NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinrath, Martin
2016-06-01
There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings
Amore, Paolo
2013-11-15
We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N−1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.
Generalized Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule
Zhou Binglu; Zhu Jiongming; Yan Zongchao
2006-01-15
The generalized Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule is established for any Coulombic system with arbitrary masses and charges of its constituent particles. Numerical examples are given for the hydrogen molecular ions.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-11-01
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink-Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums
Amore, Paolo
2013-09-15
We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of inhomogeneous drums. •We discuss the extension to higher dimensions. •We discuss the special case of an inhomogeneity only along one direction.
Generalized Sum Rules of the Nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam
2008-10-01
We consider doubly virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) off the nucleon with the photon virtualities q1^2=q2^2=-Q^2 and formulate the low energy theorem (LET) for this process. We show that the LET can only be defined at finite momentum transfer t=-2Q^2 which is at variance with existing studies in the literature. Combining LET with dispersion relations for the forward VVCS amplitude, we obtain the new, correct version of the generalized sum rules of the nucleon that state a correspondence between the low energy constants of VVCS and the moments of the DIS structure functions. We notice that the t-channel unitarity is necessary to translate the forward dispersion relations to the low energy limit. This approach leads to a substantial modification of the generalized GDH sum rule at finite Q^2 that undergoes extensive studies at JLab. For the spin-independent VVCS amplitude, the new sum rule for the generalized magnetic susceptibility β(Q^2) is obtained. Our approach provides a consistent, Lorentz invariant formulation of LET for the most general VVCS process that removes inconsistencies that stain the previous studies of the generalized polarizabilities of virtual Compton scattering and the generalized sum rules of the nucleon.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens,more » violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).« less
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).
A cluster version of the GGT sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hencken, Kai; Baur, Gerhard; Trautmann, Dirk
2004-03-01
We discuss the derivation of a "cluster sum rule" from the Gellmann-Goldberger-Thirring (GGT) sum rule as an alternative to the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule, which was used as the basis up to now. We compare differences in the assumptions and approximations. Some applications of the sum rule for halo nuclei, as well as, nuclei with a pronounced cluster structure are discussed.
The beauty of impurities: Two revivals of Friedel's virtual bound-state concept
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georges, Antoine
2016-03-01
Jacques Friedel pioneered the theoretical study of impurities and magnetic impurities in metals. He discovered Friedel oscillations, introduced the concept of virtual bound-state, and demonstrated that the charge on the impurity is related to the scattering phase-shift at the Fermi level (Friedel sum-rule). After a brief review of some of these concepts, I describe how they proved useful in two new contexts. The first one concerns the Coulomb blockade in quantum dots, and its suppression by the Kondo effect. The second one is the dynamical mean-field theory of strong electronic correlations. xml:lang="fr"
Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.
2016-07-01
Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.
Charmonium sum rules applied to a holographic model
Hohler, Paul M.
2011-01-15
The heavy-quark QCD sum rules are applied to a model of charmonium based upon the gauge/gravity duality. We find that there is strong agreement between the moments of the polarization function calculated from the holographic model and the experimental data suggesting that the model is consistent with the heavy-quark QCD sum rules at zero temperature.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode
Amore, Paolo
2014-10-15
We show that the formulas for the sum rules for the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in two recent papers are incomplete when the system contains a zero mode. We prove that there are finite contributions of the zero mode to the sum rules and we explicitly calculate the expressions for the sum rules of order one and two. The previous results for systems that do not contain a zero mode are unaffected. - Highlights: • We discuss the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode. • We derive the explicit expressions for sum rules of order one and two. • We perform accurate numerical tests of these results for three examples.
QCD sum rules on the complex Borel plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araki, Ken-Ji; Ohtani, Keisuke; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto
2014-07-01
Borel-transformed QCD sum rules conventionally use a real-valued parameter (the Borel mass) for specifying the exponential weight over which hadronic spectral functions are averaged. In this paper, it is shown that the Borel mass can be generalized to have complex values and that new classes of sum rules can be derived from the resulting averages over the spectral functions. The real and imaginary parts of these novel sum rules turn out to have damped oscillating kernels and potentially contain a larger amount of information on the hadronic spectrum than the real-valued QCD sum rules. As a first practical test, we have formulated complex Borel sum rules for the φ -meson channel and have analyzed them using the maximum entropy method, by which we can extract the most probable spectral function from the sum rules without strong assumptions on its functional form. As a result, it is demonstrated that, compared to earlier studies, the complex-valued sum rules allow us to extract the spectral function with a significantly improved resolution and thus to study more detailed structures of the hadronic spectrum than previously possible.
Friedel phase discontinuity and bound states in the continuum in quantum dot systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solís, B.; Ladrón de Guevara, M. L.; Orellana, P. A.
2008-06-01
In this Letter we study the Friedel phase of the electron transport in two different systems of quantum dots which exhibit bound states in the continuum (BIC). The Friedel phase jumps abruptly in the energies of the BICs, which is associated to the vanishing width of these states, as shown by Friedrich and Wintgen in [H. Friedrich, D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. A 31 (1985) 3964]. This odd behavior of the Friedel phase has consequences in the charge through the Friedel sum rule. Namely, if the energy of the BIC drops under the Fermi energy the charge changes abruptly in a unity. We show that this behavior closely relates to discontinuities in the conductance predicted for interacting quantum dot systems.
Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle
Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal
2010-02-01
In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.
Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2011-12-01
We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new “constituent quark model” sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.
Q^2 dependence of generalized Baldin sum rule
Y. Liang
2005-02-01
The generalized Baldin sum rule for virtual photon, an unpolarized analog of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule, provides an unique way to investigate the transition between the perturbative QCD and hadronic descriptions of nucleon structure. We report on new measurements in Hall C at Jefferson Lab of the generalized Baldin integral for the proton at Q^2 of 0.3-4.0 GeV^2.
Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules
Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.
2013-03-25
We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.
Coulomb sum rule for {sup 4}He
J. Carlson; J. Jourdan; R. Schiavilla; I. Sick
2002-10-01
We determine the Coulomb sum for {sup 4}He using world data on {sup 4}He(e, e') and compare the results to calculations based on realistic interactions and including two-body components in the nuclear charge operator. We find good agreement between theory and experiment using free-nucleon form factors. The apparent reduction of the in-medium G{sub ep} implied by IA-interpretation of the L/T-ratios measured in {sup 4}He(e,e'p) and {sup 4}He([vec]e, e'p) is not confirmed.
Additional corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule
Londergan, J. T.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-12-01
We investigate some QCD corrections that contribute to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule but have not been included in previous analyses of it. We first review the techniques by which the xF{sub 3} structure function is extracted from combinations of neutrino and antineutrino cross sections. Next we investigate corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule, with particular attention to contributions arising from strange quark distributions and from charge symmetry violating parton distributions. We find that additional corrections from strange quarks and parton charge symmetry violation are likely to have a small but potentially significant role in decreasing the current discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical estimates of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule.
Nucleon QCD sum rules in the instanton medium
Ryskin, M. G.; Drukarev, E. G. Sadovnikova, V. A.
2015-09-15
We try to find grounds for the standard nucleon QCD sum rules, based on a more detailed description of the QCD vacuum. We calculate the polarization operator of the nucleon current in the instanton medium. The medium (QCD vacuum) is assumed to be a composition of the small-size instantons and some long-wave gluon fluctuations. We solve the corresponding QCD sum rule equations and demonstrate that there is a solution with the value of the nucleon mass close to the physical one if the fraction of the small-size instantons contribution is w{sub s} ≈ 2/3.
A Derivative of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule
Vladimir Pascalutsa; Barry Holstein; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2004-08-01
We derive a sum rule which establishes a linear relation between a particle's anomalous magnetic moment and a quantity connected to the photoabsorption cross-section. This quantity cannot be measured directly. However, it can be computed within a given theory. As an example, we demonstrate validity of the sum rule in QED at tree level---the renowned Schwinger's correction to the anomalous magnetic moment is readily reproduced. In the case of the strong interactions, we also consider the calculation of the nucleon magnetic moment within chiral theories.
Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2014-11-01
Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i) For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the M̅S̅ scheme m̅b(m̅b) ≈ 4:18 GeV; the sum-rule result fB ≈ 210-220 MeV for the B meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding fB ≈ 190 MeV: Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of fB yields a significantly larger b-quark mass: m̅b(m̅b) = 4:247 GeV: (ii) Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants fD; fDs, fD* and fDs* are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constants—and especially for the ratio fB* / fB—prove to be very sensitive to the specific scale setting.
Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2016-01-01
We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.
Inequalities for frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwamoto, N.
1986-01-01
The relations between the various frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids, which include even-power moments, are systematically examined by using the Cauchy-Schwarz and Hoelder inequalities. A relation involving the isothermal sound velocity and the kinetic and potential energies is obtained from one of the inequalities in the long-wavelength limit, and is generalized to arbitrary spatial dimensions.
Spectral sum rules for confining large- N theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherman, Aleksey; McGady, David A.; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-06-01
We consider asymptotically-free four-dimensional large- N gauge theories with massive fermionic and bosonic adjoint matter fields, compactified on squashed three-spheres, and examine their regularized large- N confined-phase spectral sums. The analysis is done in the limit of vanishing 't Hooft coupling, which is justified by taking the size of the compactification manifold to be small compared to the inverse strong scale Λ-1. Our results motivate us to conjecture some universal spectral sum rules for these large N gauge theories.
Gottfried sum rule and the ratio Fn2/Fp2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash, Firooz
1995-07-01
We describe the nucleon as a bound state of three constituent objects, called ``valons,'' which themselves have structure. At high enough Q2 it is the valon structure, governed by QCD, which is probed and, thus, the nucleon structure is described in terms of its partonic distributions, while at low Q2 the nucleon is described in terms of its valon distributions, independent of a probe and controlled by nonperturbative QCD. The implications of this phenomenological model, then, are applied to the New Muon Collaboration (NMC) data for Fn2/Fp2 and on the Gottfried sum rule. It is shown that the model successfully reproduces the experimental value of the Gottfried sum rule SG[0<=x1,
Otto Stern, the Gdh Sum Rule and Various Spin Crises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drechsel, D.
2001-02-01
The history of spin and anomalous magnetic moment is full of puzzles and "crises" from the first observations in the 1920's to the present day. The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule connects the anomalous magnetic moment with the helicity dependent cross section for photoproduction, and as such checks the internal consistency of our understanding of the nucleon spin structure. Various generalizations of the sum rule have been proposed for the case of virtual photons, thus interpolating from the real photon point to deep inelastic scattering. A series of recent and newly proposed experiments with beam and target/recoil polarization will study this transition between the coherent spin-dependent response and the incoherent response of the partons in the scaling region.
Heavy-meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2010-12-22
We sketch a recent sum-rule extraction of the decay constants of the heavy pseudoscalar mesons D, D{sub s}, B, and B{sub s} from the two-point correlator of heavy-light pseudoscalar currents. Our main emphasis lies on the control over all the uncertainties in the decay constants, related both to the input QCD parameters and to the limited accuracy of the method of sum rules. Gaining this control has become possible by application of our new procedure of extracting hadron observables based on a dual threshold depending on the Borel parameter. For the charmed-meson decay constants, we find fD = (206.2{+-}7.3{sub (OPE)}{+-}5.1{sub (syst)}) MeV, fD{sub s} = (245.3{+-}15.7{sub (OPE)}{+-}4.5{sub (syst)}) MeV. For the beauty mesons, the decay constants turn out to be extremely sensitive to the precise value of the {ovr MS} mass of the b-quark, {bar m}{sub b}({bar m}{sub b}). By requiring our sum-rule estimate to match the average of the lattice determinations of f{sub B}, we extract the rather accurate value {bar m}{sub b}({bar m}{sub b}) = (4.245{+-}0.025) GeV. Feeding this parameter value into our sum-rule formalism leads to the beauty-meson decay constants fB = (193.4{+-}12.3{sub (OPE)}{+-}4.3{sub (syst)}) MeV, fB{sub s} = (232.5{+-}18.6{sub (OPE)}{+-}2.4{sub (syst)}) MeV.
On Gravitational Form Factors and Transverse Spin Sum Rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, D.; Mondal, C.; Mukherjee, A.
2016-06-01
Using the light front wave functions of the scalar quark-diquark model for nucleon predicted by the soft-wall AdS/QCD, we calculate the flavor dependent gravitational form factors. We evaluate the matrix element of Pauli-Lubanski operator in this model and show that the intrinsic spin sum rule involves the higher twist form factor {bar{C}}. The longitudinal momentum densities in the transverse impact parameter space are also discussed for both unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleons.
Choice of nucleon current in QCD sum rule calculations
Indumathi, D.
1995-06-01
The author studies the correlator occurring in the calculation of nucleon structure functions in the QCD sum rule technique. The author shows+ that the property of gauge invariance of this four-point function in the spin dependent sector uniquely fixes the choice of nucleon current in such computations. No such constraint is obtainable from similar considerations in the spin-independent sector. 14 refs., 5 figs.
A QCD Sum Rules Approach to Mixing of Hadrons
Aliev, T. M.; Ozpineci, A.; Zamiralov, V. S.
2010-12-28
A method for the calculation of the hadronic mixing angles using QCD sum rules is proposed. This method is then applied to predict the mixing angle between the heavy cascade hyperons {Xi}{sub Q} and {Xi}{sub Q}{sup '} where Q = c or Q = b. It is obtained the {theta}{sub b} = 6.4 deg. {+-}1.8 deg. and {theta}{sub c} = 5.5 deg. {+-}1.8 deg.
On the loop approximation in nucleon QCD sum rules
Drukarev, E. G. Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.
2015-10-15
There was a general belief that the nucleon QCD sum rules which include only the quark loops and thus contain only the condensates of dimension d = 3 and d = 4 have only a trivial solution. We demonstrate that there is also a nontrivial solution. We show that it can be treated as the lowest order approximation to the solution which includes the higher terms of the Operator Product Expansion. Inclusion of the radiative corrections improves the convergence of the series.
Sum rules for the polarization correlations in photoionization and bremsstrahlung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratt, R. H.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.
2016-05-01
The polarization correlations in doubly differential cross sections are investigated for photoionization and ordinary bremsstrahlung. These correlations describe the polarization transfer between incident light and ejected photoelectrons as well as between an incoming electron beam and bremsstrahlung light, respectively. They are characterized by a set of seven real parameters Ci j. We show that the squares of these parameters are connected by simple "sum rules." These sum rules can be applied for both one-electron systems and also for atoms, if the latter are described within the independent particle approximation. In particular, they are exact in their simplest form (i) for the photoionization of K -, LI ,I I-, and MI ,I I-atomic shells, as well as (ii) for bremsstrahlung in which the electron is scattered into s1 /2 or p1 /2 states, as in the tip (bremsstrahlung) region. Detailed calculations are performed to verify the derived identities and to discuss their possible applications for the analysis of modern photoionization and bremsstrahlung experiments. In particular, we argue that the sum rules may help to determine the entire set of (significant) polarization correlations in the case when not all Ci j are available for experimental observation.
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cloët, Ian C.; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W.
2016-01-01
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q |≳0.5 GeV . The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Radiative corrections to the solar lepton mixing sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun
2016-08-01
The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles ( θ 12, θ 13, θ 23) and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase δ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the solar lepton mixing sum rule θ 12 ≈ θ 12 ν + θ 13 cos δ, where θ 12 ν stems from a constant mixing pattern in the neutrino sector and takes the value of θ 12 ν = 45 ° for the bi-maximal mixing (BM), {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{2}) ≈ 35.3° for the tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) or {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{5+1}) ≈ 31.7° for the golden-ratio mixing (GR), and investigate the renormalization-group (RG) running effects on lepton flavor mixing parameters when this sum rule is assumed at a superhigh-energy scale. For illustration, we work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), and implement the Bayesian approach to explore the posterior distribution of δ at the low-energy scale, which becomes quite broad when the RG running effects are significant. Moreover, we also discuss the compatibility of the above three mixing scenarios with current neutrino oscillation data, and observe that radiative corrections can increase such a compatibility for the BM scenario, resulting in a weaker preference for the TBM and GR ones.
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule.
Cloët, Ian C; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W
2016-01-22
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q|≳0.5 GeV. The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei. PMID:26849589
Sum rules for M2 and other cases
Kurath, D.
1995-08-01
Sum rules were derived for parity-changing operators consisting of an odd-l spherical harmonic coupled to the spin operator sigma. The conditions are that the valence nucleons are in the oscillator shell with Q quanta and the shell with Q-1 quanta is full and the shell with Q+1 quanta is empty. Thus this applies to the 1p, 2sd and 3pf as valence shells, where the sum rules would be useful for inelastic electron scattering and other reactions. In particular a complete M2 sum rule was derived including the weak contribution from the orbital operator. The contribution from the spurious center-of-mass motion was also derived. The expression was tested by comparing to summations of transition strengths given by shell-model calculations. For nuclei with mass greater than {approximately}A = 70 one would need to include the effect of the intruding level with Q+1 quanta and J = Q+3/2. This problem will be considered in the coming year.
Infrared modified QCD couplings and Bjorken sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khandramai, V. L.; Teryaev, O. V.; Gabdrakhmanov, I. R.
2016-02-01
We test the recently proposed “Massive” Perturbation Theory (MPT) for the description of the Γ1p-n data at low momentum transfers. The MPT constructed on the two grounds: the first is pQCD with only one parameter added, an effective “glueball mass” mp ≲ Mgl ≲ 1 GeV; serving as an infrared “regulator” the second stems out of the ghost- free Analytic Perturbation Theory comprising non-power perturbative expansion that makes it compatible with linear integral transformations. It is regular in the low-energy region and could serve as a practical means for the analysis of data below 1 GeV up to the IR-limit. We study the non-perturbative Bjorken sum rule higher twists correction by using the MPT, the integral representation for infinite sum of higher twists coefficients and the QCD-inspired model for the Q2-dependence of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule.
3He Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules
Slifer, Karl; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Auerbach, Leonard; Averett, Todd; Berthot, J.; Bertin, Pierre; Bertozzi, William; Black, Tim; Brash, Edward; Brown, D.; Burtin, Etienne; Calarco, John; Cates, Gordon; Chai, Zhengwei; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Ciofi, Claudio; Cisbani, Evaristo; De Jager, Cornelis; Deur, Alexandre; DiSalvo, R.; Dieterich, Sonja; Djawotho, Pibero; Finn, John; Fissum, Kevin; Fonvieille, Helene; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasparian, Ashot; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Glashausser, Charles; Glockle, W.; Golak, J.; Goldberg, Emma; Gomez, Javier; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hersman, F.; Holmes, Richard; Huber, Garth; Hughes, Emlyn; Humensky, Thomas; Incerti, Sebastien; Iodice, Mauro; Jensen, S.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, C.; Jones, G.; Jones, Mark; Jutier, Christophe; Kamada, H.; Ketikyan, Armen; Kominis, Ioannis; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumar, Krishna; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Kuss, Michael; Lakuriqi, Enkeleida; Laveissiere, Geraud; LeRose, John; Liang, Meihua; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lolos, George; Malov, Sergey; Marroncle, Jacques; McCormick, Kathy; McKeown, Robert; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mitchell, Joseph; Nogga, Andreas; Pace, Emanuele; Papandreou, Zisis; Pavlin, Tina; Petratos, Gerassimos; Pripstein, David; Prout, David; Ransome, Ronald; Roblin, Yves; Rowntree, David; Rvachev, Marat; Sabatie, Franck; Saha, Arunava; Salme, Giovanni; SCOPETTA, S.; Skibinski, R.; Souder, Paul; Saito, Teijiro; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Takahashi, Kazunori; Todor, Luminita; Tsubota, Hiroaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Urciuoli, Guido; van der Meer, Rob; Vernin, Pascal; Voskanyan, Hakob; Witala, Henryk; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Xiong, Feng; Xu, Wang; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zhang, Bin; Zolnierczuk, Piotr
2008-07-01
We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the \\vec{^3He}(\\vec{e},e')X} reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at four-momentum transfer 0.1 < Q^2< 0.9 GeV^2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt--Cottingham and extended GDH sum rules for the first time. Impulse approximation and exact three-body Faddeev calculations are also compared to the data in the quasielastic region.
Connections between chiral Lagrangians and QCD sum-rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fariborz, Amir H.; Pokraka, A.; Steele, T. G.
2016-01-01
In this paper, it is shown how a chiral Lagrangian framework can be used to derive relationships connecting quark-level QCD correlation functions to mesonic-level two-point functions. Crucial ingredients of this connection are scale factor matrices relating each distinct quark-level substructure (e.g. quark-antiquark, four-quark) to its mesonic counterpart. The scale factors and mixing angles are combined into a projection matrix to obtain the physical (hadronic) projection of the QCD correlation function matrix. Such relationships provide a powerful bridge between chiral Lagrangians and QCD sum-rules that are particularly effective in studies of the substructure of light scalar mesons with multiple complicated resonance shapes and substantial underlying mixings. The validity of these connections is demonstrated for the example of the isotriplet a0(980)-a0(1450) system, resulting in an unambiguous determination of the scale factors from the combined inputs of QCD sum-rules and chiral Lagrangians. These scale factors lead to a remarkable agreement between the quark condensates in QCD and the mesonic vacuum expectation values that induce spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in chiral Lagrangians. This concrete example shows a clear sensitivity to the underlying a0-system mixing angle, illustrating the value of this methodology in extensions to more complicated mesonic systems.
Sum Rules and Moments of the Nucleon Spin Structure Functions
Jian-Ping Chen; Alexandre Deur; Zein-Eddine Meziani
2005-08-01
The nucleon has been used as a laboratory to investigate its own spin structure and Quantum Chromodynamics. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture of the transition region from the confinement regime of the theory to its asymptotic freedom regime. Insight for some aspects of the theory is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Bjorken and Burkhardt-Cottingham). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers. The sum rules are verified to a good accuracy assuming that no singular behavior of the structure functions is present at very high excitation energies. The higher twist contributions have been examined through the moments evolution as the momentum transfer varies from higher to lower values. Furthermore, QCD-inspired low energy effective theories, which explicitly include chiral symmetry breaking, are tested at low momentum transfers. The validity of these theories is further examined as the momentum transfer increases to moderate values. It is found that chiral perturbation calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g{sub 1} at momentum transfer of 0.1 GeV{sup 2} but fail to reproduce the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability {delta}{sub LT}.
Jacques Friedel and the physics of metals and alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villain, Jacques; Lavagna, Mireille; Bruno, Patrick
2016-03-01
This is an introduction to the theoretical physics of metals for students and physicists from other specialities. Certain simple consequences of the Fermi statistics in pure metals are first addressed, namely the Peierls distortion, Kohn anomalies and the Labbé-Friedel distortion. Then the physics of dilute alloys is discussed. The analogy with nuclear collisions was a fruitful starting point, which suggested one should analyze the effects of impurities in terms of a scattering problem with the introduction of phase shifts. Starting from these concepts, Friedel derived a theory of the resistivity of alloys, and a celebrated sum rule relating the phase shifts at the Fermi level to the number of electrons in the impurity, which turned out to play a prominent role later in the context of correlated impurities, as for instance in the Kondo effect. Friedel oscillations are also an important result, related to incommensurate magnetic structures. It is shown how they can be derived in various ways: from collision theory, perturbation theory, self-consistent approximations and Green's function methods. While collision theory does not permit to take the crystal structure into account, which is responsible for electronic bands, those effects can be included in other descriptions, using for instance the tight binding approximation. xml:lang="fr"
Holographic RG flows, entanglement entropy and the sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casini, Horacio; Testé, Eduardo; Torroba, Gonzalo
2016-03-01
We calculate the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor in holographic renormalization group flows between pairs of conformal field theories. We show that the term proportional to the momentum squared in this correlator gives the change of the central charge between fixed points in d = 2 and in d > 2 it gives the holographic entanglement entropy for a planar region. This can also be seen as a holographic realization of the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of Newton's constant. Holographic regularization is found to provide a perfect match of the finite and divergent terms of the sum rule, and it is analogous to the regularization of the entropy in terms of mutual information. Finally, we provide a general proof of reflection positivity in terms of stability of the dual bulk action, and discuss the relation between unitarity constraints, the null energy condition and regularity in the interior of the gravity solution.
Moments of Spin Structure Functions: Sum Rules and Polarizabilities
Jian-Ping Chen
2010-10-01
Nucleon structure study is one of the most important research areas in modern physics and has challenged us for decades. Spin has played an essential role and often brought surprises and puzzles to the investigation of the nucleon structure and the strong interaction. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture in the strong region of the interaction and of the transition region from the strong to the asymptotic-free region. Insight for some aspects of the theory for the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the Bjorken, Burkhardt-Cottingham, Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH), and the generalized GDH). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator-product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers.
Sum Rules for Nucleon GPDs and Border Function Formulation
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2013-09-01
Recently developed new approach to model nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E is based on two types of their representation in terms of double distributions. Within this approach, we re-consider the derivation of GPD sum rules that allow to use border functions H(x,x) and E(x,x) instead of full GPDs H(x,\\xi) and E(x,\\xi) in the integrals producing Compton form factors of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Using factorized DD Ansatz to model GPDs, we discuss the relation between the border functions and underlying parton densities. We found that substantial contribution to H(x,x) border function comes from the extra term required by new DD representations and related to E(x,\\xi) GPD.
Study of spin sum rules (and the strong coupling constant at large distances)
Alexandre Deur
2009-12-01
We present recent results from Jefferson Lab on sum rules related to the spin structure of the nucleon. We then discuss how the Bjorken sum rule with its connection to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum, allows us to conveniently define an effective coupling for the strong force at all distances.
Impact of Duality Violations on Spectral Sum Rule analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catà, Oscar
2007-02-01
Recent sum rule analyses on the
Symbolic methods for the evaluation of sum rules of Bessel functions
Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Górska, K.; Penson, K. A.
2013-07-15
The use of the umbral formalism allows a significant simplification of the derivation of sum rules involving products of special functions and polynomials. We rederive in this way known sum rules and addition theorems for Bessel functions. Furthermore, we obtain a set of new closed form sum rules involving various special polynomials and Bessel functions. The examples we consider are relevant for applications ranging from plasma physics to quantum optics.
Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules
Teryaev, O.V.
2015-04-10
Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.
The energy-weighted sum rule and the nuclear radius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, Hans Peter
2015-09-01
The energy-weighted integrated cross-section for photon absorption --known as sum rule -- is under certain conditions proportional to the mean square nuclear radius (Levinger, Bethe (Phys. Rev. 78, 115 (1950))). Due to the energy weight factor the low-energy absorption components are emphasized and the dipole transitions in the region of giant resonances contribute enhanced at . Thus, the cross-section of the full interaction can be replaced in good approximation by the dipole cross-section. Under these aspects, we have calculated and the radii of various gg-nuclei. For our purpose, we have chosen a simple shell model where the integrals can be solved analytically, and the contributions of uncorrelated functions and correlation corrections can be shown explicitly. The mean square radius as a function of differs by a factor of 1.5/0.87 from the previous result of Levinger and Kent (Phys. Rev. 95, 418 (1954)) without correlation corrections. Plotting the function of the correlation corrections and the uncorrelated function as a ratio it shows that tends towards a limit. Finally, our results for the radii of gg-nuclei are in good agreement with recent experiments (I. Angeli, K.P. Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)).
The leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase from sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.
2016-05-01
In the reference 3-neutrino mixing scheme with three light massive neutrinos, CP-violating effects in neutrino oscillations can be caused by the Dirac CP-violating phase δ present in the unitary neutrino mixing matrix U. Using the fact that U = U†eUv , where Ue and Uv are unitary matrices arising from the diagonalisation, respectively, of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we consider in a systematic way forms of Ue and Uv allowing us to express δ as a function of the neutrino mixing angles present in U and the angles contained in Uv. After obtaining sum rules for cos δ, we consider several forms of Uv dictated by, or associated with, symmetries, such as tri-bimaximal, bimaximal, etc., for which the angles in Uv are fixed. For each of these forms and forms of Ue allowing to reproduce the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles, we construct the likelihood function for cos δ, using the prospective uncertainties in the determination of the mixing angles. Our results show that the measurement of δ along with improvement of the precision on the neutrino mixing angles can provide unique information about the possible existence of a new fundamental symmetry in the lepton sector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazzeretti, Paolo; Malagoli, Massimo; Zanasi, Riccardo
1991-01-01
The virial theorem has been used to derive sum rules for dipole- and mixed-dipole-quadrupole nuclear electric shieldings and corresponding geometrical derivatives of dipole and quadrupole moments in a molecule. Test calculations have been carried out on a series of first- and second-row hydrides. The virial sum rules can be effective tools to prove the accuracy of theoretical nuclear shieldings and analytic geometrical derivatives. As the latter are related to ir intensities, the virial sum rules can give important indications on the reliability of theoretical predictions for this spectroscopical parameter.
Analysis of quarkonia at finite temperature from complex Borel sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araki, Ken-Ji; Suzuki, Kei; Guber, Phillip; Oka, Makoto
2014-09-01
Recently, we proposed a new type of QCD sum rules i.e. the complex Borel sum rules (CBSR). It has been found that the CBSR is superior to the conventional QCD sum rules from the point of view of the maximum entropy method (MEM) analysis. Specifically, we have demonstrated that our novel method can be used to study the excited states of hadrons. The suppression of quarkonium states (e.g. J/psi and upsilon) is an important signature of the hot matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Recently, the behavior of the excited states at finite temperature, which can be different from the ground state, has attracted much attention. The suppression of the charmonium and bottomonium ground states has already been analyzed by conventional QCD sum rules with MEM. In this talk, we report on the results of a reanalysis by CBSR with MEM to investigate the thermal behavior of the quarkonium excited states.
MathQCDSR: a Mathematica Package for QCD Sum Rules Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lai; Lee, Frank X.
2010-02-01
We present a software package written in Mathematica for standard QCD sum rules calculations. Two examples are given to demonstrate how to use the package. One is for the mass spectrum of octet baryons from two-point correlation functions; the other for the magnetic moments of octet baryons in the external-field method. The software package FeynCalc is used to handle the gamma-matrix computations. The derived sum rules can be saved in various forms (native Mathematica, JAVA, Fortran, or Latex). Several notebooks are provided to carry out a Monte-Carlo-based numerical analysis of the sum rules, complete with in-line graphical display of sum rule matching, error distributions, scatter plots for correlations, etc. )
Transition magnetic moment of {Lambda}{yields}{Sigma}{sup 0} in QCD sum rules
Lee, Frank X.; Wang Lai
2011-05-01
The {Lambda}{yields}{Sigma}{sup 0} transition magnetic moment is computed in the QCD sum rules approach. Three independent tensor structures are derived in the external-field method using generalized interpolating fields. They are analyzed together with the {Lambda} and {Sigma}{sup 0} mass sum rules using a Monte-Carlo-based analysis, with attention to operator product expansion convergence, ground-state dominance, and the role of the transitions in the intermediate states. Relations between sum rules for magnetic moments of {Lambda} and {Sigma}{sup 0} and sum rules for transition magnetic moment of {Lambda}{yields}{Sigma}{sup 0} are also examined. Our best prediction for the transition magnetic moment is {mu}{sub {Sigma}}{sup 0}{sub {Lambda}=}1.60{+-}0.07{mu}{sub N}. A comparison is made with other calculations in the literature.
