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Sample records for friedrich aumayr hannspeter

  1. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Bob

    2007-03-01

    Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006

  2. Carl Friedrich Gauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kathryn; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777, in the German city of Braunschweig (Brunswick). He was the only child of Gebhard Dietrich Gauss and Dorothea Benze. Neither of Gauss's parents had much education, his father could read and write, but earned his living doing menial jobs such as…

  3. [Georg Friedrich Händel's eye disease].

    PubMed

    Evers, S

    1993-09-01

    In his last years Georg Friedrich Händel suffered from a loss of sight not definitely to be defined. Based on primary sources, this disease, often mentioned in his biographies, is described and analysed. Altogether, Händel's eye-disease can be best interpreted as a central vascular disorder with degeneration of retina or with ischemic changes in the corresponding nuclei or tractus, complicated by a simple senile or post-traumatic cataract. Händel's profile of risk factors points most probably to a vascular degeneration of macula or a damage of choroidal vessels. Händel's eye-disease must be seen in relation to his cerebro-vascular disorder. His most probable strokes as well as his loss of sight were of vital importance in his biography, as is reflected even by his compositions. However, both disorders did not fundamentally influence his creativity. Only in a few compositions a reference to the loss of sight can be found. Apart from changes in concert-practising during his last years Händel's eye-disease, however, had no direct effect on his musical work. PMID:8264215

  4. Obituary: Ludwig Friedrich Oster, 1931-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Sabatino; Altschuler, Martin D.

    2003-12-01

    Ludwig Friedrich Oster died at the Anchorage Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Salisbury, MD on 28 February 2003, of complications from advanced Alzheimer's disease. He is survived by his wife Cheryl M. (Oroian) and his two children by a previous marriage, Ulrika and Mattias Oster. He had a distinguished career both as a researcher in solar physics and as a science administrator in the National Science Foundation. Ludwig was born on 8 March 1931 in Konstanz, Germany and emigrated to the U.S. in 1958, acquiring American citizenship in 1963. His mother and father were Emma Josefine (Schwarz) and Ludwig Friedrich Oster. He got a BS degree in physics at the University of Freiburg under the guidance of Prof. K. O. Kiepenheuer in 1951, and a MS (1954) and PhD from the University of Kiel in 1956 under the guidance of Prof. A. Unsold. From 1956 to 1958 he was a Fellow of the German Science Council at Kiel and, upon his arrival to the US in 1958, he became a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Physics Department of Yale University. He became an Assistant Professor of Physics and Astrophysics at Yale in 1960 and five years later he was promoted to Associate Professor. In 1967 he became an Associate Professor of Physics and Astrophysics at the University of Colorado and a Fellow of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics; he was promoted to Full Professor in 1970. In 1981 he was a Visiting Professor at Johns Hopkins University, and shortly thereafter became a National Research Council Senior Associate at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, where he worked on solar variability. He joined the National Science Foundation in 1983, where he became the Program Manager for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the Division of Astronomical Sciences of the Foundation; he remained there until his retirement in 1996. His early work, started in Germany and continued at Yale, concerned radiation mechanisms related to solar phenomena. His works on

  5. Stereotyping in "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of young adult books in teaching high school and college-level German, particularly "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung." The didactic intentions of these books are to inform younger adults about the Nazi periods of the past and the Neo-nazi resurgence of the present, encourage them to confront the issues, and to take a…

  6. [God is dead--Friedrich Nietzsche's Oedipus complex].

    PubMed

    Wilkes, J

    1997-04-01

    The early psychoanalysts were influenced by the philosophical ideas of FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE. The work of SIGMUND FREUD was partly based on NIETZSCHE'S literary world. Just before his mental disaster NIETZSCHE radically destroyed once precious ideals. The roots of this provocative development will be elucidated by analyzing NIETZSCHE'S childhood. A main aspect is NIETZSCHES close mother-tie and especially his father's early death. The father-image of NIETZSCHE'S late years is an essential of this paper. PMID:9206788

  7. Friedrich Nietzsche and his illness: a neurophilosophical approach to introspection.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Perrig, Stephen; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2013-01-01

    There are some arguments that Friedrich Nietzsche suffered from the autosomal dominant vascular microangiopathy: Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Here, a hypothesis is formulated supporting that CADASIL presenting with symptoms of bipolar disorder and Gastaut-Geschwind syndrome would contribute to the increased insight and creativity of a philosopher whose perceptions and intuitions often bear out the results of modern neuroscience. Alterations of the brain default and reward networks would account for such an increased level of introspection and creativity. A new framework on approaching illness is proposed, which, in conformity with Nietzsche's positive view, outlines the enabling aspects of some otherwise highly disabling neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23586545

  8. Friedrich Möglich - sein Beitrag zum Aufbau der Physik in der DDR. Friedrich Möglich - langjähriger Mitherausgeber und Chefredakteur der Annalen der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, Robert

    Friedrich Möglich, ein Schüler von Max von Laue und Erwin Schrödinger, übernahm 1947 die Chefredaktion der Annalen der Physik.Translated AbstractFriedrich Möglich - His Contributions to the Formation of Physics in GDRFriedrich Möglich a student of Max von Laue and Erwin Schrödinger took over as editor in chief of Annalen der Physik in 1947.

  9. Beginning of modern concept of inflammation: the work of Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen and Julius Friedrich Cohnheim.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Klassen, André; Sebekova, Katarina; Bahner, Udo

    2009-01-01

    In Rudolf Virchow's concept of inflammation, the basic alterations were derived from connective tissue cells, which underwent a marked metamorphosis. This cell-based and static conception was fundamentally broadened and, in part, refuted in the ensuing decade by 2 of his scholars. Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen characterized the pus cells in acute inflammation and made the seminal observation of their contractility and mobility. He was the first who described the wandering leukocytes which were demonstrated in particular in experimental keratitis. He also showed that pus cells could migrate from the places of their origin in the interstitium to other tissues and epithelial cells. Von Recklinghausen in addition contributed to the concept of phagocytosis. The work of Julius Friedrich Cohnheim was focused on the mechanisms involved in the extravasation of leukocytes from the blood vessels in the inflamed mesentery of the frog and carefully described the time-dependent alterations: dilatation of the arteries and veins, adhesion of colorless cells to the endothelial cells, and the subsequent transmigration from the capillaries and venules into the interstitial space. In the last few decades, experimental and clinical studies using modern techniques have fully confirmed and extended these basic observations made by von Recklinghausen and Cohnheim more than 100 years ago. PMID:20013736

  10. Friedrich Nietzsche: the wandering and learned neuropath under Dionisius.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2015-11-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a remarkable philologist-philosopher while remaining in a condition of ill-health. Issues about his wandering/disruptive behavior that might be a consequence and/or protection against his cognitive decline and multifaceted disease are presented. The life complex that raises speculations about its etiology is constituted by: insight, creativity and wandering behavior besides several symptoms and signs of disease(s), mainly neurological one. The most important issue to be considered at the moment is not the disease diagnosis (Lissauer's general paresis or CADASIL, e.g.), but the probable Nietzsche's great cognitive reserve linked to the multifactorial etiology (genetic and environmental), and shared characteristics both to creativity and psychopathology. This makes any disease seems especial regarding Nietzsche, and whichever the diagnostic hypothesis has to consider the Nietzsche's unique background to express any disease(s). PMID:26517222

  11. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  12. Karl Friedrich Zollner and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  13. [Recollections of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker].

    PubMed

    Gottstein, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Reminiscences and a diary of the author allow a report on meetings, conversations, experiences and joint undertakings with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during five decades. They began in the winter of 1948/49 in Göttingen in the Max Planck Institute for Physics where Werner Heisenberg was the director and Weizsäcker head of the Theory Division and where the author was graduate and post-graduate student and later group and division leader. In the 1960s a close cooperation with Weizsäcker resulted from common membership in Working Committee and Board of the Federation of German Scientists (VDW). As Science Attaché at the Embassy in Washington from 1971 to 1974 the author prepared for Weizsäcker the programme of his visits to the U.S. From 1974 to 1977 he cooperated closely with Weizsäcker, preparing the sessions of the Advisory Committee to the Federal Minister of Research and Technology of which Weizsäcker was Chair. Also in later years there were illuminating discussions and correspondences. PMID:24974623

  14. [Friedrich Mauz: T4 assessor and military psychiatrist].

    PubMed

    Silberzahn-Jandt, G; Schmuhl, H-W

    2012-03-01

    Friedrich Mauz is one of the medical perpetrators of the second tier whose biography is difficult to comprehend. Autobiographies from three different political systems exist - Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and postwar Germany in which he constantly reinvented himself. While after 1933 he suddenly emphasized his participation in the civil war turmoil during the early period of the Weimar Republic and his patriotism, he then depicted himself after 1945 as an apolitical person characterized by Württemberg pietism who inwardly rejected the Nazi State but had found himself prepared to accept "all sorts of humiliating concessions." He claimed that he had always remained true to his scientific code of conduct and had distanced himself from psychiatric genetics. In point of fact, Mauz was among those exonerated in the denazification trial in 1946 and was able to pursue his career in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, if the sources are read against the grain, a different picture emerges. Mauz's career stalled in the 1930s, not because he had been politically offensive, but because his scientific work was flimsy and considered lacking originality, particularly since he had chosen constitution research and psychotherapy as his main fields of interest, which were overshadowed by research in genetic psychiatry in the 1930s. Mauz tendered his services to the Nazi policy of genetic health, served as a medical assessor in proceedings based on the "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring," permitted himself to be recruited for the T4 program as a medical expert, even participated in the deliberations on a future "Law on Euthanasia," and as a consulting psychiatrist for the German Armed Forces contributed to military medicine. PMID:22399061

  15. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and the Russian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichsanova, Vera N.

    In the first half of the 19th century the foundations of stellar astronomy were established thanks to the German astronomer, geodeticist and mathematician Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Internationally estimed and in close relationship with scientists in many countries, especially in Russia, Bessel (although not yet 30 years old) in 1814 became a foreign member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wilhelm Struve, director of the Dorpat observatory, was in close contact with him. Together they discussed problems of observational procedures and the use of instruments. In 1817 Struve bought the same Reichenbach meridian circle as Bessel used in Königsberg. Both ordered their refractors from the famous Fraunhofer workshop in Munich. %(9-inch for Dorpat). Bessel was also involved in the high precision Russian geodetic survey which started in 1816 and which succeeded in connecting the Russian and western European triangulation networks. Struve tried to measure parallaxes using the bright star Vega (α Lyrae); his results were published in 1837. Also in 1837 Bessel, using his Fraunhofer heliometer and the star 61 Cygni, found a result close to modern values, later acknowledged with the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. In 1834 Struve was named director of the new Russian observatory in Pulkovo, St. Petersburg. Struve discussed the plans with Bessel and both acquired a Repsold meridian circle. The next aim, begun in the 1840s -- after the first determination of stellar distances -- was the distribution of stars in space (in the Milky Way). For this, catalogues with not only accurate stellar positions but also brightnesses were necessary. Thanks to Bessel's thorough reformation of measuring and reduction methods, making possible high accuracy telescopic observations, Struve was able to produce important results in stellar astronomy.

  16. Carl Friedrich Gauss - General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism - a revised translation of the German text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2014-02-01

    This is a translation of the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus published by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839 in the Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins im Jahre 1838. The current translation is based on an earlier translation by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine published in 1841. This earlier translation has been revised, corrected, and extended. Numerous biographical comments on the scientists named in the original text have been added as well as further information on the observational material used by Carl Friedrich Gauss. An attempt is made to provide a readable text to a wider scientific community, a text laying the foundation of today's understanding of planetary magnetic fields.

  17. A Reflective Conversation with Terry Friedrichs on Teaching Academics to Gifted Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Terence Paul; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective interview with Terry Friedrichs--a hands-on academic-learning specialist and researcher with gifted students with Asperger Syndrome--he defines these pupils, describes their "straightforward" and confusing traits, and recounts his initial and later instructional experiences with them over several decades. The piece…

  18. Two Rival Conceptions of Vocational Education: Adam Smith and Friedrich List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines and discusses two views of political economy: (1) the classical model of Adam Smith; and (2) the social capitalist model associated with Friedrich List. Explores two varieties of vocational education and training that emerge from a comparison of Smith's and List's ideas. (CMK)

  19. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the seminal educational text for which…

  20. Friedrich Froebel's Gifts: Connecting the Spiritual and Aesthetic to the Real World of Play and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Friedrich Froebel, the German educator and founder of the Kindergarten Movement, developed a series of play materials including geometric building blocks and pattern activity blocks designed to teach children about forms and relationships found in nature. Froebel's notions about using activity and play in preschool education complement many…

  1. Friedrich Durrenmatt's Tragicomedy of the Grotesque "The Visit" in an Intermediate German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modzelewski, Jozef A.

    A description is provided of "Der Besuch," a written companion to the Houghton Mifflin Company's standard edition of the drama "Der Besuch der alten Dame (The Old Lady's Visit)," written in 1956 by the distinguished Swiss playwright Friedrich Durrenmatt. The drama is an excellent choice for any intermediate or advanced language course that seeks…

  2. The Neo-Humanistic Concept of "Bildung" Going Astray: Comments to Friedrich Schiller's Thoughts on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinterbo-Hohr, Aagot; Hohr, Hansjorg

    2006-01-01

    Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist, philosopher and publisher, was a prominent contributor to the educational neo-humanistic concept of Bildung at the threshold to Romanticism. Schiller assigns a pivotal role to the aesthetic education arguing that aesthetic activity reconciles sensuousness and reason and thereby creates the…

  3. Friedrich Paschen and the Mecklenburg ordnance survey 1853 to 1873. (German Title: Friedrich Paschen und die mecklenburgische Landesvermessung 1853 bis 1873 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard

    At the suggestion of the Prussian military geodesist Johann Jacob Baeyer, the government of Mecklenburg decided in 1853 to undertake an ordnance survey on a trigonometric basis. It appointed Friedrich Paschen (1804-1873) as the scientific and technical head of this survey. Paschen was a lawyer, but visited Gauss' lectures on mathematics, astronomy and geodesy during his student years in Göttingen. This paper gives an account of the astronomical-geodetic works. For the first time also parts of Paschen's correspondence with Gauss and other scientists is published.

  4. [Friedrich Nietzsche: history of his illness. On the 100th anniversary of the death of the poet-philosopher].

    PubMed

    Wilkes, J

    2000-04-01

    The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was one of the most famous patients in the psychiatric hospital Jena. Between 1889 and 1890, Otto Binswanger und Theodor Ziehen treated the progressive paralysis of Friedrich Nietzsche whose 100th anniversary of death is on 25th August 2000. After Nietzsche's death, an animated discussion about his disease arose. Many objected against the syphilitic diagnosis of the disease. Nietzsche's medical fill became a popular object of science, although it ended as a very odd story. PMID:10812640

  5. Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker: A Fifty-Year Friendship*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper follows Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during their fifty-year friendship from 1926, when they first met in Copenhagen, to Heisenberg's death in Munich in 1976. The relationship underwent profound changes during that period, as did physics, philosophy, and German society and politics, all of which exerted important influences on their lives, work, and interactions with each other. The nature of these developments and their impact are explored in this paper.

  6. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    PubMed

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space. PMID:24974603

  7. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb". PMID:24974611

  8. Puiseux series expansion for an eigenvalue of the generalized Friedrichs model with perturbation of rank 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakaev, Saidakhmat; Darus, Maslina; Kurbanov, Shaxzod

    2013-05-01

    A family Hμ(p), μ > 0, p\\in {T} of the generalized Friedrichs model with perturbation of rank 1, associated with a system of two particles, moving on the one-dimensional lattice {Z} is considered. The existence of a unique eigenvalue E(μ, p), of the operator Hμ(p) lying below the essential spectrum is proved. For any p from a neighborhood of the origin, the Puiseux series expansion for eigenvalue E(μ, p) at the point μ = μ(p) ⩾ 0 is found. Moreover, the asymptotics for E(μ, p) is established as μ → +∞.

  9. Vital forces and organization: philosophy of nature and biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.

    PubMed

    Gambarotto, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology. PMID:25168014

  10. [Friedrich Nietzsche: life and work in the struggle against his suffering].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Otto

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between the life, sense of mission and suffering in the work of Friedrich Nietzsche. It shows that, as early as his Basel years, he wanted to become a philosopher who was willing to transmit without fear what he considered to be true to everybody, even if he would have to suffer and remain unappreciated. He was afflicted with increasing numbers of headaches and bouts of nausea from the mid-1870s and was further handicapped by constantly deteriorating vision. The ten years before his breakdown were spent as a traveller searching for a place where his suffering could be eased. The isolation imposed on him by the illness gave him the inner freedom to break the old certainties and to offer a new myth as an alternative. His failure as a writer was compensated by an intensified and, finally, gross sense of mission which ended in mental derangement in early January 1889. PMID:17144613

  11. Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911. PMID:22572721

  12. Carl Friedrich Richard Foerster (1825-1902) - the inventor of perimeter and photometer.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sobolewska, Bianka

    2015-09-01

    Carl Friedrich Richard Foerster (1825-1902) was a German who was born in the Polish city Leszno. He studied medicine at the Medical Faculty of Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) University, and later in Heidelberg and Berlin. From 1855, he worked in Breslau, where he established in 1857 the first ophthalmology clinic. Later, he became a professor in ophthalmology, the first director of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Breslau, and even the rector of this University. Forster did many pioneering works on visual fields, invented a photometer and the first perimeter, known for many years as the Foerster perimeter. Moreover, he studied night blindness, visual field changes due to different pathologies, and many eye diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, retinal and choroidal diseases. PMID:25833059

  13. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the Bethe-Weizsäcker cycle].

    PubMed

    Wiescher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Carbon- or Bethe-Weizsäcker Cycle plays an important role in astrophysics as one of the most important energy sources for a quiescent and explosive hydrogen burning in stars. This paper presents the historical background and the contributions by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Hans Bethe who provided the first predictions of the cycle. Furthermore, it discussed the experimental verification of the predicted process in the following decades. Also discussed is the extension of the initial Carbon cycle to the CNO multi-cycles and the hot CNO cycles which followed from the detailed experimental studies of the associated nuclear reactions. Finally discussed is the impact of the experimental and theoretical results on our present understanding of hydrogen burning in different stellar environments and on our understanding of the chemical evolution of our universe. PMID:24974598

  14. Friedrich Berthold Reinke (1862-1919): brilliant yet troubled anatomist of the vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Senior, A

    2015-11-01

    Reinke's space is a critical laryngeal structure, and the eponym remains in current use in both clinical and research settings. However, little is known about the life of the German anatomist Friedrich Berthold Reinke. His name is missing from the otolaryngological histories, despite his work on the structure he described being responsible for a fundamental advance in our understanding of the larynx. Although brilliant, Reinke was described as impetuous and coarse by his colleagues, resulting in his academic career being cut short. Reinke's relative anonymity is thought to derive from the fact that he never defined himself as a laryngologist. Without question, Reinke's observations of the human vocal fold are substantive contributions, without which modern laryngology could not have evolved. This article aimed to summarise this brilliant yet troubled man's life and achievements, allowing appreciation for his singular genius and fundamental contribution to laryngology. PMID:26521816

  15. [The ambivalence concept by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - attempt at an exegesis].

