Science.gov

Sample records for front annual general

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FRONT VIEW. A WOOD ENCLOSURE ONCE OCCUPIED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FRONT VIEW. A WOOD ENCLOSURE ONCE OCCUPIED THE UPPER PART OF THE FRONT ELEVATION, AS INDICATED BY THE PRESENCE OF CANTILEVER BEAMS - Stone Barn, Stoopville Road, Stoopville, Bucks County, PA

  2. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 90. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING LOUISVILLE WATER COMPANY, GENERAL, FRONT ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING LOUISVILLE WATER COMPANY, GENERAL, FRONT ELEVATION, ALLIS-CHALMERS - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  4. 89. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING LOUISVILLE WATER COMPANY, GENERAL, FRONT ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING LOUISVILLE WATER COMPANY, GENERAL, FRONT ELEVATION, ALLIS-CHALMERS - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) OF DOUBLE FURNACE FROM ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) OF DOUBLE FURNACE FROM ACROSS THE CREEK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  6. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF AUDITORIUM; ENTRANCE ROAD TO BONNEVILLE PROJECT IS IN FOREGROUND; FLAGPOLE IS IN CENTER. - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FRONT AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FRONT AND WEST FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 1. General view of building front looking west from area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of building front looking west from area near abandoned fog signal building. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  9. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING FRONT EAST FACADE, FROM SOUTHEAST. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING FRONT EAST FACADE, FROM SOUTHEAST. Photo supplied by the Florida Division of Archives, History and Records Management, Tallahasse, Florida. - Sulphur Springs Hotel, 8122 North Nebraska Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  10. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, IN CONTEXT WITH LOADING YARD AND DERRICK, LOOKING WEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST. FRONT FACES NORTH. IT IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM NORTHEAST. FRONT FACES NORTH. IT IS LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE MANSION'S BACKYARD. Photo date: February 1978 - Faber House, South Dependency, 631 East Bay Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  12. Generalized parton distributions in a light-front nonperturbative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, D.; Zhao, X.; Honkanen, H.; Manohar, R.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    Basis light-front quantization (BLFQ) has recently been developed as a promising nonperturbative technique. Using BLFQ, we investigate the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in a nonperturbative framework for a dressed electron in QED. We evaluate light-front wave functions and carry out overlap calculations to obtain GPDs. We also perform perturbative calculations in the corresponding basis spaces to demonstrate that they compare reasonably with the BLFQ results.

  13. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  14. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  15. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  16. Annual social behaviour of basking sharks associated with coastal front areas.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, D W; Southall, E J; Quayle, V A; Fox, A M

    2000-01-01

    Comparatively little is known about reproductive behaviour in wild sharks as it has proved extremely difficult to study, especially in large pelagic sharks. Here we describe annual courtship-like behaviour in the second-largest fish species, the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus), from 25 separate episodes observed and tracked during a five-year study period (1995-1999) off south-west England. Social behaviours observed between paired, or three or four, sharks were consistent with courtship behaviours seen in other shark species, namely nose-to-tail following, close following, close flank approach, parallel and echelon swimming. Mature individuals between 5 and 8 m total body length (L(T)) exhibited these behaviours whereas smaller sharks (3-4 m L(T)) did not. Lead individuals were identified as female on a number of occasions and interactions were prolonged; the longest continuous observation of socializing was 1.8 h, although intermittent track data indicates bouts may last for up to 5-6 h. Locations of courtship-like behaviour events were not distributed randomly and were significantly associated with thermal fronts. Our results indicate that putative courtship behaviour occurs between May and July along oceanographic fronts, probably as a consequence of individuals aggregating to forage in rich prey patches before initiating courtship. Thus, locating the richest prey patches along fronts may be important for basking sharks to find mates as well as food in the pelagic ecosystem. As courtship-like behaviours occur annually off south-west England we speculate that this region may represent an annual breeding area for this protected species, but mating itself probably takes place at depth as it was not seen at the surface. PMID:11052542

  17. 24 CFR 257.203 - Calculation of up-front and annual mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and annual... Rights and Obligations Under the Contract of Insurance § 257.203 Calculation of up-front and annual... to the following requirements: (1) Up-front premium. FHA shall establish and collect a single...

  18. 24 CFR 257.203 - Calculation of up-front and annual mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and annual... Rights and Obligations Under the Contract of Insurance § 257.203 Calculation of up-front and annual... to the following requirements: (1) Up-front premium. FHA shall establish and collect a single...

  19. 24 CFR 257.203 - Calculation of up-front and annual mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and annual... Rights and Obligations Under the Contract of Insurance § 257.203 Calculation of up-front and annual... to the following requirements: (1) Up-front premium. FHA shall establish and collect a single...

  20. 24 CFR 257.203 - Calculation of up-front and annual mortgage insurance premiums for H4H program mortgages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and annual... Rights and Obligations Under the Contract of Insurance § 257.203 Calculation of up-front and annual... to the following requirements: (1) Up-front premium. FHA shall establish and collect a single...

  1. Generalized wave-front reconstruction algorithm applied in a Shack-Hartmann test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiyao, Zou; Zhang, Zhenchao

    2000-01-01

    A generalized numerical wave-front reconstruction method is proposed that is suitable for diversified irregular pupil shapes of optical systems to be measured. That is, to make a generalized and regular normal equation set, the test domain is extended to a regular square shape. The compatibility of this method is discussed in detail, and efficient algorithms (such as the Cholesky method) for solving this normal equation set are given. In addition, the authors give strict analyses of not only the error propagation in the wave-front estimate but also of the discretization errors of this domain extension algorithm. Finally, some application examples are given to demonstrate this algorithm.

  2. A generalized front marching algorithm for the solution of the eikonal equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Paul; Rodrigue, Garry

    2003-07-01

    A new front marching algorithm for solving the eikonal equation is presented. An important property of the algorithm is that it can be used on nodes that are located on highly distorted grids or on nodes that are randomly located. When the nodes are located on an orthogonal grid, the method is first-order accurate and is shown to be a generalization of the front marching algorithm in (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93 (4) (1996) 1591). The accuracy of the method is also shown to be dependent on the principle curvature of the wave front solution. Numerical results on a variety of node configurations as well as on shadow, nonconvex and nondifferentiable solutions are presented.

  3. 24 CFR 203.285 - Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. 203.285 Section 203.285 Housing and Urban... § 203.285 Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. (a) Up-front. Any mortgage for a term of 15 or fewer years executed on or after December 26,...

  4. 24 CFR 203.285 - Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. 203.285 Section 203.285 Housing and Urban... § 203.285 Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. (a) Up-front. Any mortgage for a term of 15 or fewer years executed on or after December 26,...

  5. 24 CFR 203.285 - Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. 203.285 Section 203.285 Housing and Urban... § 203.285 Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. (a) Up-front. Any mortgage for a term of 15 or fewer years executed on or after December 26,...

  6. 24 CFR 203.285 - Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. 203.285 Section 203.285 Housing and Urban... § 203.285 Fifteen-year mortgages: Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after December 26, 1992. (a) Up-front. Any mortgage for a term of 15 or fewer years executed on or after December 26,...

  7. Learning generalization in problem solving by a blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    de Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2008-10-01

    Pepperberg (The Alex studies: cognitive and communicative abilities of gray parrots. Harvard University Press, Cambridge;1999) showed that some of the complex cognitive capabilities found in primates are also present in psittacine birds. Through the replication of an experiment performed with cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) by Hauser et al. (Anim Behav 57:565-582; 1999), we examined a blue-fronted parrot's (Amazona aestiva) ability to generalize the solution of a particular problem in new but similar cases. Our results show that, at least when it comes to solving this particular problem, our parrot subject exhibited learning generalization capabilities resembling the tamarins'. PMID:18575906

  8. General aviation activity survey. Annual summary report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of the annual General Aviation Activity Survey. The survey is conducted by the FAA to obtain information on the flight activity of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet. The report contains breakdowns of active aircraft, annual flight hours, average flight hours and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, engine hours, miles flown estimates, estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and grade of fuel consumed by the general aviation fleet. Aircraft, Aircraft activity, Aircraft use, Fuel consumption, General aviation, Hours flown, Miles flown.

  9. Form factors and generalized parton distributions in basis light-front quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Lekha; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xingbo; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; El-Hady, Alaa Abd

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the elastic form factors and the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) for four low-lying bound states of a demonstration fermion-antifermion system, strong-coupling positronium (e e ¯ ), using basis light-front quantization (BLFQ). By using this approach, we also calculate the impact-parameter-dependent GPDs q (x ,b⃗⊥) to visualize the fermion density in the transverse plane (b⃗⊥). We compare selected results with corresponding quantities in the nonrelativistic limit to reveal relativistic effects. Our results establish the foundation within BLFQ for investigating the form factors and the GPDs for hadronic systems.

  10. Link between alginate reaction front propagation and general reaction diffusion theory.

    PubMed

    Braschler, Thomas; Valero, Ana; Colella, Ludovica; Pataky, Kristopher; Brugger, Jürgen; Renaud, Philippe

    2011-03-15

    We provide a common theoretical framework reuniting specific models for the Ca(2+)-alginate system and general reaction diffusion theory along with experimental validation on a microfluidic chip. As a starting point, we use a set of nonlinear, partial differential equations that are traditionally solved numerically: the Mikkelsen-Elgsaeter model. Applying the traveling-wave hypothesis as a major simplification, we obtain an analytical solution. The solution indicates that the fundamental properties of the alginate reaction front are governed by a single dimensionless parameter λ. For small λ values, a large depletion zone accompanies the reaction front. For large λ values, the alginate reacts before having the time to diffuse significantly. We show that the λ parameter is of general importance beyond the alginate model system, as it can be used to classify known solutions for second-order reaction diffusion schemes, along with the novel solution presented here. For experimental validation, we develop a microchip model system, in which the alginate gel formation can be carried out in a highly controlled, essentially 1D environment. The use of a filter barrier enables us to rapidly renew the CaCl(2) solution, while maintaining flow speeds lower than 1 μm/s for the alginate compartment. This allows one to impose an exactly known bulk CaCl(2) concentration and diffusion resistance. This experimental model system, taken together with the theoretical development, enables the determination of the entire set of physicochemical parameters governing the alginate reaction front in a single experiment. PMID:21351747

  11. Office of the Inspector General. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    A summary of the progress and problems encountered by the Office of the Inspector General during 1980 is presented. Information on such administrative matters as the IG office organization, staffing, affirmative action, and training is reported. Planning and policy matters and expectations for the future are discussed. Important work done by the audit, inspection, and investigative staffs is summarized. Summaries of significant findings, recommendations, and actions taken in response are included. (MCW)

  12. Front conditions for gravity currents in channels of general cross-section: some general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungarish, Marius

    2015-11-01

    We consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current in a horizontal channel with general cross-section of width f (z) , 0 <= z <= H the gravity acceleration g acts in - z direction. (The rectangular case is f (z) = const.) We assume a two-layer system of fluids of densities ρc (current, of height h) and ρa (ambient, filling the remaining part of the channel). We revisit the derivation of the nose Froude-number condition Fr = U /(g' h) 1 / 2 ; U is the speed of propagation of the current and g' = (ρc /ρa - 1) g . We present compact insightful expressions of Fr and energy dissipation as a functions of φ (= area fraction occupied by the current in the cross-section), and show that a degree of freedom is present. We demonstrate that the extension of the closure suggested by Benjamin for the rectangular cross-section, namely that the bottom is a perfect stagnation line, produces Fr solutions which are optimal with respect to several useful criteria. However, the energy conserving closure yields problematic Fr results, as manifest in particular by invalidity for deep currents (small h / H). Connection with realistic time-dependent gravity currents is discussed.

  13. On the Front Lines of Change: The Children's Aid Society 2001 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Aid Society, New York, NY.

    The Children's Aid Society (CAS), one of the country's oldest and largest non-sectarian child and family welfare agencies, has 37 sites in New York with an annual operating budget of over $60 million. This annual report highlights the activities of the organization for the 2001 fiscal year and presents information on the work of CAS to complete…

  14. Office of Inspector General fiscal year 1996 annual work plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This FY 1996 Office of Inspector General (OIG) Annual Work Plan is a summary and distillation of information contained in annual work plans, and includes audits and inspections that are carried over from FY 1995 as well as audits and inspections scheduled to start during FY 1996. Audits and inspections included in this consolidated OIG Annual Work Plan will be performed by OIG staff. Specialized expertise available through a Certified Public Accounting firm will be used to assist in auditing the Department`s financial statements. As part of the OIG Cooperative Audit Strategy, additional audit coverage of the Department`s programs is provided by internal auditors of the Department`s integrated contractors. Through the Cooperative Audit Strategy, the OIG ensures that the internal auditors satisfy audit standards, provides planning guidance to the internal auditors, coordinates work to avoid duplication, and tracks the work of internal auditors to ensure that needed audits are performed. Applicable portions of the four annual work plans issued for Fiscal Year 1996 by the Deputy/Assistant Inspectors General have been combined to form a major part of this overall OIG Annual Work Plan. Also included are portions of the most recent OIG Semiannual Reports to Congress to give an overview of the OIG`s mission/organization, resource status, and the environment in which the OIG currently operates. The OIG Annual Work Plan also lists ongoing and planned audits and inspections, and it presents investigative statistics which have been previously reported in the two OIG Semiannual Reports to Congress which cover Fiscal Year 1995. Furthermore, included in this work plan are descriptions of several innovations developed by the OIG to streamline its operations and to conserve as much efficiency and economy as possible in a time of resource reductions.

  15. General-Purpose Front End for Real-Time Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    FRONTIER is a computer program that functions as a front end for any of a variety of other software of both the artificial intelligence (AI) and conventional data-processing types. As used here, front end signifies interface software needed for acquiring and preprocessing data and making the data available for analysis by the other software. FRONTIER is reusable in that it can be rapidly tailored to any such other software with minimum effort. Each component of FRONTIER is programmable and is executed in an embedded virtual machine. Each component can be reconfigured during execution. The virtual-machine implementation making FRONTIER independent of the type of computing hardware on which it is executed.

  16. 40 CFR 97.120 - General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Annual Trading... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.120 General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program permit requirements. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 96.120 - General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Annual Trading... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.120 General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program...

  18. 40 CFR 96.120 - General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Annual Trading... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.120 General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program...

  19. 40 CFR 97.120 - General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General CAIR NOX Annual Trading... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.120 General CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program permit requirements. (a)...

  20. 24 CFR 203.284 - Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after July 1, 1991.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and that were insured during Fiscal Years 1991-1994, are governed by 24 CFR 203.284(b) as in effect on April 1, 2003, (see 24 CFR parts 200-499 revised as of April 1, 2003). (c... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and...

  1. 24 CFR 203.284 - Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after July 1, 1991.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and that were insured during Fiscal Years 1991-1994, are governed by 24 CFR 203.284(b) as in effect on April 1, 2003, (see 24 CFR parts 200-499 revised as of April 1, 2003). (c... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and...

  2. 24 CFR 203.284 - Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after July 1, 1991.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and that were insured during Fiscal Years 1991-1994, are governed by 24 CFR 203.284(b) as in effect on April 1, 2003, (see 24 CFR parts 200-499 revised as of April 1, 2003). (c... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and...

  3. 24 CFR 203.284 - Calculation of up-front and annual MIP on or after July 1, 1991.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and that were insured during Fiscal Years 1991-1994, are governed by 24 CFR 203.284(b) as in effect on April 1, 2003, (see 24 CFR parts 200-499 revised as of April 1, 2003). (c... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of up-front and...

  4. General Education: Concept and Practice. ASHE Annual Meeting 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flexner, Hans; Berrettini, Robert

    The perceptions of faculty and administrators regarding the following issues were assessed: the distinction between general and liberal education; the supporting philosophical or conceptual bases of general education; its societal goals and intellectual orientation; the place within general education of interdisciplinarity; and the role of general…

  5. Toward a general view of mantle peridotite beneath the volcanic front: petrology of peridotite xenoliths from Bezymyanny volcano (central Kamchatka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimaru, S.; Arai, S.; Tamura, A.; Okrugin, V. M.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.

    2012-04-01

    We have a large amount of data about petrological and geochemical features of upper mantle peridotites based on researches of mantle xenoliths, ophiolites or solid intrusions. But the nature of sub-arc mantle, especially beneath a volcanic front, has not been fully understood due to the scarcity of occurrences of mantle-derived materials there. Kamchatka Peninsula is one of the active volcanic arcs, having 29 active volcanoes, and 13 volcanoes of them contain cognate or mantle peridotite xenoliths (Erlich et al., 1979). Peridotite xenoliths derived from the upper mantle beneath the volcanic front are expected from 9 of them (Erlich et al., 1979). Avachinsky (Avacha) volcano is the most famous of them because of its easy accessibility and high xenolith production. Peridotite xenoliths from Avacha record high degree of melting and multiple stages of metasomatism (e.g., Ishimaru et al., 2007; Ionov, 2010). Formation of secondary orthopyroxenes replacing olivine is one of characteristics of arc-derived peridotite xenoliths (e.g., Arai & Kida, 2000; McInnes et al., 2001). In addition, we found peculiar metasomatisms, e.g., Ni enrichment (e.g., Ishimaru and Arai, 2008), in the Avacha peridotite xenolith suite. Here, we show petrological and geochemical features of ultramafic xenoliths from Bezymyanny volcano, central Kamchatka, to obtain a more generalized view of the sub-front mantle. We examined 2 harzburgite xenoliths from Bezymyanny. They are composed of fine-grained minerals (cf. Arai and Kida, 2000), and occasionally contain hornblende and/or phlogopite. Almost all orthopyroxenes show irregular shapes and replace olivine, indicating a secondary origin. At the boundary between the harzburgite and host andesite, we observed hornblende and secondary orthopyroxenes. At the xenoliths' interior, Fo content of olivine and Cr# (= Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio) of chromian spinel are high, 91-92 and 0.43-0.69, respectively, and the Fo content decreases to 76 at the boundary

  6. Generalizing the flash technique in the front-face configuration to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids

    SciTech Connect

    Pech-May, Nelson Wilbur; Mendioroz, Arantza; Salazar, Agustín

    2014-10-15

    In this work, we have extended the front-face flash method to retrieve simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of semitransparent plates. A complete theoretical model that allows calculating the front surface temperature rise of the sample has been developed. It takes into consideration additional effects, such as multiple reflections of the heating light beam inside the sample, heat losses by convection and radiation, transparency of the sample to infrared wavelengths, and heating pulse duration. Measurements performed on calibrated solids, covering a wide range of absorption coefficients (from transparent to opaque) and thermal diffusivities, validate the proposed method.

  7. Generalizing the flash technique in the front-face configuration to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech-May, Nelson Wilbur; Mendioroz, Arantza; Salazar, Agustín

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we have extended the front-face flash method to retrieve simultaneously the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of semitransparent plates. A complete theoretical model that allows calculating the front surface temperature rise of the sample has been developed. It takes into consideration additional effects, such as multiple reflections of the heating light beam inside the sample, heat losses by convection and radiation, transparency of the sample to infrared wavelengths, and heating pulse duration. Measurements performed on calibrated solids, covering a wide range of absorption coefficients (from transparent to opaque) and thermal diffusivities, validate the proposed method.

  8. 77 FR 10034 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Regarding the 2011 GSP Annual Product Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... initiatives intended to enable least-developed countries to benefit more fully from global trade. A list of... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Regarding the 2011 GSP Annual Product Review AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  9. 1. Photocopy of lithograph (from Annual Report of the Supervising ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of lithograph (from Annual Report of the Supervising Architect to the Secretary for the Calendar Year Ending December 31, 1888) GENERAL VIEW, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Old U.S. Mint, Chestnut & Juniper Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Application of nonstationary generalized logistic models for analyzing the annual maximum rainfall data in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Joo, K.; Kim, H.; Heo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the various approaches for the nonstationary frequency analysis have been studied since the effect of climate change was widely recognized for hydrologic data. Most nonstationary studies proposed the nonstationary general extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto models for the annual maximum and POT (peak-over-threshold) data, respectively. However, various alternatives is needed to analyze the nonstationary hydrologic data because of the complicated influence of climate change. This study proposed the nonstationary generalized logistic models containing time-dependent location and scale parameters. These models contain only or both nonstationary location and scale parameters that change linearly over time. The parameters are estimated using the method of maximum likelihood based on the Newton-Raphson method. In addition, the proposed models apply to the annual maximum rainfall data of Korea in order to evaluate the applicability of the proposed models.

