is achieved in validation of free stream velocity and also both single and periodical oscillatory motion measurements methods. Furthermore, validation of velocity distribution in time variation obtains a critical Reynolds number which has a good agreement with the finding of previous researchers.

Winarta, Bambang; Tanaka, Hitoshi

357

Prediction and control of transition in hypersonic boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the role of compressible linear stability theory in prediction of boundary layer transition at supersonic and hypersonic speeds is investigated. Computations for sharp cones, using the e exp N method with N = 10, show that the first oblique Tollmien-Schlichting mode is responsible for transition at adiabatic wall conditions for freestream Mach numbers up to 7. For cold walls, the two-dimensional second mode dominates the transition process at lower hypersonic Mach numbers due to the well-known destabilizing effect of cooling on the second mode. It is shown that pressure gradient and suction may be used to stabilize this mode. Some results on the real gas effects on hypersonic boundary-layer stability are presented.

Malik, Mujeeb R.

1987-01-01

358

Characteristics of Mach 10 transitional and turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the mean flow properties of transitional and turbulent boundary layers in helium on 4 deg and 5 deg wedges were made for flows with edge Mach numbers from 9.5 to 11.3, ratios of wall temperature to total temperature of 0.4 to 0.95, and maximum length Reynolds numbers of one hundred million. The data include pitot and total temperature surveys and measurements of heat transfer and surface shear. In addition, with the assumption of local similarity, turbulence quantities such as the mixing length were derived from the mean flow profiles. Low Reynolds number and precursor transition effects were significant factors at these test conditions and were included in finite difference boundary layer predictions.

Watson, R. D.

1978-01-01

359

Benthic boundary layer processes in the Lower Florida Keys

This special issue of Geo-Marine Letters, "Benthic Boundary Layer Processes in the Lower Florida Keys," includes 12 papers that present preliminary results from the Key West Campaign. The Dry Tortugas and Marquesas Keys test sites were selected by a group of 115 scientists and technicians to study benthic boundary layer processes in a carbonate environment controlled by bioturbation and biogeochemical processes. Major activities included remote sediment classification; high-frequency acoustic scattering experiments; sediment sampling for radiological, geotechnical, biological, biogeochemical, physical, and geoacoustic studies; and hydrodynamic studies using an instrumented tetrapod. All these data are being used to improve our understanding of the effects of environmental processes on sediment structure and behavior.

Lavoie, D.L.; Richardson, M.D.; Holmes, C.

1997-01-01

360

A review of unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential results of a comprehensive review of existing unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are presented. Different types of unsteady flow facilities are described, and the related unsteady turbulent boundary-layer experiments are cataloged and discussed. The measurements that were obtained in the various experiments are described, and a complete list of experimental results is presented. All the experiments that measured instantaneous values of velocity, turbulence intensity, or turbulent shear stress are identified, and the availability of digital data is indicated. The results of the experiments are analyzed, and several significant trends are identified. An assessment of the available data is presented, delineating gaps in the existing data, and indicating where new or extended information is needed. Guidelines for future experiments are included.

Carr, L. W.

1981-01-01

361

Boundary layer flow on a long thin cylinder

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the boundary layer along a long thin cylinder aligned with the flow is considered. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with previous asymptotic results. Very near the leading edge the flow is given by the Blasius solution for a flat plate. However, there is soon a significant deviation from Blasius flow, with a thinner boundary layer and higher wall shear stress. Linear normal mode stability of the flow is investigated. It is found that for Reynolds numbers less than a critical value of 1060 the flow is unconditionally stable. Also, axisymmetric modes are only the fourth least stable modes for this problem, with the first three three-dimensional modes all having a lower critical Reynolds number. Further, for Reynolds numbers above the critical value, the flow is unstable only for a finite distance, and returns to stability sufficiently far downstream.

Tutty, O. R.; Price, W. G.; Parsons, A. T.

2002-02-01

362

Leading-edge effects on boundary-layer receptivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical calculations are presented for the incompressible flow over a parabolic cylinder. The computational domain extends from a region upstream of the body downstream to the region where the Blasius boundary-layer solution holds. A steady mean flow solution is computed and the results for the scaled surface vorticity, surface pressure and displacement thickness are compared to previous studies. The unsteady problem is then formulated as a perturbation solution starting with and evolving from the mean flow. The response to irrotational time harmonic pulsation of the free-stream is examined. Results for the initial development of the velocity profile and displacement thickness are presented. These calculations will be extended to later times to investigate the initiation of instability waves within the boundary-layer.

Gatski, Thomas B.; Kerschen, Edward J.

1990-07-01

363

Nonlinear interaction of two waves in boundary-layer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that the spatial detuning wipes out resonant interactions unless the initial amplitudes are very large. Thus, a wave having a moderate amplitude has little influence on its subharmonic although it has a strong influence on its second harmonic. Moreover, two waves having moderate amplitudes have a strong influence on their difference frequency. The results show that the difference frequency can be very unstable when generated by the nonlinear interaction, even though it may be stable when introduced by itself in the boundary layer.

Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.

1980-01-01

364

Boundary Layer Turbulence Index: Progress and Recent Developments

A boundary layer turbulence index (TIBL) product has been developed to assess the potential for turbulence in the lower troposphere, generated using RUC-2 numerical model data. The index algorithm approximates boundary layer turbulent kinetic energy by parameterizing vertical wind shear, responsible for mechanical production of TKE, and kinematic heat flux, parameterized by the vertical temperature lapse rate and responsible for buoyant production of TKE. Validation for the TIBL product has been conducted for selected nonconvective wind events during the 2008 winter season over the Idaho National Laboratory mesonet domain. This paper presents studies of four significant wind events between December 2007 and February 2008 over southeastern Idaho. Based on the favorable results highlighted from validation statistics and in the case studies, the RUC TIBL product has demonstrated operational utility in assessing turbulence hazards to low-flying aircraft and ground transportation, and in the assessment of wildfire...

