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1

Frontal terminations for the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle: anatomical dissection, DTI study and functional considerations on a multi-component bundle.  

PubMed

The anatomy and functional role of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF) remain poorly known. We accurately analyze its course and the anatomical distribution of its frontal terminations. We propose a classification of the IFOF in different subcomponents. Ten hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected with Klingler's technique. In addition to the IFOF dissection, we performed a 4-T diffusion tensor imaging study on a single healthy subject. We identified two layers of IFOF. The first one is superficial and antero-superiorly directed, terminating in the inferior frontal gyrus. The second is deeper and consists of three portions: posterior, middle and anterior. The posterior component terminates in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The middle component terminates in the MFG and lateral orbito-frontal cortex. The anterior one is directed to the orbito-frontal cortex and frontal pole. In vivo tractography study confirmed these anatomical findings. We suggest that the distribution of IFOF fibers within the frontal lobe corresponds to a fine functional segmentation. IFOF can be considered as a "multi-function" bundle, with each anatomical subcomponent subserving different brain processing. The superficial layer and the posterior component of the deep layer, which connects the occipital extrastriate, temporo-basal and inferior frontal cortices, might subserve semantic processing. The middle component of the deep layer could play a role in a multimodal sensory-motor integration. Finally, the anterior component of the deep layer might be involved in emotional and behavioral aspects. PMID:22200882

Sarubbo, Silvio; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Maldonado, Igor L; Basso, Gianpaolo; Duffau, Hugues

2013-01-01

2

ForPeerReview Dissecting the Uncinate Fasciculus: Disorders,  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Dissecting the Uncinate Fasciculus: Disorders, Controversies, and a Hypothesis: Uncinate Fasciculus Page 1 Dissecting the Uncinate Fasciculus: Disorders, Controversies, and a Hypothesis the Uncinate Fasciculus: Disorders, Controversies, and a Hypothesis 1. Introduction The uncinate fasciculus (UF

Olson, Ingrid

3

White matter and visuospatial processing in autism: a constrained spherical deconvolution tractography study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with a marked disturbance of neural functional connectivity, which may arise from disrupted organization of white matter. The aim of this study was to use constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography to isolate and characterize major intrahemispheric white matter tracts that are important in visuospatial processing. CSD-based tractography avoids a number of critical confounds that are associated with diffusion tensor tractography, and to our knowledge, this is the first time that this advanced diffusion tractography method has been used in autism research. Twenty-five participants with ASD and aged 25, intelligence quotient-matched controls completed a high angular resolution diffusion imaging scan. The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and arcuate fasciculus were isolated using CSD-based tractography. Quantitative diffusion measures of white matter microstructural organization were compared between groups and associated with visuospatial processing performance. Significant alteration of white matter organization was present in the right IFOF in individuals with ASD. In addition, poorer visuospatial processing was associated in individuals with ASD with disrupted white matter in the right IFOF. Using a novel, advanced tractography method to isolate major intrahemispheric white matter tracts in autism, this research has demonstrated that there are significant alterations in the microstructural organization of white matter in the right IFOF in ASD. This alteration was associated with poorer visuospatial processing performance in the ASD group. This study provides an insight into structural brain abnormalities that may influence atypical visuospatial processing in autism. PMID:23509018

McGrath, Jane; Johnson, Katherine; O'Hanlon, Erik; Garavan, Hugh; Gallagher, Louise; Leemans, Alexander

2013-10-01

4

Not on speaking terms: hallucinations and structural network disconnectivity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia have previously been associated with functional deficiencies in language networks, specifically with functional disconnectivity in fronto-temporal connections in the left hemisphere and in interhemispheric connections between frontal regions. Here, we investigate whether AVH are accompanied by white matter abnormalities in tracts connecting the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, also engaged during language tasks. We combined diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics and found white matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls. The patients showed reduced fractional anisotropy bilaterally: in the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), body of the corpus callosum (forceps minor), cingulum, temporal part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and a small area in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF); and in the right hemisphere: in the visual cortex, forceps major, body of the corpus callosum (posterior parts) and inferior parietal cortex. Compared to patients without current hallucinations, patients with hallucinations revealed decreased fractional anisotropy in the left IFOF, uncinate fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus with SLF, corpus callosum (posterior parts-forceps major), cingulate, corticospinal tract and ATR. The severity of hallucinations correlated negatively with white matter integrity in tracts connecting the left frontal lobe with temporal regions (uncinate fasciculus, IFOF, cingulum, arcuate fasciculus anterior and long part and superior long fasciculus frontal part) and in interhemispheric connections (anterior corona radiata). These findings support the hypothesis that hallucinations in schizophrenia are accompanied by a complex pattern of white matter alterations that negatively affect the language, emotion and attention/perception networks. PMID:24185461

?ur?i?-Blake, Branislava; Nanetti, Luca; van der Meer, Lisette; Cerliani, Leonardo; Renken, Remco; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; Aleman, André

2015-01-01

5

Virtual in Vivo Interactive Dissection of White Matter Fasciculi in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance tractography to visualize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the major white matter fasciculi within living human brain. Specifically, we applied this technique to visualize in vivo (i) the superior longitudinal (arcuate) fasciculus, (ii) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (iii) the superior fronto-occipital (subcallosal) fasciculus, (iv) the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, (v) the

Marco Catani; Robert J. Howard; Sinisa Pajevic; Derek K. Jones

2002-01-01

6

Higher integrity of the motor and visual pathways in long-term video game players  

PubMed Central

Long term video game players (VGPs) exhibit superior visual and motor skills compared with non-video game control subjects (NVGCs). However, the neural basis underlying the enhanced behavioral performance remains largely unknown. To clarify this issue, the present study compared the whiter matter integrity within the corticospinal tracts (CST), the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) between the VGPs and the NVGCs using diffusion tensor imaging. Compared with the NVGCs, voxel-wise comparisons revealed significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) values in some regions within the left CST, left SLF, bilateral ILF, and IFOF in VGPs. Furthermore, higher FA values in the left CST at the level of cerebral peduncle predicted a faster response in visual attention tasks. These results suggest that higher white matter integrity in the motor and higher-tier visual pathways is associated with long-term video game playing, which may contribute to the understanding on how video game play influences motor and visual performance. PMID:25805981

Du, Guijin; Yang, Yongxin; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

2015-01-01

7

Higher integrity of the motor and visual pathways in long-term video game players.  

PubMed

Long term video game players (VGPs) exhibit superior visual and motor skills compared with non-video game control subjects (NVGCs). However, the neural basis underlying the enhanced behavioral performance remains largely unknown. To clarify this issue, the present study compared the whiter matter integrity within the corticospinal tracts (CST), the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) between the VGPs and the NVGCs using diffusion tensor imaging. Compared with the NVGCs, voxel-wise comparisons revealed significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) values in some regions within the left CST, left SLF, bilateral ILF, and IFOF in VGPs. Furthermore, higher FA values in the left CST at the level of cerebral peduncle predicted a faster response in visual attention tasks. These results suggest that higher white matter integrity in the motor and higher-tier visual pathways is associated with long-term video game playing, which may contribute to the understanding on how video game play influences motor and visual performance. PMID:25805981

Zhang, Yang; Du, Guijin; Yang, Yongxin; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

2015-01-01

8

Genetic Contributions to Changes of Fiber Tracts of Ventral Visual Stream in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) represent a population at high risk for developing schizophrenia, as well as learning disabilities. Deficits in visuo-spatial memory are thought to underlie some of the cognitive disabilities. Neuronal substrates of visuo-spatial memory include the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), two tracts that comprise the ventral visual stream. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) is an established method to evaluate white matter (WM) connections in vivo. DT-MRI scans of nine 22q11.2DS young adults and nine matched healthy subjects were acquired. Tractography of the IFOF and the ILF was performed. DT-MRI indices, including Fractional anisotropy (FA) (measure of WM changes), axial diffusivity (AD, measure of axonal changes) and radial diffusivity (RD, measure of myelin changes) of each of the tracts and each group were measured and compared. The 22q11.2DS group showed statistically significant reductions of FA in IFOF in the left hemisphere. Additionally, reductions of AD were found in the IFOF and the ILF in both hemispheres. These findings might be the consequence of axonal changes, which is possibly due to fewer, thinner, or less organized fibers. No changes in RD were detected in any of the tracts delineated, which is in contrast to findings in schizophrenia patients where increases in RD are believed to be indicative of demyelination. We conclude that reduced axonal changes may be key to understanding the underlying pathology of WM leading to the visuo-spatial phenotype in 22q11.2DS. PMID:23612843

Kikinis, Zora; Makris, Nikos; Finn, Christine T.; Bouix, Sylvain; Lucia, Diandra; Coleman, Michael J.; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Kikinis, Ron; Kucherlapati, Raju; Shenton, Martha E.; Kubicki, Marek

2013-01-01

9

White Matter Tracts Associated with Set-Shifting in Healthy Aging  

PubMed Central

Attentional set-shifting ability, commonly assessed with the Trail Making Test (TMT), decreases with increasing age in adults. Since set-shifting performance relies on activity in widespread brain regions, deterioration of the white matter tracts that connect these regions may underlie the age-related decrease in performance. We used an automated fiber tracking method to investigate the relationship between white matter integrity in several cortical association tracts and TMT performance in a sample of 24 healthy adults, 21 – 80 years. Diffusion tensor images were used to compute average fractional anisotropy (FA) for five cortical association tracts, the corpus callosum (CC), and the corticospinal tract (CST), which served as a control. Results showed that advancing age was associated with declines in set-shifting performance and with decreased FA in the CC and in association tracts that connect frontal cortex to more posterior brain regions, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Declines in average FA in these tracts, and in average FA of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), were associated with increased time to completion on the set-shifting subtask of the TMT but not with the simple sequencing subtask. FA values in these tracts were strong mediators of the effect of age on set-shifting performance. Automated tractography methods can enhance our understanding of the fiber systems involved in performance of specific cognitive tasks and of the functional consequences of age-related changes in those systems. PMID:19540862

Perry, Michele E; McDonald, Carrie R.; Hagler, Donald J.; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Koyama, Alain K.; Dale, Anders M.; McEvoy, Linda K.

2009-01-01

10

Dissecting the uncinate fasciculus: disorders, controversies and a hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The uncinate fasciculus is a bidirectional, long-range white matter tract that connects lateral orbitofrontal cortex and Brodmann area 10 with the anterior temporal lobes. Although abnormalities in the uncinate fasciculus have been associated with several psychiatric disorders and previous studies suggest it plays a putative role in episodic memory, language and social emotional processing, its exact function is not well understood. In this review we summarize what is currently known about the anatomy of the uncinate, we review its role in psychiatric and neurological illnesses, and we evaluate evidence related to its putative functions. We propose that an overarching role of the uncinate fasciculus is to allow temporal lobe-based mnemonic associations (e.g. an individual’s name + face + voice) to modify behaviour through interactions with the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, which provides valence-based biasing of decisions. The bidirectionality of the uncinate fasciculus information flow allows orbital frontal cortex-based reward and punishment history to rapidly modulate temporal lobe-based mnemonic representations. According to this view, disruption of the uncinate may cause problems in the expression of memory to guide decisions and in the acquisition of certain types of learning and memory. Moreover, uncinate perturbation should cause problems that extend beyond memory to include social–emotional problems owing to people and objects being stripped of personal value and emotional history and lacking in higher-level motivational value. PMID:23649697

Von Der Heide, Rebecca J.; Skipper, Laura M.; Klobusicky, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

11

The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

2009-01-01

12

DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING OF THE UNCINATE FASCICULUS IN FIRST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA  

E-print Network

DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING OF THE UNCINATE FASCICULUS IN FIRST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING OF THE UNCINATE FASCICULUS IN FIRST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA BACKGROUND This study compares diffusion) to those of age-matched controls (NCs). METHODS Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were acquired on a 3T GE

13

Right arcuate fasciculus abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed

Purpose To identify whether patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have differences in gross brain structure, microscopic structure, or brain perfusion that may explain their symptoms. Materials and Methods Fifteen patients with CFS were identified by means of retrospective review with an institutional review board-approved waiver of consent and waiver of authorization. Fourteen age- and sex-matched control subjects provided informed consent in accordance with the institutional review board and HIPAA. All subjects underwent 3.0-T volumetric T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with two diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) acquisitions and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Open source software was used to segment supratentorial gray and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid to compare gray and white matter volumes and cortical thickness. DTI data were processed with automated fiber quantification, which was used to compare piecewise fractional anisotropy (FA) along 20 tracks. For the volumetric analysis, a regression was performed to account for differences in age, handedness, and total intracranial volume, and for the DTI, FA was compared piecewise along tracks by using an unpaired t test. The open source software segmentation was used to compare cerebral blood flow as measured with ASL. Results In the CFS population, FA was increased in the right arcuate fasciculus (P = .0015), and in right-handers, FA was also increased in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) (P = .0008). In patients with CFS, right anterior arcuate FA increased with disease severity (r = 0.649, P = .026). Bilateral white matter volumes were reduced in CFS (mean ± standard deviation, 467 581 mm(3) ± 47 610 for patients vs 504 864 mm(3) ± 68 126 for control subjects, P = .0026), and cortical thickness increased in both right arcuate end points, the middle temporal (T = 4.25) and precentral (T = 6.47) gyri, and one right ILF end point, the occipital lobe (T = 5.36). ASL showed no significant differences. Conclusion Bilateral white matter atrophy is present in CFS. No differences in perfusion were noted. Right hemispheric increased FA may reflect degeneration of crossing fibers or strengthening of short-range fibers. Right anterior arcuate FA may serve as a biomarker for CFS. (©) RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25353054

Zeineh, Michael M; Kang, James; Atlas, Scott W; Raman, Mira M; Reiss, Allan L; Norris, Jane L; Valencia, Ian; Montoya, Jose G

2015-02-01

14

Superior longitudinal fasciculus and language functioning in healthy aging.  

PubMed

Structural deterioration of brain tissue in older adults is thought to be responsible for the majority of age-related cognitive decline. Disruption of widespread cortical networks due to a loss of axonal integrity may also play an important role. Research examining correlations between structural change and functional decline has focused heavily on working memory, processing speed, and executive processes while other aspects of cognition, such as language functioning, have received less attention. The current study aimed to determine whether age-related changes in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), are responsible for the deterioration in language functioning associated with age. Subjects included 112 right-handed volunteers (ages 19-76). For each subject, the SLF of the left hemisphere was reconstructed from diffusion tensor images (DTI). Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted from parietal (SLFp) and temporal (SLFt) bundles. Language functioning was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and Semantic Fluency Test (SFT). Regression analyses revealed that males and females showed a different pattern of decline in FA across adulthood. For males, greater SLFt FA was significantly associated with increased COWAT performance, and there was a positive relationship between both age and SLFp FA with BNT scores. In females, greater SLFp FA was related to lower COWAT performance. Taken together, the results suggest that white matter integrity of the SLF follows a different pattern of decline in adulthood for males and females, and this decline differentially affects language functioning. PMID:24680744

Madhavan, Kiely M; McQueeny, Tim; Howe, Steven R; Shear, Paula; Szaflarski, Jerzy

2014-05-01

15

Delineation of the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus in Subjects with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

E-print Network

Delineation of the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus in Subjects with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome E11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) represents a population at high risk for developing schizophrenia in adulthood. Learning disabilities and deficits in visual memory have been reported in children with 22q11DS

16

Am J Psychiatry 159:5, May 2002 813 Uncinate Fasciculus Findings in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Am J Psychiatry 159:5, May 2002 813 Article Uncinate Fasciculus Findings in Schizophrenia in schizophrenia. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stud- ies, however, have not shown compelling integ- rity. The first three diffusion tensor imag- ing studies in schizophrenia showed lower

17

Diffusion tensor imaging in autism spectrum disorders: Preliminary evidence of abnormal neural connectivity  

PubMed Central

Objective This study indirectly tested the hypothesis that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have impaired neural connections between the amygdala, fusiform face area, and superior temporal sulcus, key processing nodes of the “social brain.” This would be evidenced by abnormalities in the major fibre tracts known to connect these structures, including the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Method Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was performed on 20 right-handed males (ASD = 10, controls = 10) with a mean age 13.5 ± 4.0 years. Subjects were group-matched according to age, full-scale IQ, handedness, and ethnicity. Fractional anisotropy was used to assess structural integrity of major fibre tracts. Voxel-wise comparison of white matter fractional anisotropy was conducted between groups using ANCOVA adjusting for age, full-scale IQ, and brain volume. Volumes of interest were identified using predetermined probability and cluster thresholds. Follow-up tractography was performed to confirm the anatomic location of all volumes of interest. Results All volumes of interest were regions of lower FA and were observed primarily in pericallosal regions and temporal lobes. As confirmed by tractography, affected white matter structures included the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corpus callosum/cingulum. Notably, some volumes of interest were adjacent to the fusiform face area, bilaterally, corresponding to involvement of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The largest effect sizes were noted for volumes of interest in the right anterior radiation of the corpus callosum/cingulum and right fusiform face area (inferior longitudinal fasciculus). Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence of impaired neural connectivity in the corpus callosum/cingulum and temporal lobes involving the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus in ASDs. These findings provide preliminary support for aberrant neural connectivity between the amygdala, fusiform face area, and superior temporal sulcus – temporal lobe structures critical for normal social perception and cognition. PMID:21128874

Jou, Roger J.; Jackowski, Andrea P.; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Staib, Lawrence H.; Volkmar, Fred R.

2011-01-01

18

Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca’s area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca’s and global aphasia, the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca’s area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result. PMID:24131592

Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

2013-01-01

19

Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia.  

PubMed

Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca's area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca's and global aphasia, the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca's area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result. PMID:24131592

Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

2013-11-01

20

'For the benefit of the people': the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae, Antwerp 1512.  

PubMed

The article deals with the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae based on the Latin edition, Venice 1495, with the famous woodcuts created in 1494 for the Italian translation of the original Latin edition of 1491. The woodcuts are compared with the Venetian model. New features in the Antwerp edition include the Skeleton and the Zodiac Man, bot originally based on German models. The text also deals with other woodcuts in the Low Countries based on these Venetian illustrations. The Appendices provide a short title catalog of all the editions and translations based on the Venetian edition and a stemma. PMID:19642255

Coppens, Christian

2009-01-01

21

A Combined fMRI and DTI Examination of Functional Language Lateralization and Arcuate Fasciculus Structure: Effects of Degree versus Direction of Hand Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationship between hand preference degree and direction, functional language lateralization in Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and structural measures of the arcuate fasciculus. Results revealed an effect of degree of hand preference on arcuate fasciculus structure, such that consistently-handed individuals,…

Propper, Ruthe E.; O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Whalen, Stephen; Tie, Yanmei; Norton, Isaiah H.; Suarez, Ralph O.; Zollei, Lilla; Radmanesh, Alireza; Golby, Alexandra J.

2010-01-01

22

Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans.  

PubMed

Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

Hecht, Erin E; Gutman, David A; Bradley, Bruce A; Preuss, Todd M; Stout, Dietrich

2015-03-01

23

Bidirectional iterative parcellation of diffusion weighted imaging data: separating cortical regions connected by the arcuate fasciculus and extreme capsule.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a Bidirectional Iterative Parcellation (BIP) procedure designed to identify the location and size of connected cortical regions (parcellations) at both ends of a white matter tract in diffusion weighted images. The procedure applies the FSL option "probabilistic tracking with classification targets" in a bidirectional and iterative manner. To assess the utility of BIP, we applied the procedure to the problem of parcellating a limited set of well-established gray matter seed regions associated with the dorsal (arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (extreme capsule fiber system) white matter tracts in the language networks of 97 participants. These left hemisphere seed regions and the two white matter tracts, along with their right hemisphere homologues, provided an excellent test case for BIP because the resulting parcellations overlap and their connectivity via the arcuate fasciculi and extreme capsule fiber systems are well studied. The procedure yielded both confirmatory and novel findings. Specifically, BIP confirmed that each tract connects within the seed regions in unique, but expected ways. Novel findings included increasingly left-lateralized parcellations associated with the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus as a function of age and education. These results demonstrate that BIP is an easily implemented technique that successfully confirmed cortical connectivity patterns predicted in the literature, and has the potential to provide new insights regarding the architecture of the brain. PMID:25173414

Patterson, Dianne K; Van Petten, Cyma; Beeson, Pélagie M; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Plante, Elena

2014-11-15

24

Detection of the arcuate fasciculus in congenital amusia depends on the tractography algorithm  

PubMed Central

The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows researchers to virtually dissect white matter fiber pathways in the brain in vivo. This, for example, allows us to characterize and quantify how fiber tracts differ across populations in health and disease, and change as a function of training. Based on diffusion MRI, prior literature reports the absence of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in some control individuals and as well in those with congenital amusia. The complete absence of such a major anatomical tract is surprising given the subtle impairments that characterize amusia. Thus, we hypothesize that failure to detect the AF in this population may relate to the tracking algorithm used, and is not necessarily reflective of their phenotype. Diffusion data in control and amusic individuals were analyzed using three different tracking algorithms: deterministic and probabilistic, the latter either modeling two or one fiber populations. Across the three algorithms, we replicate prior findings of a left greater than right AF volume, but do not find group differences or an interaction. We detect the AF in all individuals using the probabilistic 2-fiber model, however, tracking failed in some control and amusic individuals when deterministic tractography was applied. These findings show that the ability to detect the AF in our sample is dependent on the type of tractography algorithm. This raises the question of whether failure to detect the AF in prior studies may be unrelated to the underlying anatomy or phenotype. PMID:25653637

Chen, Joyce L.; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Williamson, Victoria J.; Scholz, Jan; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Stewart, Lauren

2015-01-01

25

Detection of the arcuate fasciculus in congenital amusia depends on the tractography algorithm.  