  11. Techniques to estimate generalized skew coefficients of annual peak streamflow for natural basins in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judd, Linda J.; Asquith, William H.; Slade, Raymond M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents two techniques to estimate generalized skew coefficients used for log-Pearson Type III peak-streamflow frequency analysis of natural basins in Texas. A natural basin has less than 10 percent impervious cover, and less than 10 percent of its drainage area is controlled by reservoirs. The estimation of generalized skew coefficients is based on annual peak and historical peak streamflow for all U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations having at least 20 years of annual peak-streamflow record from natural basins in Texas. Station skew coefficients calculated for each of 255 Texas stations were used to estimate generalized skew coefficients for Texas. One technique to estimate generalized skew coefficients involved the use of regression equations developed for each of eight regions in Texas, and the other involved development of a statewide map of generalized skew coefficients. The weighted mean of the weighted mean standard errors of the regression equations for the eight regions is 0.36 log10 skew units, and the weighted mean standard error of the map is 0.35 log10 skew units. The technique based on the map is preferred for estimating generalized skew coefficients because of its smooth transition from one region of the State to another.

  12. Gopher eskers, mounds, and stonelines: Evidence of the annual to centennial impacts of gophers in the montane meadows of Colorado's Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchell, E. W.; Lombardi, E. M.; Marquez, J. A.; Doak, D. F.; Anderson, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the critical zone on montane hillslopes of Colorado's Front Range, qualitative observations suggest that gophers not only dominate the modern meadow geomorphic rates, but are involved in a geomorphic-ecological feedback system that governs meadow migration on decadal-millennial time scales. Our observations suggest that gopher intensity and location is pertinent to forest/meadow (FM) dynamics. Field mapping of gopher activity as the snow melts in the spring revealed that subnivean tubes ("eskers") are tightly clustered at the FM boundary while mounds generated over the remainder of the summer are concentrated strictly in the meadows. This suggests that gophers spend the winter months at the FM interface and spend the warmer seasons within the meadows. We hypothesize that variations in snow depth drive this spatial-temporal pattern of gopher activity; deeper snow near the FM boundary provides greater insulation, as near-surface ground temperatures in the wind-scoured meadow centers are colder. This motivates our initiation of monitoring and modeling of near-surface temperature across a FM pair. Numerical modeling supports qualitative observations that the following geomorphic-ecological processes are active: seedling establishment and damage, gopher tunneling and resulting mound generation, mound material transport driven by ungulate trampling, vegetative lock-down of mound material, and resulting changes in the soil depth of the landscape. This year's observations suggest that we must add to this mix the annual cycle of the gopher activity. Finally, probing and soil pits within the meadows reveal that on longer timescales gopher activity leads to the development of a well-mixed upper soil layer that is sharply bounded below by high concentrations of large stones ("stone lines") within the glacial till substrate of the hillslopes. The mean diameter of mound surface grains is half that of clasts comprising the stone lines. This motivates documentation of soil

  13. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided.

  14. General aviation activity and avionics survey. Annual summary report, CY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the results and a description of the 1985 General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during 1986 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil aviation in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 10.3 percent of the general aviation fleet. A responses rate of 63.7 percent was obtained. Survey results based upon response but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1985 an estimated 34.1 million hours of flying time were logged and 88.7 million operations were performed by the 210,654 active general aviation aircraft in the U.S. fleet. The mean annual flight time per aircraft was 158.2 hours. The active aircraft represented about 77.9 percent of the registered general aviation fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, engine hours, and miles flown estimates, as well as tables for detailed analysis of the avionics capabilities of the general aviation fleet. New to the report this year are estimates of the number of landings, IFR hours flown, and the cost and grade of fuel consumed by the GA fleet.

  15. Propagation of the deformation front beyond a decollement disrupted by a step : from the Jura case to general conclusions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caer, Typhaine; Souloumiac, Pauline; Maillot, Bertrand; Leturmy, Pascale

    2016-04-01

    The North of the Jura fold-and-thrust-belt is an example of a thin-skin belt developed over a disrupted décollement. During Oligocene, the area of the current northern Jura undergoes the West European E-W extension that opens the Rhine and Bresse grabens, offsetting the Triassic evaporitic décollement layer. During Miocene, the alpine, roughly N-S, compressive regime folds this prefractured cover. The presence of deformation to the North of a step down in the décollement is sometimes interpreted as the proof of the activation of a deeper décollement, on the basis that outward propagation of deformation must activate shallower decollements and cannot activate deeper ones. Using the limit analysis theory, we demonstrate that for a given set of physical parameters (friction/cohesion), a lowered portion of a décollement can be reactivated depending on the height of the offset and on the topography above it. By sandbox experiment, we illustrate the general behavior of this localization along a disrupted décollement, we show that the offsets represent slowdowns in the deformation. They act as catching points that localize a ramp until the created topography is sufficient to block the ongoing deformation on this ramp allowing it propagation farther along the lowered portion of the décollement level. We use the mechanical analysis to quantify the general conditions in which an offset can block or not the propagation of deformation.

  16. General aviation activity and avionics survey. 1978. Annual summary report cy 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results and a description of the 1978 General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during early 1979 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil aviation in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 13.3 percent of the general aviation fleet and obtained a response rate of 74 percent. Survey results are based upon responses but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1978 an estimated 39.4 million hours of flying time were logged by the 198,778 active general aviation aircraft in the U.S. fleet, yielding a mean annual flight time per aircraft of 197.7 hours. The active aircraft represented 85 percent of the registered general aviation fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, and engine hours estimates.

  17. General aviation activity and avionics survey. Annual report for CY81

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, J.C.; Carter, P.W.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents the results and a description of the 1981 General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey. The survey was conducted during 1982 by the FAA to obtain information on the activity and avionics of the United States registered general aviation aircraft fleet, the dominant component of civil aviation in the U.S. The survey was based on a statistically selected sample of about 8.9 percent of the general aviation fleet and obtained a response rate of 61 percent. Survey results are based upon response but are expanded upward to represent the total population. Survey results revealed that during 1981 an estimated 40.7 million hours of flying time were logged by the 213,226 active general aviation aircraft in the U.S. fleet, yielding a mean annual flight time per aircraft of 188.1 hours. The active aircraft represented about 83 percent of the registered general aviation fleet. The report contains breakdowns of these and other statistics by manufacturer/model group, aircraft type, state and region of based aircraft, and primary use. Also included are fuel consumption, lifetime airframe hours, avionics, and engine hours estimates. In addition, tables are included for detailed analysis of the avionics capabilities of GA fleet.

  18. News from Front (of the Solar System): the problem with Mercury, the Vulcan hypothesis, and General Relativity's first astronomical triumph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the outer planet Neptune in 1846, based on the calculated position published by Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier, has been hailed as the "zenith of Newtonian mechanics." An attempt by Le Verrier to further extend the dominion of Newton's gravitational theory to the innermost known planet of the Solar System, Mercury, seemingly came to grief with the discovery of a small unexplained discrepancy in the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, whose value was later calculated as 43".0 per century. Le Verrier proposed that it could be explained on the basis of Newtonian theory by assuming the existence of an intra-mercurial planet ("Vulcan") or ring of debris. Efforts to confirm this hypothesis, culminating in high drama on the plains of the western United States at the great North American solar eclipse of July 1878, proved futile; by 1908, W. W. Campbell and C.D. Perrine of Lick Observatory, who had carried out exhaustive photographic searches at three eclipses (1901, 1905, and 1908) could declare that Vulcan did not exist. The theoretical problem it was invoked to explain remained until November 1915, when Albert Einstein used the recently discovered generally covariant gravitational equations to put the problem to rest. "Perihelion motions explained quantitatively … you will be astonished," he wrote to his friend Michael Besso.

  19. Dynamical Expansion of Ionization and Dissociation Front around a Massive Star. II. On the Generality of Triggered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2006-07-01

    We analyze the dynamical expansion of the H II region, photodissociation region, and the swept-up shell, solving the UV and far-UV radiative transfer and the thermal and chemical processes in the time-dependent hydrodynamics code. Following our previous paper, we investigate the time evolutions with various ambient number densities and central stars. Our calculations show that basic evolution is qualitatively similar among our models with different parameters. The molecular gas is finally accumulated in the shell, and the gravitational fragmentation of the shell is generally expected. The quantitative differences among models are well understood with analytic scaling relations. The detailed physical and chemical structure of the shell is mainly determined by the incident far-UV flux and the column density of the shell, which also follow the scaling relations. The time of shell fragmentation and the mass of the gathered molecular gas are sensitive to the ambient number density. In the case of a low density, the shell fragmentation occurs over a longer timescale, and the accumulated molecular gas is more massive than in the case of a high density. The variations with different central stars are more moderate. The time of the shell fragmentation differs by a factor of several with the various stars of M*=12-101 Msolar. According to our numerical results, we conclude that the expanding H II region should be an efficient trigger for star formation in molecular clouds if the mass of the ambient molecular material is large enough.

  20. 77 FR 1549 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of the Results of the 2010 GSP Annual Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Presidential Proclamations. In the 2010 GSP Annual Review, the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) reviewed two... Generalized System of Preferences and Chair of the GSP Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of the Results of the 2010...

  1. Scientific overview: CSCI-CITAC annual general meeting and young investigator's forum 2011.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Farzad; Schmidt, Anna R; Belrose, Jillian C

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, members of the Clinician Investigator Trainee Association of Canada - Association des cliniciens-chercheurs en formation du Canada (CITAC-ACCFC) and the Canadian Society for Clinician Investigators (CSCI) held a joint Annual General Meeting (AGM) and Young Investigator Forum (YIF) September 12-14 in Ottawa, ON, Canada. The theme of the meeting was "The Role of Government and Regulatory Organizations in Shaping the Environment of the Clinician Scientist". The meeting was well attended by established clinician scientists and clinician investigator trainees from across Canada. The aim of this scientific overview is to highlight the research presented by trainees at both the oral plenary session as well as the poster presentation sessions of this meeting. This work covers a wide variety of medical disciplines, focusing on translational medicine, from the basic sciences to clinical application. PMID:23374600

  2. The annual cycle of stratospheric water vapor in a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mote, Philip W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of general circulation models (GCM's) to stratospheric chemistry and transport both permits and requires a thorough investigation of stratospheric water vapor. The National Center for Atmospheric Research has redesigned its GCM, the Community Climate Model (CCM2), to enable studies of the chemistry and transport of tracers including water vapor; the importance of water vapor to the climate and chemistry of the stratosphere requires that it be better understood in the atmosphere and well represented in the model. In this study, methane is carried as a tracer and converted to water; this simple chemistry provides an adequate representation of the upper stratospheric water vapor source. The cold temperature bias in the winter polar stratosphere, which the CCM2 shares with other GCM's, produces excessive dehydration in the southern hemisphere, but this dry bias can be ameliorated by setting a minimum vapor pressure. The CCM2's water vapor distribution and seasonality compare favorably with observations in many respects, though seasonal variations including the upper stratospheric semiannual oscillation are generally too small. Southern polar dehydration affects midlatitude water vapor mixing ratios by a few tenths of a part per million, mostly after the demise of the vortex. The annual cycle of water vapor in the tropical and northern midlatitude lower stratosphere is dominated by drying at the tropical tropopause. Water vapor has a longer adjustment time than methane and had not reached equilibrium at the end of the 9 years simulated here.

  3. 76 FR 67530 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... reauthorization of the GSP program, the GSP Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) announces that... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. Scientific overview: CSCI-CITAC annual general meeting and young investigator's forum 2010.

    PubMed

    Berger, Mike; Bosse, Dominick; Kuruvilla, M Sara; Lang, Pencilla; Murray, Jean-Christophe; Nguyen, Long Viet

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the annual general meeting of the Clinical Investigator Trainee Association of Canada - Association des cliniciens-chercheurs en formation du Canada (CITAC-ACCFC) and the Canadian Society for Clinician Investigators (CSCI) was held between September 20 and 22 in Ottawa. Several globally-renowned scientists, including this year's CSCI/Royal College Henry Friesen Award recipient, Dr. Paul Kubes, Distinguished Scientist Award recipient, Dr. Gideon Koren and Joe Doupe Young Investigator Award recipient, Dr. Torsten Neil, discussed a variety of topics relating to the role of technology in medicine. The meeting was well attended by clinician scientists and trainees from across Canada and offered trainees mentorship and networking opportunities in addition to showcasing their research at the young investigator forum. The aim of this scientific overview is to highlight the research presented by trainees at both the oral plenary session as well as the poster presentation sessions of this meeting. Similar to last year's meeting [1], research questions being investigated by trainees covered the spectrum of medical disciplines, encompassing both basic science as well as clinical areas, and are summarized below. PMID:21463544

  5. Scientific overview: CSCI - CITAC Annual General Meeting and Young Investigator's Forum 2012.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Ghadi; Ram, Véronique D; Wang, Xin; Wilcox, Jared T; Yoon, Ju-Yoon

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the Annual General Meeting of the Clinical Investigator Trainee Association of Canada - Association des cliniciens-chercheurs en formation du Canada (CITAC - ACCFC) and the Canadian Society of Clinician Investigators (CSCI) was held 19-21 September in Ottawa. Several globally-renowned scientists, including 2012 Friesen International Prize recipient, Dr. Marc Tessier-Lavigne, the CSCI/Royal College Henry Friesen Award recipient, Dr. Morley Hollenberg, and the recipient of the Joe Doupe Young Investigator Award, Dr. Phillip Awadalla, presented on a range of topics on research in basic and translational science in medicine. This year's CITAC Symposium featured presentations by Dr. Alain Beaudet, Dr. Michael Strong and Dr. Vivek Goel on the Role of Physician Scientists in Public Health and Policy, which was followed by a lively discussion on the role of basic science and clinical research in patient-oriented policy development. This scientific overview highlights the research presented by trainees at both the oral plenary and poster presentation sessions. As at previous meetings, research questions investigated by this year's trainees span multiple medical disciplines; from basic science to clinical research to medical education. Below is a summary of the presentations showcased at the Young Investigator's Forum. PMID:24088329

  6. Scientific overview: CSCI-CITAC Annual General Meeting and Young Investigators' Forum 2014.

    PubMed

    Keow, Jonathan; Zhao, Eric; Samuel, Nardin; Dey, Ayan; Schneider, Raphael; Chen, Michael; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Society of Clinician Investigators (CSCI) and Clinical Investigator Trainee Association of Canada/Association des cliniciens-chercheurs en formation du Canada (CITAC/ACCFC) annual general meeting (AGM) was held in Toronto during November 21-24, 2015 for the first time in conjunction with the University of Toronto Clinician-Investigator Program Research Day. The overall theme for this year's meeting was the role of mentorship in career development, with presentations from Dr. Chaim Bell (University of Toronto), Dr. Shurjeel Choudhri (Bayer Healthcare), Dr. Ken Croitoru (University of Toronto), Dr. Astrid Guttman (University of Toronto), Dr. Prabhat Jha (University of Toronto) and Dr. Sheila Singh (McMaster University). The keynote speakers of the 2014 AGM included Dr. Qutayba Hamid, who was presented with the Distinguished Scientist Award, Dr. Ravi Retnakaran, who was presented with the Joe Doupe Award, and Dr. Lorne Babiuk, who was the CSCI-RCPSC Henry Friesen Award winner. The highlight of the conference was, once again, the outstanding scientific presentations from the numerous clinician investigator (CI) trainees from across the country who presented at the Young Investigators' Forum. Their research topics spanned the diverse fields of science and medicine, ranging from basic science to cutting-edge translational research, and their work has been summarized in this review. Over 120 abstracts were presented at this year's meeting. This work was presented during two poster sessions, with the six most outstanding submitted abstracts presented in the form of oral presentations during the President's Forum. PMID:26278424

  7. Cloud Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02171 Cloud Front

    These clouds formed in the south polar region. The faintness of the cloud system likely indicates that these are mainly ice clouds, with relatively little dust content.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.7N, Longitude 212.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Flame front as hydrodynamic discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2012-11-01

    We applied generalized Rankine-Hugoniot conditions to study the dynamics of unsteady and curved fronts as a hydrodynamic discontinuity. It is shown that the front is unstable and Landau-Darrieus instability develops only if three conditions are satisfied (1) large-scale vorticity is generated in the fluid bulk; (2) energy flux across the front is imbalanced; (3) the energy imbalance is large. The structure of the solution is studied in details. Flows with and without gravity and thermal diffusion are analyzed. Stabilization mechanisms are identified. NSF 1004330.

  9. Digital-map grids of mean-annual precipitation for 1961-90, and generalized skew coefficients of annual maximum streamflow for Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, A.H.; Tortorelli, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This digital report contains two digital-map grids of data that were used to develop peak-flow regression equations in Tortorelli, 1997, 'Techniques for estimating peak-streamflow frequency for unregulated streams and streams regulated by small floodwater retarding structures in Oklahoma,' U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4202. One data set is a grid of mean annual precipitation, in inches, based on the period 1961-90, for Oklahoma. The data set was derived from the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) mean annual precipitation grid for the United States, developed by Daly, Neilson, and Phillips (1994, 'A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain:' Journal of Applied Meteorology, v. 33, no. 2, p. 140-158). The second data set is a grid of generalized skew coefficients of logarithms of annual maximum streamflow for Oklahoma streams less than or equal to 2,510 square miles in drainage area. This grid of skew coefficients is taken from figure 11 of Tortorelli and Bergman, 1985, 'Techniques for estimating flood peak discharges for unregulated streams and streams regulated by small floodwater retarding structures in Oklahoma,' U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4358. To save disk space, the skew coefficient values have been multiplied by 100 and rounded to integers with two significant digits. The data sets are provided in an ASCII grid format.