Pryor, Kenneth L

2008-01-01

365

Optimal disturbances in boundary layers subject to streamwise pressure gradient

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the optimal non-modal growth of perturbations in a boundary layer in the presence of a streamwise pressure gradient is presented. The analysis is based on PSE equations for an incompressible fluid. Examples with Falkner-Scan profiles indicate that a favorable pressure gradient decreases the non-modal growth, while an unfavorable pressure gradient leads to an increase of the amplification. It is suggested that the transient growth mechanism be utilized to choose optimal parameters of tripping elements on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) airfoil. As an example, a boundary layer flow with a streamwise pressure gradient corresponding to the pressure distribution over a LPT airfoil is considered. It is shown that there is an optimal spacing of the tripping elements and that the transient growth effect depends on the starting point.

Ashpis, David E.; Tumin, Anatoli

2003-01-01

366

Atmospheric surface and boundary layers of the Amazon Basin

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three phases of work were performed: design of and preparation for the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2-A); execution of the ABLE 2-A field program; and analysis of the ABLE 2-A data. Three areas of experiment design were dealt with: surface based meteorological measurements; aircraft missions; and project meteorological support. The primary goal was to obtain a good description of the structure of the atmosphere immediately above the rain forest canopy (top of canopy to a few thousand meters), to describe this region during the growing daytime phase of the boundary layer; and to examine the nighttime stratified state. A secondary objective was to examine the role that deep convective storms play in the vertical transport of heat, water vapor, and other trace gases. While significant progress was made, much of the analysis remains to be done.

Garstang, Michael

1987-01-01

367

Nonlinear Interaction of Frequency-Detuned Modes in Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present critical-layer asymptotic analysis for the nonlinear interaction of frequency-detuned modes in boundary-layer transition indicates that the interaction between a plane mode at the fundamental frequency and a pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the near-subharmonic frequency amplifies another pair of symmetrical oblique waves at the 'mirror frequency'. This type of interaction is stronger in the frequency-detuned case than the resonant triad case, and leads to a sharp drop in the oblique waves' peak with small detuning.

Mankbadi, Reda R.

1993-01-01

368

Air Flow in a Separating Laminar Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The speed distribution in a laminar boundary layer on the surface of an elliptic cylinder, of major and minor axes 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, has been determined by means of a hot-wire anemometer. The direction of the impinging air stream was parallel to the major axis. Special attention was given to the region of separation and to the exact location of the point of separation. An approximate method, developed by K. Pohlhausen for computing the speed distribution, the thickness of the layer, and the point of separation, is described in detail; and speed-distribution curves calculated by this method are presented for comparison with experiment.

Schubauer, G B

1936-01-01

369

A kappa-epsilon calculation of transitional boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently proposed kappa-epsilon model for low Reynolds number turbulent flows was modified by introducing a new damping function f(sub mu). The modified model is used to calculate the transitional boundary layer over a flat plate with different freestream turbulence levels. It is found that the model could mimic the transitional flow. However, the predicted transition is found to be sensitive to the initial conditions.

Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.

1992-01-01

370

Spherical bubble motion in a turbulent boundary layer

Monodisperse dilute suspensions of spherical air bubbles in a tap-water turbulent vertical boundary layer were experimentally studied to note their motion and distribution. Bubbles with diameters of 0.37-1.2 mm were injected at various transverse wall-positions for free-stream velocities between 0.4 and 0.9 m\\/s. The bubbles were released from a single injector at very low frequencies such that two-way coupling and

Keith Felton; Eric Loth

2001-01-01

371

On the Secondary Instability of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers

. One of the possible transition scenarios in three-dimensional boundary layers, the saturation of stationary crossflow vortices\\u000a and their secondary instability to high-frequency disturbances, is studied using the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE)\\u000a and Floquet theory. Starting from nonlinear PSE solutions, we investigate the region where a purely stationary crossflow disturbance\\u000a saturates for its secondary instability characteristics utilizing global and local

Erik Janke; Ponnampalam Balakumar

2000-01-01

372

Sheet flow and suspension of sand in oscillatory boundary layers

after revisionTime-dependent measurements of flow velocities and sediment concentrations were conducted in a large oscillating water tunnel. The measurements were aimed at the flow and sediment dynamics in and above an oscillatory boundary layer in plane bed and sheet-flow conditions. Two asymmetric waves and one sinusoidal wave were imposed using quartz sand with D50 = 0.21 mm. A new electro-resistance

Jan S. Ribberink; Abdullah A. Al-Salem

1995-01-01

373

LASTRAC.3d: Transition Prediction in 3D Boundary Layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) is a general-purpose, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for laminar flow control studies and transition research. This paper describes the LASTRAC extension to general three-dimensional (3D) boundary layers such as finite swept wings, cones, or bodies at an angle of attack. The stability problem is formulated by using a body-fitted nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system constructed on the body surface. The nonorthogonal coordinate system offers a variety of marching paths and spanwise waveforms. In the extreme case of an infinite swept wing boundary layer, marching with a nonorthogonal coordinate produces identical solutions to those obtained with an orthogonal coordinate system using the earlier release of LASTRAC. Several methods to formulate the 3D parabolized stability equations (PSE) are discussed. A surface-marching procedure akin to that for 3D boundary layer equations may be used to solve the 3D parabolized disturbance equations. On the other hand, the local line-marching PSE method, formulated as an easy extension from its 2D counterpart and capable of handling the spanwise mean flow and disturbance variation, offers an alternative. A linear stability theory or parabolized stability equations based N-factor analysis carried out along the streamline direction with a fixed wavelength and downstream-varying spanwise direction constitutes an efficient engineering approach to study instability wave evolution in a 3D boundary layer. The surface-marching PSE method enables a consistent treatment of the disturbance evolution along both streamwise and spanwise directions but requires more stringent initial conditions. Both PSE methods and the traditional LST approach are implemented in the LASTRAC.3d code. Several test cases for tapered or finite swept wings and cones at an angle of attack are discussed.

Chang, Chau-Lyan

2004-01-01

374

A numerical simulation of boundary-layer flows near shelterbelts

We have developed a shelterbelt boundary-layer numerical model to study the patterns and dynamic processes relating to flow interaction with shelterbelts. The model simulates characteristics of all three zones of airflow passing over and through shelterbelts: the windward windspeed-reduction zone, the overspeeding zone above the shelterbelt, and the leeward windspeed-reduction zone. Locations of the maximum windspeed reduction and recirculation zone,

Hao Wang; Eugene S. Takle

1995-01-01

375

Boundary layer elasto-optic switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first experimental observation of a change in the director azimuthal angle due to applied shear stress is reported in a sample configuration involving a liquid-crystal-coated top surface exposed directly to gas flow. The electrooptic response caused by the shear stress is large, fast, and reversible. These findings are relevant to the use of liquid crystals in boundary layer investigations on wind tunnel models.