PubMed

The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows researchers to virtually dissect white matter fiber pathways in the brain in vivo. This, for example, allows us to characterize and quantify how fiber tracts differ across populations in health and disease, and change as a function of training. Based on diffusion MRI, prior literature reports the absence of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in some control individuals and as well in those with congenital amusia. The complete absence of such a major anatomical tract is surprising given the subtle impairments that characterize amusia. Thus, we hypothesize that failure to detect the AF in this population may relate to the tracking algorithm used, and is not necessarily reflective of their phenotype. Diffusion data in control and amusic individuals were analyzed using three different tracking algorithms: deterministic and probabilistic, the latter either modeling two or one fiber populations. Across the three algorithms, we replicate prior findings of a left greater than right AF volume, but do not find group differences or an interaction. We detect the AF in all individuals using the probabilistic 2-fiber model, however, tracking failed in some control and amusic individuals when deterministic tractography was applied. These findings show that the ability to detect the AF in our sample is dependent on the type of tractography algorithm. This raises the question of whether failure to detect the AF in prior studies may be unrelated to the underlying anatomy or phenotype. PMID:25653637

Chen, Joyce L; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Williamson, Victoria J; Scholz, Jan; Griffiths, Timothy D; Stewart, Lauren

2015-01-01

26

Axons from the medial habenular nucleus are topographically sorted in the fasciculus retroflexus.  

PubMed

We generated transgenic mice lines with a construct consisting of the zif268/egr1 promoter and the gene for the normal long-life yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) with a membrane localization sequence. One of the lines exhibited topographic labeling in the medial habenular nucleus (MHb) during postnatal development, which confirmed the previous findings that the medial, lateral, and dorsal areas of MHb project to the ventral, dorsal, and lateral parts of the interpeduncular nucleus, respectively. In addition, the membranous localization of the labeling allowed us to observe spacial arrangement of the labeled axons in the fasciculus retroflexus (FR) in the transgenic mice. Here, we report topographic sorting of the MHb axons in the FR. At postnatal day (P) 5 and P10, the labeled axons from the medial MHb were fasciculated and ran through the narrow path in the core of the FR. At P24, the labeled axons from the medial and dorsal MHb were fasciculated and ran through the broad path in the FR core. No labeling occurred in the lateral MHb throughout development; correspondingly, parts of the FR core remained unlabeled. The results indicated that the axons from the medial and dorsal areas of the MHb are grouped together in the FR of this transgenic line and are sorted out from the axons from the lateral MHb. PMID:25145706

Ichijo, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Tomoko

2014-08-22

27

Sex Differences of Uncinate Fasciculus Structural Connectivity in Individuals with Conduct Disorder  

PubMed Central

Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common behavior disorders in adolescents, such as impulsivity, aggression, and running from school. Males are more likely to develop CD than females, and two previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated abnormal microstructural integrity in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in boys with CD compared to a healthy control group. However, little is known about changes in the UF in females with CD. In this study, the UF was illustrated by tractography; then, the fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, mean diffusion, radial diffusivity (RD), and the length and number of the UF fiber bundles were compared between male and female patients with CD and between female patients with CD and female healthy controls, as well as between males with CD and healthy males. We found that males with CD showed significantly higher FA of the bilateral UF and significantly lower RD of the left UF when comparing with females with CD. Meanwhile, significantly higher FA and lower RD of the bilateral UF were also found in boys with CD relative to the male healthy controls. Our results replicated previous reports that the microstructural integrity of the UF was abnormal in boys with CD. Additionally, our results demonstrated significant gender effects on the UF of patients with CD, which may indicate why boys have higher rates of conduct problems than girls. PMID:24829912

Zhang, Jibiao; Gao, Junling; Shi, Huqing; Huang, Bingsheng; Wang, Xiang; Situ, Weijun; Cai, Weixiong; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao

2014-01-01

28

Individual differences in crossmodal brain activity predict arcuate fasciculus connectivity in developing readers.  

PubMed

Crossmodal integration of auditory and visual information, such as phonemes and graphemes, is a critical skill for fluent reading. Previous work has demonstrated that white matter connectivity along the arcuate fasciculus (AF) is predicted by reading skill and that crossmodal processing particularly activates the posterior STS (pSTS). However, the relationship between this crossmodal activation and white matter integrity has not been previously reported. We investigated the interrelationship of crossmodal integration, both in terms of behavioral performance and pSTS activity, with AF tract coherence using a rhyme judgment task in a group of 47 children with a range of reading abilities. We demonstrate that both response accuracy and pSTS activity for crossmodal (auditory-visual) rhyme judgments was predictive of fractional anisotropy along the left AF. Unimodal (auditory-only or visual-only) pSTS activity was not significantly related to AF connectivity. Furthermore, activity in other reading-related ROIs did not show the same AV-only AF coherence relationship, and AV pSTS activity was not related to connectivity along other language-related tracts. This study is the first to directly show that crossmodal brain activity is specifically related to connectivity in the AF, supporting its role in phoneme-grapheme integration ability. More generally, this study helps to define an interdependent neural network for reading-related integration. PMID:24456399

Gullick, Margaret M; Booth, James R

2014-07-01

29

Atypical hemispheric asymmetry in the arcuate fasciculus of completely nonverbal children with autism.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that as many as 25% of the children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are nonverbal, surprisingly little research has been conducted on this population. In particular, the mechanisms that underlie their absence of speech remain unknown. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we compared the structure of a language-related white matter tract (the arcuate fasciculus, AF) in five completely nonverbal children with autism to that of typically developing children. We found that, as a group, the nonverbal children did not show the expected left-right AF asymmetry--rather, four of the five nonverbal children actually showed the reversed pattern. It is possible that this unusual pattern of asymmetry may underlie some of the severe language deficits commonly found in autism, particularly in children whose speech fails to develop. Furthermore, novel interventions (such as auditory-motor mapping training) designed to engage brain regions that are connected via the AF may have important clinical potential for facilitating expressive language in nonverbal children with autism. PMID:22524376

Wan, Catherine Y; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

2012-04-01

30

Sex differences of uncinate fasciculus structural connectivity in individuals with conduct disorder.  

PubMed

Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common behavior disorders in adolescents, such as impulsivity, aggression, and running from school. Males are more likely to develop CD than females, and two previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated abnormal microstructural integrity in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in boys with CD compared to a healthy control group. However, little is known about changes in the UF in females with CD. In this study, the UF was illustrated by tractography; then, the fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, mean diffusion, radial diffusivity (RD), and the length and number of the UF fiber bundles were compared between male and female patients with CD and between female patients with CD and female healthy controls, as well as between males with CD and healthy males. We found that males with CD showed significantly higher FA of the bilateral UF and significantly lower RD of the left UF when comparing with females with CD. Meanwhile, significantly higher FA and lower RD of the bilateral UF were also found in boys with CD relative to the male healthy controls. Our results replicated previous reports that the microstructural integrity of the UF was abnormal in boys with CD. Additionally, our results demonstrated significant gender effects on the UF of patients with CD, which may indicate why boys have higher rates of conduct problems than girls. PMID:24829912

Zhang, Jibiao; Gao, Junling; Shi, Huqing; Huang, Bingsheng; Wang, Xiang; Situ, Weijun; Cai, Weixiong; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao

2014-01-01

31

The vertical occipital fasciculus: a century of controversy resolved by in vivo measurements.  

PubMed

The vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF) is the only major fiber bundle connecting dorsolateral and ventrolateral visual cortex. Only a handful of studies have examined the anatomy of the VOF or its role in cognition in the living human brain. Here, we trace the contentious history of the VOF, beginning with its original discovery in monkey by Wernicke (1881) and in human by Obersteiner (1888), to its disappearance from the literature, and recent reemergence a century later. We introduce an algorithm to identify the VOF in vivo using diffusion-weighted imaging and tractography, and show that the VOF can be found in every hemisphere (n = 74). Quantitative T1 measurements demonstrate that tissue properties, such as myelination, in the VOF differ from neighboring white-matter tracts. The terminations of the VOF are in consistent positions relative to cortical folding patterns in the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Recent findings demonstrate that these same anatomical locations also mark cytoarchitectonic and functional transitions in dorsal and ventral visual cortex. We conclude that the VOF is likely to serve a unique role in the communication of signals between regions on the ventral surface that are important for the perception of visual categories (e.g., words, faces, bodies, etc.) and regions on the dorsal surface involved in the control of eye movements, attention, and motion perception. PMID:25404310

Yeatman, Jason D; Weiner, Kevin S; Pestilli, Franco; Rokem, Ariel; Mezer, Aviv; Wandell, Brian A

2014-12-01

32

The Plasticity of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus as a Function of Musical Expertise: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that musical expertise leads to functional alterations in language processing. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter plasticity in musicians with absolute pitch (AP), relative pitch and non-musicians. Using DTI, we analysed the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), which is considered the most primary pathway for processing and production of speech and music. In association with different levels of musical expertise, we found that AP is characterized by a greater left than right asymmetry of FA in core fibres of the SLF. A voxel-based analysis revealed three clusters within the left hemisphere SLF that showed significant positive correlations with error rates only for AP-musicians in an AP-test, but not for musicians without AP. We therefore conclude that the SLF architecture in AP musicians is related to AP acuity. In order to reconcile our observations with general aspects of development of fibre bundles, we introduce the Pioneer Axon Thesis, a theoretical approach to formalize axonal arrangements of major white matter pathways. PMID:20161812

Oechslin, Mathias S.; Imfeld, Adrian; Loenneker, Thomas; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

2009-01-01

33

Extensive White Matter Abnormalities in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous voxelwise Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) investigations of white matter in first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) have been limited to the analysis of Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), with their findings inconsistent in terms of the anatomical locations and extent of abnormalities. This study examines white matter abnormalities in FESZ, compared with healthy controls, using a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach applied to multiple measures of tract integrity, and correlates these findings with symptom severity. Methods Seventeen first-episode patients with schizophrenia and seventeen age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) participated in this imaging study where FA, MD, and axial and radial diffusivity were compared between the two groups using TBSS. Results First-episode patients with schizophrenia showed lower FA values in the genu and body of corpus callosum, the internal capsule, the external capsule, the fornix, the superior, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the cingulum, and the uncinate fasciculus compared with HC. Increased MD and radial diffusivity were shown in virtually all white matter regions. There was no significant difference, however, observed for axial diffusivity between the two groups. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the FA values of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were positively correlated with positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and total correct items of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. FA values of right external capsule also showed significant positive correlation with category completed scores of the WCST. Conclusions These data suggest extensive, possibly myelin related white matter disruptions in FESZ. PMID:23290268

Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Kubicki, Marek; Asami, Takeshi; Seidman, Larry J.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; McCarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

2013-01-01

34

Differences in white matter reflect atypical developmental trajectory in autism: A Tract-based Spatial Statistics study?  

PubMed Central

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which white matter (WM) maturation is affected. We assessed WM integrity in 16 adolescents and 14 adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in matched neurotypical controls (NT) using diffusion weighted imaging and Tract-based Spatial Statistics. Decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in adolescents with ASD in tracts involved in emotional face processing, language, and executive functioning, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. Remarkably, no differences in FA were observed between ASD and NT adults. We evaluated the effect of age on WM development across the entire age range. Positive correlations between FA values and age were observed in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, the corpus callosum, and the cortical spinal tract of ASD participants, but not in NT participants. Our data underscore the dynamic nature of brain development in ASD, showing the presence of an atypical process of WM maturation, that appears to normalize over time and could be at the basis of behavioral improvements often observed in high-functioning autism. PMID:24179736

Bakhtiari, Reyhaneh; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Rogier, Ophélie; Russo, Britt; Hippolyte, Loyse; Granziera, Cristina; Araabi, Babak Nadjar; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

2012-01-01

35

Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Patients with epilepsy and malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are at high risk for language and other cognitive impairment. Specific impairments, however, are not well correlated with the extent and locale of dysplastic cortex; such findings highlight the relevance of aberrant cortico-cortical interactions, or connectivity, to the clinical phenotype. The goal of this study was to determine the independent contribution of well-described white matter pathways to language function in a cohort of pediatric patients with epilepsy. Materials and methods Patients were retrospectively identified from an existing database of pediatric epilepsy patients with the following inclusion criteria: 1. diagnosis of MCDs, 2. DTI performed at 3 T, and 3. language characterized by a pediatric neurologist. Diffusion Toolkit and Trackvis (http://www.trackvis.org) were used for segmentation and analysis of the following tracts: corpus callosum, corticospinal tracts, inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILFs), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFOFs), uncinate fasciculi (UFs), and arcuate fasciculi (AFs). Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated for each tract. Wilcoxon rank sum test (corrected for multiple comparisons) was used to assess potential differences in tract parameters between language-impaired and language-intact patients. In a separate analysis, a machine learning algorithm (random forest approach) was applied to measure the independent contribution of the measured diffusion parameters for each tract to the clinical phenotype (language impairment). In other words, the importance of each tract parameter was measured after adjusting for the contribution of all other tracts. Results Thirty-three MCD patients were included (age range: 3–18 years). Twenty-one patients had intact language, twelve had language impairment. All tracts were identified bilaterally in all patients except for the AF, which was not identified on the right in 10 subjects and not identified on the left in 11 subjects. MD and/or FA within the left AF, UF, ILF, and IFOF differed between language-intact and language-impaired groups. However, only parameters related to the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with the clinical phenotype. Conclusions Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs. PMID:25379446

Paldino, Michael J.; Hedges, Kara; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

36

T2 lesion location really matters: a 10 year follow-up study in primary progressive multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Prediction of long term clinical outcome in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) using imaging has important clinical implications, but remains challenging. We aimed to determine whether spatial location of T2 and T1 brain lesions predicts clinical progression during a 10-year follow-up in PPMS. Methods Lesion probability maps of the T2 and T1 brain lesions were generated using the baseline scans of 80 patients with PPMS who were clinically assessed at baseline and then after 1, 2, 5 and 10?years. For each patient, the time (in years) taken before bilateral support was required to walk (time to event (TTE)) was used as a measure of progression rate. The probability of each voxel being ‘lesional’ was correlated with TTE, adjusting for age, gender, disease duration, centre and spinal cord cross sectional area, using a multiple linear regression model. To identify the best, independent predictor of progression, a Cox regression model was used. Results A significant correlation between a shorter TTE and a higher probability of a voxel being lesional on T2 scans was found in the bilateral corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus, and in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p<0.05). The best predictor of progression rate was the T2 lesion load measured along the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p=0.016, hazard ratio 1.00652, 95% CI 1.00121 to 1.01186). Conclusion Our results suggest that the location of T2 brain lesions in the motor and associative tracts is an important contributor to the progression of disability in PPMS, and is independent of spinal cord involvement. PMID:20627965

Bodini, B; Battaglini, M; De Stefano, N; Khaleeli, Z; Barkhof, F; Chard, D; Filippi, M; Montalban, X; Polman, C; Rovaris, M; Rovira, A; Samson, R; Miller, D; Thompson, A

2010-01-01

37

Brain white matter organisation in adolescence is related to childhood cerebral responses to facial expressions and harm avoidance.  

PubMed

While white matter structural integrity is likely to influence the responses to social-emotional stimuli and emotional regulation during development, no longitudinal data are available on such relationships. We investigated the relationships between white matter Fractional Anisotropy (FA) derived by DTI voxelwise Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and tractography measured at ages 14-15, and cerebral event-related N400 amplitudes in response to happy, neutral and angry facial expressions and Cloninger's Harm Avoidance (HA) measured at ages 7-9. Whole-skeleton TBSS analyses revealed reduced FA associated to smaller N400 amplitudes in response to anger, and to higher HA. Region-of-Interest TBSS analyses showed high correlations (ranging -0.69-0.82, p<0.01-0.001) between FA and N400 amplitudes across the Inferior Longitudinal, the Inferior Frontoccipital, and the left Uncinate Fasciculus, and between FA and Harm Avoidance in right Uncinate Fasciculus (-0.71, p<0.01). Tractography showed that these relationships were mainly present in the left Inferior Longitudinal and the right Inferior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus for N400 amplitudes, and in the right Uncinate Fasciculus for HA. Ventral limbic pathways' white matter organisation affects the neural responses to expressions - such as anger - that are perceptually more challenging and/or communicate social rejection, and compounds the neural pathways that predispose to avoidant behaviour and shyness with strangers. PMID:22484203

Taddei, Matilde; Tettamanti, Marco; Zanoni, Annalisa; Cappa, Stefano; Battaglia, Marco

2012-07-16

38

White matter microstructure and the variable adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Changes in cerebral cortical anatomy have been tied to the clinical course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We now ask if alterations in white matter tract microstructure are likewise linked with the adult outcome of childhood ADHD. Seventy-five young adults, 32 with ADHD persisting from childhood and 43 with symptom remission were contrasted against 74 never-affected comparison subjects. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we defined fractional anisotropy, a metric related to white matter microstructure, along with measures of diffusion perpendicular (radial) and parallel (axial) to the axon. Analyses were adjusted for head motion, age and sex, and controlled for multiple comparisons and medication history. Tract-based analyses showed that greater adult inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, was associated with significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the left uncinate (standardized ?=-0.37, t=3.28, p=0.002) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (standardized ?=-0.37, t=3.29, p=0.002). The ADHD group with symptoms persisting into adulthood had significantly lower fractional anisotropy than the never-affected controls in these tracts, differences associated with medium to large effect sizes. By contrast, the ADHD group that remitted by adulthood did not differ significantly from controls. The anomalies were found in tracts that connect components of neural systems pertinent to ADHD, such as attention control (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) and emotion regulation and the processing of reward (the uncinate fasciculus). Change in radial rather than axial diffusivity was the primary driver of this effect, suggesting pathophysiological processes including altered myelination as future targets for pharmacological and behavioral interventions. PMID:25241803

Shaw, Philip; Sudre, Gustavo; Wharton, Amy; Weingart, Daniel; Sharp, Wendy; Sarlls, Joelle

2015-02-01

39

Delineation of Early and Later Adult Onset Depression by Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Due to a lack of evidence, there is no consistent age of onset to define early onset (EO) versus later onset (LO) major depressive disorder (MDD). Fractional anisotropy (FA), derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), has been widely used to study neuropsychiatric disorders by providing information about the brain circuitry, abnormalities of which might facilitate the delineation of EO versus LO MDD. Method In this study, 61 pairs of untreated, non-elderly, first-episode MDD patients and healthy controls (HCs) aged 18–45 years old received DTI scans. The voxel-based analysis method (VBM), classification analysis, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and regression analyses were used to determine abnormal FA clusters and their correlations with age of onset and clinical symptoms. Results Classification analysis suggested in the best model that there were two subgroups of MDD patients, delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, by which MDD patients could be divided into EO (18–29 years old) and LO (30–45 years old) groups. LO MDD was characterized by decreased FA, especially in the white matter (WM) of the fronto-occipital fasciculus and posterior limb of internal capsule, with a negative correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms; in marked contrast, EO MDD showed increased FA, especially in the WM of the corpus callosum, corticospinal midbrain and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, while FA of the WM near the midbrain had a positive correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Specific abnormalities of the brain circuitry in EO vs. LO MDD were delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, as demonstrated by distinct abnormal FA clusters with opposite correlations with clinical symptoms. This DTI study supported the evidence of an exact age for the delineation of MDD, which could have broad multidisciplinary importance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703742 PMID:25393297

Yu, Hongjun; Nie, Binbin; Li, Na; Luo, Chunrong; Li, Haijun; Liu, Fang; Bai, Yan; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

2014-01-01

40

Cortico-cortical, cortico-striatal, and cortico-thalamic white matter fiber tracts generated in the macaque brain via dynamic programming.  