  10. Front Matter.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The current volume presents the accepted papers of the ICIMTH (International Conference on Informatics, Management, and Technology in Healthcare) Conference, which is being held from 1 to 3 July 2016 in Athens, Greece. The ICIMTH 2016 Conference is the 14th Annual Conference in this series of scientific events, gathering scientists from all continents as well as from the hosting country, in the field of Biomedical and Health Informatics. The main theme of the Conference is unifying the applications and foundations of Biomedical Informatics in the whole spectrum from Clinical Informatics, Health Informatics to Public Health Informatics as applied in the Healthcare domain. Considering that management, organizational and public health issues play an important role in the implementation of Biomedical Informatics applications, topics related to the above themes are also included as an integral part to the overall theme of the Conference. We are treating the field of Biomedical Informatics in a very broad framework by examining the research and applications outcomes of Informatics from cell to populations, including a number of Technologies such as Imaging, Sensors, Mobile communications, Biomedical Equipment, and Management subjects, as well as legal and societal issues in applying Health Informatics. In this volume we have incorporated papers accepted for oral presentation, whereas all other scientific events within the Conference are incorporated within the local electronic version of the proceedings. It should be noted that the Proceedings are published in this series of the Conference as an e-book with e-access for ease of use and browsing, without losing any of the advantages of indexing and citation in the largest scientific literature databases, such as Medline and Scopus, that the series of Studies in Health Technology and Informatics (SHTI) of IOS Press provides. At the end of the deadline we had almost a hundred submissions. After reviewing we have accepted 68

  11. Front matter.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The current volume presents the papers of the ICIMTH (International Conference on Informatics, Management, and Technology in Healthcare). The Organising Committee and the Scientific Programme Committee would like to present to the academic community the scientific outcomes of the ICIMTH 2014 Conference, which is being held from 10 to 13 July, 2014 in Athens, Greece. The ICIMTH 2014 Conference is the 12th Annual Conference in this series of scientific events, gathering scientists from all continents as well as from the hosting country in the field of Biomedical and Health Informatics. The Conference has a major focus on the integration of the applications of Biomedical Informatics from Clinical Informatics, Health Informatics to Public Health Informatics as well as on ICT applications in the Healthcare domain. Considering that Management and Organisational Issues play an important role in the implementation phase of Biomedical Informatics applications, topics related to the above themes are also included as an integral part to the overall theme of the Conference. We are treating the field of Biomedical Informatics in a very broad framework examining the research and applications outcomes of Informatics from cell to populations, including a number of Technologies such as Imaging, Sensors, and Biomedical Equipment and Management and Organisational subjects, such as such as legal and social issues and setting research priorities in Health Informatics. However, in this volume we have incorporated only the papers and posters accepted for presentation, whereas all other scientific events within the Conference are incorporated within the local electronic version of the proceedings. It should be noted that the Proceedings are published for the first time in this series of the Conference as an e-book for ease of use and browsing without losing any of the advantages of indexing and citation in the biggest Scientific Literature Databases, such as Medline and Scopus that this

  12. Front Matter.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The current volume presents the accepted papers of the ICIMTH (International Conference on Informatics, Management, and Technology in Healthcare). The Organising Committee and the Scientific Programme Committee would like to present to the academic community the scientific outcomes of the ICIMTH 2015 Conference, which is being held from 9 to 11 July, 2015 in Athens, Greece. The ICIMTH 2015 Conference is the 13th Annual Conference in this series of scientific events, gathering scientists from all continents as well as from the hosting country in the field of Biomedical and Health Informatics. The Conference has as a major focus the enabling of Biomedical Informatics applications in the whole spectrum from Clinical Informatics, Health Informatics to Public Health Informatics as applied in the Healthcare domain. Considering that Management and organisational issues play an important role in the implementation phase of Biomedical Informatics applications, topics related to the above themes are also included as an integral part to the overall theme of the Conference. We are treating the field of Biomedical Informatics in a very broad framework examining the research and applications outcomes of Informatics from cell to populations, including a number of Technologies such as Imaging, Sensors, and Biomedical Equipment and Management and Organisational subjects, such as legal and social issues and setting research priorities in Health Informatics. However, in this volume we have incorporated only full papers accepted for oral presentation, whereas all other scientific events within the Conference are incorporated within the local electronic version of the proceedings. It should be noted that the Proceedings are published in this series of the Conference as an e-book with e-access for ease of use and browsing without losing any of the advantages of indexing and citation in the biggest Scientific Literature Databases, such as Medline and Scopus that the series of Studies in

  13. Front matter.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The second KES International Conference on Innovation in Medicine and Healthcare (InMed-14) was held over 9-11 July 2014 in San Sebastian, Spain, organised by KES International in partnership with the University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU and the Institute of Knowledge Transfer. InMed-14 gathered researchers and engineers, managers, students and practitioners from a broad medically-related arena. This multi-disciplinary group met to discuss the ways that technological and methodological innovation, knowledge exchange and enterprise can be applied to issues relating to medicine, surgery, healthcare and the issues of an ageing population. A central theme of the conference was Smart Medical and Healthcare Systems which covered the ways in which modern intelligent systems contribute to the solution of problems faced by healthcare and medical practitioners today, addressing the application of these systems. The conference featured five excellent keynote talks from internationally renowned experts, namely: • Edward J. Ciaccio, Columbia University, NY (talk entitled 'Model of Reentrant Ventricular Tachycardia based on Wavefront Curvature'); • Jesus Cortes, Biocruces, Ikerbasque, Spain (talk entitled 'Computational Neuroimaging for Health and Disease'); • Juan Manuel Gorriz, University of Granada, Spain (talk entitled 'DiagnoSIS: Diagnosis by means of Statistical and Intelligent Systems'); • Ricardo Sanchez Peña, ITBA & CONICET, Argentina (talk entitled 'Automatic Control of Diabetes type 1'); and • Sebastiano Stramaglia, Ikerbasque Visiting Professor, Spain (talk entitled 'Causality measures for Brain Computation'). In addition to the General Track, chaired by Prof Manuel Grana, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU and the Workshop on Smart Medical and Healthcare, chaired by Dr Carlos Toro, Vicomtech-IK4, Systems, there were special sessions on Medical Decision-Support Systems chaired by Dr Elena Hernández-Pereira, University of La Coruña, Spain

  14. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  15. A general model of intra-annual tree growth using dendrometer bands

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sean M; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth is an important indicator of forest health, productivity, and demography. Knowing precisely how trees' grow within a year, instead of across years, can lead to a finer understanding of the mechanisms that drive these larger patterns. The growing use of dendrometer bands in research forests has only rarely been used to measure growth at resolutions finer than yearly, but intra-annual growth patterns can be observed from dendrometer bands using precision digital calipers and weekly measurements. Here we present a workflow to help forest ecologists fit growth models to intra-annual measurements using standard optimization functions provided by the R platform. We explain our protocol, test uncertainty in parameter estimates with respect to sample sizes, extend the optimization protocol to estimate robust lower and upper annual diameter bounds, and discuss potential challenges to optimal fits. We offer R code to implement this workflow. We found that starting values and initial optimization routines are critical to fitting the best functional forms. After using a bounded, broad search method, a more focused search algorithm obtained consistent results. To estimate starting and ending annual diameters, we combined the growth function with early and late estimates of beginning and ending growth. Once we fit the functions, we present extension algorithms that estimate periodic reductions in growth, total growth, and present a method of controlling for the shifting allocation to girth during the growth season. We demonstrate that with these extensions, an analysis of growth response to weather (e.g., the water available to a tree) can be derived in a way that is comparable across trees, years, and sites. Thus, this approach, when applied across broader data sets, offers a pathway to build inference about the effects of seasonal weather on growth, size- and light-dependent patterns of growth, species-specific patterns, and phenology. PMID:25691954

  16. Front Matter.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Special Topic Conference (STC) of the European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI). The organisation of the STC is part of a long tradition of EFMI working groups to organise scientific events focused on important trends in medical informatics and eHealth. In 2016, the special topic is "Transforming Healthcare with the Internet of Things" in relation to the EFMI working group Personal Portable Devices (PPD). STC 2016 takes place in Paris, France, organised by the Laboratoire d'Informatique Médicale et d'Ingénierie des Connaissances en e-Santé (LIMICS) under the auspices of EFMI and the French Association for Medical Informatics (AIM). Only a few years ago, devices were limited to health cards and personal portable devices. Since then, devices have dramatically evolved to include wearables, sensors, and actuators for measuring health values. The application of such technologies in the field of health, social care and wellness has attracted the attention of both patients and members of the general public interested in supporting or improving their health and wellbeing. One of the characteristics of these 'devices' (sometimes too small to observe thanks to nanotechnology) is to be 'connected' and to communicate with other connected devices and systems. This has been the game changer, as it replaces the cumbersome and often error-prone intervention of the human being who was previously necessary to enter data. The Internet of Things (IoT) is thus turning out to have a major impact on the information paradigm in healthcare. The patient can now become their own Chief Operational Officer, as described by Eric Topol in his recent book The Patient will see you now Eric Topol, The Patient Will See You Now, Basic Books, New York, 2015. . By providing tools that are able to generate large quantities of data that must be processed in real time, the IoT can have a potentially

  17. Interdisciplinary General Education: A Method of Faculty Development. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Sarah; Blackburn, Robert T.

    The effect of participation in interdisciplinary general education programs on personal and professional development of faculty was investigated at Denison University (Ohio), Earlham College (Indiana), and Kenyon College (Ohio). Faculty members teaching interdisciplinary general education courses in these private liberal arts colleges were…

  18. Deputy Inspector General for audit services. FY 1998 annual performance plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan outlines the audie strategies that the Deputy Inspector General for Audit Services intends to implement and execute in Fiscal Year (FY) 1998. The plan also includes the details of efforts to improve customer service and to implement the Inspector General`s streamlining initiatives. The FY 1997/1998 Strategic Plan emphasizes six key issue areas: Financial Management, Contract Administration, Program Management, Environmental Quality, Infrastructure and Administrative Safeguards. These issue areas were chosen to ensure that the Inspector General`s audit, inspection, and investigative functions are focused to assist the Department to reach its goals, pursue its strategies, and monitor its success indicators. This plan also establishes goals, objectives, and performance measures, which are discussed in detail in Appendix I.

  19. Canadian Association of University Surgeons’ Annual Symposium: W(h)ither generalism(?)

    PubMed Central

    de Gara, Chris; Birkmeyer, John; Bohnen, John; Fitzgerald, William G.; Pollett, William

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 Symposium of the Canadian Association of University Surgeons (CAUS) brought together surgeons from a number of jurisdictions to discuss generalism in general surgery and its future. Dr. John Birkmeyer, the 2008 Charles Tator lecturer, started the symposium by framing the problem: the need to improve surgical outcomes, selective referral, centres of excellence, process compliance and performance feedback. Dr. John Bohnen, chair of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s (RCPSC) General Surgical Specialty Committee, underscored the mismatch between the provision of care and regional Canadian patient needs. By measuring structure and process and maintaining a national dialogue, solutions to potential care inequities will be found. Dr. Bill Fitzgerald, president of the RCPSC and past president of the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS), defined the enormous breadth in the scope of practice that is available to general surgeons across Canada. He highlighted the importance of the community surgeon not only in his or her specialty but also as a vital trainer of students, residents and international medical graduates. He identified the importance of general surgery in the country’s military mission. He called for a thorough re-examination of the compensation model to ensure equity and recognition of diversity. Dr. Bill Pollett, president of CAUS, identified the alternative types of practice encountered in communities of 50 000 or less. Surveys of members and trainees of the CAGS showed how much postfellowship training is done, and that whereas the perception is one of diminished quality of life and less remuneration, the nature of community general surgery makes it a highly desirable career choice. He called for focused community general surgical training to recognize the unique demands compared with urban and large city practices. PMID:20507793

  20. Canadian Association of University Surgeons' Annual Symposium: W(h)ither generalism(?).

    PubMed

    de Gara, Chris; Birkmeyer, John; Bohnen, John; Fitzgerald, William G; Pollett, William

    2010-06-01

    This 2008 Symposium of the Canadian Association of University Surgeons (CAUS) brought together surgeons from a number of jurisdictions to discuss generalism in general surgery and its future. Dr. John Birkmeyer, the 2008 Charles Tator lecturer, started the symposium by framing the problem: the need to improve surgical outcomes, selective referral, centres of excellence, process compliance and performance feedback. Dr. John Bohnen, chair of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's (RCPSC) General Surgical Specialty Committee, underscored the mismatch between the provision of care and regional Canadian patient needs. By measuring structure and process and maintaining a national dialogue, solutions to potential care inequities will be found. Dr. Bill Fitzgerald, president of the RCPSC and past president of the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS), defined the enormous breadth in the scope of practice that is available to general surgeons across Canada. He highlighted the importance of the community surgeon not only in his or her specialty but also as a vital trainer of students, residents and international medical graduates. He identified the importance of general surgery in the country's military mission. He called for a thorough re-examination of the compensation model to ensure equity and recognition of diversity. Dr. Bill Pollett, president of CAUS, identified the alternative types of practice encountered in communities of 50 000 or less. Surveys of members and trainees of the CAGS showed how much postfellowship training is done, and that whereas the perception is one of diminished quality of life and less remuneration, the nature of community general surgery makes it a highly desirable career choice. He called for focused community general surgical training to recognize the unique demands compared with urban and large city practices. PMID:20507793

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General fiscal year 1999 annual performance plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This plan is published pursuant to requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The plan outlines the goals, objectives, and strategies that the Office of Inspector General intends to implement and execute in FY 1999. The plan also includes the details of this office`s efforts to continually improve customer service.

  2. General Education and Institutional Culture: A Case Study in Progress. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonjes, Nan

    This study examined how philosophies of general education are enacted at two higher education institutions by those persons charged with implementation. The study proceeded using case study methods and week-long visits to the two institutions, one holding a "Liberal Arts I" Carnegie classification, and the other holding a "Research I" Carnegie…

  3. THE GENERAL ATOMICS FUSION THEORY PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR GRANT YEAR 2004

    SciTech Connect

    PROJECT STAFF

    2004-12-01

    The dual objective of the fusion theory program at General Atomics (GA) is to significantly advance our scientific understanding of the physics of fusion plasmas and to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments. The program plan is aimed at contributing significantly to the Fusion Energy Science and the Tokamak Concept Improvement goals of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES).

  4. A general Bayesian framework for calibrating and evaluating stochastic models of annual multi-site hydrological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Andrew J.; Thyer, Mark A.; Srikanthan, R.; Kuczera, George

    2007-07-01

    SummaryMulti-site simulation of hydrological data are required for drought risk assessment of large multi-reservoir water supply systems. In this paper, a general Bayesian framework is presented for the calibration and evaluation of multi-site hydrological data at annual timescales. Models included within this framework are the hidden Markov model (HMM) and the widely used lag-1 autoregressive (AR(1)) model. These models are extended by the inclusion of a Box-Cox transformation and a spatial correlation function in a multi-site setting. Parameter uncertainty is evaluated using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Models are evaluated by their ability to reproduce a range of important extreme statistics and compared using Bayesian model selection techniques which evaluate model probabilities. The case study, using multi-site annual rainfall data situated within catchments which contribute to Sydney's main water supply, provided the following results: Firstly, in terms of model probabilities and diagnostics, the inclusion of the Box-Cox transformation was preferred. Secondly the AR(1) and HMM performed similarly, while some other proposed AR(1)/HMM models with regionally pooled parameters had greater posterior probability than these two models. The practical significance of parameter and model uncertainty was illustrated using a case study involving drought security analysis for urban water supply. It was shown that ignoring parameter uncertainty resulted in a significant overestimate of reservoir yield and an underestimation of system vulnerability to severe drought.

  5. Generalized Skew Coefficients of Annual Peak Flows for Rural, Unregulated Streams in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkins, John T.; Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Generalized skew was determined from analysis of records from 147 streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia. The analysis followed guidelines established by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data described in Bulletin 17B, except that stations having 50 or more years of record were used instead of stations with the less restrictive recommendation of 25 or more years of record. The generalized-skew analysis included contouring, averaging, and regression of station skews. The best method was considered the one with the smallest mean square error (MSE). MSE is defined as the following quantity summed and divided by the number of peaks: the square of the difference of an individual logarithm (base 10) of peak flow less the mean of all individual logarithms of peak flow. Contouring of station skews was the best method for determining generalized skew for West Virginia, with a MSE of about 0.2174. This MSE is an improvement over the MSE of about 0.3025 for the national map presented in Bulletin 17B.

  6. The application of computers to learning in the Command and General Staff College (CGSC): A front end analysis study: CGSC analysis, Task A

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC) is organized in five schools, one of which, Command and General Staff School (CGSS), is not formally established. These schools provide instruction to officers, noncommissioned officers, and civilians through 4 primary courses and approximately 20 shorter courses. The primary courses are CAS/sup 3/ (Combined Arms and Services Staff School) Phase I Nonresident Course, CAS/sup 3/ Phase II Resident Course, CGSOC (Command and General Staff Officers Course), and SAMS (School of Advanced Military Studies). The shorter courses are primarily provided through SPD (School of Professional Development). Task A analyzed the curricula of the primary courses in terms of organization and cognitive level with the goal of providing the project team sufficient understanding of the College to seriously address the issue of the application of computers to learning in Task G.

  7. Modeling of clouds and radiation for developing parameterizations for general circulation models. Annual report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    We are using a hierarchy of numerical models of cirrus and stratus clouds and radiative transfer to improve the reliability of general circulation models. Our detailed cloud microphysical model includes all of the physical processes believed to control the lifecycle of liquid and ice clouds in the troposphere. In our one-dimensional cirrus studies, we find that the ice crystal number and size in cirrus clouds are not very sensitive to the number of condensation nuclei which are present. We have compared our three-dimensional meoscale simulations of cirrus clouds with radar, lidar satellite and other observations of water vapor and cloud fields and find that the model accurately predicts the characteristics of a cirrus cloud system. The model results reproduce several features detected by remote sensing (lidar and radar) measurements, including the appearance of the high cirrus cloud at about 15 UTC and the thickening of the cloud at 20 UTC. We have developed a new parameterizations for production of ice crystals based on the detailed one-dimensional cloud model, and are presently testing the parameterization in three-dimensional simulations of the FIRE-II November 26 case study. We have analyzed NWS radiosonde humidity data from FIRE and ARM and found errors, biases, and uncertainties in the conversion of the sensed resistance to humidity.

  8. Modeling of clouds and radiation for developing parameterizations for general circulation models. Annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, O.B.; Westphal, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    We have used a hierarchy of numerical models for cirrus and stratus clouds and for radiative transfer to improve the reliability of general circulation models. Our detailed cloud microphysical model includes all of the physical processes believed to control the lifecycles of liquid and ice clouds in the troposphere. We have worked on specific GCM parameterizations for the radiative properties of cirrus clouds, making use of a mesocale model as the test-bed for the parameterizations. We have also modeled cirrus cloud properties with a detailed cloud physics model to better understand how the radiatively important properties of cirrus are controlled by their environment. We have used another cloud microphysics model to investigate of the interactions between aerosols and clouds. This work is some of the first to follow the details of interactions between aerosols and cloud droplets and has shown some unexpected relations between clouds and aerosols. We have also used line-by- line radiative transfer results verified with ARM data, to derive a GCMS.

  9. Fusion research at General Atomics annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    In FY94, the General Atomics (GA) Fusion Group made significant contributions to the technology needs of the controlled fusion power program. The work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy, Advanced Physics and Technology Division and ITER and Technology Division, of the US Department of Energy. The work is reported in the following sections on Fusion Power Plant Studies, Plasma Interactive Materials, RF Technology, and Diagnostics. Meetings attended and publications are listed in their respective sections. The overall objective of GA`s fusion technology research is to develop the technologies necessary for fusion to move successfully from present-day physics experiments to the next-generation fusion reactor experiments, Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and ITER, and ultimately to fusion power plants. To achieve this overall objective, we carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power reactors, and we conduct research to develop basic knowledge about these technologies, including plasma technologies, fusion nuclear technologies, and fusion materials. We continue to be committed to the development of fusion power and its commercialization by US industry.

  10. Estimating generalized skew of the log-Pearson Type III distribution for annual peak floods in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberg, Kevin A.; Mades, Dean M.

    1987-01-01

    Four techniques for estimating generalized skew in Illinois were evaluated: (1) a generalized skew map of the US; (2) an isoline map; (3) a prediction equation; and (4) a regional-mean skew. Peak-flow records at 730 gaging stations having 10 or more annual peaks were selected for computing station skews. Station skew values ranged from -3.55 to 2.95, with a mean of -0.11. Frequency curves computed for 30 gaging stations in Illinois using the variations of the regional-mean skew technique are similar to frequency curves computed using a skew map developed by the US Water Resources Council (WRC). Estimates of the 50-, 100-, and 500-yr floods computed for 29 of these gaging stations using the regional-mean skew techniques are within the 50% confidence limits of frequency curves computed using the WRC skew map. Although the three variations of the regional-mean skew technique were slightly more accurate than the WRC map, there is no appreciable difference between flood estimates computed using the variations of the regional-mean technique and flood estimates computed using the WRC skew map. (Peters-PTT)

  11. Fronts, fish, and predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, Igor M.; Hunt, George L.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Schick, Robert S.; Prieto, Rui; Brodziak, Jon; Teo, Steven L. H.; Thorne, Lesley; Bailey, Helen; Itoh, Sachihiko; Munk, Peter; Musyl, Michael K.; Willis, Jay K.; Zhang, Wuchang

    2014-09-01

    Ocean fronts play a key role in marine ecosystems. Fronts shape oceanic landscapes and affect every trophic level across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, from meters to thousands of kilometers, and from days to millions of years. At some fronts, there is an elevated rate of primary production, whereas at others, plankton is aggregated by advection and by the behavior of organisms moving against gradients in temperature, salinity, light irradiance, hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical and biological factors. Lower trophic level organisms - phytoplankton and zooplankton - that are aggregated in sufficient densities, attract organisms from higher trophic levels, from planktivorous schooling fish to squid, large piscivorous fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Many species have critical portions of their life stages or behaviors closely associated with fronts, including spawning, feeding, ontogenetic development, migrations, and other activities cued to frontal dynamics. At different life stages, an individual species or population might be linked to different fronts. The nature and strength of associations between fronts and biota depend on numerous factors such as the physical nature and spatio-temporal scales of the front and the species and their life stages in question. In other words, fronts support many different niches and micro/macro-habitats over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  13. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference Papers. General Research Libraries Division: University Libraries Section (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveday, Anthony J.; And Others

    This set of papers presented to the General Research Libraries Division, University Libraries Section, of the International Federation of Library Associations during its 47th annual conference (1981) includes: "SCONUL (Standing Conference of National and University Libraries) and British University Library Standards: Some Observations on the Role…

  15. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference Papers. General Research Libraries Division: Parliamentary Libraries and National Libraries Sections (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Gilbert; And Others

    This set of papers presented to the General Research Libraries Division of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) during its 47th annual conference (1981) includes: "The Effect of the Introduction of Computers on Library and Research Staff," by Gilbert Gude; "Libraries as Information Service Agencies (IVS)," by Franz Georg…

  16. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part I. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Rustan, Rahman; Huang, Weidan; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) brought together nearly 220 senior representatives of governmental and non-governmental global health organizations, as well as corporate executives of emerging vaccine manufacturers, from 26 countries for a two-day tailored lectures, Q&A sessions, CEOs panel discussion and networking opportunities, followed by a vaccine-technology symposium and visit to manufacturing facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants included representatives of 38 vaccine manufacturers, as well as international partners and collaborating research institutions, with 39% female participants. The Vice-Minister of Health to Vietnam commended the speakers and participants to this Annual General Meeting, devoted to achieve our common goal of protecting people against infectious diseases with better vaccines, for a healthier life. He reminded the audience that the first vaccine produced in Vietnam was oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the early 1960s and contributed to polio eradication in Vietnam, in 2000. Through its manufacturing resources, Vietnam eliminated neonatal tetanus in 2005, and has controlled measles and hepatitis B spread. The Ministry of Health hopes that by sharing experiences, delegates at this conference will foster international cooperation and partnerships among organizations. CEOs elaborated on challenges and opportunities for emerging countries. PMID:24923636

  17. Coarsening to chaos-stabilized fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ka-Fai; Wittenberg, Ralf W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a model for pattern formation in the presence of Galilean symmetry proposed by Matthews and Cox [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.62.R1473 62, R1473 (2000)], which has the form of coupled generalized Burgers- and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations. With only the system size L as a parameter, we find distinct “small-L” and “large-L” regimes exhibiting clear differences in their dynamics and scaling behavior. The long-time statistically stationary state contains a single L-dependent front, stabilized globally by spatiotemporally chaotic dynamics confined away from the front. For sufficiently large domains, the transient dynamics include a state consisting of several viscous shocklike structures that coarsens gradually, before collapsing to a single front when one front absorbs the others.