Parmar, D. S.

1992-01-01

376

Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work done under NASA grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary-Layer Interactions, to date. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and the results presented as a large number of figures, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in preparation.

Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.

1987-01-01

377

Streamline-curvature effect in three-dimensional boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of including wall and streamline curvature terms in swept-wing boundary-layer stability calculations is studied. The linear disturbance equations are cast on a fixed, body-intrinsic, curvilinear coordinate system. Those nonparallel terms which contribute mainly to the streamline-curvature effect are retained in this formulation and approximated by their local finite-difference values. Convex-wall curvature has a stabilizing effect, while streamline curvature is destabilizing if the curvature exceeds a critical value.

Reed, Helen L.; Lin, Ray-Sing; Petraglia, Media M.

1992-01-01

378

SCALING OF THE ANOMALOUS BOOST IN RELATIVISTIC JET BOUNDARY LAYER

We investigate the one-dimensional interaction of a relativistic jet and an external medium. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations show an anomalous boost of the jet fluid in the boundary layer, as previously reported. We describe the boost mechanism using an ideal relativistic fluid and magnetohydrodynamic theory. The kinetic model is also examined for further understanding. Simple scaling laws for the maximum Lorentz factor are derived, and verified by the simulations.

Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex, E-mail: Seiji.Zenitani-1@nasa.go [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2010-04-01

379

Vortex/boundary-layer interactions: Data report, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAGw-581, Vortex/Boundary Layer Interactions. The experimental methods are discussed in detail and numerical results are presented, but are not fully interpreted. This report should be useful to anyone who wishes to make further use of the data (available on floppy disc or magnetic tape) for the development of turbulence models or the validation of predictive methods. Journal papers are in course of preparation.

Cutler, A. D.; Bradshaw, P.

1987-01-01

380

Linear stability theory and three-dimensional boundary layer transition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viewgraphs and discussion of linear stability theory and three dimensional boundary layer transition are provided. The ability to predict, using analytical tools, the location of boundary layer transition over aircraft-type configurations is of great importance to designers interested in laminar flow control (LFC). The e(sup N) method has proven to be fairly effective in predicting, in a consistent manner, the location of the onset of transition for simple geometries in low disturbance environments. This method provides a correlation between the most amplified single normal mode and the experimental location of the onset of transition. Studies indicate that values of N between 8 and 10 correlate well with the onset of transition. For most previous calculations, the mean flows were restricted to two-dimensional or axisymmetric cases, or have employed simple three-dimensional mean flows (e.g., rotating disk, infinite swept wing, or tapered swept wing with straight isobars). Unfortunately, for flows over general wing configurations, and for nearly all flows over fuselage-type bodies at incidence, the analysis of fully three-dimensional flow fields is required. Results obtained for the linear stability of fully three-dimensional boundary layers formed over both wing and fuselage-type geometries, and for both high and low speed flows are discussed. When possible, transition estimates form the e(sup N) method are compared to experimentally determined locations. The stability calculations are made using a modified version of the linear stability code COSAL. Mean flows were computed using both Navier Stokes and boundary-layer codes.

Spall, Robert E.; Malik, Mujeeb R.

1992-01-01

381

Effect of compliant wall motion on turbulent boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical analysis of available wall data which indicated drag reduction under turbulent boundary layers. Detailed structural dynamic calculations suggest the surfaces responded in a resonant, rather than compliant, manner. Alternate explanations are given for drag reductions observed in two classes of experiments: flexible pipe flown, and waterbacked membranes in air. Analysis indicates the wall motion for the remaining data is typified by short wave lengths in agreement with the requirement of a possible compliant wall drag reduction mechanism recently suggested by Langley.

Bushnell, D. M.; Hefner, J. N.; Ash, R. L.

1977-01-01

382

Interaction of Pulsed Vortex Generator Jets with Turbulent Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex Generator Jets (VGJ) have been proposed as a means for active control of turbulent boundary layer separation by Johnston footnote AIAA J. 28, 989 (1990). It has been shown that a vortex generator jet can create weak longitudinal vorticity of a single sign when the surface-mounted jets are pitched and skewed with respect to the solid surface. The primary advantages of VGJs when compared to solid vortex generators are their lack of parasitic drag when the jets are off and the ability to rapidly activate and deactivate the jets for dynamic control. Pulsing of the jets is proposed as a way of increasing the turbulent mixing and therefore, improving the performance of vortex generator jets. Initial experiments with jets pitched at 45 deg and skewed at 90 deg degrees in air have indicated that large-scale turbulent structures are formed by the pulsed VGJs. Subsequent flow visualization experiments in a water tunnel suggest that fully-modulated jets embedded in a flat plate boundary layer result in a series of puffs which penetrate through the boundary layer. The influence of jet velocity, diameter, pulsing frequency and duty-cycle will be discussed. * Supported by NSF and PSI.

McManus, K. R.; Johari, H.

1996-11-01

383

Surface-cooling effects on compressible boundary-layer instability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of surface cooling on compressible boundary layer instability is discussed theoretically for both viscous and inviscid modes, at high Reynolds numbers. The cooling enhances the surface heat transfer and shear stress, creating a high heat transfer sublayer. This has the effect of distorting and accentuating the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting modes to such an extent that their spatial growth rates become comparable with, and can even exceed, the growth rates of inviscid modes, including those found previously. This is for moderate cooling, and it applies at any Mach number. In addition, the moderate cooling destabilizes otherwise stable viscous or inviscid modes, in particular triggering outward-traveling waves at the edge of the boundary layer in the supersonic regime. Severe cooling is also discussed as it brings compressible dynamics directly into play within the viscous sublayer. All the new cooled modes found involve the heat transfer sublayer quite actively, and they are often multi-structured in form and may be distinct from those observed in previous computational and experimental investigations. The corresponding nonlinear processes are also pointed out with regard to transition in the cooled compressible boundary layer. Finally, comparisons with Lysenko and Maslov's (1984) experiments on surface cooling are presented.

Seddougui, Sharon O.; Bowles, R. I.; Smith, F. T.