    PubMed

    Laitko, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker treated the problematic implications of scientific-technological progress, emerging in the lifetime of his generation, under the key-word "ambivalence". Obviously it means a proto-theoretical, fuzzy concept that cannot be introduced explicitly per definition; starting with an intuitive perception, "ambivalence" should gradually gain meaning by using it in different argumentative contexts. Following a circular course (Kreisgang)--a procedure typical for Weizsäcker's style of thought--, he moves successively from explicit ambivalence in the application sphere of science through ambivalent features in scientists' behaviour and action up to the general ambivalence of human existence, disclosed only at an anthropological level of deliberation. The given paper delineates the ambivalence concept used by Weizsäcker during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:24974609

  16. Friedrich Berthold Reinke (1862-1919): anatomist of the vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Dräger, Désirée Louise; Branski, Ryan C; Wree, Andreas; Sulica, Lucian

    2011-05-01

    Although Reinke's space, or layer, is a critical laryngeal structure, and the eponym is in current use in both clinical and research milieus, little is known about the life of the eponymist, German anatomist Friedrich Berthold Reinke. Extensive investigation of the archives at the University of Rostock and other sources, as well as multinational collaboration, has yielded unique insight into the personal and professional life of this pioneer who, among other things, identified and characterized the subepithelial space of the vocal fold and structures in the Leydig cells of the testicles and ovaries. This breadth of investigation reflects Reinke's intellectual curiosity and broad-ranging interest as well as his scientific environment. Without question, Reinke's observations of the human vocal fold are substantive contributions, without which modern laryngology could not have evolved. In 2009, at the 90th anniversary of Reinke's death, we summarize his achievements to express our appreciation for his singular brilliance and fundamental contribution to laryngology. PMID:20488661

  17. The astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor and the Vienna Urania Observatory (The history of the Vienna Urania Observatory from its foundation to its re-opening (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - a life for astronomy). (German Title: Der Astronom Friedrich Viktor Schembor und die Wiener Urania-Sternwarte (Die Geschichte der Wiener Urania-Sternwarte von ihrer Gründung bis zu ihrer Wiedereröffnung (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - ein Leben für die Astronomie))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembor, Friedrich Wilhelm

    The Urania Observatory in Vienna and the life and workings of the Viennese astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor are the topics of this volume. The first part deals with the history of the Urania Observatory and its significance as the oldest popular observatory in Vienna for the education of adults. After a short digression on the development of popular educational activities in the 19th century, the efforts are traced that led to the establishment of the Urania Observatory. The second part deals with the biography of the astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor (1898-1942). Already at an early age he committed himself as a volunteer for popular education in astronomy. In his time as director of the Urania Observatory, he was able to guide the “Astronomische Gemeinde” (Astronomical Congregation) to scientifically useful results. Because of a vicious disease, he was given only a short time of scientific work at the Vienna University Observatory.

  18. Floquet resonant states and validity of the Floquet-Magnus expansion in the periodically driven Friedrichs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The Floquet eigenvalue problem is analyzed for periodically driven Friedrichs models on discrete and continuous space. In the high-frequency regime, there exists a Floquet bound state consistent with the Floquet-Magnus expansion in the discrete Friedrichs model, while it is not the case in the continuous model. In the latter case, however, the bound state predicted by the Floquet-Magnus expansion appears as a metastable state whose lifetime diverges in the limit of large frequencies. We obtain the lifetime by evaluating the imaginary part of the quasienergy of the Floquet resonant state. In the low-frequency regime, there is no Floquet bound state and instead the Floquet resonant state with exponentially small imaginary part of the quasienergy appears, which is understood as the quantum tunneling in the energy space.

  19. Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöhler to Hans A. Krebs.

    PubMed

    Kinne-Saffran, E; Kinne, R K

    1999-01-01

    In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler, a German physician and chemist by training, published a paper that describes the formation of urea, known since 1773 to be a major component of mammalian urine, by combining cyanic acid and ammonium in vitro. In these experiments the synthesis of an organic compound from two inorganic molecules was achieved for the first time. These results weakened significantly the vitalistic hypothesis on the functioning of living cells, although Wöhler, at that time, was more interested in the chemical consequences of isomerism than in the philosophical implications of his finding. However, the chemical synthesis observed by Wöhler does not represent the reaction which is employed in the mammalian liver for urea synthesis. The mechanism of this process was elucidated by the German physician Hans A. Krebs and his medical student Kurt Henseleit in 1932 and was shown to include the ornithine cycle. This 'urea cycle' is only observed in living cells; this apparently vitalistic phenomenon is caused by the compartmentalization of the various enzymatic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol, respectively. PMID:10213830

  20. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the interpretations of quantum theory].

    PubMed

    Stöckler, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    What are 'interpretations' of quantum theory? What are the differences between Carl Friedrich von Weizsäkcker's approach and contemporary views? The various interpretations of quantum mechanics give diverse answers to questions concerning the relation between measuring process and standard time development, the embedding of quantum objects in space ('wave-particle-dualism'), and the reference of state vectors. Does the wave function describe states in the real world or does it refer to our knowledge about nature? First, some relevant conceptions in Weizsäcker's book The Structure of Physics (Der Aufbau der Physik, 1985) are introduced. In a second step I point out why his approach is not any longer present in contemporary debates. One reason is that Weizsäcker is mainly affected by classical philosophy (Platon, Aristoteles, Kant). He could not esteem the philosophy of science that was developed in the spirit of logical empiricism. So he lost interest in disputes with Anglo-Saxon philosophy of quantum mechanics. Especially his interpretation of probability and his analysis of the collapse of the state function as change in knowledge differ from contemporary standard views. In recent years, however, epistemic interpretations of quantum mechanics are proposed that share some of Weizsäcker's intuitions. PMID:24974602

  1. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's design of a unity of physics].

    PubMed

    Görnitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As I learned in many conversations with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, he saw his place in the history of science deriving from his "Theory of Urs". This theory will establish the unity of science on the basis of quantum bits. Any attempts to find some "fundamental bricks"--of whatever kind--must fail because of the antinomies of atomism. An abstract quantum bit is a structure quantum that cannot be conceived as a particle in space and time. However, it is clear, solely for logical reasons, that a quantum bit is an ultimate and indecomposable entity. Weizsäcker's revolutionary goal was--already 50 years ago--to unite quantum theory with cosmology and, on these grounds, proceed to a theory of elementary particles. The article gives a short overview of Weizsäcker's approach to the unity of physics, ending with a brief summary of what has been achieved in that endeavour up to now. PMID:24974600

  2. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the Society of German Scientists].

    PubMed

    Bieber, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Federation of German Scientists (VDW) was founded in 1959 as West-German pendant of the Federation of American Scientists and as West-German group of the Pugwah Conferences. From the beginning, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker played a leading role in the VDW and pleaded for influencing politicians by scientifically and politically uncontestable studies, in the 1960s mainly of the effects of nuclear war and world food affairs. These studies were conducted by a research institute in Hamburg funded by external funds, industry and banks. It was the nucleus of the "Max Planck Institute for living conditions of the technical-industrial world" founded in Starnberg in 1969. Due to a "super inheritance", the research institute was continued in addition to the Starnberg institute. Young Marxist social scientists published several studies here which the executive board of the VDW disapproved of. Numerous prominent members left the VDW, donations decreased rapidly. In 1975, the research institute was closed down. PMID:24974613

  3. Model building with wind and water: Friedrich Ahlborn's photo-optical flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Hinterwaldner, Inge

    2015-02-01

    Around 1900, several experimenters investigated turbulences in wind tunnels or water basins by creating visualizations. One of them, the German zoologist Friedrich Ahlborn (1858-1937), was familiar with the works by his contemporaries but he struck a new path. He combined three different kinds of photographs taken at the same time and showed the same situation in his water trough-but each in a different way. With this first basic operation, Ahlborn heuristically opened up a previously non-existent space for experimentation, analysis, and recombination. He generated an astonishing diversity of information by adopting the tactics of 'inversions' in which he interpreted one part of the experimental setup, or its results, in different ways. Between the variants of the 'autographs' which he developed, he defined areas of intersection to be able to translate results from individual records into each other. To this end, Ahlborn created other sets of visual artifacts such as drawn diagrams, three-dimensional wire frame constructions, and clay reliefs. His working method can be described as a cascading array of successive modeling steps, as elaborated by Eric Winsberg (1999), or of inscriptions in Bruno Latour's words (Latour, 1986). By examining Ahlborn's procedures closely we propose conceptualizations for the experimenter's various operations. PMID:26109406

  4. Generalized Eigenvectors for Resonances in the Friedrichs Model and Their Associated Gamov Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgärtel, Hellmut

    A Gelfand triplet for the Hamiltonian H of the Friedrichs model on ℝ with multiplicity space { K}, dim { K}<∞ , is constructed such that exactly the resonances (poles of the inverse of the Livšic-matrix) are (generalized) eigenvalues of H. The corresponding eigen(anti)linear forms are calculated explicitly. Using the wave matrices for the wave (Möller) operators the corresponding eigen(anti)linear forms on the Schwartz space { S} for the unperturbed Hamiltonian H0 are also calculated. It turns out that they are of pure Dirac type and can be characterized by their corresponding Gamov vector λ → k/(ζ0 - λ)-1, ζ0 resonance, k∈ { K}, which is uniquely determined by restriction of { S} to { S} cap { H}+2, where { H}+2 denotes the Hardy space of the upper half-plane. Simultaneously this restriction yields a truncation of the generalized evolution to the well-known decay semigroup for t ≥ 0 of the Toeplitz type on { H}+2. That is: Exactly those pre-Gamov vectors λ → k/(ζ - λ)-1, ζ from the lower half-plane, k in { K}, have an extension to a generalized eigenvector of H if ζ is a resonance and if k is from that subspace of { K} which is uniquely determined by its corresponding Dirac type antilinear form.

  5. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's language, rhetoric and habitus].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was not only an exceptional physicist, philosopher and peace scholar, but also a skilled and articulate speaker and a highly successful author. Dozens of his books were published in tens of thousands of copies despite their highly nontrivial content. This wide impact was only possible--this at least is one of the claims made in this paper--because of his sophisticated style and rhetorics. The analysis here is based on hand-picked samples from all kinds of Weizsäcker texts (talks, scientific and popular papers and books, poems and Limericks). Strangely enough, this interesting stylistic and rhetorical facet of his oeuvre has hitherto not been analyzed in any detail despite its crucial importance in the broad impact on his multifarious audience. My paper starts out from a collection of striking features of his language and structural specialties in his published talks and speeches, and explore findings from sound recordings and film tapes which offer further insight into his manner of emphasis, usage of pauses and intonation. On the basis of these stylistic traits and their often subcutaneous, but nevertheless clever rhetorics, I close with a few remarks on the habitus of this scholar and his positioning within the ensemble of German-speaking physicists of that generation. PMID:24974596

  6. Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized. PMID:12115788

  7. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: nuclear disarmament and the search for freedom].

    PubMed

    Neuneck, Götz

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's comprehensive contributions to nuclear disarmament and arms control, as well as his peace policy impulses are to be understood primarily in the context of his family origin, his comprehensive thinking and the historical circumstances of the emerging nuclear age. They have a scientific, political and a strong philosophical-moral component. Beside the factual problems (nuclear energy, military strategy) he was interested in political power issues and their ambivalence and perception. His actual work is not only based on general academic knowledge, but also serve the immediate political influence on a scientific basis. Weizsäcker was not committed to nuclear disarmament or arms control per se, but about creating a lasting peace policy in the nuclear age. The paper discusses in chronological order of Weizsäcker's work within the policy field peace and disarmament. Family origin, study and work on the nuclear programme by Nazi-Germany laid the foundations for his later career. As a young physicist, he was directly involved in the political and ethical dilemma of the military and civilian use of nuclear energy. After the war, in Göttingen and Hamburg the reflections of the Nazi phase and the discussion of ways out of the dangers of the Cold War followed. The Max-Planck Institute in Starnberg dealt with the science-based treatment of global world problems, including the dangers of nuclear proliferation. Finally, Weizsäcker initiated a Peace Council in 1985. He urged both the perception of the moral responsibility of scientists as well as an ethics of the scientific-technological age. According to him, a general and profound change in the consciousness of humankind is needed to solve the existing power problems and the problem of war. PMID:24974615

  8. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. PMID:23900377

  9. Convergence of Lax-Friedrichs and Godunov schemes for a nonstrictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws arising in oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djoufedie, George Noel; Felaco, Elisabetta; Rubino, Bruno; Sampalmieri, Rosella

    2016-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the compactness framework and the convergence theorem for the Lax-Friedrichs and Godunov schemes applied to a {2 × 2} system of non-strictly hyperbolic nonlinear conservation laws that arises from mathematical models for oil recovery. The presence of a degeneracy in the hyperbolicity of the system requires a careful analysis of the entropy functions, whose regularity is necessary to obtain the result. For this purpose, it is necessary to combine the classical techniques referring to a singular Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation with the compensated compactness method.

  10. [Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem and his contributions to the inauguration of the thalasso-therapy in Prussia in the 18th century. A medico-historical survey].

    PubMed

    Rummler, S

    2004-06-01

    This article is dedicated in remembrance of Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem, a former student of the University Frankfurt-on-Oder (Viadrina) in later eighteenth-century Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem from Aurich, was the first physician in the period of the German Enlightenment, who had introduced the thalasso-therapy as a part of a new health-conception. His pioneering achievement led to the foundation of the first health resort on the german coast of the North-Sea in Norderney (East Frisian Islands), May 1797. PMID:15236096

  11. [Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816): remarkable organizer of health service, philosopher, sponsor, and social figure].

    PubMed

    Nogaller, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816) was one of the most eminent doctors of his time. His name was given not accidentally to one of the largest squares, a street and a bridge across the river Regnitz in Bamberg, the town where he worked more than 40 years. Markus was well-known among the population as an excellent doctor, he also was a personal doctor of Kurfürst bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal. Markus was the first principal to found a hospital affordable to everyone, where medical personnel was taught and many professors worked. He was also founder and principal of the medico-surgical school, whose program of studies was equal to those of an university. On Markus' initiative a birthhouse was founded, as well as a sheltered housing complex for the elderly and a school, as well as a social system for poor citizens. In January 1803 Markus became the head of the health department of the principality of Frankonia. On his initiative a free smallpocks vaccination for all new born was carried out. Markus brought up an annual report of medical science and numerous magazines on therapy. In his scientifical articles in different magazines he wrote about diseases of respiratory tract, skin, liver, as well as typhus and feaver. In many of his published works he appears to be a philosopher supporting a naturalistic philosophy and disagreeing with its idealistic attitude at the same time. He was the head of a literature society called "Harmony", and he supported the construction of the first theatre where E. T. A Hoffmann worked who was a friend of Markus. A. F. Markus' death 1816 put his friends and supporters into a deep grief. According to the newspapers of that time, the whole town followed the funeral procession and all the churches rang their bells goodbye. The name of A. F. Markus has an important place among the extraordinary German physicians of the late 18th and early 19th century. PMID:17153321

  12. "A talented young man" - The short life of Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817; (German Title: "Ein talentvoller junger Mann" - Das kurze Leben des Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemin, Friedhelm

    Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies' name is hardly found in the major histories of astronomy. This is not surprising since he died before the age of twenty-one. Nevertheless, and perhaps because he knew at heart that not much time was granted to him, he left an astonishingly prolific oeuvre which indicates his rich talents. His contemporaries also testify that this son af a wealthy textile merchant had a great talent. But it is idle to speculate whether he would have become a second Bessel, or just an inconspicuous high school teacher in some remote Prussian province. He experienced a decisive career advancement by the Berlin astronomer J.E. Bode, obtained his Ph.D. already at the age of nineteen, published, among other things, about the large solar eclipse of November 19, 1816, and corresponded with several professional astronomers, before he succumbed to a pulmonary disease.

  13. [A failed experiment - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Jürgen Habermas and the Max-Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Leendertz, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    From 1970 to 1980 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker headed the Max-Planck-lnstitut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPI for the study of the living conditions of the world of science and technology) in Starnberg, jointly with Jürgen Habermas since 1971. From the start, the Max Planck Society regarded the new institute as an experiment that might perhaps be aborted a few years later. This is exactly what happened. With the retirement of Weizsäcker, his section was closed and the whole institute was renamed. In 1981. Habermas resigned, and then the institute was closed. This paper focusses on some of the problem constellations within the institute that partly explain its development and eventual closure: its birth out of the idea of scientific policy advice, the debates within the Max Planck Society and the complex relationship between Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas. PMID:24974605

  14. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791-1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of 'mesmerist' influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval's 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber's 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß's story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß's biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about 'animal magnetism' to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß's recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses 'from above' and 'from below' as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period. PMID:26651186

  15. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791–1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of ‘mesmerist’ influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval’s 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber’s 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß’s story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß’s biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about ‘animal magnetism’ to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß’s recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period. PMID:26651186

  16. [Encounters and re-encounters - philosophy and religion of the physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Abich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    (1) Quantum theory deals not just with reality but with the physical (scientific) reality of its objects. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker understood this to imply that scientific knowledge of objects converges with philosophical knowledge of their objectivity but did not succeed in rounding off physics. (2) We are actors as well as spectators not only in scientific knowledge but in political processes as well, particularly by means of science. It is, therefore, not justified to deny political responsibility even in 'basic research'. Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker identified classical physics as the venture of knowledge without love but believed that this boundary could be transcended. The apparent neutrality of science must not be tolerated by the churches, however. (3) In religion Weizsäcker felt most at home in Buddhist spirituality, this being akin to Christian spirituality which has been more or less lost by the Christian churches. Yet he tried to support his church and to participate in its actions. (4) Lack of love corresponds to an excess of power in the religious critique of science. In both respects Weizsäcker presented the mirror to industrial society but people in general did not recognize their image. The Max-Planck-Society, however, shut up Weizsäcker's "Institute for the study of the conditions of life in the modern world" (Starnberg 1970-1980) as soon as possible. (5) Weizsäcker always refrained from exerting any power except that of reason or truth. According to Lao Tse this is the power least perceived as such. In politics he generally followed the mainstream after once having been tempted to action in 1941/42. His influence on German society was based on his charismatic spirituality. PMID:24974621

  17. Human and animal health on three continents--a biography of the early life of Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974).