  18. Light-Front Holography and the Light-Front Schrodinger Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy

    2012-08-15

    One of the most important nonperturbative methods for solving QCD is quantization at fixed light-front time {tau} = t+z=c - Dirac's 'Front Form'. The eigenvalues of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian predict the hadron spectrum and the eigensolutions provide the light-front wavefunctions which describe hadron structure. More generally, we show that the valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrodinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. We outline a method for computing the required potential from first principles in QCD. The holographic mapping of gravity in AdS space to QCD, quantized at fixed light-front time, yields the same light front Schrodinger equation; in fact, the soft-wall AdS/QCD approach provides a model for the light-front potential which is color-confining and reproduces well the light-hadron spectrum. One also derives via light-front holography a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. The elastic and transition form factors of the pion and the nucleons are found to be well described in this framework. The light-front AdS/QCD holographic approach thus gives a frame-independent first approximation of the color-confining dynamics, spectroscopy, and excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark bound states in QCD.

  19. Stories from the Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Blake

    2002-01-01

    Shares some of the author's personal experiences from the "front line" to illustrate the potential of computer-supported learning environments. Concludes that technology, if used in conjunction with sound pedagogy, allows students to tep outside the confines of the traditional classroom and school structure and take responsibility for both their…

  20. Nanoparticle Oscillations and Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Lagzi, Istvan; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Wang, Dawei; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-09-30

    Chemical oscillations can be coupled to the dynamic self-assembly of nanoparticles. Periodic pH changes translate into protonation and deprotonation of the ligands that stabilize the nanoparticles, thus altering repulsive and attractive interparticle forces. In a continuous stirred-tank reactor, rhythmic aggregation and dispersion is observed; in spatially distributed media, propagation of particle aggregation fronts is seen.

  1. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  2. 77 FR 41209 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Results of the 2011 Annual GSP Review; Notice of Hearing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...This notice announces the results of the 2011 Annual GSP Review with respect to: (1) Products considered for addition to the list of eligible products for GSP; (2) decisions related to competitive need limitations (CNLs), including petitions for waivers of CNLs and revocation of previous CNL waivers; (3) redesignations of products previously excluded from GSP eligibility for certain countries;......

  3. 77 FR 15841 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Change in Hearing Date for the 2011 Annual GSP Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Register (77 FR 10034) announcing, inter alia, that the hearing for the 2011 Annual GSP Product Review was.... (See 76 FR 67531 and 77 FR 10034.) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tameka Cooper, GSP Program, Office... Preferences and Chair of the GSP Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee, Office of the U.S....

  4. QCD and Light-Front Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins /Costa Rica U.

    2011-01-10

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a dilaton-modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. Higher Fock states with extra quark-anti quark pairs also arise. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the nonperturbative effective coupling and its {beta}-function. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method to systematically include QCD interaction terms. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  5. 3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHEAST SIDE Front and side elevation. Note gasoline sign post added. Flush store window not altered, 1900 clapboard siding and panelling remaining. - 510 Central Avenue (Commercial Building), Ridgely, Caroline County, MD

  6. 9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY (LEFT) AND BLANK WALL (CENTER) CORRESPONDING TO LOCATION OF INTERIOR VAULTS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  7. View of portion of the front entry on the front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of portion of the front entry on the front (west) side of the Mueller house, looking northeast. Sheds are in the background. - Ernst Mueller House, 6563 East Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. ARIEL front end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Baartman, R. A.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF will greatly expand the variety and availability of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) (Laxdal, Nucl Inst Methods Phys Res B 204:400-409, 2003). The ARIEL front end connects the two ARIEL target stations to the existing ISAC facility to expand delivery to two and eventually three simultaneous RIB beams with up to two simultaneous accelerated beams (Laxdal et al. 2008). The low-energy beam transport lines and mass separators are designed for maximum flexibility to allow a variety of operational modes in order to optimize the radioactive ion beam delivery. A new accelerator path is conceived for high mass delivery from an EBIS charge state breeder. The front-end design utilizes the experience gained in 15 years of ISAC beam delivery.

  10. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Balbus, Steven A.; Fristrom, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence.

  11. Theory of pinned fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissmann, Haim; Shnerb, Nadav M.; Kessler, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of a front between two different phases in the presence of a smoothly inhomogeneous external field that takes its critical value at the crossing point is analyzed. Two generic scenarios are studied. In the first, the system admits a bistable solution and the external field governs the rate in which one phase invades the other. The second mechanism corresponds to a continuous transition that, in the case of reactive systems, takes the form of a transcritical bifurcation at the crossing point. We solve for the front shape and for the response of competitive fronts to external noise, showing that static properties and also some of the dynamical features cannot discriminate between the two scenarios. A reliable indicator turns out to be the fluctuation statistics. These take a Gaussian form in the bifurcation case and a double-peaked shape in a bistable system. Our results are discussed in the context of biological processes, such as species and communities dynamics in the presence of a resource gradient.

  12. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  13. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Balbus, Steven A.; Fristrom, Carl C.

    1990-07-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence.

  14. Thermal Fronts in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, Marian

    2015-12-01

    We studied the formation of a thermal front during the expansion of hot plasma into colder plasma. We used a three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell model that includes inductive effects. In early phases, in the area of the expanding hot plasma, we found several thermal fronts, which are defined as a sudden decrease of the local electron kinetic energy. The fronts formed a cascade. Thermal fronts with higher temperature contrast were located near plasma density depressions, generated during the hot plasma expansion. The formation of the main thermal front was associated with the return-current process induced by hot electron expansion and electrons backscattered at the front. A part of the hot plasma was trapped by the thermal front while another part, mainly with the most energetic electrons, escaped and generated Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in front of the thermal front, as shown by the dispersion diagrams. Considering all of these processes and those described in the literature, we show that anomalous electric resistivity is produced at the location of the thermal front. Thus, the thermal front can contribute to energy dissipation in the current-carrying loops of solar flares. We estimated the values of such anomalous resistivity in the solar atmosphere together with collisional resistivity and electric fields. We propose that the slowly drifting reverse drift bursts, observed at the beginning of some solar flares, could be signatures of the thermal front.

  15. More distant view than previous photograph of front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    More distant view than previous photograph of front and side (west) of building 253, along with fronts of buildings 254, 255, 256, and 257. Looking northeast from corner of W.J. Avenue and N. 10th Street. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 253, North side of East O'Neil Avenue between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Light-Front Holography: A First Approximation to QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Teramond, Guy F. de; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2009-02-27

    Starting from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD, we identify an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which allows the separation of the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wave functions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. This light-front wave equation is equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space.

  17. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-07-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  18. Wave-front measurement errors from restricted concentric subdomains.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, K A; Geary, K

    2001-09-01

    In interferometry and optical testing, system wave-front measurements that are analyzed on a restricted subdomain of the full pupil can include predictable systematic errors. In nearly all cases, the measured rms wave-front error and the magnitudes of the individual aberration polynomial coefficients underestimate the wave-front error magnitudes present in the full-pupil domain. We present an analytic method to determine the relationships between the coefficients of aberration polynomials defined on the full-pupil domain and those defined on a restricted concentric subdomain. In this way, systematic wave-front measurement errors introduced by subregion selection are investigated. Using vector and matrix representations for the wave-front aberration coefficients, we generalize the method to the study of arbitrary input wave fronts and subdomain sizes. While wave-front measurements on a restricted subdomain are insufficient for predicting the wave front of the full-pupil domain, studying the relationship between known full-pupil wave fronts and subdomain wave fronts allows us to set subdomain size limits for arbitrary measurement fidelity. PMID:11551047

  19. Feature-oriented regional modeling of oceanic fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Robinson, Allan R.

    2002-11-01

    This paper outlines some important aspects of modeling oceanic fronts in the context of feature-oriented regional modeling for the deep sea and the Global Coastal Ocean. Previously developed forms of feature models for different types of fronts are presented in a generalized approach. The large-scale meandering frontal systems such as the Gulf Stream, Kuroshio and Brazil current can be represented by velocity-based feature models. Buoyancy forced coastal water mass fronts, such as the coastal currents, the tidal fronts, plume fronts, dense water fronts and inflow/outflow fronts can be represented by a generalized parameterized water mass feature model. The interface region of the deep ocean and the coastal region can be modeled by a melding of two water masses along and across a prescribed isobath in the form of a shelf-break front. Initialization and/or updating fields for a regional dynamical model can then be established in association with other available synoptic data sets via a feature-oriented strategic sampling approach for forecasting and dynamical balances. Example simulations from the western north Atlantic (WNA) and the strait of Sicily region are presented in support of the applicability of this approach for the Global Coastal Ocean. Simulations in the strait of Sicily region with fronts, eddies and background climatology help provide a perspective on dynamical processes in this region. Application of this methodology for rapid assessment of any regional ocean, based on limited data and resources is now possible.

  20. Departmental Decision-Making in the Implementation of a University General Education Curriculum. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julie A.; Sagen, H. Bradley

    The context for implementing general education is discussed, based on research at a comprehensive midwestern research university which has a prescribed distribution general education curriculum. Two major contextual factors are identified: prestige is achieved through research and strong graduate programs; resources to support graduate courses and…

  1. From the front

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The causes of recent dynamic thinning of Greenland's outlet glaciers have been debated. Realistic simulations suggest that changes at the marine fronts of these glaciers are to blame, implying that dynamic thinning will cease once the glaciers retreat to higher ground. For the last decade, many outlet glaciers in Greenland that terminate in the ocean have accelerated, thinned, and retreated. To explain these dynamic changes, two hypotheses have been discussed. Atmospheric warming has increased surface melting and may also have increased the amount of meltwater reaching the glacier bed, increasing lubrication at the base and hence the rate of glacier sliding. Alternatively, a change in the delicate balance of forces where the glacier fronts meet the ocean could trigger the changes. Faezeh Nick and colleagues5 present ice-sheet modeling experiments that mimic the observations on Helheim glacier, East Greenland, and suggest that the dynamic behaviour of outlet glaciers follows from perturbations at their marine fronts. Greenland's ice sheet loses mass partly through surface melting and partly through fast flowing outlet glaciers that connect the vast plateau of inland ice with the ocean. Earlier ice sheet models have failed to reproduce the dynamic variability exhibited by ice sheets over time. It has therefore not been possible to distinguish with confidence between basal lubrication from surface meltwater and changes at the glaciers' marine fronts as causes for the observed changes on Greenland's outlet glaciers. But this distinction bears directly on future sea-level rise, the raison d'etre of much of modern-day glaciology: If the recent dynamic mass loss Greenland's outlet glaciers is linked to changing atmospheric temperatures, it may continue for as long as temperatures continue to increase. On the other hand, if the source of the dynamic mass loss is a perturbation at the ice-ocean boundary, these glaciers will lose contact with that perturbation after a finite

  2. Solidification fronts in supercooled liquids: how rapid fronts can lead to disordered glassy solids.

    PubMed

    Archer, A J; Robbins, M J; Thiele, U; Knobloch, E

    2012-09-01

    We determine the speed of a crystallization (or, more generally, a solidification) front as it advances into the uniform liquid phase after the system has been quenched into the crystalline region of the phase diagram. We calculate the front speed by assuming a dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) model for the system and applying a marginal stability criterion. Our results also apply to phase field crystal (PFC) models of solidification. As the solidification front advances into the unstable liquid phase, the density profile behind the advancing front develops density modulations and the wavelength of these modulations is a dynamically chosen quantity. For shallow quenches, the selected wavelength is precisely that of the crystalline phase and so well-ordered crystalline states are formed. However, when the system is deeply quenched, we find that this wavelength can be quite different from that of the crystal, so the solidification front naturally generates disorder in the system. Significant rearrangement and aging must subsequently occur for the system to form the regular well-ordered crystal that corresponds to the free energy minimum. Additional disorder is introduced whenever a front develops from random initial conditions. We illustrate these findings with simulation results obtained using the PFC model. PMID:23030925

  3. South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (front) side. Metal railing to either side supports a door when it is open. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Root Cellar, West Pennington Avenue, North of Building No. 121, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. View of front of garage, bays 14, facing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 1-4, facing northeast - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. View of front of garage, bays 37, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 3-7, facing south - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. View of front of garage bays 57, facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage bays 5-7, facing northeast. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. View of front and side of garage, bays 67, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front and side of garage, bays 6-7, facing northeast. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. View of front and side of garage, bay 7, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front and side of garage, bay 7, facing east. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. View of front of garage, detail of building number over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, detail of building number over bay 4. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 12. 1960 highrise hospital, front (south) facade, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 1960 high-rise hospital, front (south) facade, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  11. Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, looking south towards building no. 121 (tennis courts) across W. Pennington Ave. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  14. 2. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SOUTH WALL AND EAST FRONT, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ADMINISTRATION BUILDING SOUTH WALL AND EAST FRONT, LOOKING NORTHWEST. GENERAL UTILITY BUILDING (BLDG. NO. 2) AT LEFT. - Tucson Plant Materials Center, Administration Building, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  15. North side and a portion of the front (east side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side and a portion of the front (east side) of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  17. East side and part of the front (south side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side and part of the front (south side) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Semi-Infirmary Tubercular Ward, East Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Page Street, northwest corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Central tower of the front ( south side) with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central tower of the front ( south side) with the top of the porte cochere in the foreground - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Light-Front Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    QCD Hamiltonian 'Light-Front Holography'. Light-Front Holography is in fact one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The Hamiltonian equation of motion in the light-front (LF) is frame independent and has a structure similar to eigenmode equations in AdS space. This makes a direct connection of QCD with AdS/CFT methods possible. Remarkably, the AdS equations correspond to the kinetic energy terms of the partons inside a hadron, whereas the interaction terms build confinement and correspond to the truncation of AdS space in an effective dual gravity approximation. One can also study the gauge/gravity duality starting from the bound-state structure of hadrons in QCD quantized in the light-front. The LF Lorentz-invariant Hamiltonian equation for the relativistic bound-state system is P{sub {mu}}P{sup {mu}}|{psi}(P)> = (P{sup +}P{sup -} - P{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2})|{psi}(P)> = M{sup 2}|{psi}(P)>, P{sup {+-}} = P{sup 0} {+-} P{sup 3}, where the LF time evolution operator P{sup -} is determined canonically from the QCD Lagrangian. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this leads to a LF Hamiltonian equation which describes the bound-state dynamics of light hadrons in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the partons within the hadron at equal light-front time {tau} = x{sup 0} + x{sup 3}. This allows us to identify the holographic variable z in AdS space with an impact variable {zeta}. The resulting Lorentz-invariant Schroedinger equation for general spin incorporates color confinement and is systematically improvable. Light-front holographic methods were originally introduced by matching the electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding expression using LF theory in physical space time. It was also shown that one obtains identical holographic mapping using the matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor by perturbing

  20. FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Junior Officers' Quarters Type, 9-10 Hale Alii Avenue, 1-2 Eighth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. FACILITY 209, SINGLESTORY DUPLEX, FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 209, SINGLE-STORY DUPLEX, FRONT OBLIQUE VIEW OF FRONT FROM CENTER DRIVE, FACING SW. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Housing Area 1, Single Story Duplex Type, Bounded by Kamehameha Highway, Plantation Drive, South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 76 FR 67531 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Initiation of the 2011 Annual GSP Product and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... status of any beneficiary developing country must be received by the GSP Subcommittee of the Trade Policy... GSP Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee no later than 5 p.m. on Friday, December 16, 2011... Representative for the Generalized System of Preferences and Chair of the GSP Subcommittee of the Trade...

  3. 75 FR 41274 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Announcing the Initiation of the 2010 Annual GSP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...This notice announces that the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) will receive petitions to modify the list of products that are eligible for duty-free treatment under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program. This notice determines that the deadline for submission of product petitions, other than those requesting competitive need limitation (CNL) waivers, is 5......

  4. 24 CFR 290.27 - Up-front grants and loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Up-front grants and loans. 290.27... MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.27 Up-front grants and loans. (a) General. HUD may provide up-front grants and loans for rehabilitation, demolition, rebuilding and other...

  5. 24 CFR 290.27 - Up-front grants and loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Up-front grants and loans. 290.27... MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.27 Up-front grants and loans. (a) General. HUD may provide up-front grants and loans for rehabilitation, demolition, rebuilding and other...

  6. 24 CFR 290.27 - Up-front grants and loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Up-front grants and loans. 290.27... MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.27 Up-front grants and loans. (a) General. HUD may provide up-front grants and loans for rehabilitation, demolition, rebuilding and other...

  7. 24 CFR 290.27 - Up-front grants and loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Up-front grants and loans. 290.27... MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.27 Up-front grants and loans. (a) General. HUD may provide up-front grants and loans for rehabilitation, demolition, rebuilding and other...

  8. 24 CFR 290.27 - Up-front grants and loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Up-front grants and loans. 290.27... MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.27 Up-front grants and loans. (a) General. HUD may provide up-front grants and loans for rehabilitation, demolition, rebuilding and other...

  9. Cluster separability in front-form particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Coester, F.

    1986-01-01

    In relativistic quantum dynamics, the group structure demands that some transformations other than the time evolutions depend on dynamics. It is possible to choose the representation of a kinematic subgroup to be independent of the dynamics, leading to different ''forms of dynamics'' which are unitarily equivalen. In the ''front-form'' dynamics the kinematic subgroup leaves the light front invariant, and the rotations about any transverse axis are dynamical transformations. In the front form the kinematic subgroup includes the Lorentz transformations. The existence and construction of packing transformations in front-form particle dynamics are shown, and the general features of front-form dynamics needed for that purpose are reviewed. 5 refs. (LEW)

  10. Surface properties of ocean fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, P. M.; Hubert, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Background information on oceanic fronts is presented and the results of several models which were developed to study the dynamics of oceanic fronts and their effects on various surface properties are described. The details of the four numerical models used in these studies are given in separate appendices which contain all of the physical equations, program documentation and running instructions for the models.

  11. MMS Observations of Dipolarization Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, K. J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Sibeck, D. G.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Nakamura, R.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Mauk, B.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present MMS observations of dipolarization fronts. Dipolarization fronts commonly observed in Earth's plasma sheet are characterized by intense gradients in the current sheet-normal component of the magnetic field and plasma/magnetic pressure across the front. These fronts are often embedded within fast earthward flows, i.e., bursty bulk flows. Analysis using data from all four spacecraft shows the presence of both typical and atypical dipolarization fronts. Typically dipolarization fronts propagate earthward and their normals point radially inward, however, we have identified dipolarization fronts propagating tailward with normals pointing significantly away from the radial direction. Atypical dipolarization fronts observed on 7 May 2015 and 21 July 2015 are preceded or accompanied by a rapid decrease in the Bx or By components of the magnetic field. These decreases indicate that the magnetotail is first thinning and then thickening. The resulting magnetic pile-up can cause the local Bz to increase rapidly, indicating propagation tailward, as observed. These new high time resolution field and plasma observations from MMS provide exciting new insights about the dynamical changes of magnetotail topology.