1990-01-01

384

Measurements of Instability and Transition in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies on boundary-layer instability and transition have been conducted in the Boeing/AFOSR-Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) and the Sandia Hypersonic Wind Tunnels (HWT) at Mach 5 and 8. The first study looked at the effect of freestream noise on roughness- induced transition on a blunt cone. Temperature-sensitive paints were used to visualize the wake of an isolated roughness element at zero deg angle of attack in the BAM6QT. Transition was always delayed under quiet flow compared to noisy flow, even for an effective trip height. The second study measured transitional surface pressure fluctuations on a seven degree half-angle sharp cone in the HWT under noisy flow and in the BAM6QT under noisy and quiet flow. Fluctuations under laminar boundary layers reflected tunnel noise levels. Transition on the model only occurred under noisy flow, and fluctuations peaked during transition. Measurements of second- mode waves showed the waves started to grow under a laminar boundary layer, saturated, and then broke down near the peak in transitional pressure fluctuations. The third study looked at the development of wave packets and turbulent spots on the BAM6QT nozzle wall. A spark perturber was used to generate controlled disturbances. Measurements of the internal structure of the pressure field of the disturbances were made.

Casper, K. M.; Schneider, S. P.; Beresh, S. J.

2011-08-01

385

Görtler instability of the axisymmetric boundary layer along a cone

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exact partial differential equations are derived to describe Görtler instability, caused by a weakly concave wall, of axisymmetric boundary layers with similar velocity profiles that are decomposed into a sequence of ordinary differential systems on the assumption that the solution can be expanded into inverse powers of local Reynolds number. The leading terms of the series solution are determined by solving a non-parallel version of Görtler’s eigenvalue problem and lead to a neutral stability curve and finite values of critical Görtler number and wave number for stationary and longitudinal vortices. Higher-order terms of the series solution indicate Reynolds-number dependence of Görtler instability and a limited validity of Görtler’s approximation based on the leading terms only. The present formulation is simply applicable to two-dimensional boundary layers of similar profiles, and critical Görtler number and wave number of the Blasius boundary layer on a flat plate are given by G2c = 1.23 and ?2c = 0.288, respectively, if the momentum thickness is chosen as the reference length.

ITOH, Nobutake

2014-10-01

386

Some characteristics of bypass transition in a heated boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of both mean and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers on a heated flat plate are presented. Measurements were obtained in air over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.3 percent to 6 percent with a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/s and zero pressure gradient. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layers indicate the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, especially pronounced at low intermittencies. Nonturbulent intervals were observed to possess large levels of low-frequency unsteadiness, and turbulent intervals had peak intensities as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Heat transfer results were consistent with results of previous researches and Reynolds analogy factors were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for unheated starting length. A small dependence of the turbulent Reynolds analogy factors on freestream turbulence level was observed. Laminar boundary layer spectra indicated selective amplification of unstable frequencies. These instabilities appear to play a dominant role in the transition process only for the lowest freestream turbulence level studied, however.

Sohn, K. H.; Reshotko, E.; O'Brien, J. E.

1989-01-01

387

Some characteristics of bypass transition in a heated boundary layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental measurements of both mean and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers on a heated flat plate are presented. Measurements were obtained in air over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.3 percent to 6 percent with a freestream velocity of 30.5 m/s and zero pressure gradient. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layers indicate the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, especially pronounced at low intermittencies. Nonturbulent intervals were observed to possess large levels of low-frequency unsteadiness, and turbulent intervals had peak intensities as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Heat transfer results were consistent with results of previous researchers and Reynolds analogy factors were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for unheated starting length. A small dependence of the turbulent Reynolds analogy factors on freestream turbulence level was observed. Laminar boundary layer spectra indicated selective amplification of unstable frequencies. These instabilities appear to play a dominant role in the transition process only for the lowest freestream turbulence level studied, however.

Sohn, K. H.; Obrien, J. E.; Reshotko, E.

1989-01-01

388

Improving subtropical boundary layer cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of short-wave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parameterisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single-column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.

Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, C. S.; Xiao, H.; Sun, R.; Han, J.

2014-09-01

389

Thermocapillary Bubble Migration: Thermal Boundary Layers for Large Marangoni Numbers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The migration of an isolated gas bubble in an immiscible liquid possessing a temperature gradient is analyzed in the absence of gravity. The driving force for the bubble motion is the shear stress at the interface which is a consequence of the temperature dependence of the surface tension. The analysis is performed under conditions for which the Marangoni number is large, i.e. energy is transferred predominantly by convection. Velocity fields in the limit of both small and large Reynolds numbers are used. The thermal problem is treated by standard boundary layer theory. The outer temperature field is obtained in the vicinity of the bubble. A similarity solution is obtained for the inner temperature field. For both small and large Reynolds numbers, the asymptotic values of the scaled migration velocity of the bubble in the limit of large Marangoni numbers are calculated. The results show that the migration velocity has the same scaling for both low and large Reynolds numbers, but with a different coefficient. Higher order thermal boundary layers are analyzed for the large Reynolds number flow field and the higher order corrections to the migration velocity are obtained. Results are also presented for the momentum boundary layer and the thermal wake behind the bubble, for large Reynolds number conditions.

Balasubramaniam, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

1996-01-01

390

Improving subtropical boundary layer cloudiness in the 2011 NCEP GFS

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current operational version of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) shows significant low cloud bias. These biases also appear in the Coupled Forecast System (CFS), which is developed from the GFS. These low cloud biases degrade seasonal and longer climate forecasts, particularly of shortwave cloud radiative forcing, and affect predicted sea-surface temperature. Reducing this bias in the GFS will aid the development of future CFS versions and contributes to NCEP's goal of unified weather and climate modelling. Changes are made to the shallow convection and planetary boundary layer parametrisations to make them more consistent with current knowledge of these processes and to reduce the low cloud bias. These changes are tested in a single-column version of GFS and in global simulations with GFS coupled to a dynamical ocean model. In the single column model, we focus on changing parameters that set the following: the strength of shallow cumulus lateral entrainment, the conversion of updraught liquid water to precipitation and grid-scale condensate, shallow cumulus cloud top, and the effect of shallow convection in stratocumulus environments. Results show that these changes improve the single-column simulations when compared to large eddy simulations, in particular through decreasing the precipitation efficiency of boundary layer clouds. These changes, combined with a few other model improvements, also reduce boundary layer cloud and albedo biases in global coupled simulations.