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Karl Friedrich Meyer (KF) was born and educated as a veterinarian in Europe; he researched infectious diseases in Europe, South Africa and the United States. He is one of the true forefathers of the 'one health-one medicine' concept. The broad scope of his research covered botulism, leptospirosis, brucellosis, plague, ornithosis, Western equine encephalitis, mussel poisoning and clostridia. This manuscript adds some more details of his early biography. PMID:26032783

  18. ["... and of course my views have become more independent"--Friedrich Ratzel's letters to Ernst Haeckel, his mentor and academic colleague].

    PubMed

    Zigman, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    This article for the first time provides an edition and commentary of the letters of Friedrich Ratzel to his older colleague, teacher and mentor, Ernst Haeckel, which are kept in the archive of the Ernst-Haeckel-House (memorial museum) in Jena. Altogether fifteen letters and one postcard are presented. Haeckel's letters to Ratzel are considered to be lost. The edition is prefaced with a detailed description of Ratzel's life, career and work, as a part of the edition. PMID:20509448

  19. [Friedrich Berthold Reinke (1862-1919) : Rostock anatomist and describer of Reinke's crystals in the testis and Reinke's space in the larynx].

    PubMed

    Dräger, D L; Protzel, C; Hakenberg, O W

    2014-08-01

    The 95th anniversary of the anatomist Friedrich Berthold Reinke's death is 19 May 2014. This an excellent moment to remember his anatomical research. Two structures which he discovered and first described continue to be associated with his name: Reinke crystals of testicular Leydig cells and Reinke's space in the larynx. Reinke's crystals are crystalline protein aggregates within interstitial Leydig cells which are probably associated with testosterone production. They are pathognomonic for Leydig cell tumours. PMID:25027714

  20. KARL FRIEDRICH ZOELLNER and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry A collection of papers on the History of Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  1. Georg Friedrich Händel: a case of large vessel disease with complications in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2015-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Händel was not only one of the greatest musical giants ever but also he was probably the first composer who was also the manager and promoter of his own works. Various myths embellish his various biographies. This is also true for his pathography: several articles written by authors from various specialties suggested him having suffered from psychiatric diseases, like cyclothymia or mania, and rheumatologic disorders, like arthritis, while others tended to interpret his recurrent palsies as typical sequelae of ischemic strokes. More recently, reports proposing lead poisoning as the main source of disease in Händel gained the attention of musical and lay press. During his last years of life, Händel was struck with blindness, which in his era had been interpreted as being due to cataracts. This led to three "coucher" operations, all of them without any lasting effect. Although a definite diagnosis cannot be proven from the original sources, the most plausible explanation for Händel's palsies and visual impairment may be based on one single context, i.e., cerebrovascular disease. The possible differential diagnosis will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:25684296

  2. Carl Friedrich Naumann and the introduction of enantio terminology: a review and analysis on the 150th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Gal, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    Enantiomorphism and enantiomorphous were the first enantio-based terms, introduced 150 years ago, by Carl Friedrich Naumann, a German crystallographer, to refer to non-superposable mirror-image crystals. The terminology was not adopted by Pasteur, the discoverer of molecular chirality, and was not embraced at first in the stereochemical context, until it was accepted in 1877 by Van't Hoff in the German edition of his proposal for the tetrahedral asymmetric carbon atom. In the 1890s the use of enantio terms began to spread in the research literature, and many new derivatives of Naumann's original two terms were subsequently introduced. Problems in the usage of some of the terms are often found in the literature, e.g., enantiomorphism is sometimes confused with chirality; enantiomeric is often misused; the meaning of some of the many derived terms, e.g., enantiosymmetric, enantioposition, etc., is unclear. All in all, Naumann should be remembered as the creator of essential terminology in the realm of chirality. PMID:17096375

  3. [Living with responsibility: Max Born and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker as philosophers with distance].

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Both Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker und Max Born belong to the most active scientists, which have raised their voice for peace in the 1950s. While Born, senior to Weizsäcker by one generation, engaged in peace movements at an early stage, which was also due to his emigration, and was a driving force for the Einstein-Russell memorandum, Weizsäcker entered the stage essentially with the Göttingen declaration but quickly dominated the discourse. The comparison of their different engagements for peace sheds new light on Weizsäcker. Unlike the German emigrant with a British passport, who was mainly influenced by EInstein and Russell as well as some socialist thoughts he had encountered at an early age, the son of a noble diplomat and the physicist, who was saved from military duties because of his work in the German wartime nuclear project, had quite a different perspective on the postwar atomic threat. The relation of Born and Weizsäcker remained marked by a certain distance even when both took up very similar roles of 'public scientists' active for peace, be it as delegates at Pugwash conferences, on the air, or as speakers in the Frankfurt Paulskirche. PMID:24974612

  4. [A utopian episode - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in the networks of the Max-Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Kant, Horst; Renn, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was a key figure in the history of the Max Planck Society (MPS). This essay contextualises his work with the development of the MPS, highlighting the institutional and personal networks upon which it was based. Some of the stations addressed in the following are his role in the German Uranium Project, in preparing the Mainau Declaration, the Göttingen Manifesto, and the Memorandum of Tübingen as well as his involvement in the foundation of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Human Development and his own MPI for the Research of Living Conditions in the Modern World located in Starnberg. The relationship between Weizsäcker and Hellmut Becker, long-time friend and founding director of the MPI for Human Development, will be of particular interest. Another issue broached here is the connection between natural science and the humanities in Weizsäcker's work, and subsequently the relation between these two science cultures in the MPS. Finally, we look at the challenges Weizsäcker's work could present to the MPS today. PMID:24974604

  5. 'Tipping the Balance': Karl Friedrich Meyer, Latent Infections, and the Birth of Modern Ideas of Disease Ecology.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss-born medical researcher Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974) is best known as a 'microbe hunter' who pioneered investigations into diseases at the intersection of animal and human health in California in the 1920s and 1930s. In particular, historians have singled out Meyer's 1931 Ludwig Hektoen Lecture in which he described the animal kingdom as a 'reservoir of disease' as a forerunner of 'one medicine' approaches to emerging zoonoses. In so doing, however, historians risk overlooking Meyer's other intellectual contributions. Developed in a series of papers from the mid-1930s onwards, these were ordered around the concept of latent infections and sought to link microbial behavior to broader bio-ecological, environmental, and social factors that impact hostpathogen interactions. In this respect Meyer-like the comparative pathologist Theobald Smith and the immunologist Frank Macfarlane Burnet-can be seen as a pioneer of modern ideas of disease ecology. However, while Burnet's and Smith's contributions to this scientific field have been widely acknowledged, Meyer's have been largely ignored. Drawing on Meyer's published writings and private correspondence, this paper aims to correct that lacuna while contributing to a reorientation of the historiography of bacteriological epidemiology. In particular I trace Meyer's intellectual exchanges with Smith, Burnet and the animal ecologist Charles Elton, over brucellosis, psittacosis and plague-exchanges that not only showed how environmental and ecological conditions could 'tip the balance' in favor of parasites but which transformed Meyer thinking about resistance to infection and disease. PMID:26612760

  6. Triple differential cross sections for the ionization of water by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Istvan; Nagy, Ladislau; Campeanu, Radu I.

    2014-12-01

    Calculated triple differential cross sections are presented for the ionization of the 3a1 orbital of water by electron impact. The cross sections are determined for symmetric coplanar and non-coplanar geometrical arrangements. The obtained results show reasonable agreement with experimental data for both geometries. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejcik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  7. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): a classical case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome?

    PubMed

    Koszka, Christiane

    2009-08-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche was one of the most influential and profound German philosophers. After prolonged illness, he died at the age of 55 in Weimar, Germany. The interest in his medical biography has always been strong while the cause of his illness and death has remained a mystery, intriguing philosophers as well as physicians. The diagnosis of syphilis proposed in the 19th century has been controversial until today and many other diagnoses have been discussed. This paper suggests that Nietzsche suffered from mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome. PMID:19723969

  8. [The German physician and pacifist Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) as a pupil of the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovic Pavlov (1849-1936)].

    PubMed

    Kästner, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    In 1906, Dr. med. Georg Friedrich Nicolai, a young specialist in the field of electrocardiography from the university of Berlin, spent some months in the laboratory of Pavlov, where he was one of the first German visitors. Two letters written by Nicolai to Pavlov are a mirror of Nicolai's admiration for the brilliant Russian Nobel prize winner, but also of Nicolai's remarkable insight into the perspectives of Pavlov's physiological method for "objective" psychological investigations. Nicolai regarded himself a pupil of Pavlov until his death in South America, where he was forced to emigrate after World War I due to his pacifist activities. PMID:17153304

  9. ["The hard core". Science between politics and philosophy by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and in the finalization theory].

    PubMed

    Krohn, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In the Starnberg Max-Planck Institute one of the working groups was concerned with science as the formative condition--or "hard core"--of societal modernity, and with science as potential resource for solving social problems and addressing future goals. More precisely, the group intended to differentiate between phases in which scientific disciplines predominantly care for their own paradigmatic completion and those allowing their theoretical potential resonate with external needs. The conceptual model was coined "finalization in science". It soon provoked a heated controversy on the dangers of social control of science. The paper analyses Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's views on the relation between philosophy and policy of science including his interpretation of Thomas Kuhn and reconstructs the impact of his ideas on the finalization model. It finally reflects on the relationship between science development and change of consciousness in the context of scientific responsibility for (the use of) research outcomes. PMID:24974608

  10. [The "utopian" national socialism - a mutual dispute in the philosophy of Martin Heidegger and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker?].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    In a letter to his wife from October 14, 1943, Werner Heisenberg describes a fierce clash with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker. The sudden conflict raises numerous questions, two of which are tackled here. First: How is now the friendly relationship between Heisenberg and Weizsäcker in the postwar years to be understood? The answer is: as a strategic performance. Second: How are the radical opinions to be explained that Weizsäcker expressed at the time? A thorough reconstruction of the lifelong connection that Weizsäcker maintained with Martin Heidegger and Heidegger's philosophy gives the answer: the young Weizsäcker was fired up by the "utopian" National Socialism with which Heidegger trumped the real existing. PMID:24974620

  11. ["World domestic policy" as a way to eternal peace? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's realistic idealism as theory of a sustainable policy].

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this article is to show the suitability of "Weltinnenpolitik" (world domestic policy) as an analytic and programmatic view on contemporary policy. A full reconstruction or comparison of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's concept is not at the focus. As mentioned in other contributions to this volume, Weizsäcker did not refer to the disciplinary discourses in detail. His approach is particularly 'unique' since he set about in 1963 to study the conditions of peace in a very general way. By doing so, he was able to circumscribe the conditions of peace realistically: those valid for us today and apparently also in the future. Weizsäcker probably did underestimate the complexity of the transformation to sustainable politics for preventing climate change. Vice versa one should hope that we today do not discount the prevention of atomic war as a sine qua non for sustainable climate-saving policy. Both could mark the quintessential conditions for peace. PMID:24974610

  12. [Living without atomic power? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker as expert in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970's].

    PubMed

    Seefried, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker crossed the boundaries separating science, politics and the public sphere. In this he was led by the conviction that scientists in the modern 'technical age' are responsible for consequences resulting from their applied knowledge. Weizsäcker tried to introduce his knowledge into the policy process by advising politicians or by using the public sphere, thus applying pressure on politics. This was not only true for the 'Göttinger Erklärung' in 1957 but also for his engagement in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970s. Influenced by the 'Limits to Growth' discourse, Weizsäcker more and more gravitated towards an ecological world view and increasingly questioned material growth as well as a techno-scientific based understanding of progress. Weizsäcker thought about risks of the technical age in general and of the use of nuclear energy in particular. In the light of a growing fragmentation of scientific authority, Weizsäcker revealed uncertainty as he became fully aware that expertise cannot be based on scientific reason and cannot code the problems in terms of truth, but is inextricably linked with value spheres and contingencies. Nevertheless, his expertise was utilized as he encouraged parts of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) around Erhard Eppler to think about alternatives in energy policy. PMID:24974614

  13. [Friedrich Panse: well established in all systems. Psychiatrist in the Weimar Republic, in the Third Reich, and in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    PubMed

    Forsbach, R

    2012-03-01

    The psychiatrist Friedrich Panse (1899-1973) was a T4 assessor during the Nazi era who sent mentally disabled and mentally ill people to their deaths. In the German Armed Forces he used higher galvanic currents to cure "war neurotics" and expose "malingerers." As a National Socialist he was a committed teacher of racial hygiene. Nonetheless, after the end of the Nazi regime many supporters quickly surfaced who were prepared to exonerate Panse. Panse himself was not among those who indignantly repudiated the accusation of any contact with the Nazi Party. He did not deny that he had openly embraced the Nazi measures for preserving the genetic integrity of the populace, but he did let it be known that he had suffered incredibly under the heavy burden. The State Government of North Rhine-Westphalia refused to allow Panse to continue in his capacity as an extraordinary professor. Panse successfully contested this decision at the State Administrative Court in Düsseldorf. He became the Director of the Institution in Düsseldorf-Grafenberg, the Psychiatric Clinic in Düsseldorf, a member of the German Council of Medical Advisors for questions regarding care for war victims of the German Federal Ministry of Labor, and President of the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology. PMID:22399062

  14. Authorities and foundation of the orthopaedic school in Germany in the 19th century: part II: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, Friedrich Trendelenburg and other German authors.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The national achievements of the orthopaedic school of Germany became international in the second part of the 19th century, and from 1860 through 1914 its educational system attracted many physicians and surgeons from all over the world. During this period of 50 years, German surgeons asserted their dominance in orthopaedic surgery, particularly with four famous surgeons: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, and Friedrich Trendelenburg. They held annual meetings, during which papers were read and discussed. We also present contributions to orthopaedic sciences of the other German authors during 19th century according to different cities. PMID:26585866

  15. Two-electron exchange interaction between polar molecules and atomic ions — Asymptotic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbovanets, Oleksandr M.; Karbovanets, Myroslav I.; Khoma, Mykhaylo V.; Lazur, Volodymyr Yu.

    2015-05-01

    We have described the asymptotic approach for calculation of the two-electron exchange interaction between atomic ion and polar molecule responsible for direct double electron transfer processes. The closed analytic expression for matrix element of exchange interaction has been obtained in the framework of the semiclassical version of the asymptotic theory and point-dipole approximation for description of the polar molecule. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Štefan Matejčik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  16. Electron-impact-induced tryptophan molecule fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamuliene, Jelena; Romanova, Liudmila G.; Vukstich, Vasyl S.; Papp, Alexander V.; Snegursky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of a gas-phase tryptophan molecule by a low-energy (<70 eV) electron impact was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Various positively charged fragments were observed and analyzed. A special attention was paid to the energy characteristics of the ionic fragment yield. The geometrical parameters of the initial molecule rearrangement were also analyzed. The fragmentation observed was due to either a simple bond cleavage or more complex reactions involving molecular rearrangements. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejcik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  17. [Data on the history of the Pathology Department of the Berlin Charité Hospital. 2. Robert Friedrich Froriep, prosector at Charité, 1833-1846].

    PubMed

    Krietsch, P

    1990-01-01

    An account is given in this publication of the activities of Robert Friedrich Froriep (1804-1861), Prosector at Charité Berlin. He headed the Prosector's Department from 1833 through 1846. Froriep had come to Berlin in 1831 with intentions to do research, primarily on cholera with which the city had been afflicted in those years. When the position of a "Provisional Prosector" of Charité became vacant, after withdrawal of Philipp Phoebus, autumn 1832, the officials of the Hospital Affairs Curatory decided to continue the provisional arrangement, and five candidates applied for the office. Froriep was accepted primarily for two reasons: He had just completed service as an extraordinary professor at the Berlin Faculty of Medicine, and he was capable of producing evidence to the double-track education desired for the job, anatomy and scientific drawing. The Prosector's office was a low-salary side job. Therefore, to ensure his own livelihood, he went into two additional occupations, teaching of anatomic drawing at the Academy of Fine Arts and running of a private clinic. Froriep did extremely well in firmly establishing the Prosector's Department by enhancement of its scope and enlargement of its collection of pathologic-anatomic specimens. He failed, on the other hand, in his attempts to establish pathological anatomy as a subject in its own right at the Berlin Faculty of Medicine. That failure together with insecurity regarding the Prosector's office and position in the hierarchic system of Charité, compounded by protracted disputes between him and Johannes Müller on the Prosector's collection of specimens were causes for Froriep's aggravating frustration towards the late thirties. He also failed in trying to stabilize his scientific and financial positions by accepting directorship of a surgical department. The totality of problems in Berlin and illness of his father in Weimar prompted him to move to Weimar, in spring 1846, to take over as a manager of the

  18. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - supporter of the concept of the East German movement in favor of self-organization during the political turning point 1989/90].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's holistic thinking in the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) is reviewed. Broad-minded academics sought, in accordance with the modern paradigm of self-organization, beyond the ideological template for ways out of the dead end of incrustations of society and innovation blockages under the constraints of a dictatorship. Right after the fall of the wall, Weizsäcker willingly backed a "community of free researchers for self-organization" (Freie Forschungsgemeinschaft Selbstorganisation, FFGSO). This group, conceived as a nonpartisan "think tank" of civil activism, is also discussed. At a number of its meetings Weizsäcker debated the dangers of ideologically influenced science. The effectiveness of the dual leadership at his own Starnberg Institute, for instance, was stymied by the tensions arisen out of such conflicting aims. Against the voluntaristic anticipations of the mainstream in sociology, precisely that system proved to be more viable that was meant to be overcome: faulty and purportedly futureless capitalism. Weizsäcker repudiated social prognoses made in the absence of rules for their falsification resp. verification. Weizsäcker acted as a leading figure at the FFGSO's Potsdam conference, opened on 30 Mar. 1990, on the "DDR--and afterwards?". Its intention was in order to trigger a nationwide discussion of scientific scenarios in designing German unification in the face of gross practical disparities between East and West Germany. The Trust Agency inspired by the FFGSO at the Round Table between opposition and old government was supposed to transfer the national public property "Volkseigentum" of the DDR into private property of the East German citizens, to enable them to realize a role as subject through self-organization. At the group's request, Weizsäcker mediated the readiness by the Lutheran World Federation to assume the role of ombudsman in anticipation of conflicts of interest within the

  19. Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784-1846)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, geodesist, mathematician, born in Minden, Westphalia, Germany. At the age of 26, became director of Frederick William III of Prussia's new Konigsberg Observatory, where he remained for the rest of his life. Published (1838) the first recognizedly accurate stellar parallax (of 61 Cygni), the earliest accurate method for measuring stellar distances (10 light years for 61 Cygni) (but see...