  12. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  13. Development of a contour map showing generalized skew coefficients of annual peak discharges of rural, unregulated streams in New York, excluding Long Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lumia, Richard; Baevsky, Yvonne H.

    2000-01-01

    Flood-frequency relations that are developed by fitting the logarithms of annual peak discharges to a Pearson Type-III distribution are sensitive to skew coefficients. Estimates of population skew for a site are improved when computed from the weighted average of (1) the sample (station) skew, and (2) an unbiased, generalized skew estimate. A weighting technique based on the number of years of record at each of 226 sites was used to develop a contour map of unbiased, generalized skew coefficients for New York. An attempt was made to group (regionalize) the station skew coefficients into five hydrologically similar areas of New York, but the statewide version proved to be as accurate as the regionalized version and therefore was adopted as the final generalized skew-coefficient map for New York. An error analysis showed the statewide contour map to have lower MSE?s (mean square errors) than those computed from (1) the five regional skewcoefficient contour maps, (2) a previously used (1982) nationwide skew coefficient map, and (3) the weighted mean of skew coefficients for sites within each of five hydrologically uniform, but distinct areas of New York.

  14. Fronts in Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, Igor M.; Cornillon, Peter C.; Sherman, Kenneth

    2009-04-01

    Oceanic fronts shape marine ecosystems; therefore front mapping and characterization are among the most important aspects of physical oceanography. Here we report on the first global remote sensing survey of fronts in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LME). This survey is based on a unique frontal data archive assembled at the University of Rhode Island. Thermal fronts were automatically derived with the edge detection algorithm of Cayula and Cornillon (1992, 1995, 1996) from 12 years of twice-daily, global, 9-km resolution satellite sea surface temperature (SST) fields to produce synoptic (nearly instantaneous) frontal maps, and to compute the long-term mean frequency of occurrence of SST fronts and their gradients. These synoptic and long-term maps were used to identify major quasi-stationary fronts and to derive provisional frontal distribution maps for all LMEs. Since SST fronts are typically collocated with fronts in other water properties such as salinity, density and chlorophyll, digital frontal paths from SST frontal maps can be used in studies of physical-biological correlations at fronts. Frontal patterns in several exemplary LMEs are described and compared, including those for: the East and West Bering Sea LMEs, Sea of Okhotsk LME, East China Sea LME, Yellow Sea LME, North Sea LME, East and West Greenland Shelf LMEs, Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf LME, Northeast and Southeast US Continental Shelf LMEs, Gulf of Mexico LME, and Patagonian Shelf LME. Seasonal evolution of frontal patterns in major upwelling zones reveals an order-of-magnitude growth of frontal scales from summer to winter. A classification of LMEs with regard to the origin and physics of their respective dominant fronts is presented. The proposed classification lends itself to comparative studies of frontal ecosystems.

  15. Stability of cosmological detonation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín

    2014-05-01

    The steady-state propagation of a phase-transition front is classified, according to hydrodynamics, as a deflagration or a detonation, depending on its velocity with respect to the fluid. These propagation modes are further divided into three types, namely, weak, Jouguet, and strong solutions, according to their disturbance of the fluid. However, some of these hydrodynamic modes will not be realized in a phase transition. One particular cause is the presence of instabilities. In this work we study the linear stability of weak detonations, which are generally believed to be stable. After discussing in detail the weak detonation solution, we consider small perturbations of the interface and the fluid configuration. When the balance between the driving and friction forces is taken into account, it turns out that there are actually two different kinds of weak detonations, which behave very differently as functions of the parameters. We show that the branch of stronger weak detonations are unstable, except very close to the Jouguet point, where our approach breaks down.

  16. A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterization for use in transport and general circulation models: multi-annual simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the validation of a linear parameterization of the ozone photochemistry for use in upper tropospheric and stratospheric studies. The present work extends a previously developed scheme by improving the 2D model used to derive the coefficients of the parameterization. The chemical reaction rates are updated from a compilation that includes recent laboratory works. Furthermore, the polar ozone destruction due to heterogeneous reactions at the surface of the polar stratospheric clouds is taken into account as a function of the stratospheric temperature and the total chlorine content. Two versions of the parameterization are tested. The first one only requires the resolution of a continuity equation for the time evolution of the ozone mixing ratio, the second one uses one additional equation for a cold tracer. The parameterization has been introduced into the chemical transport model MOCAGE. The model is integrated with wind and temperature fields from the ECMWF operational analyses over the period 2000-2004. Overall, the results show a very good agreement between the modelled ozone distribution and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data and the "in-situ" vertical soundings. During the course of the integration the model does not show any drift and the biases are generally small. The model also reproduces fairly well the polar ozone variability, with notably the formation of "ozone holes" in the southern hemisphere with amplitudes and seasonal evolutions that follow the dynamics and time evolution of the polar vortex. The introduction of the cold tracer further improves the model simulation by allowing additional ozone destruction inside air masses exported from the high to the mid-latitudes, and by maintaining low ozone contents inside the polar vortex of the southern hemisphere over longer periods in spring time. It is concluded that for the study of climatic scenarios or the assimilation of ozone data, the present

  17. QCD and Light-Front Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2010-10-27

    The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The model predicts a zero-mass pion for zero-mass quarks and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number N. Light-Front Holography maps the amplitudes which are functions of the fifth dimension variable z of anti-de Sitter space to a corresponding hadron theory quantized on the light front. The resulting Lorentz-invariant relativistic light-front wave equations are functions of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. The result is to a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states, which in turn predict the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors. The theory implements chiral symmetry in a novel way: the effects of chiral symmetry breaking increase as one goes toward large interquark separation, consistent with spectroscopic data, and the the hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub g1} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms. A new perspective on quark and gluon condensates is also reviewed.

  18. A revised linear ozone photochemistry parameterization for use in transport and general circulation models: multi-annual simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.

    2007-05-01

    This article describes the validation of a linear parameterization of the ozone photochemistry for use in upper tropospheric and stratospheric studies. The present work extends a previously developed scheme by improving the 2-D model used to derive the coefficients of the parameterization. The chemical reaction rates are updated from a compilation that includes recent laboratory work. Furthermore, the polar ozone destruction due to heterogeneous reactions at the surface of the polar stratospheric clouds is taken into account as a function of the stratospheric temperature and the total chlorine content. Two versions of the parameterization are tested. The first one only requires the solution of a continuity equation for the time evolution of the ozone mixing ratio, the second one uses one additional equation for a cold tracer. The parameterization has been introduced into the chemical transport model MOCAGE. The model is integrated with wind and temperature fields from the ECMWF operational analyses over the period 2000-2004. Overall, the results from the two versions show a very good agreement between the modelled ozone distribution and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data and the "in-situ" vertical soundings. During the course of the integration the model does not show any drift and the biases are generally small, of the order of 10%. The model also reproduces fairly well the polar ozone variability, notably the formation of "ozone holes" in the Southern Hemisphere with amplitudes and a seasonal evolution that follow the dynamics and time evolution of the polar vortex. The introduction of the cold tracer further improves the model simulation by allowing additional ozone destruction inside air masses exported from the high to the mid-latitudes, and by maintaining low ozone content inside the polar vortex of the Southern Hemisphere over longer periods in spring time. It is concluded that for the study of climate scenarios or the assimilation of

  19. Speed of reaction-diffusion fronts in spatially heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Vicenç; Fort, Joaquim; Rotstein, Horacio G; Fedotov, Sergei

    2003-10-01

    The front speed problem for nonuniform reaction rate and diffusion coefficient is studied by using singular perturbation analysis, the geometric approach of Hamilton-Jacobi dynamics, and the local speed approach. Exact and perturbed expressions for the front speed are obtained in the limit of large times. For linear and fractal heterogeneities, the analytic results have been compared with numerical results exhibiting a good agreement. Finally we reach a general expression for the speed of the front in the case of smooth and weak heterogeneities. PMID:14682921

  20. Asymmetric counterpropagating fronts without flow.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, I; Clerc, M G; Odent, V

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit domain walls between different states. These walls, depending on the type of connected states, can display rich spatiotemporal dynamics. In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the asymmetrical counterpropagation of fronts in an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Experimentally, we characterize the different front shapes and propagation speeds. These fronts present dissimilar elastic deformations that are responsible for their asymmetric speeds. Theoretically, using a phenomenological model, we describe the observed dynamics with fair agreement. PMID:26172647

  1. Heavy Quarkonia on the Light Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Guangyao; Adhikari, Lekha; Zhao, Xingbo; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James

    2016-03-01

    We employ solutions for heavy quarkonium within a light-front basis function approach to compare with experiment and predict additional observables. The Hamiltonian is based on the Light-Front Holographic QCD (phenomenological confinement) plus one-gluon exchange. Mass spectra agree well with experiment and we employ the wavefunctions to evaluate decay constants and form factors. We discuss our progress and plans for evaluating generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and cross sections for diffractive production. Our predictions for these observables as well as predictions of additional excited states can be tested at ongoing and future experimental facilities, e.g., LHC, sPHENIX and the EIC. We acknowledge DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40371 & DESC0008485.

  2. Mesoscale fronts as foraging habitats: composite front mapping reveals oceanographic drivers of habitat use for a pelagic seabird

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Kylie L.; Miller, Peter I.; Embling, Clare B.; Ingram, Simon N.; Pirotta, Enrico; Votier, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. We tracked 66 breeding gannets from a Celtic Sea colony over 2 years and used residence time to identify area-restricted search (ARS) behaviour. Composite front maps identified thermal and chlorophyll-a mesoscale fronts at two different temporal scales—(i) contemporaneous fronts and (ii) seasonally persistent frontal zones. Using generalized additive models (GAMs), with generalized estimating equations (GEE-GAMs) to account for serial autocorrelation in tracking data, we found that gannets do not adjust their behaviour in response to contemporaneous fronts. However, ARS was more likely to occur within spatially predictable, seasonally persistent frontal zones (GAMs). Our results provide proof of concept that composite front mapping is a useful tool for studying the influence of oceanographic features on animal movements. Moreover, we highlight that frontal persistence is a crucial element of the formation of pelagic foraging hotspots for mobile marine vertebrates. PMID:25165595

  3. Mesoscale fronts as foraging habitats: composite front mapping reveals oceanographic drivers of habitat use for a pelagic seabird.

    PubMed

    Scales, Kylie L; Miller, Peter I; Embling, Clare B; Ingram, Simon N; Pirotta, Enrico; Votier, Stephen C

    2014-11-01

    The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. We tracked 66 breeding gannets from a Celtic Sea colony over 2 years and used residence time to identify area-restricted search (ARS) behaviour. Composite front maps identified thermal and chlorophyll-a mesoscale fronts at two different temporal scales-(i) contemporaneous fronts and (ii) seasonally persistent frontal zones. Using generalized additive models (GAMs), with generalized estimating equations (GEE-GAMs) to account for serial autocorrelation in tracking data, we found that gannets do not adjust their behaviour in response to contemporaneous fronts. However, ARS was more likely to occur within spatially predictable, seasonally persistent frontal zones (GAMs). Our results provide proof of concept that composite front mapping is a useful tool for studying the influence of oceanographic features on animal movements. Moreover, we highlight that frontal persistence is a crucial element of the formation of pelagic foraging hotspots for mobile marine vertebrates. PMID:25165595

  4. Revisiting the University Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Grahame; Lorenz, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that the most important trends in the recent metamorphosis of higher education, especially of university teaching and research, cannot be understood without placing them in the context of general developments in political life. Both processes reveal alarming features and there is a link between them. In recent decades a religion…

  5. Proposal for an annual skin examination by a general practitioner for patients at high risk for melanoma: a French cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rat, Cédric; Grimault, Charlotte; Quereux, Gaelle; Dagorne, Maelenn; Gaultier, Aurélie; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Nguyen, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a targeted screening for melanoma in high-risk patients following the receipt of a mailed invitation to an annual skin examination by a general practitioner (GP). Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in a primary care setting in western France. A total of 3897 patients at elevated risk of melanoma (identified using the Self-Assessment of Melanoma Risk Score) consented to participate in a targeted melanoma screening project in 2011. One year later, the participants were invited by mail to consult their GP for an annual skin examination. Efficacy of the procedure was evaluated according to patient participation and the number of melanomas detected. The consultation dates and results were collected during the 12 months postreminder and were analysed using SAS. Analyses of whether participation decreased compared with that during the year of inclusion and whether populations at risk for thick melanoma showed reduced participation in the screening were performed. Results Of the 3745 patients who received the mailed invitation, 61% underwent a skin examination. The participation of patients at risk for thick melanoma (any patient over 60 years of age and men over 50 years of age) was significantly greater than that of the patients in the other subgroups (72.4% vs 49.6%, p<0.001; and 66% vs 52.4%, p<0.001, respectively). The patients referred to the dermatologist after 1 year were more compliant compared with those referred during the first year (68.8% vs 59.1%, p=0.003). Six melanomas were detected within 1 year postreminder; therefore, the incidence of melanoma in the study population was 160/100 000. Conclusions This study confirms the benefits of developing a targeted screening strategy in primary care. In particular, after the annual reminder, patient participation and the diagnosis of melanoma remained high in the patients at elevated risk of thick melanomas. Trial registration number NCT01610531. PMID

  6. Water quality variability in San Francisco Bay, Some gGeneral lessons from 1996 sampling: 1996 annual report, San Francisco estuary regional monitoring program for trace substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Cole, B.E.; Edmunds, J.L.; Baylosis, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results from the 1996 Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances (RMP). It is the fourth Annual Report from the RMP which began in 1993 and attempts to synthesize the most obvious data patterns from the last four years. This report includes data from Base Program monitoring activities, as well as results of Pilot and Special Studies conducted or completed in 1996. Additionally, several articles contributed by RMP investigators and others, are included. These articles provide perspective and insight on important contaminant issues identified by the RMP. This summary addresses which kinds of pollutants measured by the RMP appear to be at levels that warrant concern, what kinds of trends may be discerned, and which stations have consistently shown elevated contaminant levels. The goals or general objectives of the RMP are: 1. To obtain high quality baseline data describing the concentrations of toxic and potentially toxic trace elements and organic contaminants in the water and sediment of the San Francisco Estuary. 2. To determine seasonal and annual trends in chemical and biological water quality in the San Francisco Estuary. 3. To continue to develop a data set that can be used to determine long-term trends in the concentrations of toxic and potentially toxic trace elements and organic contaminants in the water and sediments of the San Francisco Estuary. 4. To determine whether water quality and sediment quality in the Estuary at large are in compliance with objectives established by the Basin Plan (the regulatory planning document used by the Regional Water Quality Control Board). 5. To provide a database on water and sediment quality in the Estuary which is compatible with data being developed in other ongoing studies, including wasteload allocation studies and model development, sediment quality objectives development, in-bay studies of dredged material disposal, Interagency Ecological Program (IEP) water quality studies, primary

  7. Properties of the Subantarctic Front and Polar Front from the skewness of sea level anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Andrew E.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mecking, Sabine; Thompson, LuAnne

    2015-07-01

    The region of the Southern Ocean that encompasses the Subantarctic Front (SAF) to the north and the Polar Front (PF) to the south contains most of the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Here skewness of sea level anomaly (SLA) from 1992 to 2013 is coupled with a meandering Gaussian jetw model to estimate the mean position, meridional width, and the percent variance that each front contributes to total SLA variability. The SAF and PF have comparable widths (85 km) in the circumpolar average, but their widths differ significantly in the East Pacific Basin (85 and 60 km, respectively). Interannual variability in the positions of the SAF and PF are also estimated using annual subsets of the SLA data from 1993 to 2012. The PF position has enhanced variability near strong topographic features such as the Kerguelen Plateau, the Campbell Plateau east of New Zealand, and downstream of Drake Passage. Neither the SAF nor the PF showed a robust meridional trend over the 20 year period. The Southern Annular Mode was significantly correlated with basin-averaged SAF and PF positions in the East Pacific and with the PF south of Australia. A correlation between the PF and the basin-scale wind stress curl anomaly was also found in the western extratropical Pacific but not in other basins.

  8. Radiative magnetized thermal conduction fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Balbus, Steven A.; Fristrom, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of plane-parallel magnetized thermal conduction fronts in the interstellar medium (ISM) was studied. Separating the coronal ISM phase and interstellar clouds, these fronts have been thought to be the site of the intermediate-temperature regions whose presence was inferred from O VI absorption-line studies. The front evolution was followed numerically, starting from the initial discontinuous temperature distribution between the hot and cold medium, and ending in the final cooling stage of the hot medium. It was found that, for the typical ISM pressure of 4000 K/cu cm and the hot medium temperature of 10 to the 6th K, the transition from evaporation to condensation in a nonmagnetized front occurs when the front thickness is 15 pc. This thickness is a factor of 5 smaller than previously estimated. The O VI column densities in both evaporative and condensation stages agree with observations if the initial hot medium temperature Th exceeds 750,000 K. Condensing conduction fronts give better agreement with observed O VI line profiles because of lower gas temperatures.

  9. Restless rays, steady wave fronts.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2007-12-01

    Observations of underwater acoustic fields with vertical line arrays and numerical simulations of long-range sound propagation in an ocean perturbed by internal gravity waves indicate that acoustic wave fronts are much more stable than the rays comprising these wave fronts. This paper provides a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of wave front stability in a medium with weak sound-speed perturbations. It is shown analytically that at propagation ranges that are large compared to the correlation length of the sound-speed perturbations but smaller than ranges at which ray chaos develops, end points of rays launched from a point source and having a given travel time are scattered primarily along the wave front corresponding to the same travel time in the unperturbed environment. The ratio of root mean square displacements of the ray end points along and across the unperturbed wave front increases with range as the ratio of ray length to correlation length of environmental perturbations. An intuitive physical explanation of the theoretical results is proposed. The relative stability of wave fronts compared to rays is shown to follow from Fermat's principle and dimensional considerations. PMID:18247745

  10. Light-Front Holography and Novel Effects in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2008-12-18

    The correspondence between theories in anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semiclassical model for strongly-coupled QCD. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. We identify the AdS coordinate z with an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which separates the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The mapping of electromagnetic and gravitational form factors in AdS space to their corresponding expressions in light-front theory confirms this correspondence. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates and the behavior of the QCD coupling in the infrared. The distinction between static structure functions such as the probability distributions computed from the square of the light-front wavefunctions versus dynamical structure functions which include the effects of rescattering is emphasized. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level, an event amplitude generator, is outlined.

  11. Light-Front Holography and Novel Effects in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Teramond, Guy F. de

    2009-04-20

    The correspondence between theories in anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semiclassical model for strongly-coupled QCD. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. We identify the AdS coordinate z with an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which separates the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The mapping of electromagnetic and gravitational form factors in AdS space to their corresponding expressions in light-front theory confirms this correspondence. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates and the behavior of the QCD coupling in the infrared. The distinction between static structure functions such as the probability distributions computed from the square of the light-front wavefunctions versus dynamical structure functions which include the effects of rescattering is emphasized. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level, an event amplitude generator, is outlined.

  12. Link between warm conveyor belts and fronts and the impact on extreme rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer; Madonna, Erica; Joos, Hanna; Wernli, Heini; Rudeva, Irina; Simmonds, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The various dynamical features within extratropical cyclones have been shown to be very important for the precipitation produced by these systems. Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and fronts are both strongly associated with total and extreme precipitation in the midlatitudes. Here we have brought together two automated feature detection methods to answer questions on the frequency of matching of fronts and WCBs, whether this depends on frontal type or height of WCB, and the impact this matching has on extreme precipitation events. We find that WCBs and fronts are strongly related in the midlatitudes - annually 60% of WCBs are associated with cold fronts and around 50% associated with warm fronts, and a fairly large proportion associated with both together. The frequency of linked WCBs and fronts shows a strong seasonal cycle. In some regions warm fronts are more strongly linked to WCBs than cold fronts. To the east of Australia in particular, there are often WCBs not associated with fronts at all. Fronts that co-occur with a WCB are much more likely to produce an extreme precipitation event.