Endpoint behavior of the pion distribution amplitude in QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates
Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.
2010-09-01
Starting from the QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates for the pion distribution amplitude, we derive another sum rule for its derivative and its ''integral derivatives''--defined in this work. We use this new sum rule to analyze the fine details of the pion distribution amplitude in the endpoint region x{approx}0. The results for endpoint-suppressed and flattop (or flatlike) pion distribution amplitudes are compared with those we obtained with differential sum rules by employing two different models for the distribution of vacuum-quark virtualities. We determine the range of values of the derivatives of the pion distribution amplitude and show that endpoint-suppressed distribution amplitudes lie within this range, while those with endpoint enhancement--flat-type or Chernyak-Zhitnitsky like--yield values outside this range.
QCD Sum Rules for Magnetically Induced Mixing between ηc and J/ψ
Cho, Sungtae; Hattori, Koichi; Lee, Su Houng; Morita, Kenji; Ozaki, Sho
2014-10-20
We investigate the properties of charmonia in strong magnetic fields by using QCD sum rules. We show how to implement the mixing effects between ηc and J/ψ on the basis of field-theoretical approaches, and then show that the sum rules are saturated by the mixing effects with phenomenologically determined parameters. Consequently, we find that the mixing effects are the dominant contribution to the mass shifts of the static charmonia in strong magnetic fields.
Strong decay constants of heavy tensor mesons in light cone QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhendi, H. A.; Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.
2016-04-01
Strong decay constants of the heavy tensor to heavy pseudoscalar (vector) and light pseudoscalar mesons are estimated within the light cone QCD sum rules. It is observed that the values of these coupling constants show a significant dependence on the choice of the Lorentz structure. Additionally, the decay widths of these mesons are calculated and discussed within the light of experimental data. A comparison of our results on these coupling constants with the predictions from the 3-point sum rules is performed.
Experimental Tests of the GDH and Other Sum Rules at SLAC
Bosted, P.E.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst
2005-06-14
Recent measurements from SLAC of the polarized nucleon structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} have been used to experimentally test the Bjorken, Ellis-Jaffe, Burkhardt-Cottingham, and Efremov-Leader-Teryaev sum rules. In the future, the SLAC E159 experiment will extend structure function measurements using real photons to 40 GeV, enabling a definitive test of the high energy convergence of the GDH sum rule for both proton and deuteron targets.
Sum Rules of Charm C P Asymmetries beyond the SU(3 ) F Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Sarah; Nierste, Ulrich; Schacht, Stefan
2015-12-01
We find new sum rules between direct C P asymmetries in D meson decays with coefficients that can be determined from a global fit to branching ratio data. Our sum rules eliminate the penguin topologies P and P A , which cannot be determined from branching ratios. In this way, we can make predictions about direct C P asymmetries in the standard model without ad hoc assumptions on the sizes of penguin diagrams. We consistently include first-order SU(3 ) F breaking in the topological amplitudes extracted from the branching ratios. By confronting our sum rules with future precise data from LHCb and Belle II, one will identify or constrain new-physics contributions to P or P A . The first sum rule correlates the C P asymmetries aCP dir in D0→K+K-, D0→π+π- , and D0→π0π0. We study the region of the aCP dir(D0→π+π-)-aCP dir(D0→π0π0) plane allowed by current data and find that our sum rule excludes more than half of the allowed region at 95% C.L. Our second sum rule correlates the direct C P asymmetries in D+→K¯0K+, Ds+→K0π+, and Ds+→K+π0.
Sum Rules of Charm CP Asymmetries beyond the SU(3)_{F} Limit.
Müller, Sarah; Nierste, Ulrich; Schacht, Stefan
2015-12-18
We find new sum rules between direct CP asymmetries in D meson decays with coefficients that can be determined from a global fit to branching ratio data. Our sum rules eliminate the penguin topologies P and PA, which cannot be determined from branching ratios. In this way, we can make predictions about direct CP asymmetries in the standard model without ad hoc assumptions on the sizes of penguin diagrams. We consistently include first-order SU(3)_{F} breaking in the topological amplitudes extracted from the branching ratios. By confronting our sum rules with future precise data from LHCb and Belle II, one will identify or constrain new-physics contributions to P or PA. The first sum rule correlates the CP asymmetries a_{CP}^{dir} in D^{0}→K^{+}K^{-}, D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-}, and D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}. We study the region of the a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-})-a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}) plane allowed by current data and find that our sum rule excludes more than half of the allowed region at 95% C.L. Our second sum rule correlates the direct CP asymmetries in D^{+}→K[over ¯]^{0}K^{+}, D_{s}^{+}→K^{0}π^{+}, and D_{s}^{+}→K^{+}π^{0}. PMID:26722915
Finite temperature effects and the validity of the Weinberg sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Loewe, M.; Zhang, Y.
2016-05-01
Using resent independent results from QCD sum rules for the thermal evolution of hadronic parameters in the vector and the axial-vector channels, we discuss the saturation of the two Weinberg sum rules. It turn out that both sum rules are quite well satisfied in a wide range from T = 0 up to T/T c ≃ 0.7 — 0.8. At higher temperatures, coming closer to Tc , there is an asymmetry between both channels since in the vector case there is a leading order effect, proportional to T2 , due to a one loop pion contribution in the space-like region, which is absent in the axial-vector case. This leads then to a small deviation. More important, though, in this region the QCD sum rules for the hadronic parameters begin to have no solutions since the widths of the ρ and the a1-mesons diverge signaling the occurrence of deconfinement. Close to and at Tc there are no pions left in the medium and chiral symmetry is restored so that the Weinberg sum rules are trivially satisfied.
Charge form factor and sum rules of electromagnetic response functions in $^{12}$C
Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Carlson, Joseph A.; Butler, Ralph; Lusk, Ewing; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco
2013-08-01
An {\\it ab initio} calculation of the $^{12}$C elastic form factor, and sum rules of longitudinal and transverse response functions measured in inclusive (e,e') scattering, is reported, based on realistic nuclear potentials and electromagnetic currents. The longitudinal elastic form factor and sum rule are found to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data. A direct comparison between theory and experiment is difficult for the transverse sum rule. However, it is shown that the calculated one has large contributions from two-body currents, indicating that these mechanisms lead to a significant enhancement of the quasi-elastic transverse response. This fact may have implications for the anomaly observed in recent neutrino quasi-elastic charge-changing scattering data off $^{12}$C.
Thermal behaviors of light unflavored tensor mesons in the framework of QCD sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azizi, K.; Türkan, A.; Sundu, H.; Veli Veliev, E.; Yazıcı, E.
2014-12-01
In this paper, we investigated the sensitivity of the masses and decay constants of f2(1270) and a2(1320) tensor mesons to the temperature using OCD sum rule approach. In our calculations, we take into account new additional operators appearing in operator product expansion (OPE). At the end of numerical analyses we show that at deconfinement temperature the decay constants and masses decreased by 6% and 96% of their vacuum values, respectively. Our results on the masses and decay constants at zero temperature of the tensor mesons are consistent with the experimental data as well as the vacuum sum rules predictions.
Incomplete fusion studies near Coulomb barrier: a modified sum rule model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhujang, Bhushan; Das, Pragya; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, R.; Tomar, B. S.
2013-03-01
The excitation functions of the evaporation residues, produced via complete fusion and incomplete fusion reactions of 11B + 122Sn, were measured for the projectile energy of around 6 MeV/A by the off-line gamma spectrometry. The cross sections have been compared with the statistical model code Projected Angular Momentum Coupled Evaporation (PACE4). The original sum rule model underestimated the ICF cross sections. We therefore made modification in the model mainly to incorporate the energy dependence in the definition of critical angular momentum. Using this modified sum rule model, we found a significant improvement in the results.
Sum rules for invariance of the fourth-rank hypermagnetisability in a gauge translation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagola, G. I.; Caputo, M. C.; Ferraro, M. B.; Lazzeretti, P.
2005-06-01
The conditions for invariance in a gauge translation of the fourth-rank molecular hypermagnetisability tensor, introduced to rationalize the cubic response of a molecule in the presence of an external magnetic field, are discussed in terms of quantum mechanical sum rules. Eight relationships, connecting electric dipole polarisability, polarisability of magnetisability, and other third- and fourth-rank tensors that can be regarded as intrinsic molecular properties tout court, have been obtained. Numerical tests have been carried out to determine the Hartree-Fock limit for the sum-rules in a set of small molecules.
Energy-weighted sum rules connecting ΔZ = 2 nuclei within the SO(8) model
Štefánik, Dušan; Šimkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand
2013-12-30
Energy-weighted sum rules associated with ΔZ = 2 nuclei are obtained for the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller operators within the SO(8) model. It is found that there is a dominance of contribution of a single state of the intermediate nucleus to the sum rule. The results confirm founding obtained within the SO(5) model that the energy-weighted sum rules of ΔZ = 2 nuclei are governed by the residual interactions of nuclear Hamiltonian. A short discussion concerning some aspects of energy weighted sum rules in the case of realistic nuclei is included.
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish anmore » efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.« less
Comparison principles for viscosity solutions of elliptic equations via fuzzy sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yousong; Eberhard, Andrew
2005-07-01
A comparison principle for viscosity sub- and super-solutions of second order elliptic partial differential equations is derived using the "fuzzy sum rule" of non-smooth calculus. This method allows us to weaken the assumptions made on the function F when the equation F(x,u,=u,=2u)=0 is under consideration.
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.
Radiative decays of the heavy flavored baryons in light cone QCD sum rules
Aliev, T. M.; Azizi, K.; Ozpineci, A.
2009-03-01
The transition magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the radiative decays of the sextet heavy flavored spin 3/2 to the heavy spin 1/2 baryons are calculated within the light cone QCD sum rules approach. Using the obtained results, the decay rate for these transitions are also computed and compared with the existing predictions of the other approaches.
Iso-vector form factors of the delta and nucleon in QCD sum rules
Ozpineci, A.
2012-10-23
Form factors are important non-perturbative properties of hadrons. They give information about the internal structure of the hadrons. In this work, iso-vector axial-vector and iso-vector tensor form factors of the nucleon and the iso-vector axial-vector {Delta}{yields}N transition form factor calculations in QCD Sum Rules are presented.
A QCD Sum Rule Approach with an Explicit Di-quark field
Kim, Kyung-il; Jido, Daisuke; Lee, Su Houng
2011-10-21
In hadron phenomenology, diquark structures can be an important degree of freedom in certain configurations. We investigate the possibility that the diquark structure can be treated as an elementary field in certain configurations. To start with, we assume that {Lambda} is composed of a spectator strange quark and a diquark. We construct a QCD sum rule for {Lambda}, where the input parameters are the diquark mass and its condensate, in addition to other parameters of QCD sum rules. We find good Borel curve for the {Lambda} mass for certain combinations of the diquark mass and condensate, and that smaller diquark condensate is needed when the diquark mass is increased to maintain the good Borel curve. The same sets of diquark mass and condensate are found to work well for {Lambda}{sub c} and {Lambda}{sub b}.
Nucleon form factors to next-to-leading order with light-cone sum rules
Passek-Kumericki, K.; Peters, G.
2008-08-01
We have calculated the leading-twist next-to-leading order (NLO), i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}), correction to the light-cone sum rules prediction for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. We have used the Ioffe nucleon interpolation current and worked in M{sub N}=0 approximation, with M{sub N} being the mass of the nucleon. In this approximation, only the Pauli form factor F{sub 2} receives a correction and the calculated correction is quite sizable (ca. 60%). The numerical results for the proton form factors show the improved agreement with the experimental data. We also discuss the problems encountered when going away from M{sub N}=0 approximation at NLO, as well as gauge invariance of the perturbative results. This work presents the first step towards the NLO accuracy in the light-cone sum rules for baryon form factors.
Coset construction and character sum rules for the doubly extended N = 4 superconformal algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersen, Jens Lyng; Taormina, Anne
1993-06-01
Character sum rules associated with the realization of the N = 4 superconformal algebra Ãγ on manifolds corresponding to the group cosets SU(3) k˜+ / U(1) are derived and developed as an important tool in obtaining the modular properties of Ãγ characters as well as information on certain extensions of that algebra. Their structure strongly suggests the existence of rational conformal field theories with central charges in the range 1 ⪕ c ⪕ 4. The corresponding characters appear in the massive sector of the sum rules and are completely specified in terms of the characters for the parafermionic theory SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) and in terms of the branching functions of massless Ãγ characters into SU(2) k˜+× SU(2) 1 characters.
QCD sum rules for D and B mesons in nuclear matter
Hilger, T.; Thomas, R.; Kaempfer, B.
2009-02-15
QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D-D and B-B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density; extrapolated to saturation density it is in the order of 60 and 130 MeV, respectively, driven essentially by the condensates ,
, and
may leave room for an even larger D-D mass splitting. The genuine chiral condensate
Sum rules for interaction of ϒ resonances with Zbπ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voloshin, M. B.
2016-07-01
The strength of the amplitudes for the coupling between the bottomonium ϒ (n S ) states, the bottomonium-like isovector resonances Zb and a pion, ϒ (n S )Zbπ , is considered. These amplitudes describe the decays Zb→ϒ (n S )π for n =1 , 2, 3, and the processes ϒ (n S )→Zbπ for n =5 ,6 ,… with either Zb(10610 ) or Zb(10650 ). It is pointed out that analyticity and unitarity impose a sum rule for these couplings to each of the Zb resonances. With the currently available data it appears to be difficult or impossible to simultaneously satisfy the sum rules for the Zb(10610 ) and Zb(10650 ) resonances. This difficulty can be resolved if there is a considerable dissimilarity in the yield of the states Zb(10610 )π and Zb(10650 )π in the e+e- annihilation at energies above the ϒ (5 S ) resonance.
{Sigma}{sub b,c} to Nucleon Transitions in Light Cone QCD Sum Rules
Bayar, M.; Azizi, K.; Zeyrek, M. T.
2011-05-23
The loop level flavor changing neutral current transitions of the {Sigma}{sub b}{yields}nl{sup +}l{sup -} and {Sigma}{sub c}{yields}pl{sup +}l{sup -} are investigated in the light cone QCD sum rules approach. Using the most general form of the interpolating current for {Sigma}{sub Q}, Q = b or c, the transition form factors are calculated using two sets of input parameters entering the nucleon distribution amplitudes, namely, QCD sum rules and lattice QCD inputs. The obtained results are used to estimate the decay rates of the corresponding transitions. Since such type transitions occurred at loop level in the standard model, they can be considered as good candidates to search for the new physics effects beyond the SM.
The Q^2 Evolution of the GDH sum Rule (on 3He and the Neutron)
Gordon Cates
2002-06-01
We discuss the extention of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule, which pertains to real photons, to include scattering due to virtual photons. We present data from Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-010 which measured the inclusive scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized 3He target over the quasielastic and resonance regions. From these data we exctract the transverse-transverse interference cross section {sigma}{prime}_TT', and compute the Q^2 depenent extended GDH integral.
Dynamic properties of one-component strongly coupled plasmas: The sum-rule approach
Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Askaruly, A.; Davletov, A. E.; Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.
2010-02-15
The dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled one-component plasmas are studied within the moment approach. Our results on the dynamic structure factor and the dynamic local-field correction satisfy the sum rules and other exact relations automatically. A quantitative agreement is obtained with numerous simulation data on the plasma dynamic properties, including the dispersion and decay of collective modes. Our approach allows us to correct and complement the results previously found with other treatments.
Low x Behavior of the Isovector Nucleon Polarized Structure Function and the Bjorken Sum Rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buccella, Franco; Pisanti, Ofelia; Santorelli, Pietro
The combination gp1(x)-gn_1(x) is derived from SLAC data on polarized proton and deuteron targets, evaluated at Q2=10 GeV2, and compared with the results of SMC experiment. The agreement is satisfactory except for the points at the three lowest x, which have an important role in the SMC evaluation on the L.H.S. of the Bjorken sum rule.
Fourth Moment Sum Rule for the Charge Correlations of a Two-Component Classical Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alastuey, Angel; Fantoni, Riccardo
2016-05-01
We consider an ionic fluid made with two species of mobile particles carrying either a positive or a negative charge. We derive a sum rule for the fourth moment of equilibrium charge correlations. Our method relies on the study of the system response to the potential created by a weak external charge distribution with slow spatial variations. The induced particle densities, and the resulting induced charge density, are then computed within density functional theory, where the free energy is expanded in powers of the density gradients. The comparison with the predictions of linear response theory provides a thermodynamical expression for the fourth moment of charge correlations, which involves the isothermal compressibility as well as suitably defined partial compressibilities. The familiar Stillinger-Lovett condition is also recovered as a by-product of our method, suggesting that the fourth moment sum rule should hold in any conducting phase. This is explicitly checked in the low density regime, within the Abe-Meeron diagrammatical expansions. Beyond its own interest, the fourth-moment sum rule should be useful for both analyzing and understanding recently observed behaviours near the ionic critical point.
Nature of the X(5568) — A critical Laplace sum rule analysis at N2LO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albuquerque, R.; Narison, S.; Rabemananjara, A.; Rabetiarivony, D.
2016-06-01
We scrutinize recent QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR) results to lowest order (LO) predicting the masses of the BK molecule and (su)(bd¯) four-quark states. We improve these results by adding NLO and N2LO corrections to the PT contributions giving a more precise meaning on the b-quark mass definition used in the analysis. We extract our optimal predictions using Laplace sum rule (LSR) within the standard stability criteria versus the changes of the external free parameters (τ-sum rule variable, tc continuum threshold and subtraction constant μ). The smallness of the higher order PT corrections justifies (a posteriori) the LO order results ⊕ the uses of the ambiguous heavy quark mass to that order. However, our predicted spectra in the range (5173 ˜ 5226) MeV, summarized in Table 7, for exotic hadrons built with four different flavors (buds), do not support some previous interpretations of the D0 candidate,1 X(5568), as a pure molecule or a four-quark state. If experimentally confirmed, it could result from their mixing with an angle: sin 2𝜃 ≈ 0.15. One can also scan the region (2327 ˜ 2444) MeV (where the Ds0∗(2317) might be a good candidate) and the one (5173 ˜ 5226) MeV for detecting these (cuds) and (buds) unmixed exotic hadrons (if any) via, eventually, their radiative or π+hadrons decays.
Heavy-Quark Mass and Heavy-Meson Decay Constants from QCD Sum Rules
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2011-05-23
We present a sum-rule extraction of decay constants of heavy mesons from the two-point correlator of heavy-light pseudoscalar currents. Our primary concern is to control the uncertainties of the decay constants, induced by both input QCD parameters and limited accuracy of the sum-rule method. Gaining this control is possible by applying our novel procedure for the extraction of hadron observables utilizing Borel-parameter-depending dual thresholds. For the charmed mesons, we obtain f{sub D} (206.2{+-}7.3{sub (OPE){+-}}5.1{sub (syst)}) MeV and f{sub D{sub s}} (245.3{+-}15.7{sub (OPE){+-}}4.5{sub (syst)}) MeV. In the case of the beauty mesons, the decay constants prove to be extremely sensitive to the exact value of the b-quark MS mass m-bar{sub b}(m-bar{sub b}). By matching our sum-rule prediction for f{sub B} to the lattice outcomes, the very accurate b-mass value m-bar{sub b}(m-bar{sub b}) = (4.245{+-}0.025) GeV is found, which yields f{sub B} = (193.4{+-}12.3{sub (OPE){+-}}4.3{sub (syst)}) MeV and f{sub B{sub s}} (232.5{+-}18.6{sub (OPE){+-}}2.4{sub (syst)}) MeV.
Ultrafast zero balance of the oscillator-strength sum rule in graphene
Kim, Jaeseok; Lim, Seong Chu; Chae, Seung Jin; Maeng, Inhee; Choi, Younghwan; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Young Hee; Choi, Hyunyong
2013-01-01
Oscillator-strength sum rule in light-induced transitions is one general form of quantum-mechanical identities. Although this sum rule is well established in equilibrium photo-physics, an experimental corroboration for the validation of the sum rule in a nonequilibrium regime has been a long-standing unexplored question. The simple band structure of graphene is an ideal system for investigating this question due to the linear Dirac-like energy dispersion. Here, we employed both ultrafast terahertz and optical spectroscopy to directly monitor the transient oscillator-strength balancing between quasi-free low-energy oscillators and high-energy Fermi-edge ones. Upon photo-excitation of hot Dirac fermions, we observed that the ultrafast depletion of high-energy oscillators precisely complements the increased terahertz absorption oscillators. Our results may provide an experimental priori to understand, for example, the intrinsic free-carrier dynamics to the high-energy photo-excitation, responsible for optoelectronic operation such as graphene-based phototransistor or solar-energy harvesting devices. PMID:24036567
Predictions for the Dirac Phase in the Neutrino Mixing Matrix and Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.
2015-07-01
Using the fact that the neutrino mixing matrix U = U†eUν, where Ue and Uv result from the diagonalisation of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we analyse the sum rules which the Dirac phase δ present in U satisfies when Uv has a form dictated by, or associated with, discrete symmetries and Ue has a “minimal” form (in terms of angles and phases it contains) that can provide the requisite corrections to Uv, so that reactor, atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing angles θ13, θ23 and θ12 have values compatible with the current data. The following symmetry forms are considered: i) tri-bimaximal (TBM), ii) bimaximal (BM) (or corresponding to the conservation of the lepton charge L' = Le — Lμ — Lτ (LC)), iii) golden ratio type A (GRA), iv) golden ratio type B (GRB), and v) hexagonal (HG). We investigate the predictions for 5 in the cases of TBM, BM (LC), GRA, GRB and HG forms using the exact and the leading order sum rules for cos δ proposed in the literature, taking into account also the uncertainties in the measured values of sin2 θ12, sin2 θ23 and sin2 θ13. This allows us, in particular, to assess the accuracy of the predictions for cos δ based on the leading order sum rules and its dependence on the values of the indicated neutrino mixing parameters when the latter are varied in their respective 3σ experimentally allowed ranges.
Perturbative corrections to Λ b → Λ form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long
2016-02-01
We compute radiative corrections to Λ b → Λ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with Λ b -baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-Λ b -baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in Λ /m b , with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to- B-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at {O}({α}_s) shift the Λ b → Λ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originates from the next-to-leading order jet function instead of the hard coefficient functions. Having at hand the sum rule predictions for the Λ b → Λ from factors we further investigate several decay observables in the electro-weak penguin Λ b → Λ ℓ + ℓ - transitions in the factorization limit (i.e., ignoring the "non-factorizable" hadronic effects which cannot be expressed in terms of the Λ b → Λ from factors), including the invariant mass distribution of the lepton pair, the forward-backward asymmetry in the dilepton system and the longitudinal polarization fraction of the leptonic sector.
QCD corrections to B → π form factors from light-cone sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long
2015-09-01
We compute perturbative corrections to B → π form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules with B-meson distribution amplitudes. Applying the method of regions we demonstrate factorization of the vacuum-to-B-meson correlation function defined with an interpolating current for pion, at one-loop level, explicitly in the heavy quark limit. The short-distance functions in the factorization formulae of the correlation function involves both hard and hard-collinear scales; and these functions can be further factorized into hard coefficients by integrating out the hard fluctuations and jet functions encoding the hard-collinear information. Resummation of large logarithms in the short-distance functions is then achieved via the standard renormalization-group approach. We further show that structures of the factorization formulae for fBπ+ (q2) and fBπ0 (q2) at large hadronic recoil from QCD light-cone sum rules match that derived in QCD factorization. In particular, we perform an exploratory phenomenological analysis of B → π form factors, paying attention to various sources of perturbative and systematic uncertainties, and extract |Vub | = (3.05-0.38+0.54|th. ± 0.09|exp.) ×10-3 with the inverse moment of the B-meson distribution amplitude ϕB+ (ω) determined by reproducing fBπ+ (q2 = 0) obtained from the light-cone sum rules with π distribution amplitudes. Furthermore, we present the invariant-mass distributions of the lepton pair for B → πℓνℓ (ℓ = μ, τ) in the whole kinematic region. Finally, we discuss non-valence Fock state contributions to the B → π form factors fBπ+ (q2) and fBπ0 (q2) in brief.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berk, A.; Temkin, A.
1985-01-01
A sum rule is derived for the auxiliary eigenvalues of an equation whose eigenspectrum pertains to projection operators which describe electron scattering from multielectron atoms and ions. The sum rule's right-hand side depends on an integral involving the target system eigenfunctions. The sum rule is checked for several approximations of the two-electron target. It is shown that target functions which have a unit eigenvalue in their auxiliary eigenspectrum do not give rise to well-defined projection operators except through a limiting process. For Hylleraas target approximations, the auxiliary equations are shown to contain an infinite spectrum. However, using a Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, it is shown that a comparatively simple aproximation can exhaust the sum rule to better than five significant figures. The auxiliary Hylleraas equation is greatly simplified by conversion to a square root equation containing the same eigenfunction spectrum and from which the required eigenvalues are trivially recovered by squaring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, D.; Plischke, M.
1987-04-01
Starting from well-known relations for the derivatives of the radial distribution functions of a mixture of fluids, and allowing the diameter of one particle to become exceedingly large, three sum rules for a fluid with density inhomogeneities are obtained. None of these sum rules are new. However, the relation between the Lovett-Mou-Buff-Wertheim and the Born-Green hierarchy of equations seems not well known. The accuracy of a recent parametrization of the pair correlation of hard spheres near a hard wall and of the solutions of the Percus-Yevick and hypernetted-chain equation for this same function are examined by determination of how well these functions satisfy these sum rules and the accuracy of their surface tension, calculated from the sum rule of Triezenberg and Zwanzig. Generally speaking, the Percus-Yevick theory gives the best results and the hypernetted-chain approximation gives the worst results with the parametrization being intermediate.
{sup 3}He Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules
Slifer, K.; Auerbach, L.; Choi, Seonho; Incerti, S.; Lakuriqi, E.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Amarian, M.; Ketikyan, A.; Voskanian, H.; Averett, T.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; DiSalvo, R.; Fonvieille, H.; Laveissiere, G.; Roblin, Y.
2008-07-11
We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the {sup 3}He-vector (e-vector,e{sup '})X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1{<=}Q{sup 2}{<=}0.9 GeV{sup 2}. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body Faddeev calculation in the quasielastic region.
B ---> pi and B ---> K transitions from QCD sum rules on the light cone
Ball, P.
1998-09-01
I calculate the form factors describing semileptonic and penguin-induced decays of B mesons into light pseudoscalar mesons. The form factors are calculated from QCD sum rules on the light-cone including contributions up to twist 4, radiative corrections to the leading twist contribution and SU(3)-breaking effects. The theoretical uncertainty is estimated to be \\sim 15%. The heavy-quark-limit relations between semileptonic and penguin form factors are found to be valid in the full accessible range of momentum transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huitu, Katri; Pandita, P. N.; Tiitola, Paavo
2015-10-01
We examine the deflected mirage mediation supersymmetry breaking (DMMSB) scenario, which combines three supersymmetry breaking scenarios, namely anomaly mediation, gravity mediation and gauge mediation using the one-loop renormalization group invariants (RGIs). We examine the effects on the RGIs at the threshold where the gauge messengers emerge, and derive the supersymmetry breaking parameters in terms of the RGIs. We further discuss whether the supersymmetry breaking mediation mechanism can be determined using a limited set of invariants, and derive sum rules valid for DMMSB below the gauge messenger scale. In addition we examine the implications of the measured Higgs mass for the DMMSB spectrum.
Limitations of the semirelativistic approach in sum rules and related calculations in atomic physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.
1988-01-01
The semirelativistic approach, as applied to sum-rule calculations, can yield very inaccurate results for high-Z systems; the apparently good agreement previously reported is fortuitous, due to the application of an approximate eigenstate of the semirelativistic Hamiltonian. Attention is given to one-electron atomic systems, and the results obtained are discussed with a view to their implications for many-electron systems. The many-electron problem is complicated by a lack of clarity as to the relative importance of contributions due to correlation effects among the electrons, their effect on the E2 oscillator strength, and the retardation correction to the E1 transition.
Analysis of the vertices BsBK* and DsDK* with QCD Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerqueira, A., Jr.; Osório Rodrigues, B.; Bracco, M. E.
2015-07-01
In this work, we calculated the form factors and coupling constant of the vertex DsDK* using the QCD Sum Rules. The calculation of the form factors were performed for the cases D, Ds and K* off shell. Using the similarities between B and D mesons, we also calculated the form factors and coupling constant of the vertex BsBK*. The coupling constants of the vertices BsBK* and DsDK* were compared with each other through the Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory(HHChPT). We found a difference of 19% between BsBK* and DsDK* coupling constants using the HHChPT relation.
Analysis of the Heavy Pseudoscalar Mesons with Thermal QCD Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang
2016-07-01
In this article, we calculate the contributions of the condensates up to dimension-6, including the one-loop corrections to the quark condensates, in the operator product expansion in a consistent way, and study the masses and decay constants of the heavy pseudoscalar mesons with the thermal QCD sum rules. We reproduce the experimental values of the masses of the D, D s , B and B s and obtain the decay constants at zero temperature. Then we study the thermal behaviors of the masses and decay constants, which are useful in explaining the heavy-ion collision experiments.
{kappa}K{sup +{pi}-} vertex in light cone QCD sum rules
Baytemir, G.; Sarac, Y.; Yilmaz, O.
2010-05-01
In this work we study the {kappa}K{sup +{pi}-} vertex in the framework of light cone QCD sum rules. We predict the coupling constant g{sub {kappa}K}{sup +}{sub {pi}}{sup -} to be g{sub {kappa}K}{sup +}{sub {pi}}{sup -}=(6.0{+-}1.0) GeV and estimate the scalar f{sub 0}-{sigma} mixing angle from the experimental ratio g{sup 2}({kappa}{yields}K{pi})/g{sup 2}({sigma}{yields}{pi}{pi}).
Magnetic moment for the negative parity Λ → Σ0 transition in light cone QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.
2016-07-01
The magnetic moment of the Λ →Σ0 transition between negative parity baryons is calculated in framework of the QCD sum rules approach by using the general form of the interpolating currents. The pollution arising from the positive-to-positive, and positive-to-negative parity baryons is eliminated by constructing the sum rules for different Lorentz structures. A comparison of our result with the predictions of the results of other approaches for the positive parity baryons is presented.
Up- and down-quark masses from finite-energy QCD sum rules to five loops
Dominguez, C. A.; Nasrallah, N. F.; Roentsch, R. H.; Schilcher, K.
2009-01-01
The up- and down-quark masses are determined from an optimized QCD finite-energy sum rule involving the correlator of axial-vector divergences, to five-loop order in perturbative QCD, and including leading nonperturbative QCD and higher order quark-mass corrections. This finite-energy sum rule is designed to reduce considerably the systematic uncertainties arising from the (unmeasured) hadronic resonance sector, which in this framework contributes less than 3-4% to the quark mass. This is achieved by introducing an integration kernel in the form of a second degree polynomial, restricted to vanish at the peak of the two lowest lying resonances. The driving hadronic contribution is then the pion pole, with parameters well known from experiment. The determination is done in the framework of contour improved perturbation theory, which exhibits a very good convergence, leading to a remarkably stable result in the unusually wide window s{sub 0}=1.0-4.0 GeV{sup 2}, where s{sub 0} is the radius of the integration contour in the complex energy (squared) plane. The results are m{sub u}(Q=2 GeV)=2.9{+-}0.2 MeV, m{sub d}(Q=2 GeV)=5.3{+-}0.4 MeV, and (m{sub u}+m{sub d})/2=4.1{+-}0.2 MeV (at a scale Q=2 GeV)
J-pairing interaction, number of states, and nine-j sum rules of four identical particles
Zhao, Y.M.; Arima, A.