  20. Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm August (1799-1875)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Memel, East Prussia. Director of the Bonn Observatory, where he organized a survey of the position of all 324 198 stars of the northern hemisphere above the ninth magnitude, published as the star charts and catalogs of the Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). His assistant, Eduard Schönfeld (1828-91), made the extension (BDE) into the southern sky. It is staggering to think about this ...

  1. An unrecognized renal physiologist: Friedrich Wöhler.

    PubMed

    Richet, G

    1995-01-01

    Wöhler, in 1828, was the first chemist to synthesize urea. In 1824, towards the end of his medical studies, he had already published an important article on the renal excretion of some 41 substances administered orally or parenterally and on the links between their renal excretion and their metabolism: salts of potassium are excreted either reduced or oxidized, urine can be acidic when the blood is alkaline, the rate of water excretion is influenced by the rate of substances excreted in the same form as they are administered. He adumbrated the general concepts on the role of the kidney in the maintenance of the composition of the body. Had he continued in this direction, Wöhler would have been recognized not only as a remarkable chemist but also as a great physiologist. PMID:8546178

  2. Zöllner, Johann Karl [Carl] Friedrich (1834-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Leipzig, was a pioneer solar astronomer, classifying solar prominences. He first suggested that the spectral types of stars represent an evolutionary sequence, starting hot and cooling. This idea was taken up with variations by H C VOGEL and NORMAN LOCKYER....

  3. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - the astronomer as a poet; (German Title: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel - der Astronom als Poet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, Dietmar

    This contribution illuminates a hitherto unknown side of the famous astronomer Bessel: his delight in occasionally writing poetry. These poems were thought to be of private use only, in particular as rhymed answers to his intimate correspondent Heinrich Christian Schumacher.

  4. Electron-induced ionization and dissociative ionization of iron pentacarbonyl molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacko, Michal; Papp, Peter; Wnorowski, Karol; Matejčík, Štefan

    2015-03-01

    Electron ionization (EI) and dissociative ionization (DI) of Iron pentacarbonyl molecule (Fe(CO)5) was studied using a crossed molecular and electron beam mass spectrometry technique. Positive ions FeO(CO)+, FeC(CO)2+ and CO+ of Fe(CO)5 were detected for the first time. We have determined the experimental appearance energies of positive ions, the thresholds for dissociative reactions, the experimental bond dissociation energies for (CO)nFe+-CO bond breaks (for n = 4,..., 0) and their average value for Fe-C bond energy 1.25 eV in Fe(CO)5+. We have performed extensive density functional theory (DFT) studies of the ground states of neutral molecule and fragments 1 A1' Fe(CO)5, 3B1 Fe(CO)4, 3A1Fe(CO)3, 3∑g Fe(CO)2, 3 ∑FeCO as well as positive ions 2A1 Fe(CO)5+, 4A1 Fe(CO)4+, 4A1 Fe(CO)3+, 4∑g Fe(CO)2+ and 4 ∑ FeCO+. The structures and energies of the states have beendetermined and the calculated bond dissociation energies (BDEs) were compared with present experiments as well as with previous works. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejick, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  5. Dissociative excitation study of iron pentacarbonyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribar, Anita; Danko, Marián; Országh, Juraj; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Utke, Ivo; Matejčík, Štefan

    2015-04-01

    The processes of dissociative excitation (DE) and dissociative ionisation with excitation (DIE) of iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, have been studied using a crossed electron-molecule beam experimental apparatus (Electron Induced Fluorescence Apparatus, EIFA). Using EIFA we were able to record the emission spectrum of the molecule in the UV-VIS range, as well as the photon efficiency curves initiated by electron impact. The emission spectrum of Fe(CO)5 initiated by impact of 50 eV electrons was recorded in the spectral range between 200 nm and 470 nm. It shows a high density of emission lines and bands (mainly iron lines and carbonyl bands). Additionally, we have measured photon efficiency curves (PECs) as a function of the electron impact energy for several lines and bands. On the basis of the PECs we have discussed the reaction mechanism and the energetics of the reactions associated with the DE and DIE processes. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Štefan Matejčík, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  6. Photoionization dynamics of the C2+ ion in Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancalie, Viorica

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this work is to examine in detail the ionization dynamics of Be-like C ion in Rydberg states. An initial calculation has been done to output the lifetime due to spontaneous decay for unperturbed 1s22sns (1Se) Rydberg states using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with configuration interaction option implemented in the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP). Both the C2+ ground state and the C3+ target state energies have been carefully calculated. We report results from a detailed and systematic study of the behaviour of complex photoionization amplitudes, the lifetime due to spontaneous decay for unperturbed 1s22sns (1Se) Rydberg states, the `resonant' phase shift and the rapidly increasing of this shift from well below to well above the resonance position. The sum-over-state method is used to calculate the static dipole polarizability, while the frequency-dependent polarizability values of C2+ ion in these Rydberg states are obtained from two-state model calculation results. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejcik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  7. Childhood, Philosophy and Play: Friedrich Schiller and the Interface between Reason, Passion and Sensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Philosophy for Children claims to foster not only critical thinking, but also creative and caring thinking. However, its theoretical foundations draw mainly on the analytic and pragmatist philosophical tradition. Consequently, and made evident by the choice of the terms "caring thinking" and "creative thinking", it seem to reduce these concepts…

  8. Going to School with Friedrich Nietzsche: The Self in Service of Noble Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacek, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand Nietzsche's pedagogy of self-overcoming and to determine its true import for contemporary education, it is necessary to understand Nietzsche's view of the self that is to be overcome. Nevertheless, previous interpretations of self-overcoming in the journals of the philosophy of education have lacked serious engagement with…

  9. [The symptomatic psychosis of Friedrich Nietzsche, made evident by his last attempt at an autobiography].

    PubMed

    Peters, U H

    1990-01-01

    Nietzsche's autobiography gestates neither conflicts, nor life problems, nor matter suppressed from his subconscious, nor are the speech distortions of the schizophrenic patient to be found. In all, analysis allows with certainty the conclusion that is was written by a sick person suffering from a psycho-organic disorder of the kind Bonhoeffer referred to by the general term "symptomatic psychosis". PMID:2184449

  10. What Friedrich Nietzsche Cannot Stand about Education: Toward a Pedagogy of Self-Reformulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Examines Nietzsche's rejection of mass education, arguing that it was based on his desire for education to be more self- reformulative than he thought possible, and concluding that education in schools is beneficial because it can foster radical forms of selfhood. This process can begin by listening to Nietzsche's philosophy while ignoring his…

  11. The relationship of Carl Friedrich Gauss with his Hungarian scientist friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargha, Magda

    Gauss had been in close contact with four Hungarian astronomers: Farkas Bolyai, Franz Xaver von Zach, János Pasquich and Pál Tittel. All these friendships were different from each other, if only because of the various ages and social standings in which these Hungarians lived. Gauss had always shown great interest in the latter. With the exception of Pasquich, all three friendships had started out as close, and in the end Gauss had repaid poorly what he received. His correspondence with Pasquich was quite different. Towards the end of his contact with Pasquich, Gauss had lifted himself above his usual indifference. With the help of his German astronomer friends, Gauss did everything he could to vindicate Pasquich, who had been accused in front of the whole astronomical community of publishing invented observations.

  12. Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) and the origins of modern meteorite research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1996-09-01

    In 1794, Ernst F. F. Chladni published a 63-page book Über den Ursprung der von Pallas gefundenen und anderer ihr änlicher Eisenmassen und über einige damit in Verbindung stehende Naturerscheinungen in which he proposed that meteor-stones and iron masses enter the atmosphere from cosmic space and form fireballs as they plunge to Earth. These ideas violated two strongly held contemporary beliefs: (1) fragments of rock and metal do not fall from the sky, and (2) no small bodies exist in space beyond the Moon. From the beginning, Chladni was severely criticised for basing his hypotheses on historical eyewitness reports of falls which others regarded as folk tales and for taking gross liberties with the laws of physics. Eight years later, the study of fallen stones and irons was established as a valid field of investigation. Today, some scholars credit Chladni with founding meteoritics as a science; others regard his contributions as scarcely worthy of mention. Writings by his contemporaries suggest that Chladni's book alone would not have led to changes of prevailing theories; thus, he narrowly escaped the fate of those scientists who propose valid hypotheses prematurely. However between 1794 and 1798, four falls of stones were witnessed and widely publicized. There followed a series of epoch-making analyses of fallen stones and "native irons" by the chemist Edward C. Howard and the mineralogist Jacques-Louis de Bournon. They showed that all the stones were much alike in texture and composition but significantly different from the Earth's known crustal rocks. Of primary importance was Howard's discovery of nickel in the irons and the metal grains of the stones. This linked the two as belonging to the same natural phenomenon. The chemical results, published in 1802 February, persuaded leading scientists in England, France, and Germany that bodies fall from the sky. Within a few months, chemists in France reported similar results and a new field of study was inaugurated internationally—although opposition lingered on until 1803 April, when nearly 3,000 stones fell at L'Aigle in Normandy and transformed the last skeptics into believers. Chladni immediately received full credit for his hypothesis of falls, but decades passed before his linking of falling bodies with fireballs received general acceptance. His hypothesis of their origin met with strong resistance from those who argued that stones formed within the Earth's atmosphere or were ejected by lunar volcanoes. After 1860, when both of these hypotheses were abandoned, there followed a century of debate between proponents of an interstellar vs. a planetary origin. Not until the 1950s did conclusive evidence of their elliptical orbits establish meteorite parent bodies as members of the solar system. Thus, nearly 200 years passed before the questions of origin that Chladni raised finally were resolved.

  13. Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974): His ambitions, approach and achievements.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Urs

    2016-02-01

    Karl Meyer was one of the outstanding scientists in the areas of medical and veterinary microbiology, infectious diseases, pathology, epidemiology, ecology, academic education and public health during the first half of the 20th century. He was an exceptional scientist with an enormous drive to deepen knowledge and understanding, in the interest of the people, to improve diagnosis and treatment of many zoonoses including prevention and improvement in health laws. This paper presents a survey of the extraordinarily wide-ranging achievements of Meyer and his systems approach. PMID:24585625

  14. My favorite aromatic compounds--a tribute to friedrich August Kekulé.

    PubMed

    Hopf, Henning

    2014-10-01

    [For a discussion of this picture, please see the Editor's postscript at the end of the paper] Note from the Editor: We are all collectors. All one needs to do is explore a flea market, an antique fair or especially a weekend street market to understand the range of human collections. Tetsuo Nozoe, whom this project celebrates, collected autographs as well as the friendship of those who signed his books! What we collect doesn't necessarily have to be tangible. We all collect memories, stories, and anecdotes. We chemists are particularly privileged: we also collect molecules and reactions. In the essay that follows, Professor Henning Hopf shares with us his collection of favorite aromatic compounds. Hopf is the perfect chemist to have undertaken this sharing, for he has been active in the field of novel aromatic compounds for over four decades. Furthermore, Hopf is a deeply philosophical scientist. I very much admire his 2008 paper with Roald Hoffmann, "Learning from Molecules in Distress" published in Angewandte Chemie, a journal from the same pubilshers as The Chemical Record. As you read the paper that follows, imagine that Professor Hopf has just welcomed you to his home and is giving you a tour of his artwork. The walls are covered with works of Boekelheide, Cram, Fittig, Hückel, Kuck, Müllen, Newman, Scott, and Willstätter among others. Oh, yes, there's a Hopf or two! Enjoy your time in this very special museum. -Jeffrey I. Seeman Guest Editor University of Richmond Richmond, Virginia 23173, USA E-mail: jseeman@richmond.edu. PMID:25205433

  15. Controlling Vision - The Photometry of Karl Friedrich Zoellner PhD Thesis, with an Appendix with photographic illustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staubermann, K. B.

    Using my training as an astronomer and drawing on resources such as museums, instrument collections, and archives, I have rebuilt Zoellner's astro-photometer designed by Zoellner in the late 1850s when he was working for his doctoral thesis at Basel University. The photometer was designed to compare an artificial star with a real star by means of a half-transparent screen which allowed simultaneously observation of the two together. The brightness and colour of the artificial star could be matched those of the real star by means of polarisation. After completing his instrument Zoellner observed with it at Berlin for almost two years. I have both replicated the instrument and carried out observations following Zoellner's own records. The replication of the instrument included all its optical components, the brass and wooden parts and the town gas used to produce the artificial star. This dissertation will follow the line of investigation of historical practice. The beginnings of nineteenth-century photometry will be presented, followed by a description of the Zoellner photometer, its replication and the observations carried out with the replica. I will contextualize my work based on my insights with the photometer, and then trace its career through the second half of the nineteenth century.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DB white dwarfs from the Hamburg/ESO survey (Friedrich+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, S.; Koester, D.; Christlieb, N.; Reimers, D.; Wisotzki, L.

    2000-11-01

    We present an analysis of 40 cool helium-rich white dwarfs found in the Hamburg/ESO survey. They were selected for follow-up spectroscopy because of their U-B colour below -0.18, the absence of strong absorption lines, and a continuum shape similar to that of a quasar. Effective temperatures for individual stars were determined by fitting model atmospheres of nearly pure helium with a small admixture of hydrogen. As a consequence of the selection criteria all but one sample stars have Teff below 20000K. Four stars clearly show helium and hydrogen lines in their spectra. In the spectra of another three, helium, hydrogen, and metal lines can be detected. For these stars hydrogen and metal abundances were also determined by fitting appropriate model atmospheres containing these elements. Seven sample stars most likely have helium-rich atmospheres but do not show any helium lines. They either have featureless spectra or show calcium lines. (4 data files).

  17. [The "secret book" of Dr Friedrich Benjamin Osiander: anonymous births in the Göttingen Accouchierhaus, 1794-1819].

    PubMed

    Schlumbohm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The problem of anonymous or confidential deliveries, a subject of current controversy, has a long history. Some maternity hospitals offered the possibility for "clandestine" births as early as the 18th and 19th century. A recently emerged source about the maternity clinic of Göttingen University allows insight into the motives that led to keeping a birth secret and the consequences of such a clandestine birth for mother, father and child. The director of the institution, a professor of obstetrics, wrote case reports on the women, who paid a handsome sum for his help and the in-patient care they received. In return, these women could be admitted under a pseudonym, and thus falsify their child's birth certificate; moreover they were not used as teaching material for medical students and midwife apprentices, whereas "regular" patients had to give their names and, in return for being treated free of charge, be available for teaching purposes. The ten cases that have been painstakingly investigated reveal that the reasons that led the women and men to opt for an anonymous birth were manifold, that they used this offer in different ways and with different consequences. All of these pregnancies were illegitimate, of course. In one case the expectant mother was married. In several cases it would be the father who was married. Most of the women who gave birth secretly seem to have given the professor their actual details and he kept quiet about them--with the exception of one case where he revealed the contents of the case report many years later in an alimony suit. Only one of the men admitted paternity openly, but many revealed their identity implicitly by registering the pregnant woman or by accompanying her to the clinic. If the birth was to be kept secret the child needed to be handed over to foster parents. By paying a lump sum that covered the usual fourteen years of parenting, one mother was able to avoid any later contact with her son. In most cases contact seems to have been limited to the payment of this boarding money. One of the couples married later and took in the twins that had been born clandestinely out of wedlock. One mother kept close contact with her son through intermediaries. All of the women who gave birth in this clandestine fashion received practical as well as financial support, often from the child's father or from a relative. Few of them came by themselves. In those days, only women who used the maternity hospital free of charge would have been as isolated in the difficult perinatal period as are women today who choose to deliver their babies anonymously. PMID:25134255

  18. Friedrich Miescher Prize awardee lecture review. A conserved family of nuclear export receptors mediates the exit of messenger RNA to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Izaurralde, E

    2001-07-01

    The distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells is the segregation of RNA biogenesis and DNA replication in the nucleus, separate from the cytoplasmic machinery for protein synthesis. As a consequence, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and all cytoplasmic RNAs from nuclear origin need to be transported from their site of synthesis in the nucleus to their final cytoplasmic destination. Nuclear export occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and is mediated by saturable transport receptors, which shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The past years have seen great progress in the characterization of the mRNA export pathway and the identification of proteins involved in this process. A novel family of nuclear export receptors (the NXF family), distinct from the well-characterized family of importin beta-like proteins, has been implicated in the export of mRNA to the cytoplasm. PMID:11529502

  19. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital. PMID:26294002

  20. Knowledge Management to Exploit Agrarian Resources as Part of Late-Eighteenth-Century Cultures of Innovation: Friedrich Casimir Medicus and Franz Von Paula Schrank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popplow, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to a recent strain of research that questions clear-cut dichotomies between "scientists" and "artisans" in the early modern period. With a focus on the exploitation of agrarian resources, it argues for the appreciation of a more complex panorama of intersecting knowledge systems spanning from botany as part of natural…

  1. Media Development and Economic Crisis. Communication Manual. Proceedings of a Panel Discussion Organized by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung and North-South Forum (Bonn, West Germany, September 19, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaura, Ramesh, Ed.; And Others

    The discussion presented in this booklet was organized to foster international understanding by encouraging a genuine dialogue between the industrialized nations of the northern hemisphere and the developing nations in the southern hemisphere. The first section of the booklet presents introductory statements by the chairperson of the North-South…

  2. Advances in empirically based assessment: revised cross-informant syndromes and new DSM-oriented scales for the CBCL, YSR, and TRF: comment on Lengua, Sadowksi, Friedrich, and Fischer (2001).