PubMed

Probabilistic methods have the potential to generate multiple and complex white matter fiber tracts in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, a method based on dynamic programming (DP) is introduced to reconstruct fibers pathways whose complex anatomical structures cannot be resolved beyond the resolution of standard DTI data. DP is based on optimizing a sequentially additive cost function derived from a Gaussian diffusion model whose covariance is defined by the diffusion tensor. DP is used to determine the optimal path between initial and terminal nodes by efficiently searching over all paths, connecting the nodes, and choosing the path in which the total probability is maximized. An ex vivo high-resolution scan of a macaque hemi-brain is used to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of DP. DP can generate fiber bundles between distant cortical areas (superior longitudinal fasciculi, arcuate fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and fronto-occipital fasciculus), neighboring cortical areas (dorsal and ventral banks of the principal sulcus), as well as cortical projections to the hippocampal formation (cingulum bundle), neostriatum (motor cortical projections to the putamen), thalamus (subcortical bundle), and hippocampal formation projections to the mammillary bodies via the fornix. Validation is established either by comparison with in vivo intracellular transport of horseradish peroxidase in another macaque monkey or by comparison with atlases. DP is able to generate known pathways, including crossing and kissing tracts. Thus, DP has the potential to enhance neuroimaging studies of cortical connectivity. PMID:23879573

Ratnanather, J Tilak; Lal, Rakesh M; An, Michael; Poynton, Clare B; Li, Muwei; Jiang, Hangyi; Oishi, Kenichi; Selemon, Lynn D; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I

2013-01-01

41

Cortico-Cortical, Cortico-Striatal, and Cortico-Thalamic White Matter Fiber Tracts Generated in the Macaque Brain via Dynamic Programming  

PubMed Central

Abstract Probabilistic methods have the potential to generate multiple and complex white matter fiber tracts in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, a method based on dynamic programming (DP) is introduced to reconstruct fibers pathways whose complex anatomical structures cannot be resolved beyond the resolution of standard DTI data. DP is based on optimizing a sequentially additive cost function derived from a Gaussian diffusion model whose covariance is defined by the diffusion tensor. DP is used to determine the optimal path between initial and terminal nodes by efficiently searching over all paths, connecting the nodes, and choosing the path in which the total probability is maximized. An ex vivo high-resolution scan of a macaque hemi-brain is used to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of DP. DP can generate fiber bundles between distant cortical areas (superior longitudinal fasciculi, arcuate fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and fronto-occipital fasciculus), neighboring cortical areas (dorsal and ventral banks of the principal sulcus), as well as cortical projections to the hippocampal formation (cingulum bundle), neostriatum (motor cortical projections to the putamen), thalamus (subcortical bundle), and hippocampal formation projections to the mammillary bodies via the fornix. Validation is established either by comparison with in vivo intracellular transport of horseradish peroxidase in another macaque monkey or by comparison with atlases. DP is able to generate known pathways, including crossing and kissing tracts. Thus, DP has the potential to enhance neuroimaging studies of cortical connectivity. PMID:23879573

Lal, Rakesh M.; An, Michael; Poynton, Clare B.; Li, Muwei; Jiang, Hangyi; Oishi, Kenichi; Selemon, Lynn D.; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I.

2013-01-01

42

Clinical correlations of microstructural changes in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

In patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), previous reports have shown a severe white matter (WM) damage involving supra and infratentorial regions including cerebellum. In the present study, we investigated potential correlations between WM integrity loss and clinical-cognitive features of patients with PSP. By using magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging with tract based spatial statistic analysis, we analyzed WM volume in 18 patients with PSP and 18 healthy controls (HCs). All patients and HCs underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Relative to HCs, patients with PSP showed WM changes encompassing supra and infratentorial areas such as corpus callosum, fornix, midbrain, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, superior cerebellar peduncle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, cingulate gyrus, and cortico-spinal tract bilaterally. Among different correlations between motor-cognitive features and WM structural abnormalities, we detected a significant association between fronto-cerebellar WM loss and executive cognitive impairment in patients with PSP. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that cognitive impairment in PSP may result from both "intrinsic" and "extrinsic" frontal lobe dysfunction, likely related to cerebellar disconnection. PMID:24786632

Tessitore, Alessandro; Giordano, Alfonso; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Corbo, Daniele; De Micco, Rosa; Russo, Antonio; Liguori, Sara; Cirillo, Mario; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

2014-10-01

43

In Vivo Tractography of Fetal Association Fibers  

PubMed Central

Association fibers connect different cortical areas within the same hemisphere and constitute an essential anatomical substrate for a diverse range of higher cognitive functions. So far a comprehensive description of the prenatal in vivo morphology of these functionally important pathways is lacking. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to visualize major association fiber tracts and the fornix in utero in preselected non-motion degraded DTI datasets of 24 living unsedated fetuses between 20 and 34 gestational weeks (GW). The uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were depicted as early as 20 GW, while in vivo 3D visualization of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and fornix was successful in older fetuses during the third trimester. Provided optimal scanning conditions, in utero DTI and tractography have the potential to provide a more accurate anatomical definition of developing neuronal networks in the human fetal brain. Knowledge about the normal prenatal 3D association tract morphology may serve as reference for their assessment in common developmental diseases. PMID:25742520

Mitter, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor

2015-01-01

44

Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.  

PubMed

Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability. PMID:24304583

Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

2015-05-01

45

Genome-wide schizophrenia variant at MIR137 does not impact white matter microstructure in healthy participants.  

PubMed

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1625579) within the micro-RNA 137 (MIR137) gene recently achieved strong genome-wide association with schizophrenia (SZ). However, the mechanisms by which SZ risk may be mediated by this variant are unknown. As miRNAs have the potential to influence oligodendrocyte development, we investigated whether this SNP was associated with variability in white matter (WM) microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted on 123 healthy participants genotyped for rs1625579. The analysis consisted of whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics and atlas-based tractography analysis of six major WM tracts known to be affected in SZ - the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the anterior thalamic radiation, the cingulum bundle and the corpus callosum. No significant differences in either whole-brain fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity between MIR137 genotype groups were observed (p>0.05). Similarly, atlas-based tractography of particular tracts implicated in SZ failed to reveal any significant differences between MIR137 genotype groups on measures of WM connectivity (p>0.05). In the absence of WM effects comparable to those reported for other SZ associated genes, these data suggest that MIR137 alone may not confer variability in these WM measures and therefore may not act in isolation for any effects that the variant may have on WM microstructure in SZ samples. PMID:24820543

Kelly, Sinead; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Rose, Emma Jane; Fahey, Ciara; O'Brien, Carol; O'Hanlon, Erik; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden P; Donohoe, Gary

2014-06-27

46

Asymmetry of White Matter Pathways in Developing Human Brains.  

PubMed

Little is known about the emergence of structural asymmetry of white matter tracts during early brain development. We examined whether and when asymmetry in diffusion parameters of limbic and association white matter pathways emerged in humans in 23 brains ranging from 15 gestational weeks (GW) up to 3 years of age (11 ex vivo and 12 in vivo cases) using high-angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography. Age-related development of laterality was not observed in a limbic connectional pathway (cingulum bundle or fornix). Among the studied cortico-cortical association pathways (inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and arcuate fasciculus), only the ILF showed development of age-related laterality emerging as early as the second trimester. Comparisons of ages older and younger than 40 GW revealed a leftward asymmetry in the cingulum bundle volume and a rightward asymmetry in apparent diffusion coefficient and leftward asymmetry in fractional anisotropy in the ILF in ages older than 40 GW. These results suggest that morphometric asymmetry in cortical areas precedes the emergence of white matter pathway asymmetry. Future correlative studies will investigate whether such asymmetry is anatomically/genetically driven or associated with functional stimulation. PMID:24812082

Song, Jae W; Mitchell, Paul D; Kolasinski, James; Ellen Grant, P; Galaburda, Albert M; Takahashi, Emi

2014-05-01

47

White matter microstructure in bipolar disorder is influenced by the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with signs of widespread disruption of white matter (WM) integrity. A polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) influenced functional cortico-limbic connectivity in healthy subjects and course of illness in BD, with the short (s) allele being associated with lower functional connectivity, and with earlier onset of illness and poor response to treatment. We tested the effects of 5-HTTLPR on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of WM microstructure in 140 inpatients, affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD, of Italian descent. We used whole brain tract-based spatial statistics in the WM skeleton with threshold-free cluster enhancement of DTI measures of WM microstructure: axial, radial and mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy. Compared with l/l homozygotes, 5-HTTLPR*s carriers showed significantly increased radial and mean diffusivity in several brain WM tracts, including corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus, corona radiata, thalamic radiation, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. An increase of mean and radial diffusivity, perpendicular to the main axis of the WM tract, is thought to signify increased space between fibers, thus suggesting demyelination or dysmyelination, or loss of bundle coherence. The effects of 5-HTTLPR on the anomalous emotional processing in BD might be mediated by changes of WM microstructure in key WM tracts contributing to the functional integrity of the brain. PMID:25704032

Benedetti, F; Bollettini, I; Poletti, S; Locatelli, C; Lorenzi, C; Pirovano, A; Smeraldi, E; Colombo, C

2015-03-01

48

White matter changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: a magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging study on cognitively normal older people with positive amyloid ? protein 42 levels.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging measures to determine the existence of white matter microstructural differences in the preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease, assessing cognitively normal older individuals with positive amyloid ? protein (A?42) levels (CN_A?42+) on the basis of normal cognition and cerebrospinal fluid A?42 levels below 500 pg/mL. Nineteen CN_A?42+ and 19 subjects with A?42 levels above 500 pg/mL (CN_A?42-) were included. We encountered increases in axial diffusivity (AxD) in CN_A?42+ relative to CN_A?42- in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally, and also in the left fornix, left uncinate fasciculus, and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. However, no differences were found in other diffusion tensor imaging indexes. Cognitive reserve scores were positively associated with AxD exclusively in the CN_A?42+ group. The finding of AxD alteration together with preserved fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity indexes in the CN_A?42+ group may indicate that, subtle axonal changes may be happening in the preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease, whereas white matter integrity is still widely preserved. PMID:25002037

Molinuevo, José Luis; Ripolles, Pablo; Simó, Marta; Lladó, Albert; Olives, Jaume; Balasa, Mircea; Antonell, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Rami, Lorena

2014-12-01

49

Sex differences in white matter development during adolescence: A DTI study  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a complex transitional period in human development, composing physical maturation, cognitive and social behavioral changes. The objective of this study is to investigate sex differences in white matter development and the associations between intelligence and white matter microstructure in the adolescent brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In a cohort of 16 typically-developing adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, longitudinal DTI data were recorded from each subject at two time points that were one year apart. We used TBSS to analyze the diffusion indices including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Our results suggest that boys (13–18 years) continued to demonstrate white matter maturation, whereas girls appeared to reach mature levels earlier. In addition, we identified significant positive correlations between FA and full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus when both sexes were looked at together. Only girls showed significant positive correlations between FA and verbal IQ in the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus. The preliminary evidence presented in this study supports that boys and girls have different developmental trajectories in white matter microstructure. PMID:22954903

Wang, Yingying; Adamson, Chris; Yuan, Weihong; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Byars, Anna W.; Holland, Scott K.

2012-01-01

50

Early frontal structural and functional changes in mild white matter lesions relevant to cognitive decline.  

PubMed

White matter lesions (WMLs) are of considerable research interest because of their high prevalence and serious consequences, such as stroke and dementia. Most existing studies of WMLs have focused on severe WMLs, but mild WMLs, which are clinically and fundamentally significant, have been largely neglected. The present study is a comprehensive investigation on the injury pattern and on the anatomical, functional, and cognitive changes related to mild WMLs. These results may provide better understanding mild WMLs. Fifty-one human subjects with mild WMLs and 49 control participants completed serial neuropsychological tests and underwent a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that included diffusion tensor imaging, a resting-state functional MRI, and a structural MRI. We found declines in cognitive functions such as global function, executive function, and episodic memory in mild WMLs subjects. The white matter injuries in the mild WMLs subjects were mainly in the fibers that projected to frontal areas, while gray matter structures were relatively intact. The overall resting state function of the frontal area was significantly increased. The integrity of the neural fibers in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus was significantly correlated with the cognitive scores in executive function and episodic memory in both the control and the mild WMLs group. These findings demonstrate that mild WMLs subjects exhibit abnormalities in both white matter structure and functional intrinsic brain activity and that such changes are related to several types of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:24346215

Sun, Xuan; Liang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Yaojing; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Jia, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhanjun

2014-01-01

51

Neuroimaging abnormalities, neurocognitive function, and fatigue in patients with hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study examined neurologic abnormalities (as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and diffusion tensor imaging), neurocognitive performance, and fatigue among a sample of adults with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We hypothesized that HCV+ individuals would demonstrate structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive compromise consistent with frontostriatal dysfunction as well as increased fatigue compared to controls. Method: Participants were 76 individuals diagnosed with HCV and 20 controls who underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive evaluation and clinical assessments. A subset of the HCV+ participants (n = 29) and all controls underwent MRI. Results: Individuals diagnosed with chronic HCV infection demonstrated greater fractional anisotropy in the striatum as well as greater mean diffusivity in the fronto-occiptal fasciculus and external capsule compared to HCV? controls. HCV+ participants also demonstrated lower levels of N-acetylaspartate in bilateral parietal white matter and elevations in myo-inosital (mI) in bilateral frontal white matter compared to HCV? controls (all p values < 0.05). HCV+ participants also demonstrated significantly poorer neuropsychological performance, particularly in processing speed and verbal fluency. HCV+ patients reported higher levels of fatigue than controls, and fatigue was significantly correlated with diffusivity in the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, elevations in mI in frontal white matter, and overall cognitive performance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that HCV-associated neurologic complications disrupt frontostriatal structures, which may result in increased fatigue and poorer cognitive performance, particularly in those cognitive domains regulated by frontostriatal regions. PMID:25610883

Castellon, Steven A.; Singer, Elyse J.; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Sarma, Manoj K.; Smith, Jason; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Truong, Jonathan Hien; Schonfeld, Daniel; Thomas, M. Albert; Hinkin, Charles H.

2015-01-01

52

Multivariate pattern analysis of DTI reveals differential white matter in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed group differences in white matter between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls. However, the results of these studies were based on average differences between the two groups, and therefore had limited clinical applicability. The objective of this study was to investigate whether fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter can be used to discriminate between patients with OCD and healthy controls at the level of the individual. DTI data were acquired from 28 OCD patients and 28 demographically matched healthy controls, scanned using a 3T MRI system. Differences in FA values of white matter between OCD and healthy controls were examined using a multivariate pattern classification technique known as support vector machine (SVM). SVM applied to FA images correctly identified OCD patients with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 82% resulting in a statistically significant accuracy of 84% (P ? 0.001). This discrimination was based on a distributed network including bilateral prefrontal and temporal regions, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior fronto-parietal fasciculus, splenium of corpus callosum and left middle cingulum bundle. The present study demonstrates subtle and spatially distributed white matter abnormalities in individuals with OCD, and provides preliminary support for the suggestion that that these could be used to aid the identification of individuals with OCD in clinical practice. PMID:24048702

Li, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Tang, Wanjie; Yang, Yanchun; Li, Bin; Kemp, Graham J; Mechelli, Andrea; Gong, Qiyong

2014-06-01

53

Individual differences in white matter anatomy predict dissociable components of reading skill in adults.  

PubMed

We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments. PMID:24704456

Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F

2014-08-01

54

Multivariate pattern analysis of DTI reveals differential white matter in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed group differences in white matter between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls. However, the results of these studies were based on average differences between the two groups, and therefore had limited clinical applicability. The objective of this study was to investigate whether fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter can be used to discriminate between patients with OCD and healthy controls at the level of the individual. DTI data were acquired from 28 OCD patients and 28 demographically matched healthy controls, scanned using a 3T MRI system. Differences in FA values of white matter between OCD and healthy controls were examined using a multivariate pattern classification technique known as support vector machine (SVM). SVM applied to FA images correctly identified OCD patients with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 82% resulting in a statistically significant accuracy of 84% (P ? 0.001). This discrimination was based on a distributed network including bilateral prefrontal and temporal regions, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior fronto-parietal fasciculus, splenium of corpus callosum and left middle cingulum bundle. The present study demonstrates subtle and spatially distributed white matter abnormalities in individuals with OCD, and provides preliminary support for the suggestion that that these could be used to aid the identification of individuals with OCD in clinical practice. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2643–2651, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24048702

Li, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Tang, Wanjie; Yang, Yanchun; Li, Bin; Kemp, Graham J; Mechelli, Andrea; Gong, Qiyong

2014-01-01

55

Lifelong Bilingualism Contributes to Cognitive Reserve against White Matter Integrity Declines in Aging  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N = 20) and monolinguals (N = 20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging. PMID:24103400

Gold, Brian T.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Powell, David K.

2013-01-01

56

White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.  

PubMed

Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways. PMID:25706865

Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

2015-01-01

57

White-Matter Development is Different in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: A Longitudinal DTI Study  

PubMed Central

Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10–13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways. PMID:25706865

Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

2015-01-01

58

Multi-modal MRI of mild traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI) group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h) and at follow-up (~90 days). DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM) regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE) correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI. PMID:25610770

Narayana, Ponnada A.; Yu, Xintian; Hasan, Khader M.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Levin, Harvey S.; Hunter, Jill V.; Miller, Emmy R.; Patel, Vipul Kumar S.; Robertson, Claudia S.; McCarthy, James J.

2014-01-01

59

Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis: a structural MRI study.  

PubMed

Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others' mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially relevant information (left temporal pole). Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients. PMID:24349280

Mike, Andrea; Strammer, Erzsebet; Aradi, Mihaly; Orsi, Gergely; Perlaki, Gabor; Hajnal, Andras; Sandor, Janos; Banati, Miklos; Illes, Eniko; Zaitsev, Alexander; Herold, Robert; Guttmann, Charles R G; Illes, Zsolt

2013-01-01

60

Multi-modal MRI of mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included high resolution structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with negative computed tomographic scans and in an orthopedic-injured (OI) group without concomitant injury to the brain. The OI group served as a comparison group for mTBI. MRI scans were performed both in the acute phase of injury (~24 h) and at follow-up (~90 days). DTI data was analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS). Global and regional atrophies were calculated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). MTR values were calculated using the standard method. MRSI was analyzed using LC Model. At the initial scan, the mean diffusivity (MD) was significantly higher in the mTBI cohort relative to the comparison group in several white matter (WM) regions that included internal capsule, external capsule, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata, posterior corona radiata, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, forceps major and forceps minor of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract in the right hemisphere. TBSS analysis failed to detect significant differences in any DTI measures between the initial and follow-up scans either in the mTBI or OI group. No significant differences were found in MRSI, MTR or morphometry between the mTBI and OI cohorts either at the initial or follow-up scans with or without family wise error (FWE) correction. Our study suggests that a number of WM tracts are affected in mTBI in the acute phase of injury and that these changes disappear by 90 days. This study also suggests that none of the MRI-modalities used in this study, with the exception of DTI, is sensitive in detecting changes in the acute phase of mTBI. PMID:25610770

Narayana, Ponnada A; Yu, Xintian; Hasan, Khader M; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Levin, Harvey S; Hunter, Jill V; Miller, Emmy R; Patel, Vipul Kumar S; Robertson, Claudia S; McCarthy, James J

2015-01-01

61

Structural correlates of facial emotion recognition deficits in Parkinson's disease patients.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize facial emotion expressions, especially negative ones, is described to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Previous neuroimaging work evaluating the neural substrate of facial emotion recognition (FER) in healthy and pathological subjects has mostly focused on functional changes. This study was designed to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) correlates of FER in a large sample of PD. Thirty-nine PD patients and 23 healthy controls (HC) were tested with the Ekman 60 test for FER and with magnetic resonance imaging. Effects of associated depressive symptoms were taken into account. In accordance with previous studies, PD patients performed significantly worse in recognizing sadness, anger and disgust. In PD patients, voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed areas of positive correlation between individual emotion recognition and GM volume: in the right orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and postcentral gyrus and sadness identification; in the right occipital fusiform gyrus, ventral striatum and subgenual cortex and anger identification, and in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and disgust identification. WM analysis through diffusion tensor imaging revealed significant positive correlations between fractional anisotropy levels in the frontal portion of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the performance in the identification of sadness. These findings shed light on the structural neural bases of the deficits presented by PD patients in this skill. PMID:22640663

Baggio, H C; Segura, B; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N; Valldeoriola, F; Marti, M J; Compta, Y; Tolosa, E; Junqué, C

2012-07-01

62

White matter structure and symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the different symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be mediated by partially distinct neural systems. This DTI study investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions and white matter microstructure. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial and radial diffusivity was analyzed in relation to the main OCD symptom dimensions. Symptom severity on the obsessing dimension was negatively correlated with FA in the corpus callosum and the cingulate bundle. Severity on the ordering dimension was negatively correlated with FA in, amongst others, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the right optic radiation. All correlations were ascribable to alterations in radial diffusivity while there was no association between symptoms and axial diffusivity. Present results illustrate an association between alterations in visual processing tracts and ordering symptoms which are characterized by altered visual processing and increased attention towards irrelevant detail. They also indicate an association between obsessive thoughts and alterations in structures known to be relevant for cognitive control and inhibition. Hence, different symptom dimensions must be taken into account in order to disentangle the neurobiological underpinnings of OCD. PMID:22099866

Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Schultz, C Christoph; Straube, Thomas; Güllmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Peikert, Gregor; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser, Ralf G M

2012-02-01

63

White matter integrity and vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease: Preliminary findings and future directions  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging biomarkers that precede cognitive decline have the potential to aid early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A body of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) work has demonstrated declines in white matter (WM) microstructure in AD and its typical prodromal state, amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The present review summarizes recent evidence suggesting that WM integrity declines are present in individuals at high AD-risk, prior to cognitive decline. The available data suggest that AD-risk is associated with WM integrity declines in a subset of tracts showing decline in symptomatic AD. Specifically, AD-risk has been associated with WM integrity declines in tracts that connect grey matter structures associated with memory function. These tracts include parahippocampal WM, the cinglum, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Preliminary evidence suggests that some AD-risk declines are characterized by increases of radial diffusivity, raising the possibility that a myelin-related pathology may contribute to AD onset. These findings justify future research aimed at a more complete understanding of the neurobiological bases of DTI-based declines in AD. With continued refinement of imaging methods, DTI holds promise as a method to aid identification of presymptomatic AD. PMID:21803153

Gold, Brian T.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Powell, David K.; Smith, Charles D.