2005-11-01
We study the J-pairing Hamiltonian and find that the sum of eigenvalues of spin-I states equals the sum of the norm matrix elements within the pair basis for four identical particles such as four fermions in a single-j shell or four bosons with spin l. We relate the number of states to sum rules of nine-j coefficients. We obtained sum rules for nine-j coefficients <(jj)J,(jj)K:I|(jj)J,(jj)K:I> and <(ll)J,(ll)K:I|(ll)J,(ll)K:I> summing over (1) even J and even K, (2) even J and odd K, (3) odd J and odd K, and (4) both even and odd values for J and K, where j is a half integer and l is an integer.
Mass tensor in the Bohr Hamiltonian from the nondiagonal energy weighted sum rules
Jolos, R. V.; Brentano, P. von
2009-04-15
Relations are derived in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian that express the matrix elements of the deformation-dependent components of the mass tensor through the experimental data on the energies and the E2 transitions relating the low-lying collective states. These relations extend the previously obtained results for the intrinsic mass coefficients of the well-deformed axially symmetric nuclei on nuclei of arbitrary shape. The expression for the mass tensor is suggested, which is sufficient to satisfy the existing experimental data on the energy weighted sum rules for the E2 transitions for the low-lying collective quadrupole excitations. The mass tensor is determined for {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 108-112}Cd, {sup 134}Ba, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150-154}Sm, {sup 154-160}Gd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 172}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 188-192}Os, and {sup 194-196}Pt.
Study of the D*ρ system using QCD sum rules
Torres, A. Martínez; Khemchandani, K. P.; Nielsen, M.; Navarra, F. S.; Oset, E.
2014-11-11
In this proceeding we present a study of the D*ρ system made by using the method of QCD sum rules. Considering isospin and spin projectors, we investigate the different configurations and obtain three D* mesons with isospin I = 1/2, spin S = 0, 1, 2 and with masses 2500±67 MeV, 2523±60 MeV, and 2439±119 MeV, respectively. The last state can be related to D{sub 2}{sup *} (2460) (spin 2) listed by the Particle Data Group, while one of the first two might be associated with D*(2640), whose spin-parity is unknown. In the case of I = 3/2 we also find evidences of three states with spin 0, 1 and 2, respectively, with masses 2467±82 MeV, 2420±128 MeV, and 2550±56 MeV.
Pinched weights and duality violation in QCD sum rules: A critical analysis
Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim
2010-07-01
We analyze the so-called pinched weights, that are generally thought to reduce the violation of quark-hadron duality in finite-energy sum rules. After showing how this is not true in general, we explain how to address this question for the left-right correlator and any particular pinched weight, taking advantage of our previous work [1], where the possible high-energy behavior of the left-right spectral function was studied. In particular, we show that the use of pinched weights allows to determine with high accuracy the dimension six and eight contributions in the operator-product expansion, O{sub 6}=(-4.3{sub -0.7}{sup +0.9})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 6} and O{sub 8}=(-7.2{sub -5.3}{sup +4.2})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 8}.
Temperature Dependence of Decuplet Baryon Masses from Thermal QCD Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong-Jiang; Liu, Yong-Lu; Huang, Ming-Qiu
2015-02-01
In the present work, the masses of the decuplet baryons at finite temperature are investigated using thermal QCD sum rules. Making use of the quark propagator at finite temperature, we calculate the spectral functions to T8 order, and find that there are no contributions to the spectral functions at T8 order and the temperature corrections mainly come from that containing T4 ones. The calculations show very little temperature dependence of the masses below T = 0.11 GeV. While above that value, the masses decrease with increasing temperature. The results indicate that the hadron-quark phase transition temperature may be Tc >= 0.11 GeV for the decuplet bayons.
Atomic partial charges in condensed phase from an exact sum rule for infrared absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuilleumier, Rodolphe
2014-05-01
A general sum rule for infrared intensities provides a definition of effective partial charges which can be experimentally obtained using isotopic substitutions and is valid in both gas and condensed phases. Of particular interest is the case of molecular liquids. We have, therefore, determined the hydrogen partial charges in liquid methanol and liquid water from the available literature. The resulting charges are 0.63 e and 0.14 e for hydrogen atoms bounded to the methanol oxygen and carbon atoms, respectively, and 0.55 e for hydrogen atoms in liquid water. The effective partial charges in liquid water were also computed from density functional based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and found in good agreement with experiment.
Malila, Jussi; McGraw, Robert; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.
2015-01-07
Despite recent advances in monitoring nucleation from a vapor at close-to-molecular resolution, the identity of the critical cluster, forming the bottleneck for the nucleation process, remains elusive. During past twenty years, the first nucleation theorem has been often used to extract the size of the critical cluster from nucleation rate measurements. However, derivations of the first nucleation theorem invoke certain questionable assumptions that may fail, e.g., in the case of atmospheric new particle formation, including absence of subcritical cluster losses and heterogeneous nucleation on pre-existing nanoparticles. Here we extend the kinetic derivation of the first nucleation theorem to give a general framework to include such processes, yielding sum rules connecting the size dependent particle formation and loss rates to the corresponding loss-free nucleation rate and the apparent critical size from a naïve application of the first nucleation theorem that neglects them.
Sum rules related to third-order properties: a numerical check
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caputo, M. C.; Lazzeretti, P.
2003-03-01
Although electrodynamics is formally invariant in a gauge transformation, the values of some physical quantities, e.g., magnetic properties, depend on the approximation employed to calculate them. The conditions for gauge independence of third-rank tensor properties that describe the response of a molecule in the presence of three perturbations, that is, external electric and magnetic field, and intramolecular nuclear magnetic dipoles, are discussed. The relationships for invariance of the physical properties to a gauge translation are exactly the same as the constraints for charge conservation. They are expressed in terms of second-rank response properties, namely electric polarizabilities and electric shielding at the nuclei. An extended numerical test has been carried out to determine the Hartree-Fock limit for a series of quantities entering the gauge-invariance sum rules.
Sum rules and spectral density flow in QCD and in superconformal theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costantini, Antonio; Delle Rose, Luigi; Serino, Mirko
2014-11-01
We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in N = 1 super Yang Mills theory and its manifestation in the form of anomaly poles. Moreover, we describe the massive deformations of the N = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the corresponding anomaly form factors. These are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation and turn the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states into poles, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. The poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite axion/dilaton/dilatino (ADD) multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields.
Malila, Jussi; McGraw, Robert; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.
2015-01-07
Despite recent advances in monitoring nucleation from a vapor at close-to-molecular resolution, the identity of the critical cluster, forming the bottleneck for the nucleation process, remains elusive. During past twenty years, the first nucleation theorem has been often used to extract the size of the critical cluster from nucleation rate measurements. However, derivations of the first nucleation theorem invoke certain questionable assumptions that may fail, e.g., in the case of atmospheric new particle formation, including absence of subcritical cluster losses and heterogeneous nucleation on pre-existing nanoparticles. Here we extend the kinetic derivation of the first nucleation theorem to give amore » general framework to include such processes, yielding sum rules connecting the size dependent particle formation and loss rates to the corresponding loss-free nucleation rate and the apparent critical size from a naïve application of the first nucleation theorem that neglects them.« less
QCD sum rule study of a charged bottom-strange scalar meson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanetti, C. M.; Nielsen, M.; Khemchandani, K. P.
2016-05-01
Using the QCD sum rule approach, we investigate the possible four-quark structure for the new observed Bs0π± narrow structure (D0). We use a diquak-antidiquark scalar current and work to the order of ms in full QCD, without relying on 1 /mQ expansion. Our study indicates that although it is possible to obtain a stable mass in agreement with the state found by the D0 collaboration, more constraint analysis (simultaneous requirement of the OPE convergence and the dominance of the pole on the phenomenological side) leads to a higher mass. We also predict the masses of the bottom scalar tetraquark resonances with zero and two strange quarks.
QCD sum rule calculation of quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function
Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro
2011-10-21
We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters {lambda}{sub E} and {lambda}{sub H}, which represent quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function. We update the sum rules for {lambda}{sub E,H} calculating the new higher-order contributions to the operator product expansion for the corresponding correlator, i.e., the order {alpha}{sub s} radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensate, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules, modifying the values of {lambda}{sub E,H}.
Wilson coefficients and four-quark condensates in QCD sum rules for medium modifications of D mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchheim, T.; Hilger, T.; Kämpfer, B.
2015-01-01
Wilson coefficients of light four-quark condensates in QCD sum rules are evaluated for pseudoscalar D mesons, thus pushing the sum rules toward mass dimension 6. In contrast to the situation for q ¯q mesons, the impact of the four-quark condensates for vacuum as well as in-medium situations is found to be rather small within the Borel window used in previous analyses. The complete four-quark condensate contributions enable us to identify candidates for an order parameter of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and/or restoration as well as to evaluate stability criteria of operator product expansions.
Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian
2015-07-17
The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed formore » $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $$\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$$ and $$^{12}C$$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.« less
Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian
2015-07-17
The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$ and $^{12}C$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kataev, A. L.
2014-02-01
Conformal symmetry-based relations between concrete perturbative QED and QCD approximations for the Bjorken , the Ellis-Jaffe sum rules of polarized lepton- nucleon deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rules of neutrino-nucleon DIS, and for the Adler functions of axial-vector and vector channels are derived. They result from the application of the operator product expansion to three triangle Green functions, constructed from the non-singlet axial-vector, and two vector currents, the singlet axial-vector and two non-singlet vector currents and the non-singlet axial-vector, vector and singlet vector currents in the limit, when the conformal symmetry of the gauge models with fermions is considered unbroken. We specify the perturbative conditions for this symmetry to be valid in the case of the U(1) and SU( N c) models. The all-order perturbative identity following from the conformal invariant limit between the concrete contributions to the Bjorken, the Ellis-Jaffe and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rules is proved. The analytical and numerical O( α 4) and conformal symmetry based approximations for these sum rules and for the Adler function of the non-singlet vector currents are summarized. Possible theoretical applications of the results presented are discussed.
Sum Rule Constraints and the Quality of Approximate Kubo-Transformed Correlation Functions.
Hernández de la Peña, Lisandro
2016-02-11
In this work, a general protocol for evaluating the quality of approximate Kubo correlation functions of nontrivial systems in many dimensions is discussed. We first note that the generalized deconvolution of the Kubo transformed correlation function onto a time correlation function at a given value τ in imaginary time, such that 0 < τ < βℏ, leads to a series of sum rules applicable to the nth derivative of the Kubo function and whose iterative extension allows us to link derivatives of different order in the corresponding correlation functions. We focus on the case when τ = βℏ/2, for which all deconvolution kernels become real valued functions and their asymptotic behavior at long times exhibits a polynomial divergence. It is then shown that thermally symmetrized static averages, and the averages of the corresponding time derivatives, are ideally suited to investigate the quality of approximate Kubo correlation functions at successively larger (and up to arbitrarily long) times. This overall strategy is illustrated analytically for a harmonic system and numerically for a multidimensional double-well potential and a Lennard-Jones fluid. The analysis includes an assessment of RPMD position autocorrelation results as a function of the number of dimensions in a double-well potential and of the RPMD velocity autocorrelation function of liquid neon at 30 K. PMID:26786406
Infrared Refractive Index of Silicon: Parity and Sum-Rule Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karstens, William; Inokuti, Mitio; Smith, David Y.
2012-02-01
We have resolved conflicting reports for the IR refractive index of silicon using general considerations of linear response theory. We find that use of unphysical series expansions in the analysis of channel spectra has been a significant source of systematic error. Recognition that the index is an even function of photon energy is crucial for analysis of these measurements and clarifies data presentation. In the region of high IR transparency of elemental semiconductors, the index may be expanded in a rapidly convergent Taylor series. Coefficients of terms in the (2n)^th power of energy are proportional to the (2n+1)^th inverse moment of the electronic absorption spectrum. In the favorable case of intrinsic Si, the electronic absorption is sufficiently well known that independent values of the intercept, slope and curvature of plots of index vs. the square of photon energy may be calculated. Index data sets with parameters significantly different from these suffer from systematic errors or refer to impure samples. Using these parity and sum-rule tests we have prepared a composite index data set for intrinsic silicon that represents a best fit to reliable measurements from microwaves to the visible. Applications to germanium and diamond will be discussed.
Mass modification of /D-meson at finite density in QCD sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashigaki1, A.
2000-08-01
We evaluate the mass shift of isospin-averaged /D-meson in the nuclear medium. Borel-transformed QCD sum rules are used to describe an interaction between the /D-meson and a nucleon by taking into account all the lowest dimension-4 operators in the operator product expansion (OPE). We find at normal matter density the /D-meson mass shift is about /10 times (/~50 MeV) larger than that of /J/ψ. This originates from the fact that the dominant contribution in the OPE for the /D-meson is the nucleon matrix element of mcq¯q, where mc is the charm-quark mass and /q denotes light quarks. We also discuss that the mass shift of the /D-meson in nuclear matter may cause the level crossings of the charmonium states and the /DD¯ threshold. This suggests an additional mechanism of the /J/ψ suppression in high energy heavy-ion collisions.
Unitarity sum rules, three-site moose model, and the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Tomohiro; Nagai, Ryo; Okawa, Shohei; Tanabashi, Masaharu
2015-09-01
We investigate W' interpretations for the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies. The roles of the unitarity sum rules, which ensure the perturbativity of the longitudinal vector boson scattering amplitudes, are emphasized. We find the unitarity sum rules and the custodial symmetry are powerful enough to predict various nontrivial relations among W W Z', W Z W', W W h , W W'h and Z Z'h coupling strengths in a model independent manner. We also perform surveys in the general parameter space of W' models and find the ATLAS 2 TeV diboson anomalies may be interpreted as a W' particle of the three-site moose model, i.e., a Kaluza-Klein like particle in a deconstructed extra dimension model. It is also shown that the nonstandard-model-like Higgs boson is favored by the present data to interpret the ATLAS diboson anomalies as the consequences of the W' and Z' bosons.
Baikov, P A; Chetyrkin, K G; Kühn, J H
2010-04-01
We compute, for the first time, the order alpha(s)(4) contributions to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electron-nucleon scattering and to the (nonsinglet) Adler function for the case of a generic color gauge group. We confirm at the same order a (generalized) Crewther relation which provides a strong test of the correctness of our previously obtained results: the QCD Adler function and the five-loop beta function in quenched QED. In particular, the appearance of an irrational contribution proportional to zeta(3) in the latter quantity is confirmed. We obtain the commensurate scale equation relating the effective strong coupling constants as inferred from the Bjorken sum rule and from the Adler function at order alpha(s)(4). PMID:20481875
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Xin-Hu; Ye, Yun-Xiu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Lu, Hai-Jiang; Zhu, Peng-Jia; Jiang, Feng-Jian
2015-07-01
The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at the Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for 12C elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio \\frac{{Δ p}}{p} and 12C elastic cross section are compared without and with radiative energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for 12C elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275083), US Department of Energy contract DE-AC05-84ER-40150 under which Jefferson Science Associates operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Natural Science Foundation of An'hui Educational Committee (KJ2012B179)
K 0- overlineK0 mixing and the CKM parameters (ϱ, η) from the Laplace sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narison, S.
1995-02-01
Using the Laplace sum rule (LSR) approach, which is less affected by the contribution of the higher mass hadronic states than the Finite Energy Sum Rule (FESR), we test the reliability of the existing estimate of the K 0- overlineK0 mixing parameter from the four-quark two-point correlator. We obtain, for the renormalization group invariant B-parameter [ {f K}/{(1.2f π) }] 2B̂K, the upper bound: 0.83 and the conservative estimate: 0.58 ± 0.22 from the LSR method. Combining the previous estimate with the updated value of f BB B=(1.49±0.14)f π obtained from the same LSR method, one can deduce the fitted values ( ϱ, η) f (0.09, 0.41) of the CKM parameters.
Analyses of gD*sDK and gB*sBK vertices in QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Süngü, J. Y.; Sundu, H.; Azizi, K.
2012-02-01
The coupling constants gD*sDK and gB*sBK are calculated in the framework of QCD sum rules. We evaluate the correlation functions of these vertices considering both D(B) and K mesons off-shell and obtain the results as gD*sDK = (2.89 ± 0.25) and gB*sBK = (3.01 ± 0.28).
{lambda}{sub b}{yields}p, {lambda} transition form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules
Wang Yuming; Lue Caidian; Shen Yuelong
2009-10-01
Light-cone sum rules for the {lambda}{sub b}{yields}p, {lambda} transition form factors are derived from the correlation functions expanded by the twist of the distribution amplitudes of the {lambda}{sub b} baryon. In terms of the {lambda}{sub b} three-quark distribution amplitude models constrained by the QCD theory, we calculate the form factors at small momentum transfers and compare the results with those estimated in the conventional light-cone sum rules (LCSR) and perturbative QCD approaches. Our results indicate that the two different versions of sum rules can lead to the consistent numbers of form factors responsible for {lambda}{sub b}{yields}p transition. The {lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda} transition form factors from LCSR with the asymptotic {lambda} baryon distribution amplitudes are found to be almost 1 order larger than those obtained in the {lambda}{sub b}-baryon LCSR, implying that the preasymptotic corrections to the baryonic distribution amplitudes are of great importance. Moreover, the SU(3) symmetry breaking effects between the form factors f{sub 1}{sup {lambda}{sub b}}{sup {yields}}{sup p} and f{sub 1}{sup {lambda}{sub b}}{sup {yields}}{sup {lambda}} are computed as 28{sub -8}{sup +14}% in the framework of {lambda}{sub b}-baryon LCSR.
B{sub (s)}{yields}S transitions in the light cone sum rules with the chiral current
Sun Yanjun; Li Zuohong; Huang Tao
2011-01-15
We make a QCD light-cone sum rule assessment of B{sub (s)} semileptonic decays to a light scalar meson, B{sub (s)}{yields}Sl{nu}{sub l}, Sll(l=e,{mu},{tau}). Chiral current correlators are used and calculations are performed at leading order in {alpha}{sub s}. Having little knowledge of the ingredients of the scalar mesons, we confine ourself to the two-quark picture for them and work with the two possible scenarios. The resulting sum rules for the form factors receive no contributions from the twist-3 distribution amplitudes, in comparison with the calculation of the conventional light-cone sum rule approach where the twist-3 parts usually play an important role. We specify the range of the squared momentum transfer q{sup 2}, in which the operator product expansion for the correlators remains valid approximately. It is found that the form factors satisfy a relation consistent with the prediction of soft collinear effective theory. In the effective range we investigate behaviors of the form factors and differential decay widths and compare our calculations with the observations from other approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Z.; Baym, G.
2006-06-01
The spin response functions measured in multicomponent fermion gases by means of rf transitions between hyperfine states are strongly constrained by the symmetry of the interatomic interactions. Such constraints are reflected in the spin f -sum rule that the response functions must obey. In particular, only if the effective interactions are not fully invariant in SU(2) spin space, are the response functions sensitive to mean field and pairing effects. We demonstrate, via a self-consistent calculation of the spin-spin correlation function within the framework of Hartree-Fock-BCS theory, how one can derive a correlation function explicitly obeying the f -sum rule. By contrast, simple one-loop approximations to the spin response functions do not satisfy the sum rule, except in special cases. As we show, the emergence of a second peak at higher frequency in the rf spectrum, as observed in a recent experiment in trapped Li6 , can be understood as the contribution from the paired fermions, with a shift of the peak from the normal particle response proportional to the square of the BCS pairing gap.
A QCD sum rule calculation of the X± (5568) → Bs0 π± decay width
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, J. M.; Khemchandani, K. P.; Martínez Torres, A.; Nielsen, M.; Zanetti, C. M.
2016-07-01
To understand the nature of the X (5568), recently observed in the mass spectrum of the Bs0 π± system by the D0 Collaboration, we have investigated, in a previous work, a scalar tetraquark (diquak-antidiquark) structure for it, within the two-point QCD sum rules method. We found that it is possible to obtain a stable value of the mass compatible with the D0 result, although a rigorous QCD sum rule constrained analysis led to a higher value of mass. As a continuation of our investigation, we calculate the width of the tetraquark state with same quark content as X (5568), to the channel Bs0 π±, using the three-point QCD sum rule. We obtain a value of (20.4 ± 8.7) MeV for the mass ∼ 5568 MeV, which is compatible with the experimental value of 21.9 ± 6.4 (sta)-2.5+5.0 (syst) MeV /c2. We find that the decay width to Bs0 π± does not alter much for a higher mass state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delion, Doru S.; Schuck, Peter; Tohyama, Mitsuru
2016-02-01
The Self-Consistent RPA (SCRPA) approach is elaborated for cases with a continuously broken symmetry, this being the main focus of the present article. Correlations beyond standard RPA are summed up correcting for the quasi-boson approximation in standard RPA. Desirable properties of standard RPA such as fulfillment of energy weighted sum rule and appearance of Goldstone (zero) modes are kept. We show theoretically and, for a model case, numerically that, indeed, SCRPA maintains all properties of standard RPA for practically all situations of spontaneously broken symmetries. A simpler approximate form of SCRPA, the so-called renormalised RPA, also has these properties. The SCRPA equations are first outlined as an eigenvalue problem, but it is also shown how an equivalent many body Green's function approach can be formulated.
Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Baghaei, H.; Cichocki, A.; Blecher, M.; Breuer, M.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Caracappa, A.; Fan, Q.
1995-12-31
Energy weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photo-production cross sections ({sigma}{sub {1/2}} - {sigma}{sub 3/2}) provide information on the nucleon`s Spin-dependent Polarizability ({gamma}), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. (The latter forms the Q{sup 2}=0 limit of recent spin-asymmetry experiments in deep-inelastic lepton-scattering.) There are no direct measurements of {sigma}{sub {1/2}} or {sigma}{sub 3/2}, for either the proton or the neutron. Estimates from current {pi}-photo-production multipole analyses, particularly for the proton-neutron difference, are in good agreement with relativistic-l-loop Chiral calculations ({chi}PT) for {gamma} but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) both the 2-loop corrections to the Spin-Polarizability are large and the existing multipoles are wrong, or (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon. The helicity-dependent photo-reaction amplitudes, for both the proton and the neutron, will be measured at LEGS from pion-threshold to 470 MeV. In these double-polarization experiments, circularly polarized photons from LEGS will be used with SPHICE, a new frozen-spin target consisting of {rvec H} {center_dot} {rvec D} in the solid phase. Reaction channels will be identified in SASY, a large detector array covering about 80% of 4{pi}. A high degree of symmetry in both target and detector will be used to minimize systematic uncertainties.
Investigation of the D*s2(2573)+D+K0 vertex via QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarac, Y.; Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.
2014-12-01
In this work the D*s2(2573)+D+K0 vertex is studied and the coupling constant corresponding to the D*s2(2573)+ → D+K0 transition is calculated. The calculation is performed using three point QCD sum rules method and the value of the coupling constant is obtained as gD*s2DK = (12.85 ± 3.85) GeV-1. The coupling constant is also used to calculate the decay width and the branching ratio of the considered transition.
{sigma}{sub Q}{lambda}{sub Q}{pi} coupling constant in light cone QCD sum rules
Azizi, K.; Bayar, M.; Ozpineci, A.
2009-03-01
The strong coupling constants g{sub {sigma}{sub Q}}Q{sub {lambda}{sub Q}}{sub {pi}} (Q=b and c) are studied in the framework of the light cone QCD sum rules using the most general form of the baryonic currents. The predicted coupling constants are used to estimate the decay widths for the {sigma}{sub Q}{yields}{lambda}{sub Q}{pi} decays which are compared with the predictions of the other approaches and existing experimental data.
Energy-weighted sum rules and the analysis of vibrational structure in molecular spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, W. L.
2015-10-01
The energy-weighted sum SV = Σn (E‧n - E″m)|<ψ″m|ψ‧n>|2 = <ψ″m|ΔV|ψ″m> for the vibrational potential functions V‧, V″ associated with transitions between two electronic states of diatomic molecular species is investigated and specific formulae are given using Morse functions for V‧ and V″. It is found that these formulae are useful approximations which provide a convenient way to analyse the vibrational structure of real spectra to give estimates of molecular parameters such as the change in internuclear distance accompanying a transition.
The spin structure function g1p of the proton and a test of the Bjorken sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; -Yu Hsieh, C.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jörg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2016-02-01
New results for the double spin asymmetry A1p and the proton longitudinal spin structure function g1p are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH3 target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160 GeV, in particular at lower values of x. They improve the statistical precision of g1p (x) by about a factor of two in the region x ≲ 0.02. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the g1 world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔΣ, ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of g1p. The uncertainty of ΔΣ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function g1NS (x ,Q2) yields as ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants |gA /gV | = 1.22 ± 0.05 (stat.) ± 0.10 (syst.), which validates the sum rule to an accuracy of about 9%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Zhu-Feng; Steele, T. G.
2010-03-01
Motivated by the similar mass splitting in light-light and heavy-light JP=0- and JP=0+ mesons, the SU(3)-symmetry breaking effects splitting the masses in the 0- and 0+ channels of the D meson are analyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules with an underlying cq¯ structure. We take into account operator mixing to obtain an infrared stable operator-product expansion method including complete nonperturbative and perturbative O(mq) corrections to the correlation function. With the same threshold for both channels, the mass splitting arising from the sum rules has the same behavior as the observed spectrum. In particular, we obtain mDs-mDd˜35MeV in the 0- channel and mDd-mDs˜12MeV in the 0+ channel at a renormalization scale μ=1GeV. The splitting can be attributed to the different roles of mass effects and the parity-dependent “force” induced from nonperturbative QCD vacuum. Further analysis shows that due to this parity-dependent force it is natural that the mass gap of the two states in the 0- channel is larger than the 0+ channel. When we increase the renormalization scale to μ=1.3GeV the splitting remains unchanged which demonstrates a correct scale invariance. Combined with heavy quark effective theory, generalizations to other channels of charmed mesons and b-systems are briefly discussed.
OPE, charm-quark mass, and decay constants of D and Ds mesons from QCD sum rules
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2011-01-01
We present a sum-rule extraction of the decay constants of the charmed mesons D and Ds from the two-point correlator of pseudoscalar currents. First, we compare the perturbative expansion for the correlator and the decay constant performed in terms of the pole and the running MS¯ masses of the charm quark. The perturbative expansion in terms of the pole mass shows no signs of convergence whereas reorganizing this very expansion in terms of the MS¯ mass leads to a distinct hierarchy of the perturbative expansion. Furthermore, the decay constants extracted from the pole-mass correlator turn out to be considerably smaller than those obtained by means of the MS¯-mass correlator. Second, making use of the OPE in terms of the MS¯ mass, we determine the decay constants of both D and Ds mesons with an emphasis on the uncertainties in these quantities related both to the input QCD parameters and to the limited accuracy of the method of sum rules. PMID:21949465
Quasielastic /sup 3/Hp and /sup 3/Hep scattering at intermediate energies and the Glauber sum rules
Blinov, A.V.; Vanyushin, I.A.; Grechko, V.E.; Drobot, V.V.; Ergakov, B.A.; Zombkovskii, S.M.; Kondratyuk, L.A.; Korolev, Y.V.; Selektor, Y.M.; Solov'ev, V.V.
1984-09-01
The differential cross sections and the average energy loss of fast protons in the reactions p+/sup 3/H..-->..p/sub F/+X and p+/sup 3/He..-->..p/sub F/+X are investigated by means of a liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics of diameter 80 cm, exposed in a beam of 2.5 GeV/c tritium nuclei (primary-proton kinetic energy in the rest system of the nucleus T/sub p/ = 0.318 GeV) and in a beam of 5-GeV/c /sup 3/He nuclei (T/sub p/ = 0.978 GeV). The experimental results are compared with the predictions based on sum rules for differential cross sections and average energy loss in the Glauber-Sitenko theory of multiple scattering and with use of the completeness condition for the wave functions of the excited states of the nucleus and locality of the nuclear potential. Good agreement between the data and the theoretical predictions is observed at 2.5 GeV/c. A discrepancy between the Glauber sum-rule predictions and the data at 5 GeV/c is explained by the production of the ..delta.. isobar in the intermediate state. It is established that the possible admixture of six-quark bags in the nuclei /sup 3/H and /sup 3/He does not exceed 5%.
Improved fD(s)∗, fB(s)∗ and fBc from QCD Laplace sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narison, Stephan
2015-07-01
Anticipating future precise measurements of the D- and B-like (semi)leptonic and hadronic decays for alternative determinations of the CKM mixing angles, we pursue our program on the D- and B-like mesons by improving the estimates of fD(s)∗ and fB(s)∗ (analogue to fπ) by using the well-established (inverse) Laplace sum rules (LSR) and/or their suitable ratios less affected by the systematics, which are known to N2LO pQCD and where the complete d = 6 nonperturbative condensate contributions are included. The convergence of the PT series is analyzed by an estimate of the N3LO terms based on geometric growth of the coefficients. In addition to the standard LSR variable τ and the QCD continuum threshold tc stability criteria, we extract our optimal results by also requiring stability on the variation of the arbitrary QCD subtraction point μ which reduces the errors in the analysis. We complete the study of the open bottom states by an estimate of fBc. Our results summarized in Tables 3 and 4 are compared with some other recent sum rules and lattice estimates.
Friedel-Crafts Acylation with Amides
Raja, Erum K.; DeSchepper, Daniel J.; Nilsson Lill, Sten O.; Klumpp, Douglas A.
2012-01-01
Friedel-Crafts acylation has been known since the 1870s and it is an important organic synthetic reaction leading to aromatic ketone products. Friedel-Crafts acylation is usually done with carboxylic acid chlorides or anhydrides while amides are generally not useful substrates in these reactions. Despite being the least reactive carboxylic acid derivative, we have found a series of amides capable of providing aromatic ketones in good yields (55–96%, 17 examples). We propose a mechanism involving diminished C-N resonance through superelectrophilic activation and subsequent cleavage to acyl cations. PMID:22690740
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jugeau, F.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Raynal, J.-C.