    PubMed

    Achenbach, T M; Dumenci, L

    2001-08-01

    L. Lengua et al. (2001) proposed scoring the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; T. Achenbach, 1991b) on dimensions that "correspond to current conceptualizations of child symptomatology," (p. 695) embodied in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; 4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994). They concluded that their "results support the use of the new dimensions." Yet, their regressions and diagnostic efficiency statistics showed that DSM diagnoses were predicted less well by their dimensions than by CBCL syndromes that reflect actual patterns of problems. Not only these findings, but also the high correlations of their dimensions with CBCL syndromes and the lack of norms and validated clinical cutoffs for their dimensions, argue against use of their dimensions. To advance assessment and taxonomy, new national samples have been used to construct DSM-oriented scales and to revise cross-informant syndromes. PMID:11550735

  3. When One Biographer "Borrows" from Another, the Dispute Gets Philosophical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Mark Anderson, a professor of philosophy at Belmont University, publishes an account of Nietzsche's life and work. He remembered liking "Friedrich Nietzsche" (Overlook Press, 2005), by the late independent scholar Curtis Cate, so he started rereading that one. But then he had second thoughts. After all, "Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical…

  4. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  5. Neuronal Spoken Word Recognition: The Time Course of Processing Variation in the Speech Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Ulrike; Roder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent neurobiological studies revealed evidence for lexical representations that are not specified for the coronal place of articulation (PLACE; Friedrich, Eulitz, & Lahiri, 2006; Friedrich, Lahiri, & Eulitz, 2008). Here we tested when these types of underspecified representations influence neuronal speech recognition. In a unimodal…

  6. Chapter in book "Many Body Structure of Strongly Interacting Systems, Refereed and Selected Contributions from the Symposium '20 Years of Physics at the Mainz Microtron MAMI,'" Part I, Editors: Arenhövel, H.; Backe, H.; Drechsel, D.; Friedrich, J.; Kaiser, K.-H.; Walcher, Th., p.7-17 (contribution entitled Physics at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Cardman

    2006-09-01

    The Continuous Electron Accelerator Facility, CEBAF, located at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, is devoted to the investigation of the electromagnetic structure of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using high energy, high duty-cycle electron and photon beams. Selected experimental results of particular interest to the MAMI community are presented.

  7. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  8. Killing Initial Data on spacelike conformal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetz, Tim-Torben

    2016-08-01

    We analyze Killing Initial Data on Cauchy surfaces in conformally rescaled vacuum space-times satisfying Friedrich's conformal field equations. As an application, we derive the KID equations on a spacelike ℐ-.

  9. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  10. Generation of inflow data for inhomogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peter S.; Andersson, Helge I.

    2004-11-01

    Inflow boundary conditions for turbulent plane channel flow are generated by solving evolution equations only for the most energetic eddies. The dynamical systems are derived by Galerkin projecting the Navier-Stokes equations onto the subspaces spanned by various sets of the most energetic modes from a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the same flow. Low-energy small-scale POD-modes are added randomly in order to impose some energy in the high wave number range. This is found to be crucial in order to more rapidly establish the correct level of dissipation and achieve a more realistic distribution of energy between the velocity components. The method is tested on a DNS of R*=180 and a LES of R*=400. Statistics such as mean velocity, rms-profiles, turbulent shear-stress and energy spectra become close to the fully developed state within 1500 wall units downstream the inlet.

  11. The essential and discrete spectrum of a model operator associated to a system of three identical quantum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Lakaev, Saidakhmat N.; Djumanova, Ramiza Kh.

    2009-06-01

    A model operator H associated to a system of three identical quantum particles on the three-dimensional lattice ℤ 3 is considered. The existence of eigenvalues lying below the essential spectrum of a family of Friedrichs models under rank-one perturbations h μα(p) , p∈T , α = 1, 2, is established. The essential spectrum of the operator H is described by the spectrum of the family of the Friedrichs models h μα(p) , p∈T , α = 1, 2. The following results are proven: The operator H has a finite number of eigenvalues lying below zero, if at least one of the Friedrichs models hμα(0), α = 1, 2, has a zero energy resonance. The operator H has infinitely many eigenvalues lying below zero and accumulating at zero, if both operators hμα(0), α = 1,2, have zero energy resonances.

  12. Two-dimensional shallow water equations by composite schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, Richard; Wendroff, Burton

    1999-06-01

    Composite schemes are formed by global composition of several Lax-Wendroff steps followed by a diffusive Lax-Friedrichs or WENO step, which filters out the oscillations around shocks typical for the Lax-Wendroff scheme. These schemes are applied to the shallow water equations in two dimensions. The Lax-Friedrichs composite is also formulated for a trapezoidal mesh, which is necessary in several example problems. The suitability of the composite schemes for the shallow water equations is demonstrated on several examples, including the circular dam break problem, the shock focusing problem and supercritical channel flow problems. Copyright

  13. Montaigne, Nietzsche, and the Mnemotechnics of Student Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores the educational implications of the thought of Michel de Montaigne and Friedrich Nietzsche on the subject of memory. It explores the sorts of cultural memory practices that Nietzsche has called "mnemotechnics", that is, the aspects of memory use that allow human beings to live life more fully. Nietzsche and Montaigne's work is…

  14. Quasioptimality of some spectral mixed methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayadeep; Demkowicz, L. F. Leszek F.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we construct a sequence of projectors into certain polynomial spaces satisfying a commuting diagram property with norm bounds independent of the polynomial degree. Using the projectors, we obtain quasioptimality of some spectral mixed methods, including the Raviart-Thomas method and mixed formulations of Maxwell equations. We also prove some discrete Friedrichs type inequalities involving curl.

  15. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  16. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  17. Validating a Psychology as a Helping Profession Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervasio, Amy Herstein; Wendorf, Craig A.; Yoder, Natalie F.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an 11-item Psychology as a Helping Profession (PHP) scale that measured aspects of personal growth/helping skills and applied helping. The scale was only weakly correlated with Friedrich's (1996) Psychology as Science (PAS) scale, implying that the 2 scales measure different conceptions of the nature of psychology. Psychology majors…

  18. LAYER DEPENDENT ADVECTION IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advection methods used in CMAQ require that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition be satisfied for numerical stability and accuracy. In CMAQ prior to version 4.3, the ADVSTEP algorithm established CFL-safe synchronization and advection timesteps that were uniform throu...

  19. Art, Water, and the Environment: Hundertwasser and Ukiyo-e

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    This brief article explores the work of Friedrich Stowasser (1928-2000), an Austrian artist who modified his name throughout his career, eventually settling upon the invented name of Friedensreich Hundertwasser. Both Hundertwasser's original Slavic surname and his invented surname mean about the same: hundred waters. Both names illustrate the…

  20. Seminar on the Role of Communication in the Euro-Arab Dialogue, Cairo, December 18-21, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Bonn (West Germany).

    Presented in this booklet are descriptions of the sessions at a seminar on the role of communication in European-Arab relations, organized by the German Friedrich Ebert Foundation in collaboration with the Ministry of Information of Egypt. Following an introduction and a list of items on the seminar agenda, the booklet describes the opening…

  1. None So Blind: Early Childhood Education and Care--The Connective Tissue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The author makes sense of the story of his professional life through the eyes of several important writers and teachers on education and says that, for him, Bridget Plowden ranks alongside John Dewey, Friedrich Froebel, Ben Morris and A.S. Neill.

  2. Pre-School Education in Egypt, Oman and Japan: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    This paper examines preschool education in Egypt, Oman, and Japan in the light of the comparative education approach developed by George Bereday utilizing description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. The literature of early childhood education is surveyed, beginning with the three most influential pioneers: Friedrich Wilhelm…

  3. A (R)evaluation of Nietzsche's Anti-Democratic Pedagogy: The Overman, Perspectivism, and Self-Overcoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that Friedrich Nietzsche's concept of self-overcoming has been largely misinterpreted in the philosophy of education journals. The misinterpretation partially stems from a misconstruction of Nietzsche's perspectivism, and leads to a conception of self-overcoming that is inconsistent with Nietzsche's educational ideals. To…

  4. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the Aesthetically Sublime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenabeele, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Much has been written on the relationship between Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. Much remains to be said, however, concerning their respective theories of the sublime. In this article, the author first argues against the traditional, dialectical view of Schopenhauer's theory of the sublime that stresses the crucial role the sublime…

  5. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's "Leviathan."…

  6. "Nietzsche als Erzieher" Kontra "Nietzsche in der Padagogik?" Ein Vergleich der Anglo-Amerikanischen un der Deutschen Nietzshe-Interpretationen am Vorabend des 21. Jahrhunderts ("Nietzsche as Educator" versus "Nietzsche in Pedagogics?" A Comparison of Anglo-American and German Readings of Nietzsche at the Dawning of the 21st Century).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Eliyahu

    2000-01-01

    Examines the pedagogical interpretations of Friedrich Nietzsche published during the past two decades in German and English comparing the pedagogical characterizations in these publications. States that German researchers exclude him from educational theory and philosophy. Reveals the cultural differences in pedagogical reflection. (CMK)

  7. The Use and Abuse of Education for Culture; Lesson from Nietzsche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratos, John

    2000-01-01

    States that Friedrich Nietzsche identifies three ways the past is used. Using examples from ethnic, cultural, and political projects, considers the three abuses of education for culture: (1) the need for monumental history; (2) antiquarian uses of education for culture; and (3) critical uses of education for culture. (CMK)

  8. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desilet, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  9. The madness of Nietzsche: a misdiagnosis of the millennium?

    PubMed

    Cybulska, E M

    2000-08-01

    This article represents a personal discussion about Nietzsche's mental illness, which formed part of a larger paper 'The masks of Nietzsche and eternal return of the repressed'. This was presented at the 6th Annual Conference of The Friedrich Nietzsche Society, September 1996, Manchester UK, as reported by Nussbaumer-Benz (1998). PMID:11045229

  10. Neue Lautzeichen im Advanced Learners Dictionary (ALD). Stellungnahmen zum Pro und Kontra (New Sound Symbols in the Advanced Learners Dictionary [ALD]. Considerations Pro and Con)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The phonetic symbols in the "Advanced Learners Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London) are discussed critically in articles by L. Alfes, H. Arndt, E. Bauch, G. Dahlmann-Resing, W. Friedrich, E. Germer, B. Haycraft, H. P. Kelz. Reference is made to an earlier article "Neue Zeichen", by H. G. Hoffmann. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  11. Writing with Light: Jacob Riis's Ambivalent Exposures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The current interest in multimodal rhetoric was anticipated by Jacob Riis's social documentary texts and presentations during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In contrast with the socialist urban critiques presented by Friedrich Engels, Riis's work demonstrated profound ambivalence toward the city's poor. While calling for reform…

  12. Marxisms as Utopias: Evolving Ideologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Immanuel

    1986-01-01

    Contends that there have been three stages or eras of social science: the philosophic, the scientific, and the as yet unnamed present era. Maintains that the three eras match, in chronological development, the successive periods of Marxian thought and the three different views of utopia offered by Thomas More, Friedrich Engels, and Karl Mannheim.…

  13. Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

  14. On the Need for Dionysian Education in Schools Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Although much has been written about Friedrich Nietzsche's views on education over the years, and much has also been written about Dionysus, god of wine and ecstasy, very little attention has been given to the meaning of, and need for, Dionysian education. In this article, Sean Steel attempts to begin that project. Drawing Nietzsche's…

  15. "Groundhog Day, Deja Vu," and the Myth of the Eternal Recurrence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Reveals that through the use of the movie "Groundhog Day," students in humanities courses can grasp Friedrich Nietzsche's myth of eternal recurrence; the myth addresses the question of what if everything that occurred in one's life occurred again just as it happened before. Discusses the similarities between Nietzsche's myth and the movie. (CMK)

  16. Teachers Unions at Risk of Losing "Agency Fees"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Mike

    2016-01-01

    For 50 years, American education policy has often danced to the tune of labor realities. "Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association" is a case that awaits hearing by the U.S. Supreme Court that could dramatically change this picture. The case, if decided for the plaintiffs, could end the practice of "agency" fees--money…

  17. Chickens across the Curriculum: An Experiment in Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Kristin; And Others

    This paper describes: (1) the experiences of a class of 6- and 7-year-old students as they designed and built a small farm on the Laboratory School grounds at Berry College (Georgia); (2) the understanding that comes with the relevant and meaningful experience of building a farm and raising animals; (3) the infusion of Friedrich Froebel's…

  18. Love and Ruin(s): Robert Frost on Moral Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This essay begins where Alasdair MacIntyre's "After Virtue" begins: facing a moral world in ruin. MacIntyre argues that this predicament leaves us with a choice: we can follow the path of Friedrich Nietzsche, accepting this moral destruction and attempting to create lives in a rootless, uncertain world, or the path of Aristotle, working to reclaim…

  19. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  20. The "Encounter" as an "Event of Truth" in Education: An Anthropological-Pedagogical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantazis, Vasileios E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Vasileios Pantazis examines how two philosophers having different orientations acknowledge and study the phenomenon of the "encounter" ("Begegnung") and its fundamental importance to human life and education. On the one hand, Otto Friedrich Bollnow drew on existential philosophy and philosophical anthropology in his analysis of the…

  1. Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krewson, Margrit B.

    This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

  2. The Dilemma of Scripted Instruction: Comparing Teacher Autonomy, Fidelity, and Resistance in the Froebelian Kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: More than a century before modern controversies over scripted instruction, the Froebelian kindergarten--the original kindergarten method designed by Friedrich Froebel--and Maria Montessori's pedagogy were criticized for rigidly prescribing how teachers taught and children learned. Today, scripted methods such as Direct…

  3. A discretization of the multigroup PN radiative transfer equation on general meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermeline, F.

    2016-05-01

    We propose and study a finite volume method of discrete duality type for discretizing the multigroup PN approximation of radiative transfer equation on general meshes. This method is second order-accurate on a very large variety of meshes, stable under a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition and it preserves naturally the diffusion asymptotic limit.

  4. The First Treatise in Comparative Education Rediscovered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The Latin essay "De re Scholastica Anglica cum Germanica Comparata" (English and German school education compared) published in 1795-1798 by the Freiberg/Saxony grammar school principal Friedrich August Hecht is the first treatise in comparative education. The rediscovery of the text, its earlier mentioning in the history of comparative…

  5. Payback Time? Discourses of Lack, Debt and the Moral Regulation of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighton, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses recent policy and discourse in the UK lifelong learning sector to identify a tension in discourse which positions teacher educators as essential to the knowledge economy while simultaneously insisting on the deficits they represent. Drawing on critical analyses from Friedrich Nietzsche, Maurizio Lazzarato and Gilles Deleuze, I…

  6. Froebel and Early Childhood Education in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sniegoski, Stephen J.

    The idea of a special type of education for young children emerged in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, with the kindergarten movement. The kindergarten was created by Friedrich Froebel, the German educator whose ideas, although no longer popular, can be traced to contemporary early childhood education. Froebel explicitly rejected…

  7. Learning through Literature: Historical Fiction, Autobiography, and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    Argues against the common-sense view that children's literature dealing with the Jews in Nazi Germany is necessarily useful as an aid to studying the Holocaust. Finds a number of significant issues overlooked in the classroom. Discusses the novel "Friedrich" by H.P. Richter. (PA)

  8. The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of s, p, d and f dealing with the line spectra of the alkali metals during the period 1881 based on analogies with the harmonic ratios of sound is described. Friedrich Hund followed Bohr's practice of labelling the various shells and subshells by replacing the secondary quantum number with the series notations (s, p, d, and f), which…

  9. Aesthetic Bildung in Vocational Education: The Biographical Case of Bookbinding Master Wolfgang B. and His Apprenticeship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Ruhi

    2014-01-01

    In the present article I will be discussing the importance attributed to aesthetic experiences in the vocational education of bookbinding master Wolfgang B. using the philosophy of Friedrich Schiller both to understand what constitutes these processes and to examine Schiller's thoughts in the light of his recollections. By doing this I hope…

  10. The "Hard Problem" and the Quantum Physicists. Part 2: Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. U. M.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of a review of the work of quantum physicists on the "hard part" of the problem of mind. After an introduction which sets the scene and a brief review of contemporary work on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) the work of four prominent modern investigators is examined: J.C. Eccles/Friedrich Beck; Henry Stapp;…

  11. Sand Face: Humanism after Antihumanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcilla, René V.

    2015-01-01

    Have the critiques of humanism of the 1960s and 1970s buried this idea once and for all? Or is there a way that humanism can absorb some of this antihumanist thinking and thereby renew itself? Drawing on writings of Michel Foucault, Charles Taylor, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger in order to illuminate artworks by Robert Smithson and…

  12. Froebel and the Rise of Educational Theory in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baader, Meika Sophia

    2004-01-01

    This contribution compares entries on Friedrich Froebel and the kindergarten in German and United States' histories of education from 1857 to 1933. In the American histories, Froebel appears as the great "hero" of education of the 19th century, whereas in the German histories, Pestalozzi is the "hero." This difference in the perspectives goes back…

  13. Over Two Years, What Did Froebel Say to Pestalozzi?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clem

    2000-01-01

    Argues that Friedrich Froebel used essential principles of Heinrich Pestalozzi, related to pedagogy and curriculum. Investigates two periods when Froebel and Pestalozzi might have conversed to gain information about the other person. Believes that the educational principles of child-centered education originated from Pestalozzi, not Froebel. (CMK)

  14. Nietzsche among the Scholars. A Bibliometric Analysis and Study of Nietzsche Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Matthew T.

    This paper addresses the literary canon surrounding the nineteenth century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, in order to inform philosophy librarians as to the nature of the particular body of literature. Using the "Philosopher's Index" database to locate all the Nietzschean literature published between 1986 and 1995, defining characteristics of…

  15. Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awtrey, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…

  16. Child-Centered Education for Pacific-Rim Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    Argues for a cautious approach to transplanting theory from one culture to another, particularly considering the case for applying Friedrich Froebel's child-centered theory to early childhood education in Pacific Rim cultures. Uses a historical approach to distinguish three distinct versions of the theory, the Christian, the Progressive, and the…

  17. Changing Images of Childhood. Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goellner, Lydia A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the changing images of childhood throughout history, focusing on how changes are reflected in beliefs and educational and social practices toward children with special needs. Describes impact of a painful childhood on Friedrich Froebel and actor Cary Grant. Suggests ways to enhance children's lives, including government subsidized…

  18. The Riemann Zeta Zeros from an Asymptotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In 1859, on the occasion of being elected as a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy, Bernard Riemann (1826-66), a student of Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), presenteda lecture in which he presented a mathematics formula, derived from complex integration, which gave a precise count of the primes on the understanding that one of the terms in…

  19. "Like Sending Coals to Newcastle": Impressions from and of the Anglo-American Kindergarten Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrotzki, Kristen D.