2011-01-01

64

Brain white matter microstructure in deficit and non-deficit subtypes of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Dividing schizophrenia into its deficit (SZD) and nondeficit (SZND) subtypes may help to identify specific and more homogeneous pathophysiological characteristics. Our aim was to define a whole brain voxelwise map specifically characterizing white matter tracts of schizophrenia patients with and without the deficit syndrome. We compared microstructural diffusion-related parameters as measured by diffusion tensor imaging in 21 SZD patients, 21 SZND patients, and 21 healthy controls, age- and gender-matched. Results showed that fractional anisotropy was reduced in the right precentral area in SZND patients, and in the left corona radiata of the schizophrenia group as a whole. Axial diffusivity was reduced in the left postcentral area of SZD patients and in the left cerebellum of the whole schizophrenia group. Radial diffusivity was increased in the left forceps minor of SZD patients, in the left internal capsule of SZND patients, and in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in the whole schizophrenia group. Mean diffusivity was increased from healthy controls to SZD patients to SZND patients in the right occipital lobe. In conclusion, SZD patients are not simply at the extreme end of a severity continuum of white matter disruption. Rather, the SZD and SZND subtypes are associated with distinct and specific brain microstructural anomalies that are consistent with their peculiar psychopathological dimensions. PMID:25649975

Spalletta, Gianfranco; De Rossi, Pietro; Piras, Fabrizio; Iorio, Mariangela; Dacquino, Claudia; Scanu, Francesca; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Chiapponi, Chiara

2015-03-30

65

Anatomo-functional study of the temporo-parieto-occipital region: dissection, tractographic and brain mapping evidence from a neurosurgical perspective.  

PubMed

The temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction is a complex brain territory heavily involved in several high-level neurological functions, such as language, visuo-spatial recognition, writing, reading, symbol processing, calculation, self-processing, working memory, musical memory, and face and object recognition. Recent studies indicate that this area is covered by a thick network of white matter (WM) connections, which provide efficient and multimodal integration of information between both local and distant cortical nodes. It is important for neurosurgeons to have good knowledge of the three-dimensional subcortical organisation of this highly connected region to minimise post-operative permanent deficits. The aim of this dissection study was to highlight the subcortical functional anatomy from a topographical surgical perspective. Eight human hemispheres (four left, four right) obtained from four human cadavers were dissected according to Klingler's technique. Proceeding latero-medially, the authors describe the anatomical courses of and the relationships between the main pathways crossing the TPO. The results obtained from dissection were first integrated with diffusion tensor imaging reconstructions and subsequently with functional data obtained from three surgical cases, all resection of infiltrating glial tumours using direct electrical mapping in awake patients. The subcortical limits for performing safe lesionectomies within the TPO region are as follows: within the parietal region, the anterior horizontal part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and, more deeply, the arcuate fasciculus; dorsally, the vertical projective thalamo-cortical fibres. For lesions located within the temporal and occipital lobes, the resection should be tailored according to the orientation of the horizontal associative pathways (the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle and optic radiation). The relationships between the WM tracts and the ventricle system were also examined. These results indicate that a detailed anatomo-functional awareness of the WM architecture within the TPO area is mandatory when approaching intrinsic brain lesions to optimise surgical results and to minimise post-operative morbidity. PMID:24975421

De Benedictis, Alessandro; Duffau, Hugues; Paradiso, Beatrice; Grandi, Enrico; Balbi, Sergio; Granieri, Enrico; Colarusso, Enzo; Chioffi, Franco; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Sarubbo, Silvio

2014-08-01

66

Microstructural white matter correlates of emotion recognition impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is associated in about half of the cases with behavioral and cognitive disorders, including impairments in socio-emotional processing, considered as key-features for the diagnosis of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD). The neurostructural bases of emotional deficits in ALS, however, still remain largely unexplored. Here we aim to assess emotion recognition in non-demented sporadic ALS patients compared with healthy controls, and to explore for the first time its microstructural white-matter correlates. Twenty-two subjects with either probable or definite diagnosis of ALS and 55 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls were recruited in the study. All participants performed the Ekman 60-Faces Test, assessing the recognition of six basic emotions (i.e., anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise and happiness). A subgroup of subjects, comprising 19 patients and 20 healthy controls, also underwent a Diffusion Tensor Imaging scanning. Behavioral analysis highlighted a significant decline of emotion recognition skills in patients compared to controls, particularly affecting the identification of negative emotions. Moreover, the Diffusion Tensor Imaging analyses revealed a correlation between this impairment and the alteration of white-matter integrity along the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Our findings indicate the presence of an early emotion recognition deficit in non-demented sporadic ALS patients, associated with microstructural changes in ventral associative bundles connecting occipital, temporo-limbic and orbitofrontal regions in the right hemisphere. These changes may represent a frontotemporal-limbic microstructural marker of socio-emotional impairment in ALS. PMID:24534360

Crespi, Chiara; Cerami, Chiara; Dodich, Alessandra; Canessa, Nicola; Arpone, Marta; Iannaccone, Sandro; Corbo, Massimo; Lunetta, Christian; Scola, Elisa; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F

2014-04-01

67

Longitudinal changes of structural connectivity in traumatic axonal injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify structural connectivity change occurring during the first 6 months after traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor tractography for predicting long-term outcome. Methods: The participants were 28 patients with mild to severe traumatic axonal injury and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Neuroimaging was obtained 0–9 days postinjury for acute scans and 6–14 months postinjury for chronic scans. Long-term outcome was evaluated on the day of the chronic scan. Twenty-eight fiber regions of 9 major white matter structures were reconstructed, and reliable tractography measurements were determined and used. Results: Although most (23 of 28) patients had severe brain injury, their long-term outcome ranged from good recovery (16 patients) to moderately (5 patients) and severely disabled (7 patients). In concordance with the diverse outcome, the white matter change in patients was heterogeneous, ranging from improved structural connectivity, through no change, to deteriorated connectivity. At the group level, all 9 fiber tracts deteriorated significantly with 7 (corpus callosum, cingulum, angular bundle, cerebral peduncular fibers, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi) showing structural damage acutely and 2 (fornix body and left arcuate fasciculus) chronically. Importantly, the amount of change in tractography measurements correlated with patients' long-term outcome. Acute tractography measurements were able to predict patients' learning and memory performance; chronic measurements also determined performance on processing speed and executive function. Conclusions: Diffusion tensor tractography is a valuable tool for identifying structural connectivity changes occurring between the acute and chronic stages of traumatic brain injury and for predicting patients' long-term outcome. PMID:21813787

Wang, J.Y.; Bakhadirov, K.; Abdi, H.; Devous, M.D.; Marquez de la Plata, C.D.; Moore, C.; Madden, C.J.

2011-01-01

68

The Microstructural Status of the Corpus Callosum Is Associated with the Degree of Motor Function and Neurological Deficit in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Human neuroimaging studies and animal models have suggested that white matter damage from ischemic stroke leads to the functional and structural reorganization of perilesional and remote brain regions. However, the quantitative relationship between the transcallosal tract integrity and clinical motor performance score after stroke remains unexplored. The current study employed a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the relationship between white matter diffusivity changes and the clinical scores in stroke patients. Probabilistic fiber tracking was also used to identify structural connectivity patterns in the patients. Thirteen ischemic stroke patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this study. TBSS analyses showed that the corpus callosum (CC) and bilateral corticospinal tracts (CST) in the stroke patients exhibited significantly decreased fractional anisotropy and increased axial and radial diffusivity compared with those of the controls. Correlation analyses revealed that the motor and neurological deficit scores in the stroke patients were associated with the value of diffusivity indices in the CC. Compared with the healthy control group, probabilistic fiber tracking analyses revealed that significant changes in the inter-hemispheric fiber connections between the left and right motor cortex in the stroke patients were primarily located in the genu and body of the CC, left anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, bilateral CST, anterior/superior corona radiate, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, strongly suggesting that ischemic induces inter-hemispheric network disturbances and disrupts the white matter fibers connecting motor regions. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that DTI-derived measures in the CC can be used to predict the severity of motor skill and neurological deficit in stroke patients. Changes in structural connectivity pattern tracking between the left and right motor areas, particularly in the body of the CC, might reflect functional reorganization and behavioral deficit. PMID:25875333

Liang, Fanrong; Huang, Wenhua

2015-01-01

69

Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging correlates of motor network dysfunction in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor tractography to investigate the functional and structural substrates of motor network dysfunction in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). In 15 right-handed PPMS patients and 15 age-matched healthy controls, we acquired diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and fMRI during the performance of a simple motor task. Tractography was used to calculate diffusion tensor-derived measures of the corpus callosum, the corticospinal tract, the optic radiation, the fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Analyses of fMRI activations and functional connectivity were performed using statistical parametric mapping (cluster threshold of P = 0.001, and extent cluster threshold of 10 voxels for comparison of activations; P < 0.05, family-wise error corrected for functional connectivity). As compared with controls, PPMS patients had more significant activations of the left postcentral gyrus, left secondary sensorimotor area, left parahippocampal gyrus, left cerebellum, right primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), right basal ganglia, right insula, right cingulum, and cuneus bilaterally. As compared with PPMS patients, controls had increased functional connectivity between the left primary SMC and the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus. Conversely, PPMS patients showed increased functional connectivity between the left primary SMC and the right cuneus. Moderate correlations were found between functional activations and damage to the tracts studied (r-values between 0.82 and 0.84; P < 0.001). These results suggest that, as compared with healthy controls, PPMS patients show increased activations and abnormal functional connectivity measures in several areas of the sensorimotor network. Such changes are correlated with the structural damage to the white matter fiber bundles connecting these regions. PMID:20345920

Ceccarelli, Antonia; Rocca, Maria A; Valsasina, Paola; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

2010-04-01

70

Abnormalities of cortical thickness, subcortical shapes, and white matter integrity in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (sVCI) is caused by lacunar infarcts or extensive and/or diffuse lesions in the white matter that may disrupt the white matter circuitry connecting cortical and subcortical regions and result in the degeneration of neurons in these regions. This study used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) techniques to examine cortical thickness, subcortical shapes, and white matter integrity in mild vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND Mild) and moderate-to-severe VCI (MSVCI). Our study found that compared to controls (n = 25), VCIND Mild (n = 25), and MSVCI (n = 30) showed thinner cortex predominantly in the frontal cortex. The cortex in MSVCI was thinner in the parietal and lateral temporal cortices than that in VCIND Mild. Moreover, compared to controls, VCIND Mild and MSVCI showed smaller shapes (i.e., volume reduction) in the thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus and ventricular enlargement. Finally, compared to controls, VCIND Mild, and MSVCI showed an increased mean diffusivity in the white matter, while decreased generalized fractional anisotropy was only found in the MSVCI subjects. The major axonal bundles involved in the white matter abnormalities were mainly toward the frontal regions, including the internal capsule/corona radiata, uncinate fasciculus, and anterior section of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and were anatomically connected to the affected cortical and subcortical structures. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in cortical, subcortical, and white matter morphology in sVCI occur in anatomically connected structures, and that abnormalities progress along a similar trajectory from the mild to moderate and severe conditions. PMID:23861356

Thong, Jamie Yu Jin; Du, Jia; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Dong, Yanhong; Soon, Hock Wei; Saini, Monica; Tan, Ming Zhen; Ta, Anh Tuan; Chen, Christopher; Qiu, Anqi

2014-05-01

71

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

72

Atlas-based white matter analysis in individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome) and unaffected siblings  

PubMed Central

Background Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, MIM#192430, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of about 40 genes at the q11.2 band of one copy of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS present with deficits in cognition and social functioning, high risk of psychiatric disorders, volumetric reductions in gray and white matter (WM) and some alterations of the WM microstructure. The goal of the current study was to characterize the WM microstructural differences in individuals with VCFS and unaffected siblings, and the correlation of WM microstructure with neuropsychological performance. We hypothesized that individuals with VCFS would have decreased indices of WM microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD)), particularly in WM tracts to the frontal lobe, and that these measures would be correlated with cognitive functioning. Methods Thirty-three individuals with VCFS (21 female) and 16 unaffected siblings (8 female) participated in DTI scanning and neuropsychological testing. We performed an atlas-based analysis, extracted FA, AD, and RD measures for 54 WM tracts (27 in each hemisphere) for each participant, and used MANOVAs to compare individuals with VCFS to siblings. For WM tracts that were statistically significantly different between VCFS and siblings (pFDR?fasciculus, and decreased AD in multiple WM tracts (bilateral superior and posterior corona radiata, dorsal cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, superior cerebellar peduncle, posterior thalamic radiation, and left anterior corona radiata, retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, external capsule, sagittal stratum). We also found significant correlations of AD with measures of executive function, IQ, working memory, and/or social cognition. Conclusions Our results suggest that individuals with VCFS display abnormal WM connectivity in a widespread cerebro-anatomical network, involving tracts from/to all cerebral lobes and the cerebellum. Future studies could focus on the WM developmental trajectory in VCFS, the association of WM alterations with psychiatric disorders, and the effects of candidate 22q11.2 genes on WM anomalies. PMID:22853778

2012-01-01

73

Reading Impairment in a Patient with Missing Arcuate Fasciculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the case of a child ("S") who was treated with radiation therapy at age 5 for a recurrent malignant brain tumor. Radiation successfully abolished the tumor but caused radiation-induced tissue necrosis, primarily affecting cerebral white matter. "S" was introduced to us at age 15 because of her profound dyslexia. We assessed cognitive…

Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Schwartzman, Armin; Perry, Lee M.; Dougherty, Robert F.

2009-01-01

74

White matter organization and neurocognitive performance variability in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background White matter alterations in schizophrenia are associated with deficits in neurocognitive performance. Recently, across task within-individual variability (WIV) has emerged as a useful construct for assessing the profile in cognitive performance in schizophrenia. However, the neural basis of WIV has not been studied in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and 27 healthy comparison subjects (HC) performed a computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). WIV for performance accuracy and speed on the CNB was calculated across-tasks. Voxel-wise group comparisons of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) were performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). The relationship between accuracy and speed WIV on the CNB and white matter FA was examined within the regions that differentiated patients and healthy comparison subjects. Results SZ had higher WIV for performance accuracy and speed as compared to HC. FA in SZ compared to HC was reduced in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital white matter including a large portion of the corpus callosum. In white matter regions that differed between patients and comparison subjects, higher FA in the left cingulum bundle and left fronto-occipital fasciculus were associated with lower CNB speed WIV for HC, but not SZ. Accuracy WIV was not associated with differences in white matter FA between SZ and HC. Conclusions We provide evidence that WIV is greater in patients with SZ and that this greater within-individual variability in performance in patients is associated with disruptions of WM integrity in specific brain regions. PMID:23148898

Roalf, David R.; Ruparel, Kosha; Verma, Ragini; Elliott, Mark A.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

2012-01-01

75

IN VIVO STUDY OF CEREBRAL WHITE MATTER IN THE DOG USING DIFFUSION TENSOR TRACTOGRAPHY.  

PubMed

Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows investigators and clinicians to observe the anatomy and injuries of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dogs. However, dynamic images based on the diffusion tensor (DT) technique are required to assess fiber tract integrity of the CWM. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) produces a three-dimensional representation in which data are displayed on a colored map obtained from the anisotropy of water molecules in the CWM tracts. Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a value that measures changes in water diffusion, which can occur if the CWM tracts are displaced, disrupted, or infiltrated. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of DTT for in vivo examination of the normal appearance of CWM in dogs through visual and quantitative analysis of the most representative CWM tracts. Nine tractographies were performed on healthy dogs using a 3T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images and DTI were acquired at different planes. Using DTT, three-dimensional reconstructions were obtained. Fractional ansisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the right and left corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, cingulum, and right and left fronto-occipital fasciculus were determined. Tract reconstructions were similar in 8/9 healthy dogs. Values for FA and ADC were similar in all the dogs. In one dog, tract reconstructions were inhomogeneous; these were displaced because it had larger lateral ventricles. Findings indicated that DTT is a feasible technique for in vivo study of CWM in dogs and that it complements information from conventional MRI. PMID:25288360

Anaya García, Mitzi Sarahí; Hernández Anaya, Jael Sarahí; Marrufo Meléndez, Oscar; Velázquez Ramírez, José Luis; Palacios Aguiar, Ricardo

2014-10-01

76

Neuroanatomical Changes due to Hearing Loss and Chronic Tinnitus: A Combined VBM and DTI Study  

PubMed Central

Subjective tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external source. Tinnitus is often accompanied by hearing loss but not everyone with hearing loss experiences tinnitus. We examined neuroanatomical alterations associated with hearing loss and tinnitus in three groups of subjects: those with hearing loss with tinnitus, those with hearing loss without tinnitus and normal hearing controls without tinnitus. To examine changes in gray matter we used structural MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and to identify changes in white matter tract orientation we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A major finding of our study was that there were both gray and white matter changes in the vicinity of the auditory cortex for subjects with hearing loss alone relative to those with tinnitus and those with normal hearing. We did not find significant changes in gray or white matter in subjects with tinnitus and hearing loss compared to normal hearing controls. VBM analysis revealed that individuals with hearing loss without tinnitus had gray matter decreases in anterior cingulate and superior and medial frontal gyri relative to those with hearing loss and tinnitus. Region-of-interest analysis revealed additional decreases in superior temporal gyrus for the hearing loss group compared to the tinnitus group. Investigating effects of hearing loss alone, we found gray matter decreases in superior and medial frontal gyri in participants with hearing loss compared to normal hearing controls. DTI analysis showed decreases in fractional anisotropy values in the right superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, corticospnial tract, inferior fronto-occipital tract, superior occipital fasciculus, and anterior thalamic radiation for the hearing loss group relative to normal hearing controls. In attempting to dissociate the effect of tinnitus from hearing loss, we observed that hearing loss rather than tinnitus had the greatest influence on gray and white matter alterations. PMID:21047501

Husain, Fatima T.; Medina, Roberto E.; Davis, Caroline W.; Szymko-Bennett, Yvonne; Simonyan, Kristina; Pajor, Nathan M.; Horwitz, Barry

2010-01-01

77

White Matter Disruptions in Adolescents Exposed to Childhood Maltreatment and Vulnerability to Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Childhood maltreatment has been known to produce long-lasting impairments in behavioral, cognitive and social functioning, but their underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. A better understanding of their underlying mechanisms will aid in developing effective preventive interventions. Nineteen adolescent volunteers with no personal history of a psychiatric illness, but who were exposed to maltreatment during childhood, and 13 adolescent volunteers with no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder (controls) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. The participants were then followed longitudinally at 6-month intervals for up to 5 years to determine the onset of mood and substance use disorders. The associations among fractional anisotropy (FA) values obtained from the DTI scans at baseline and psychopathology at follow-up were examined. At baseline, adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment had significantly lower FA values in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculi, right cingulum bundle projecting to the hippocampus, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and splenium of the corpus callosum compared with controls. Adolescents who developed major depressive disorder at follow-up had significantly lower FA values in the superior longitudinal fasciculi and the right cingulum-hippocampal projection compared with their counterparts who did not develop the illness. Adolescents who developed substance use disorder during follow-up had significantly lower FA values in the right cingulum-hippocampal projection than their counterparts without the disorder. These preliminary results suggest that white matter disruptions observed in adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment may be associated with increased vulnerability to psychopathology, specifically depressive and substance use disorders. PMID:22850736

Huang, Hao; Gundapuneedi, Tejasvi; Rao, Uma

2012-01-01

78

Shared genetic variance between obesity and white matter integrity in Mexican Americans  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder that may also lead to reduced white matter integrity, potentially due to shared genetic risk factors. Genetic correlation analyses were conducted in a large cohort of Mexican American families in San Antonio (N = 761, 58% females, ages 18–81 years; 41.3 ± 14.5) from the Genetics of Brain Structure and Function Study. Shared genetic variance was calculated between measures of adiposity [(body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in)] and whole-brain and regional measurements of cerebral white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy). Whole-brain average and regional fractional anisotropy values for 10 major white matter tracts were calculated from high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI; 1.7 × 1.7 × 3 mm; 55 directions). Additive genetic factors explained intersubject variance in BMI (heritability, h2 = 0.58), WC (h2 = 0.57), and FA (h2 = 0.49). FA shared significant portions of genetic variance with BMI in the genu (?G = ?0.25), body (?G = ?0.30), and splenium (?G = ?0.26) of the corpus callosum, internal capsule (?G = ?0.29), and thalamic radiation (?G = ?0.31) (all p's = 0.043). The strongest evidence of shared variance was between BMI/WC and FA in the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (?G = ?0.39, p = 0.020; ?G = ?0.39, p = 0.030), which highlights region-specific variation in neural correlates of obesity. This may suggest that increase in obesity and reduced white matter integrity share common genetic risk factors.