2006-01-01
Within the OPE, we formulate new sum rules in Heavy Quark Effective Theory in the heavy quark limit and at order 1/mQ, using the non-forward amplitude. In the heavy quark limit, these sum rules imply that the elastic Isgur-Wise function ξ(w) is an alternate series in powers of (w - 1). Moreover, one gets that the n-th derivative of ξ(w) at w = 1 can be bounded by the (n - 1)-th one, and the absolute lower bound for the n-th derivative (-1)nξ(n)(1) ⩾ (2n+1)!!/22n. Moreover, for the curvature we find ξ″(1) ⩾ 1/5[4ρ2 + 3(ρ2)2] where ρ2 = -ξ'(1). These results are consistent with the dispersive bounds, and they strongly reduce the allowed region of the latter for ξ(w). The method is extended to the subleading quantities in 1/mQ. Concerning the perturbations of the Current, we derive new simple relations between the functions ξ3(w) and Λ¯ξ(w) and the sums ∑ n ΔEj(n)τj(n)(1)τj(n)(w) (j = 1/2, 3/2), that involve leading quantities, Isgur-Wise functions τj(n)(w) and level spacings ΔEj(n). Our results follow because the non-forward amplitude depends on three variables (wi, wf, wif) = (vi ṡ v', vf ṡ v', vi ṡ vf), and we consider the zero recoil frontier (w, 1, w) where only a finite number of jP states contribute (1/2+, 3/2+). We also obtain new sum rules involving the elastic subleading form factors χi(w) (i = 1, 2, 3) at order 1/mQ that originate from the Lkin and Lmag perturbations of the Lagrangian. To the sum rules contribute only the same intermediate states (jP, JP) = (1/2-, 1-),(3/2-, 1-) that enter in the 1/mQ2 corrections of the axial form factor hA1(w) at zero recoil. This allows to obtain a lower bound on -δ1/m2(A1) in terms of the χi(w) and the shape of the elastic IW function ξ(w). An important theoretical implication is that χ1'(1), χ2(1) and χ3'(1)(χ1(1) = χ3(1) = 0 from Luke theorem) must vanish when the slope and the curvature attain their lowest values ρ2 → 3/4, σ2 → 15/16. These constraints should be taken
Finite size effect and Friedel oscillations for a Friedel-Anderson impurity by FAIR method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Yaqi
A compact solution consisting of 4-8 Slater states (FAIR solution) is introduced to treat the Friedel Anderson and Kondo impurity problem. The ground state energy is obtained with impressively high accuracy. Net integrated polarization density is calculated and it confirms the existence of Kondo cloud. Finite size effect in the impurity problem is studied using FAIR method. It is shown that the formation of a Kondo ground state requires a minimum sample size and is accompanied by the presence of Kondo cloud. The Friedel Oscillations in the vicinity of a Friedel-Anderson impurity are investigated by FAIR method. The development of Friedel oscillation with a phase shift of pi/2 outside the Kondo radius is confirmed. And the amplitude A(xi) of the Friedel oscillations show a very similar behavior to that of a simple non-interacting Friedel impurity with a narrow resonance at the Fermi level. This similarity supports the concept of a "Kondo" resonance. And the Kondo resonance half width GammaFA is suggested to be GammaFA ≈ Echi/2.4, where Echi is the Kondo energy calculated from susceptibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holas, A.; March, N. H.; Rubio, Angel
2005-11-01
Holas and March [Phys. Rev. A. 51, 2040 (1995)] gave a formally exact theory for the exchange-correlation (xc) force Fxc(r)=-∇υxc(r) associated with the xc potential υxc(r) of the density-functional theory in terms of low-order density matrices. This is shown in the present study to lead, rather directly, to the determination of a sum rule ⟨nFxc⟩=0 relating the xc force with the ground-state density n(r ). Some connection is also made with an earlier result relating to the external potential by Levy and Perdew [Phys. Rev. A. 32, 2010 (1985)] and with the quite recent study of Joubert [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1916 (2003)] relating to the separation of the exchange and correlation contributions.
A measurement of {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) from the Gross Llewellyn Smith sum rule
Harris, D.A.; Auchincloss, P.; Arroyo, C.G.
1995-06-01
The Gross Llewellyn Smith sum rule has been measured at different values of four-momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2}) by combining the precise CCFR neutrino data with data from other deep-inelastic scattering experiments at lower values of Q{sup 2}. A comparison with the {Omicron} ({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}) predictions of perturbative QCD yields a determination of {alpha}{sub s} and its dependence on Q{sup 2} in the range 1GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 20 GeV{sup 2}. Low Q{sup 2} tests have greater sensitivity to {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub Z}{sup 2}) than high Q{sup 2} tests, since at low Q{sup 2} {alpha}{sub s} is large and changing rapidly.
Adler function, sum rules and Crewther relation of order O(αs4): The singlet case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baikov, P. A.; Chetyrkin, K. G.; Kühn, J. H.; Rittinger, J.
2012-07-01
The analytic result for the singlet part of the Adler function of the vector current in a general gauge theory is presented in five-loop approximation. Comparing this result with the corresponding singlet part of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule (Baikov et al., 2010 [1]), we successfully demonstrate the validity of the generalized Crewther relation for the singlet part. This provides a non-trivial test of both our calculations and the generalized Crewther relation. Combining the result with the already available non-singlet part of the Adler function (Baikov et al., 2008 [2], Baikov et al., 2010 [3]) we arrive at the complete O(αs4) expression for the Adler function and, as a direct consequence, at the complete O(αs4) correction to the e+e- annihilation into hadrons in a general gauge theory.
D → a1, f1 transition form factors and semileptonic decays via 3-point QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Yabing; Hu, Yue; He, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Chen, Yan; Hao, Yannan
2016-07-01
By using the 3-point QCD sum rules, we calculate the transition form factors of D decays into the spin triplet axial vector mesons a1(1260), f1(1285), f1(1420). In the calculations, we consider the quark contents of each meson in detail. In view of the fact that the isospin of a1(1260) is one, we calculate the D+ → a 10(1260) and D0 → a 1‑(1260) transition form factors separately. In the case of f1(1285), f1(1420), the mixing between light flavor SU(3) singlet and octet is taken into account. Based on the form factors obtained here, we give predictions for the branching ratios of relevant semileptonic decays, which can be tested in the future experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Gang
2016-03-01
In this article, we construct both the axialvector-diquark-axialvector-diquark-antiquark type and the axialvector-diquark-scalar-diquark-antiquark type interpolating currents, then calculate the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension 10 in the operator product expansion, and we study the masses and pole residues of the J^P={1/2}^± hidden-charm pentaquark states with the QCD sum rules in a systematic way. In calculations, we use the formula μ =sqrt{M^2P-(2{{M}}_c)^2} to determine the energy scales of the QCD spectral densities. We take into account the SU(3) breaking effects of the light quarks, and we obtain the masses of the hidden-charm pentaquark states with the strangeness S=0,-1,-2,-3, which can be confronted with the experimental data in the future.
Analysis of the {1/2}^{± } pentaquark states in the diquark model with QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Gang; Huang, Tao
2016-01-01
In this article, we present the scalar-diquark-scalar-diquark-antiquark type and scalar-diquark-axialvector-diquark-antiquark type pentaquark configurations in the diquark model, and study the masses and pole residues of the J^P={1/2}^± hidden-charm pentaquark states in detail with the QCD sum rules by extending our previous work on the J^P={3/2}^- and {5/2}+ hidden-charm pentaquark states. We calculate the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension-10 in the operator product expansion by constructing both the scalar-diquark-scalar-diquark-antiquark type and the scalar-diquark-axialvector-diquark-antiquark type interpolating currents. The present predictions of the masses can be confronted to the LHCb experimental data in the future.
Holas, A; March, N H; Rubio, Angel
2005-11-15
Holas and March [Phys. Rev. A. 51, 2040 (1995)] gave a formally exact theory for the exchange-correlation (xc) force F(xc)(r)= -inverted Deltaupsilon(xc)(r) associated with the xc potential upsilon(xc)(r) of the density-functional theory in terms of low-order density matrices. This is shown in the present study to lead, rather directly, to the determination of a sum rule nF(xc)=0 relating the xc force with the ground-state density n(r). Some connection is also made with an earlier result relating to the external potential by Levy and Perdew [Phys. Rev. A. 32, 2010 (1985)] and with the quite recent study of Joubert [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1916 (2003)] relating to the separation of the exchange and correlation contributions. PMID:16321073
Kominis, Ioannis
2001-01-31
This thesis presents the results of E-94010, an experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) designed to study the spin structure of the neutron at low momentum transfer, and to test the “extended” Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule. The first experiment of its kind, it was performed in experimental Hall-A of TJNAF using a new polarized 3He facility. It has recently been shown that the GDH sum rule and the Bjorken sum rule are both special examples of a more general sum rule that applies to polarized electron scattering off nucleons. This generalized sum rule, due to Ji and Osborne, reduces to the GDH sum rule at Q2 = 0 and to the Bjorken sum rule at Q2 >> 1 GeV2. By studying the Q2 evolution of the extended GDH sum, one learns about the transition from quark-like behavior to hadronic-like behavior. We measured inclusive polarized cross sections by scattering high energy polarized electrons off the new TJNAF polarized 3He target with both longitudinal and transverse target orientations. The high density 3He target, based on optical pumping and spin exchange, was used as an effective neutron target. The target maintained a polarization of about 35% at beam currents as high as 151tA. We describe the precision 3He polarimetry leading to a systematic uncertainty of the target polarization of 4% (relative). A strained GaAs photocathode was utilized in the polarized electron gun, which provided an electron beam with a polarization of about 70%, known to 3% (relative). By using six different beam energies (between 0.86 and 5.06 GeV) and a fixed scattering angle of 15.5°, a wide kinematic coverage was achieved, with 0.02 GeV2< Q2 <1 GcV2 and 0.5 GeV< W < 2.5 GeV for the squared momentum transfer and invariant mass, respectively. From the measured cross sections we extract the 3He spin structure functions He and g1e Finally, we determine the extended GDH sum for the range 0.1 GeV2< Q2 <1 GeV2 for 3He and the neutron.
Gubler, Philipp; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Nishida, Yusuke
2015-05-15
Making use of the operator product expansion, we derive a general class of sum rules for the imaginary part of the single-particle self-energy of the unitary Fermi gas. The sum rules are analyzed numerically with the help of the maximum entropy method, which allows us to extract the single-particle spectral density as a function of both energy and momentum. These spectral densities contain basic information on the properties of the unitary Fermi gas, such as the dispersion relation and the superfluid pairing gap, for which we obtain reasonable agreement with the available results based on quantum Monte-Carlo simulations.
First Measurement of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule for 1H from 0.7 to 1.8 GeV at ELSA.
Dutz, H; Helbing, K; Krimmer, J; Speckner, T; Zeitler, G; Ahrens, J; Altieri, S; Annand, J R M; Anton, G; Arends, H-J; Beck, R; Bock, A; Bradtke, C; Braghieri, A; v Drachenfels, W; Frommberger, F; Godo, M; Goertz, S; Grabmayr, P; Hasegawa, S; Hansen, K; Harmsen, J; Heid, E; Hillert, W; Holvoet, H; Horikawa, N; Iwata, T; Van Hoorebeke, L; d'Hose, N; Jennewein, P; Kiel, B; Klein, F; Kondratiev, R; Lang, M; Lannoy, B; Leukel, R; Lisin, V; Menze, D; Meyer, W; Michel, T; Naumann, J; Panzeri, A; Pedroni, P; Pinelli, T; Preobrajenski, I; Radtke, E; Reicherz, G; Rohlof, C; Rostomyan, T; Sauer, M; Schoch, B; Schumacher, M; Tamas, G; Thomas, A; van de Vyver, R; Weihofen, W; Zapadtka, F
2003-11-01
To verify the fundamental Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule for the first time experimentally, we measured the helicity dependent total photoabsorption cross section with circularly polarized real photons and longitudinally polarized nucleons in the photon energy range 0.68-1.82 GeV with the tagged photon facility at ELSA. The experiment was carried out with a 4pi detection system, a circularly polarized tagged photon beam, and a frozen spin polarized proton target. The contribution to the GDH sum rule in this photon energy range is [49.9+/-2.4(stat)+/-2.2(syst)] microb. PMID:14611575
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corianò, Claudio; Costantini, Antonio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Serino, Mirko
2014-06-01
We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in = 1 super Yang Mills theory, mediated by the Ferrara-Zumino hypercurrent () with two vector () supercurrents () and its manifestation in the anomaly action, in the form of anomaly poles. This allows to investigate in a unified way both conformal and chiral anomalies. The analysis is performed in parallel to the Standard Model, for comparison. We investigate, in particular, massive deformations of the = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the anomaly form factors which are extracted from the components of this correlator. In this extended framework it is shown that all the anomaly form factors are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation. In particular, the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states turn into poles in the zero mass limit, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. Non anomalous form factors, instead, in the same anomalous correlators, are characterized by non-integrable spectral densities. These tend to uniform distributions as one moves towards the conformal point, with a clear dual behaviour. As in a previous analysis of the dilaton pole of the Standard Model, also in this case the poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite dilaton/axion/dilatino (ADD) multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. The pole-like behaviour of the anomaly form factors is shown to be a global feature of the correlators, present at all energy scales, due to the sum rules. A similar behaviour is shown to be present in the Konishi current, which identifies additional composite states. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields. In case of gauging of these currents, as in superconformal theories coupled to gravity, we show that the cancellation of the corresponding anomalies
Catalytic Friedel-Crafts reaction of aminocyclopropanes.
de Nanteuil, Florian; Loup, Joachim; Waser, Jérôme
2013-07-19
A Lewis acid catalyzed Friedel-Crafts reaction between donor-acceptor aminocyclopropanes and indoles and other electron-rich aromatic compounds is reported. Indole alkylation at the C3 position was generally obtained for a broad range of functional groups and substitution patterns. In the case of C3-substituted indoles, C2 alkylation was observed. The reaction gives a rapid access to gamma amino acid derivatives present in numerous bioactive molecules. PMID:23815365
Form factors in Bbar0 →π+π0 ℓνbarℓ from QCD light-cone sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hambrock, Christian; Khodjamirian, Alexander
2016-04-01
The form factors of the semileptonic B → ππℓ ν bar decay are calculated from QCD light-cone sum rules with the distribution amplitudes of dipion states. This method is valid in the kinematical region, where the hadronic dipion state has a small invariant mass and simultaneously a large recoil. The derivation of the sum rules is complicated by the presence of an additional variable related to the angle between the two pions. In particular, we realize that not all invariant amplitudes in the underlying correlation function can be used, some of them generating kinematical singularities in the dispersion relation. The two sum rules that are free from these ambiguities are obtained in the leading twist-2 approximation, predicting the Bbar0 →π+π0 form factors F⊥ and F∥ of the vector and axial b → u current, respectively. We calculate these form factors at the momentum transfers 0
Precision calculation of threshold πd scattering, πN scattering lengths, and the GMO sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baru, V.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Nogga, A.; Phillips, D. R.
2011-12-01
We use chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) to calculate the πd scattering length with an accuracy of a few percent, including isospin-violating corrections in both the two- and three-body sectors. In particular, we provide the technical details of a recent letter (Baru et al., 2011) [1], where we used data on pionic deuterium and pionic hydrogen atoms to extract the isoscalar and isovector pion-nucleon scattering lengths a and a. We study isospin-breaking contributions to the three-body part of a due to mass differences, isospin violation in the πN scattering lengths, and virtual photons. This last class of effects is ostensibly infrared enhanced due to the smallness of the deuteron binding energy. However, we show that the leading virtual-photon effects that might undergo such enhancement cancel, and hence the standard ChPT counting provides a reliable estimate of isospin violation in a due to virtual photons. Finally, we discuss the validity of the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rule in the presence of isospin violation, and use it to determine the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant.
Friedel oscillations: Decoding the hidden physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Cristina
2016-03-01
We show that the impurity-induced Friedel oscillations allow one to probe in an unexpected and quite remarkable manner the electronic properties of two-dimensional systems such as graphene or high-temperature superconductors. In particular, we show that by studying these oscillations, one can get access not only to the constant-energy maps, but also to more hidden information such as the chiral properties of Dirac electrons in graphene, which cannot be observed directly by other methods. For graphene, this hidden information is revealed by comparing the theoretical predictions with scanning tunneling microscopy experimental measurements of the local density of states. xml:lang="fr"
Friedel oscillations as a probe of fermionic quasiparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalla Torre, Emanuele G.; Benjamin, David; He, Yang; Dentelski, David; Demler, Eugene
2016-05-01
When immersed in a sea of electrons, local impurities give rise to density modulations known as Friedel oscillations. In spite of the generality of this phenomenon, the exact shape of these modulations is usually computed only for noninteracting electrons with a quadratic dispersion relation. In actual materials, Friedel oscillations are a viable way to access the properties of electronic quasiparticles, including their dispersion relation, lifetime, and pairing. In this work we analyze the signatures of Friedel oscillations in STM and x-ray scattering experiments, focusing on the concrete example of cuprate superconductors. We identify signatures of Friedel oscillations seeded by impurities and vortices, and explain experimental observations that have been previously attributed to a competing charge order.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ying, Hao
1993-01-01
The fuzzy controllers studied in this paper are the ones that employ N trapezoidal-shaped members for input fuzzy sets, Zadeh fuzzy logic and a centroid defuzzification algorithm for output fuzzy set. The author analytically proves that the structure of the fuzzy controllers is the sum of a global nonlinear controller and a local nonlinear proportional-integral-like controller. If N approaches infinity, the global controller becomes a nonlinear controller while the local controller disappears. If linear control rules are used, the global controller becomes a global two-dimensional multilevel relay which approaches a global linear proportional-integral (PI) controller as N approaches infinity.
g{sub {Sigma}{sub Q{Sigma}{sub Q{pi}}}}coupling constant via light cone QCD sum rules
Azizi, K.; Bayar, M.; Ozpineci, A.; Sarac, Y.
2010-10-01
Using the most general form of the interpolating currents, the coupling constants g{sub {Sigma}{sub b{Sigma}{sub b{pi}}}}and g{sub {Sigma}{sub c{Sigma}{sub c{pi}}}}are calculated within the light cone QCD sum rules approach. It is found that g{sub {Sigma}{sub c{Sigma}{sub c{pi}=}}}-8.0{+-}1.7 and g{sub {Sigma}{sub b{Sigma}{sub b{pi}=}}}-11.0{+-}2.1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetič, Gorazd; Kataev, A. L.
2016-07-01
We consider a new form of analytical perturbation theory expansion in the massless S U (Nc) theory, for the nonsinglet part of the e+e--annihilation to hadrons Adler function Dn s and of the Bjorken sum rule of the polarized lepton-hadron deep-inelastic scattering Cns B j p, and demonstrate its validity at the O (αs4)-level at least. It is a two-fold series in powers of the conformal anomaly and of S U (Nc) coupling αs. Explicit expressions are obtained for the {β }-expanded perturbation coefficients at O (αs4) level in MS ¯ scheme, for both considered physical quantities. Comparisons of the terms in the {β }-expanded coefficients are made with the corresponding terms obtained by using extra gluino degrees of freedom, or skeleton-motivated expansion, or Rδ-scheme motivated expansion in the Principle of Maximal Conformality. Relations between terms of the {β }-expansion for the Dn s- and Cns B j p-functions, which follow from the conformal symmetry limit and its violation, are presented. The relevance to the possible new analyses of the experimental data for the Adler function and Bjorken sum rule is discussed.
Parameterisation of [σ1/2-σ3/2] for Q2>=0 and non-resonance contribution to the GDH sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, N.; Thomas, E.
1999-03-01
A description of the virtual photon absorption cross section difference [σ1/2-σ3/2] for the proton and neutron is obtained with a parameterisation based on a Regge type approach. The parametrisation is obtained from global fits to the cross section data derived from the spin asymmetries measured in deep inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarised leptons from polarised 1H, 3He and 2H targets in the range 0.3 GeV2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.
2010-02-01
The construction of the dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) from theoretical and experimental photoabsorption cross sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule and molar refractivity data is a well-established technique that has been successfully applied to more than 50 species. Such DOSDs are insufficiently accurate at large photon energies. A novel iterative procedure is developed that rectifies this deficiency by using the high-energy asymptotic behavior of the dipole oscillator strength density as an additional constraint. Pilot applications are made for the neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms. The resulting DOSDs improve the agreement of the predicted S2 and S1 sum rules with ab initio calculations while preserving the accuracy of the remainder of the moments. Our DOSDs exploit new and more accurate experimental data. Improved estimates of dipole properties for these four atoms and of dipole-dipole C6 and triple-dipole C9 dispersion coefficients for the interactions among them are reported.
Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.
2010-02-21
The construction of the dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) from theoretical and experimental photoabsorption cross sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule and molar refractivity data is a well-established technique that has been successfully applied to more than 50 species. Such DOSDs are insufficiently accurate at large photon energies. A novel iterative procedure is developed that rectifies this deficiency by using the high-energy asymptotic behavior of the dipole oscillator strength density as an additional constraint. Pilot applications are made for the neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms. The resulting DOSDs improve the agreement of the predicted S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} sum rules with ab initio calculations while preserving the accuracy of the remainder of the moments. Our DOSDs exploit new and more accurate experimental data. Improved estimates of dipole properties for these four atoms and of dipole-dipole C{sub 6} and triple-dipole C{sub 9} dispersion coefficients for the interactions among them are reported.
Jeffries, J R; Moore, K T; Butch, N P; Maple, M B
2010-05-19
We examine the degree of 5f electron localization in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} using spin-orbit sum rule analysis of the U N{sub 4,5} (4d {yields} 5f) edge. When compared to {alpha}-U metal, US, USe, and UTe, which have increasing localization of the 5f states, we find that the 5f states of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are more localized, although not entirely. Spin-orbit analysis shows that intermediate coupling is the correct angular momentum coupling mechanism for URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} when the 5f electron count is between 2.6 and 2.8. These results have direct ramifications for theoretical assessment of the hidden order state of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, where the degree of localization of the 5f electrons and their contribution to the Fermi surface are critical.
Application of the QCD light cone sum rule to tetraquarks: The strong vertices XbXbρ and XcXcρ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agaev, S. S.; Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.
2016-06-01
The full version of the QCD light-cone sum rule method is applied to tetraquarks containing a single heavy b or c quark. To this end, investigations of the strong vertices XbXbρ and XcXcρ are performed, where Xb=[s u ][b ¯ d ¯ ] and Xc=[s u ][c ¯d ¯] are the exotic states built of four quarks of different flavors. The strong coupling constants GXbXbρ and GXcXcρ corresponding to these vertices are found using the ρ -meson leading- and higher-twist distribution amplitudes. In the calculations, Xb and Xc are treated as scalar bound states of a diquark and antidiquark.
Analysis of P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) as pentaquark states in the diquark model with QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Gang
2016-02-01
In this article, we construct the diquark-diquark-antiquark type interpolating currents, and we study the masses and pole residues of the J^P={3/2}^- and {5/2}^+ hidden charm pentaquark states in detail with the QCD sum rules by calculating the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension-10 in the operator product expansion. In the calculations, we use the formula μ =√{M^2_{P_c}-(2{{M}}_c)^2} to determine the energy scales of the QCD spectral densities. The present predictions favor assigning P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) to be the {3/2}^- and {5/2}^+ pentaquark states, respectively.
The Friedel-Crafts Reaction - A Sixth Form Project
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hodson, D.
1973-01-01
Suggests that the Friedel-Crafts reaction, used for synthesizing a wide range of aromatic compounds, is an ideal vehicle for extended senior high school project work in chemistry. Provides a theoretical discussion of the reaction, suggests a number of suitable investigations, and outlines the experimental details. (JR)
Accurate decay-constant ratios fB*/fB and fBs*/fBs from Borel QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2015-06-01
We present our analysis of the decay constants of the beauty vector mesons B* and Bs* within the framework of dispersive sum rules for the two-point correlator of vector currents in QCD. While the decay constants of the vector mesons fB* and fBs* —similar to the decay constants of the pseudoscalar mesons fB and fBs—individuallyhave large uncertainties induced by theory parameters not known with a satisfactory precision, these uncertainties almost entirely cancel out in the ratios of vector over pseudoscalar decay constants. These ratios, thus, may be predicted with very high accuracy due to the good control over the systematic uncertainties of the decay constants gained upon application of our hadron-parameter extraction algorithm. Our final results read fB*/fB=0.944 ±0.01 1OPE±0.01 8syst and fBs*/fB s=0.947 ±0.02 3OPE±0.02 0syst . Thus, both fB*/fB and fBs*/fBs are less than unity at 2.5 σ and 2 σ level, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakulev, A. P.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.
2011-10-01
A global fit to the data from different collaborations (CELLO, CLEO, BaBar) on the pion-photon transition form factor is carried out using light-cone sum rules. The analysis includes the next-to-leading QCD radiative corrections and the twist-four contributions, while the main next-to-next-to-leading term and the twist-six contribution are taken into account in the form of theoretical uncertainties. We use the information extracted from the data to investigate the pivotal characteristics of the pion distribution amplitude. This is done by dividing the data into two sets: one containing all data up to 9 GeV 2, whereas the other incorporates also the high- Q tail of the BaBar data. We find that it is not possible to accommodate into the fit these BaBar data points with the same accuracy and conclude that it is difficult to explain these data in the standard scheme of OCD.
Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Haire, R; Wall, M; Schwartz, A
2005-10-07
Transmission electron microscopy is used to acquire electron energy-loss spectra from phase-specific regions of Pu and U metal, PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}, and aged, self-irradiated Pu metal. The N{sub 4,5} (4d {yields} 5f) spectra are analyzed using the spin-orbit sum rule. Our results show that the technique is sensitive enough to detect changes in the branching ratio of the white-line peaks between the metal and dioxide of both U and Pu. There is a small change in the branching ratio between different Pu metals, and the data trends as would be expected for varying f electron localization, i.e., {alpha}-Pu, {delta}-Pu, aged {delta}-Pu. Moreover, our results suggest that the metal-oxide bonds in UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} are strongly covalent in nature and do not exhibit an integer valence change as would be expected from purely ionic bonding.
Lvov, A.I.; Scopetta, S. |; Drechsel, D.; Scherer, S.
1998-01-01
Photoproduction of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs at small angles is investigated as a tool to determine the functions f{sub 1} and f{sub 2} entering the real-photon forward Compton scattering amplitude. The method is based on an interference of the Bethe-Heitler and the virtual Compton scattering mechanisms, generating an azimuthal asymmetry in the e{sup +} versus e{sup {minus}} yield. The general case of a circularly polarized beam and a longitudinally polarized target allows one to determine both the real and imaginary parts of f{sub 1} as well as f{sub 2}. The imaginary part of f{sub 2} requires target polarization only. We calculate cross sections and asymmetries of the reaction p({gamma},e{sup +}e{sup {minus}})p, estimate corrections and backgrounds, and propose suitable kinematical regions to perform the experiment. Our investigation shows that photoproduction of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-pairs off the proton and light nuclei may serve as a rather sensitive test of the validity of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.
2016-06-01
We consider the calculation of the pion-photon transition form factor Fγ*γπ0(Q2) within light-cone sum rules focusing attention to the low-mid region of momenta. The central aim is to estimate the theoretical uncertainties which originate from a wide variety of sources related to (i) the relevance of next-to-next-to-leading order radiative corrections (ii) the influence of the twist-four and the twist-six term (iii) the sensitivity of the results on auxiliary parameters, like the Borel scale M2, (iv) the role of the phenomenological description of resonances, and (v) the significance of a small but finite virtuality of the quasireal photon. Predictions for Fγ*γπ0(Q2) are presented which include all these uncertainties and found to comply within the margin of experimental error with the existing data in the Q2 range between 1 and 5 GeV2 , thus justifying the reliability of the applied calculational scheme. This provides a solid basis for confronting theoretical predictions with forthcoming data bearing small statistical errors.
Friedel oscillations at the surfaces of rhombohedral N -layer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutreix, C.; Katsnelson, M. I.
2016-01-01
The low-energy physics of rhombohedral N -layer graphene mainly arises on the external layers, where most of the π electrons are located. Their Bloch band structure defines a two-band semimetal; the dispersion relation scales as ±qN with the momentum norm q in the vicinity of two nonequivalent valleys. In this paper, we address the problem of elastic scattering through a localized impurity located either on the surface of the material or within the bulk, and focus on the quantum interferences it induces on the two external layers. It is apprehended in the framework of a T -matrix approach, both numerically and analytically, regardless of the impurity magnitude, which enables the description of realistic scatters. In rhombohedral multilayer graphene, the impurity induces Friedel oscillations that always decay as 1 /r . As a result, monolayer graphene is the only material of the rhombohedral class that exhibits 1 /r2 -decaying Friedel oscillations. The interference patterns are subsequently analyzed in momentum space. This analysis enables a clear distinction between monolayer graphene and multilayer graphene. It also shows that the interference pattern reveals the whole Bloch band structure, and highlights the number of layers stacked in the material, as well as the π -quantized Berry phases that characterize the existence of nodal points in the semimetallic spectrum. Experimentally, these features may be probed from scanning tunneling microscopy, when imaging the local density of states at the surfaces of suspended rhombohedral N -layer graphene.
Impurity scattering and Friedel oscillations in monolayer black phosphorus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Yong-Lian; Song, Juntao; Bai, Chunxu; Chang, Kai
2016-07-01
We study the impurity scattering effect in black phosphorene (BP) in this work. For a single impurity, we calculate the impurity-induced local density of states (LDOS) in momentum space numerically based on a tight-binding Hamiltonian. In real space, we calculate the LDOS and Friedel oscillation analytically. The LDOS shows strong anisotropy in BP. Many impurities in BP are investigated using the T -matrix approximation when the density is low. Midgap states appear in the band gap with peaks in the DOS. The peaks of midgap states are dependent on the impurity potential. For finite positive potential, the impurity tends to bind negative charge carriers and vice versa. The infinite-impurity-potential problem is related to chiral symmetry in BP.
Sundu, Hayriye; Bayar, Melahat; Azizi, Kazem
2010-12-22
The form factors of the semileptonic B{sub c{yields}}S(AV)l{nu} (l = {tau},{mu},e) transitions, where S and AV denote the scalar {Chi}{sub c0} and axial vector ({Chi}{sub c1},h{sub c}) mesons, are calculated within the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules. The results of form factors are used to estimate the total decay widths and branching ratios of these transitions. A comparison of our results on branching ratios with the predictions of other approaches is also presented.
Hypercrosslinked polymeric foams prepared by Friedel-Crafts polycondensation
Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Mitchell, M.A.; Apen, P.G.
1995-12-31
Porous materials are widely used in industry and government for chemical separations, processing and monitoring, environmental cleanup and remediation, energy efficiency, and conservation. Porous materials used in these applications include: foams, filters, membranes, absorbents, ion exchange resins, molecular sieves, zeolites, catalyst supports, sensors, and electrodes. Organic analogues to inorganic zeolites would be a significant step forward in engineered porous materials and would provide advantages in range, selectivity, tailorability and processing. A novel process for preparing hypercross linked polymeric foams has been developed via a Friedel-Crafts polycondensation reaction. A series of rigid hypercrosslinked foams have been prepared using simple rigid polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, biphenyl, mterphenyl, diphenylmethane, and polystyrene, with p-dichloroxylene as the crosslinking agent. After drying the gels, the resulting foams are robust and rigid; densities range from 0.3 to 0.g/cc. Nitrogen adsorption studies have shown that by judiciously selecting monomers and crosslinking agent along with the level of crosslinking, the pore size and distribution along with total surface area of the foam can be tailored. Surface areas range from 160 to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g with pore sizes ranging from 6{Angstrom} to 250{Angstrom}. Further evidence of this has been confirmed by high resolution TEM.