    2007-01-01

    Developed by the German pedagogue Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), the Kindergarten offered a revolutionary educational program for young children. In the mid-nineteenth century, after several decades of limited success in the German states, Froebel's Kindergarten began to be transplanted to other countries, including the USA and England. The…

  20. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  1. Reprint Series: Memorable Personalities in Mathematics: Nineteenth Century. RS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) Laplace; (2) Carl Friedrich Gauss; (3) Wolfgang and Johann Bolyai; (4) Evariste Galois; and (5) Josiah Willard Gibbs.…

  2. Making College More Expensive: The Unintended Consequences of Federal Tuition Aid. Policy Analysis. No. 531

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary

    2005-01-01

    As Congress debates the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA), it should heed Friedrich Hayek's warning that democracy is "peculiarly liable, if not guided by accepted common principles, to produce over-all results that nobody wanted." One result of the federal government's student financial aid programs is higher tuition costs at the…

  3. Burckhard F. Kommerell and Kommerell's Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    van Son, Jacques A.M.; Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2002-01-01

    Burckhard Friedrich Kommerell's scholarly description of the aortic diverticulum that bears his name was published in 1936. In the international literature, however, the name of Kommerell survives only as an eponym. We present biographical information about Kommerell, as supplied by family members, and comment on the surgical relevance of his 1936 report. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:109–12) PMID:12075866

  4. Reuniting Art and Nature in the Life of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes looking at the history of education can be a bit frustrating. Examination of the past is necessary, however, if people are to move forward responsibly for the sake of the child. In this article, the author examines the common ancestry of the kindergarten, art, and nature study. As the founder of the kindergarten, Friedrich Froebel played…

  5. If We Knew What Spirituality Was, We Would Teach for It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yob, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    Two extraordinary recent experiences that the author would call highly "spiritual" are explored against the background of ideas provided by writers such as Friedrich Schleiermacher, Rudolf Otto, Paul Tillich, and Abraham Maslow to unpack what spirituality is, with particular attention to the emotions and the insights involved in spirituality. The…

  6. Froebel Is Dead; Long Live Froebel! The National Froebel Foundation and English Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrotzki, Kristen D.

    2006-01-01

    The German pedagogue Friedrich Froebel lived from 1782 to 1852. The pedagogy that made Froebel famous was encompassed in his Kindergarten, a set of strictly defined methods and activities for the education of young children, which he developed and refined in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Froebel's Kindergarten reached England in…

  7. Between Knowledge and "Plagiarism," or, How the Chinese Language Was Studied in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Q. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at descriptions of the Chinese language in Western intellectual writings as indicative of a particular process of knowledge formation and reproduction. Beginning with the first systematic account produced by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), it charts views offered by John Wilkins (1614-1672), James Beattie (1735-1803), Friedrich von…

  8. European Influences on the Theory and Philosophy of Viktor Lowenfeld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John A.; Morris, Jerry W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how the work of art theorists, art educators, psychologists, and anthropologists who were predecessors or contemporaries of Viktor Lowenfeld influenced Lowenfeld's philosophy and theory of art education. Included are Friedrich Froebel, James Sully, Franz Cizek, Siegfried Levinstein, Max Verworn, Walter Krotzsch, George Luquet, and Karl…

  9. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  10. Considering Hermeneutics and Education: Hermes, Teachers, and Intellectualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Deron Robert

    Teacher roles in contemporary American schools should be more closely aligned to hermeneutics as the study of meaning (interpretation/understanding). A marriage between Platonic notions of interpretation and the quest for meaning with the interpretive theories of Friedrich Schleiermacher, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Wilhelm Dilthey, and Hans-Georg…

  11. Discussions on Some Educational Issues III. Research Report 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansanen, Pertti, Ed.

    This publication consists of eight articles in which contributors discuss the following educational issues: (1) "Prospects for Schooling" (Friedrich W. Busch); (2) "Broadcasting, Education and Active Citizenship" (Brian Groombridge); (3) "On the Role of Mother-tongue Education in Multilingual Societies" (Wilfried Hartmann); (4) "Theory, Practice…

  12. Standardized Tests and Froebel's Original Kindergarten Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The author argues that American educators rely on standardized tests at too early an age when administered in kindergarten, particularly given the original intent of kindergarten as envisioned by its founder, Friedrich Froebel. The author examines the current use of standardized tests in kindergarten and the Froebel model, including his emphasis…

  13. Did the American Herbartians Have a Research Base?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall, Barry H.

    The origins of the Herbartian Movement began with the writings of Johan Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841), a German philosopher and educator. He believed that, through instruction, the mind and morals of the child could be molded. For this purpose, ideas are available from two sources: experience, which furnishes knowledge of nature, and social…

  14. Marxism and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  15. "Translated, It Is: …"--An Ethics of Transreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huiwen

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of philology and William Gass's concept of transreading, Huiwen (Helen) Zhang employs "transreader" to suggest the integration of four roles in one: reader, translator, writer, and scholar. "Transreader" recognizes that close reading, literary translation, creative writing, and…

  16. "Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochner, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over the…

  17. Meeting Standards in the Changing Landscape of Today's Kinder"garden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2011-01-01

    First conceptualized by Friedrich Froebel as a "children's garden," kindergarten classrooms in Canada today emphasize play and exploration as the primary methods of learning and development. This garden provides multiple opportunities for children to become lost in spontaneous play and creative interactions with peers. Kindergarten has slowly…

  18. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  19. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  20. Rediscovering Froebel: A Call to Re-Examine His Life and Gifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the life of Friedrich Froebel, the founder of the kindergarten movement and his first 10 "gifts to children." The author suggests that Froebel's philosophy of German Romanticism caused the waning use of his methods. He continues to state that Froebel's development of instructional material and structured play-based curricula…

  1. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  2. Friedel phase discontinuity and bound states in the continuum in quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, B.; Ladrón de Guevara, M. L.; Orellana, P. A.

    2008-06-01

    In this Letter we study the Friedel phase of the electron transport in two different systems of quantum dots which exhibit bound states in the continuum (BIC). The Friedel phase jumps abruptly in the energies of the BICs, which is associated to the vanishing width of these states, as shown by Friedrich and Wintgen in [H. Friedrich, D. Wintgen, Phys. Rev. A 31 (1985) 3964]. This odd behavior of the Friedel phase has consequences in the charge through the Friedel sum rule. Namely, if the energy of the BIC drops under the Fermi energy the charge changes abruptly in a unity. We show that this behavior closely relates to discontinuities in the conductance predicted for interacting quantum dot systems.

  3. Spin-driven inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.

    1993-11-01

    Following recent studies of Ford, we suggest - in the framework of general relativity - an inflationary cosmological model with self-interacting spinning matter. A generalization of the standard fluid model is discussed and estimates of the physical parameters of the evolution are given. I would like to thank Professor Friedrich W. Hehl for the careful reading of the manuscript and useful advice. This research was supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (Bonn).

  4. Furious Frederich: Nietzsche's neurosyphilis diagnosis and new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    André, Charles; Rios, André Rangel

    2015-12-01

    The causes of Friedrich Nietzsche's mental breakdown in early 1889 and of the subsequent slow decay to end-stage dementia along ten years will possibly remain open to debate. The diagnosis of syphilitic dementia paralytica, based only on medical anamnesis and physical examination, was considered indisputable by Otto Binswanger. On the other hand, taking into account recently described diseases, selectively collected evidence lend some support to alternative hypotheses: basal forebrain meningioma, CADASIL, MELAS and frontotemporal dementia. PMID:26465288

  5. Study of astrophysics at the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureche, Vasile; Roman, Rodica

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents the history of the study of astrophysics at the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University, from 1945 until now. Some special epochs are analyzed and the contributions of professors of astronomy at the study of astrophysics is put in evidence. The continuity of this study and the collaboration of the ``Babeş-Bolyai'' University with the ``Friedrich Wilhelms'' University of Germany, in the field of astrophysics is emphasized.

  6. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  7. [Christian Andreas Cothenius (1708-1789). A pro-memoria on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his death].

    PubMed

    Völker, A

    1990-04-01

    The 200th anniversary of the death of Christian Andreas Cothenius gave occasion to appreciate life and work of this personage of a physician. Cothenius maintained manifold connections to Halle, of which the golden doctorate and the heritage of the pharmaceutic enterprises of his teacher Friedrich Hoffmann were treated in this place. The picture of the local relations was supplemented by the history of the Cothenius medal which is today awarded by the Leopoldina of Halle. PMID:2198714

  8. Some observations on a new numerical method for solving Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.

    1981-01-01

    An explicit-implicit technique for solving Navier-Stokes equations is described which, is much less complex than other implicit methods. It is used to solve a complex, two-dimensional, steady-state, supersonic-flow problem. The computational efficiency of the method and the quality of the solution obtained from it at high Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) numbers are discussed. Modifications are discussed and certain observations are made about the method which may be helpful in using it successfully.

  9. The design of an improved endwall film-cooling configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, S.; Hodson, H.P.; Dawes, W.N.

    1999-10-01

    The endwall film-cooling cooling configuration investigated by Friedrichs et al. (1196, 1997) had in principle sufficient cooling flow for the endwall, but in practice, the redistribution of this coolant by secondary flows left large endwall areas uncooled. This paper describes the attempt to improve upon this datum cooling configuration by redistributing the available coolant to provide a better coolant coverage on the endwall surface, while keeping the associated aerodynamic losses small. The design of the new, improved cooling configuration was based on the understanding of endwall film-cooling described by Friedrichs et al. (1996, 1997). Computational fluid dynamics were used to predict the basic flow and pressure field without coolant ejection. Using this as a basis, the above-described understanding was used to place cooling holes so that they would provide the necessary cooling coverage at minimal aerodynamic penalty. The simple analytical modeling developed by Friedrichs et al. (1997) was then used to check that the coolant consumption and the increase in aerodynamic loss lay within the limits of the design goal. The improved cooling configuration was tested experimentally in a large-scale, low-speed linear cascade. An analysis of the results shows that the redesign of the cooling configuration has been successful in achieving an improved coolant coverage with lower aerodynamic losses, while using the same amount of coolant as in the datum cooling configuration. The improved cooling configuration has reconfirmed conclusions from Friedrichs et al. (1996, 1997): First, coolant ejection downstream of the three-dimensional separation lines on the endwall does not change the secondary flow structures: second, placement of holes in regions of high static pressure helps reduce the aerodynamic penalties of platform coolant ejection: finally, taking account of secondary flow can improve the design of endwall film-cooling configurations.

  10. 06-1464 - Deltakeeper Chapter of Baykeeper et al v. Brasil and Sons Dairy, Inc. et al

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2007-06-27

    ... Stipulated Dismissal and Settlement; Order 1 Case. No. CV 06-01464 OWW (DLB) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Layne Friedrich (Bar No. 195431) layne@lawyersforcleanwater.com Drevet Hunt (Bar No. 240487) Lawyers For Clean Water, Inc. 1004A O’Reilly Avenue San Francisco, California 94129 Telephone:...

  11. Asymptotics of the discrete spectrum of a model operator associated with a system of three particles on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasulov, T. Kh.

    2010-04-01

    We consider a model Schrödinger operator Hμ associated with a system of three particles on the threedimensional lattice ℤ 3 with a functional parameter of special form. We prove that if the corresponding Friedrichs model has a zero-energy resonance, then the operator Hμ has infinitely many negative eigenvalues accumulating at zero (the Efimov effect). We obtain the asymptotic expression for the number of eigenvalues of Hμ below z as z → -0.

  12. Initial state maximizing the nonexponentially decaying survival probability for unstable multilevel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Manabu

    2004-09-01

    The long-time behavior of the survival probability for unstable multilevel systems that follows the power-decay law is studied based on the N -level Friedrichs model, and is shown to depend on the initial population in unstable states. A special initial state maximizing the asymptote of the survival probability at long times is found and examined by considering the spontaneous-emission process for the hydrogen atom interacting with the electromagnetic field.

  13. Voice quality improvement after management of unilateral vocal cord paralysis with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Bihari, A; Mészáros, K; Reményi, A; Lichtenberger, G

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the voices of patients suffering from unilateral vocal cord paralysis, before and after endoscopic augmentation and thyroplasty. In the past, we used injectable Teflon to treat this condition; later techniques included collagen injection and Isshiki thyroplasty. In the last 7 years, preferred treatment methods have included Bioplastique injection and lipoaugmentation of the vocal cords as well as medialization thyroplasty using a titanium implant according to Friedrich. Pre- and postoperative data was evaluated and compared to 25 patients. Appropriate glottic closure of the vocal cords was achieved in every case, in most cases after the first intervention. We used voice range profile measurements to evaluate the results. An objective evaluation was performed using the Friedrich dysphonia index. Significant improvements were found: the dysphonia index decreased in every case, from an average of 2.47, preoperatively, to an average of 1.18 postoperatively. In agreement with earlier studies, voice pitch range was the only parameter that not significantly improved. There was no statistical difference between the lipoaugmentation and thyroplasty according to Friedrich. We concluded that both endoscopic methods and thyroplasty can be used to achieve an optimal result. Cases must be evaluated individually so that the best technique, or combination of methods can be determined. PMID:16896756

  14. Nonlinear stability of discrete shocks for systems of conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Xin, Zhouping

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we study the asymptotic nonlinear stability of discrete shocks for the Lax-Friedrichs scheme for approximating general m×m systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. It is shown that weak single discrete shocks for such a scheme are nonlinearly stable in the L p-norm for all p ≧ 1, provided that the sums of the initial perturbations equal zero. These results should shed light on the convergence of the numerical solution constructed by the Lax-Friedrichs scheme for the single-shock solution of system of hyperbolic conservation laws. If the Riemann solution corresponding to the given far-field states is a superposition of m single shocks from each characteristic family, we show that the corresponding multiple discrete shocks are nonlinearly stable in L p (P ≧ 2). These results are proved by using both a weighted estimate and a characteristic energy method based on the internal structures of the discrete shocks and the essential monotonicity of the Lax-Friedrichs scheme.

  15. [The history of medical physics and biophysics at the Humboldt University in Berlin].

    PubMed

    Schneck, P

    2001-01-01

    The present Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics (former Institute of Radiation Research) was established on September 1st in 1923 by Walter Friedrich (1883-1968). It was after the Institute in Frankfurt A.M. (founded by Friedrich Dessauer in 1921) - the second Institute of its kind in Germany. As a physicist who wrote his dissertation under Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, he did research together with a Gynecologist in Friedburg on problems of radiation therapy and the prevention of radiation injuries. Thus Friedrich became one of the first German Biomedical Physicists and was appointed to a professorship at the university of Berlin and its faculty of medicine. The paper gives a survey of the history of the Institute of Radiation Research in the twenties, in the time of Nazi-rule, the period after the World War II and in the era of GDR until 1990 and up to the present time. The succession of directorship of the Institute and the main research subjects in medical physics and biophysics have been sketched. PMID:11710396

  16. Low energy singly and multiply charged ion irradiation of astrophysical ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, A.; Holtom, P. D.; Mukerji, R. J.; Davis, M. P.; Sivaraman, B.; McCullough, R. W.; Williams, I.; Mason, N. J.

    Ion induced processes play an important role in the chemical modification of astrophysical ices, both on the surfaces of satellites in the outer solar system and in the depths of dark molecular clouds where few photons penetrate. To date many laboratory studies have been developed to study energetic singly charged ion interactions with astrophysical ice analogues (e.g. Mennella, et al 2004; Strazzulla, Baratta & Palumbo 2001; Gerakines, Moore, & Hudson 2000) and have been found to produce new chemical species and cause significant effects on ice morphology (Palumbo 2005). However, the effects of low energy and multiply charged ions have not yet been investigated. Such ions are prevalent in many astrophysical environments: as primary and secondary particles generated by cosmic ray bombardment and as constituents of planetary magnetospheres (e.g. Jupiter and Saturn). These ions comprise a rich variety of reactive species in a variety of charge states with typical kinetic energies of few keV. The effect of slow, multiply charged ions (MCIs) with the surfaces of astrophysical ices and their possible effect on chemical processing is unclear. However, studies of MCI impacts with insulator surfaces suggest that they may play an important role due to surplus potential energy imparted at the surface of the target (Winter & Aumayr 2001). We have developed a research program to study ion interactions with astrophysical ices using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source at Queens University Belfast. Such a source can produce different species of ions with variable energy and different charge states. Ices are prepared in situ by depositing gas onto a cold infrared transmitting window. Samples are analysed using FTIR spectroscopy during irradiation. We have conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effects of ion charge state (potential vs. kinetic energy effects), ion energy (nuclear vs. electronic stopping processes) and sample temperature. In this poster

  17. Late Pleistocene oscillations of the Drau Glacier (southern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitschar, Christina; Reitner, Jürgen; Draganits, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The Drau Glacier was the largest Pleistocene glacier in the southeastern part of the Alps and significantly shaped the landscape in this region. The study area is located at the termination of the Drau Glacier in the southern part of Austria (Carinthia). The investigation aims to decipher glacial dynamics during the Late Pleistocene glacial advance, stabilisation and final recession of this glacier based on geological/geomorphological mapping, interpretation of airborne laser scan (ALS) topographic data and lithostratigraphic investigations of glacial and periglacial sediments. Special emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of the maximum extent of the glaciation (LGM). Based on previous mapping by Bobek (1959) and Ucik (1996-1998) more details have been gained for the paleogeographic reconstruction based on glacial and non-glacial erosion and accumulation features. These include traces of pre-Upper Pleistocene glaciation, drumlins, terminal moraines and kettle holes. Paleogeographic reconstruction was done with correlation of different outcrops based on lithostratigraphy and ALS topography. Sequences of gravel related to glacial advance covered by till, followed by periglacial sediments allowed detailed reconstruction of the glacial sequence in this area and the complex succession of various extents of the Drau Glacier. References Bobek, Hans. 1959: Der Eisrückgang im östlichen Klagenfurter Becken. In: Mitteilungen der österreichischen geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1996: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 340, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1997: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 325-326, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1998: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 142, S. 333-334, Wien.