Spieker, Elena A.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Sprooten, Emma; Winkler, Anderson M.; Olvera, Rene L.; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T.; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C.; Curran, Joanne E.

2015-01-01

79

Genetics of brain fiber architecture and intellectual performance.  

PubMed

The study is the first to analyze genetic and environmental factors that affect brain fiber architecture and its genetic linkage with cognitive function. We assessed white matter integrity voxelwise using diffusion tensor imaging at high magnetic field (4 Tesla), in 92 identical and fraternal twins. White matter integrity, quantified using fractional anisotropy (FA), was used to fit structural equation models (SEM) at each point in the brain, generating three-dimensional maps of heritability. We visualized the anatomical profile of correlations between white matter integrity and full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotients (FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ). White matter integrity (FA) was under strong genetic control and was highly heritable in bilateral frontal (a(2)=0.55, p=0.04, left; a(2)=0.74, p=0.006, right), bilateral parietal (a(2)=0.85, p<0.001, left; a(2)=0.84, p<0.001, right), and left occipital (a(2)=0.76, p=0.003) lobes, and was correlated with FIQ and PIQ in the cingulum, optic radiations, superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, internal capsule, callosal isthmus, and the corona radiata (p=0.04 for FIQ and p=0.01 for PIQ, corrected for multiple comparisons). In a cross-trait mapping approach, common genetic factors mediated the correlation between IQ and white matter integrity, suggesting a common physiological mechanism for both, and common genetic determination. These genetic brain maps reveal heritable aspects of white matter integrity and should expedite the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms affecting fiber connectivity and cognition. PMID:19228974

Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Shattuck, David W; Lee, Agatha D; Madsen, Sarah K; Avedissian, Christina; Klunder, Andrea D; Toga, Arthur W; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J; Srivastava, Anuj; Balov, Nikolay; Thompson, Paul M

2009-02-18

80

Diffuse alterations in grey and white matter associated with cognitive impairment in Shwachman–Diamond syndrome: Evidence from a multimodal approach  

PubMed Central

Shwachman–Diamond syndrome is a rare recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in SBDS gene, at chromosome 7q11. Phenotypically, the syndrome is characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal dysplasia and variable cognitive impairments. Structural brain abnormalities (smaller head circumference and decreased brain volume) have also been reported. No correlation studies between brain abnormalities and neuropsychological features have yet been performed. In this study we investigate neuroanatomical findings, neurofunctional pathways and cognitive functioning of Shwachman–Diamond syndrome subjects compared with healthy controls. To be eligible for inclusion, participants were required to have known SBDS mutations on both alleles, no history of cranial trauma or any standard contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging. Appropriate tests were used to assess cognitive functions. The static images were acquired on a 3 × 0 T magnetic resonance scanner and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected both during the execution of the Stroop task and at rest. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess brain white matter. The Tract-based Spatial Statistics package and probabilistic tractography were used to characterize white matter pathways. Nine participants (5 males), half of all the subjects aged 9–19 years included in the Italian Shwachman–Diamond Syndrome Registry, were evaluated and compared with nine healthy subjects, matched for sex and age. The patients performed less well than norms and controls on cognitive tasks (p = 0.0002). Overall, cortical thickness was greater in the patients, both in the left (+10%) and in the right (+15%) hemisphere, significantly differently increased in the temporal (left and right, p = 0.04), and right parietal (p = 0.03) lobes and in Brodmann area 44 (p = 0.04) of the right frontal lobe. The greatest increases were observed in the left limbic-anterior cingulate cortex (?43%, p < 0.0004). Only in Broca's area in the left hemisphere did the patients show a thinner cortical thickness than that of controls (p = 0.01). Diffusion tensor imaging showed large, significant difference increases in both fractional anisotropy (+37%, p < 0.0001) and mean diffusivity (+35%, p < 0.005); the Tract-based Spatial Statistics analysis identified six abnormal clusters of white matter fibres in the fronto-callosal, right fronto-external capsulae, left fronto-parietal, right pontine, temporo-mesial and left anterior–medial–temporal regions. Brain areas activated during the Stroop task and those active during the resting state, are different, fewer and smaller in patients and correlate with worse performance (p = 0.002). Cognitive impairment in Shwachman–Diamond syndrome subjects is associated with diffuse brain anomalies in the grey matter (verbal skills with BA44 and BA20 in the right hemisphere; perceptual skills with BA5, 37, 20, 21, 42 in the left hemisphere) and white matter connectivity (verbal skills with alterations in the fronto-occipital fasciculus and with the inferior-longitudinal fasciculus; perceptual skills with the arcuate fasciculus, limbic and ponto-cerebellar fasciculus; memory skills with the arcuate fasciculus; executive functions with the anterior cingulated and arcuate fasciculus). PMID:25844324

Perobelli, Sandra; Alessandrini, Franco; Zoccatelli, Giada; Nicolis, Elena; Beltramello, Alberto; Assael, Baroukh M.; Cipolli, Marco

2015-01-01

81

Visual-motor deficits relate to altered gray and white matter in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.  

PubMed

Individuals born preterm and at very low birth weight (birth weight?1500g) are at an increased risk of perinatal brain injury and neurodevelopmental deficits over the long term. This study examined whether this clinical group has more problems with visual-motor integration, motor coordination, and visual perception compared to term-born controls, and related these findings to cortical surface area and thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy. Forty-seven preterm-born very low birth weight individuals and 56 term-born controls were examined at 18-22years of age with a combined cognitive, morphometric MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging evaluation in Trondheim, Norway. Visual-motor skills were evaluated with the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-V (VMI) copying test and its supplemental tests of motor coordination and visual perception. 3D T1-weighted MPRAGE images and diffusion tensor imaging were done at 1.5T. Cortical reconstruction generated in FreeSurfer and voxelwise maps of fractional anisotropy calculated with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics were used to explore the relationship between MRI findings and cognitive results. Very low birth weight individuals had significantly lower scores on the copying and motor coordination tests compared with controls. In the very low birth weight group, VMI scores showed significant positive relationships with cortical surface area in widespread regions, with reductions of the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and medial occipital lobe in conjunction with the posterior ventral temporal lobe. Visual perception scores also showed positive relationships with cortical thickness in the very low birth weight group, primarily in the lateral occipito-temporo-parietal junction, the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and superior parietal regions. In the very low birth weight group, visual-motor performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy especially in the corpus callosum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, and anterior thalamic radiation bilaterally, driven primarily by an increase in radial diffusivity. VMI scores did not demonstrate a significant relationship to cortical surface area, cortical thickness, or diffusion measures in the control group. Our results indicate that visual-motor integration problems persist into adulthood for very low birth weight individuals, which may be due to structural alterations in several specific gray-white matter networks. Visual-motor deficits appear related to reduced surface area of motor and visual cortices and disturbed connectivity in long association tracts containing visual and motor information. We conjecture that these outcomes may be due to perinatal brain injury or aberrant cortical development secondary to injury or due to very preterm birth. PMID:25592994

Sripada, Kam; Løhaugen, Gro C; Eikenes, Live; Bjørlykke, Kjerstin M; Håberg, Asta K; Skranes, Jon; Rimol, Lars M

2015-04-01

82

Bryonora, Praha, 34 (2004) 41 Vzda A. (2003): Lichenes rariores exsiccati. Fasciculus 4950 (numeris 481500). Brno.  

E-print Network

among Central European species of the aquatic moss Cinclidotus. ­ Cryptogamie Bryologie 24: 147. ­ Journal of Molecular Evolution 55: 595­605. Aldous A. R. (2002): Nitrogen translocation in Sphagnum mosses (2004) Allen B. (ed.) (2002): Moss flora of Central America. Part 2. Encalyptaceae

Kucera, Jan

83

Letter to the Editors The uncinate fasciculus and extraversion in schizotypal  

E-print Network

in schizophrenia (Gurrera et al., 2000; Kubicki et al., 2002), and some clinical features of schizophrenia may in schizophrenia may also stem from altered brain function (Gurrera et al., 2005b). The present data suggest). In unstructured situations, autonoetic awareness supports the formulation of goals and the behavioral oversight

84

White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly…

Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baare, William F. C.; Skimminge, Arnold; Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Ramsoy, Thomas Z.; Gerlach, Christian; Akeson, Per; Paulson, Olaf B.; Jernigan, Terry L.

2011-01-01

85

Cingulate Fasciculus Integrity Disruption in Schizophrenia: A Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor  

E-print Network

to and from other components of Broca's "grand limbic lobe." Of note, cingulate gyrus abnormal- ities have with amygdala, nucleus accum- bens, medial dorsal thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas

86

Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

2012-01-01

87

Uncinate fasciculus abnormalities in recent onset schizophrenia and affective psychosis: A diffusion tensor imaging study  

E-print Network

the later course of the disease. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Diffusion tensor imaging Schizophrenia during their first hospitalization), and 15 psychiatrically healthy controls underwent line

88

Road work on memory lane--functional and structural alterations to the learning and memory circuit in adults born very preterm.  

PubMed

Very preterm (VPT) birth is considered a risk factor not only for neurological impairment, but also for reduced function in several cognitive domains in childhood and later in life. Individuals who were born VPT are more likely to demonstrate learning and memory difficulties compared to term-born controls. These problems contribute to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. This, in turn, affects their prospects in adult life. Here we aimed to 1) study how the VPT-born adult brain functionally recruited specific areas during learning, i.e. encoding and recall across four repeated blocks of verbal stimuli, and to investigate how these patterns of activation differed from term-born subjects; and 2) probe the microstructural differences of white-matter tracts connecting these areas to other parts of the learning and memory network. To investigate these functional-structural relationships we analyzed functional and diffusion-weighted MRI. Functional-MRI and a verbal paired associate learning (VPAL) task were used to extract Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activity in 21 VPT-born adults (<33 weeks of gestation) (mean age: 19.68 years ± 0.85; IQ: 99.86 ± 11.20) and 10 term-born controls (mean age: 19.87 years ± 2.04; IQ: 108.9 ± 13.18). Areas in which differences in functional activation were observed between groups were used as seed regions for tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of the tract-skeleton was then compared between groups on a voxel-wise basis. Results of functional MRI analysis showed a significantly different pattern of activation between groups during encoding in right anterior cingulate-caudate body, and during retrieval in left thalamus, hippocampus and parts of left posterior parahippocampal gyrus. The number of correctly recalled word pairs did not statistically differ between individuals who were born VPT and controls. The VPT-born group was found to have reduced FA in tracts passing through the thalamic/hippocampal region that was differently activated during the recall condition, with the hippocampal fornix, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus particularly affected. Young adults who were born very preterm display a strikingly different pattern of activation during the process of learning in key structures of the learning and memory network, including anterior cingulate and caudate body during encoding and thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus during cued recall. Altered activation in thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus may be explained by reduced connections between these areas and the hippocampus, which may be a direct consequence of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic injury. These results could reflect the effect of adaptive plastic processes associated with high-order cognitive functions, at least when the cognitive load remains relatively low, as ex-preterm young adults displayed unimpaired performance in completing the verbal paired associate learning task. PMID:24368264

Salvan, Piergiorgio; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Allin, Matthew P G; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; McGuire, Philip K; Williams, Steven C R; Nosarti, Chiara

2014-11-15

89

Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies, Combined with Augmentative Communication, Are Related to Uncinate Fasciculus Integrity in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence points to white-matter abnormalities as a key factor in autism physiopathology. Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging, we studied white-matter structural properties in a convenience sample of twenty-two subjects with low-functioning autism exposed to long-term augmentative and alternative communication, combined with sessions of cognitive…

Pardini, Matteo; Elia, Maurizio; Garaci, Francesco G.; Guida, Silvia; Coniglione, Filadelfo; Krueger, Frank; Benassi, Francesca; Gialloreti, Leonardo Emberti

2012-01-01

90

Thalamic integrity underlies executive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: To quantify the effects of traumatic brain injury on integrity of thalamocortical projection fibers and to evaluate whether damage to these fibers accounts for impairments in executive function in chronic traumatic brain injury. Methods: High-resolution (voxel size: 0.78 mm × 0.78 mm × 3 mm3) diffusion tensor MRI of the thalamus was conducted on 24 patients with a history of single, closed-head traumatic brain injury (TBI) (12 each of mild TBI and moderate to severe TBI) and 12 age- and education-matched controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing with an emphasis on executive function was also conducted. Fractional anisotropy was extracted from 12 regions of interest in cortical and corpus callosum structures and 7 subcortical regions of interest (anterior, ventral anterior, ventral lateral, dorsomedial, ventral posterior lateral, ventral posterior medial, and pulvinar thalamic nuclei). Results: Relative to controls, patients with a history of brain injury showed reductions in fractional anisotropy in both the anterior and posterior corona radiata, forceps major, the body of the corpus callosum, and fibers identified from seed voxels in the anterior and ventral anterior thalamic nuclei. Fractional anisotropy from cortico-cortico and corpus callosum regions of interest did not account for significant variance in neuropsychological function. However, fractional anisotropy from the thalamic seed voxels did account for variance in executive function, attention, and memory. Conclusions: The data provide preliminary evidence that traumatic brain injury and resulting diffuse axonal injury results in damage to the thalamic projection fibers and is of clinical relevance to cognition. GLOSSARY ACR = anterior corona radiata; AN = anterior thalamic nucleus; bCC = body of the corpus callosum; CST = cortical-spinal tract; DAI = diffuse axonal injury; DM = dorsomedial nucleus; DTI = diffusion tensor imaging; FA = fractional anisotropy; fMaj = forceps major; fMin = forceps minor; FOV = field of view; FSE = fast spin echo; gCC = genu of the corpus callosum; IC = internal capsule; IFOF = inferior frontal occipital fasciculus; LOC = loss of consciousness; miTBI = mild TBI; msTBI = moderate to severe TBI; NEX = number of excitations; PCR = posterior corona radiata; PTA = posttraumatic amnesia; PU = pulvinar; ROI = region of interest; sCC = splenium of the corpus callosum; SLF = superior longitudinal fasciculus; SS = sagittal stratum; TBI = traumatic brain injury; TE = echo time; TR = repetition time; VA = ventral anterior thalamic nucleus; VL = ventral lateral thalamic nucleus; VPL = ventral posterior lateral nucleus; VPM = ventral posterior medial nucleus. PMID:20089945

Little, D. M.; Kraus, M. F.; Joseph, J.; Geary, E. K.; Susmaras, T.; Zhou, X. J.; Pliskin, N.; Gorelick, P. B.

2010-01-01

91

Multiple dermoid sinuses of type Vb and IIIb on the head of a Saint Bernard dog  

PubMed Central

Dermoid sinus, a congenital malformation of neural tube development, has been reported in humans and several animal species including dogs. It is typically found in the dorsal midline and commonly occurs in the Rhodesian Ridgeback breed. A case of multiple dermoid sinuses in the fronto-occipital region is described. An 11-month-old, intact female Saint Bernard dog was presented with a 2 day history of discharge from a large irregular subcutaneous mass in the fronto-occipital region. The dog was otherwise healthy. The dog had two circular skin lesions (approximately 4?×?4 and 4?×?2 cm diameter) surrounded by multiple irregular elevated masses. The masses had multiple small openings on the skin surface with tufts of hair protruding from the apertures. The masses were surgically removed, and the diagnosis of multiple dermoid sinuses was confirmed by histological examination. Histopathological examination showed multiple, variably sized, spherical to tubular cysts expanding the dermis and subcutis. Cysts were filled with hair shafts and lamellar keratin and were lined by a stratified squamous epithelium. Sebaceous and apocrine gland adnexal structures were also observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multiple dermoid sinuses of two different types in the head of a Saint Bernard dog. PMID:24006855

2013-01-01

92

40 CFR 61.242-11 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...242-1(c). (b) Vapor recovery systems (for example...recover the organic vapors vented to them with...infeasible without a process unit shutdown, or if...of the next process unit shutdown. (i) If a vapor collection...

2013-07-01

93

40 CFR 61.242-11 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...242-1(c). (b) Vapor recovery systems (for example...recover the organic vapors vented to them with...infeasible without a process unit shutdown, or if...of the next process unit shutdown. (i) If a vapor collection...

2010-07-01

94

40 CFR 61.242-11 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...242-1(c). (b) Vapor recovery systems (for example...recover the organic vapors vented to them with...infeasible without a process unit shutdown, or if...of the next process unit shutdown. (i) If a vapor collection...

2014-07-01

95

40 CFR 61.242-11 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...242-1(c). (b) Vapor recovery systems (for example...recover the organic vapors vented to them with...infeasible without a process unit shutdown, or if...of the next process unit shutdown. (i) If a vapor collection...

2011-07-01

96

40 CFR 61.242-11 - Standards: Closed-vent systems and control devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...242-1(c). (b) Vapor recovery systems (for example...recover the organic vapors vented to them with...infeasible without a process unit shutdown, or if...of the next process unit shutdown. (i) If a vapor collection...

2012-07-01

97

Cephalometric Features of Moyamoya Disease: A case control study  

PubMed Central

Contribution of authors Adnan I Qureshi, Waqas I Gilani MD, Sarwat I. Gilani MD, Malik M. Adil MD . Equally assisted in the synthesis and discussion of ideas, and share equal responsibility for the information written in the manuscript above. Conflict Of Interest No conflict of interests. Running title Cephalometric Features of Moyamoya Disease Background Moyamoya disease is highly prevalent among patients with syndromes that have unique cephalometric characteristics such as Down syndrome. We performed a case control study to investigate the relationship between cephalometric parameters and Moyamoya disease. Methods Patients [aged 16-82 years] with angiographically confirmed Moyamoya disease who underwent cranial CT scan were analyzed. We identified three controls for each patient who were matched for age (±1 year), gender, and race (white or African American). The fronto-occipital diameter, bi-parietal diameter, and distance between bregma and occiput were measured from the head CT scans of cases and controls. The cephalic index was calculated by determining the ratio between bi-parietal diameter and fronto-occipital diameter and multiplying the value by 100. Results A total of 13 cases of Moyamoya disease and 39 controls were analyzed. The stage of Moyamoya disease in cases was as follows: stage 1 (n=0), stage 2 (n=1), stage 3 (n=4), stage 4 (n=2), stage 5 (n=5) and stage 6 (n=1). There was a significantly greater bi-parietal diameter in Moyamoya disease patients compared with controls (141.5±3.7 mm versus 136.9±5.4 mm, p=0.007). There was a significantly greater fronto-occipital diameter in Moyamoya disease patients compared with controls (186.5±6.5 mm versus 180.2±8.7mm, p=0.02). The distance between bregma and occiput was shorter among cases compared with controls (81.1±6.2 versus 87.5±7.0, p=0.01). Conclusions We observed an association between cephalometric parameters and Moyamoya disease. Further study of the unique cephalometric characteristics among Moyamoya disease patients may provide additional insight into disease occurrence in white and African American populations. PMID:25422708

Qureshi, Adnan I; Gilani, Waqas I; Gilani, Sarwat I.; Adil, Malik M.

2014-01-01

98

White matter diffusion alterations in normal women at risk of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively normal right-handed women with both a family history of dementia and at least one apolipoprotein E4 allele. These were compared with images from 23 normal women without either AD risk factor. Group analyses were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle. These findings demonstrate that specific white matter pathways are altered in normal women at increased risk of AD years before the expected onset of cognitive symptoms. PMID:18801597

Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Andersen, Anders H; Powell, David A; Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Gold, Brian T

2010-07-01

99

26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. (a)(1) This section applies if...of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is serving in a...

2012-04-01

100

26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. (a)(1) This section applies if...of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is serving in a...

2013-04-01

101

26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. (a)(1) This section applies if...of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is serving in a...

2014-04-01

102

26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. (a)(1) This section applies if...of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is serving in a...

2011-04-01

103

78 FR 46339 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of Temporary Moratoria...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...carefully evaluated access for the three target moratoria areas. To determine if...of providers and suppliers in the target and surrounding counties, and confirmed...annually. Based on our analysis of each target market and review of MedPAC's March...