Gan Longfei; Huang Mingqiu
2010-09-01
We present an analysis of semileptonic decays of orbitally, P-wave excited B{sub s} meson states B{sub s}**, including the newly found narrow B{sub s1}(5830) and B{sub s2}*(5840) states, into low-lying D{sub s} mesons (D{sub s}(1968), D{sub s}*(2112), D{sub sJ}(2317), D{sub sJ}(2460)) within the framework of the heavy quark effective theory. The relevant universal form factors are estimated using QCD sum rules at the leading order of the heavy quark expansion. The decay widths are predicted and the branching ratios are estimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blümlein, Johannes; Falcioni, Giulio; De Freitas, Abilio
2016-09-01
We calculate analytically the flavor non-singlet O (αs2) massive Wilson coefficients for the inclusive neutral current non-singlet structure functions F1,2,Lep (x ,Q2) and g1,2ep (x ,Q2) and charged current non-singlet structure functions F1,2,3ν (ν bar) p (x ,Q2), at general virtualities Q2 in the deep-inelastic region. Numerical results are presented. We illustrate the transition from low to large virtualities for these observables, which may be contrasted to basic assumptions made in the so-called variable flavor number scheme. We also derive the corresponding results for the Adler sum rule, the unpolarized and polarized Bjorken sum rules and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule. There are no logarithmic corrections at large scales Q2 and the effects of the power corrections due to the heavy quark mass are of the size of the known O (αs4) corrections in the case of the sum rules. The complete charm and bottom corrections are compared to the approach using asymptotic representations in the region Q2 ≫mc,b2. We also study the target mass corrections to the above sum rules.
Djawotho, Pibero
2002-12-01
This dissertation presents results of experiment E94-010 performed at Jefferson Laboratory (simply known as JLab) in Hall A. The experiment aimed to measure the low Q^{2} evolution of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) integral from Q^{2} = 0.1 to 0.9 GeV^{2}. The GDH sum rule at the real photon point provides an important test of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The low Q^{2} evolution of the GDH integral contests various resonance models, Chiral Perturbation Theory ({chi} PT) and lattice QCD calculations, but more importantly, it helps us understand the transition between partonic and hadronic degrees of freedom. At high Q^{2}, beyond 1 GeV^{2}, the difference of the GDH integrals for the proton and the neutron is related to the Bjorken sum rule, another fundamental test of QCD. In addition, results of the measurements for the spin structure functions g_{1} and g_{2}, cross sections, and asymmetries are presented. E94-010 was the first experiment of its kind at JLab. It used a high-pressure, polarized ^{3}He target with a gas pressure of 10 atm and average target polarization of 35%. For the first time, the polarized electron source delivered an average beam polarization of 70% with a beam current of 15 micro A. The limit on the beam current was only imposed by the target. The experiment required six different beam energies from 0.86 to 5.1 GeV. This was the first time the accelerator ever reached 5.1 GeV. Both High-Resolution Spectrometers of Hall A, used in singles mode, were positioned at 15.5 ° each.
Condensed matter physics in the 21st century: The legacy of Jacques Friedel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchiat, Hélène; Villain, Jacques
2016-03-01
The purpose of this dossier of Comptes rendus Physique devoted to the memory of Jacques Friedel is to give a panorama of his exceptional and numerous contributions to modern condensed matter physics. Since it is not possible to cover all the domains he investigated in a single volume, we have selected only a limited number of topics. We have tried, when possible, to present a juxtaposition of articles written by his former students or colleagues with others written instead by younger researchers whose work is inspired by important concepts originating from the work of Jacques Friedel, but who may have never met him.
Huffman, John W.; Smith, Valerie J.; Padgett, Lea W.
2008-01-01
The Friedel-Crafts acylation of N-p-toluenesulfonylpyrrole under Friedel-Crafts conditions has been reinvestigated. Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that when AlCl3 is used as the Lewis acid, acylation proceeds via reaction of an organoaluminum intermediate with the acyl halide. This leads to the production of the 3-acyl derivative as the major product. With weaker Lewis acids (EtAlCl2, Et2AlCl) or less than one equivalent of AlCl3 the relative amount of 2-acyl product is increased. A mechanistic rationalization is presented to explain these data. PMID:19247425
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Using Elemental Aluminum Catalyst: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meeks, B. Spencer; Lucas, Anita R.
1989-01-01
Provides methodology for carrying out the synthesis of sec-butyltoluene by the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of toluene. Suggests using simple elemental aluminum as the catalyst in place of AlCl3 or amalgamated aluminum. Notes satisfactory results for both macro- and microscale operations. (MVL)
The longevity of Jacques Friedel's model of the virtual bound state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy, Peter M.; Fert, Albert
2016-03-01
We illustrate the continuing pertinence of Friedel's model of the virtual bound state to describe electron scattering in metals. This model has been applied to such disparate studies as the chirality of spin interactions in metals, and the spin Hall effect caused by scattering from impurities with spin-orbit coupling. xml:lang="fr"
Deciphering DNA-based asymmetric catalysis through intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylations.
Park, Soyoung; Ikehata, Keiichi; Watabe, Ryo; Hidaka, Yuta; Rajendran, Arivazhagan; Sugiyama, Hiroshi
2012-10-28
We describe asymmetric intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylations with a DNA-based hybrid catalyst and propose a plausible binding model. This study shows promise for studying relationships between the helical chirality of DNA and enantioselectivity of the chemical reaction. PMID:22986468
Zhang, J.-Z.; Dyson, A.; Ridley, B. K.
2015-01-14
Using the dielectric continuum (DC) and three-dimensional phonon (3DP) models, energy relaxation (ER) of the hot electrons in the quasi-two-dimensional channel of lattice-matched InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures is studied theoretically, taking into account non-equilibrium polar optical phonons, electron degeneracy, and screening from the mobile electrons. The electron power dissipation (PD) and ER time due to both half-space and interface phonons are calculated as functions of the electron temperature T{sub e} using a variety of phonon lifetime values from experiment, and then compared with those evaluated by the 3DP model. Thereby, particular attention is paid to examination of the 3DP model to use for the hot-electron relaxation study. The 3DP model yields very close results to the DC model: With no hot phonons or screening, the power loss calculated from the 3DP model is 5% smaller than the DC power dissipation, whereas slightly larger 3DP power loss (by less than 4% with a phonon lifetime from 0.1 to 1 ps) is obtained throughout the electron temperature range from room temperature to 2500 K after including both the hot-phonon effect (HPE) and screening. Very close results are obtained also for ER time with the two phonon models (within a 5% of deviation). However, the 3DP model is found to underestimate the HPE by 9%. The Mori-Ando sum rule is restored by which it is proved that the PD values obtained from the DC and 3DP models are in general different in the spontaneous phonon emission process, except when scattering with interface phonons is sufficiently weak, or when the degenerate modes condition is imposed, which is also consistent with Register's scattering rate sum rule. The discrepancy between the DC and 3DP results is found to be caused by how much the high-energy interface phonons contribute to the ER: their contribution is enhanced in the spontaneous emission process but is dramatically reduced after including the HPE. Our calculation with both
Yi, Qiru; Li, Gang; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Sheng Nian; Fan, Duan; Gao, Zhenhua; Wang, Yanping; Gao, Guanfeng; Jiang, Shiping; Jiang, Xiaoming
2015-07-01
The characteristics of Friedel pairs in diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) are studied in the condition that the rotation axis of the sample is not exactly perpendicular to the incident X-ray direction. For the rotation axis approximately aligned along the vertical direction, the Friedel pairs close to the horizontal plane are insensitive to the non-perpendicularity of the rotation axis, and can be used to refine the sample-to-detector distance and X-ray energy, while the Friedel pairs close to the vertical direction are sensitive to the non-perpendicularity of the rotation axis, and can be used to determine the rotation axis orientation. The correct matching proportion of Friedel pairs decreases with increasing non-perpendicularity of the rotation axis. A method of data processing considering rotation axis misalignment is proposed, which significantly increases the correct matching and indexing proportions of the diffraction spots. A pure aluminium polycrystalline sample is investigated using DCT at beamline 4W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Based on the analysis of Friedel pairs, the sample-to-detector distance and X-ray energy are refined to be 8.67 mm and 20.04 keV, respectively. The non-perpendicular angle of the rotation axis is calculated to be 0.10°. With these refined geometric parameters, the matching proportion of the spatial position of diffraction spots is 90.62%. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the sample with 13 grains is realised using the algebraic reconstruction technique. It is demonstrated that the precise correction of the orientation of the sample rotation axis is effective in DCT suffering from rotation axis misalignment, and the higher accuracy in determining the rotation axis is expected to improve the reconstruction precision of grains. PMID:26134812
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pong, Wai Yan
2007-01-01
We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.
Ghahramany, N.; Khosravi, R.
2009-07-01
We investigate the rare semileptonic decays B{sub s}{yields}[f{sub 0}(980),K{sub 0}*(1430)]l{sup +}l{sup -}, (l=e, {mu}, {tau}), and B{sub s}{yields}[f{sub 0}(980),K{sub 0}*(1430)]{nu}{nu} in the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules. These decays are important to study because the f{sub 0}(980) and K{sub 0}*(1430) are the scalar mesons with total spin 0 and even parity and the quark content of them are still controversial in high energy physics. These rare decays occur at loop level by electroweak penguin and weak box diagrams in the standard model via the flavor changing neutral current transitions of b{yields}d, s, and not allowed by tree level. Considering the effective contributions of the nonperturbative parts of the correlation function, we calculate the relevant form factors of these transitions. The branching fractions and longitudinal lepton polarization asymmetry are also investigated.
Experimental study of isovector spin sum rules
Alexandre Deur; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Donald Crabb; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Gail Dodge; Tony Forest; Keith Griffioen; Sebastian Kuhn; Ralph Minehart; Yelena Prok
2008-02-04
We present the Bjorken integral extracted from Jefferson Lab experiment EG1b for $0.05<2.92$ GeV$^2$. The integral is fit to extract the twist-4 element $f_{2}^{p-n}$ which is large and negative. Systematic studies of this higher twist analysis establish its legitimacy at $Q^{2}$ around 1 GeV$^{2}$. We also extracted the isovector part of the generalized forward spin polarizability $\\gamma_{0}$. Although this quantity provides a robust test of Chiral Perturbation Theory, our data disagree with the calculations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shi, Yixun
2010-01-01
Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…
Holler, Michel; Allenbach, Nicolas; Sonet, Jordan; Nierengarten, Jean-François
2012-03-01
Systematic investigations of the cyclooligomerization of 1,4-disubstituted hydroquinone derivatives under Friedel-Crafts conditions have been carried out to demonstrate that the formation of pillar[5]arenes occurs under thermodynamic control. PMID:22159430
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Cheng, Wei; Zhong, Tao
2016-08-01
We present a detailed calculation on the B\\to {K}* transition form factors (TFFs), {A}{0,1,2}, V and {T}{1,2,3}, within the QCD light-cone sum rules (LCSRs). To suppress the contributions from high-twist light-cone distribution amplitudes, we adopt a right-handed chiral correlator to do the LCSR calculation. In the resultant LCSRs for the TFFs, the transverse leading-twist distribution amplitude {φ }2;{K*}\\perp provides over 90% contribution, thus those TFFs provide good platforms for testing the property of {φ }2;{K*}\\perp . We suggest a model for {φ }2;{K*}\\perp , in which two parameters {B}2;{K*}\\perp and {C}2;{K*}\\perp dominantly control its longitudinal distribution. With a proper choice of {B}2;{K*}\\perp and {C}2;{K*}\\perp , our predictions on B\\to {K}* TFFs are consistent with those of lattice QCD predictions. As an application, we also calculate the branching fraction of the B-meson rare decay B\\to {K}*{μ }+{μ }-. The predicted differential branching fraction {{d}}{B}/{{d}}{q}2(B\\to {K}*{μ }+{μ }-) is consistent with the LHCb and Belle measurements within errors. After integrating over the allowable q 2-region, we get the branching fraction, {B}(B\\to {K}*{μ }+{μ }-)=≤ft({1.088}-0.205+0.261\\right)× {10}-6, where the errors are squared average of the mentioned error sources. When the precision of experimental measurements or the other source of theoretical uncertainties for this process have been further improved in the future, we may get a definite conclusion on the behavior of {φ }2;{K*}\\perp .
Jiang, Yonghai; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guangren; Hou, Hetian; Xi, Beidou; Xu, Yunfeng
2015-01-01
This research paper investigated a novel absorbent of calcium aluminate-rich cementitious materials (Friedel's salt adsorbent, FA) for aqueous hexavalent chromium (VI) removal. The adsorption kinetics showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of FA were 3.36, 14.66, and 26.17 mg/g when the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 10, 50, and 100 mg/L, respectively. The adsorption fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, suggesting the important roles of intercalation in the adsorption process with increasing Cr(VI) concentrations. This Friedel's salt adsorbent is suggested as an adaptive and effective adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal in contaminated groundwater. PMID:25798557
Naphthalene-based calixarenes: unusual regiochemistry of a Friedel-Crafts alkylation.
Shorthill, B J; Glass, T E
2001-02-22
[reaction: see text] In the pursuit of naphthalene-based calixarenes, a Friedel-Crafts alkylation with unusual regiochemistry was observed. Treatment of carbinol 14 with catalytic triflic acid was expected to produce calixarenes of the class represented by 16. Instead, the major product was cyclic trimer 15, in which alkylation of each naphthalene ring occurred at the electronically deactivated position. The structure of compound 15 was assigned by 2-D NMR studies. PMID:11178829
Lewis Acid Catalyzed Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Alkenes with Trifluoropyruvates.
Xiang, Bin; Xu, Teng-Fei; Wu, Liang; Liu, Ren-Rong; Gao, Jian-Rong; Jia, Yi-Xia
2016-05-01
A Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of styrenes with trifluoropyruvates has been developed, which delivered allylic alcohols in excellent yields (up to 98%) using the Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O/bipyridine complex as a catalyst. The asymmetric reaction was catalyzed by the chiral Cu(OTf)2/bisoxazoline complex to afford the corresponding chiral allylic alcohols bearing trifluoromethylated quaternary stereogenic centers in moderate enantioselectivities (up to 75% ee). PMID:27028539
Griffiths, Kieran; Kumar, Prashant; Akien, Geoffrey R; Chilton, Nicholas F; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Tizzard, Graham J; Coles, Simon J; Kostakis, George E
2016-06-14
A series of custom-designed, high yield, isoskeletal tetranuclear Zn/4f coordination clusters showing high efficiency as catalysts with low catalytic loadings in Friedel-Crafts alkylation are described for the first time. The possibility of altering the 4f centers in these catalysts without altering the core topology allows us to further confirm their stability via EPR and NMR, as well to gain insights into the plausible reaction mechanism, showcasing the usefulness of these bimetallic systems as catalysts. PMID:27248829
Aydin, C.; Yilmaz, A. H.; Bayar, M.
2010-05-01
We recalculated the coupling constants of {rho}({omega}){yields}{eta}{gamma} and {eta}{sup '{yields}{rho}}({omega}){gamma} decays especially with loop contributions in the case of axial-vector coupling in the method of QCD sum rules for dimension d=6. A comparison of our prediction on the coupling constants with the result obtained from analysis of the experimental data and calculations done before is performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monien, H.
2010-04-01
Gaussian quadrature is a well-known technique for numerical integration. Recently Gaussian quadrature with respect to discrete measures corresponding to finite sums has found some new interest. In this paper we apply these ideas to infinite sums in general and give an explicit construction for the weights and abscissae of Gaussian formulas. The abscissae of the Gaussian summation have a very interesting asymptotic distribution function with a kink singularity. We apply the Gaussian summation technique to two problems which have been discussed in the literature. We find that the Gaussian summation has a very rapid convergence rate for the Hardy-Littlewood sum for a large range of parameters.
Nakamura, Shuichi; Matsuda, Nazumi; Ohara, Mutsuyo
2016-07-01
Organocatalytic enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of cyclic ketimines with pyrroles or indoles were catalyzed by imidazoline/phosphoric acid catalysts. The reaction was applied to various 3H-indol-3-ones to afford products in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The chiral catalysts can be recovered by a single separation step using column chromatography and are reusable without further purification. Based on the experimental investigations, a possible transition state has been proposed to explain the origin of the asymmetric induction. PMID:27124556
Structure-property correlation study through sum-over-state approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, P. K.; Hatua, K.; Bansh, A. K.; Panja, N.; Ghanty, T. K.
2015-01-01
The use of Thomas Kuhn (TK) sum rule in the expanded sum-over-state (SOS) expression of hyperpolarizabilities leads to various relationships between different order of polarizabilities and ground state dipole moment etc.
Summing pressure compensation control
Myers, H.A.
1988-04-26
This patent describes a summing pressure compensator control for hydraulic loads with at least one of the hydraulic loads being a variable displacement motor having servo means for controlling the displacement thereof, first hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to the variable displacement motor to provide a first pressure signal, second hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to a second hydraulic load to provide a second pressure signal, summing means for receiving the first and second pressure signals and providing a control signal proportional to the sum of the first and second pressure signals, the control signal being applied to the servo means to increase the displacement of the variable displacement motor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, G.
1982-01-01
Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.
Probability density functions of the average and difference intensities of Friedel opposites.
Shmueli, U; Flack, H D
2010-11-01
Trigonometric series for the average (A) and difference (D) intensities of Friedel opposites were carefully rederived and were normalized to minimize their dependence on sin(theta)/lambda. Probability density functions (hereafter p.d.f.s) of these series were then derived by the Fourier method [Shmueli, Weiss, Kiefer & Wilson (1984). Acta Cryst. A40, 651-660] and their expressions, which admit any chemical composition of the unit-cell contents, were obtained for the space group P1. Histograms of A and D were then calculated for an assumed random-structure model and for 3135 Friedel pairs of a published solved crystal structure, and were compared with the p.d.f.s after the latter were scaled up to the histograms. Good agreement was obtained for the random-structure model and a qualitative one for the published solved structure. The results indicate that the residual discrepancy is mainly due to the presumed statistical independence of the p.d.f.'s characteristic function on the contributions of the interatomic vectors. PMID:20962376
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desgranges, Caroline; Huber, Landon; Delhommelle, Jerome
2016-07-01
We determine the impact of the Friedel oscillations on the phase behavior, critical properties, and thermodynamic contours in films [two dimensions (2 D )] and bulk phases [three dimensions (3 D )]. Using expanded Wang-Landau simulations, we calculate the grand-canonical partition function and, in turn, the thermodynamic properties of systems modeled with a linear combination of the Lennard-Jones and Dzugutov potentials, weighted by a parameter X (0
Environmentally benign Friedel-Crafts benzylation over nano-TiO2/SO4 2-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devi, Kalathiparambil RPS; Sreeja, Puthenveetil B.; Sugunan, Sankaran
2013-05-01
During the past decade, much attention has been paid to the replacement of homogeneous catalysts by solid acid catalysts. Friedel-Crafts benzylation of toluene with benzyl chloride (BC) in liquid phase was carried out over highly active, nano-crystalline sulfated titania systems. These catalysts were prepared using the sol gel method. Modification was done by loading 3% of transition metal oxides over sulfated titania. Reaction parameters such as catalyst mass, molar ratio, temperature, and time have been studied. More than 80% conversion of benzyl chloride and 100% selectivity are shown by all the catalysts under optimum conditions. Catalytic activity is correlated with Lewis acidity obtained from perylene adsorption studies. The reaction appears to proceed by an electrophile, which involves the reaction of BC with the acidic titania catalyst. The catalyst was regenerated and reused up to four reaction cycles with equal efficiency as in the first run. The prepared systems are environmentally friendly and are easy to handle.
Pecchioli, Tommaso; Muthyala, Manoj Kumar; Haag, Rainer; Christmann, Mathias
2015-01-01
The first immobilization of a MacMillan's first generation organocatalyst onto dendritic support is described. A modified tyrosine-based imidazolidin-4-one was grafted to a soluble high-loading hyperbranched polyglycerol via a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction and readily purified by dialysis. The efficiency of differently functionalized multivalent organocatalysts 4a-c was tested in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of N-methylpyrrole with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. A variety of substituted enals was investigated to explore the activity of the catalytic system which was also compared with monovalent analogues. The catalyst 4b showed excellent turnover rates and no loss of activity due to immobilization, albeit moderate enantioselectivities were observed. Moreover, easy recovery by selective precipitation allowed the reuse of the catalyst for three cycles. PMID:26150897
Friedel's salt formation in sulfoaluminate cements: A combined XRD and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR study
Paul, G.; Boccaleri, E.; Buzzi, L.; Canonico, F.; Gastaldi, D.
2015-01-15
Four different binders based on calcium sulfoaluminate cements have been submitted to accelerated chlorination through ionic exchange on hydrated pastes, in order to investigate their ability to chemically bind chloride ions that might reduce chloride penetration. The composition of hydrated cements before and after the treatment was evaluated by means of an X-Ray Diffraction–{sup 27}Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy combined study, allowing to take into account even partially amorphous phases and to make quantitative assumption on the relative abundance of the different aluminium-containing phases. It was found that low SO{sub 3} Sulfoaluminate–Portland ternary systems are the most effective in binding chloride ions and the active role played by different members of the AFm family in chloride uptake was confirmed. Moreover, a peculiar behavior related to the formation of Friedel's salt in different pH conditions was also established for the different cements.
Strong Quantum Size Effects in Pb(111) Thin Films Mediated by Anomalous Friedel Oscillations
Jia, Yu; Wu, Biao; Li, Chong; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Weitering, Hanno; Zhang, Zhenyu
2010-01-01
Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we study Friedel oscillations (FOs) in the electron density at different metal surfaces and their influence on the lattice relaxation and stability of ultrathin metal films.We show that the FOs at the Pb(111) surface decay as 1=x with the distance x from the surface, different from the conventional 1=x2 power law at other metal surfaces. The underlying physical reason for this striking difference is tied to the strong nesting of the two different Fermi sheets along the Pb(111) direction. The interference of the strong FOs emanating from the two surfaces of a Pb(111) film, in turn, not only results in superoscillatory interlayer relaxations around the center of the film, but also determines its stability in the quantum regime. As a simple and generic picture, the present findings also explain why quantum size effects are exceptionally robust in Pb(111) films.
Friedel oscillations in graphene-based systems probed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallet, Pierre; Brihuega, Iván; Cherkez, Vladimir; Gómez-Rodríguez, Jose Marìa; Veuillen, Jean-Yves
2016-03-01
For the last 25 years, scientists have demonstrated the capabilities of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) to visualize in real space the response of a two-dimensional electron gas to atomic-scale impurities. The analysis of the Friedel oscillations surrounding the impurities yields valuable information regarding the elastic scattering properties, the band structure, the doping level and the symmetry of the electronic states in the two-dimensional host system. We will address in this article the use of this technique for probing the electronic properties of graphene, the star two-dimensional compound of the last decade. In particular, we will emphasize how this technique can be pushed up to unravel the electronic pseudospin, a distinctive degree of freedom of graphene's Dirac fermions. xml:lang="fr"
Counting Triangles to Sum Squares
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMaio, Joe
2012-01-01
Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.
Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim
2014-01-01
In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an NP-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem. PMID:25844012
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeTemple, Duane
2010-01-01
Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…
Anisotropic density fluctuations, plasmons, and Friedel oscillations in nodal line semimetal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Yong Baek
2016-04-01
Motivated by recent experimental efforts on three-dimensional semimetals, we investigate the static and dynamic density response of the nodal line semimetal by computing the polarizability for both undoped and doped cases. The nodal line semimetal in the absence of doping is characterized by a ring-shape zero energy contour in momentum space, which may be considered as a collection of Dirac points. In the doped case, the Fermi surface has a torus shape and two independent processes of the momentum transfer contribute to the singular features of the polarizability even though we only have a single Fermi surface. In the static limit, there exist two independent singularities in the second derivative of the static polarizability. This results in the highly anisotropic Friedel oscillations which show the angle-dependent algebraic power law and the beat phenomena in the oscillatory electron density near a charged impurity. Furthermore, the dynamical polarizability has two singular lines along {\\hslash }ω =γ p and {\\hslash }ω =γ p{sin}η , where η is the angle between the external momentum {p} and the plane where the nodal ring lies. From the dynamical polarizability, we obtain the plasmon modes in the doped case, which show anisotropic dispersions and angle-dependent plasma frequencies. Qualitative differences between the low and high doping regimes are discussed in light of future experiments.
Friedel oscillation near a van Hove singularity in two-dimensional Dirac materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Chi-Ken
2016-02-01
We consider Friedel oscillation in the two-dimensional Dirac materials when the Fermi level is near the van Hove singularity. Twisted graphene bilayer and the surface state of topological crystalline insulator are the representative materials which show low-energy saddle points that are feasible to probe by gating. We approximate the Fermi surface near saddle point with a hyperbola and calculate the static Lindhard response function. Employing a theorem of Lighthill, the induced charge density δ n due to an impurity is obtained and the algebraic decay of δ n is determined by the singularity of the static response function. Although a hyperbolic Fermi surface is rather different from a circular one, the static Lindhard response function in the present case shows a singularity similar with the response function associated with circular Fermi surface, which leads to the δ n\\propto {{R}-2} at large distance R. The dependences of charge density on the Fermi energy are different. Consequently, it is possible to observe in twisted graphene bilayer the evolution that δ n\\propto {{R}-3} near Dirac point changes to δ n\\propto {{R}-2} above the saddle point. Measurements using scanning tunnelling microscopy around the impurity sites could verify the prediction.
Test kit/spectrometer for the analysis of petroleum substances using Friedel-Crafts colorimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanby, John D.; Hewitt, Alan D.; Lory, Ernest E.
2001-02-01
12 Laboratory and field results of the testing of a new, visible-range spectrometry utilizing the robust signals produced by Friedel-Crafts reaction compounds demonstrate the utility of a rapid, portable, and sensitive method of on-site analysis for petroleum substances in soil and water samples. Preliminary testing of the kits and spectrometer was performed at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH. Specific field protocols for the sampling and handling of soils for gasoline range organics and diesel range organics were established for the field sampling, which was conducted at the U.S. Navy Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, CA. Co-located soil samples were collected and either split or homogenized for subsequent partitioning to provide samples for the on-site analysis by the field kit/spectrometer technology and for later analysis by off- site reference laboratories. Test kit colorimetric results are by visual and spectrometric methods, and are compared with reference laboratory results and CRREL analyses.
Friedel oscillation near a van Hove singularity in two-dimensional Dirac materials.
Lu, Chi-Ken
2016-02-17
We consider Friedel oscillation in the two-dimensional Dirac materials when the Fermi level is near the van Hove singularity. Twisted graphene bilayer and the surface state of topological crystalline insulator are the representative materials which show low-energy saddle points that are feasible to probe by gating. We approximate the Fermi surface near saddle point with a hyperbola and calculate the static Lindhard response function. Employing a theorem of Lighthill, the induced charge density [Formula: see text] due to an impurity is obtained and the algebraic decay of [Formula: see text] is determined by the singularity of the static response function. Although a hyperbolic Fermi surface is rather different from a circular one, the static Lindhard response function in the present case shows a singularity similar with the response function associated with circular Fermi surface, which leads to the [Formula: see text] at large distance R. The dependences of charge density on the Fermi energy are different. Consequently, it is possible to observe in twisted graphene bilayer the evolution that [Formula: see text] near Dirac point changes to [Formula: see text] above the saddle point. Measurements using scanning tunnelling microscopy around the impurity sites could verify the prediction. PMID:26795372
On exponential sums of digital sums related to Gelfond's theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okada, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Zenji; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Shiota, Yasunobu
2008-01-01
In this paper, we first give explicit formulas of exponential sums of sum of digits related to Gelfond's theorem. As an application of these formulas, we obtain a simple expression of Newman-Coquet type summation formula related to the number of binary digits in a multiple of a prime number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bréchet, Yves
2016-03-01
Jacques Friedel's contribution to the theory of plasticity is described, as well as the more recent developments it inspired. It involves the microscopic properties of dislocations as well as macroscopic effects. The evolution of fundamental metallurgy toward numerical metallurgy is discussed, and Friedel's point of view on numerical methods is analyzed.
Fisher, D.; Melamed, E.
1995-07-01
NThis report is a transcript of an interview with Hymer L. Friedell by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Friedell was selected for this interview because of his participation in the early stages of the medical use of radioisotopes, his important role in the Manhattan Engineer District Medical Division, and his distinguished medical career and his involvement in the distribution of isotopes and the approval for their use in humans. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Friedell discusses his remembrances on a wide range of subjects. Topics discussed include pre-war radiation therapy, information provided to patients, the Army Medical Corps and the Manhattan Project, his work at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, inspection visits of Manhattan Project facilities and proposed sites, Plutonium injection studies, and actions of the AEC Isotope Distribution Committee.
Ranjbar, Sara; Riente, Paola; Rodríguez-Escrich, Carles; Yadav, Jagjit; Ramineni, Kishore; Pericàs, Miquel A
2016-04-01
Heterogenized versions of the second-generation MacMillan imidazolidin-4-one are described for the first time. This versatile organocatalyst has been supported on 1% DVB Merrifield resin and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles through a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The resulting catalytic materials have been successfully applied to the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. While both catalytic systems can be easily recovered and admit repeated recycling, the polystyrene-based catalyst shows higher stability and provides better stereoselectivities. PMID:27010999
Doan, Tan L H; Dao, Thong Q; Tran, Hai N; Tran, Phuong H; Le, Thach N
2016-05-01
A zirconium-based metal-organic framework, an effective heterogeneous catalyst, has been developed for the Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of aromatic compounds under microwave irradiation. Constructed by a Zr(iv) cluster and a linker 1,4-bis(2-[4-carboxyphenyl]ethynyl)benzene (H2CPEB), the MOF, possessing large pores and high chemical stability, was appropriate for the enhancement of Lewis acid activity under microwave irradiation. The reaction studies demonstrated that the material could give high yields for a few minutes and maintain its reactivity and structure over several cycles. PMID:27064371
Liu, Yongmei; Meng, Guangrong; Liu, Ruzhang; Szostak, Michal
2016-05-21
Highly chemoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation with twisted amides under mild conditions is reported for the first time. The reaction shows high functional group tolerance, obviating the need for preformed sensitive organometallic reagents and expensive transition metal catalysts. The high reactivity of amides is switched on by ground-state steric distortion to disrupt the amide bond nN→πCO* resonance as a critical design feature. Conceptually, this new acid-promoted mechanism of twisted amides provides direct access to bench-stable acylating reagents under mild, metal-free conditions. PMID:27139813
Bao, Xiaoze; Wang, Baomin; Cui, Longchen; Zhu, Guodong; He, Yuli; Qu, Jingping; Song, Yuming
2015-11-01
A highly efficient and practical one-pot sequential process, consisting of an organocatalytic enantioselective Friedel-Crafts-type addition of 4-nonsubstituted pyrazolones to isatin-derived N-Boc ketimines and a subsequent diastereoselective fluorination of the pyrazolone moiety, is developed. This reaction sequence delivers novel oxindole-pyrazolone adducts featuring vicinal tetrasubstituted stereocenters with a 0.5 mol % catalyst loading in high yield with excellent enantio- and diastereocontrol. Notably, chloro, bromo, and thioether functionalities can be readily incorporated, rendering a broad diversity of the product. PMID:26473513
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammar, Muhammad; Jiang, Sai; Ji, Shengfu
2016-01-01
A new strategy has been developed for the encapsulation of the phosphotungstic heteropoly acid (H3PW12O40 denoted as PTA) into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage and the PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts with different PTA content were prepared. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FT-IR, ICP-AES and TG. The catalytic activity and recovery properties of the catalysts for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride were evaluated. The results showed that 14.6-31.7 wt% PTA were encapsulated in the ZIF-67 cage. The PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts had good catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation. The conversion of anisole can reach ~100% and the selectivity of the production can reach ~94% over 26.5 wt% PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalyst under the reaction condition of 120 °C and 6 h. After reaction, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by the centrifugation. The recovered catalyst can be reused five times and the selectivity can be kept over 90%.