  18. From Godunov to a unified hybridized discontinuous Galerkin framework for partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui-Thanh, Tan

    2015-08-01

    By revisiting the basic Godunov approach for system of linear hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) we show that it is hybridizable. As such, it is a natural recipe for us to constructively and systematically establish a unified hybridized discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) framework for a large class of PDEs including those of Friedrichs' type. The unification is fourfold. First, it provides a single constructive procedure to devise HDG schemes for elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic, and mixed-type PDEs. The key that we exploit is the fact that, for many PDEs, irrespective of their type, the first order form is a hyperbolic system. Second, it reveals the nature of the trace unknowns as the upwind states. Third, it provides a parameter-free HDG framework, and hence eliminating the "usual complaint" that HDG is a parameter-dependent method. Fourth, it allows us to rediscover most existing HDG methods and furthermore discover new ones. We apply the proposed unified framework to three different PDEs: the convection-diffusion-reaction equation, the Maxwell equation in frequency domain, and the Stokes equation. The purpose is to present a step-by-step construction of various HDG methods, including the most economic ones with least trace unknowns, by exploiting the particular structure of the underlying PDEs. The well-posedness of the resulting HDG schemes, i.e. the existence and uniqueness of the HDG solutions, is proved. The well-posedness result is also extended and proved for abstract Friedrichs' systems. We also discuss variants of the proposed unified framework and extend them to the popular Lax-Friedrichs flux and to nonlinear PDEs. Numerical results for transport equation, convection-diffusion equation, compressible Euler equation, and shallow water equation are presented to support the unification framework.

  19. A comparison of fatigue loads of wind turbine resulting from a non-Gaussian turbulence model vs. standard ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, H.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Kleinhans, D.; Friedrich, R.

    2007-07-01

    This project funded by the federal ministry of education and research from the research group 'Wind turbulence and its significance in the use of wind energy' handles a comparison between the load ranges for horizontal axis wind turbines resulting from different turbulence models, i.e. between the usual models as defined in the standards and a new model designed by Friedrich and Kleinhans. This should enable an evaluation of the relevance of this new model for wind modelling for wind turbines and if so, provide the community with new tools in wind simulation. Indeed, spectral models do not well reproduce extreme wind increments as met in gusts. Those models simulate using purely Gaussian statistics. However, measurements show that those increments do not follow normal statistics. The new model developed aims at correcting this problem. The turbulence models used are the Kaimal, von Karman and Mann models as defined in the IEC guidelines and the Friedrich-Kleinhans model, based on stochastic processes called Continuous Time Random Walks. The comparison is based on load ranges resulting from an RFC analysis of 100 time series obtained for 100 different seed numbers. Five wind speeds are investigated. The aeroelastic code used is FLEX5. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that the non-Gaussian Friedrich-Kleinhans model produces loads that are significantly different from the loads obtained with the Kaimal model. That proves that the form of the tails of the increment distribution has a major influence on the loads of the wind turbine and should be considered when making fatigue calculations.

  20. Some Historical Points of Interest in Göttingen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    The Georgia Augusta University of Göttingen, founded in 1737, was a child of the Enlightenment, and the new sciences have always played a major role here.1 Among the teachers of physics, physical chemistry, astronomy, and related subjects we find Johann Christian Polykarp Erxleben, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Johann Tobias Mayer, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Johann B. Listing, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Woldemar Voigt, Friedrich Kohlrausch, Eduard Riecke, Walther Nernst and Peter Debye — the last two subsequently moved on to Berlin. In the 1920s, physics students were jestingly referred to as “Frankierte, Bornierte und Polierte” (loosely translated as stamped, limited and polished), in allusion to their teachers, the theoretical physicist Max Born and the experimentalists James Franck and Robert Wichard Pohl, the first two being important figures in the history of quantum theory, the third, one of the founding fathers of experimental solid state physics.2 The National Socialist’s rise to power had a devastating effect on this world-renowned center for physics and mathematics. Most of its high-caliber scientists either were dismissed on the basis of the racist “Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” or themselves felt compelled to emigrate: About a dozen members of the physics faculty, including Born and Franck, and ten from the mathematics faculty left Göttingen.3 After the war, Richard Becker, who in 1936 had received a compulsory order to take the chair for theoretical physics vacant since Born’s emigration, and Friedrich Hund, who was also an enthusiastic historian of science, distinguished themselves as physics teachers there but the university as a whole never recovered its international standing of before 1933 (see Figs. 1 and 2).

  1. Numerical methods for supersonic astrophysical jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Youngsoo

    2003-09-01

    The Euler equations of gas dynamics are used for the simulation of general astrophysical fluid flows including high Mach number astrophysical jets with radiative cooling. To accurately compute supersonic jet solutions with sharp resolution of shock waves, three modern numerical methods for gas dynamics were used: (1)a second-order Godunov method in LeVeque's software package CLAWPACK, (2)the Nessyahu-Tadmor-Kurganov (NTK) central hyperbolic scheme, and (3)the WENO-LF (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Lax-Friedrichs) scheme. Then simulations of supersonic astrophysical jets were compared, first without and then with radiative cooling. CLAWPACK consists of routines for solving time-dependent nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws based on higher order Godunov methods and approximate Riemann problem solutions; the NTK scheme solves conservation laws using a modified Lax-Friedrichs central difference method without appealing to Riemann problem solutions; and the WENO-LF finite difference scheme is based on the Essentially Non-Oscillatory (ENO) idea by using Lax- Friedrichs flux splitting. The ENO method constructs a solution using the smoothness of the interpolating polynomial on given stencils; on the other hand, the WENO scheme uses a convex combination of the interpolate functions on all candidate stencils. The third-order and fifth-order WENO-LF methods were used to simulate the high Mach number jets. Appropriate numerical methods for incorporating radiative cooling in these numerical methods are also discussed. Interactions of supersonic jets with their environments (jet-“blob” interactions) are shown after modifying the codes to handle high Mach numbers and radiative cooling.

  2. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A ``Physics of Music'' Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional systems, such as string and wind instruments, to the two-dimensional membranes and plates of the percussion family. Although the sand patterns attributed to Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) are often demonstrated for this purpose using metal plates,2-4 the use of drumheads offers several pedagogical and practical advantages in the lab.

  3. Reform in the garden.

    PubMed

    Wise, M Norton; Wise, Elaine M

    2002-12-01

    English gardens powered by steam engines offer an intriguing view of how technological and scientific progress was naturalized in the landscape of 19th-century Prussia, and in Prussian culture, during the early years of industrial modernization. One such garden is Peacock Island, in the Havel River near Potsdam. A product of the reform era that preceded and followed the Napoleonic Wars, it expressed the goal of Friedrich Wilhelm III and his government to enter into the British system of factory production and world trade. Modern science, as represented especially by Alexander von Humboldt, played a prominent role. PMID:12535923

  4. Nietzsche: An intellectual Nebuchadnezzar.

    PubMed

    Baird, R M

    1987-09-01

    The essay introduces and defines the concept of "an intellectual Nebuchadnezzar"-one who, despite his hostility to religion, serves God's purposes by the depth of his ideas. In terms of this notion, some of Friedrich Nietzsche's views are explored. Specifically, Nietzsche's perspective on artistic creativity is analyzed and applied to the notion of creativity in human relationships. In addition to concluding that Nietzsche is himself an "intellectual Nebuchadnezzar," the broader point is made that truth and insight should be welcomed by the religious community even if the source of that truth is one ostensibly hostile to religion. PMID:24302037

  5. The Tortured History of Gauss's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ross

    2009-10-01

    American physics textbooks contain the following equation, which is called Gauss's law: E .d S = qenclosed ɛ0 It is odd, however, that biographies of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) contain no mention of this law. A brief history of this important result will be presented in which it will be shown that what we call Gauss's law today was originally guessed at by Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) after he read a letter from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), then was derived, forgotten, and re-derived several times in two different contexts by many of the luminaries of physics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  6. 'Shooting at the sun god Apollo': the Apollonian-Dionysian balance of the TimeSlips Storytelling Project.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R

    2013-09-01

    In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche celebrated the dueling forces of reason and emotion as personified by the ancient Greek gods Apollo and Dionysus. A subtle Apollonian-Dionysian balance can be observed in TimeSlips, a group-based creative storytelling activity developed in the 1990s and increasingly used in dementia care settings worldwide. This article explains how the Apollonion-Dionysian aspects of TimeSlips are beneficial not only for persons with dementia, but also for their carers. Narrative data from medical students at Penn State College of Medicine who participated in TimeSlips at a local retirement community are shared. PMID:23722245

  7. Introduction to the special issue: under pressure.

    PubMed

    Howard, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces this special issue on the theme "Under Pressure." It uses an analysis of experimental lesbian filmmaker Su Friedrich's Seeing Red (2005) to frame the issue's focus on the ways that the category "lesbian" is placed under pressure and/or the pressure "lesbian" places on twentieth- and twenty-first-century cultural production. After this overview, the introduction summarizes all seven articles in the order that they appear in the issue. These summaries also show the connections between the articles and suggest possibilities for future critical dialogues on the theme. PMID:23316837

  8. ["I would like to so much--but then also; but, but--!!!"--torment of a private lecturer at the beginning of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bettin, H; Friedrich, C

    2000-01-01

    The biography of Carl Friedrich August Theodor Kastner (1797-after 1841), the brother of the famous chemist and teacher of Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783-1857), is an interesting example of the difficult situation of outside lecturers at the universities in the first half of the 19th century; a big group of scientists, which are absolutely underrepresented in the source material and in the historiography too. This paper tries to show the facts and the backgrounds for the problems in the career of outside lecturers. PMID:11305171

  9. WENO wavelet method for a hyperbolic model of two-phase flow in conservative form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidan, Dia; Kozakevicius, Alice J.; Schmidt, Alex A.; Jakobsson, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The current work presents a WENO wavelet adaptive method for solving multiphase flow problems. The grid adaptivity in each time step is obtained by the application of a thresholded interpolating wavelet transform, which allows the construction of a small yet effective sparse point representation of the solution. The spatial operator is solved by the Lax-Friedrich flux splitting approach in which the flux derivatives are approximated by the WENO scheme. Hyperbolic models of two-phase flow in conservative form are efficiently solved since shocks and rarefaction waves are precisely captured by the chosen methodology. Substantial computational gains are obtained through the grid reduction feature while maintaining the quality of the solutions.

  10. The Dürrenmatt's ``Physicists'' as a Tool in Understanding the Ethics of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapor, Darko

    2007-04-01

    Part of the course of the History of Physics taught by the author is dedicated to the ethics of science, in particular to moral responsibility of the scientist towards society. In order to make the subject more interesting to the students, the first step is reading the play ``Physicists'' by Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1962). The students are then asked to relate some of the events connected to the nuclear studies before and during the World War II and armaments race with some situations in the play or the author's theses related to it.

  11. A mixed system modeling two-directional pedestrian flows.

    PubMed

    Goatin, Paola; Mimault, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we present a simplified model to describe the dynamics of two groups of pedestrians moving in opposite directions in a corridor. The model consists of a 2 x 2 system of conservation laws of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type. We study the basic properties of the system to understand why and how bounded oscillations in numerical simulations arise. We show that Lax-Friedrichs scheme ensures the invariance of the domain and we investigate the existence of measure-valued solutions as limit of a subsequence of approximate solutions. PMID:25811441

  12. Finite-element method for a uniformly loaded cantilever beam with general cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.C.

    1987-05-01

    The Michell (1901) theory for the analysis of beam-type structures is combined with that of Friedrich and Lin (1984) to obtain a finite element solution for a uniformly loaded cantilever beam with general cross section. A plane-strain problem established with internal body and boundary forces that were computed from the warping displacement is solved by means of the regular two-dimensional finite element program, on the same model used for warping displacement calculation. Numerical examples are given for cantilever beams with circular and thin-rectangular cross section. 6 references.

  13. The discrete one-sided Lipschitz condition for convex scalar conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenier, Yann; Osher, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    Physical solutions to convex scalar conservation laws satisfy a one-sided Lipschitz condition (OSLC) that enforces both the entropy condition and their variation boundedness. Consistency with this condition is therefore desirable for a numerical scheme and was proved for both the Godunov and the Lax-Friedrichs scheme--also, in a weakened version, for the Roe scheme, all of them being only first order accurate. A new, fully second order scheme is introduced here, which is consistent with the OSLC. The modified equation is considered and shows interesting features. Another second order scheme is then considered and numerical results are discussed.

  14. Johann Gottlieb Schrader and the construction of telescopes in Lilienthal. (German Title: Johann Gottlieb Schrader und der Lilienthaler Fernrohrbau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Hans-Joachim

    More than 200 years ago, the first large reflectors on the European continent were built at Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's observatory in Lilienthal near Bremen. Johann Gottlieb Friedrich Schrader, professor of physics and chemistry at Kiel University, developed a white reflecting metal alloy during his 10-month stay with Schroeter, and used it for the production of numerous telescope mirrors. The period of telescope making at Lilienthal started with Schrader. This paper describes the cooperation of the two astronomers and reports about the results of an optical and chemical analysis of three Herschel telescope mirrors.

  15. Mineral resource of the month: cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    The element cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer, a professor of chemistry at the University of Göttingen in Germany. Stromeyer noticed that a yellowish glow would occur when heat was applied to certain samples of calamine, a zinc-carbonate. This was unusual as the reaction was expected to be colorless. After further testing, Stromeyer deduced that an unknown metallic impurity in the carbonate caused the color change. He called the new metal "cadmium" after "kadmeia," the Greek word for calamine.

  16. A critique of Bernstein's beyond objectivism and relativism: science, hermeneutics, and praxis.

    PubMed

    Matusitz, Jonathan; Kramer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This analysis comments on Bernstein's lack of clear understanding of subjectivity, based on his book, Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. Bernstein limits his interpretation of subjectivity to thinkers such as Gadamer and Habermas. The authors analyze the ideas of classic scholars such as Edmund Husserl and Friedrich Nietzsche. Husserl put forward his notion of transcendental subjectivity and phenomenological ramifications of the relationship between subjectivity and objectivity. Nietzsche referred to subjectivity as "perspectivism," the inescapable fact that any and all consciousnesses exist in space and time. Consciousness is fundamentally constituted of cultural, linguistic, and historical dimensions. PMID:21874130

  17. Historical Examples of Misrepresentation, Innovation, and Morality in Physical Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, Jed

    2016-03-01

    The pressures of publication, the desire to be first in innovation, and moral convictions have long been at work in the history of science and technology. Historians think and argue best through stories, so I've chosen three examples that exemplify one or more of these aspects. The first involves the discovery of electric waves by Heinrich Hertz in 1888; the second concerns the controlled production of electromagnetic radiation by Marconi and Fleming in the early 1900s; our final case involves a bitter controversy between the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz and the astronomer Friedrich Zöllner in the 1890s.

  18. A New Mixed Model Based on the Velocity Structure Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Christophe; Friedrich, Rainer; Da Silva, Carlos B.; Métais, Olivier

    We propose a new mixed model for Large Eddy-Simulation based on the 3D spatial velocity increment. This approach blends the non-linear properties of the Increment model (Brun & Friedrich (2001)) with the eddy viscosity characteristics of the Structure Function model (Métais & Lesieur (1992)). The behaviour of this subgrid scale model is studied both via a priori tests of a plane jet at ReH=3000 and Large Eddy-Simulation of a round jet at ReD=25000. This approach allows to describe both forward and backward energy transfer encountered in transitional shear flows.

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: The terminating of doubly excited 1,3Po resonances in H- below the n = 2 H threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Keh

    1999-09-01

    We examine the possibility of the resonances of an H- 1,3Po dipole series being formed below the n = 2 hydrogen threshold. Including the relativistic and QED corrections as first-order perturbations, the series will be terminated after the third resonance for 1Po symmetry and the fourth resonance for 3Po symmetry. The total angular momentum, J, is shown to be 0 for the fourth resonance of a 3Po series. This figure is in disagreement with that of Purr and Friedrich. The present resonant energies and widths were calculated by the saddle-point complex rotation method with B-spline functions.

  20. Backtracing particle rays through magnetic spectrometers: avoiding systematic errors in the reconstruction of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, Th.; Friedrich, J.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.

    1993-12-01

    The procedures used to model [J. Friedrich, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 293 (1990) 575] or to determine [N. Voegler et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 249 (1986) 337, H. Blok et al., ibid., vol. A 262 (1987) 291, and E.A.J.M. Offermann et al., ibid., vol. A 262 (1987) 298] the mapping properties of a magnetic spectrometer are based on a minimization of the variance of target coordinates. We show that backtracing with matrix elements, determined in this way, may contain systematic errors. As alternative, we propose to minimize the variance of the detector coordinates. This procedure avoids these systematic errors.

  1. AGU members elected to Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six AGU members are among the sixty new members and fifteen foreign associates elected on April 27 to the National Academy of Sciences in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.AGU members elected were AGU Past-President G. Brent Dalrymple of USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.; Donald J . DePaolo, University of California, Berkeley; Ho-Kwang (David) Mao, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C.; Mario J . Molina, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; and Alexandra Navrotsky, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. Elected as foreign associates were Nikolai V. Sobolev, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, and Friedrich H. Busse, University of Bayreuth, Germany.

  2. On the number of eigenvalues of a model operator associated to a system of three-particles on lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albeverio, S.; Lakaev, S. N.; Muminov, Z. I.

    2007-12-01

    A model operator H associated to a system of three particles on the threedimensional lattice ℤ3 that interact via nonlocal pair potentials is studied. The following results are established. (i) The operator H has infinitely many eigenvalues lying below the bottom of the essential spectrum and accumulating at this point if both the Friedrichs model operators h_{μ _α } (0), α = 1, 2, have threshold resonances. (ii) The operator H has finitely many eigenvalues lying outside the essential spectrum if at least one of the operators h_{μ _α } (0), α = 1, 2, has a threshold eigenvalue.

  3. Analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings with special reference to torsion and load transference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1936-01-01

    This report deals with the analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings in torsion, taking cognizance of the fact that the spars are not independent, but are interconnected by ribs and other structural members. The principles of interaction are briefly explained, showing that the mutual relief action occurring depends on the "pure torsional stiffness" of the wing cross section. Various practical methods of analysis are outlined. The "Friedrichs-Von Karman equations" are shown to require the least amount of labor. Numerical examples by the several methods of analysis are given and the agreement between the calculation and experiment is shown.