2013-07-31

104

A computational modelling study of transcranial direct current stimulation montages used in depression.  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique which involves passing a mild electric current to the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp. Several clinical studies suggest that tDCS may have clinically meaningful efficacy in the treatment of depression. The objective of this study was to simulate and compare the effects of several tDCS montages either used in clinical trials or proposed, for the treatment of depression, in different high-resolution anatomically-accurate head models. Detailed segmented finite element head models of two subjects were presented, and a total of eleven tDCS electrode montages were simulated. Sensitivity analysis on the effects of changing the size of the anode, rotating both electrodes and displacing the anode was also conducted on selected montages. The F3-F8 and F3-F4 montages have been used in clinical trials reporting significant antidepressant effects and both result in relatively high electric fields in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Other montages using a fronto-extracephalic or fronto-occipital approach result in greater stimulation of central structures (e.g. anterior cingulate cortex) which may be advantageous in treating depression, but their efficacy has yet to be tested in randomised controlled trials. Results from sensitivity analysis suggest that electrode position and size may be adjusted slightly to accommodate other priorities, such as skin discomfort and damage. PMID:24246487

Bai, Siwei; Dokos, Socrates; Ho, Kerrie-Anne; Loo, Colleen

2014-02-15

105

Functional bimodality in the brain networks of preterm and term human newborns.  

PubMed

The spontaneous brain activity exhibits long-range spatial correlations detected using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in newborns when (1) long neuronal pathways are still developing, and (2) the electrical brain activity consists of developmentally unique, intermittent events believed to guide activity-dependent brain wiring. We studied this spontaneous electrical brain activity using multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) of premature and fullterm babies during sleep to assess the development of spatial integration during last months of gestation. Correlations of frequency-specific amplitudes were found to follow a robust bimodality: During low amplitudes (low mode), brain activity exhibited very weak spatial correlations. In contrast, the developmentally essential high-amplitude events (high mode) showed strong spatial correlations. There were no clear spatial patterns in the early preterm, but clear frontal and parieto-occipital modules at term age. A significant fronto-occipital gradient was also seen in the development of the graph measure clustering coefficient. Strikingly, no bimodality was found in the fMRI recordings of the fullterm babies, suggesting that early EEG activity and fMRI signal reflect different mechanisms of spatial coordination. The results are compatible with the idea that early developing human brain exhibits intermittent long-range spatial connections that likely provide the endogenous guidance for early activity-dependent development of brain networks. PMID:23650289

Omidvarnia, Amir; Fransson, Peter; Metsäranta, Marjo; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

2014-10-01

106

State-dependent microstructural white matter changes in bipolar I depression  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in fronto-limbic-striatal white matter (WM) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD), but results have been inconsistent across studies. Furthermore, there have been no detailed investigations as to whether acute mood states contribute to microstructural changes in WM tracts. In order to compare fiber density and structural integrity within WM tracts between BD depression and remission, whole-brain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in 37 bipolar I disorder (BD-I) patients (16 depressed and 21 remitted), and 26 healthy individuals with diffusion tensor imaging. Significantly decreased FA and increased MD in bilateral prefronto-limbic-striatal white matter and right inferior fronto-occipital, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were shown in all BD-I patients versus controls, as well as in depressed BD-I patients compared to both controls and remitted BD-I patients. Depressed BD-I patients also exhibited increased FA in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Remitted BD-I patients did not differ from controls in FA or MD. These findings suggest that BD-I depression may be associated with acute microstructural WM changes. PMID:19255710

Zanetti, Marcus V.; Jackowski, Marcel P.; Versace, Amelia; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Hassel, Stefanie; Duran, Fábio L. S.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

2009-01-01

107

Automatic Tractography Segmentation Using a High-Dimensional White Matter Atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new white matter atlas creation method that learns a model of the common white matter structures present in a group of subjects. We demonstrate that our atlas creation method, which is based on group spectral clustering of tractography, discovers structures corresponding to expected white matter anatomy such as the corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundles, arcuate fasciculus,

Lauren J. O'Donnell; Carl-fredrik Westin

2007-01-01

108

Gravity influences top-down signals in visual processing.  

PubMed

Visual perception is not only based on incoming visual signals but also on information about a multimodal reference frame that incorporates vestibulo-proprioceptive input and motor signals. In addition, top-down modulation of visual processing has previously been demonstrated during cognitive operations including selective attention and working memory tasks. In the absence of a stable gravitational reference, the updating of salient stimuli becomes crucial for successful visuo-spatial behavior by humans in weightlessness. Here we found that visually-evoked potentials triggered by the image of a tunnel just prior to an impending 3D movement in a virtual navigation task were altered in weightlessness aboard the International Space Station, while those evoked by a classical 2D-checkerboard were not. Specifically, the analysis of event-related spectral perturbations and inter-trial phase coherency of these EEG signals recorded in the frontal and occipital areas showed that phase-locking of theta-alpha oscillations was suppressed in weightlessness, but only for the 3D tunnel image. Moreover, analysis of the phase of the coherency demonstrated the existence on Earth of a directional flux in the EEG signals from the frontal to the occipital areas mediating a top-down modulation during the presentation of the image of the 3D tunnel. In weightlessness, this fronto-occipital, top-down control was transformed into a diverging flux from the central areas toward the frontal and occipital areas. These results demonstrate that gravity-related sensory inputs modulate primary visual areas depending on the affordances of the visual scene. PMID:24400069

Cheron, Guy; Leroy, Axelle; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; De Saedeleer, Caty; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Vidal, Manuel; Dan, Bernard; Berthoz, Alain; McIntyre, Joseph

2014-01-01

109

Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Treatment-Naïve Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-Deficit/Hiperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder, but its neuroanatomical circuitry is still relatively understudied, especially in the adult population. The few morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies available to date have found heterogeneous results. This may be at least partly attributable to some well-known technical limitations of the conventional voxel-based methods usually employed to analyze such neuroimaging data. Moreover, there is a great paucity of imaging studies of adult ADHD to date that have excluded patients with history of use of stimulant medication. Methods A newly validated method named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA) was applied to multimodal (structural and DTI) MRI data acquired from 22 treatment-naïve ADHD adults and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). Results Regarding DTI data, we found higher fractional anisotropy in ADHD relative to HC encompassing the white matter (WM) of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal left gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus; reductions in trace (a measure of diffusivity) in ADHD relative to HC were also found in fronto-striatal-parieto-occipital circuits, including the right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral cingulate gyrus, as well as the left body and right splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi. Volumetric abnormalities in ADHD subjects were found only at a trend level of significance, including reduced gray matter (GM) in the right angular gyrus, and increased GM in the right supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions Our results suggest that adult ADHD is associated with neuroanatomical abnormalities mainly affecting the WM microstructure in fronto-parieto-temporal circuits that have been implicated in cognitive, emotional and visuomotor processes. PMID:25310815

Chaim, Tiffany M.; Zhang, Tianhao; Zanetti, Marcus V.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louzã, Mário R.; Doshi, Jimit; Serpa, Mauricio H.; Duran, Fabio L. S.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Davatzikos, Christos; Busatto, Geraldo F.

2014-01-01

110

White Matter Fractional Anisotropy Correlates With Speed of Processing and Motor Speed in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether childhood medulloblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors have decreased white matter fractional anisotropy (WMFA) and whether WMFA is related to the speed of processing and motor speed. Methods and Materials: For this study, 17 patients (6 medulloblastoma, 5 ALL treated with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) (4 x 5 g/m{sup 2}) and 6 with low-dose MTX (3 x 2 g/m{sup 2})) and 17 age-matched controls participated. On a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed, and WMFA values were calculated, including specific regions of interest (ROIs), and correlated with the speed of processing and motor speed. Results: Mean WMFA in the patient group, mean age 14 years (range 8.9 - 16.9), was decreased compared with the control group (p = 0.01), as well as WMFA in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciliculus (IFO) (p = 0.03) and in the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) (p = 0.01). Based on neurocognitive results, significant positive correlations were present between processing speed and WMFA in the splenium (sCC) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) and the body of the corpus callosum (bCC) (r = 0.52, p = 0.03), whereas the right IFO WMFA was related to motor speed (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Conclusions: White matter tracts, using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, show impairment in childhood cancer survivors, medulloblastoma survivors, and also those treated with high doses of MTX. In particular, white matter tracts in the sCC, bCC and right IFO are positively correlated with speed of processing and motor speed.

Aukema, Eline J. [Pediatric Psychosocial Department, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.j.aukema@amc.uva.nl; Caan, Matthan W.A. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Oudhuis, Nienke [Pediatric Psychosocial Department, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Majoie, Charles [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Frans M. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Reneman, Liesbeth [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Last, Bob F. [Pediatric Psychosocial Department, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Developmental Psychology, Free University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Grootenhuis, Martha A. [Pediatric Psychosocial Department, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2009-07-01

111

Neuroanatomical Dissections of Unilateral Visual Neglect Symptoms: ALE Meta-Analysis of Lesion-Symptom Mapping  

PubMed Central

Unilateral visual neglect is commonly defined as impaired ability to attend to stimuli presented on the side of visual space contralateral to the brain lesion. However, behavioral analyses indicate that different neglect symptoms can dissociate. The neuroanatomy of the syndrome has been hotly debated. Some groups have argued that the syndrome is linked to posterior parietal cortex lesions, while others report damage within regions including the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia. Several recent neuroimaging studies provide evidence that heterogeneity in the behavioral symptoms of neglect can be matched by variations in the brain lesions, and that some of the discrepancies across earlier findings might have resulted from the use of different neuropsychological tests and/or varied measures within the same task for diagnosing neglect. In this paper, we review the evidence for dissociations between both the symptoms and the neural substrates of unilateral visual neglect, drawing on ALE (anatomic likelihood estimation) meta-analyses of lesion-symptom mapping studies. Specifically, we examine dissociations between neglect symptoms associated with impaired control of attention across space (in an egocentric frame of reference) and within objects (in an allocentric frame of reference). Results of ALE meta-analyses indicated that, while egocentric symptoms are associated with damage within perisylvian network (pre- and postcentral, supramarginal, and superior temporal gyri) and damage within sub-cortical structures, more posterior lesions including the angular, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyri are associated with allocentric symptoms. Furthermore, there was high concurrence in deficits associated with white matter lesions within long association (superior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital, and inferior longitudinal fasciculi) and projection (corona radiata and thalamic radiation) pathways, supporting a disconnection account of the syndrome. Using this evidence we argue that different forms of neglect link to both distinct and common patterns of gray and white matter lesions. The findings are discussed in terms of functional accounts of neglect and theoretical models based on computational studies of both normal and impaired attention functions. PMID:22907997

Chechlacz, Magdalena; Rotshtein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2012-01-01

112

Associations between white matter hyperintensities and ? amyloid on integrity of projection, association, and limbic fiber tracts measured with diffusion tensor MRI.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between A? deposition and white matter pathology (i.e., white matter hyperintensities, WMH) on microstructural integrity of the white matter. Fifty-seven participants (mean age: 78±7 years) from an ongoing multi-site research program who spanned the spectrum of normal to mild cognitive impairment (Clinical dementia rating 0-0.5) and low to high risk factors for arteriosclerosis and WMH pathology (defined as WMH volume >0.5% total intracranial volume) were assessed with positron emission tomography (PET) with Pittsburg compound B (PiB) and magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the relationship between A? deposition and WMH pathology on fractional anisotropy (FA) from 9 tracts of interest (i.e., corona radiata, internal capsule, cingulum, parahippocampal white matter, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal, superior and inferior front-occipital fasciculi, and fornix). WMH pathology was associated with reduced FA in projection (i.e., internal capsule and corona radiate) and association (i.e., superior longitudinal, superior and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi) fiber tracts. A? deposition (i.e., PiB positivity) was associated with reduced FA in the fornix and splenium of the corpus callosum. There were interactions between PiB and WMH pathology in the internal capsule and parahippocampal white matter, where A? deposition reduced FA more among subjects with WMH pathology than those without. However, accounting for apoE ?4 genotype rendered these interactions insignificant. Although this finding suggests that apoE4 may increase amyloid deposition, both in the parenchyma (resulting in PiB positivity) and in blood vessels (resulting in amyloid angiopathy and WMH pathology), and that these two factors together may be associated with compromised white matter microstructural integrity in multiple brain regions, additional studies with a longitudinal design will be necessary to resolve this issue. PMID:23762308

Chao, Linda L; Decarli, Charles; Kriger, Stephen; Truran, Diana; Zhang, Yu; Laxamana, Joel; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Jagust, William J; Sanossian, Nerses; Mack, Wendy J; Chui, Helena C; Weiner, Michael W

2013-01-01

113

Results of extremely low birth weight infants randomized to receive extra enteral calcium supply  

PubMed Central

Background Bone mineral deficiency continues to occur in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants despite formulas enriched in Ca and P. Objective This study tested whether extra enteral Ca supplementation increases bone mineral content (BMC) and prevents dolichocephalic head flattening and myopia in ELBW infants. Study design Infants 401–1000 birth weight receiving enteral feeds were randomized to receive feeds supplemented with Ca-gluconate powder, or pure standard feeds. Main outcome measures were the excretion of Ca and P by weekly spot urine measurements, the degree of dolichocephalic deformation (fronto-occipital to biparietal diameter ratio, FOD/BPD) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age and the BMC (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) at discharge. Cycloplegic refraction was measured at 18–22 months corrected age. Results Ninety-nine ELBW infants with a gestational age of 26 weeks (23–31) [Median (minimum-maximum)] were randomized at a postnatal age of 12 days (5–23) weighing 790g (440–1700). Urinary Ca excretion increased, P excretion decreased in the Ca supplemented group. Total body BMC was 89.9 ± 2.4 g (mean ± SE) in the supplemented group and 85.2 ± 2.6 g in the control group (p= 0.19). The FOD/BPD was 1.50 (1.13–1.69, mean ± SD) and 1.47 (1.18–1.64) in the supplemented and control groups, and the refraction 0.98 ± 1.23 and 1.40 ± 1.33 dpt. (p=0.68), respectively in 64 ELBW infants (79% of survivors) at 2-year-follow-up. Conclusions Extra enteral Ca supplementation did not change BMC, head shape or refraction. The decreased P excretion may reflect P deficiency in infants receiving extra Ca, preventing improved bone mineral accretion. PMID:21865980

Carroll, William F.; Fabres, Jorge; Nagy, Tim R.; Frazier, Marcela; Roane, Claire; Pohlandt, Frank; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Thome, Ulrich H.

2011-01-01

114

Associations between White Matter Hyperintensities and ? Amyloid on Integrity of Projection, Association, and Limbic Fiber Tracts Measured with Diffusion Tensor MRI  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between A? deposition and white matter pathology (i.e., white matter hyperintensities, WMH) on microstructural integrity of the white matter. Fifty-seven participants (mean age: 78±7 years) from an ongoing multi-site research program who spanned the spectrum of normal to mild cognitive impairment (Clinical dementia rating 0–0.5) and low to high risk factors for arteriosclerosis and WMH pathology (defined as WMH volume >0.5% total intracranial volume) were assessed with positron emission tomography (PET) with Pittsburg compound B (PiB) and magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the relationship between A? deposition and WMH pathology on fractional anisotropy (FA) from 9 tracts of interest (i.e., corona radiata, internal capsule, cingulum, parahippocampal white matter, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal, superior and inferior front-occipital fasciculi, and fornix). WMH pathology was associated with reduced FA in projection (i.e., internal capsule and corona radiate) and association (i.e., superior longitudinal, superior and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi) fiber tracts. A? deposition (i.e., PiB positivity) was associated with reduced FA in the fornix and splenium of the corpus callosum. There were interactions between PiB and WMH pathology in the internal capsule and parahippocampal white matter, where A? deposition reduced FA more among subjects with WMH pathology than those without. However, accounting for apoE ?4 genotype rendered these interactions insignificant. Although this finding suggests that apoE4 may increase amyloid deposition, both in the parenchyma (resulting in PiB positivity) and in blood vessels (resulting in amyloid angiopathy and WMH pathology), and that these two factors together may be associated with compromised white matter microstructural integrity in multiple brain regions, additional studies with a longitudinal design will be necessary to resolve this issue. PMID:23762308

Chao, Linda L.; DeCarli, Charles; Kriger, Stephen; Truran, Diana; Zhang, Yu; Laxamana, Joel; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Jagust, William J.; Sanossian, Nerses; Mack, Wendy J.; Chui, Helena C.; Weiner, Michael W.

2013-01-01

115

Neurobiology of Disease More Is Not Always Better: Increased Fractional Anisotropy  

E-print Network

Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Poor Visuospatial Abilities in Williams Syndrome Fumiko Hoeft,1 Naama in the dorsal and ventral streams among individuals with Williams syndrome in visuospatial construction deficits in WS. Key words: Williams syndrome; visuospatial construction; superior

Bellugi, Ursula

116

White matter integrity and cognition in mild traumatic brain injury following motor vehicle accident.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to explore the white matter structure integrity in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the relationship between the white matter structure integrity and cognitive impairment of patients with mTBI. Twenty-five patients with mTBI and 25 healthy control subjects were studied with conventional MR imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps of patients with mTBI were calculated and compared, with these control maps using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly lower fractional anisotropy was found in patients in the uncinate fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and internal capsule. Mean diffusivity was significantly elevated in the body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and internal capsule in the mTBI group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The mTBI group showed a significant negative correlation between the elevated mean diffusivity of the uncinate fasciculus and the working memory index (WMI) (R(2)=0.51, P<0.05), and the internal capsule of MD values was significantly negatively related to processing speed index (PSI) (R(2)=0.45, P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between the FA value of the uncinate fasciculus and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the mTBI patient group (R(2)=0.36, P<0.05). TBSS analysis of DTI suggests that patients with mTBI have focal axonal injury, and the pathophysiology is significantly related to the MMSE and IQ of mTBI patients. Diffusion tensor imaging can be a powerful technique for in vivo detection of mTBI, and can help in the diagnosis of patients with mTBI. PMID:25451093

Xiong, Kunlin; Zhu, Yongshan; Zhang, Yulong; Yin, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jingna; Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Weiguo

2014-12-01

117

The longitudinal growth of the neuromeres and the resulting brain in the human embryo.  

PubMed

The growth of the human brain during the embryonic period was assessed in terms of longitudinal measurements in staged embryos. Precise graphic reconstructions prepared by the onerous point-plotting method were considered to be the most reliable, and 23 were examined in detail. A distinction is necessary between measurements of the brain (cerebral diameters) and those of the skull (osseous diameters), and also between those of the folded brain in situ, studied here, and the later relatively straightened brain. Longitudinal measurements were made of individual neuromeres and their successors in steps (neuromeric lengths). The sum of the neuromeric measurements at any given stage provides the total neuromeric length (TNL) of the folded brain in situ at that stage and it increases in keeping with the greatest length (GL) of the embryo. At stages 16-19, however, the neuromeric length of the brain may exceed the GL. From stage 20 onwards the body length increases more rapidly compared with the length of the brain. The most cephalic neuromere is the telencephalon medium, abbreviated T1 here. The cerebral hemispheres are derived from it, although they are not neuromeres. The hemispheres soon extend rostrally beyond the limit of T1 by an amount that is here designated T2, and that indicates the growth of the telencephalon rostral to the commissural plate, which is the site of the future corpus callosum. Further laterally, the hemispheric length (future fronto-occipital diameter) increases rapidly, as does also the bitemporal (biparietal) diameter. At the end of the embryonic period these diameters are one fourth to one fifth of the head circumference. Additional neuromeric information becomes manifest when the measurements are calculated as percentages of the total length of the brain. The rhombencephalon decreases considerably, diencephalon 2 increases greatly, whereas diencephalon 1 diminishes, and the cerebral hemispheres enlarge massively. In addition, specific neuromeres or subdivisions come to occupy relatively more or relatively less of the total. Three periods were found during which individual neuromeres acquire their maximal or minimal lengths: the maximal absolute lengths were in period 3, whereas the maximal and minimal percentage lengths were in periods 1 and 3. The various neuromeric changes are considered to be related to alterations in functional development. Finally, in furtherance of establishing continuity in prenatal data, comparisons were effected between embryonic and fetal measurements. PMID:23183269

O'Rahilly, Ronan; Müller, Fabiola

2013-01-01

118

Patterns of cortical reorganization in the adult marmoset after a cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

In the present study, we used microelectrode recordings of multiunit responses to evaluate patterns of the reactivation of somatosensory cortex after sensory loss produced by spinal cord lesions in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). These New World monkeys have become a popular model in studies of cortical organization and function. Primary somatosensory cortex and adjoining somatosensory areas can become extensively deactivated by lesions of somatosensory afferents as they ascend in the dorsal columns of the cervical spinal cord. Six to 7 weeks after complete lesions of the cuneate fasciculus subserving the forelimb at cervical levels 5-6, the hand region in contralateral areas 3b and 1 was reactivated by inputs from the forelimb, but excluded representations of some or all digits. In a similar manner, recording sites from the forelimb region of areas 2-5 responded to parts of the forelimb but not to digits after an extensive lesion of the contralateral cuneate fasciculus at C5-C6. Lesions that damaged only the gracile fasciculus or a small percentage of the cuneate fasciculus did not produce changes in the gross hand representation in contralateral areas 3b, 3a, 1, and 2. Finally, a complete but lower lesion of the cuneate fasciculus at C8 produced some abnormalities in the reactivation, but the digits were represented. The results indicate that areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2-5 of the somatosensory cortex are extensively reactivated after large, apparently complete lesions of the contralateral cuneate fasciculus, but afferents from the digits may not contribute to their reactivation. PMID:23681952

Bowes, Charnese; Burish, Mark; Cerkevich, Christina; Kaas, Jon

2013-10-15

119

Proceedings of the 8th International Natural Language Generation Conference, pages 143146, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19-21 June 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) which connects regions of the frontal lobe with the parietal and temporal lobes of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) case re- port similar to existing expert-authored reports that interpret- cations of the injuries, much less any evidence of TBI. Fortunately, HDFT is providing a wealth of details

120

FrontoTemporal Disconnectivity in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

E-print Network

critical white matter tracts in schizophrenia, the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle (CB in SPD suggest altered fronto­temporal connectivity through the UF, similar to findings in schizophrenia, and intact neocortical­limbic connectivity through the CB, in marked contrast with what has been reported

121

Loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: an evaluation of white matter tract integrity with colour coded MR diffusion tensor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A NOVEL MRI METHODdiffusion tensor imaging—was used to compare the integrity of several white matter fibre tracts in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Relative to normal controls, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed a highly significant reduction in the integrity of the association white matter fibre tracts, such as the splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum.