Compressibility sum rule for the two-dimensional electron gas.
Das, M P; Golden, K I; Green, F
2001-07-01
The authors establish formulas for the isothermal compressibility and long-wavelength static density-density response function of a weakly correlated two-dimensional electron gas in the 1
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dintzner, Matthew R.; Maresh, Justin J.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Arena, Anthony F.; Speltz, Thomas
2012-01-01
Students in the undergraduate organic laboratory synthesize tetrahydro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-phenyl-2"H"-pyran via the Montmorillonite K10 clay-catalyzed reaction of p-nitrobenzaldehye with methanol, 3-buten-1-ol, and benzene. The synthesis comprises an environmentally friendly tandem Prins-Friedel-Crafts-type multicomponent reaction (MCR) and sets…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
1997-01-01
Presents an exercise suitable for beginning calculus students that may give insight into series representations and allow students to see some elementary application of these representations. The Fourier series is used to approximate by taking sums of trigonometric functions of the form sin(ns) and cos(nx) for n is greater than or = zero. (PVD)
Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thaheem, A. B.
2005-01-01
Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…
Burke, Sarah J.; Mehta, Sharan K.; Appenteng, Roselyn
2015-01-01
Due to the profound extent to which natural products inspire medicinal chemists in drug discovery, there is demand for innovative syntheses of these often complex materials. This article describes the synthesis of tricarbocyclic natural product architectures through an extension of the enantioselective Birch-Cope sequence with intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Additionally, palladium-catalyzed enol silane cycloalkenylation of the tricarbocyclic structures afforded the challenging bicyclo[3.2.1]octane C/D ring system found in the gibberellins and the ent-kauranes, two natural products with diverse medicinal value. In the case of the ent-kaurane derivative, an unprecedented alkene rearrangement converted four alkene isomers to one final product. PMID:25598198
Hossini, Issam; Harrad, Mohamed Anoir; Ait Ali, Mustapha; El Firdoussi, Larbi; Karim, Abdallah; Valerga, Pedro; Puerta, M Carmen
2011-01-01
Friedel-Craft acylation at 100 °C of 2,5,9,9-tetramethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene [ar-himachalene], a sesquiterpenic hydrocarbon obtained by catalytic dehydrogenation of α-, β- and γ-himachalenes, produces a mixture of two compounds: (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-2-yl)-ethanone (2, in 69% yield), with a conserved reactant backbone, and 3, with a different skeleton, in 21% yield. The crystal structure of 3 reveals it to be 1-(8-ethyl-8-hydroperoxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)-ethanone. In this compound O-H…O bonds form dimers. These hydrogen-bonds, in conjunction with weaker C-H…O interactions, form a more extended supramolecular arrangement in the crystal. PMID:21760570
Wang, Wentao; Liu, Xiaohua; Cao, Weidi; Wang, Jun; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming
2010-02-01
A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts (F-C) alkylation of indoles and pyrrole with chalcone derivatives catalyzed by a chiral N,N'-dioxide-Sc(OTf)(3) complex has been developed that tolerates a wide range of substrates. The reaction proceeds in moderate to excellent yields and high enantioselectivities (85-92 % enantiomeric excess) using 2 mol % (for indole) or 0.5 mol % (for pyrrole) catalyst loading, which showed the potential value of the catalyst system. Meanwhile, a strong positive nonlinear effect was observed. On the basis of the experimental results and previous reports, a possible working model is proposed to explain the origin of the activation and asymmetric induction. PMID:20013964
Robust adiabatic sum frequency conversion.
Suchowski, Haim; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2009-07-20
We discuss theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the robustness of the adiabatic sum frequency conversion method. This technique, borrowed from an analogous scheme of robust population transfer in atomic physics and nuclear magnetic resonance, enables the achievement of nearly full frequency conversion in a sum frequency generation process for a bandwidth up to two orders of magnitude wider than in conventional conversion schemes. We show that this scheme is robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and of the incoming light. These include the crystal temperature, the frequency of the incoming field, the pump intensity, the crystal length and the angle of incidence. Also, we show that this extremely broad bandwidth can be tuned to higher or lower central wavelengths by changing either the pump frequency or the crystal temperature. The detailed study of the properties of this converter is done using the Landau-Zener theory dealing with the adiabatic transitions in two level systems. PMID:19654679
Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings
Bardakci, Korkut
2006-02-16
In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhrem, Irena S.; Orlinkov, Alexander V.; Vol'pin, Mark E.
1996-10-01
The results of studies on direct functionalisation of activated alkanes and cycloalkanes under the action of 'classical' Friedel-Crafts complexes (viz. equimolar complexes of acyl halides with aluminium halides) and related systems containing smaller or somewhat larger amounts of aluminium halide are surveyed. The studies carried out during the last decade on functionalisation of saturated hydrocarbons devoid of tertiary carbon atoms, by aprotic organic superacids RCOX . 2AlCl3 are summarised. Reactions of alkanes with acylium cations in superacidic media are considered. The published data on the structure of complexes RCOX . AlCl3 and RCOX . 2AlCl3 and on the nature of the active complexes in the reactions of arenes with acylium cations and with complexes RCOX . AlCl3 in both acidic and organic media as well as in the reactions of alkanes with acylium salts in protic superacids and with superacidic complexes RCOX . 2AlCl3 in aprotic solvents are analysed. The prospects for the synthesis of organic compounds from alkanes and cycloalkanes under the action of complexes of acyl halides with aluminium halides are outlined. The bibliography includes 128 references.
Rosana, Michael R; Hunt, Jacob; Ferrari, Anthony; Southworth, Taylor A; Tao, Yuchuan; Stiegman, Albert E; Dudley, Gregory B
2014-08-15
Thermally promoted Friedel-Crafts benzylation of arene solvents has been examined under both conventional convective heating with an oil bath and heating using microwave (MW) energy. Bulk solution temperatures-as measured by internal and external temperature probes and as defined by solvent reflux-were comparable in both sets of experiments. MW-specific rate enhancements were documented under certain conditions and not others. The observed rate enhancements at a given temperature are proposed to arise from selective MW heating of polar solutes, perturbing thermal equilibrium between the solute and bulk solution. Central to MW-specific thermal phenomena is the difference between heat and temperature. Temperature is a measure of the ensemble average kinetic molecular energy of all solution components, but temperature does not provide information about solute-specific energy differences that may arise as a consequence of selective MW heating. Enhanced chemical reactivity of the MW-absorbing solute can be described as a MW-specific "extra-temperature thermal effect", because the measurable solution temperature only captures a portion of the solute kinetic molecular energy. Experimental factors that favor MW-specific rate enhancements are discussed with an eye toward future development of MW-actuated organic reactions, in which the observed thermal reactivity exceeds what is predicted from temperature-based Arrhenius calculations. PMID:25050855
Méndez, Isabel; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Polo, Víctor; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Lahoz, Fernando J; García-Orduña, Pilar; Carmona, Daniel
2016-07-25
By changing the temperature from 283 to 233 K, the S (99 % ee) or R (96 % ee) enantiomer of the Friedel-Crafts (FC) adduct of the reaction between N-methyl-2-methylindole and trans-β-nitrostyrene can be obtained by using (SRh ,RC )-[(η(5) -C5 Me5 )Rh{(R)-Prophos}(H2 O)][SbF6 ]2 as the catalyst precursor. This catalytic system presents two other uncommon features: 1) The ee changes with reaction time showing trends that depend on the reaction temperature and 2) an increase in the catalyst loading results in a decrease in the ee of the S enantiomer. Detection and characterization of the intermediate metal-nitroalkene and metal-aci-nitro complexes, the free aci-nitro compound, and the FC adduct-complex, together with solution NMR measurements, theoretical calculations, and kinetic studies have allowed us to propose two plausible alternative catalytic cycles. On the basis of these cycles, all the above-mentioned observations can be rationalized. In particular, the reversibility of one of the cycles together with the kinetic resolution of the intermediate aci-nitro complexes account for the high ee values achieved in both antipodes. On the other hand, the results of kinetic measurements explain the unusual effect of the increment in catalyst loading. PMID:27345293
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Urbasi
2011-09-01
This paper is based on work published in [1]. It describes a triple slit experiment using single photons that has been used to provide a bound on one of the most fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics i.e. Born's rule for probabilities [2]. In spite of being one of the most successful theories which describes various natural phenomena, quantum mechanics has enough intricacies and "weirdness" associated with it which makes many physicists believe that it may not be the final theory and hints towards the possibility of more generalized versions. Quantum interference as shown by a double slit diffraction experiment only occurs from pairs of paths. Even in multi-slit versions, interference can only occur between pairs of possibilities and increasing the number of slits does not increase the complexity of the theory that still remains second-order. However, more generalized versions of quantum mechanics may allow for multi-path i.e. higher than second order interference. This experiment also provides a bound on the magnitude of such higher order interference. We have been able to bound the magnitude of three-path interference to less than 10-2 of the expected two-path interference, thus ruling out third and higher order interference and providing a bound on the accuracy of Born's rule.
Fundamentals of Sum-Frequency Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Y. R.
2016-02-01
1. Historical perspective; 2. Basics of nonlinear optics; 3. Basic theory for surface sum-frequency generation; 4. Experimental considerations; 5. Characterization of bulk materials; 6. Molecular adsorbates at interfaces; 7. Structures and properties of solid surfaces; 8. Interfacial liquid structures; 9. Interfaces of polymers and organic materials; 10. Biomolecules and biological interfaces; 11. Sum-frequency chiral spectroscopy; 12. Miscellaneous topics.
Where Does Latin "Sum" Come From?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyman, Martti A.
1977-01-01
The derivation of Latin "sum,""es(s),""est" from Indo-European "esmi,""est,""esti" involves methodological problems. It is claimed here that the development of "sum" from "esmi" is related to the origin of the variation "est-st" (less than"esti"). The study is primarily concerned with this process, but chronological suggestions are also made. (CHK)
Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Timothy R.
2013-01-01
One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…
Fouvry, Étienne; Kowalski, Emmanuel; Michel, Philippe
2015-01-01
We give a general version of cancellation in exponential sums that arise as sums of products of trace functions satisfying a suitable independence condition related to the Goursat–Kolchin–Ribet criterion, in a form that is easily applicable in analytic number theory. PMID:25802414
García-García, Carolina; Ortiz-Rojano, Laura; Álvarez, Susana; Álvarez, Rosana; Ribagorda, María; Carreño, M Carmen
2016-05-01
Lewis acid catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles has been achieved in high yields and selectivities using p-quinols as electrophiles. (S)-Binol-3,3'-(9-anthracenyl)-phosphoric acid was able to catalyze the enantioselective formation of 5-(3-indole)-2-cyclohexenone derivatives. Experimental results and theoretical calculations explained the enantioselectivity based on a transition state where two water molecules act as a tether joining the p-quinol with the phosphoric acid and the NH of indole, thus facilitating the desymmetrization of the prochiral cyclohexadienone framework. PMID:27088217
Reddy, B V Subba; Reddy, Y Vikram; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar
2016-01-21
2-Furylcarbinols undergo a smooth aza-Piancatelli rearrangement followed by Friedel-Crafts alkylation with a bifunctional substrate, (1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline, in the presence of 10 mol% In(OTf)3 in acetonitrile at room temperature to afford the corresponding hexahydrobenzo[b]cyclopenta[f]pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,4]diazepin-11(4aH)-one scaffolds in good yields. This method offers significant advantages such as high conversions, mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, and high selectivity. The relative stereochemistry of the product was established by nOe studies. PMID:26646535
Sums-of-Products and Subproblem Independence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stearns, Richard E.; Hunt, Harry B.
Sums-of-products provide a basis for describing certain computational problems, particularly problems related to constraint satisfaction including SAT, MAX SAT, and #SAT. They also can be used to describe many problems arising from graph theory. By modeling a problem as a sum-of-products problem, the concept of “subproblem independence” takes on a clear meaning. Subproblem independence has immediate computational implications since it can be used to create programs with reduced levels of nesting and programs which exploit memoization. The concept of subproblem independence also extends to quantified sums.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuetz, W.; Heuler, P.
1994-03-01
In the first sections, the requirements to be met by hypotheses for fatigue life prediction (including those for the crack initiation and crack propagation phases) are discussed in detail. These requirements are shown to be different for 'scientific' and for 'industrial' fatigue life prediction. Aspects with regard to an assessment of fatigue life prediction hypotheses are discussed. The last section presents the results of a large cooperative program between IABG and several automobile manufacturers, in which Miner's Rule in several versions was assessed against spectrum tests with five different actual automobile components: forged steel stub axle; forged steel stub axle, induction hardened; sheet steel welded rear axle (front wheel drive car); cast aluminum wheel; and welded sheet steel wheel. Since up to 80 components each were available, and two different, but typical, automotive stress-time histories were employed, the assessment was very thorough, avoiding many of the drawbacks of previous assessments. It is shown that damage sums to failure were usually far below 1.0; they also depended on the component in question, the aluminum wheel resulting in the lowest damage sums to failure; the damage sums to failure where always lower for a mild spectrum than for a severe one; and the influence of spectrum variation was predicted best - among the hypotheses tested - by use of a recent proposal of Zenner and Liu.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2015-10-06
This code is a set of global sums to support the paper "Computational Reproducibility for Production Physics Applications" submitted to the Numerical Reproducibility at Exascale (NRE 2015) workshop at the 2015 Supercomputing conference, Nov. 20, 2015
Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Willie
1992-01-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höppner, Frank
Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.
Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance
Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.
1993-06-01
The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, {nu}{sub x} + 2{nu}{sub z} = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 {mu}s was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J{sub x} and J{sub z}, was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region.
Z-Sum approach to loop integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rottmann, Paulo A.
We study the applicability of the Z-Sum approach to multi-loop calculations with massive particles in perturbative quantum field theory. We systematically analyze the case of one-loop scalar integrals, which represent the building blocks of any higher-loop calculation. We focus in particular on triangle one-loop integrals and identify strengths and limitations of the Z-Sum approach, extending our results to the case of one-loop box integrals when appropriate. We conclude with the calculation of a specific physical example: the calculation of heavy flavor corrections to the renormalized scattering amplitude for deep inelastic scattering.
Thermal operator representation for Matsubara sums
Espinosa, Olivier
2005-03-15
We prove in full generality the thermal operator representation for Matsubara sums in a relativistic field theory of scalar and fermionic particles. It states that the full result of performing the Matsubara sum associated to any given Feynman graph, in the imaginary-time formalism of finite-temperature field theory, can be directly obtained from its corresponding zero-temperature energy integral, by means of a simple linear operator, which is independent of the external Euclidean energies and whose form depends solely on the topology of the graph.
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... i -1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... i -1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
The Visual Interactive Computer-Aided Approach to Teaching Zero-Sum/Nonzero-Sum Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shim, J. P.
1988-01-01
Discusses the use of the microcomputer as an instructional tool in the domain of competitive decision making. Describes how visual interactive zero-sum/nonzero-sum games can be useful in teaching this subject. Compares student performances based on the visual interactive approach to those of traditional approaches. (GEA)
Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spivey, Michael
2006-01-01
We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
20 CFR 225.26 - Residual Lump-Sum PIA.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... Lump-Sum Payable § 225.26 Residual Lump-Sum PIA. The Residual Lump-Sum PIA (RLS PIA) is used to compute... determining the amount of the residual lump-sum payable, as explained in part 234 of this chapter. The RLS PIA.... The RLS PIA is computed just like the retirement Tier I PIA described in subpart B of this...
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation
Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.
1990-01-01
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.
Sum Product Networks for Activity Recognition.
Amer, Mohamed R; Todorovic, Sinisa
2016-04-01
This paper addresses detection and localization of human activities in videos. We focus on activities that may have variable spatiotemporal arrangements of parts, and numbers of actors. Such activities are represented by a sum-product network (SPN). A product node in SPN represents a particular arrangement of parts, and a sum node represents alternative arrangements. The sums and products are hierarchically organized, and grounded onto space-time windows covering the video. The windows provide evidence about the activity classes based on the Counting Grid (CG) model of visual words. This evidence is propagated bottom-up and top-down to parse the SPN graph for the explanation of the video. The node connectivity and model parameters of SPN and CG are jointly learned under two settings, weakly supervised, and supervised. For evaluation, we use our new Volleyball dataset, along with the benchmark datasets VIRAT, UT-Interactions, KTH, and TRECVID MED 2011. Our video classification and activity localization are superior to those of the state of the art on these datasets. PMID:26390445
A 2-categorical state sum model
Baratin, Aristide; Freidel, Laurent
2015-01-15
It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027–2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov’s invariant of 4-manifolds.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Onorato, P.
2011-01-01
An introduction to quantum mechanics based on the sum-over-paths (SOP) method originated by Richard P. Feynman and developed by E. F. Taylor and coworkers is presented. The Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) semiclassical quantization rules are obtained following the SOP approach for bounded systems, and a general approach to the calculation of…
SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.
1993-01-01
Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.
SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.
1993-04-01
Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laupa, Marta; Becker, Joe
2004-01-01
Arithmetic algorithms include two types of rules: conventional rules that may be changed by authority, and may legitimately vary from one classroom or country to another (e.g. putting the sum below, rather than above, the numbers added) and logical rules that involve the logic of the algorithm. Changes in the logical rules produce incorrect…
Fast bilateral filtering using recursive moving sum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igarashi, Masaki; Ikebe, Masayuki; Shimoyama, Sohsuke; Motohisa, Junichi
We propose a constant-time algorithm for a bilateral filter. Bilateral filter can be converted into the operation of three-dimensional (3D) convolution. By using recursive moving sum, we can reduce the number of calculations needed to construct a pseudo-Gaussian filter. Applying one-dimensional Gaussian filter to the 3D convolution, we achieved a constant-time bilateral filter. We used a 3-GHz CPU without SIMD instructions, or multi-thread operations. We confirmed our proposed bilateral filter to be processed in constant time. In practical conditions, high PSNR values over 40 dB are obtained.
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to the starting value (“S”) for the specified CuSum plan. The CuSum value is then determined for each consecutive subgroup as follows: (1) Add the number of defects for the present subgroup to the CuSum value...
Sandzhieva, Maria A; Kazakova, Anna N; Boyarskaya, Irina A; Ivanov, Alexandr Yu; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Vasilyev, Aleksander V
2016-06-17
The formation of the corresponding benzyl cations [ArHC(+)-CH(X)CF3] takes place under protonation of E-/Z-2-halogeno-2-CF3 styrenes [ArCH═C(X)CF3, X = F, Cl, Br] in superacids. The structures of these new electrophiles were studied by means of NMR and theoretical DFT calculations. According to these data, in the case of bromo derivatives, the formed cations, most probably, exist as cyclic bromonium ions; however, in the cases of chloro and fluoro derivatives, open forms are more preferable. Subsequent reaction of these benzyl cations with arenes proceeds as Friedel-Crafts alkylation to afford 1,1-diaryl-2-halo-3,3,3-trifluoropropanes [Ar(Ar')CH-CH(X)CF3] in high yields (up to 96%) as a mixture of two diastereomers. The prepared halogenopropanes were easily converted into the corresponding mixtures of E-/Z-trifluoromethylated diarylethenes [Ar(Ar')C═CCF3] (in yields up to 96%) by dehydrohalogenation with base (KOH or t-BuOK). The mechanism of elimination (E2 and Ecb) depends on the nature of the leaving group and reaction conditions. PMID:27227747
Nia, Azadeh Hashem; Amini, Abbas; Taghavi, Sahar; Eshghi, Hossein; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad
2016-04-11
Low chemical reactivity of carbon nanotubes is one of the major obstacles in their functionalization via chemical reactions. As a non-destructive method, Friedel-Crafts acylation was suggested among the explored reactions for which only a few methods have been reported under harsh reaction conditions, e.g., high temperature all leading to low yields. In this study, we propose a novel method for the acylation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at a low temperature (i.e., 42°C), using SiO2-Al2O3 as a catalyst and 6-bromohexanoic acid as the acylating agent to produce high yield functionalized MWCNTs. After acylation, MWCNTs are conjugated with polyethylenimines (PEIs) with three molecular weights (1.8, 10 and 25kDa). Three different MWCNT-PEI conjugates are synthesized and evaluated for their condensation ability, viability, size and zeta potential properties. The transfection efficiency of the functionalized MWCNTs is evaluated using luciferase assay and flow cytometry in a Neuroblastoma cell line. MWCNT-PEI (10 kDa) conjugate shows the highest transfection efficacy compared to others. For this carrier transfection efficacy exceeds the amount of PEI 25 kDa at similar carrier to plasmid weight ratio (C/P) and is around 3 times higher compared to PEI 25 kDa at C/P=0.8 as positive control regarding its high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. PMID:26906459
Partial Row-Sums of Pascal's Triangle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ollerton, Richard L.
2007-01-01
Identities for many and varied combinations of binomial coefficients abound. Indeed, because of the wide range of interrelationships it is possible that a great deal of mathematical effort has been wasted in proving essentially equivalent formulae. As well as proving identities these methods can be used to rule out closed form solutions (at least…
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob
2005-01-01
Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies. PMID
Multifractal analyses of row sum signals of elementary cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murguía, J. S.; Rosu, H. C.
2012-07-01
We first apply the WT-MFDFA, MFDFA, and WTMM multifractal methods to binomial multifractal time series of three different binomial parameters and find that the WTMM method indicates an enhanced difference between the fractal components than the known theoretical result. Next, we make use of the same methods for the time series of the row sum signals of the two complementary ECA pairs of rules (90,165) and (150,105) for ten initial conditions going from a single 1 in the central position up to a set of ten 1's covering the ten central positions in the first row. Since the members of the pairs are actually similar from the statistical point of view, we can check which method is the most stable numerically by recording the differences provided by the methods between the two members of the pairs for various important quantities of the scaling analyses, such as the multifractal support, the most frequent Hölder exponent, and the Hurst exponent and considering as the better one the method that provides the minimum differences. According to this criterion, our results show that the MFDFA performs better than WT-MFDFA and WTMM in the case of the multifractal support, while for the other two scaling parameters the WT-MFDFA is the best. The employed set of initial conditions does not generate any specific trend in the values of the multifractal parameters.
Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenblatt, R. E.
2013-10-01
Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wermes, N.
2011-09-01
The Pixel 2010 conference focused on semiconductor pixel detectors for particle tracking/vertexing as well as for imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs. The big LHC hybrid pixel detectors have impressively started showing their capabilities. X-ray imaging detectors, also using the hybrid pixel technology, have greatly advanced the experimental possibilities for diffraction experiments. Monolithic or semi-monolithic devices like CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels have now reached a state such that complete vertex detectors for RHIC and superKEKB are being built with these technologies. Finally, new advances towards fully monolithic active pixel detectors, featuring full CMOS electronics merged with efficient signal charge collection, exploiting standard CMOS technologies, SOI and/or 3D integration, show the path for the future. This résumé attempts to extract the main statements of the results and developments presented at this conference.
Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration
Lehman, S K
2011-07-06
How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and
Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.
1997-01-01
The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.
Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides.
Carr, Joshua K; Wang, Lu; Roy, Santanu; Skinner, James L
2015-07-23
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called "chiral" SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore's orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677
Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides
2015-01-01
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called “chiral” SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore’s orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677
Multireflection sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.
Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Chen, Zhan
2015-08-18
We developed a multireflection data collection method in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, which we refer to as multireflection SFG, or MRSFG for short. To achieve MRSFG, a collinear laser beam propagation geometry was adopted and trapezoidal Dove prisms were used as sample substrates. An in-depth discussion on the signal and SNR in MRSFG was performed. We showed experimentally, with "m" total internal reflections in a Dove prism, MRSFG signal is ∼m times that of conventional SFG; SNR of the SFG signal-to-background is improved by a factor of >m(1/2) and
Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim; Khoshdoun, Maryam
2016-07-01
An efficient approach for the synthesis of novel alkyl 2,3-dihydro-3-oxo-1-aryl-1H-benzo[f]chromen-2-ylcarbamodithioates and alkyl 3,4-dihydro-2-oxo-4-aryl-2H-chromen-3-ylcarbamodithioates from 2-(alkylthio)thioazlactones (thioazlactones) and phenols or naphthols catalyzed by PTSA was developed. The reaction proceeds via a domino esterification/intramolecular 1,4-addition-type Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction to afford interesting complex molecules by a simple procedure with high yields and diastereoselectivity. An X-ray analysis was carried out to firmly establish the stereochemistry of the products. PMID:27310869
Sun, Denan; Li, Bijin; Lan, Jingbo; Huang, Quan; You, Jingsong
2016-03-01
Pd-Catalysed ortho-selective oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling of aromatic carboxylic acids with arenes and subsequent intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation has been accomplished for the first time through a chelation-assisted C-H activation strategy. Starting from the readily available substrates, a variety of fluorenone derivatives are obtained in one pot. The direct use of naturally occurring carboxylic acid functionalities as directing groups avoids unnecessary steps for installation and removal of an extra directing group. PMID:26861768
You, Yong; Cui, Bao-Dong; Zhou, Ming-Qiang; Zuo, Jian; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Wei-Cheng
2015-06-01
An efficient and unprecedented organocatalytic asymmetric reaction of 3-pyrrolyl-oxindoles with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to generate spirocyclic oxindole compounds was developed. The reactions were catalyzed by diphenylprolinol silyl ether and 2-fluorobenzoic acid via an asymmetric Michael/Friedel-Crafts cascade process, followed by dehydration with p-toluenesulfonic acid to afford a wide variety of structurally diverse spiro[5,6-dihydropyrido[1,2-a]pyrrole-3,3'-oxindole] derivatives in high yields (up to 93%) and with high to excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >99:1 dr and 97% ee). PMID:25984596
Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Costa-Quintana, J. )
1992-07-10
In this paper, the authors give a method for obtaining the renormalized electronic structure of the Hubbard systems. The first step is the determination of the self-energy beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. This self-energy is constructed from several dielectric response functions. The second step is the determination of the quasiparticle band structure calculation which is performed from an appropriate modification of the augmented plane wave method. The third step consists in the determination of the renormalized density of states deduced from the spectral functions. The analysis of the renormalized density of states of the strongly correlated systems leads to the conclusion that there exist three types of resonances in their electronic structures, the lower energy resonances (LER), the middle energy resonances (MER) and the upper energy resonances (UER). In addition, the authors analyze the conditions for which the Luttinger theorem is satisfied. All of these questions are determined in a characteristic example which allows to test the theoretical method.
Iterated binomial sums and their associated iterated integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; Raab, C. G.; Schneider, C.
2014-11-01
We consider finite iterated generalized harmonic sums weighted by the binomial binom{2k}{k} in numerators and denominators. A large class of these functions emerges in the calculation of massive Feynman diagrams with local operator insertions starting at 3-loop order in the coupling constant and extends the classes of the nested harmonic, generalized harmonic, and cyclotomic sums. The binomially weighted sums are associated by the Mellin transform to iterated integrals over square-root valued alphabets. The values of the sums for N → ∞ and the iterated integrals at x = 1 lead to new constants, extending the set of special numbers given by the multiple zeta values, the cyclotomic zeta values and special constants which emerge in the limit N → ∞ of generalized harmonic sums. We develop algorithms to obtain the Mellin representations of these sums in a systematic way. They are of importance for the derivation of the asymptotic expansion of these sums and their analytic continuation to N in {C}. The associated convolution relations are derived for real parameters and can therefore be used in a wider context, as, e.g., for multi-scale processes. We also derive algorithms to transform iterated integrals over root-valued alphabets into binomial sums. Using generating functions we study a few aspects of infinite (inverse) binomial sums.
29 CFR 4044.75 - Other lump sum benefits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF... sum benefits. The value of a lump sum benefit which is not covered under § 4044.73 or § 4044.74 is equal to— (a) The value under the qualifying bid, if an insurer provides the benefit; or (b) The...
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten; Blümlein, Johannes
2013-08-15
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.
College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.
2012-01-01
In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…
An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.
2013-01-01
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth…
Finding sums for an infinite class of alternating series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-07-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the following form ?
Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-01-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablinger, Jakob; Blümlein, Johannes; Schneider, Carsten
2013-08-01
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums
KALINICHEV,ANDREY G.; KIRKPATRICK,R. JAMES; CYGAN,RANDALL T
2000-01-17
The dynamical behavior of Cl{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O molecules in the interlayer and on the (001) surface of the Ca-aluminate hydrate hydrocalumite (Friedel's salt) over a range of temperatures from {minus}100 to 300 C is studied using the technique of isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics computer simulations. This phase is currently the best available model compound for other, typically more disordered, mixed-metal layered hydroxides. The computed crystallographic parameters and density are in good agreement with available X-ray diffraction data and the force field developed for these simulations preserves the structure and density to within less than 2% of their measured values. In contrast to the highly ordered arrangement of the interlayer water molecules interpreted from the X-ray data, the simulations reveal significant dynamic disorder in water orientations. At all simulated temperatures, the interlayer water molecules undergo rapid librations (hindered hopping rotations) around an axis essentially perpendicular to the layers. This results in breaking and reformation of hydrogen bonds with the neighboring Cl{sup {minus}} anions and in a time-averaged nearly uniaxial symmetry at Cl{sup {minus}}, in good agreement with recent {sup 35}Cl NMR measurements. Power spectra of translational, vibrational, and vibrational motions of interlayer and surface Cl{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O were calculated as Fourier transforms of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions and compared with the corresponding spectra and dynamics for a bulk aqueous solution. The ordered interlayer space has significant effects on the motions. Strong electrostatic attraction between interlayer water molecules and Ca atoms in the principal layer makes the Ca{hor_ellipsis}OH{sub 2} bond direction the preferred axis for interlayer water librations. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Cl{sup {minus}} as an outer-sphere surface complex is almost three times that of inner-sphere Cl
Some rules for polydimensional squeezing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, Vladimir I.
1994-01-01
The review of the following results is presented: For mixed state light of N-mode electromagnetic field described by Wigner function which has generic Gaussian form, the photon distribution function is obtained and expressed explicitly in terms of Hermite polynomials of 2N-variables. The momenta of this distribution are calculated and expressed as functions of matrix invariants of the dispersion matrix. The role of new uncertainty relation depending on photon state mixing parameter is elucidated. New sum rules for Hermite polynomials of several variables are found. The photon statistics of polymode even and odd coherent light and squeezed polymode Schroedinger cat light is given explicitly. Photon distribution for polymode squeezed number states expressed in terms of multivariable Hermite polynomials is discussed.
Trapezoidal rule quadrature algorithms for MIMD distributed memory computers
Lyness, J.N.; Plowman, S.E.
1994-08-01
An approach to multi-dimensional quadrature, designed to exploit parallel architectures, is described. This involves transforming the integral in such a way that an accurate result is given by the trapezoidal rule; and by evaluating the resulting sum in a manner which may be efficiently implemented on parallel architectures. This approach is to be implemented in the Liverpool NAG transputer library.
26 CFR 1.904(f)-12 - Transition rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... taxable years beginning before January 1, 1990, see 26 CFR 1.904 (f)-13T as it appeared in the Code of.... See 26 CFR 1.904(f)-12T(g) (revised as of April 1, 2009) for rules applicable to taxable years... subject to recapture since $200 (the sum of those amounts) is less than 50% of X's net foreign...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun
2008-01-01
The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;…
Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources
Meegan, Daniel V.
2010-01-01
Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed. PMID:21833251
Generalized sums over histories for quantum gravity (II). Simplicial conifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schleich, Kristin; Witt, Donald M.