  13. Quality vaccines for all people: Report on the 16th annual general meeting of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, 05-07th October 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Khomvilai, Sumana

    2016-06-30

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) assembled high-profile leaders from global health organisations and vaccine manufactures for its 16th Annual General Meeting to work towards a common goal: providing quality vaccines for all people. Vaccines contribute to a healthy community and robust health system; the Ebola outbreak has raised awareness of the threat and damage one single infectious disease can make, and it is clear that the world was not prepared. However, more research to better understand emerging infectious agents might lead to suitable vaccines which help prevent future outbreaks. DCVMN members presented their progress in developing novel vaccines against Dengue, HPV, Chikungunya, Cholera, cell-based influenza and other vaccines, demonstrating the commitment towards eliminating and eradicating preventable diseases worldwide through global collaboration and technology transfer. The successful introduction of novel Sabin-IPV and Oral Cholera vaccine in China and Korea respectively in 2015 was highlighted. In order to achieve global immunisation, local authorities and community leaders play an important role in the decision-making in vaccine introduction and uptake, based on the ability of vaccines to protect vaccinated people and protect non-vaccinated in the community through herd immunity. Reducing the risk of vaccine shortages can also be achieved by increasing regulatory convergence at regional and international levels. Combatting preventable diseases remains challenging, and collective efforts for improving multi-centre clinical trials, creating regional vaccine security strategies, fostering developing vaccine markets and procurement, and building trust in vaccines were discussed. PMID:26947496

  14. Covariance Constraints for Light Front Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.

    2016-06-01

    Light front wave functions (LFWFs) are often utilized to model parton distributions and form factors where their transverse and longitudinal momenta are tied to each other in some manner that is often guided by convenience. On the other hand, the cross talk of transverse and longitudinal momenta is governed by Poincaré symmetry and thus popular LFWF models are often not usable to model more intricate quantities such as generalized parton distributions. In this contribution a closer look to this issue is given and it is shown how to overcome the issue for two-body LFWFs.

  15. Front Matter and Contents.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The present study is primarily aimed at an audience of evolutionary biologists in the broad sense for Parts 1-3, as well as at scientists from other professional disciplines looking for new approaches to explore phenomena in nature. However, the content is in general not written as technical text or filled with equations that make it utterly incomprehensible for 'normal' people, although they would have to skip strictly professional biochemical and biological terms that are a constituent part of the evidence in a scientific sense. Therefore, large parts of Part 2 may also be enjoyed by a broader audience with little prior insight into evolutionary biology or science, when in search of explanations for the phenomena that we see in nature. Finally, Part 4 - with a view into Parts 1-3 - is meant for systems analysts and researchers striving to find a general systems theory. Parts 3 and 4 are the only parts that are not relevant for a general audience. A Note for the Reader Extensive use of references in scientific literature is generally perceived as evidence in favour of an author's statement when synthesizing findings in the literature on a given topic. At the same time, when applying citations of such literature one has to copy the text literally including printing errors, references and everything relevant, unless otherwise explicitly stated. Including such references in cited text often a) creates confusion because such references are not included in the reference list even if they appear in the text; and furthermore b) they tend to add an unnecessary cognitive burden on the reader. Therefore, references with cited text in the present publication have been replaced by the Italicized text 'ref' or 'refs', i.e. single or plural, depending on the number of references omitted in a given place. About the Author/Contributors The authorJBMcNis the initiatorsole contributor to the present study. JBMcN and her husband, Dr. Peter McNair, in close cooperation developed the

  16. Self-turbulizing flame fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavin, P.; Searby, G.

    A heuristic derivation of a flame front model is presented that takes into account the effects of gravity, nonlinear effects introduced by advection of the front, and gradients in the tangential component of the flow. A local equation is defined to relate the normal flame speed to the upstream gas flow characteristics. Jump conditions are obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the local structure of the wrinkled flame in order to address the hydrodynamic problem possed by the front being treated as a free boundary between fresh and burnt gases. The expression for the jump conditions is defined in Fourier space. The model extends the equations defined in Fourier space. The model extends the equations defined by Sivashinsky (1977) to cover the effects of gas expansion.

  17. Lagrangian fronts in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce the concept of Lagrangian fronts (LFs) in the ocean and describe their importance for analyzing water mixing and transport and the specific features and differences from hydrological fronts. A method of calculating LFs in a given velocity field is proposed. Based on altimeter velocity fields from AVISO data in the northwestern Pacific, we calculate the Lagrangian synoptic maps and identify LFs of different spatial and temporal scales. Using statistical analysis of saury catches in different years according to the Goskomrybolovstvo (State Fisheries Committee of the Russian Federation), we show that LFs can serve as good indicators of places that are favorable for fishing.

  18. Align the Front End First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  19. Teaching the French Popular Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Irwin M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the French Popular Front of 1936 as a vehicle to investigate the turbulent decade of the 1930s. Reviews current historiography and discusses various facets of Leon Blum's government, examining the interrelationship of major economic and political forces. Concludes that the French Left still faces Blum's dilemma of implementing socialism…

  20. Advanced RF Front End Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M. I.; Valas, S.; Katehi, L. P. B.

    2001-01-01

    The ability to achieve low-mass low-cost micro/nanospacecraft for Deep Space exploration requires extensive miniaturization of all subsystems. The front end of the Telecommunication subsystem is an area in which major mass (factor of 10) and volume (factor of 100) reduction can be achieved via the development of new silicon based micromachined technology and devices. Major components that make up the front end include single-pole and double-throw switches, diplexer, and solid state power amplifier. JPL's Center For Space Microsystems - System On A Chip (SOAC) Program has addressed the challenges of front end miniaturization (switches and diplexers). Our objectives were to develop the main components that comprise a communication front end and enable integration in a single module that we refer to as a 'cube'. In this paper we will provide the latest status of our Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) switches and surface micromachined filter development. Based on the significant progress achieved we can begin to provide guidelines of the proper system insertion for these emerging technologies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Fluctuation-controlled front propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Douglas Thacher

    1997-09-01

    A number of fundamental pattern-forming systems are controlled by fluctuations at the front. These problems involve the interaction of an infinite dimensional probability distribution with a strongly nonlinear, spatially extended pattern-forming system. We have examined fluctuation-controlled growth in the context of the specific problems of diffusion-limited growth and biological evolution. Mean field theory of diffusion-limited growth exhibits a finite time singularity. Near the leading edge of a diffusion-limited front, this leads to acceleration and blowup. This may be resolved, in an ad hoc manner, by introducing a cutoff below which growth is weakened or eliminated (8). This model, referred to as the BLT model, captures a number of qualitative features of global pattern formation in diffusion-limited aggregation: contours of the mean field match contours of averaged particle density in simulation, and the modified mean field theory can form dendritic features not possible in the naive mean field theory. The morphology transition between dendritic and non-dendritic global patterns requires that BLT fronts have a Mullins-Sekerka instability of the wavefront shape, in order to form concave patterns. We compute the stability of BLT fronts numerically, and compare the results to fronts without a cutoff. A significant morphological instability of the BLT fronts exists, with a dominant wavenumber on the scale of the front width. For standard mean field fronts, no instability is found. The naive and ad hoc mean field theories are continuum-deterministic models intended to capture the behavior of a discrete stochastic system. A transformation which maps discrete systems into a continuum model with a singular multiplicative noise is known, however numerical simulations of the continuum stochastic system often give mean field behavior instead of the critical behavior of the discrete system. We have found a new interpretation of the singular noise, based on maintaining

  2. Light-Front Holography, Light-Front Wavefunctions, and Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    Light-Front Holography is one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In spite of its present limitations it provides important physical insights into the nonperturbative regime of QCD and its transition to the perturbative domain. This novel framework allows hadronic amplitudes in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The model leads to an effective confining light-front QCD Hamiltonian and a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound-state wavefunctions, and thus the fall-off as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The soft-wall holographic model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics - a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryons. The model predicts a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number n. The hadron eigensolutions projected on the free Fock basis provides the complete set of valence and non-valence light-front Fock state wavefunctions {Psi}{sub n/H} (x{sub i}, k{sub {perpendicular}i}, {lambda}{sub i}) which describe the hadron's momentum and spin distributions needed to compute the direct measures of hadron structure at the quark and gluon level, such as elastic and transition form factors, distribution amplitudes, structure functions, generalized parton distributions and transverse

  3. How Obstacles Perturb Population Fronts and Alter Their Genetic Structure.

    PubMed

    Möbius, Wolfram; Murray, Andrew W; Nelson, David R

    2015-12-01

    As populations spread into new territory, environmental heterogeneities can shape the population front and genetic composition. We focus here on the effects of an important building block of heterogeneous environments, isolated obstacles. With a combination of experiments, theory, and simulation, we show how isolated obstacles both create long-lived distortions of the front shape and amplify the effect of genetic drift. A system of bacteriophage T7 spreading on a spatially heterogeneous Escherichia coli lawn serves as an experimental model system to study population expansions. Using an inkjet printer, we create well-defined replicates of the lawn and quantitatively study the population expansion of phage T7. The transient perturbations of the population front found in the experiments are well described by a model in which the front moves with constant speed. Independent of the precise details of the expansion, we show that obstacles create a kink in the front that persists over large distances and is insensitive to the details of the obstacle's shape. The small deviations between experimental findings and the predictions of the constant speed model can be understood with a more general reaction-diffusion model, which reduces to the constant speed model when the obstacle size is large compared to the front width. Using this framework, we demonstrate that frontier genotypes just grazing the side of an isolated obstacle increase in abundance, a phenomenon we call 'geometry-enhanced genetic drift', complementary to the founder effect associated with spatial bottlenecks. Bacterial range expansions around nutrient-poor barriers and stochastic simulations confirm this prediction. The effect of the obstacle on the genealogy of individuals at the front is characterized by simulations and rationalized using the constant speed model. Lastly, we consider the effect of two obstacles on front shape and genetic composition of the population illuminating the effects expected from

  4. How Obstacles Perturb Population Fronts and Alter Their Genetic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Möbius, Wolfram; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

    2015-01-01

    As populations spread into new territory, environmental heterogeneities can shape the population front and genetic composition. We focus here on the effects of an important building block of heterogeneous environments, isolated obstacles. With a combination of experiments, theory, and simulation, we show how isolated obstacles both create long-lived distortions of the front shape and amplify the effect of genetic drift. A system of bacteriophage T7 spreading on a spatially heterogeneous Escherichia coli lawn serves as an experimental model system to study population expansions. Using an inkjet printer, we create well-defined replicates of the lawn and quantitatively study the population expansion of phage T7. The transient perturbations of the population front found in the experiments are well described by a model in which the front moves with constant speed. Independent of the precise details of the expansion, we show that obstacles create a kink in the front that persists over large distances and is insensitive to the details of the obstacle’s shape. The small deviations between experimental findings and the predictions of the constant speed model can be understood with a more general reaction-diffusion model, which reduces to the constant speed model when the obstacle size is large compared to the front width. Using this framework, we demonstrate that frontier genotypes just grazing the side of an isolated obstacle increase in abundance, a phenomenon we call ‘geometry-enhanced genetic drift’, complementary to the founder effect associated with spatial bottlenecks. Bacterial range expansions around nutrient-poor barriers and stochastic simulations confirm this prediction. The effect of the obstacle on the genealogy of individuals at the front is characterized by simulations and rationalized using the constant speed model. Lastly, we consider the effect of two obstacles on front shape and genetic composition of the population illuminating the effects

  5. Use of Glacial Fronts by Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidre, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial fronts in Greenland are known to be important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros), as freshwater runoff and sediment discharge may aggregate prey at the terminus. We investigated the importance of glacial habitat characteristics in determining narwhal visitation. Narwhals (n=18) were instrumented with satellite transmitters in September 1993-1994 and 2006-2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. Daily narwhal locations were interpolated using a correlated random walk based on observed filtered locations and associated positional error. We also compiled a database on physical features of 41 glaciers along the northwest Greenland coast. This covered the entire coastal region with narwhal activity. Parameters included glacier ice velocity (km/yr) from radar satellite data, glacier front advance and retreat, and glacier width (km) at the ice-ocean interface derived using front position data digitized from 20-100m resolution radar image mosaics and Landsat imagery. We also quantified relative volumes and extent of glacial ice discharge, thickness of the glacial ice at the terminus (m), and water depth at the terminus (m) from gravity and airborne radar data, sediment flux from satellite-based analysis, and freshwater runoff from a regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2.3). We quantified whale visits to glaciers at three distances (5, 7, and 10 km) and conducted proximity analyses on annual and monthly time steps. We estimated 1) narwhal presence or absence, 2) the number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers, and 3) the fraction of study animals that visited each glacier. The use of glacial habitat by narwhals expanded to the north and south between the 1990s (n=9 unique glaciers visited) and the 2000s (n=30 visited), likely due to loss of summer fast ice and later fall freeze-up trends (3.5 weeks later since 1979). We used a generalized linear mixed effects framework to quantify the glacier and fjord habitat characteristics preferred by narwhals.

  6. Developing a Spatial Model to Examine Rainfall Extremes in Colorado's Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, M. R.; Cooley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Between 9-16 September 2013, northeast Colorado received some of its most extreme precipitation. The event affected 6 major rivers and their tributaries and 14 counties, breaking observed records for all accumulations from sub-daily through to annual total. NOAA's precipitation atlases indicated that this event had an anticipated return period of 1000 years. But how statistically robust is this estimate given the data scarcity and observation record length? And how should decision makers account for this event when rebuilding within the flood damaged area. We employ daily precipitation observations, with at least 30 years of data, from stations across the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains to develop a spatial statistical model for annual maximum daily precipitation. Our aim is to have an easily-implemented statistical approach which borrows strength across locations via a spatial model. We use a spatial hierarchical model and employ a two-stage approach for inference. In the first inference stage we obtain individual Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) parameter estimates at each station, and the associated uncertainty covariance matrices; the second stage applies Bayesian methods to determine the true parameter estimates, and the residual spatial dependence. Finally, universal kriging allows us to interpolate spatially and estimate the GEV parameters at unobserved locations. A further development of the model makes use of the climate space, rather than geographical space, to improve the parameter estimates (Cooley et al. 2007). We then use this statistical model to examine the relative influence of a single anomalous extreme (September 2013) on return period estimates for daily precipitation extremes at Boulder and other locations along the Front Range and the consequences that this sensitivity could have on engineered structures lying within the floodplain. Cooley, D., Nychka, D., & Naveau, P. (2007). Bayesian Spatial Modeling of Extreme Precipitation Return Levels

  7. Reaction-Transport Fronts Propagating into Unstable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Fedotov, Sergei; Horsthemke, Werner

    In this chapter we consider the problem of propagating fronts traveling into an unstable state of a reaction-transport system. The purpose is to present the general formalism for the asymptotic analysis of traveling fronts. The method relies on the hyperbolic scaling procedure, the theory of large deviations, and the Hamilton-Jacobi technique. A generic model that describes phenomena of this type is the RD equation (2.3) with appropriate kinetics, such as the FKPP equation (4.1). The propagation velocity of fronts of this equation has been studied in Chap.4. The RD equation involves implicitly a long-time large-scale parabolic scaling, while as far as propagating fronts are concerned, the appropriate scaling must be a hyperbolic one. The macroscopic transport process arises from the overall effect of many particles performing complex random movements. Classical diffusion is simply an approximation for this transport in the long-time large-scale parabolic limit. In general, this approximation is not appropriate for problems involving propagating fronts. The basic idea is that the kinetic term in the RD equation with KPP kinetics is very sensitive to the tails of a density profile. These tails are typically "non-universal," "non-diffusional," and dependent on the microscopic details of the underlying random walk. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate that the macroscopic dynamics of the front for a reaction-transport system are dependent on the choice of the underlying random walk model for the transport process. To illustrate the idea of an alternative description of front propagation into an unstable state of reaction-transport system, we consider several models including discrete-in-time or continuous-in-time Markov models with long-distance dispersal kernels, non-Markovian models with memory effects, etc., instead of the RD equation. Let us give a few examples of such models.

  8. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    particular subarea using the different methods. Mountain-front recharge ranged from 0.7 to 15 percent of total annual precipitation in the subareas (percent recharge). Some of the smallest values of percent recharge were in the subareas in the southern part of the basin, which generally have low altitudes. The larger percent-recharge values were from subareas with higher altitudes. With existing information, determining which of the mountain- front recharge estimates is most accurate and the reasons for discrepancies among the different estimates is not possible. The chloride-balance method underestimates recharge if the chloride concentration used in the calculations for precipitation is too small or the chloride concentration in recharge is too large. Water-yield regression methods overestimate recharge if the amount of evapotranspiration of water that infiltrates into the channel bed of arroyos during runoff from summer thunderstorms is large.

  9. Reaction front formation in contaminant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribbin, Laura B.; Winstanley, Henry F.; Mitchell, Sarah L.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Sander, Graham C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of successive fronts in contaminated groundwater plumes by subsoil bacterial action is a commonly accepted feature of their propagation, but it is not obviously clear from a mathematical standpoint quite how such fronts are formed or propagate. In this paper we show that these can be explained by combining classical reaction-diffusion theory involving just two reactants (oxidant and reductant), and a secondary reaction in which a reactant on one side of such a front is (re-)formed on the other side of the front via diffusion of its product across the front. We give approximate asymptotic solutions for the reactant profiles, and the propagation rate of the front.

  10. Transition of dominant peak flow source from snowmelt to rainfall along the Colorado Front Range: Historical patterns, trends, and lessons from the 2013 Colorado Front Range floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Lefsky, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado Front Range has a large elevation gradient with deep seasonal snowpack in the mountains and limited snow accumulation in the foothills and plains. This study examines how the sources of annual peak flows (snowmelt, rainfall, mixed) change with the fraction of time snow persists on the ground, snow persistence (SP), and whether these sources have changed over time. Sources of peak flows for 20 gaging stations are estimated using a gridded rain and snow model forced with PRISM daily precipitation and both PRISM and TopoWx temperature. The mean snowmelt contribution to peak flow is highly correlated with SP (r2 = 0.86-0.90). Watersheds with SP < 0.3 (low snow, elevation <2000 m) are rainfall-dominated, and watersheds with SP > 0.7 (persistent snow, elevation >3100 m) are mostly snowmelt-dominated, with mixed sources between these thresholds. Rainfall runoff peak flows are possible at all elevations, but their likelihood declines with increasing SP. Rainfall runoff from an extreme storm in September 2013 produced the highest annual peaks at many stations, including some snowmelt-dominated watersheds. Regional Kendall trend tests indicate that the contributions of snowmelt to peak flows and total annual inputs have declined in the mixed source zone. These changes may affect hydrographs, as analyses confirm that snowmelt runoff generally produces more attenuated peaks than rainfall runoff. Discrimination of peak flow source is sensitive to input data and model structure for mixed rain and snowmelt events, and both observation and modeling research are needed to help understand potential runoff changes in these conditions.

  11. AdS/QCD and Its Holographic Light-Front Partonic Representation

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; ,

    2008-11-12

    Starting from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD we find a single variable light-front equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. This light-front wave equation is equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space.

  12. AdS/QCD and its Holographic Light-Front Partonic Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Teramond, Guy F. de; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2009-03-23

    Starting from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD we find a single variable light-front equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. This light-front wave equation is equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes on anti-de Sitter (AdS) space.

  13. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  14. Weather fronts and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kveton, Vit

    1991-03-01

    Some methodological aspects are discussed of the investigation of acute infarct myocarditis (AIM) in relation to weather fronts. Results of a new method of analysis are given. Data were analysed from about the hour of the onset of symptoms, and led to the diagnosis of AIM either immediately or within a few hours or days (3019 cases observed over 4.5 years during 1982 1986 in Plzen, Czechoslovakia). Weather classification was based on three factors (the type of the foregoing front, the type of the subsequent front, the time section of the time interval demarcated by the passage of the surfaces of the fronts). AIM occurrence increased in particular types of weather fronts: (i) by 30% during 7 12 h after a warm front, if the time span between fronts exceeded 24 h; (ii) by 10% in time at least 36 h distant from the foregoing cold or occlusion front and from the succeeding warm or occlusion front; (iii) by 20% during 0 2 h before the passage of the front, provided the foregoing front was not warm and the interval between fronts exceeded 5 h. AIM occurrence decreased by 15% 20% for time span between fronts > 24 h at times 6 11, 6 23 and 6 35 h before a coming warm or occlusion front (for interfrontal intervals 25 48, 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), and also at 12 23 and possibly 12 35 h before a cold front (for intervals 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), if the foregoing front was cold or an occlusion front.