Fletcher, J. K.; Bretherton, C. S.; Xiao, H.; Sun, R.; Han, J.

2014-04-01

391

Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake expansion/superposition model captures the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down portion adds the interaction between the wind-turbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the model requires specification of a parameter that is not known a-priori. For the wake model the wake expansion coefficient is required, while the top-down model requires an effective span-wise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion coefficient is obtained by matching the predicted mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective span-wise turbine spacing depends on turbine positioning and thus can be determined from the wake expansion...

Stevens, Richard J A M; Meneveau, Charles

2014-01-01

392

Boundary Layer Transition in the NTF: HSR Experience and Plans

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts towards understanding boundary layer transition characteristics on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)-class configuration in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) are ongoing. The majority of the High Speed Research (HSR) data base in the NTF has free transition on the wing, even at low Reynolds numbers (Rn) attainable in conventional facilities. Limited data has been obtained and is described herein showing the effects of a conventional, Braslow method based wing boundary-layer trip on drag. Comparisons are made using force data polars and surface flow visualization at selected angles-of-attack and Mach number. Minimum drag data obtained in this study suggest that boundary layer transition occurred very near the wing leading edge by a chord Rn of 30 million. Sublimating chemicals were used in the air mode of operation only at low Rn and low angles-of-attack with no flap deflections; sublimation results suggest that the forebody and outboard wing panel are the only regions with significant laminar flow. The process and issues related to the sublimating chemical technique as applied in the NTF are discussed. Beyond the existing experience, status of efforts to develop a production transition detection system applicable to both air and cryogenic nitrogen environments is presented.

Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Wahls, Richard A.; Hamner, Marvine P.

1999-01-01

393

The nonlinear development of Gortler vortices in growing boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of Gortler vortices in boundary layers over curved walls in the nonlinear regime is investigated. The growth of the boundary layer makes a parallel flow analysis impossible except in the high wavenumber regime so in general the instability equations must be integrated numerically. Here the spanwise dependence of the basic flow is described using Fourier series expansion whilst the normal and streamwise variations are taken into account using finite differences. The calculations suggest that a given disturbance imposed at some position along the wall will eventually reach a local equilibrium state essentially independent of the initial conditions. In fact, the equilibrium state reached is qualitatively similar to the large amplitude high wave-number solution described asymptotically by Hall (1982). In general, it is found that the nonlinear interactions are dominated by a mean field type of interaction between the mean flow and the fundamental. Thus, even though higher harmonics of the fundamental are necessarily generated, most of the disturbance energy is confined to the mean flow correction and the fundamental. A major result of the calculations is finding that the downstream velocity field develops a strongly inflection character as the flow moves downstream. The latter result suggests that the major effect of Gortler vortices on boundary layers of practical importance might be to make them highly receptive to rapidly growing Rayleigh modes of instability.

Hall, Philip

1986-01-01

394

The nonlinear development of Goertler vortices in growing boundary layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of Goertler vortices in boundary layers over curved walls in the nonlinear regime is investigated. The growth of the boundary layer makes a parallel flow analysis impossible except in the high wavenumber regime so in general the instability equations must be integrated numerically. Here the spanwise dependence of the basic flow is described using Fourier series expansion while the normal and streamwise variations are taken into account using finite differences. The calculations suggest that a given disturbance imposed at some position along the wall will eventually reach a local equilibrium state essentially independent of the initial conditions. In fact, the equilibrium state reached is qualitatively similar to the large amplitude high wave-number solution described asymptotically by Hall (1982). In general, it is found that the nonlinear interactions are dominated by a mean field type of interaction between the mean flow and the fundamental. Thus, even though higher harmonics of the fundamental are necessarily generated, most of the disturbance energy is confined to the mean flow correction and the fundamental. A major result of the calculations is finding that the downstream velocity field develops a strongly inflectional character as the flow moves downstream. The latter result suggests that the major effect of Goertler vortices on boundary layers of practical importance might be to make them highly receptive to rapidly growing Rayleigh modes of instability.

Hall, Philip

1988-01-01

395

PSE approach to optimal disturbances in compressible boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of transient growth in compressible boundary layers is considered within the scope of partial differential equations. As it follows from previous investigations, the optimal disturbances correspond to steady counter rotating streamwise vortices. The corresponding scaling of the perturbations leads to the governing equations as for Gortler type of instability with the Gortler number equal to zero. The iteration procedure employs back and forth marching solutions of the adjoint and original systems of equations. At low Mach numbers, the results agree with results by Andersson, Berggren and Henningson (1999) and Luchini (2000) for Blasius boundary layer flow. In the case of a parallel flow, the method leads to the same results obtained for compressible flow within the scope of linearized Navier-Stokes equations (Tumin and Reshotko, 2001). The new method is applied to analysis of optimal disturbances in compressible boundary layers at various Mach numbers and temperature factors. Experimental data by E. White (2002) on transient growth are discussed in the light of the new results.

Tumin, Anatoli; Reshotko, Eli

2002-11-01

396

Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions between sea ice, open ocean, atmospheric radiation, and clouds over the Arctic Ocean exert a strong influence on global climate. Uncertainties in the formulation of interactive air-sea-ice processes in global climate models (GCMs) result in large differences between the Arctic, and global, climates simulated by different models. Arctic stratus clouds are not well-simulated by GCMs, yet exert a strong influence on the surface energy budget of the Arctic. Leads (channels of open water in sea ice) have significant impacts on the large-scale budgets during the Arctic winter, when they contribute about 50 percent of the surface fluxes over the Arctic Ocean, but cover only 1 to 2 percent of its area. Convective plumes generated by wide leads may penetrate the surface inversion and produce condensate that spreads up to 250 km downwind of the lead, and may significantly affect the longwave radiative fluxes at the surface and thereby the sea ice thickness. The effects of leads and boundary layer clouds must be accurately represented in climate models to allow possible feedbacks between them and the sea ice thickness. The FIRE III Arctic boundary layer clouds field program, in conjunction with the SHEBA ice camp and the ARM North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean site, will offer an unprecedented opportunity to greatly improve our ability to parameterize the important effects of leads and boundary layer clouds in GCMs.