1993-08-01
This paper examines the issues involved with concretely implementing a sum over conifolds in the formulation of euclidean sums over histories for gravity. The first step in precisely formulating any sum over topological spaces is that one must have an algorithmically implementable method of generating a list of all spaces in the set to be summed over. This requirement causes well known problems in the formulation of sums over manifolds in four or more dimensions; there is no algorithmic method of determining whether or not a topological space is an n-manifold in five or more dimensions and the issue of whether or not such an algorithm exists is open in four. However, as this paper shows, conifolds are algorithmically decidable in four dimensions. Thus the set of 4-conifolds provides a starting point for a concrete implementation of euclidean sums over histories in four dimensions. Explicit algorithms for summing over various sets of 4-conifolds are presented in the context of Regge calculus.
On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs
Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan
2015-01-01
For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095
FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude
2009-09-01
In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information ( e.g., particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via FeynRules translation interfaces. Such interfaces have been written for CalcHEP/CompHEP, FeynArts/FormCalc, MadGraph/MadEvent and Sherpa, making it possible to write a new model once and have it work in all of these programs. In this paper, we describe how to implement a new model, generate the Feynman rules, use a generic translation interface, and write a new translation interface. We also discuss the details of the FeynRules code.
Adiabatic and diabatic process of sum frequency conversion.
Liqing, Ren; Yongfang, Li; Baihong, Li; Lei, Wang; Zhaohua, Wang
2010-09-13
Based on the dressed state formalism, we obtain the adiabatic criterion of the sum frequency conversion. We show that this constraint restricts the energy conversion between the two dressed fields, which are superpositions of the signal field and the sum frequency field. We also show that the evolution of the populations of the dressed fields, which in turn describes the conversion of light photons from the seed frequency to the sum frequency during propagation through the nonlinear crystal. Take the quasiphased matched (QPM) scheme as an example, we calculate the expected bandwidth of the frequency conversion process, and its dependence on the length of the crystal. We demonstrate that the evolutionary patterns of the sum frequency field's energy are similar to the Fresnel diffraction of a light field. We finally show that the expected bandwidth can be also deduced from the evolution of the adiabaticity of the dressed fileds. PMID:20940935
A Pascal-like triangle from finding power sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibo
2014-08-01
A Pascal-like triangle is constructed so that power sums can be conveniently obtained by college (or high school) students with no need for memorizing complicated formulas or performing difficult calculations.
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number...
The odd-number sequence: squares and sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2015-11-01
Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.
Reddy, B V Subba; Borkar, Prashant; Yadav, J S; Reddy, P Purushotham; Kunwar, A C; Sridhar, B; Grée, René
2012-02-21
1-Benzyl ethers of (E)- and (Z)-hex-3-en-1,6-diols and hept-3-en-1,7-diols undergo a smooth oxidative cyclization with DDQ in the presence of In(OTf)(3) through a sequential C-H bond activation and an intramolecular Prins cyclization to afford the corresponding trans- and cis-fused hexahydro-2H-furo[3,2-c]pyrans and octahydropyrano[4,3-b]pyrans respectively in good yields with an excellent stereoselectivity. Aryl tethered homoallylbenzyl ethers such as benzyl ethers of (E)- and (Z)-6-arylhex-3-enyl alcohols undergo a tandem Prins/Friedel-Crafts cyclization in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of DDQ and SnCl(4)via the benzylic C-H bond activation to furnish the corresponding trans- and cis-fused hexahydro-1H-benzo[f]isochromenes in good yields with complete stereoselectivity. PMID:22187046
Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule
Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane
2014-01-01
Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rokosz, Francis M.
1981-01-01
Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamilton, Mark R.
2005-01-01
One of the most important and most difficult skills of academic leadership is communication. In this column, the author defines what he considers to be the two most important rules for communication. The first rule, which he terms the "Great American Rule," involves trusting that the person on the other end of the line or the fax or the e-mail is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred
2009-01-01
Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…
Modifying the sum over topological sectors and constraints on supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiberg, Nathan
2010-07-01
The standard lore about the sum over topological sectors in quantum field theory is that locality and cluster decomposition uniquely determine the sum over such sectors, thus leading to the usual θ-vacua. We show that without changing the local degrees of freedom, a theory can be modified such that the sum over instantons should be restricted; e.g. one should include only instanton numbers which are divisible by some integer p. This conclusion about the configuration space of quantum field theory allows us to carefully reconsider the quantization of parameters in supergravity. In particular, we show that FI-terms and nontrivial Kähler forms are quantized. This analysis also leads to a new derivation of recent results about linearized supergravity.
Subset-sum phase transitions and data compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merhav, Neri
2011-09-01
We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset-sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset-sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.
Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.
2012-09-01
Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.
Early object rule acquisition.
Pierce, D E
1991-05-01
The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625
Geometrical representation of sum frequency generation and adiabatic frequency conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchowski, Haim; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2008-12-01
We present a geometrical representation of the process of sum frequency generation in the undepleted pump approximation, in analogy with the known optical Bloch equations. We use this analogy to propose a technique for achieving both high efficiency and large bandwidth in sum frequency conversion using the adiabatic inversion scheme. The process is analogous with rapid adiabatic passage in NMR, and adiabatic constraints are derived in this context. This adiabatic frequency conversion scheme is realized experimentally using an aperiodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) device, where we achieved high efficiency signal-to-idler conversion over a bandwidth of 140nm .
Optimal Stopping Rules For Some Blackjack Type Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grzybowski, Andrzej Z.
2010-03-01
The paper deals with a class of optimal stopping problems having some features of blackjack type games. A decision maker observes sequentially the values of a finite sequence of non-negative random variables. After each observation he decides whether to stop or to continue. If he decides to stop, he obtains a payoff dependent on the sum of already observed values. The greater the sum, the more the decision maker gains, unless the sum exceeds a positive number T-a limit given in the problem. If so, the decision maker loses all or part of his payoff. A sufficient condition for existence of a simple optimal stopping rule for such problems is formulated. Then some special cases are considered in detail. Some numerical examples and practical questions are discussed as well.
The origins of quark-hadron duality: How does the square of the sum become the sum of the squares?
Frank E. Close; Nathan Isgur
2001-01-30
Bloom-Gilman duality demonstrates empirically that the electroproduction of N*'s at low momentum transfers averages smoothly around the scaling curve measured at large momentum transfers. The latter is proportional to the sum of the squares of the constituent charges whereas the former involves the coherent excitation of resonances and is driven by the square of summed constituent charges. We determine the minimal necessary conditions for this equality to be realized so that duality can occur and consider the implications for a range of processes that may be studied soon at CEBAF.
Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun
1994-01-01
We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.
The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin
2013-01-01
An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.
A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2012-01-01
For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…
The Distribution of the Sum of Signed Ranks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albright, Brian
2012-01-01
We describe the calculation of the distribution of the sum of signed ranks and develop an exact recursive algorithm for the distribution as well as an approximation of the distribution using the normal. The results have applications to the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Using the Finite Difference Calculus to Sum Powers of Integers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zia, Lee
1991-01-01
Summing powers of integers is presented as an example of finite differences and antidifferences in discrete mathematics. The interrelation between these concepts and their analogues in differential calculus, the derivative and integral, is illustrated and can form the groundwork for students' understanding of differential and integral calculus.…
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
Sum uncertainty relations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-03-01
We study sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite N quantum mechanical observables. Some uncertainty inequalities are presented by using skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase. These uncertainty inequalities are nontrivial as long as the observables are mutually noncommutative. The relations among these new and existing uncertainty inequalities have been investigated. Detailed examples are presented.
Zero-sum two-person games in LCP
Parthasarathy, T.
1994-12-31
In zero-sum two-person games, von Neumann`s minimax theorem and Kaplansky`s theorem on completely mixed games play a significant role. We derive some new and interesting results in Linear complementarity problem using the above mentioned theorems, especially in identifying certain class of Q-matrices.
Sum uncertainty relations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-06-01
We study sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite N quantum mechanical observables. Some uncertainty inequalities are presented by using skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase. These uncertainty inequalities are nontrivial as long as the observables are mutually noncommutative. The relations among these new and existing uncertainty inequalities have been investigated. Detailed examples are presented.
Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.
2005-01-01
The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…
Hyper-Sums of Powers of Integers and the Akiyama-Tanigawa Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inaba, Yoshinari
2005-05-01
In this short essay, we consider hyper-sums of powers of integers, namely sums of power sums. We can obtain easily their formulae as polynomials by using formulae for ordinary sums of powers of integers. The coefficient of the first-degree term in each polynomial coincides with the matrix element of the Akiyama-Tanigawa matrix.
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Willie
1992-01-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation begins about 1 hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continues until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS flew a total of three missions, 61C, STS-35, STS-40. Between flights, the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399. This volume provides a software listing and graphical data gathered from flight STS-40.
Baum, W M
1995-01-01
Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. PMID:22478201
Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N
2001-01-01
The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455
... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Kids > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A Text Size en español La regla de los 5 segundos Almost everyone has dropped some food on ...
Are Intuitive Rules Universal?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stavy, Ruth; Babai, Reuven; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Lin, Fou-Lai; McRobbie, Campbell
2006-01-01
This paper presents a cross-cultural study on the intuitive rules theory. The study was conducted in Australia (with aboriginal children) in Taiwan and in Israel. Our findings indicate that Taiwanese and Australian Aboriginal students, much like Israeli ones, provided incorrect responses, most of which were in line with the intuitive rules. Also,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gartrell, Dan
2010-01-01
Rules are not helpful in the adult-child community. They are usually stated in the negative: "No," "Don't," etc. The way they are worded, adults seem to expect children to break them. Even when they are not totally negative, like "Be nice to your friends," rules have an "or else" moral implication that adults carry around in their heads. When…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
JOHNSON, RONALD E.; AND OTHERS
A BOOKLET DESIGNED FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TO BE USED INDEPENDENTLY FROM AND IN ADDITION TO THE REGULAR CLASSROOM CURRICULUM IN MATHEMATICS IS GIVEN. THE FIFTH- OR SIXTH-GRADE STUDENT IS PRESENTED WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE APPLICATIONS OF THE SLIDE RULE AND WITH A BACKGROUND REVIEW OF NECESSARY CONCEPTS. THE CONCEPTS OF THE SLIDE RULE ARE…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, C. Y.
2002-11-01
Jeans empirical rule has always been used in planetary physics. From the static equation of atmosphere, the equation of state for ideal gases, the law of gravitation and the law of Maxwell distribution, Jeans empirical rule can be derived. Therefore, it seems that Jeans empirical rule should be called Jeans rule. It can be formulated in three forms: in terms of velocity, height, or energy. These three formulations are completely equivalent. According to concrete situation, any one of these forms can be taken freely and used as a criterion, which define whether the atmospheric composition of a given species of particles at the planet surface will exist "forever" or not. The factor in the energy formulation will be neither too large nor too small. According to statistical theory, taking the viewpoint of energy, Jeans rule can be explained more easily. The condition satisfying Jeans rule is only the necessary condition for a given species of partials to be major atmospheric composition of the planets which have dense atmosphere. Jeans rule is not only applicable for the planets and satellites in the solar system, but also suitable for the asteroids, meteoroids and outer solar system objects, such as Centaurs and Kuiper belt objects. The application scope of Jeans rule can be expressed with nomogram as well as defined by equation or by figures. Having been widely used for a long time, it still has a general practical significance in detecting age of planets in the solar system nowadays, especially for the research of outer solar system objects.
Schmitt, David R.
2001-01-01
Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects. PMID:22478363
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shea, Virginia
1994-01-01
Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)
... 5-second rule" — that random saying about how food won't become contaminated with bacteria if you pick it up off the floor in 5 seconds or less. The 5-second rule has become such a part of our culture that scientists actually tested it. As you can ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, David
2011-01-01
About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…
An efficient sampling technique for sums of bandpass functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, W. M.
1982-01-01
A well known sampling theorem states that a bandlimited function can be completely determined by its values at a uniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the highest frequency component of the function (Nyquist rate). A less familiar but important sampling theorem states that a bandlimited narrowband function can be completely determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the passband width. This allows for efficient digital demodulation of narrowband signals, which are common in sonar, radar and radio interferometry, without the side effect of signal group delay from an analog demodulator. This theorem was extended by developing a technique which allows a finite sum of bandlimited narrowband functions to be determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density can be made arbitrarily close to the sum of the passband widths.
Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet
2015-01-01
When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating
Coincidence-Summing Corrections for Close Geometry Measurements
Gueray, R. Taygun
2008-11-11
For a given stellar temperature, nuclear reactions take place in the energy range of the Gamow window with the relatively low energies of the astrophysical interest for charged particle induced reactions. In order to measure the nuclear reaction cross sections with the activation method at projectile energies as low as possible, a gamma counting system that consists of Ge detectors and the irradiated target in close geometry is required. The presence of cascade transitions requires coincidence summing corrections that can not be ignored because of the very large solid angle. In this study, the determination of the summing correction factor and photopeak efficiency for a gamma spectrometer, as an example, composed of two Ge clover detectors in close geometry is briefly described.
Spectral properties of sums of Hermitian matrices and algebraic geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau Huu-Tai, P.; Van Isacker, P.
2016-04-01
It is shown that all the eigenvectors of a sum of Hermitian matrices belong to the same algebraic variety. A polynomial system characterizing this variety is given and a set of nonlinear equations is derived which allows the construction of the variety. Moreover, in some specific cases, explicit expressions for the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can be obtained. Explicit solutions of selected models are also derived.
Theory of sum frequency generation from metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebsch, A.
The time-dependent density functional approach is used to evaluate the optical sum frequency generation from metal surfaces. Attention is focussed on the magnitude and frequency variation of the element χzzz(ω1,ω2). Four types of metal surfaces are considered: simple metals, alkali metal overlayers, noble metals, and charged metal surfaces. Differences and similarities with respect to second harmonic generation from these surfaces are pointed out.
Exponential sums with continuous arguments, interference and factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamma, V.; Garuccio, A.; Shih, Y.
2011-10-01
We take advantage of the interesting connection between truncated exponential sums with continuous arguments (CTES) in number theory and interference in Physics in order to investigate the challenging problem of factoring large numbers. In particular we develop a novel method of factorization based on the use of an optical computer able to reproduce "CTES interferograms" by exploiting polychromatic interference. The scaling properties at the core of such "factoring" interferograms allows, in principle, the prime number decomposition of several large integers.
Algebraic Riccati equations in zero-sum differential games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, T. L.; Chao, A.
1974-01-01
The procedure for finding the closed-loop Nash equilibrium solution of two-player zero-sum linear time-invariant differential games with quadratic performance criteria and classical information pattern may be reduced in most cases to the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. Based on the results obtained by Willems, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of solutions to these equations are derived, and explicit conditions for a scalar example are given.
Can nonhuman primates use tokens to represent and sum quantities?
Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J; Addessi, Elsa
2010-11-01
It is unclear whether nonhuman animals can use physical tokens to flexibly represent various quantities by combining token values. Previous studies showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a macaque (Macaca mulatta) were only partly successful in tests involving sets of different-looking food containers representing different food quantities, while some capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) have shown greater success in tests involving sets of various concrete objects representing different food quantities. Some of the discrepancy in results between these studies may be attributed to the different methods used. In an effort to reconcile these discrepancies, we presented two primates species, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, with two token tasks. The critical test in each task involved summing the value of multiple tokens of different types to make accurate quantity judgments. We found that, using either method, individuals of both species learned to associate individual tokens with specific quantities, as well as successfully compare individual tokens to one another or to sets of visible food items. However, regardless of method, only a few individuals exhibited the capacity to sum multiple tokens of different types and then use those summed values to make an optimal response. This suggests that flexible combination of symbolic stimuli in quantity judgments tasks is within the abilities of chimpanzees and capuchins but does not characterize the majority of individuals. Furthermore, the results suggest the need to carefully examine specific methodological details that may promote or hinder such possible representation. PMID:20836596
Wrona-Piotrowicz, Anna; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Gajda, Anna; Gajda, Tadeusz; Makal, Anna; Brosseau, Arnaud; Métivier, Rémi
2015-01-01
Friedel-Crafts-type reaction of pyrene with diethyl 1-(isothiocyanato)alkylphosphonates promoted by trifluoromethanosulfonic acid afforded diethyl 1-(pyrene-1-carbothioamido)alkylphosphonates in 83-94% yield. These compounds were transformed, in 87-94% yield, into the corresponding diethyl 1-(pyrene-1-carboxamido)alkylphosphonates by treatment with Oxone(®). 1-(Pyrene-1-carboxamido)methylphosphonic acid was obtained in a 87% yield by treating the corresponding diethyl phosphonate with Me3Si-Br in methanol. All of the synthesized amidophosphonates were emissive in solution and in the solid state. The presence of a phosphonato group brought about an approximately two-fold increase in solution fluorescence quantum yield in comparison with that of a model N-alkyl pyrene-1-carboxamide. This effect was tentatively explained by stiffening of the amidophosphonate lateral chain which was caused by the interaction (intramolecular hydrogen bond) of phosphonate and amide groups. The synthesized phosphonic acid was soluble in a biological aqueous buffer (PBS, 0.01 M, pH 7.35) and was strongly emissive under these conditions (λem = 383, 400 nm, τ = 18.7 ns, ΦF > 0.98). Solid-state emission of diethyl 1-(pyrene-1-carboxamido)methylphosphonate (λmax = 485 nm; ΦF = 0.25) was assigned to π-π aggregates, the presence of which was revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:26734093
Katz, Anne
2016-05-01
I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense. . PMID:27105186
... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahm, A F
1924-01-01
The theory, structure and working of a vector slide rule is presented in this report. This instrument is used for determining a vector in magnitude and position when given its components and its moment about a point in their plane.
(FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES
P. PAGE
2000-08-01
QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.
Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs)
Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L.; Smith, Kirk R.
2014-01-01
The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations. PMID:25258474
A solution to weighted sums of squares as a square
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2012-12-01
For n = 1, 2, … , we give a solution (x 1, … , x n , N) to the Diophantine integer equation ? . Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m 1, m 2, … , m n we give a solution to ? . The weights may be positive or negative and are subject to some restrictions. Choosing weights ±1 gives a solution to the problem of finding integer vectors of the same length.
Bright bichromatic entanglement and quantum dynamics of sum frequency generation
Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.
2008-02-15
We investigate the quantum properties of the well-known process of sum frequency generation, showing that it is potentially a very useful source of nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, some of which are not possible with the more common techniques. We show that it can produce quadrature squeezed light, bright bichromatic entangled states, and symmetric and asymmetric demonstrations of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. We also show that the semiclassical equations totally fail to describe the mean-field dynamics when the cavity is strongly pumped.
Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226
Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.
2013-07-01
Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011
Pushing the rules: effects and aftereffects of deliberate rule violations.
Wirth, Robert; Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Huestegge, Lynn; Kunde, Wilfried
2016-09-01
Most of our daily life is organized around rules and social norms. But what makes rules so special? And what if one were to break a rule intentionally? Can we simply free us from the present set of rules or do we automatically adhere to them? How do rule violations influence subsequent behavior? To investigate the effects and aftereffects of violating simple S-R rule, we conducted three experiments that investigated continuous finger-tracking responses on an iPad. Our experiments show that rule violations are distinct from rule-based actions in both response times and movement trajectories, they take longer to initiate and execute, and their movement trajectory is heavily contorted. Data not only show differences between the two types of response (rule-based vs. violation), but also yielded a characteristic pattern of aftereffects in case of rule violations: rule violations do not trigger adaptation effects that render further rule violations less difficult, but every rule violation poses repeated effort on the agent. The study represents a first step towards understanding the signature and underlying mechanisms of deliberate rule violations, they cannot be acted out by themselves, but require the activation of the original rule first. Consequently, they are best understood as reformulations of existing rules that are not accessible on their own, but need to be constantly derived from the original rule, with an add-on that might entail an active tendency to steer away from mental representations that reflect (socially) unwanted behavior. PMID:26245822
20 CFR 10.422 - May compensation payments be issued in a lump sum?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... compensation payments be issued in a lump sum? (a) In exercise of the discretion afforded under 5 U.S.C. 8135(a...-sum payments for wage-loss benefits, OWCP will not exercise further discretion in the matter....
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
Stability of Zero-Sum Games in Evolutionary Game Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Weber, Markus F.; Frey, Erwin
2014-03-01
Evolutionary game theory has evolved into a successful theoretical concept to study mechanisms that govern the evolution of ecological communities. On a mathematical level, this theory was formalized in the framework of the celebrated replicator equations (REs) and its stochastic generalizations. In our work, we analyze the long-time behavior of the REs for zero-sum games with arbitrarily many strategies, which are generalized versions of the children's game Rock-Paper-Scissors.[1] We demonstrate how to determine the strategies that survive and those that become extinct in the long run. Our results show that extinction of strategies is exponentially fast in generic setups, and that conditions for the survival can be formulated in terms of the Pfaffian of the REs' antisymmetric payoff matrix. Consequences for the stochastic dynamics, which arise in finite populations, are reflected by a generalized scaling law for the extinction time in the vicinity of critical reaction rates. Our findings underline the relevance of zero-sum games as a reference for the analysis of other models in evolutionary game theory.
Interpretation of the water surface vibrational sum-frequency spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pieniazek, P. A.; Tainter, C. J.; Skinner, J. L.
2011-07-01
We propose a novel interpretation of the water liquid-vapor interface vibrational sum-frequency (VSF) spectrum in terms of hydrogen-bonding classes. Unlike an absorption spectrum, the VSF signal can be considered as a sum of signed contributions from different hydrogen-bonded species in the sample. We show that the recently observed positive feature at low frequency, in the imaginary part of the signal, is a result of cancellation between the positive contributions from four-hydrogen-bonded molecules and negative contributions from those molecules with one or two broken hydrogen bonds. Spectral densities for each of these subgroups span the entire relevant spectral range. Three-body interactions within our newly developed E3B water simulation model prove to be critical in describing the proper balance between different hydrogen-bonded species, as (two-body) SPC/E, TIP4P, and TIP4P/2005 models fail to reproduce the positive feature. The results clarify the molecular origin of the VSF signal, and highlight the importance of many-body interactions for water in heterogeneous situations.
Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces
Ji, Na
2006-02-13
Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carstens, C. J.
2015-04-01
Randomization of binary matrices has become one of the most important quantitative tools in modern computational biology. The equivalent problem of generating random directed networks with fixed degree sequences has also attracted a lot of attention. However, it is very challenging to generate truly unbiased random matrices with fixed row and column sums. Strona et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 4114 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms5114] introduce the innovative Curveball algorithm and give numerical support for the proposition that it generates truly random matrices. In this paper, we present a rigorous proof of convergence to the uniform distribution. Furthermore, we show the Curveball algorithm must include certain failed trades to ensure uniform sampling.
33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...
33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...
33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...
33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...
33 CFR 403.2 - Scope of rules. [Rule 2
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of rules. 403.2 Section 403.2 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JOINT TOLLS REVIEW BOARD § 403.2 Scope of rules. These rules...
Updating Best Practices: Applying On-Screen Reading Strategies to Résumé Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diaz, Charlsye Smith
2013-01-01
The best practices presented in textbooks and professional publications provide separate guidelines for paper-based and electronic or "scannable" résumés. This article recommends changing these practices so that writers can prepare one résumé for both paper and electronic delivery. These recommendations focus on three areas. Résumés…
Row-Sum of a Class of M-Bonomial Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, Muniru A.
2011-01-01
Formulae for row-sum of M-bonomial coefficients [image omitted] where G is an mth g-gonal number is developed from a study of the ratio between consecutive terms of the sequence of row-sum. The result generalizes the formula for row-sum of binomial coefficients: [image omitted].
5 CFR 837.305 - Lump-sum credit not reduced.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... regulation, the amount of an annuitant's lump-sum credit to the Fund shall not be reduced by the amount of... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lump-sum credit not reduced. 837.305... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.305 Lump-sum credit...
5 CFR 837.305 - Lump-sum credit not reduced.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... regulation, the amount of an annuitant's lump-sum credit to the Fund shall not be reduced by the amount of... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lump-sum credit not reduced. 837.305... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.305 Lump-sum credit...
5 CFR 837.305 - Lump-sum credit not reduced.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... regulation, the amount of an annuitant's lump-sum credit to the Fund shall not be reduced by the amount of... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lump-sum credit not reduced. 837.305... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.305 Lump-sum credit...
5 CFR 837.305 - Lump-sum credit not reduced.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... regulation, the amount of an annuitant's lump-sum credit to the Fund shall not be reduced by the amount of... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lump-sum credit not reduced. 837.305... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.305 Lump-sum credit...
An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.
2008-01-01
Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…
5 CFR 837.305 - Lump-sum credit not reduced.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... regulation, the amount of an annuitant's lump-sum credit to the Fund shall not be reduced by the amount of... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lump-sum credit not reduced. 837.305... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.305 Lump-sum credit...
The Last and Weiss Rorschach Sum E in a normal sample.
Greenwald, D F
1990-06-01
For 62 undergraduate women correlations of Rorschach Sum E with scores on 16 PF, Barron's MMPI Ego Strength Scale, the Eagly Self-esteem Scale, Kaplan's Self-derogation Scale, and MAACL. Anxiety, depression, and hostility showed FC+ was the only Sum E component associated with adaptive functioning and so Sum E is of limited usefulness. PMID:2377423
5 CFR 550.1205 - Calculating a lump-sum payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculating a lump-sum payment. 550.1205 Section 550.1205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Lump-Sum Payment for Accumulated and Accrued Annual Leave § 550.1205 Calculating a lump-sum payment. (a) An agency...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulte, K.; James, M. A.; Steeneken, P. G.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Dhalenne, G.; Revcolevschi, A.
2001-04-01
It was argued in a recent paper by Joynt [Science 284, 777 (1999)] that in the case of poorly conducting solids a photoemission spectrum close to the Fermi energy may be strongly influenced by extrinsic loss processes similar to those occurring in high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, thereby obscuring information concerning the density of states or one-electron Green's function sought for. In this paper we present a number of arguments, both theoretical and experimental, that demonstrate that energy-loss processes occurring once the electron is outside the solid, contribute only weakly to the spectrum, and can in most cases be either neglected or treated as a weak structureless background.
Yan, Xinhu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Lu, Hai-Jiang; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Oh, Yoomin; Sulkosky, Vince; Ye, Yunxiu; Yao, Huan
2011-05-01
A precision measurment of inclusive electron scattering cross sections is carried out at Jefferson Lab in the quasi-elastic region for ^{4}He, ^{12}C, ^{56}Fe and ^{208}Pb targets. The longitudinal (R_{L}) and transverse (R_{T}) response functions of the nucleon need to be extracted precisely in the momentum transfer range 0.55 GeV/c ≤ |q| ≤ 1.0 GeV/c. To achieve the above goal, a NaI (Tl) calorimeter is used to distinguish good electrons from background, including pions and low energy electrons rescattered from the walls of the spectrometer magnets. Due to a large set of kinematics and changes in HV settings, a number of calibrations are performed for the NaI (Tl) detector. Corrections for a few blocks of NaI (Tl) with bad or no signal are applied. The resolution of the NaI (Tl) detector after calibration reached ɤE/√E ≈ 3% at E = 1 GeV. The performance of the NaI (Tl) detector is compared with a simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorchtein, Mikhail
2014-11-01
Two-photon-exchange (TPE) contributions to elastic electron-proton scattering in the forward regime in leading logarithmic ˜t ln|t | approximation in the momentum transfer t are considered. The imaginary part of the TPE amplitude in the forward kinematics is related to the total photoabsorption cross section. The real part of the TPE amplitude is obtained from an unsubtracted fixed-t dispersion relation. This allows a clean prediction of the real part of the TPE amplitude at forward angles with the leading term ˜t ln|t | . Numerical estimates are comparable with or exceed the experimental precision in extracting the charge radius from the experimental data.
New Test of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker Metric Using the Distance Sum Rule.
Räsänen, Syksy; Bolejko, Krzysztof; Finoguenov, Alexis
2015-09-01
We present a new test of the validity of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, based on comparing the distance from redshift 0 to z(1) and from z(1) to z(2) to the distance from 0 to z(2). If the Universe is described by the FLRW metric, the comparison provides a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature. The test relies on geometrical optics, it is independent of the matter content of the Universe and the applicability of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. We apply the test to observations, using the Union2.1 compilation of supernova distances and Sloan Lens ACS Survey galaxy strong lensing data. The FLRW metric is consistent with the data, and the spatial curvature parameter is constrained to be -1.22<Ω(K0)<0.63, or -0.08<Ω(K0)<0.97 with a prior from the cosmic microwave background and the local Hubble constant, though modeling of the lenses is a source of significant systematic uncertainty. PMID:26382671
Alternate Rules of Association
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.
2014-11-01
The Weyl correspondence rule (107) is not unique: there are a host of alternate equivalent association rules which specify corresponding representations. All these representations with equivalent formalisms are typified by characteristic quasi-distribution functions and ⋆-products, all systematically inter-convertible among themselves. They have been surveyed comparatively and organized in [Lee95, BJ84], on the basis of seminal classification work by Cohen [Coh66, Coh76]. Like different coordinate transformations, they may be favored by virtue of their different characteristic properties in varying applications...
2016-03-01
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions. PMID:26934755
Quadratic expressions by means of `summing all the matchsticks'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faaiz Gierdien, M.
2012-09-01
This note presents demonstrations of quadratic expressions that come about when particular problems are posed with respect to matchsticks that form regular triangles, squares, pentagons and so on. Usually when such 'matchstick' problems are used as ways to foster algebraic thinking, the expressions for the number of matchstick quantities are linear and not quadratic. It will be shown that a pedagogy of 'summing all the matchsticks' is central to the emergence of quadratic expressions. This pedagogy involves generational and transformational activities which are considered as some of the main activities of algebra. Key elements to these activities are processes such as recognizing and extending patterns, and specializing and generalizing particular functional relationships. Implications of these processes in terms of algebraic thinking are considered.
Measuring Complex Sum Frequency Spectra with a Nonlinear Interferometer.
Wang, Jing; Bisson, Patrick J; Marmolejos, Joam M; Shultz, Mary Jane
2016-06-01
Currently, the only techniques capable of delivering molecular-level data on buried or soft interfaces are the nonlinear spectroscopic methods: sum frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Deducing molecular information from spectra requires measuring the complex components-the amplitude and the phase-of the surface response. A new interferometer has been developed to determine these components with orders-of-magnitude improvement in uncertainty compared with current methods. Both the sample and reference spectra are generated within the interferometer, hence the label nonlinear interferometer. The interferometer configuration provides experimenters with wide latitude for both the sample enclosure and reference material choice and is thus widely applicable. The instrument is described and applied to the well-studied octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) film. The OTS spectra support the interpretation that variation in fabrication solvent water content and substrate preparation account for differences in OTS spectra reported in the literature. PMID:27159338
Sparse Zero-Sum Games as Stable Functional Feature Selection
Sokolovska, Nataliya; Teytaud, Olivier; Rizkalla, Salwa; Clément, Karine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel
2015-01-01
In large-scale systems biology applications, features are structured in hidden functional categories whose predictive power is identical. Feature selection, therefore, can lead not only to a problem with a reduced dimensionality, but also reveal some knowledge on functional classes of variables. In this contribution, we propose a framework based on a sparse zero-sum game which performs a stable functional feature selection. In particular, the approach is based on feature subsets ranking by a thresholding stochastic bandit. We provide a theoretical analysis of the introduced algorithm. We illustrate by experiments on both synthetic and real complex data that the proposed method is competitive from the predictive and stability viewpoints. PMID:26325268
Sparse Zero-Sum Games as Stable Functional Feature Selection.