Stephen E Rose; Fang Chen; Jonathan B Chalk; Fernando O Zelaya; Wendy E Strugnell; Mark Benson; James Semple; David M Doddrell

2000-01-01

122

A Tractography Study in Dyslexia: Neuroanatomic Correlates of Orthographic, Phonological and Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diffusion tensor imaging tractography is a structural magnetic resonance imaging technique allowing reconstruction and assessment of the integrity of three dimensional white matter tracts, as indexed by their fractional anisotropy. It is assumed that the left arcuate fasciculus plays a crucial role for reading development, as it connects two…

Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Poelmans, Hanne; Sunaert, Stefan; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

2012-01-01

123

White matter abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Preliminary associations with the Nogo-66 receptor gene and symptoms of psychosis  

E-print Network

White matter abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Preliminary associations with the Nogo-66 of the internal capsule (ALIC), fornix, and uncinate fasciculus (UF) of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome% of individuals with 22q11.2DS developing schizophrenia in adulthood, we hypothesized reduc- tion in structural

124

Longitudinal changes of structural connectivity in traumatic axonal injury  

E-print Network

during the first 6 months after traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor changes occurring between the acute and chronic stages of traumatic brain injury and for predicting of interest; TAI traumatic axonal injury; TBI traumatic brain injury; UF uncinate fasciculus. Traumatic axonal

Abdi, Hervé

125

White matter tract integrity and intelligence in patients with mental retardation and healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that brain structures correlate with intelligence but the association between the integrity of brain white matter tracts and intelligence in patients with mental retardation (MR) and healthy adults remains unknown. The aims of this study are to investigate whether the integrity of corpus callosum (CC), cingulum, uncinate fasciculus (UF), optic radiation (OR) and corticospinal tract (CST)

Chunshui Yu; Jun Li; Yong Liu; Wen Qin; Yonghui Li; Ni Shu; Tianzi Jiang; Kuncheng Li

2008-01-01

126

THE JOURNAL OI' COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 233~48-90(1985) Tectoreticular Pathwayis in the Turtle,  

E-print Network

filled with horseradish peroxidase after tectal injections. Three tectoreticular pathways each con- tain interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the suprapeduncular nucleus. The main trunks mesencephali caudalis) and often have a thick rostral branch. The main caudal trunks, however, remain

Sereno, Martin

127

Grossberg, S. & Pearson, L. LIST PARSE MODEL SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL  

E-print Network

,d and 46 (Petrides & Pandya, 1994) in and around the principal sulcus of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-level inputs to the lateral prefrontal cortex Posterior parietal association areas in (a) the inferior parietal fasciculus to portions of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (e.g., areas 44 and 45, including portions

Spence, Harlan Ernest

128

Progressive White Matter Microstructure Damage in Male Chronic Heroin Dependent Individuals: A DTI and TBSS Study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs) with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years) and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10?20 years)] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da) and radial diffusivity (Dr) were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. Conclusions The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore, abnormal WM microstructure may correlate with decision-making impairments in HDIs. PMID:23650554

Su, Huanhuan; Lv, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuelin; Tian, Junzhang; Zhuo, Fuzhen

2013-01-01

129

Tracking the Roots of Reading Ability: White Matter Volume and Integrity Correlate with Phonological Awareness in Prereading and Early-Reading Kindergarten Children  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

Osher, David E.; Beach, Sara D.; Cyr, Abigail B.; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D.E.

2013-01-01

130

Vascular supply of nerves in the tarsal tunnel.  

PubMed

The normal vascular supply of nerves in the tarsal tunnel was studied by intra-arterial injection of latex. In general, the blood supply to the tibial nerve and its branches came directly from corresponding arteries. Each nutrient artery to the tibial nerve bifurcated on the surface of the lateral plantar nerve fasciculus to create longitudinal vessels that made anastomoses with bifurcating nutrient vessels proximally and distally. This primary longitudinal system supplied intersubfascicular vessels to the medial plantar fasciculus. The last nutrient artery from the posterior tibial artery usually supplied the terminal branching point of the tibial nerve midway through the tarsal tunnel. The lateral and medial plantar nerves received most of the nutrient vessels from their corresponding arteries in shorter intervals. In 65% of cases, the lateral plantar nerve received a nutrient vessel from the medial plantar artery. Potential anatomical areas of vascular compromise in the etiology or surgical release of tarsal tunnel syndrome are discussed. PMID:9167929

Flanigan, D C; Cassell, M; Saltzman, C L

1997-05-01

131

Anatomy is strategy: skilled reading differences associated with structural connectivity differences in the reading network.  

PubMed

Are there multiple ways to be a skilled reader? To address this longstanding, unresolved question, we hypothesized that individual variability in using semantic information in reading aloud would be associated with neuroanatomical variation in pathways linking semantics and phonology. Left-hemisphere regions of interest for diffusion tensor imaging analysis were defined based on fMRI results, including two regions linked with semantic processing - angular gyrus (AG) and inferior temporal sulcus (ITS) - and two linked with phonological processing - posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). Effects of imageability (a semantic measure) on response times varied widely among individuals and covaried with the volume of pathways through the ITS and pMTG, and through AG and pSTG, partially overlapping the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the posterior branch of the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest strategy differences among skilled readers associated with structural variation in the neural reading network. PMID:24735993

Graves, William W; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Humphries, Colin; Stengel, Benjamin C; Seidenberg, Mark S

2014-06-01

132

Drawing connections between white matter and numerical and mathematical cognition: a literature review.  

PubMed

In this review we examine white matter tracts that may support numerical and mathematical abilities and whether abnormalities in these pathways are associated with deficits in numerical and mathematical abilities. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) yields indices of white matter integrity and can provide information about the axonal organization of the brain. A growing body of research is using DTI to investigate how individual differences in brain microstructures relate to different numerical and mathematical abilities. Several tracts have been associated with numerical and mathematical abilities such as the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior segment of the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, corona radiata, and the corticospinal tract. Impairments in mathematics tend to be associated with atypical white matter structures within similar regions, especially in inferior parietal and temporal tracts. This systematic review summarizes and critically examines the current literature on white matter correlates of numerical and mathematical abilities, and provides directions for future research. PMID:25446952

Matejko, Anna A; Ansari, Daniel

2015-01-01

133

The Projection of Cervical Primary Fibers to the DCN of the Squirrel, Sciurus niger: Fiber Sorting in the Dorsal Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course and terminal distribution of cervical primary afferents in the dorsal column nuclei were studied in the fox squirrel, Sciurus niger. Unilateral rhizotomies were performed at cervical levels C3, C4, C5, C6 and C8. For all spinal levels studied except C8, degeneration in the medullary cuneate fasciculus was present within two distinct groups. They included a large oblique lateral

B. C. Albright; J. I. Johnson; E. M. Ostapoff

1983-01-01

134

Spatial cognition in Parkinson’s disease and neurodegenerative dementias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial awareness is dependent on the cortical areas of the temporal–parietal junction and on a larger parietal–frontal network\\u000a communicating via the superior occipito–frontal fasciculus. The hippocampal formation may enhance the spatial information\\u000a processed within short term memory with cognitive information through the neocortical–hippocampal loop of the newly acquired\\u000a spatial information. Several aspects of spatial cognitive performance have been found to

Lucilla Parnetti; Paolo Calabresi

2006-01-01

135

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca’s region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Mesulam, Marsel M.; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-01-01

136

Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinical principles and genetic advances.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) refers to inherited disorders in which spastic gait is either the only feature or is a major syndrome feature. There are more than 70 genetic types of HSP. Neuropathological studies, albeit limited to only a few genetic types of HSP, have identified axon degeneration involving the distal ends of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis fibers. In this review, the author highlights the clinical and genetic features of HSP. PMID:25192507

Fink, John K

2014-07-01

137

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca's region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel M; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-08-01

138

Localization and Distribution Patterns of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Diaphorase Exhibiting Axons in the White Matter of the Spinal Cord of the Rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The funicular distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd)-exhibiting axons was examined in the white matter of the rabbit spinal cord by using horizontal, parasaggital, and transverse sections. Four morphologically distinct kinds of NADPHd-exhibiting axons (2.5–3.5 µm in diameter) were identified in the sulcomarginal fasciculus as a part of the ventral column in the cervical and upper thoracic segments

Jozef Maršala; Martin Maršala; Nadežda Luká?ová; Toshizo Ishikawa; Dáša ?ížková

2003-01-01

139

?-diketone central neuropathy: quantitative morphometric analysis of axons in rat spinal cord white matter regions and nerve roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative analytical method was used to measure myelinated axon morphometric parameters (e.g., axon area, ratio of axon area\\/fiber area, and index of circularity) in rat nervous tissue during intoxication with 2,5-hexanedione (HD). Parameters were assessed in nerve roots (dorsal and ventral) and in ascending (gracile fasciculus and spinocerebellar tract) and descending (corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts) spinal cord white matter

Richard M LoPachin; Bernard S Jortner; Maria L Reid; Soma Das

2003-01-01

140

Regional White Matter Damage Predicts Speech Fluency in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Recently, two different white matter regions that support speech fluency have been identified: the aslant tract and the anterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus (ASAF). The role of the ASAF was demonstrated in patients with post-stroke aphasia, while the role of the aslant tract shown in primary progressive aphasia. Regional white matter integrity appears to be crucial for speech production; however, the degree that each region exerts an independent influence on speech fluency is unclear. Furthermore, it is not yet defined if damage to both white matter regions influences speech in the context of the same neural mechanism (stroke-induced aphasia). This study assessed the relationship between speech fluency and quantitative integrity of the aslant region and the ASAF. It also explored the relationship between speech fluency and other white matter regions underlying classic cortical language areas such as the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Damage to these regions, except the ILF, was associated with speech fluency, suggesting synergistic association of these regions with speech fluency in post-stroke aphasia. These observations support the theory that speech fluency requires the complex, orchestrated activity between a network of pre-motor, secondary, and tertiary associative cortices, supported in turn by regional white matter integrity. PMID:25368572

Basilakos, Alexandra; Fillmore, Paul T.; Rorden, Chris; Guo, Dazhou; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

2014-01-01

141

Outcomes of Diffusion Tensor Tractography-Integrated Stereotactic Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the effect of use of tractography of the critical brain white matter fibers created from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging on reduction of morbidity associated with radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Tractography of the pyramidal tract has been integrated since February 2004 if lesions are adjacent to it, the optic radiation since May 2006, and the arcuate fasciculus since October 2007. By visually confirming the precise location of these fibers, the dose to these fiber tracts was optimized. One hundred forty-four consecutive patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations who underwent radiosurgery with this technique between February 2004 and December 2009 were analyzed. Results: Tractography was prospectively integrated in 71 of 155 treatments for 144 patients. The pyramidal tract was visualized in 45, the optic radiation in 22, and the arcuate fasciculus in 13 (two tracts in 9). During the follow-up period of 3 to 72 months (median, 23 months) after the procedure, 1 patient showed permanent worsening of pre-existing dysesthesia, and another patient exhibited mild transient hemiparesis 12 months later but fully recovered after oral administration of corticosteroid agents. Two patients had transient speech disturbance before starting integration of the arcuate fasciculus tractography, but no patient thereafter. Conclusion: Integrating tractography helped prevent morbidity of radiosurgery in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

Koga, Tomoyuki, E-mail: kouga-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Maruyama, Keisuke; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ota, Takahiro; Shin, Masahiro [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kunii, Naoto [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Terahara, Atsuro; Aoki, Shigeki; Masutani, Yoshitaka [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Nobuhito [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-02-01

142

Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?  

PubMed

Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia. PMID:23783231

Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

2014-09-01

143

Constrained spherical deconvolution analysis of the limbic network in human, with emphasis on a direct cerebello-limbic pathway  

PubMed Central

The limbic system is part of an intricate network which is involved in several functions like memory and emotion. Traditionally the role of the cerebellum was considered mainly associated to motion control; however several evidences are raising about a role of the cerebellum in learning skills, emotions control, mnemonic and behavioral processes involving also connections with limbic system. In 15 normal subjects we studied limbic connections by probabilistic Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD) tractography. The main result of our work was to prove for the first time in human brain the existence of a direct cerebello-limbic pathway which was previously hypothesized but never demonstrated. We also extended our analysis to the other limbic connections including cingulate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinated fasciculus, anterior thalamic connections and fornix. Although these pathways have been already described in the tractographic literature we provided reconstruction, quantitative analysis and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) right-left symmetry comparison using probabilistic CSD tractography that is known to provide a potential improvement compared to previously used Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) techniques. The demonstration of the existence of cerebello-limbic pathway could constitute an important step in the knowledge of the anatomic substrate of non-motor cerebellar functions. Finally the CSD statistical data about limbic connections in healthy subjects could be potentially useful in the diagnosis of pathological disorders damaging this system. PMID:25538606

Arrigo, Alessandro; Mormina, Enricomaria; Anastasi, Giuseppe Pio; Gaeta, Michele; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Quartarone, Angelo; De Salvo, Simona; Bruschetta, Daniele; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Milardi, Demetrio

2014-01-01

144

EXOME SEQUENCING AND DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES  

PubMed Central

Background We had previously shown that arcuate fasciculus is poorly developed in patients with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In the present study, we used exome sequencing to identify the candidate variants in IDD patients with and without DTI abnormalities. Methods Eighteen children with IDD (age: 67±36 months, 9 females) were included in the present study. The DTI was used to determine the integrity of arcuate fasciculus. The next generation sequencing was performed on the Solid 4 platform. A novel, analytical strategy was developed to identify a set of candidate genes of interest. Novel, nonsynonymous variants in the patients were then looked for within this subset of genes and in known IDD genes. Results Seven novel, nonsynonymous (all of them were heterozygous, missense) variants belonged to ultra-conserved genes that are known to cause abnormal brain morphology in mutant mice. Similarly, 3 novel, nonsynonymous (all of them were heterozygous, missense) variants belonged to known IDD genes. Two patients with underdeveloped arcuate fasciculus contained novel, nonsynonymous variants in genes (MID1 and EN2) regulating axon guidance pathway. Conclusions Exome sequencing identified several new the genetic causes of IDD. PMID:24321989

Sundaram, Senthil K; Huq, AHM M; Hsia, Tammy; Chugani, Harry T

2013-01-01

145

Decision-making deficit of a patient with axonal damage after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were reported to have difficulty making advantageous decisions, but the underlying deficits of the network of brain areas involved in this process were not directly examined. We report a patient with TBI who demonstrated problematic behavior in situations of risk and complexity after cerebral injury from a traffic accident. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was used to reveal his deficits in the decision-making process. To examine underlying deficits of the network of brain areas, we examined T1-weighted structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Tc-ECD SPECT in this patient. The patient showed abnormality in IGT. DTI-MRI results showed a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fasciculus between the brain stem and cortical regions via the thalamus. He showed significant decrease in gray matter volumes in the bilateral insular cortex, hypothalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex, possibly reflecting Wallerian degeneration secondary to the fasciculus abnormalities. SPECT showed significant blood flow decrease in the broad cortical areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VM). Our study showed that the patient had dysfunctional decision-making process. Microstructural abnormality in the fasciculus, likely from the traffic accident, caused reduced afferent feedback to the brain, resulting in less efficient decision-making. Our findings support the somatic-marker hypothesis (SMH), where somatic feedback to the brain influences the decision-making process. PMID:24316983

Yasuno, Fumihiko; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Jun; Okada, Koji; Tanaka, Syohei; Shinkai, Takayuki; Taoka, Toshiaki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

2014-02-01

146

White matter disruption at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease: Relationships with hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory performance  

PubMed Central

White matter tract alterations have been consistently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, limbic fronto-temporal connections, which are critical to episodic memory function, may degenerate early in the course of the disease. However the relation between white matter tract degeneration, hippocampal atrophy and episodic memory impairment at the earliest stages of AD is still unclear. In this magnetic resonance imaging study, white matter integrity and hippocampal volumes were evaluated in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to AD (Albert et al., 2011) (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 15). Performance in various episodic memory tasks was also evaluated in each participant. Relative to controls, patients showed a significant reduction of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and increase of radial diffusivity (RD) in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, parahippocampal cingulum and fornix. Within the patient group, significant intra-hemispheric correlations were notably found between hippocampal grey matter volume and FA in the uncinate fasciculus, suggesting a relationship between atrophy and disconnection of the hippocampus. Moreover, episodic recognition scores were related with uncinate fasciculus FA across patients. These results indicate that fronto-hippocampal connectivity is reduced from the earliest pre-demential stages of AD. Disruption of fronto-hippocampal connections may occur progressively, in parallel with hippocampal atrophy, and may specifically contribute to early initial impairment in episodic memory. PMID:25685715

Rémy, Florence; Vayssière, Nathalie; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pariente, Jérémie

2015-01-01

147

Structural brain changes related to bilingualism: does immersion make a difference?  

PubMed Central

Within the field of neuroscientific research on second language learning, considerable attention has been devoted to functional and recently also structural changes related to second language acquisition. The present literature review summarizes studies that investigated structural changes related to bilingualism. Furthermore, as recent evidence has suggested that native-like exposure to a second language (i.e., a naturalistic learning setting or immersion) considerably impacts second language learning, all findings are reflected with respect to the learning environment. Aggregating the existing evidence, we conclude that structural changes in left inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions have been observed in studies on cortical gray matter changes, while the anterior parts of the corpus callosum have been repeatedly found to reflect bilingualism in studies on white matter (WM) connectivity. Regarding the learning environment, no cortical alterations can be attributed specifically to naturalistic or classroom learning. With regard to WM changes, one might tentatively propose that changes in IFOF and SLF are possibly more prominently observed in studies investigating bilinguals with a naturalistic learning experience. However, future studies are needed to replicate and strengthen the existing evidence and to directly test the impact of naturalistic exposure on structural brain plasticity. PMID:25324816

Stein, Maria; Winkler, Carmen; Kaiser, Anelis; Dierks, Thomas

2014-01-01

148

White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure. PMID:25379451

Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Schauder, Kimberly B.; Anderson, Adam W.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Loring, Whitney A.; Cascio, Carissa J.

2014-01-01

149

Interhemispheric temporal lobe connectivity predicts language impairment in adolescents born preterm  

PubMed Central

Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language regions. To investigate this, we performed a comprehensive assessment of language and academic abilities in a group of adolescents born prematurely, some of whom had evidence of brain injury at birth (n = 50, mean age: 16 years, mean gestational age: 27 weeks) and compared them to a term-born control group (n = 30). Detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tractography analyses of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric white matter bundles were performed. Analysis of intrahemispheric pathways included the arcuate fasciculus (dorsal language pathway) and uncinate fasciculus/extreme capsule (ventral language pathway). Analysis of interhemispheric pathways (in particular, connections between the temporal lobes) included the two major commissural bundles: the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. We found language impairment in 38% of adolescents born preterm. Language impairment was not related to abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus (or its subsegments), but was associated with bilateral volume reductions in the ventral language pathway. However, the most significant volume reduction was detected in the posterior corpus callosum (splenium), which contains interhemispheric connections between the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Diffusion tractography showed that of the three groups of interhemispheric fibres within the splenium, only those connecting the temporal lobes were reduced. Crucially, we found that language impairment was only detectable if the anterior commissure (a second temporal lobe commissural pathway) was also small. Regression analyses showed that a combination of anatomical measures of temporal interhemispheric connectivity (through the splenium of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure) explained 57% of the variance in language abilities. This supports recent theories emphasizing the importance of interhemispheric connections for language, particularly in the developing brain. PMID:23144265

Northam, Gemma B.; Liégeois, Frédérique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.