Krueger, Steven K.

1998-01-01

397

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wave and skin-friction drag have been numerically calculated for a series of power-law bodies at a Mach number of 6 and Reynolds numbers, based on body length, from 1.5 million to 9.5 million. Pressure distributions were computed on the nose by the inverse method and on the body by the method of characteristics. These pressure distributions and the measured locations of boundary-layer transition were used in a nonsimilar-boundary-layer program to determine viscous effects. A coupled iterative approach between the boundary-layer and pressure-distribution programs was used to account for boundary-layer displacement-thickness effects. The calculated-drag coefficients compared well with previously obtained experimental data.

Ashby, G. C., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

1974-01-01

398

We consider a one-dimensional model of friction contact of two layers of different nature. The lower surface of the first layer is elastically fixed and the second layer is pressed to the upper surface of the first layer and moves along this surface with variable velocity. As a result of friction, heat is produced on the contact surface according to

A. V. Yasins'kyi

2003-01-01

399

Computational Study of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability on Cones

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complex nature of boundary layer laminar-turbulent transition in hypersonic flows and the resultant effect on the design of re-entry vehicles, there remains considerable interest in developing a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. To that end, the use of experimental observations and computational analysis in a complementary manner will provide the greatest insights. It is the intent of this work to provide such an analysis for two ongoing experimental investigations. The first focuses on the hypersonic boundary layer transition experiments for a slender cone that are being conducted at JAXA's free-piston shock tunnel HIEST facility. Of particular interest are the measurements of disturbance frequencies associated with transition at high enthalpies. The computational analysis provided for these cases included two-dimensional CFD mean flow solutions for use in boundary layer stability analyses. The disturbances in the boundary layer were calculated using the linear parabolized stability equations. Estimates for transition locations, comparisons of measured disturbance frequencies and computed frequencies, and a determination of the type of disturbances present were made. It was found that for the cases where the disturbances were measured at locations where the flow was still laminar but nearly transitional, that the highly amplified disturbances showed reasonable agreement with the computations. Additionally, an investigation of the effects of finite-rate chemistry and vibrational excitation on flows over cones was conducted for a set of theoretical operational conditions at the HIEST facility. The second study focuses on transition in three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layers, and for this the cone at angle of attack experiments being conducted at the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue University were examined. Specifically, the effect of surface roughness on the development of the stationary crossflow instability are investigated in this work. One standard mean flow solution and two direct numerical simulations of a slender cone at an angle of attack were computed. The direct numerical simulations included a digitally-filtered, randomly distributed surface roughness and were performed using a high-order, low-dissipation numerical scheme on appropriately resolved grids. Comparisons with experimental observations showed excellent qualitative agreement. Comparisons with similar previous computational work were also made and showed agreement in the wavenumber range of the most unstable crossflow modes.

Gronvall, Joel Edwin

400

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind harvesting is fast becoming an important alternative source of energy. As wind farms become larger, they begin to attain scales at which two-way interactions with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) must be taken into account. Several studies have shown that there is a quantifiable effect of wind farms on the local meteorology, mainly through changes in the land-atmosphere fluxes of heat and moisture. In particular, the observed trends suggest that wind farms increase fluxes at the surface and this could be due to increased turbulence in the wakes. Conversely, simulations and laboratory experiments show that underneath wind farms, the friction velocity is decreased due to extraction of momentum by the wind turbines, a factor that could decrease scalar fluxes at the surface. In order to study this issue in more detail, a suite of large eddy simulations of an infinite (fully developed) wind turbine array boundary layer, including scalar transport from the ground surface without stratification, is performed. Results show an overall increase in the scalar fluxes of about 10%-15% when wind turbines are present in the ABL, and that the increase does not strongly depend upon wind farm loading as described by the turbines' thrust coefficient and the wind turbines spacings. A single-column analysis including scalar transport shows that the presence of wind farms can be expected to increase slightly the scalar transport from the bottom surface and that this slight increase is due to a delicate balance between two strong opposing trends.

Calaf, Marc; Parlange, Marc B.; Meneveau, Charles

2011-12-01

401

Direct Numerical Simulations of High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers over Riblets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets with a broad range of riblet spacings are conducted to investigate the effects of riblets on skin friction at high speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers under two flow conditions (Mach 2:5 with T(sub w)/T(sub r) = 1 and Mach 7:2 with T(sub w)/T(sub r) = 0:5) are considered. The DNS results show that the drag-reduction curve (delta C(sub f)/C(sub f) vs l(sup +)(sub g )) at both supersonic speeds follows the trend of low-speed data and consists of a `viscous' regime for small riblet size, a `breakdown' regime with optimal drag reduction, and a `drag-increasing' regime for larger riblet sizes. At l l(sup +)(sub g) approx. 10 (corresponding to s+ approx 20 for the current triangular riblets), drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved at both Mach numbers, and con rms the observations of the few existing experiments under supersonic conditions. The Mach- number dependence of the drag-reduction curve occurs for riblet sizes that are larger than the optimal size, with smaller slopes of (delta C(sub f)/C(sub f) for larger freestream Mach numbers. The Reynolds analogy holds with 2(C(sub h)=C(sub f) approximately equal to that of at plates for both drag-reducing and drag-increasing configurations.

Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan, M.

2014-01-01

402

Numerical simulation of a shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction in a duct

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical investigation of the interaction of an incident oblique shock wave with a turbulent duct flow is presented. The investigation consists of solving the three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible, mass averaged Navier-Stokes equations, using an implicit finite volume, lower-upper time marching code and incorporates the three-dimensional Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. Computed results are obtained Mach number 2.9 for a turning angle of 13 degrees and Reynolds number based on duct width of 1.36 x 10 exp 7. Under various inlet conditions, the results clearly depict the flow characteristics, including the shock geometry, the separated flow region, the wall pressure distribution, and the skin friction distribution. The findings provide a physical understanding of the three-dimensional vortex structure of the flow in a duct in which a shock wave interacts with a turbulent boundary layer. The results show that the ratio of the boundary layer thickness to the duct width is the critical parameter in determining the separation structure.