Sokolovska, Nataliya; Teytaud, Olivier; Rizkalla, Salwa; Clément, Karine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel
2015-01-01
In large-scale systems biology applications, features are structured in hidden functional categories whose predictive power is identical. Feature selection, therefore, can lead not only to a problem with a reduced dimensionality, but also reveal some knowledge on functional classes of variables. In this contribution, we propose a framework based on a sparse zero-sum game which performs a stable functional feature selection. In particular, the approach is based on feature subsets ranking by a thresholding stochastic bandit. We provide a theoretical analysis of the introduced algorithm. We illustrate by experiments on both synthetic and real complex data that the proposed method is competitive from the predictive and stability viewpoints. PMID:26325268
SEU System Analysis: Not Just the Sum of All Parts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Single event upset (SEU) analysis of complex systems is challenging. Currently, system SEU analysis is performed by component level partitioning and then either: the most dominant SEU cross-sections (SEUs) are used in system error rate calculations; or the partition SEUs are summed to eventually obtain a system error rate. In many cases, system error rates are overestimated because these methods generally overlook system level derating factors. The problem with overestimating is that it can cause overdesign and consequently negatively affect the following: cost, schedule, functionality, and validation/verification. The scope of this presentation is to discuss the risks involved with our current scheme of SEU analysis for complex systems; and to provide alternative methods for improvement.
Sum frequency generation imaging microscopy of CO on platinum.
Cimatu, Katherine; Baldelli, Steven
2006-12-20
Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is utilized as an imaging technique to distinguish and compare the local response of carbon monoxide (CO) covered platinum (Pt) polycrystalline surface versus the average response of the investigated area. The Pt electrode was prepared using the standard method and was exposed to approximately 1 atm of CO(g). SFG images and vibrational spectra were obtained where the contrast is based on the intrinsic nature of each peak in the CO vibrational spectrum. The illustration of the images and the chemical maps of CO on the platinum surface showed the distribution of the CO across the observed area. The results obtained by comparing the local and the average response confirmed the spatial distributions of the CO on the platinum sample which are due to several reasons such as dipole-dipole coupling and surface coverage. This finding has a significant contribution toward recognizing that surfaces usually considered homogeneous may in fact be quite heterogeneous. PMID:17165737
Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles
Krier, James M.
2013-08-31
Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.
Residue theorem and summing over Kaluza-Klein excitations
Feng Taifu; Chen Jianbin; Gao Tiejun; Sun Kesheng
2011-11-01
Applying the equations of motion together with corresponding boundary conditions of bulk profiles at infrared and ultraviolet branes, we verify some lemmas on the eigenvalues of Kaluza-Klein modes in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry SU(3){sub c}xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub X}xP{sub LR}. Using the lemmas and performing properly analytic extensions of bulk profiles, we present the sufficient condition for a convergent series of Kaluza-Klein excitations and sum over the series through the residue theorem. The method can also be applied to sum over the infinite series of Kaluza-Klein excitations in a universal extra dimension. Furthermore, we analyze the possible connection between the propagators in five-dimensional full theory and the product of bulk profiles with corresponding propagators of exciting Kaluza-Klein modes in four-dimensional effective theory, and recover some relations presented in the literature for warped and universal extra dimensions, respectively. As an example, we present the correction from new physics to the branching ratio of B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} to the order O({mu}{sub EW}{sup 2}/{Lambda}{sub KK}{sup 2}) in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry, where {Lambda}{sub KK} denotes the energy scale of low-lying Kaluza-Klein excitations and {mu}{sub EW} denotes the electroweak energy scale.
Experimental investigation of fatigue behavior of spur gear in altered tooth-sum gearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachidananda, H. K.; Gonsalvis, Joseph; Prakash, H. R.
2012-09-01
This paper deals with the contact stress, power loss, and pitting of spur gear tooth in altered tooth-sum gearing for a tooth-sum of 100 teeth when altered by ±4% tooth-sum. Analytical and experimental methods were performed to investigate and compare the altered tooth-sum gearing against the standard tooth-sum gearing. The experiments were performed using a power recirculating type test rig. The tooth loads for the experimental investigations were determined considering the surface durability of gears. A clear picture of the surface damage was obtained using a scanning electron microphotograph. The negative alteration in the tooth-sum performed better than the positive alteration in a tooth-sum operating between specified center distances.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F
1924-01-01
This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Toole, Teddy
The thesis of this document is that arbitrary social rules must be eliminated. Chapters cover: (1) what it is like to be a student whose personal activities are controlled; (2) the necessity of environmental freedom as a prerequisite to successful educational reform; (3) the question of environmental control; (4) the legal history of environmental…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayoub, Ayoub B.
2005-01-01
In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…
Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crispen, Patrick Douglas
2000-01-01
Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…
Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crispen, Patrick Douglas
2000-01-01
Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean
2004-01-01
We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…
Generating Rules and Examples.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grabinger, R. Scott; Jonassen, David H.
1989-01-01
This seventh in a series of articles discussing expert system construction focuses on two ways to create a structure that determines a decision: (1) rule-based, or deductive, implementation; and (2) example-based, or inductive, implementation. Probability factors and confidence levels are discussed, and an example is given for selecting an…
Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models
Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki
2014-01-01
This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onorato, P.
2011-03-01
An introduction to quantum mechanics based on the sum-over-paths (SOP) method originated by Richard P Feynman and developed by E F Taylor and coworkers is presented. The Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) semiclassical quantization rules are obtained following the SOP approach for bounded systems, and a general approach to the calculation of propagation amplitude is discussed for unbounded systems. These semiclassical results are obtained when the SOP is limited to the trajectories classically allowed. EBK semiclassical quantization and the topological Maslov index are used to deduce the correct quantum mechanical results for systems which live in a two-dimensional world as quantum dots and quantum rings. In the latter systems, the semiclassical propagation amplitude is used to discuss the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The development involves only elementary calculus and also provides a theoretical introduction to the quantum nature of low-dimensional nanostructures.
Permutation-symmetry related selection rules in spinor quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurovsky, Vladimir
2014-05-01
Selection rules constraining possible transitions between states of quantum systems can be derived from the system symmetry. Invariance over permutations of indistinguishable particles, contained in each physical system, is one of the basic symmetries. Consider a many-body system with separable spin and spatial degrees of freedom of particles with arbitrary spins s. Eigenfunctions of such systems can be expressed as a sum of products of spin and spatial functions, which form irreducible representations (irreps) of the symmetric group. The quantum numbers are the Young diagrams λ = [λ1 , ... ,λ2 s + 1 ] . The selection rules for a general k-body interactions allow transitions between the states λ and λ' only if ∑m=12s+1 |λm -λm'| <= 2 k . For s = 1 / 2 , the Young diagrams are unambiguously related to the total spin, and if k = 1 , we get the conventional selection rule for dipole transitions. However, if s > 1 / 2 , the rules cannot be expressed in terms of spins. The selection rules provide a way of control over the formation of many-body entangled states, belonging to multidimensional, non-Abelian irreps of the symmetric group. The effects can be observed with spinor atoms in an optical lattice in the Mott-insulator regime.
Caregivers program. Final rule.
2015-01-01
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts, with changes, the interim final rule concerning VA's Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers. VA administers this program to provide certain medical, travel, training, and financial benefits to caregivers of certain veterans and servicemembers who were seriously injured during service on or after September 11, 2001. Also addressed in this rulemaking is the Program of General Caregiver Support Services that provides support services to caregivers of veterans from all eras who are enrolled in the VA health care system. Specifically, changes in this final rule include a requirement that Veterans be notified in writing should a Family Caregiver request revocation (to no longer be a Family Caregiver), an extension of the application timeframe from 30 days to 45 days for a Family Caregiver, and a change in the stipend calculation to ensure that Primary Family Caregivers do not experience unexpected decreases in stipend amounts from year to year. PMID:25581943
Postmarket surveillance. Final rule.
2002-06-01
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is implementing the postmarket surveillance (PS) provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The purpose of this rule is to provide for the collection of useful data about devices that can reveal unforeseen adverse events or other information necessary to protect the public health. PMID:12053947
Parental Rule Socialization for Preventive Health and Adolescent Rule Compliance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bylund, Carma L.; Baxter, Leslie A.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Wolf, Bianca
2010-01-01
This study examined family rules about nutrition, exercise, and sun protection in 164 parent-young adult children dyads. Both parents and their young adult children independently reported on health rules that they perceived throughout their child's adolescent years and the extent to which the rules were articulated, violations sanctioned, and…
Sum frequency generation of hydrogen-bonding liquid surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldelli, Steve
The surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy sum frequency generation (SFG) is used to examine the physical/chemical environment of molecules at the liquid/air interface. In glycerol/water mixtures, glycerol is found to partition to the surface in excess compared to the bulk concentration. Further, it is discovered that the free OH peak of water (an OH group projecting out of the liquid into the vapor) can be used as an indicator of the surface coverage of water at the surface. Solutions of alkali sulfate salts also affect the surface structure of water. These ions increase the ordered structure of water at the interface by increasing the oriented hydrogen-bond network. This order-increasing effect is found to occur to a greater extent for sulfuric acid solutions. A model based on ion association and a sub-surface electric double-layer is used to describe these results. A correlation between the surface coverage of water and the extent of dissociation of the acid is discovered; i.e., increasing acid association decreases the surface coverage of water. Finally, solutions of HCl/water are investigated. In these systems, the electrolytic nature of HCl is found to increase the hydrogen-bonded order of the interfacial water molecules. Further, despite the polar nature of HCl, no molecular HCl is detected on any surface despite surface tension measurements indicating an excess of HCl at the surface. The neat HCl liquid surface is the only system where molecular HCl is observed.
Rarefied-continuum gas dynamics transition for SUMS project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Sin-I
1989-01-01
This program is to develop an analytic method for reducing SUMS data for the determination of the undisturbed atmosphere conditions ahead of the shuttle along its descending trajectory. It is divided into an internal flow problem, an external flow problem and their matching conditions. Since the existing method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) failed completely for the internal flow problem, the emphasis is on the internal flow of a highly non-equilibrium, rarefied air through a short tube of a diameter much less than the gaseous mean free path. A two fluid model analysis of this internal flow problem has been developed and studied with typical results illustrated. A computer program for such an analysis and a technical paper published in Lecture Notes in Physics No. 323 (1989) are included as Appendices 3 and 4. A proposal for in situ determination of the surface accommodation coefficients sigma sub t and sigma e is included in Appendix 5 because of their importance in quantitative data reduction. A two fluid formulation for the external flow problem is included as Appendix 6 and a review article for AIAA on Hypersonic propulsion, much dependent on ambient atmospheric density, is also included as Appendix 7.
Rational trigonometric approximations using Fourier series partial sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geer, James F.
1993-01-01
A class of approximations (S(sub N,M)) to a periodic function f which uses the ideas of Pade, or rational function, approximations based on the Fourier series representation of f, rather than on the Taylor series representation of f, is introduced and studied. Each approximation S(sub N,M) is the quotient of a trigonometric polynomial of degree N and a trigonometric polynomial of degree M. The coefficients in these polynomials are determined by requiring that an appropriate number of the Fourier coefficients of S(sub N,M) agree with those of f. Explicit expressions are derived for these coefficients in terms of the Fourier coefficients of f. It is proven that these 'Fourier-Pade' approximations converge point-wise to (f(x(exp +))+f(x(exp -)))/2 more rapidly (in some cases by a factor of 1/k(exp 2M)) than the Fourier series partial sums on which they are based. The approximations are illustrated by several examples and an application to the solution of an initial, boundary value problem for the simple heat equation is presented.
Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements
Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig
2009-12-15
Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.
Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.
Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan
2014-05-01
A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085
Maintaining genetic integrity in aging: a zero sum game.
Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan
2006-01-01
Aging of somatic cells can be defined as the gradual loss of the information embedded in the global and local properties of complex macromolecular networks. This loss of information may reflect the dynamic interplay between stochastic factors, such as the accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage, and gene-encoded programmatic responses. This would ultimately result in loss of function, impaired response to environmental challenge, and a progressively increased incidence of disease. Here the authors present the case for aging as a continuous battle between maintaining genomic integrity and ensuring sufficient cell functional mass. Focusing on aging of the liver in rodents, evidence is presented that normal aging is associated with a gradual accumulation of random alterations in the DNA of the genome as a consequence of imperfect DNA repair and a decrease in the rate of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis is the cell's genome maintenance mechanism of last resort and an imbalance towards apoptosis can contribute to manifestations of aging-related phenotypes, as exemplified by mouse models of premature aging due to genetic defects in genome maintenance. Prospects to reset the clock in this zero sum game between survival and the maintenance of phenotypic integrity will be discussed. PMID:16677100
Rowing and the same-sum problem have their moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrow, John D.
2010-07-01
We consider the optimal positioning of an even number of identical crew members in a coxless racing boat so as to avoid the presence of a sideways wiggle as the boat is propelled forward through the water. We show that the traditional (alternate port and starboard) positioning always possesses an oscillating nonzero transverse moment and associated wiggling motion and that the problem of finding the zero-moment positions is related to a special case of the subset sum problem. We find the one (known) zero-moment rig for a racing Four and show that there are four possible such rigs for a racing Eight, of which only two are known. We show that only balanced boats with crew numbers that are divisible by four can have the zero-moment property and give the 29 zero-moment solutions for racing Twelves, which have zero transverse moments. Some aspects of unbalanced boats in which the numbers of port and starboard oars are unequal are also discussed.
Surface Sum Frequency Generation of III-V Semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhenyu; Kim, Jisun; Khoury, Rami; Plummer, E. W.; Haber, Louis
2015-03-01
Optical sum frequency generation (SFG) is a well-established technique for surface and interface studies but its use has been limited mainly to centrosymmetric materials so far. Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond broadband SFG spectroscopy has the ability to identify surface molecular vibrations on the archetypical non-centrosymmetric semiconductor GaAs (001), in which the bulk SFG signal typically dominates over surface SFG contributions. Azimuthal angle dependence of the second order SFG nonlinear response from GaAs (001) surface in the reflection geometry in vacuum for all eight polarization combinations are detected and analyzed. The results agree with and extend upon previous second harmonic generation (SHG) studies and phenomenological analysis. In addition, carbon monoxide and methanol are employed as molecular-markers on the GaAs (001) surfaces. The C-O stretching mode of carbon monoxide and the methyl group stretching modes of methanol are clearly observed even though the bulk contribution dominates the SFG signal. Coherent heterodyne interference is proposed as the mechanism for the surface signal enhancement. Two other zinc blende type III-V semiconductors, GaP and GaSb, are also studied and compared. Funded by EFRC.
Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena
Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.
Three-dimensional continued fractions and Kloosterman sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ustinov, A. V.
2015-06-01
This survey is devoted to results related to metric properties of classical continued fractions and Voronoi-Minkowski three-dimensional continued fractions. The main focus is on applications of analytic methods based on estimates of Kloosterman sums. An apparatus is developed for solving problems about three-dimensional lattices. The approach is based on reduction to the preceding dimension, an idea used earlier by Linnik and Skubenko in the study of integer solutions of the determinant equation \\det X=P, where X is a 3× 3 matrix with independent coefficients and P is an increasing parameter. The proposed method is used for studying statistical properties of Voronoi-Minkowski three-dimensional continued fractions in lattices with a fixed determinant. In particular, an asymptotic formula with polynomial lowering in the remainder term is proved for the average number of Minkowski bases. This result can be regarded as a three-dimensional analogue of Porter's theorem on the average length of finite continued fractions. Bibliography: 127 titles.
Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy
Chen, Zhan
2010-01-01
This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334
A Categorisation of School Rules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thornberg, Robert
2008-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate and describe the content in school rules by developing a category system of school rules, and thus making the logic behind different types of rules in school explicit. Data were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in two primary schools in Sweden. In order to analyse the data, grounded theory…
Morphological Rules in Russian Conjugation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Linda Kopp
Recent analyses of Russian (Halle 1963, Lightner 1972) have been forced by the criteria of rule "naturalness" and rule "generality" to posit highly abstract underlying forms. These underlying forms and rules are claimed to represent the speaker's competence. Such analyses are now being criticized (Derwing 1973, Hooper 1974) on the following…
Modifications of Team Sports Rules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rokosz, Francis M.
In general, there are two reasons for modifying the rules in sport activities: (1) to meet a specific objective or (2) to solve a perceived problem. The sense of the original game is usually not altered significantly because the number of rule changes is kept to a minimum. Changes in rules may be made for administrative or financial reasons, or to…
Mutation Rules and the Evolution of Sparseness and Modularity in Biological Systems
Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri
2013-01-01
Biological systems exhibit two structural features on many levels of organization: sparseness, in which only a small fraction of possible interactions between components actually occur; and modularity – the near decomposability of the system into modules with distinct functionality. Recent work suggests that modularity can evolve in a variety of circumstances, including goals that vary in time such that they share the same subgoals (modularly varying goals), or when connections are costly. Here, we studied the origin of modularity and sparseness focusing on the nature of the mutation process, rather than on connection cost or variations in the goal. We use simulations of evolution with different mutation rules. We found that commonly used sum-rule mutations, in which interactions are mutated by adding random numbers, do not lead to modularity or sparseness except for in special situations. In contrast, product-rule mutations in which interactions are mutated by multiplying by random numbers – a better model for the effects of biological mutations – led to sparseness naturally. When the goals of evolution are modular, in the sense that specific groups of inputs affect specific groups of outputs, product-rule mutations also lead to modular structure; sum-rule mutations do not. Product-rule mutations generate sparseness and modularity because they tend to reduce interactions, and to keep small interaction terms small. PMID:23936433
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, H. Philip
2014-01-01
Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 1. Fully Understand the Task 2. Develop an Error Budget 3. Continuous Metrology Coverage 4. Know where you are 5. 'Test like you fly' 6. Independent Cross-Checks 7. Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the in-process optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, H. Philip
2014-01-01
Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, H. Philip
2014-01-01
Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 1.Fully Understand the Task 2.Develop an Error Budget 3.Continuous Metrology Coverage 4.Know where you are 5. 'Test like you fly' 6.Independent Cross-Checks 7.Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the in-process optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.
2012-09-01
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145
Nolop, Bruce
2007-09-01
When Bruce Nolop was an investment banker, he saw only the glamorous side of acquisitions. Since becoming executive vice president and chief financial officer of Pitney Bowes, however, he's learned how hard it is to pull them off. In this article, he shares the lessons his organization has learned throughout its successful six-year acquisition campaign, which comprised more than 70 deals: Stick to adjacent spaces, take a portfolio approach, have a business sponsor, know how to judge an acquisition, and don't shop when you're hungry. Pitney Bowes's management and board of directors now use these five basic rules to chart the company's growth course. For example, when evaluating a potential acquisition, Pitney Bowes distinguishes between "platform" and "bolt-on" acquisitions to set expectations and guide integration efforts; the company applies different criteria, depending on the type. According to Nolop, any company can improve its acquisition track record if it is able to learn from experience, and he suspects that Pitney Bowes's rules apply just as well to other organizations. Buying a company should be treated like any other business process, he maintains. It should be approached deliberately and reviewed and improved constantly. That means mapping a complex chain of actions; paying attention to what can go right or wrong at different stages; and using standard, constantly honed, approaches and tools. PMID:17886488
Stream responses as the sum of flow component responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Michael
2014-05-01
Catchment flows are often treated as continuums of hydrological processes from low flow to peak flow and back to low flow again, when analysing streamflow by methods like recession analysis or flow duration curve analysis. Such a conception of catchment response could not be further from the truth, catchment drainage instead is the sum of various flow components deriving from different parts of the catchment, as is well-understood by modellers. Why then have we traditionally applied the analysis methods to streamflow rather than to the separated components? (Apart, that is, for practical reasons.) Applying recession analyses to separated components turns out to give surprising results, and removes confusion arising from the mixture of components in streamflow (Stewart, 2014). The simplest separation of components is into quickflow and baseflow, which have very different sources and behaviours as shown in particular by tracer measurements. Quickflow is direct runoff from runoff events and often drops to zero between events, while baseflow is sourced from groundwater aquifers and continues as long as the stream flows. As an example, recession analysis using recession plots (i.e. plots of Q (flow) versus -dQ/dt) for quickflow and baseflow was applied to data from Glendhu GH1, New Zealand, a schist catchment of 2.2 km2. Whereas the streamflow points were fitted by power law slopes of up to 4 (i.e. dQ/dt = -0.09Q4) which proved to be artifacts due to the mixing of components noted above, the quickflow and baseflow points fitted power law slopes of 1.5 revealing the actual quadratic nature of storage reservoirs in the catchment. Other catchments have given similar results although a wider selection may show differences, nevertheless the message remains: In order to understand catchment and hillslope responses we need to be analysing separated components, not just streamflow. Stewart, M.K. 2014: New base flow separation and recession analysis methods for streamflow
A Comparison of Heuristic Procedures for Minimum within-Cluster Sums of Squares Partitioning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brusco, Michael J.; Steinley, Douglas
2007-01-01
Perhaps the most common criterion for partitioning a data set is the minimization of the within-cluster sums of squared deviation from cluster centroids. Although optimal solution procedures for within-cluster sums of squares (WCSS) partitioning are computationally feasible for small data sets, heuristic procedures are required for most practical…
Sex Differences in Sum Scores May Be Hard to Interpret: The Importance of Measurement Invariance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slof-Op 't Landt, M. C. T.; van Furth, E. F.; Rebollo-Mesa, I.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Slagboom, P. E.; Boomsma, D. I.; Meulenbelt, I.; Dolan, C. V.
2009-01-01
In most assessment instruments, distinct items are designed to measure a trait, and the sum score of these items serves as an approximation of an individual's trait score. In interpreting group differences with respect to sum scores, the instrument should measure the same underlying trait across groups (e.g., male/female, young/old). Differences…
Stochastic Ordering of the Latent Trait by the Sum Score Under Various Polytomous IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Ark, L. Andries
2005-01-01
The sum score is often used to order respondents on the latent trait measured by the test. Therefore, it is desirable that under the chosen model the sum score stochastically orders the latent trait. It is known that unlike dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models, most polytomous IRT models do not imply stochastic ordering. It is unknown,…
SUM (Service Unit Management): An Organizational Approach To Improved Patient Care.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jelinek, Richard C.; And Others
To evaluate the effectiveness of Service Unit Management (SUM) in reducing costs, improving quality of care, saving professional nursing time, increasing personnel satisfaction, and setting a stage for further improvements, a national questionnaire survey identified the characteristics of SUM units, and compared the performance of a total of 55…
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-08-27
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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-09-16
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment.... Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim for Monthly Payments... desires monthly installment in lieu of one lump payment he or she must complete VA Forms 29-4125a and...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-29
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)) Activities... Control No. 2900- 0060.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life... veteran's Government Insurance policies. If the beneficiary desires monthly installment in lieu of...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinson, E. W.
1981-01-01
The preliminary analysis and data analysis system development for the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS) experiment are discussed. The SUMS experiment is designed to provide free stream atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and mean molecular weight for the high altitude, high Mach number region.
27 CFR 19.957 - Instructions to compute bond penal sum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions to compute bond penal sum. 19.957 Section 19.957 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Bonds § 19.957 Instructions to compute bond penal sum. (a) Medium plants. To find the...
The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir
2011-01-01
Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...
Brahams, D
1989-08-01
Brahams summarizes a 1989 Quebec Court of Appeal decision in an abortion case and places the ruling in the context of worldwide trends in abortion regulation. In Tremblay v. Daigle (1989 Jul 26), the Quebec court upheld a lower court injunction banning a woman from having an abortion. The injunction had been obtained by the woman's former boyfriend, the putative father. Brahams discusses the current legal status of abortion in Canada, the Daigle court's reasoning, and how the British approach to the legal status of fathers and fetuses in abortion disputes differs from the Canadian. She also briefly summarizes recent abortion-related judicial and regulatory developments in the United States, Ireland, and France. PMID:2569146
Unruh, Gregory C
2008-02-01
Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them. PMID:18314639
19 CFR 102.11 - General rules.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules. 102.11 Section 102.11 Customs... RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.11 General rules. The following rules shall apply for purposes of... rules are satisfied. (b) Except for a good that is specifically described in the Harmonized System as...
Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo
2005-07-01
On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Empirically derived injury prevention rules.
Peterson, L; Schick, B
1993-01-01
This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829
4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of Rules . 22.1 Section 22.1 Accounts... OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability Office... with the Board on or after October 1, 2007....
Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang
The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.
Self-frequency summing in quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity lasers
Ota, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2013-12-09
We demonstrate self-frequency summing in photonic crystal nanocavity lasers with quantum dot gain. Two dipole modes and a hexapole mode, supported in the cavity, simultaneously showed lasing oscillation in the near infrared wavelength region under optical carrier injection. Meanwhile, within the same laser cavity, the internally generated three laser fields are up-converted to exhibit sharp visible emission lines via intra-cavity nonlinear frequency summing (and doubling) processes. This self-frequency summing process in active nanocavities will pave the way for developing nanoscale nonlinear optical light sources.
Shannon-information entropy sum as a correlation measure in atomic systems
Guevara, Nicolais L.; Sagar, Robin P.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.
2003-01-01
The interpretation of the entropy sum as a correlation measure is demonstrated for isoelectronic series via an analytical expression that models the asymptotic behavior of the electronic charge density in position space and the cusp behavior in momentum space. We also develop an expression for the entropy sum in neutral atoms with an explicit dependence on the ionization energy and the atomic number. The results obtained from these relations are in qualitative agreement with the behavior observed from ab initio calculations. A connection between the entropy sum and the correlation energy is obtained for the weakly inhomogeneous electron gas and demonstrated via calculations for the helium isoelectronic series.
TRICARE; diabetic education. Final rule.
2010-08-01
The Department of Defense is publishing this final rule to clarify TRICARE coverage for diabetic education. This rule introduces new definitions and addresses revisions or omissions in policy or procedure inadvertently missed in previous regulatory changes pertaining to diabetic education. PMID:20695037
Developmental Disabilities Program. Final rule.
2015-07-27
This rule implements the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000. The previous regulations were completed in 1997 before the current law was passed. The rule will align the regulations and current statute and will provide guidance to AIDD grantees. PMID:26214859
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avital, Doron
2007-01-01
This paper will examine an unresolved tension inherent in the question of art and argue for the idea of a singular rule as a natural resolution. In so doing, the structure of a singular rule will be fully outlined and its paradoxical constitution will be resolved. The tension I mention above unfolds both as a matter of history and as a product of…
Exemplar Similarity and Rule Application
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hahn, Ulrike; Prat-Sala, Merce; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Brumby, Duncan P.
2010-01-01
We report four experiments examining effects of instance similarity on the application of simple explicit rules. We found effects of similarity to illustrative exemplars in error patterns and reaction times. These effects arose even though participants were given perfectly predictive rules, the similarity manipulation depended entirely on…
Michael Rossler
2005-07-01
Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamakawa, K. A.
1983-01-01
Slide rule relates efficiency, impurity types, impurity concentrations, and process types. Solar cell slide rule calculations are determination of allowable impurity concentration for nonredistributive process, determination of impurity buildup factor for redistributive process and determination of allowable impurity concentration for redistributive process.
Rule Learning with Probabilistic Smoothing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Gianni; Guarascio, Massimo; Manco, Giuseppe; Ortale, Riccardo; Ritacco, Ettore
A hierarchical classification framework is proposed for discriminating rare classes in imprecise domains, characterized by rarity (of both classes and cases), noise and low class separability. The devised framework couples the rules of a rule-based classifier with as many local probabilistic generative models. These are trained over the coverage of the corresponding rules to better catch those globally rare cases/classes that become less rare in the coverage. Two novel schemes for tightly integrating rule-based and probabilistic classification are introduced, that classify unlabeled cases by considering multiple classifier rules as well as their local probabilistic counterparts. An intensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework is competitive and often superior in accuracy w.r.t. established competitors, while overcoming them in dealing with rare classes.
Examining Tennessee's collateral source rule.
Regan, Judith; Hadley, Edward; Regan, William M
2008-11-01
The common law collateral source rule was established to prevent the defendant from benefiting from their wrongful actions. Despite a trend in the United States to limit the effects of the collateral source rule, the rule remains in force in courts of the State of Tennessee. However, to assist with the malpractice crisis, the legislature prohibited this rule by statute in regards to the Medical Malpractice Act. Although this statutory prohibition of the collateral source rule worked to lessen verdicts in malpractice cases after passage, the availability of consortium damages resulting from Jordan v. Baptist Three Rivers Hospital in 1999 has worked to drive verdicts substantially higher. Regardless the Medical Malpractice Act has been held as constitutional and has been clarified through several recent Tennessee court decisions. PMID:19024250
Domurat, Artur; Kowalczuk, Olga; Idzikowska, Katarzyna; Borzymowska, Zuzanna; Nowak-Przygodzka, Marta
2015-01-01
This paper has two aims. First, we investigate how often people make choices conforming to Bayes’ rule when natural sampling is applied. Second, we show that using Bayes’ rule is not necessary to make choices satisfying Bayes’ rule. Simpler methods, even fallacious heuristics, might prescribe correct choices reasonably often under specific circumstances. We considered elementary situations with binary sets of hypotheses and data. We adopted an ecological approach and prepared two-stage computer tasks resembling natural sampling. Probabilistic relations were inferred from a set of pictures, followed by a choice which was made to maximize the chance of a preferred outcome. Use of Bayes’ rule was deduced indirectly from choices. Study 1 used a stratified sample of N = 60 participants equally distributed with regard to gender and type of education (humanities vs. pure sciences). Choices satisfying Bayes’ rule were dominant. To investigate ways of making choices more directly, we replicated Study 1, adding a task with a verbal report. In Study 2 (N = 76) choices conforming to Bayes’ rule dominated again. However, the verbal reports revealed use of a new, non-inverse rule, which always renders correct choices, but is easier than Bayes’ rule to apply. It does not require inversion of conditions [transforming P(H) and P(D|H) into P(H|D)] when computing chances. Study 3 examined the efficiency of three fallacious heuristics (pre-Bayesian, representativeness, and evidence-only) in producing choices concordant with Bayes’ rule. Computer-simulated scenarios revealed that the heuristics produced correct choices reasonably often under specific base rates and likelihood ratios. Summing up we conclude that natural sampling results in most choices conforming to Bayes’ rule. However, people tend to replace Bayes’ rule with simpler methods, and even use of fallacious heuristics may be satisfactorily efficient. PMID:26347676
A New Proof for Monotone Likelihood for the Sum of Independent Bernoulli Random Variables.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huynh, Huynh
1994-01-01
A new direct and short proof is offered for the monotone likelihood ratio for the sum of independent Bernoulli random variables through use of an inequality by Marcus and Lopes (1957) on elementary symmetric functions. (SLD)
Optimal approximations for risk measures of sums of lognormals based on conditional expectations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanduffel, S.; Chen, X.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Henrard, L.; Kaas, R.
2008-11-01
In this paper we investigate the approximations for the distribution function of a sum S of lognormal random variables. These approximations are obtained by considering the conditional expectation E[S|[Lambda
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...