  15. Central tower section of the front (south side) with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central tower section of the front (south side) with the top of the central entrance projection at the bottom - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Firing up the front line.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, J R; Santamaria, J A

    1999-01-01

    For many organizations, achieving competitive advantage means eliciting superior performance from employees on the front line--the burger flippers, hotel room cleaners, and baggage handlers whose work has an enormous effect on customers. That's no easy task. Front line workers are paid low wages, have scant hope of advancement, and--not surprisingly--often care little about the company's performance. But then how do some companies succeed in engaging the emotional energy of rank-and-file workers? A team of researchers at McKinsey & Company and the Conference Board recently explored that question and discovered that one highly effective route is demonstrated by the U.S. Marine Corps. The Marines' approach to motivation follows the "mission, values, and pride" path, which researchers say is practical and relevant for the business world. More specifically, the authors say the Marines follow five practices: they over-invest in cultivating core value; prepare every person to lead, including front line supervisors; learn when to create teams and when to create single-leader work groups; attend to all employees, not just the top half; and encourage self-discipline as a way of building pride. The authors admit there are critical differences between the Marines and most businesses. But using vivid examples from companies such as KFC and Marriott International, the authors illustrate how the Marines' approach can be translated for corporate use. Sometimes, the authors maintain, minor changes in a company's standard operating procedure can have a powerful effect on front line pride and can result in substantial payoffs in company performance. PMID:10387573

  17. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (2) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms for a batch front-end.... (i) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the..., 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual...

  18. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (2) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms for a batch front-end.... (i) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the..., 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual...

  19. 40 CFR 63.488 - Methods and procedures for batch front-end process vent group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 40 CFR part 63, appendix A. (2) The annual mass emissions of halogen atoms for a batch front-end.... (i) Method 1 or 1A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, as appropriate, shall be used for selection of the..., 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas stream volumetric flow rate. (ii) Annual...

  20. Identifying Lagrangian fronts with favourable fishery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Lagrangian fronts (LFs) in the ocean are defined as boundaries between surface waters with strongly different Lagrangian properties. They can be accurately detected in a given velocity field by computing synoptic maps for displacements of synthetic tracers and other Lagrangian indicators. We use Pacific saury catch and location data for a number of commercial fishery seasons in the region of the northwest Pacific with one of the richest fishery in the world. It is shown statistically that the saury fishing grounds with maximal catches are not randomly distributed over the region but located mainly along the sharp LFs where productive cold waters of the Oyashio Current, warmer waters of the southern branch of the Soya Current, and waters of warm-core Kuroshio rings converge. Computation of those fronts in altimetric geostrophic velocity fields both in the years with the First and Second Oyashio Intrusions shows that in spite of different oceanographic conditions LF locations may serve as good indicators of potential fishing grounds. Possible biophysical reasons for saury aggregation near sharp LFs are discussed. We propose a mechanism for effective export of nutrient rich waters based on stretching of material lines in the vicinity of hyperbolic objects in the ocean. The developed method, based on identifying LFs in any velocity fields, is quite general and may be applied to find potential fishing grounds for the other pelagic fish.

  1. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  2. Basis Light-Front Quantization: Recent Progress and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo

    2016-05-01

    Light-front Hamiltonian field theory has advanced to the stage of becoming a viable non-perturbative method for solving forefront problems in strong interaction physics. Physics drivers include hadron mass spectroscopy, generalized parton distribution functions, spin structures of the hadrons, inelastic structure functions, hadronization, particle production by strong external time-dependent fields in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and many more. We review selected recent results and future prospects with basis light-front quantization that include fermion-antifermion bound states in QCD, fermion motion in a strong time-dependent external field and a novel non-perturbative renormalization scheme.

  3. Basis Light-Front Quantization: Recent Progress and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo

    2016-08-01

    Light-front Hamiltonian field theory has advanced to the stage of becoming a viable non-perturbative method for solving forefront problems in strong interaction physics. Physics drivers include hadron mass spectroscopy, generalized parton distribution functions, spin structures of the hadrons, inelastic structure functions, hadronization, particle production by strong external time-dependent fields in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and many more. We review selected recent results and future prospects with basis light-front quantization that include fermion-antifermion bound states in QCD, fermion motion in a strong time-dependent external field and a novel non-perturbative renormalization scheme.

  4. 46 CFR 111.30-4 - Circuit breakers removable from the front.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-4 Circuit breakers removable from the front. Circuit breakers, when installed on generator or distribution switchboards, must be mounted or arranged in... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit breakers removable from the front....

  5. 46 CFR 111.30-4 - Circuit breakers removable from the front.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-4 Circuit breakers removable from the front. Circuit breakers, when installed on generator or distribution switchboards, must be mounted or arranged in... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit breakers removable from the front....

  6. 46 CFR 111.30-4 - Circuit breakers removable from the front.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-4 Circuit breakers removable from the front. Circuit breakers, when installed on generator or distribution switchboards, must be mounted or arranged in... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit breakers removable from the front....

  7. 46 CFR 111.30-4 - Circuit breakers removable from the front.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-4 Circuit breakers removable from the front. Circuit breakers, when installed on generator or distribution switchboards, must be mounted or arranged in... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit breakers removable from the front....

  8. 46 CFR 111.30-4 - Circuit breakers removable from the front.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-4 Circuit breakers removable from the front. Circuit breakers, when installed on generator or distribution switchboards, must be mounted or arranged in... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit breakers removable from the front....

  9. Light-Front Dynamics and the {{3He}} Spectral Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Emanuele; Del Dotto, Alessio; Kaptari, Leonid; Rinaldi, Matteo; Salmé, Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Two topics are presented. The first one is a novel approach for a Poincaré covariant description of nuclear dynamics based on light-front Hamiltonian dynamics. The key quantity is the light-front spectral function, where both normalization and momentum sum rule can be satisfied at the same time. Preliminary results are discussed for an initial analysis of the role of relativity in the EMC effect in {{3He}}. A second issue, very challenging, is considered in a non-relativistic framework, namely a distorted spin-dependent spectral function for {{3He}} in order to take care of the final state interaction between the observed pion and the remnant in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized {{3He}}. The generalization of the analysis within the light-front dynamics is outlined.

  10. Theory for the curvature dependence of delta front progradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Wun-Tao; Capart, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    When Gilbert-type deltas respond to uneven sediment supply or advance over irregular basin bathymetry, they develop curved, creased fronts prograding at speeds that vary with location along the shoreline. Relations governing the progradation rate, however, have so far been proposed only for simple special cases. In this paper, we exploit the special properties of solutions to the eikonal equation to derive a general progradation relation, applicable to delta fronts of finite angle of repose and arbitrary shoreline planform. In these circumstances, the theory explicitly relates the progradation rate to the local shoreline curvature. We illustrate the resulting morphodynamics with numerical and analytical solutions for a sinuous delta front. The proposed relation can be used to model deltaic evolution or deduce spanwise distributions of sediment supply rates from observations of foreset evolution.

  11. Frozen reaction fronts in steady flows: A burning-invariant-manifold perspective.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, John R; Li, John; Boyer, Carleen; Solomon, Tom; Mitchell, Kevin A

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of fronts, such as chemical reaction fronts, propagating in two-dimensional fluid flows can be remarkably rich and varied. For time-invariant flows, the front dynamics may simplify, settling in to a steady state in which the reacted domain is static, and the front appears "frozen." Our central result is that these frozen fronts in the two-dimensional fluid are composed of segments of burning invariant manifolds, invariant manifolds of front-element dynamics in xyθ space, where θ is the front orientation. Burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) have been identified previously as important local barriers to front propagation in fluid flows. The relevance of BIMs for frozen fronts rests in their ability, under appropriate conditions, to form global barriers, separating reacted domains from nonreacted domains for all time. The second main result of this paper is an understanding of bifurcations that lead from a nonfrozen state to a frozen state, as well as bifurcations that change the topological structure of the frozen front. Although the primary results of this study apply to general fluid flows, our analysis focuses on a chain of vortices in a channel flow with an imposed wind. For this system, we present both experimental and numerical studies that support the theoretical analysis developed here. PMID:26764802

  12. Frozen reaction fronts in steady flows: A burning-invariant-manifold perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, John R.; Li, John; Boyer, Carleen; Solomon, Tom; Mitchell, Kevin A.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of fronts, such as chemical reaction fronts, propagating in two-dimensional fluid flows can be remarkably rich and varied. For time-invariant flows, the front dynamics may simplify, settling in to a steady state in which the reacted domain is static, and the front appears "frozen." Our central result is that these frozen fronts in the two-dimensional fluid are composed of segments of burning invariant manifolds, invariant manifolds of front-element dynamics in x y θ space, where θ is the front orientation. Burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) have been identified previously as important local barriers to front propagation in fluid flows. The relevance of BIMs for frozen fronts rests in their ability, under appropriate conditions, to form global barriers, separating reacted domains from nonreacted domains for all time. The second main result of this paper is an understanding of bifurcations that lead from a nonfrozen state to a frozen state, as well as bifurcations that change the topological structure of the frozen front. Although the primary results of this study apply to general fluid flows, our analysis focuses on a chain of vortices in a channel flow with an imposed wind. For this system, we present both experimental and numerical studies that support the theoretical analysis developed here.

  13. Front instabilities in evaporatively dewetting nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancea, I.; Thiele, U.; Pauliac-Vaujour, E.; Stannard, A.; Martin, C. P.; Blunt, M. O.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2008-10-01

    Various experimental settings that involve drying solutions or suspensions of nanoparticles—often called nanofluids—have recently been used to produce structured nanoparticle layers. In addition to the formation of polygonal networks and spinodal-like patterns, the occurrence of branched structures has been reported. After reviewing the experimental results we use a modified version of the Monte Carlo model first introduced by Rabani [Nature 426, 271 (2003)] to study structure formation in evaporating films of nanoparticle solutions for the case that all structuring is driven by the interplay of evaporating solvent and diffusing nanoparticles. After introducing the model and its general behavior we focus on receding dewetting fronts which are initially straight but develop a transverse fingering instability. We analyze the dependence of the characteristics of the resulting branching patterns on the driving effective chemical potential, the mobility and concentration of the nanoparticles, and the interaction strength between liquid and nanoparticles. This allows us to understand the underlying instability mechanism.

  14. Promoting Quality through Leadership. General Session Presentations at the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research (28th, Phoenix, Arizona, May 15-18, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Institutional Research.

    Information from the 1988 annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research (AIR) is presented. The focus is on interests, roles, and responsibilities of AIR members. Speakers focus on the theme of promoting quality through leadership, looking at the important role of managerial leadership in the development, implementation, and…

  15. Roles for Postsecondary Education in the Economic Development of Indiana. Annual Report by the Commission for Higher Education to Governor Robert D. Orr and the Indiana General Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Commission for Higher Education, Indianapolis.

    The 1981 annual report of the Indiana Commission for Higher Education, which addresses the ways in which postsecondary education affects economic development in the state is presented. Attention is directed to: the strength of the higher education industry itself, and the important roles and strategies by which Indiana's public and independent…

  16. The Community Care Program Makes a Difference. Annual Report to the Governor and the Illinois General Assembly on Public Act 81-202, Fiscal Year 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document contains an annual report on Illinois' Community Care Program (CCP), a program which provides in-home and other support services to help older persons to remain living at home and avoid premature institutionalization. Three levels of care provided by the CCP are described: (1) chore housekeeping, consisting of basic household tasks…

  17. Light-Front Holography and QCD Hadronization at the Amplitude Level

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; ,

    2009-01-09

    Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS/QCD fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. The AdS coordinate z is identified with an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which separates the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation for QCD which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level using AdS/QCD light-front wavefunctions is outlined.

  18. Shock-front broadening in polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, J. L.; Kadau, K.

    2008-04-01

    We analyze a model for the evolution of shock fronts in polycrystalline materials. This model is based on the idea of Meyers and Carvalho [Mater. Sci. Eng. 24, 131 (1976)] that the shock velocity anisotropy within the polycrystal is the most important factor in shock front broadening. Our analysis predicts that the shock front width increases as the 1/2 power of the front penetration distance into the crystal. Our theoretical prediction is in plausible agreement with previous experimental results for the elastic precursor rise time, and it should therefore provide a useful shock width estimate. Furthermore, our theoretical framework is also applicable to other problems involving front propagation in heterogeneous media.

  19. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. I. Front formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics during plasma expansion are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation with a variable neutral gas density profile. The simulation is tailored to a radio frequency plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055207 (2014)]. The experiment has shown the existence of a propagating ion front. The ion front features a strong electric field and features a sharp plasma potential drop similar to a double layer. However, the presented results of a first principle simulation show that, in general, the ion front does not have to be entangled with an electric field. The propagating electric field reflects the downstream ions, which stream with velocities up to twice as high as that of the ion front propagation. The observed ion density peak forms due to the accumulation of the reflected ions. The simulation shows that the ion front formation strongly depends on the initial ion density profile and is subject to a wave-breaking phenomenon. Virtual diagnostics in the code allow for a direct comparison with experimental results. Using this technique, the plateau forming in the wake of the plasma front could be indirectly verified in the expansion experiment. Although the simulation considers profiles only in one spatial dimensional, its results are qualitatively in a very good agreement with the laboratory experiment. It can successfully reproduce findings obtained by independent numerical models and simulations. This indicates that the effects of magnetic field structures and tangential inhomogeneities are not essential for the general expansion dynamic. The presented simulation will be used for a detailed parameter study dealt with in Paper II [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasma 23, 013512 (2016)] of this series.

  20. Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

    2014-04-01

    We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

  1. Dipolarization Fronts from Reconnection Onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Swisdak, M. M.; Merkin, V. G.; Buzulukova, N.; Moore, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts observed in the magnetotail are often viewed as signatures of bursty magnetic reconnection. However, until recently spontaneous reconnection was considered to be fully prohibited in the magnetotail geometry because of the linear stability of the ion tearing mode. Recent theoretical studies showed that spontaneous reconnection could be possible in the magnetotail geometries with the accumulation of magnetic flux at the tailward end of the thin current sheet, a distinctive feature of the magnetotail prior to substorm onset. That result was confirmed by open-boundary full-particle simulations of 2D current sheet equilibria, where two magnetotails were separated by an equilibrium X-line and weak external electric field was imposed to nudge the system toward the instability threshold. To investigate the roles of the equilibrium X-line, driving electric field and other parameters in the reconnection onset process we performed a set of 2D PIC runs with different initial settings. The investigated parameter space includes the critical current sheet thickness, flux tube volume per unit magnetic flux and the north-south component of the magnetic field. Such an investigation is critically important for the implementation of kinetic reconnection onset criteria into global MHD codes. The results are compared with Geotail visualization of the magnetotail during substorms, as well as Cluster and THEMIS observations of dipolarization fronts.

  2. Double-Front Detonation Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubin, S. A.; Sumskoi, S. I.; Victorov, S. B.

    According to the theory of detonation, in a detonation wave there is a sound plane, named Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) plane. There are certain stationary parameters for this plane. In this work the possibility of the second CJ plane is shown. This second CJ plane is stationary as well. The physical mechanism of non-equilibrium transition providing the existence of the second CJ plane is presented. There is a non-equilibrium state, when the heat is removed from the reaction zone and the heat capacity decreases sharply. As a result of this non-equilibrium state, the sound velocity increases, and the local supersonic zone with second sonic plane (second CJ plane) appears. So the new mode of detonation wave is predicted. Equations describing this mode of detonation are presented. The exact analytical solution for the second CJ plane parameters is obtained. The example of double-front detonation in high explosive (TNT) is presented. In this double-front structure "nanodiamond-nanographite" phase transition takes place in condensed particles of detonation products.

  3. 1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS (2. N. Front Street starts at left) - North Front Street Area Study, 2-66 North Front Street (Commercial Buildings), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Relating Global Precipitation to Atmospheric Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, J. L.; Jakob, C.; Nicholls, N.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric fronts are important for the day-to-day variability of weather in the midlatitudes, particularly during winter when extratropical storm-tracks are at their maximum intensity. Fronts are often associated with heavy rain, and strongly affect the local space-time distribution of rainfall. Although global climate models should be expected to represent the baroclinic systems within which the fronts are embedded, the fronts themselves and precipitation processes within them are of much smaller scale. As a consequence, models with the typical horizontal resolution of contemporary climate models do not necessarily accurately capture these features. A recently developed objective front identification method applied to reanalysis data is combined with global rainfall data to investigate how precipitation and extremes of precipitation around the globe are associated with atmospheric fronts. Having established the observed distribution of fronts and their role in producing precipitation and extremes, the occurrence of fronts and the associated precipitation can then be evaluated in state-of-the-art climate models. This provides a process-oriented method of model evaluation where the errors in the model can be decomposed into contributions from errors in front frequency and errors in frontal and non-frontal precipitation intensity. Finally, how fronts and their associated precipitation, may change in the future, especially the extremes, can be investigated.

  5. 1. SOUTH FRONT OF TURBINE BUILDING BUILDING L1 (LEFT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH FRONT OF TURBINE BUILDING BUILDING L1 (LEFT) AND OF L.P. BOILER ROOM BUILDING L2 (RIGHT) - Portland General Electric Company, Turbine Building, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  6. Estimates of mountain-front streamflow available for potential recharge to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Streamflow in the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico, infiltrates into alluvial-basin aquifers at or near mountain fronts. Streamflow at or near mountain fronts is a substantial component of potential recharge to these aquifers. Streamflow response from precipitation differs substantially between the streams draining the Sacramento Mountains on the eastern side of the basin and those draining the San Andres Mountains on the western side. Mean annual streamflow at mountain fronts that is available for potential recharge to the Tularosa Basin was estimated using two regional regression methods. The method for estimating mean annual streamflow using basin-climatic characteristics was applied to 46 subbasins in the Tularosa Basin. Drainage areas for the subbasins ranged from 0.87 to 157 square miles, and mean annual precipitation ranged from 11.80 to 24.89 inches. Mean annual streamflow to the basin is estimated to be about 95 cubic feet per second or 68,800 acre-feet using the basin-climatic characteristics method. The method for estimating mean annual streamflow using channel-geometry characteristics was applied to 12 subbasins in the Tularosa Basin. Of the 46 basins, 31 had drainage areas less than 20.7 square miles and 3 had active-channel widths less than 15 feet, which were outside the ranges used to develop the regression equations.

  7. Progress in front propagation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  8. Reaction front formation in contaminant plumes.

    PubMed

    Cribbin, Laura B; Winstanley, Henry F; Mitchell, Sarah L; Fowler, Andrew C; Sander, Graham C

    2014-12-15

    The formation of successive fronts in contaminated groundwater plumes by subsoil bacterial action is a commonly accepted feature of their propagation, but it is not obviously clear from a mathematical standpoint quite how such fronts are formed or propagate. In this paper we show that these can be explained by combining classical reaction-diffusion theory involving just two reactants (oxidant and reductant), and a secondary reaction in which a reactant on one side of such a front is (re-)formed on the other side of the front via diffusion of its product across the front. We give approximate asymptotic solutions for the reactant profiles, and the propagation rate of the front. PMID:25461883

  9. Condensation Front Migration in a Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    2004-01-01

    Condensation front dynamics are investigated in the mid-solar nebula region. A quasi-steady model of the evolving nebula is combined with equilibrium vapor pressure curves to determine evolutionary condensation fronts for selected species. These fronts are found to migrate inwards from the far-nebula to final positions during a period of 10(exp 7) years. The physical process governing this movement is a combination of local viscous heating and luminescent heating from the central star. Two luminescent heating models are used and their effects on the ultimate radial position of the condensation front are discussed. At first the fronts move much faster than the nebular accretion velocity, but after a time the accreting gas and dust overtakes the slowing condensation front.

  10. Front pinning in single vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, John; Mitchell, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We study fronts propagating in 2D fluid flows and show that there exist stable invariant front configurations for fairly generic flows. Here we examine the simple flow which combines a single vortex with an overall ``wind.'' We discuss how the invariant front can be derived from a simple 3D ODE. Existence of this front can then be understood in terms of bifurcations of fixed points, and the behavior of the invariant ``sliding front'' submanifold. Interestingly, the front bifurcation precedes the saddle-node bifurcation which gives rise to the vortex. This elementary structure has application in chemical reactor beds and laminar combustion in well-mixed fluids. We request that this talk follow the related talks by our collaborators Tom Solomon, Savannah Gowen, and Sarah Holler.