Yang, Wei-Li; Greber, Isaac

1993-01-01

403

Tropospheric ozone: Effects of cloud chemistry and boundary layer processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of tropospheric O3 to aqueous-phase radical chemistry in clouds is examined using photochemical model calculations of the O3 production efficiency per unit NO x and the chemical lifetime of O3. Based on typical cloud volume fractions and frequencies of air processing by clouds, we estimate that the maximum perturbation to O3 from cloud chemistry in the tropics and mid- latitudes summer is less than 3%. This result is supported by calculations using a three-dimensional, continental-scale model for North America. We argue that previous model analyses which reported large perturbations to O3 from cloud chemistry either did not use suitably quantitative diagnostics or assumed high liquid water abundances and high solubility for CH3O2. A 3-dimensional, continental-scale photochemical model is used to investigate seasonal variations in the budgets of O3 and NO y species (including NO x and its oxidation products) in the boundary layer over the United States, and to estimate the export of these species from the U.S. boundary layer to the global atmosphere. Model results are evaluated with year-round observations for O 3, CO, and NO y species. The model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of O3, NO x, NO x/NO y, and NO y deposition flux. It overestimates O3 over the south-central United States by 10-20 ppbv in summer and fall. The mean NO x/NO y ratio in the U.S. boundary layer in the model ranges from 0.2 in summer to 0.6 in winter, reflecting the seasonal change in the chemical lifetime of NO x. Formation of hydroxy organic nitrates during oxidation of isoprene, followed by decomposition of these nitrates to HNO3, accounts for 30% of the chemical sink of NO x in the U.S. boundary layer in summer. Peroxyacylnitrates (PANs) are most abundant in the U.S. boundary layer in spring (25% of total NO y), reflecting a combination of active photochemistry and low temperatures, and least abundant in winter (10% of NO y). The fraction of NO x emitted in the United States exported to the global atmosphere as NO x or PANs ranges from 15% in summer to 25% in winter. This export responds less-than-linearly to changes in NO x emissions in summer, but more-than-linearly in winter. The annual mean export of NO x + PANs from the U.S. boundary layer is estimated to be 1.2 Tg N yr-1, comparable to current estimates for the lightning source of NO x in the Northern Hemisphere; the resulting source of O3 production in the global troposphere is estimated to be 2 times more important than the direct export of O3 pollution from the U.S. boundary layer.

Liang, Jinyou

1997-11-01

404

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective in the two research investigations performed under NASA Langley sponsorship (Turbulence measurements in hypersonic boundary layers using constant temperature anemometry and Reynolds stress measurements in hypersonic boundary layers) has been to increase the understanding of the physics of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The study began with an extension of constant-temperature thermal anemometry techniques to a Mach 11 helium flow, including careful examinations of hot-wire construction techniques, system response, and system calibration. This was followed by the application of these techniques to the exploration of a Mach 11 helium turbulent boundary layer (To approximately 290 K). The data that was acquired over the course of more than two years consists of instantaneous streamwise mass flux measurements at a frequency response of about 500 kHz. The data are of exceptional quality in both the time and frequency domain and possess a high degree of repeatability. The data analysis that has been performed to date has added significantly to the body of knowledge on hypersonic turbulence, and the data reduction is continuing. An attempt was then made to extend these thermal anemometry techniques to higher enthalpy flows, starting with a Mach 6 air flow with a stagnation temperature just above that needed to prevent liquefaction (To approximately 475 F). Conventional hot-wire anemometry proved to be inadequate for the selected high-temperature, high dynamic pressure flow, with frequent wire breakage and poor system frequency response. The use of hot-film anemometry has since been investigated for these higher-enthalpy, severe environment flows. The difficulty with using hot-film probes for dynamic (turbulence) measurements is associated with construction limitations and conduction of heat into the film substrate. Work continues under a NASA GSRP grant on the development of a hot film probe that overcomes these shortcomings for hypersonic flows. Each of the research tasks performed during the NASA Langley research grants is discussed separately below.

Spina, Eric F.

1995-01-01

405

Numerical simulations of spatially developing, accelerating boundary layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of direct and large-eddy simulations of spatially developing boundary layers subjected to favorable pressure gradient, strong enough to cause reversion of the flow towards a quasi-laminar state. The numerical results compare well with experimental data. Visualization of the flow structures shows the well-known stabilization of the streaks, the re-orientation of outer layer vortices in the streamwise direction, and the appearance of turbulent spots in the re-transition region. Both instantaneous visualizations and turbulent statistics highlight the significant damping of wall-normal and spanwise fluctuations. The fast component of the pressure fluctuations appears to be the main driver of this process, contributing to reduce pressure fluctuations and, as a consequence, the energy redistribution term in the Reynolds stress budgets. The streamwise stresses, in whose budget a separate production term plays a role, do not decay but remain frozen at their upstream value. The decrease of wall-normal and spanwise fluctuations appears to be the main cause of the inner-layer stabilization, by disrupting the generation and subsequent growth of streaks, consistent with various models of the turbulence-generation cycle proposed in the literature. The outer layer seems to play a passive role in this process. The stretching and reorientation of the outer-layer vortices results in a more orderly and organized structure; since fewer ejections occur, the inner layer does not break this re-organization, which is maintained until re-transition begins.

Piomelli, Ugo; Yuan, Junlin

2013-10-01

406

Laboratory synthesis of turbulent boundary layer wall-pressures and the induced vibro is considered of synthesizing spatially correlated random pressure fields whose statistical properties Introduction Synthesizing the response of structures to Turbulent Boundary Layer (TBL) wall-pressure

Boyer, Edmond

407

Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.

Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.

1959-01-01

408

Coupling the dynamics of boundary layers and evolutionary dunes.