  4. [Weizsäcker's concept of time from the current viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's concept of time is deeply based on the asymmetry between past and future, which he considers as a fundamental aspect of Nature. I review these ideas and their philosophical back ground and confront them with a presentation of the concept of time in modern physics. I argue that the observed irreversibility of our world can be understood from fundamental laws which are invariant under time reversal. I conclude with an outlook on the expected theory of quantum gravity. PMID:24974601

  5. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    PubMed

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner. PMID:1754781

  6. Axes, planes and tubes, or the geometry of embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brauckmann, Sabine

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents selected figures of chick embryogenesis as depicted in the classic studies of Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-1794), Christian Heinrich Pander (1794-1865) and Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1786). My main objective here is (1) to demonstrate how the imagery of Wolff, Pander and Baer attempted to project an image of a 3-dimensional rotating body into static figures on paper by means of linear contours, and (2) to ponder on the efficacy and pervasiveness of dots, lines and arrows for depicting embryogenesis. PMID:22035710

  7. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und Veränderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten über Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische Erklärung irreversibler Vorgänge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri Poincaré). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung über die Beziehungen zwischen Relativitätstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. Weizsäcker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rückwärts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische Größe in der Relativitätstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  8. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience. PMID:16639614

  9. Analysis and algorithms for a regularized Cauchy problem arising from a non-linear elliptic PDE for seismic velocity estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, M.K.; Fomel, S.B.; Sethian, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we derive and study a nonlinear elliptic PDE coming from the problem of estimation of sound speed inside the Earth. The physical setting of the PDE allows us to pose only a Cauchy problem, and hence is ill-posed. However we are still able to solve it numerically on a long enough time interval to be of practical use. We used two approaches. The first approach is a finite difference time-marching numerical scheme inspired by the Lax-Friedrichs method. The key features of this scheme is the Lax-Friedrichs averaging and the wide stencil in space. The second approach is a spectral Chebyshev method with truncated series. We show that our schemes work because of (1) the special input corresponding to a positive finite seismic velocity, (2) special initial conditions corresponding to the image rays, (3) the fact that our finite-difference scheme contains small error terms which damp the high harmonics; truncation of the Chebyshev series, and (4) the need to compute the solution only for a short interval of time. We test our numerical scheme on a collection of analytic examples and demonstrate a dramatic improvement in accuracy in the estimation of the sound speed inside the Earth in comparison with the conventional Dix inversion. Our test on the Marmousi example confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Building fast well-balanced two-stage numerical schemes for a model of two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Mai Duc

    2014-06-01

    We present a set of well-balanced two-stage schemes for an isentropic model of two-phase flows arisen from the modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials. The first stage is to absorb the source term in nonconservative form into equilibria. Then in the second stage, these equilibria will be composed into a numerical flux formed by using a convex combination of the numerical flux of a stable Lax-Friedrichs-type scheme and the one of a higher-order Richtmyer-type scheme. Numerical schemes constructed in such a way are expected to get the interesting property: they are fast and stable. Tests show that the method works out until the parameter takes on the value CFL, and so any value of the parameter between zero and this value is expected to work as well. All the schemes in this family are shown to capture stationary waves and preserves the positivity of the volume fractions. The special values of the parameter 0,1/2,1/(1+CFL), and CFL in this family define the Lax-Friedrichs-type, FAST1, FAST2, and FAST3 schemes, respectively. These schemes are shown to give a desirable accuracy. The errors and the CPU time of these schemes and the Roe-type scheme are calculated and compared. The constructed schemes are shown to be well-balanced and faster than the Roe-type scheme.

  11. The Knorre astronomers' dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinigin, G.

    2009-06-01

    We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

  12. Digital learning programs - competition for the classical microscope?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The development of digital media has been impressive in recent years which is also among the reason for their increasing use in academic teaching. This is especially true for teaching Anatomy and Histology in the first two years in medical and dental curricula. Modern digital technologies allow for efficient, affordable and easily accessible distribution of histological images in high quality. Microscopy depends almost exclusively on such images. Since 20 years numerous digital teaching systems have been developed for this purpose. Respective developments have changed the ways students acquire knowledge and prepare for exams. Teaching staff should adapt lectures, seminars and labs accordingly. As a first step, a collection of high resolution digital microscopic slides was made available for students at the Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of conventional light microscopy and related technologies in current and future medical and dental education aswell. A survey was done among 172 medical and dental students at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. 51% of students use now frequently new digital media for learning histology in contrast to 5% in the year 2000 [1]. Digital media including Internet, CD- based learning combined with social networks successfully compete with classical light microscopy. PMID:23467698

  13. Karl Knorre - First Astronomer of the Nicolaev Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G.; Pinigin, G.

    Karl Friedrich Knorre was born 28th March 1801 in family of the professor of astronomy of Dorpat university Ernst Knorre. During education in the Dorpat university he got acquantance with the future director of Pulkovo observatory Wilhelm Struve. According passion of K. Knorre for astronomy W. Struwe recommended him to the director position of planned naval observatory in Nikolaev. From the foundation of Nikolaev naval and later astronomical observatory in 1821 K. Knorre was a first director. He made star position observations with the meridian circle, worked as a teacher of astronomy for sea navigators, compiled the fifth page of star map of the Berlin Academy of sciences and headed by all hydrographic determinations on the sea of Asov and Black sea. After 50 years K. Knorre retired 1871 from the Directorship of the Nikolaev observatory and moved to Berlin. Nikolaev astronomical observatory arranges the international scientific conference devoted to the 180 anniversary of NAO and 200's birthday of Karl Friedrich Knorre in 2001.

  14. Causes and consequences of hypoxia on the Western Black Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Gomoiu, Marian-Trajan; Naeher, Sebastian; Secrieru, Dan; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Black Sea, containing the world's largest natural anoxic basin since ca 7500 years (Jones & Gagnon 1994), suffers from combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate variability (Oguz & Gilbert 2007). We discuss causes for hypoxia in western shelf waters. Freshwater runoff by the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnieper results in strong thermohaline stratification that limits bottom water ventilation on the north-western shelf during warm seasons. This makes the western shelf generally prone to oxygen deficiency. During autumn and winter, the thermohaline stratification is eroded by frequent storms and the water column is re-oxygenated. The causal chain of anthropogenic eutrophication since the 1970s led to seasonal hypoxia on the western shelf for more than 20 years causing the catastrophic decline of key shelf habitats (Mee et al. 2005). More frequent and intense algal blooms, red tides (i.e. Noctiluca, Prorocentrum cordatum) and changes in species composition in phytoplankton resulted in deposition of surplus organic matter on the seafloor increasing the oxygen demand, with serious consequences for pelagic and benthic ecosystem structure and functioning. During hypoxia, release of reduced substances like ammonia and phosphate from the sediment to the water fuelled eutrophication internally (Friedrich et al. 2002). The combination of existing data with those gained during EU FP7 HYPOX on the Romanian shelf enables to assess the development of bottom water hypoxia and changes in benthic community and hence, the current state and trends in recovery of the Romanian Black Sea shelf ecosystem. Mud worms are the winners of eutrophication and hypoxia, whereas filter feeders like Mytilus galloprovincialis and Acanthocardia paucicostata are the losers. The western shelf benthic ecosystem showed a significant reduction in species diversity, a reduction of biofilter strength due to the loss of filter-feeder populations and flourishing of

  15. Discontinuous Galerkin Method with Numerical Roe Flux for Spherical Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, T.; Choi, S.; Kang, S.

    2013-12-01

    In developing the dynamic core of a numerical weather prediction model with discontinuous Galerkin method, a numerical flux at the boundaries of grid elements plays a vital role since it preserves the local conservation properties and has a significant impact on the accuracy and stability of numerical solutions. Due to these reasons, we developed the numerical Roe flux based on an approximate Riemann problem for spherical shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates [1] to find out its stability and accuracy. In order to compare the performance with its counterpart flux, we used the Lax-Friedrichs flux, which has been used in many dynamic cores such as NUMA [1], CAM-DG [2] and MCore [3] because of its simplicity. The Lax-Friedrichs flux is implemented by a flux difference between left and right states plus the maximum characteristic wave speed across the boundaries of elements. It has been shown that the Lax-Friedrichs flux with the finite volume method is more dissipative and unstable than other numerical fluxes such as HLLC, AUSM+ and Roe. The Roe flux implemented in this study is based on the decomposition of flux difference over the element boundaries where the nonlinear equations are linearized. It is rarely used in dynamic cores due to its complexity and thus computational expensiveness. To compare the stability and accuracy of the Roe flux with the Lax-Friedrichs, two- and three-dimensional test cases are performed on a plane and cubed-sphere, respectively, with various numbers of element and polynomial order. For the two-dimensional case, the Gaussian bell is simulated on the plane with two different numbers of elements at the fixed polynomial orders. In three-dimensional cases on the cubed-sphere, we performed the test cases of a zonal flow over an isolated mountain and a Rossby-Haurwitz wave, of which initial conditions are the same as those of Williamson [4]. This study presented that the Roe flux with the discontinuous Galerkin method is less

  16. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

  17. An implicit velocity decoupling procedure for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungyoun; Baek, Seung-Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2002-01-01

    An efficient numerical method to solve the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed. A fully implicit time advancement is employed to avoid the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy restriction, where the Crank-Nicolson discretization is used for both the diffusion and convection terms. Based on a block LU decomposition, velocity-pressure decoupling is achieved in conjunction with the approximate factorization. The main emphasis is placed on the additional decoupling of the intermediate velocity components with only nth time step velocity. The temporal second-order accuracy is preserved with the approximate factorization without any modification of boundary conditions. Since the decoupled momentum equations are solved without iteration, the computational time is reduced significantly. The present decoupling method is validated by solving several test cases, in particular, the turbulent minimal channel flow unit. Copyright

  18. Historical and literary roots of Münchhausen syndromes: as intriguing as the syndromes themselves.

    PubMed

    Olry, Régis; Haines, Duane E

    2013-01-01

    Hieronymus Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Münchhausen (1720-1797) was a famous eighteenth-century teller of extravagant stories. In 1785, Rudolph Erich Raspe anonymously published the first book-form edition of Münchhausen's Tales, and a German translation was made available by Gottfried August Bürger the following year. Since that time, these adventures remained a best seller, and the name of the Baron was twice referred to in psychiatric terminology: "Münchhausen syndrome" coined by Richard Asher in 1951 and "Münchhausen syndrome by proxy" coined by Roy Meadow in 1977. This chapter examines the legitimacy of these terms in the light of historical and literary records and analyzes the synonyms or clinical types as found in medical publications. PMID:24290479

  19. 3D shape reconstruction of medical images using a perspective shape-from-shading method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Han, Jiu-qiang

    2008-06-01

    A 3D shape reconstruction approach for medical images using a shape-from-shading (SFS) method was proposed in this paper. A new reflectance map equation of medical images was analyzed with the assumption that the Lambertian reflectance surface was irradiated by a point light source located at the light center and the image was formed under perspective projection. The corresponding static Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation of the reflectance map equation was established. So the shape-from-shading problem turned into solving the viscosity solution of the static H-J equation. Then with the conception of a viscosity vanishing approximation, the Lax-Friedrichs fast sweeping numerical method was used to compute the viscosity solution of the H-J equation and a new iterative SFS algorithm was gained. Finally, experiments on both synthetic images and real medical images were performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed SFS method.

  20. Liquid-crystal science from 1888 to 1922: building a revolution.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Michel

    2014-05-19

    The saga of liquid crystals started with their discovery in 1888 by the botanist Friedrich Reinitzer, who unexpectedly observed "two melting points" for crystals extracted from the root of a carrot. At the end of the nineteenth century, most scientists did not believe in the existence of "liquid crystals" as promoted by the crystallographer Otto Lehmann. The controversies were very vivid; to the point that the recognition of mesomorphic states of matter by the scientific community required more than two decades. In the end, liquid crystals have changed our vision of matter by shattering the three-state paradigm. Since the mid-1970s, liquid crystals have revolutionized the worldwide information-display industry and now play a host of key roles in various technologies. PMID:24482315

  1. The Lenticular Process of the Incus

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.; Chole, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    17th century anatomists, including Franciscus Sylvius, identified a small bony structure between the distal end of the incus and the stapes that they believed was a separate and thus additional ossicle. The existence of the ossicle at the distal portion of the long process of the incus was controversial for the next two hundred years. In the 19th century, anatomists including Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Henry Jones Shrapnell, Eduard Hagenbach, and Joseph Hyrtl provided numerous arguments to demonstrate why the so-called additional ossicle was actually attached to the incus by a thin strut, and thus not a separate bone. Since then, the ovoid end of the incus has been referred to as the “lenticular process” of the incus. The best nomenclature for the bony connection between the lenticular process and the rest of the incus remains uncertain, but the term “lenticular process” should not include its connecting pedicle. PMID:21986927

  2. Solar Corona Simulation Model With Positivity-preserving Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X. S.

    2015-12-01

    Positivity-preserving is one of crucial problems in solar corona simulation. In such numerical simulation of low plasma β region, keeping density and pressure is a first of all matter to obtain physical sound solution. In the present paper, we utilize the maximum-principle-preserving flux limiting technique to develop a class of second order positivity-preserving Godunov finite volume HLL methods for the solar wind plasma MHD equations. Based on the underlying first order building block of positivity preserving Lax-Friedrichs, our schemes, under the constrained transport (CT) and generalized Lagrange multiplier (GLM) framework, can achieve high order accuracy, a discrete divergence-free condition and positivity of the numerical solution simultaneously without extra CFL constraints. Numerical results in four Carrington rotation during the declining, rising, minimum and maximum solar activity phases are provided to demonstrate the performance of modeling small plasma beta with positivity-preserving property of the proposed method.

  3. Part I: Houtermans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, Victor Ya.

    The following sections are included: * PROFESSOR FRIEDRICH HOUTERMANS: WORKS, LIFE, FATE * Introduction * Beginnings * Göttingen * Berlin * 1933 * London * Impressions of Kharkov * Kharkov: 1935-1937 * Arrests * Last Months in the USSR (From Charlotte Houtermans' Diary) * Descent into the Prisons: 1937-39 * From Desperation to Hope (Continuation of Charlotte Houtermans' Diary) * Fighting for Freedom * Descent into the Prisons: 1939-40 * The Bridge over the River Bug * On the Other Shore * Back in Berlin * The Plutonium Report * "They should Accelerate!" * Back in Kharkov * Kharkov Trace (What Happened at the Session of the Academy of Sciences) * Who are Beck and Godin? * War's End * The Age of the Earth * Friends on Houtermans * Chronology * Appendices (Compiled by the Editor) * Last Diary * Odessa 1930 * Chronological Report of my Life in Russian Prisons * Alexander Weissberg's Letter * After the War

  4. [The biography of Maximilian Nitze (1848-1906) and his contribution to the urology].

    PubMed

    Verger-Kuhnke, A B; Beccaría, M L

    2007-01-01

    Maximilian Carl Friedrich Nitze was born on the 18 of September of 1848 in Berlin the capital of Prussia. 1869 while still being a Student of the Heidelberg University the first nephrectomy of the world performed by Gustav Simon (1824-1876) woke his interest in urology. 1874 by the age of 26 he passed his state examination and obtained a doctor degree in medicine. On the 2 October of 1877 he presented the first cystoscope to the members of the Real Medical School in Dresden. Nitzes doubtless valuable contribution to urology was making real the endoscopical exploration of the genitourinary system and initializing the era of surgical treatments under direct vision. By the beginning of the XX century urology reached the status of an independent specialty by separating from surgery, dermatology/venerology, internal medicine and pathology. PMID:17902461

  5. Variational theorems for superimposed motions in elasticity, with application to beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doekmeci, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    Variational theorems are presented for a theory of small motions superimposed on large static deformations and governing equations for prestressed beams on the basis of 3-D theory of elastodynamics. First, the principle of virtual work is modified through Friedrichs's transformation so as to describe the initial stress problem of elastodynamics. Next, the modified principle together with a chosen displacement field is used to derive a set of 1-D macroscopic governing equations of prestressed beams. The resulting equations describe all the types of superimposed motions in elastic beams, and they include all the effects of transverse shear and normal strains, and the rotatory inertia. The instability of the governing equations is discussed briefly.

  6. Nietzsche, autobiography, history: mourning and Martin and John.

    PubMed

    Champagne, J

    1998-01-01

    How might gay and lesbian literature be read not as a mimetic representation of homosexuality, but as an activity linked to problems of subjectivity and historiography? Reading Dale Peck's novel Martin and John alongside passages from Friedrich Nietzsche's "On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life" and Sigmund Freud's "Mourning and Melancholia," this essay argues for an understanding of Peck's text as an attempt to link two apparently different processes of import to contemporary gay male subjects in particular: the writing of what Nietzsche terms "critical history," and the mourning of those lost to HIV disease. It concludes by linking Martin and John to feminist critiques of identity and traditional historiography, as well as noting the connection between these two critiques. PMID:9505231

  7. [The psychology of compassion. An analysis of the 100th anniversary of the death of Fredrich Nietzsche].

    PubMed

    Wilkes, J

    2000-06-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche is supposed to have been one of the harshest critics of compassion. Many of his publications try to unmask its failings and to expose its true motives. From an ardent admirer of Schopenhauers's ethics of compassion, Nietzsche turned into a vigorous despiser of compassionate feelings. It is shown that this change was above all caused by overwhelming personal experiences of compassion due to illness and death in his family and, later on, with his first aid activities in military hospitals during the German-French war in 1870. Combined with that, Nietzsche suffered from feelings of passivity and helplessness, which gave him the impression of compassion being a negative and--in the end--loathed emotion. PMID:10909298

  8. Narcissism, solitude, friendship: notes on the therapeutic alliance in the context of the Freud-Jung relationship.

    PubMed

    Carta, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    This paper deals with friendship and therapeutic alliance as a transformation of the libidinal love that structures the Oedipal complex. The author considers the relationship between Jung and Freud as a formidable test that may shed light on their personalities and on the relevance of the Oedipal complex for both of them and for their particular theories and practices. The author discusses the possibility that the Oedipal complex may be seen under a finalistic frame of reference and discusses which implicit goals it may express. Such a goal has not been reached by either Freud nor Jung, but might be the key to underline and recognize the fundamental importance of the 'therapeutic alliance' within the analytical situation, seen as a potential relationship between the selves of the patient and of the analyst springing from a transformation of libidinal love into 'friendship' as it was described by Friedrich Nietzsche. PMID:22954047

  9. Zöllner's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-12-01

    The idea that space is not Euclidean by necessity, and that there are other kinds of "curved" spaces, diffused slowly to the physical and astronomical sciences. Until Einstein's general theory of relativity, only a handful of astronomers contemplated a connection between non-Euclidean geometry and real space. One of them, the German astrophysicist Johann Carl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882), suggested in 1872 a remarkable cosmological model describing a finite universe in closed space. I examine Zöllner's little-known contribution to cosmology and also his even more unorthodox speculations of a four-dimensional space including both physical and spiritual phenomena. I provide an overview of Zöllner's scientific work, of his status in the German scientific community, and of the controversies caused by his polemical style of science. Zöllner's cosmology was effectively forgotten, but there is no reason why it should remain an unwritten chapter in the history of science.

  10. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.