  11. Front propagation and rejuvenation in flipping processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-naim, Eli; Krapivsky, P I; Antal, T; Ben - Avrahm, D

    2008-01-01

    We study a directed flipping process that underlies the performance of the random edge simplex algorithm. In this stochastic process, which takes place on a one-dimensional lattice whose sites may be either occupied or vacant, occupied sites become vacant at a constant rate and simultaneously cause all sites to the right to change their state. This random process exhibits rich phenomenology. First, there is a front, defined by the position of the leftmost occupied site, that propagates at a nontrivial velocity. Second, the front involves a depletion zone with an excess of vacant sites. The total excess {Delta}{sub k} increases logarithmically, {Delta}{sub k} {approx_equal}ln k, with the distance k from the front. Third, the front exhibits ageing -- young fronts are vigorous but old fronts are sluggish. We investigate these phenomena using a quasi-static approximation, direct solutions of small systems and numerical simulations.

  12. Polarization and wavelength diversities of Gulf Stream fronts imaged by AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Jansen, R. W.; Marmorino, G. O.; Chubb, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990 Gulf Stream Experiment, NASA/JPL AIRSAR imaged the north edge of the Gulf Stream near the coast of Virginia. Simultaneous in-situ measurements of currents, temperatures, salinities, etc. were made for several crossings of the north edge by the R/V Cape Henlopen. Measurements identified two fronts with shearing and converging flows. The polarimetric SAR images from the fronts showed two bright linear features. One of them corresponds to the temperature front, which separated the warm Gulf Stream water to the south from a cool, freshwater filament to the north. The other line, located about 8 km north of the temperature front, is believed to correspond to the velocity front between the filament and the slope water. At these fronts, wave-current interactions produced narrow bands of steep and breaking waves manifesting higher radar returns in polarimetric SAR images. In general, our AIRSAR imagery shows that the signal-to-clutter ratio of radar cross sections for the temperature front is higher than that of the velocity front. In this paper, we study the polarization and wavelength diversities of radar response of these two fronts using the P-, L-, and C-Band Polarimetric SAR data. The north-south flight path of the AIRSAR crossed the temperature front several times and provided valuable data for analysis. Three individual passes are investigated. We found that for the temperature front, the cross-pol (HV) responses are much higher than co-pol responses (VV and HH), and that P-Band HV has the highest signal to clutter ratio. For the velocity front, the ratio is the strongest in P-Band VV, and it is indistinguishable for all polarizations in C-Band. The radar cross sections for all three polarization (HH, HV, and VV) and for all three bands are modelled using an ocean wave model and a composite Bragg scattering model. In our initial investigations, the theoretical model agrees qualitatively with the AIRSAR observations.

  13. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. T.; Stratakis, D.; Prior, G.; Gilardoni, S.; Neuffer, D.; Snopok, P.; Alekou, A.; Pasternak, J.

    2013-04-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  14. Front elevation, building for a laying out floor and drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation, building for a laying out floor and drawing room, Johnson Company, Johnstown, Pa, March 7, 1893, H.E.F., scale 1/8 = 1 foot. (Photograph of architect's drawing of the drawing rooms and laying out floor building, compay drawing no. 14423, held at the Johnstown Corporation General Office, Johnstown, Pennsylvania) - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Drawing Room & Laying-Out Floor Building, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  15. A 3-D Generalization of the Budyko Framework Captures the Mutual Interdependence Between Long-Term Mean Annual Precipitation, Actual and Potential Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.

    2012-12-01

    We study the behavior of the 3-D parameter space defined by Φ =PET/P (so-called Aridity Index), Ψ =AET/P, and Ω =AET/PET, where P denotes mean annual precipitation, and PET and AET denote mean annual potential and actual evapotranspiration, respectively. Using information from the CLIMWAT 2.0 database (www.fao.org/nr/water/infores_databases_climwat.html) for P and PET, we estimate AET using both Budyko's and Turc's equations. Our results indicate that the well-known Budyko function that relates Φ vs.Ψ corresponds to a particular bi-dimensional cross-section of a broader coupling existing between Φ, Ψ and Ω (Figure 1a), and in turn of the mutual interdependence between P, PET and AET. The behavior of the three bi-dimensional projections are clearly parameterized by the remaining ortogonal parameter, such that: (i) the relation Φ vs. Ψ is defined by physically consistent varying values of Ω (Figure 1b); (ii) the relation Ω vs. Ψ is defined by physically consistent varying values of the Aridity Index,Φ (Figure 1c), and (iii) the relation Ω vs. Φ is defined by physically consistent varying values of Ψ (Figure 1d). Interestingly, we show that Φ and Ω are related by a power law, Φ~Ω-θ, with scaling exponent θ=1.15 (R2=0.91, n=3420) for the whole world (Figure 1d). Mathematical functions that model the three bi-dimensional projections and the surface defining the interdependence between Φ, Ψ and Ω will be presented. Our results provide a new framework to understand the coupling between the long-term mean annual water and energy balances in river basins, and the hydrological effects brought about by climate change, while taking into account the mutual interdependence between the three non-dimensional parameters Φ, Ψ and Ω, and in turn between P, PET and AET. Figure 1. (a) Three-dimensional rendering of sample values of Φ =PET/P (so-called Aridity Index), Ψ =AET/P, and Ω=AET/PET. Bi-dimensional projections of: (b) relation Φ vs.

  16. Assessing attentional prioritization of front-of-pack nutrition labels using change detection.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mark W; Sundar, Raghav Prashant; Bello, Nora; Alzahabi, Reem; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; Bix, Laura

    2016-05-01

    We used a change detection method to evaluate attentional prioritization of nutrition information that appears in the traditional "Nutrition Facts Panel" and in front-of-pack nutrition labels. Results provide compelling evidence that front-of-pack labels attract attention more readily than the Nutrition Facts Panel, even when participants are not specifically tasked with searching for nutrition information. Further, color-coding the relative nutritional value of key nutrients within the front-of-pack label resulted in increased attentional prioritization of nutrition information, but coding using facial icons did not significantly increase attention to the label. Finally, the general pattern of attentional prioritization across front-of-pack designs was consistent across a diverse sample of participants. Our results indicate that color-coded, front-of-pack nutrition labels increase attention to the nutrition information of packaged food, a finding that has implications for current policy discussions regarding labeling change. PMID:26851468

  17. Effects of fluctuations on propagating fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Debabrata

    Propagating fronts are seen in varieties of nonequilibrium pattern forming systems in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. In the last two decades, many researchers have contributed to the understanding of the underlying dynamics of the propagating fronts. Of these, the deterministic and mean-field dynamics of the fronts were mostly understood in late 1980s and 1990s. On the other hand, although the earliest work on the effect of fluctuations on propagating fronts dates back to early 1980s, the subject of fluctuating fronts did not reach its adolescence until the mid 1990s. From there onwards the last few years witnessed a surge in activities in the effect of fluctuations on propagating fronts. Scores of papers have been written on this subject since then, contributing to a significant maturity of our understanding, and only recently a full picture of fluctuating fronts has started to emerge. This review is an attempt to collect all the works on fluctuating (propagating) fronts in a coherent and cogent manner in proper perspective. It is based on the idea of making our knowledge in this field available to a broader audience, and it is also expected to help to collect bits and pieces of loose thread-ends together for possible further investigation.

  18. Front end for GPS receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Jr., Jess Brooks (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The front end in GPS receivers has the functions of amplifying, down-converting, filtering and sampling the received signals. In the preferred embodiment, only two operations, A/D conversion and a sum, bring the signal from RF to filtered quadrature baseband samples. After amplification and filtering at RF, the L1 and L2 signals are each sampled at RF at a high selected subharmonic rate. The subharmonic sample rates are approximately 900 MHz for L1 and 982 MHz for L2. With the selected subharmonic sampling, the A/D conversion effectively down-converts the signal from RF to quadrature components at baseband. The resulting sample streams for L1 and L2 are each reduced to a lower rate with a digital filter, which becomes a straight sum in the simplest embodiment. The frequency subsystem can be very simple, only requiring the generation of a single reference frequency (e.g. 20.46 MHz minus a small offset) and the simple multiplication of this reference up to the subharmonic sample rates for L1 and L2. The small offset in the reference frequency serves the dual purpose of providing an advantageous offset in the down-converted carrier frequency and in the final baseband sample rate.

  19. Stability of cosmological deflagration fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín

    2014-05-01

    In a cosmological first-order phase transition, bubbles of the stable phase nucleate and expand in the supercooled metastable phase. In many cases, the growth of bubbles reaches a stationary state, with bubble walls propagating as detonations or deflagrations. However, these hydrodynamical solutions may be unstable under corrugation of the interface. Such instability may drastically alter some of the cosmological consequences of the phase transition. Here, we study the hydrodynamical stability of deflagration fronts. We improve upon previous studies by making a more careful and detailed analysis. In particular, we take into account the fact that the equation of motion for the phase interface depends separately on the temperature and fluid velocity on each side of the wall. Fluid variables on each side of the wall are similar for weakly first-order phase transitions, but differ significantly for stronger phase transitions. As a consequence, we find that, for large enough supercooling, any subsonic wall velocity becomes unstable. Moreover, as the velocity approaches the speed of sound, perturbations become unstable on all wavelengths. For smaller supercooling and small wall velocities, our results agree with those of previous works. Essentially, perturbations on large wavelengths are unstable, unless the wall velocity is higher than a critical value. We also find a previously unobserved range of marginally unstable wavelengths. We analyze the dynamical relevance of the instabilities, and we estimate the characteristic time and length scales associated with their growth. We discuss the implications for the electroweak phase transition and its cosmological consequences.

  20. Relativistic ionization fronts in gas jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Nuno; Dias, J. M.; Gallacher, J. G.; Issac, R. C.; Fonseca, R. A.; Lopes, N. C.; Silva, L. O.; Mendonça, J. T.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2006-10-01

    A high-power ultra-short laser pulse propagating through a gas jet, ionizes the gas by tunnelling ionization, creating a relativistic plasma-gas interface. The relativistic ionization front that is created can be used to frequency up-shift electromagnetic radiation either in co-propagation or in counter-propagation configurations. In the counter-propagation configuration, ionization fronts can act as relativistic mirrors for terahertz radiation, leading to relativistic double Doppler frequency up-shift to the visible range. In this work, we identified and explored, the parameters that optimize the key features of relativistic ionization fronts for terahertz radiation reflection. The relativistic ionization front generated by a high power laser (TOPS) propagating in a supersonic gas jet generated by a Laval nozzle has been fully characterized. We have also performed detailed two-dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell simulations with Osiris 2.0 to analyze the generation and propagation of the ionization fronts.

  1. Shock front broadening in polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, John; Kadau, Kai

    2008-03-01

    We analyze a model for the evolution of weak shock fronts (or elastic precursor waves) in polycrystalline materials. This model is based on the idea of Meyers and Carvalho [Mater. Sci. Eng. 24, 131 (1976)] that the shock velocity anisotropy within the polycrystal is the most important factor in shock front broadening. Our analysis predicts that the shock front width increases as the 1/2 power of the front penetration distance into the crystal. Our theoretical prediction is in plausible agreement with previous experimental results for the elastic precursor rise time, and it should therefore provide a useful shock width estimate. Furthermore, our theoretical framework is also applicable to other problems involving front propagation in heterogeneous media.

  2. Front instabilities in evaporatively dewetting nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Vancea, I; Thiele, U; Pauliac-Vaujour, E; Stannard, A; Martin, C P; Blunt, M O; Moriarty, P J

    2008-10-01

    Various experimental settings that involve drying solutions or suspensions of nanoparticles-often called nanofluids-have recently been used to produce structured nanoparticle layers. In addition to the formation of polygonal networks and spinodal-like patterns, the occurrence of branched structures has been reported. After reviewing the experimental results we use a modified version of the Monte Carlo model first introduced by Rabani [Nature 426, 271 (2003)] to study structure formation in evaporating films of nanoparticle solutions for the case that all structuring is driven by the interplay of evaporating solvent and diffusing nanoparticles. After introducing the model and its general behavior we focus on receding dewetting fronts which are initially straight but develop a transverse fingering instability. We analyze the dependence of the characteristics of the resulting branching patterns on the driving effective chemical potential, the mobility and concentration of the nanoparticles, and the interaction strength between liquid and nanoparticles. This allows us to understand the underlying instability mechanism. PMID:18999433

  3. Light-Front Dynamics in Hadron Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Bakker, Bernard L. G.; Choi, Ho-Meoyng

    2013-03-01

    Light-front dynamics(LFD) plays an important role in the analyses of relativistic few-body systems. As evidenced from the recent studies of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in hadron physics, a natural framework for a detailed study of hadron structures is LFD due to its direct application in Minkowski space as well as its distinct feature of accounting for the vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theories. In the last few years, however, it has been emphasized that treacherous points such as LF singularities and zero-modes should be taken into account for successful LFD applications to hadron phenomenology. In this paper, we discuss a typical example of the contemporary relativistic hadron physics in which the fundamental issues should be taken into account for the successful application of LFD. In particular, we focus on the kinematic issue of GPDs in deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). Although this fundamental issue has been glossed over in the literature, it must be taken care of for the correct analysis of DVCS data.

  4. Front Range of the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR images from May 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 7447) include portions of southern Wyoming, central Colorado, and western Nebraska. The top view is from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The bottom image is a stereo 'anaglyph' generated using data from the nadir and 46-degree-forward cameras. Viewing the anaglyph with red/blue glasses (red filter over your left eye) gives a 3-D effect. To facilitate stereo viewing, the images have been oriented with north at the left. Each image measures 422 kilometers x 213 kilometers.

    The South Platte River enters just to the right of center at the top of the images. It wends its way westward (down), then turns southward (right) where it flows through the city of Denver. Located at the western edge of the Great Plains, Denver is nicknamed the 'Mile High City', a consequence of its 1609-meter (5280-foot) elevation above sea level. It shows up in the imagery as a grayish patch surrounded by numerous agricultural fields to the north and east. Denver is situated just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, located in the lower right of the images. The Rockies owe their present forms to tectonic uplift and sculpting by millions of years of erosion. Scattered cumulus clouds floating above the mountain peaks are visible in these images, and stand out most dramatically in the 3-D stereo view.

    To the north of Denver, other urban areas included within these images are Boulder, Greeley, Longmont, and Fort Collins, Colorado; Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming; and Scottsbluff, Nebraska.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Io in Front of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter's four largest satellites, including Io, the golden ornament in front of Jupiter in this image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, have fascinated Earthlings ever since Galileo Galilei discovered them in 1610 in one of his first astronomical uses of the telescope.

    Images from Cassini that will be released over the next several days capture each of the four Galilean satellites in their orbits around the giant planet.

    This true-color composite frame, made from narrow angle images taken on Dec. 12, 2000, captures Io and its shadow in transit against the disk of Jupiter. The distance of the spacecraft from Jupiter was 19.5 million kilometers (12.1 million miles). The image scale is 117 kilometers (73 miles) per pixel.

    The entire body of Io, about the size of Earth's Moon, is periodically flexed as it speeds around Jupiter and feels, as a result of its non-circular orbit, the periodically changing gravitational pull of the planet. The heat arising in Io's interior from this continual flexure makes it the most volcanically active body in the solar system, with more than 100 active volcanoes. The white and reddish colors on its surface are due to the presence of different sulfurous materials. The black areas are silicate rocks.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  6. Life on the front lines.

    PubMed

    Hern, W M

    1994-01-01

    Warren Hern's reminiscences about his experiences as medical director of the Boulder (Colorado) Abortion Clinic and as an abortion provider in private practice provide support for his statement, "Every doctor in America who does abortions lives under a death threat." Shortly after the clinic was opened, a group of anti-abortion physicians pressured the Boulder County Medical Society to pass a resolution declaring the clinic a "clear and present danger" that should be shut down by local health boards. As the only freestanding abortion clinic in the state in the mid-1970's, the Boulder center was targeted by the Right-to-Life Committee picketers and Dr. Hern was harassed in his home and in public. When Dr. Hern left the clinic a year later to establish a private practice specializing in pregnancy termination, the picketers followed. After release of a textbook he prepared on abortion practice, the publisher was deluged with hate mail and threats of boycott, leading them to withdraw the text from its list. Violent attacks on abortion clinics accelerated after Reagan's election and bullets were fired into Hern's waiting room. Randall Terry, national head of Operation Rescue, prayed for Hern's death at a rally in front of his clinic. By the time Dr. David Gunn was assassinated by an anti-abortionist in March 1993, there had been over 1285 acts of violence against abortion facilities and more than 100 facilities had been completely destroyed. The transgression for which Dr. Gunn was murdered was that he sought to save the lives and futures of countless women and support their right to become full participants in society. PMID:8186726

  7. A spatial model to examine rainfall extremes in Colorado's Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, Mari R.; Cooley, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Between 9th and 16th September 2013, northeast Colorado received some of its most extreme rainfall on record. The event affected 6 major rivers and their tributaries and 14 counties, breaking observed records for accumulations from sub-daily through to annual total. NOAA's rainfall atlases indicated that this event had an anticipated return period of 1000 years. We use the rainfall that led to the 2013 Colorado floods as a case study in order to explore how a large event can affect the generalized extreme value (GEV) parameter estimates often used by designers and planners. We employ daily rainfall observations, with at least 30 years of data, from stations across Colorado's Front Range of the Rocky Mountains to develop a spatial statistical model for annual maximum daily rainfall. We produce estimates of relatively rare events such as the 1% Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) level and of extremely rare events such as the return period associated with Boulder's 2013 observation. To explore sensitivity, we compare estimates including and excluding data from 2013, and both using only individual station data and our model which borrows strength across multiple stations. We compute the uncertainty associated with all of our estimates, and find large uncertainties associated with extremely rare events. Our statistical model is a spatial hierarchical model and we employ a two-stage approach for inference which can be implemented by practitioners. Additionally, the spatial model allows us to interpolate spatially and estimate the GEV parameters at unobserved locations. A further development of the model makes use of an alternatively defined space in terms of elevation and a climate variable, rather than geographical space defined by longitude and latitude, which seems to better account for orographic effects. In addition to producing AEP level and return period estimates to the annual maximum data, we investigate sensitivity to the choice of block length. We find point

  8. Calculating complete and exact Pareto front for multiobjective optimization: a new deterministic approach for discrete problems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Ming; Di Paolo, Ezequiel

    2013-06-01

    Searching the Pareto front for multiobjective optimization problems usually involves the use of a population-based search algorithm or of a deterministic method with a set of different single aggregate objective functions. The results are, in fact, only approximations of the real Pareto front. In this paper, we propose a new deterministic approach capable of fully determining the real Pareto front for those discrete problems for which it is possible to construct optimization algorithms to find the k best solutions to each of the single-objective problems. To this end, two theoretical conditions are given to guarantee the finding of the actual Pareto front rather than its approximation. Then, a general methodology for designing a deterministic search procedure is proposed. A case study is conducted, where by following the general methodology, a ripple-spreading algorithm is designed to calculate the complete exact Pareto front for multiobjective route optimization. When compared with traditional Pareto front search methods, the obvious advantage of the proposed approach is its unique capability of finding the complete Pareto front. This is illustrated by the simulation results in terms of both solution quality and computational efficiency. PMID:23193246

  9. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  10. Bird community composition linked to human West Nile virus cases along the Colorado front range.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Goulet, Nicolas E

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we examined whether bird community composition can predict the annual number of human West Nile virus (WNV) cases on a per county basis in the Colorado Front Range, a region that experienced high numbers of human cases during the early part of the North American epidemic. We analyzed data sets pertaining to birds and human WNV cases from multiple existing databases between the years 2002 and 2008. Based on previous studies that used amplification fractions to compare the relative competence of different bird species, ten bird species that are common in Colorado were selected and categorized as high amplification birds, such as the American Robin (Turdus migratorius), or low amplification birds, such as the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos). A general linear modeling analysis was used with an information theoretic (AIC) model sorting approach to examine which of the models best predicted the number of human WNV cases per county. Candidate models included year as a covariate and one of several bird community descriptors (e.g., richness, diversity, total bird abundance, high amplification abundance, or low amplification abundance). Results demonstrated that high amplification birds were a significant predictor of human WNV cases between 2002 and 2008. Our results suggest that a small subset of the bird community with high amplification fractions may drive the dynamics of human disease risk for West Nile. This study has implications for surveillance of West Nile and may offer insight into disease risk associated with other vector-borne zoonotic diseases. PMID:21125307