A theoretical formulation and corresponding numerical solutions are presented for fluid flow and sediment transport past evolutionary sand dunes. Time-dependent curvilinear coordinates are employed to fully couple flow aloft with the developing landform. The differential conservation law that defines shape of the lower boundary depends on details of local surface stress, thereby favoring the large eddy simulation of the boundary layer. To shrink the gap between the time scales characteristic of planetary boundary layer flows O(10(3)) s and sand dune evolution O(10(6)) s, a hypothetical "severe-wind scenario" is adopted with the saltation flux amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. While the results are largely insensitive to the rescaling, the efficacy of computations is greatly improved. The flux-form partial differential equation for the interface profile--via saltation and sand avalanches--is formulated as an advection-diffusion equation, to facilitate discrete integrations. Numerical experiments verify the adopted theoretical framework by reproducing scaling results reported in the literature. The versatility of the approach is illustrated with evolution of a sandhole--an example of application likely never addressed in the literature, yet realizable in nature. PMID:19518224

Ortiz, Pablo; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K

2009-04-01

409

On the partially reacted boundary layer in rate sticks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using our temperature dependent reactive flow model (TDRR) to simulate detonation in a rate stick, we observe that a partially reacted layer (PRL) is formed near the boundary. We are not aware that such a PRL has been observed in tests, and this is why we regarded it in the past as a numerical artifact. Assuming that such an artefact may be caused by the finite rise time of the detonation shock, we showed in [1] how it can be eliminated by delaying the outward boundary motion for a length of time comparable with the shock rise time. Here we revisit the PRL problem. We first show that it is not a numerical artifact but a real phenomenon. We do this by repeating the reactive flow run with a finer mesh. By looking at the PRL structure, we see that doubling the resolution affects the PRL only slightly. We then conjecture that the PRL formation has to do with the finite duration of the reaction process (or the finite extent of the reaction zone). By the time the boundary rarefaction reaches a cell near the boundary, it may be only partially reacted, and its reaction may therefore be cut off. To establish our conjecture we show how the PRL structure changes with the reaction duration.

Partom, Y.

2014-05-01

410

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) has become a powerful tool in studying fundamental phenomena of laminar-turbulent transition of high-speed boundary layers. Previous DNS studies of supersonic and hypersonic boundary layer transition have been limited to perfect-gas flow over flat-plate boundary layers without shock waves. For hypersonic boundary layers over realistic blunt bodies, DNS studies of transition need to consider the effects

Xiaolin Zhong

1998-01-01

411

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computations, employing several turbulence models, are compared with a series of attached supersonic turbulent boundary-layer experiments over an extensive range of Reynolds numbers (11.7 x 10 to the 6th to 314 x 10 to the 6th). These experiments included measurements of surface pressure and skin friction for adverse pressure gradients ranging in magnitude from those of previous investigations to an order of magnitude greater. The turbulence models evaluated include algebraic and two-equation eddy-viscosity models and two full Reynolds stress models. In general all the models tested performed well independently of the magnitude of the pressure gradient or Reynolds number and could predict the measured skin friction for most cases with sufficient accuracy for engineering purposes.

Horstman, C. C.; Kussoy, M. I.; Lanfranco, M. J.

1978-01-01

412

Determining Boundary-Layer Height from Aircraft Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The height of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is an important variable in both observational studies and model simulations. The most commonly used measurement for obtaining ABL height is a rawinsonde profile. Mesoscale or regional scale models use a bulk Richardson number based on profiles of the forecast variables. Here we evaluate the limitations of several frequently-used approaches for defining ABL height from a single profile, and identify the optimal threshold value for each method if profiles are the only available measurements. Aircraft measurements from five field projects are used, representing a variety of ABL conditions including stable, convective, and cloud-topped boundary layers over different underlying surfaces. ABL heights detected from these methods were validated against the `true' value determined from aircraft soundings, where ABL height is defined as the top of the layer with significant turbulence. A detection rate was defined to denote how often the ABL height was correctly diagnosed with a particular method. The results suggest that the temperature gradient method provides the most reasonable estimates, although the detection rate and suitable detection criteria vary for different types of ABL. The Richardson number method, on the other hand, is in most cases inadequate or inferior to the other methods that were tried. The optimal range of the detection criteria is given for all ABL types examined in this study.

Dai, C.; Wang, Q.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Lenschow, D. H.; Gao, Z.; Zhou, M.

2014-09-01

413

Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research objective of this NASA grant-funded project was to determine in detail how large-scale processes. in combination with cloud-scale radiative, microphysical, and dynamical processes, govern the formation and multi-layered structure of Arctic stratus clouds. This information will be useful for developing and improving 1D (one dimensional) boundary layer models for the Arctic. Also, to quantitatively determine the effects of leads on the large-scale budgets of sensible heat, water vapor, and condensate in a variety of Arctic winter conditions. This information will be used to identify the most important lead-flux processes that require parameterization in climate models. Our approach was to use a high-resolution numerical model, the 2D (two dimensional) University of Utah Cloud Resolving Model (UU CRM), and its 1D version, the University of Utah Turbulence Closure Model (UU TCM), a boundary layer model based on third-moment turbulence closure, as well as a large-eddy simulation (LES) model originally developed by C.H. Moeng.

Kruegen, Steven K.; Delnore, Victor E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

414

Universality of the quantum boundary layer for a Maxwellian gas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For an ideal gas confined in a rectangular domain, it has been shown that the density is not homogenous even in thermodynamic equilibrium and it goes to zero within a layer near to the boundaries due to the wave character of particles. This layer has been called the quantum boundary layer (QBL). In literature, an analytical expression for the thickness of QBL has been given for only a rectangular domain since both energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation can analytically be obtained for only a rectangular domain. In this study, ideal Maxwellian gases confined in spherical and cylindrical domains are considered to investigate whether the thickness of QBL is independent of the domain shape. Although the energy eigenvalues are the roots of Bessel functions and there is no analytical expression giving the roots, the thickness of QBL is expressed analytically by considering the density distributions and using some simplifications based on the numerical calculations. It is found that QBL has the same thickness for the domains of different shapes. Therefore, QBL seems to have a universal thickness independent of the domain shape for an ideal Maxwellian gas.

Firat, C.; Sisman, A.

2009-06-01

415

Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.

Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h. PMID:23129408

Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi

2013-07-01

416

Fullerenes in the cretaceous-tertiary boundary layer

High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis of toluene extracts of samples from two Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sites in New Zealand has revealed the presence of C[sub 60] at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 parts per million of the associated soot. This technique verified also that fullerenes are produced in similar amounts in the soots of common flames under ambient atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the C[sub 60] in the K-T boundary layer may have originated in the extensive wildfires that were associated with the cataclysmic impact event that terminated the Mezozoic era about 65 million years ago.

Heymann, D.; Chibante, L.P.F.; Smalley, R.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)); Brooks, R.R. (Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand)); Wolbach, W.S. (Illinois Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, IL (United States))

1994-07-29