2012-01-01

150

White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure. PMID:25379451

Pryweller, Jennifer R; Schauder, Kimberly B; Anderson, Adam W; Heacock, Jessica L; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Newsom, Cassandra R; Loring, Whitney A; Cascio, Carissa J

2014-01-01

151

Loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: an evaluation of white matter tract integrity with colour coded MR diffusion tensor imaging  

PubMed Central

A NOVEL MRI METHOD—diffusion tensor imaging—was used to compare the integrity of several white matter fibre tracts in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Relative to normal controls, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed a highly significant reduction in the integrity of the association white matter fibre tracts, such as the splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cingulum. By contrast, pyramidal tract integrity seemed unchanged. This novel finding is consistent with the clinical presentation of probable Alzheimer's disease, in which global cognitive decline is a more prominent feature than motor disturbance.?? PMID:10990518

Rose, S.; Chen, F.; Chalk, J.; Zelaya, F.; Strugnell, W.; Benson, M.; Semple, J.; Doddrell, D.

2000-01-01

152

Propylene oxide causes central-peripheral distal axonopathy in rats  

SciTech Connect

In Wistar rats subjected daily to a 6-hr exposure of propylene oxide (PO) at a concentration of 1,500 ppm (5 times a wk for 7 wk), ataxia developed in the hindlegs. Myelinated fibers in hindleg nerves and in the fasciculus gracilis showed axonal degeneration, sparing the nerve cell body of the first sacral dorsal root ganglion and myelinated fibers of the first sacral dorsal and ventral roots. These pathologic findings are compatible with central-peripheral distal axonopathy. This is apparently the first animal model of PO neuropathy to be verified histologically.

Ohnishi, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Murai, Y.; Hayashida, Y.; Hori, H.; Tanaka, I.

1988-09-01

153

Testing the white matter retrogenesis hypothesis of cognitive aging.  

PubMed

The retrogenesis hypothesis postulates that late-myelinated white matter fibers are most vulnerable to age- and disease-related degeneration, which in turn mediate cognitive decline. While recent evidence supports this hypothesis in the context of Alzheimer's disease, it has not been tested systematically in normal cognitive aging. In the current study, we examined the retrogenesis hypothesis in a group (n = 282) of cognitively normal individuals, ranging in age from 7 to 87 years, from the Brain Resource International Database. Participants were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and were imaged with diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (DA), measures of white matter coherence, were computed in 2 prototypical early-myelinated fiber tracts (posterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncles) and 2 prototypical late-myelinated fiber tracts (superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus) chosen to parallel previous studies; mean summary values were also computed for other early- and late-myelinated fiber tracts. We examined age-associated differences in FA, RD, and DA in the developmental trajectory (ages 7-30 years) and degenerative trajectory (ages 31-87 years), and tested whether the measures of white matter coherence mediated age-related cognitive decline in the older group. FA and DA values were greater for early-myelinated fibers than for late-myelinated fibers, and RD values were lower for early-myelinated than late-myelinated fibers. There were age-associated differences in FA, RD, and DA across early- and late-myelinated fiber tracts in the younger group, but the magnitude of differences did not vary as a function of early or late myelinating status. FA and RD in most fiber tracts showed reliable age-associated differences in the older age group, but the magnitudes were greatest for the late-myelinated tract summary measure, inferior longitudinal fasciculus (late fiber tract), and cerebral peduncles (early fiber tract). Finally, FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and cerebral peduncles and RD in the cerebral peduncles mediated age-associated differences in an executive functioning factor. Taken together, the findings highlight the importance of white matter coherence in cognitive aging and provide some, but not complete, support for the white matter retrogenesis hypothesis in normal cognitive aging. PMID:21783280

Brickman, Adam M; Meier, Irene B; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Provenzano, Frank A; Grieve, Stuart M; Siedlecki, Karen L; Wasserman, Ben T; Williams, Leanne M; Zimmerman, Molly E

2012-08-01

154

Structural Modifications of the Brain in Acclimatization to High-Altitude  

PubMed Central

Adaptive changes in respiratory and cardiovascular responses at high altitude (HA) have been well clarified. However, the central mechanisms underlying HA acclimatization remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA) calculation, we investigated 28 Han immigrant residents (17–22 yr) born and raised at HA of 2616–4200 m in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for at least 17 years and who currently attended college at sea-level (SL). Their family migrated from SL to HA 2–3 generations ago and has resided at HA ever since. Control subjects were matched SL residents. HA residents (vs. SL) showed decreased grey matter volume in the bilateral anterior insula, right anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral prefrontal cortex, left precentral cortex, and right lingual cortex. HA residents (vs. SL) had significantly higher FA mainly in the bilateral anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum, bilateral superior corona radiata, bilateral anterior external capsule, right posterior cingulum, and right corticospinal tract. Higher FA values in those regions were associated with decreased or unchanged radial diffusivity coinciding with no change of longitudinal diffusivity in HA vs. SL group. Conversely, HA residents had lower FA in the left optic radiation and left superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our data demonstrates that HA acclimatization is associated with brain structural modifications, including the loss of regional cortical grey matter accompanied by changes in the white matter, which may underlie the physiological adaptation of residents at HA. PMID:20625426

Zhang, Jiaxing; Yan, Xiaodan; Shi, Jinfu; Gong, Qiyong; Weng, Xuchu; Liu, Yijun

2010-01-01

155

The projection of cervical primary fibers to the DCN of the squirrel, Sciurus niger: fiber sorting in the dorsal columns.  

PubMed

The course and terminal distribution of cervical primary afferents in the dorsal column nuclei were studied in the fox squirrel, Sciurus niger. Unilateral rhizotomies were performed at cervical levels C3, C4, C5, C6 and C8. For all spinal levels studied except C8, degeneration in the medullary cuneate fasciculus was present within two distinct groups. They included a large oblique lateral lamina and a small superficial group of degeneration. The superficial group was horizontal, located medial to the large lamina and appeared to be formed by the medial shifting of fibers away from the initial larger group. Fibers in the large primary lamina appeared to terminate primarily in the ventrolateral areas of the cuneate nucleus. Fibers from the superficial group, however, appeared to project mostly to dorsal cuneate nuclear areas. Hence, the dual transverse terminal patterns for cervical fibers in the cuneate nucleus appeared to be related directly to a fiber sorting process that involved the formation of two often separate ascending fiber groups in the cuneate fasciculus. The results of this study are compared with the mechanosensory mapping of the dorsal column nuclei in the squirrel. PMID:6303492

Albright, B C; Johnson, J I; Ostapoff, E M

1983-01-01

156

DTI Study of White Matter Fiber Tracts in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate microstructure of white matter fiber tracts in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study was conducted at 3 Tesla on age and IQ-matched children and adolescents with PBD (n=13), ADHD (n=13), and healthy controls (HC) (n=15). Three DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and regional fiber coherence index (r-FCI), were examined in eight fiber tracts: Anterior corona radiata (ACR); anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC); superior region of the internal capsule (SRI); posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC); superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF); inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF); cingulum (CG); splenium (SP). Results Significantly lower FA was observed in ACR in both PBD and ADHD relative to HC. In addition, FA and r-FCI values were significantly lower in ADHD relative to PBD and HC in both the ALIC and the SRI. Further, ADC was significantly greater in ADHD relative to both the PBD and HC in ACR, ALIC, PLIC, SRI, CG, ILF, and SLF. Conclusions Decreased FA in ACR implies an impaired fiber density or reduced myelination in both PBD and ADHD in this prefrontal tract. These abnormalities, together with the reduced fiber coherence, extended to cortico-bulbar tracts in ADHD. Increased ADC across multiple white matter tracts in ADHD indicates extensive cellular abnormalities with less diffusion restriction in ADHD relative to PBD. PMID:19027102

Pavuluri, Mani N.; Yang, Shuohui; Kamineni, Kiran; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Srinivasan, Girish; Harral, Erin M.; Sweeney, John A.; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe

2009-01-01

157

Frequency Mapping of Rat Spinal Cord at 7T  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spinal cord is an integral part of the nervous system responsible for sensory, motor, and reflex control crucial to all bodily function. Due to its non-invasive nature, MRI is well matched for characterizing and imaging of spinal cord, and is used extensively for clinical applications. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at high field (7T) using phase represents a new approach of characterizing spinal cord myelin. Theory suggests that microstructure differences in myelinated white matter (WM) and non-myelinated gray matter (GM) affect MR phase, measurable frequency shifts. Data from pilot experiments using a multi-gradient echo (MGE) sequence to image rat spinal cords placed parallel to main magnetic field B0 has shown frequency shifts between not only between WM and GM, but also between specific WM tracts of the dorsal column, including the fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, and corticospinal tract. Using MGE, frequency maps at multiple echo times (TE) between 4ms and 22ms show a non-linear relationship between WM frequency, contrary to what was previously expected. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of MGE in revealing new information about spinal cord tissue microstructure, and lays important groundwork for in-vivo and human studies.

Chen, Evan; Rauscher, Alexander; Kozlowski, Piotr; Yung, Andrew

2012-10-01

158

Long-Term Effects of Postearthquake Distress on Brain Microstructural Changes  

PubMed Central

Stressful events can have both short- and long-term effects on the brain. Our recent investigation identified short-term white matter integrity (WMI) changes in 30 subjects soon after the Japanese earthquake. Our findings suggested that lower WMI in the right anterior cingulum (Cg) was a pre-existing vulnerability factor and increased WMI in the left anterior Cg and uncinate fasciculus (Uf) after the earthquake was an acquired sign of postearthquake distress. However, the long-term effects on WMI remained unclear. Here, we examined the 1-year WMI changes in 25 subjects to clarify long-term effects on the WMI. We found differential FAs in the right anterior Cg, bilateral Uf, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and left thalamus, suggesting that synaptic enhancement and shrinkage were long-term effects. Additionally, the correlation between psychological measures related to postearthquake distress and the degree of WMI alternation in the right anterior Cg and the left Uf led us to speculate that temporal WMI changes in some subjects with emotional distress occurred soon after the disaster. We hypothesized that dynamic WMI changes predict a better prognosis, whereas persistently lower WMI is a marker of cognitive dysfunction, implying the development of anxiety disorders. PMID:24551840

Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hanawa, Sugiko; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Atsushi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-01-01

159

DTI Tractography and White Matter Fiber Tract Characteristics in Euthymic Bipolar I Patients and Healthy Control Subjects  

PubMed Central

With the introduction of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), structural differences in white matter (WM) architecture between psychiatric populations and healthy controls can be systematically observed and measured. In particular, DTI-tractography can be used to assess WM characteristics over the entire extent of WM tracts and aggregated fiber bundles. Using 64-direction DTI scanning in 27 participants with bipolar disorder (BD) and 26 age-and-gender-matched healthy control subjects, we compared relative length, density, and fractional anisotrophy (FA) of WM tracts involved in emotion regulation or theorized to be important neural components in BD neuropathology. We interactively isolated 22 known white matter tracts using region-of-interest placement (TrackVis software program) and then computed relative tract length, density, and integrity. BD subjects demonstrated significantly shorter WM tracts in the genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum compared to healthy controls. Additionally, bipolar subjects exhibited reduced fiber density in the genu and body of the corpus callosum, and in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally. In the left uncinate fasciculus, however, BD subjects exhibited significantly greater fiber density than healthy controls. There were no significant differences between groups in WM tract FA for those tracts that began and ended in the brain. The significance of differences in tract length and fiber density in BD is discussed. PMID:23070746

Irimia, Andrei; Leow, Alex D.; Bartzokis, George; Moody, Teena D.; Jennings, Robin G.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Van Horn, John Darrell; Altshuler, Lori L.

2012-01-01

160

White matter integrity is associated with alcohol cue reactivity in heavy drinkers  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies have shown that white matter damage accompanies excessive alcohol use, but the functional correlates of alcohol-related white matter disruption remain unknown. This study applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 332 heavy drinkers (mean age = 31.2 ± 9.4; 31% female) to obtain averaged fractional anisotropy (FA) values of 18 white matter tracts. Statistical analyses examined correlations of FA values with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to an alcohol taste cue, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FA values of nine white matter tracts (anterior corona radiata, body of corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, external capsule, fornix, inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, posterior corona radiata, retrolenticular limb of internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly, negatively correlated with BOLD activation in medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, cingulum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, insula, and cerebellum. The inverse relation between white matter integrity and functional activation during the alcohol taste cue provides support for the hypothesis that lower white matter integrity in frontoparietal and corticolimbic networks is a factor in loss of control over alcohol consumption. PMID:24683509

Monnig, Mollie A; Thayer, Rachel E; Caprihan, Arvind; Claus, Eric D; Yeo, Ronald A; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

2014-01-01

161

Analyses of Disruption of Cerebral White Matter Integrity in Schizophrenia with MR Diffusion Tensor Fiber Tracking Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed cerebral white matter using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) to measure the diffusion anisotropy of water molecules. The goal of this study is the quantitative evaluation of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor images are acquired for patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects, group-matched for age, sex, and handedness. Fiber tracking is performed on the superior longitudinal fasciculus for the comparison between the patient and comparison groups. We have analysed and compared the cross-sectional area on the starting coronal plane and the mean and standard deviation of the fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient along fibers in the right and left hemispheres. In the right hemisphere, the cross-sectional areas in patient group are significantly smaller than those in the comparison group. Furthermore, in the comparison group, the cross-sectional areas in the right hemisphere are significantly larger than those in the left hemisphere, whereas there is no significant difference in the patient group. These results suggest that we may evaluate the disruption in white matter integrity in schizophrenic patients quantitatively by comparing the cross-sectional area of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the right and left hemispheres.

Yamamoto, Utako; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kito, Shinsuke; Koga, Yoshihiko

162

Right is not always wrong: DTI and fMRI evidence for the reliance of reading comprehension on language-comprehension networks in the right hemisphere.  

PubMed

The Simple View theory suggests that reading comprehension relies on automatic recognition of words combined with language comprehension. The goal of the current study was to examine the structural and functional connectivity in networks supporting reading comprehension and their relationship with language comprehension within 7-9 year old children using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and fMRI during a Sentence Picture Matching task. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values in the left and right Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) and Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF), known language-related tracts, were correlated from DTI data with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Passage Comprehension sub-test. Brodmann areas most proximal to white-matter regions with significant correlation to Passage Comprehension scores were chosen as Regions-of-Interest (ROIs) and used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis using the Sentence Picture Matching task. The correlation between percentile scores for the WJ-III Passage Comprehension subtest and the FA values in the right and left ILF and SLF indicated positive correlation in language-related ROIs, with greater distribution in the right hemisphere, which in turn showed strong connectivity in the fMRI data from the Sentence Picture Matching task. These results support the participation of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension and may provide physiologic support for a distinction between different types of reading comprehension deficits vs difficulties in technical reading. PMID:25515348

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Grainger, Molly; DiFrancesco, Mark; Vannest, Jennifer; Holland, Scott K

2015-03-01

163

Left fronto-temporal dysconnectivity within the language network in schizophrenia: an fMRI and DTI study.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by language disorders. Studies reveal that both a functional dysconnectivity and a disturbance in the integrity of white matter fibers are implicated in the language process in patients with schizophrenia. Here, we investigate the relationship between functional connectivity within a language-comprehension network and anatomical connectivity using fiber tracking in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that patients would present an impaired functional connectivity in the language network due to anatomical dysconnectivity. Participants comprised 20 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls who were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. The temporal correlation coefficient and diffusion values between the left frontal and temporal clusters, belonging to the language network, were individually extracted, in order to study the relationships of anatomo-functional connectivity. In patients, functional connectivity was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy, but was negatively correlated with radial diffusivity and/or mean diffusivity, in the left arcuate fasciculus and part of the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, determined as the fronto-temporal tracts. Our findings indicate a close relationship between functional and anatomical dysconnectivity in patients with schizophrenia. The disturbance in the integrity of the left fronto-temporal tracts might be one origin of the functional dysconnectivity in the language-comprehension network in schizophrenia. PMID:25028156

Leroux, Elise; Delcroix, Nicolas; Dollfus, Sonia

2014-09-30

164

Further studies of the central nervous system in canine giant axonal neuropathy.  

PubMed

The CNS of three further cases of canine giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) were examined. The axonal swellings were present in the distal portions of the spinal long tracts and their terminations in the cerebellar vermis; in the distal optic pathways; the nuclei of the habenulo-interpeduncular tract; certain thalamic relay nuclei and the cerebral cortex. The swellings were present both paranodally and internodally with the myelin sheath being attenuated or even absent. Excessive numbers of disordered 10 nm neurofilaments were the main constituent although mitochondria, membranous bodies, glycogen bodies and amorphous electron dense material also accumulated, particularly in the fasciculus gracilis. The neurotubules tended to form small subaxolemmal or intra-axonal islands. Complex interdigitations of oligodendroglia and axolemma were found in the affected areas. A small number of fibres in the rostral fasciculus gracilis showed marked proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum which may represent abortive attempts at regeneration. A small proportion of astrocytic processes were markedly enlarged with excessive whorling of the glial filaments. The accumulation of these various organelles in the non-terminal axon in the absence of mechanical obstruction suggests a defect in axoplasmic transport which may result from an energy failure as suggested in toxic neuropathies. The significance and pathogenesis of the glial filamentous changes and those reported in other cells in human GAN is at present uncertain. PMID:7453946

Griffiths, I R; Duncan, I D; McCulloch, M; Carmichael, S

1980-01-01

165

Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study.  

PubMed

The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. PMID:24909792

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

2014-09-25

166

White matter integrity is associated with alcohol cue reactivity in heavy drinkers.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies have shown that white matter damage accompanies excessive alcohol use, but the functional correlates of alcohol-related white matter disruption remain unknown. This study applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 332 heavy drinkers (mean age = 31.2 ± 9.4; 31% female) to obtain averaged fractional anisotropy (FA) values of 18 white matter tracts. Statistical analyses examined correlations of FA values with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to an alcohol taste cue, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FA values of nine white matter tracts (anterior corona radiata, body of corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, external capsule, fornix, inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, posterior corona radiata, retrolenticular limb of internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly, negatively correlated with BOLD activation in medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, cingulum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, insula, and cerebellum. The inverse relation between white matter integrity and functional activation during the alcohol taste cue provides support for the hypothesis that lower white matter integrity in frontoparietal and corticolimbic networks is a factor in loss of control over alcohol consumption. PMID:24683509

Monnig, Mollie A; Thayer, Rachel E; Caprihan, Arvind; Claus, Eric D; Yeo, Ronald A; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

2014-03-01

167

Developmental white matter microstructure in autism phenotype and corresponding endophenotype during adolescence  

PubMed Central

During adolescence, white matter microstructure undergoes an important stage of development. It is hypothesized that the alterations of brain connectivity that have a key role in autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) may interact with the development of white matter microstructure. This interaction may be present beyond the phenotype of autism in siblings of individuals with ASC, who are 10 to 20 times more likely to develop certain forms of ASC. We use diffusion tensor imaging to examine how white matter microstructure measurements correlate with age in typically developing individuals, and how this correlation differs in n=43 adolescents with ASC and their n=38 siblings. Correlations observed in n=40 typically developing individuals match developmental changes noted in previous longitudinal studies. In comparison, individuals with ASC display weaker negative correlation between age and mean diffusivity in a broad area centred in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. These differences may be caused either by increased heterogeneity in ASC or by temporal alterations in the group's developmental pattern. Siblings of individuals with ASC also show diminished negative correlation between age and one component of mean diffusivity—second diffusion eigenvalue—in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. As the observed differences match for location and correlation directionality in our comparison of typically developing individuals to those with ASC and their siblings, we propose that these alterations constitute a part of the endophenotype of autism. PMID:25781228

Lisiecka, D M; Holt, R; Tait, R; Ford, M; Lai, M-C; Chura, L R; Baron-Cohen, S; Spencer, M D; Suckling, J

2015-01-01

168

Signalling properties of identified deep cerebellar nuclear neurons related to eye and head movements in the alert cat.  

PubMed Central

1. The spike activity of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons was recorded in the alert cat during spontaneous and during vestibularly and visually induced eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified according to their location in the nuclei, their antidromic activation from projection sites, their sensitivity to eye position and velocity during spontaneous eye movements, and their responses to vestibular and optokinetic stimuli. 3. Type I EPV (eye position and velocity) neurons were located mainly in the posterior part of the fastigial nucleus and activated antidromically almost exclusively from the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex. These neurons, reported here for the first time, increased their firing rate during saccades and eye fixations towards the contralateral hemifield. Their position sensitivity to eye fixations in the horizontal plane was 5.3 +/- 2.6 spikes s-1 deg-1 (mean +/- S.D.). Eye velocity sensitivity during horizontal saccades was 0.71 +/- 0.52 spikes s-1 deg-1 s-1. Variability of their firing rate during a given eye fixation was higher than that shown by abducens motoneurons. 4. Type I EPV neurons increased their firing rate during ipsilateral head rotations at 0.5 Hz with a mean phase lead over eye position of 95.3 +/- 9.5 deg. They were also activated by contralateral optokinetic stimulation at 30 deg s-1. Their sensitivity to eye position and velocity in the horizontal plane during vestibular and optokinetic stimuli yielded values similar to those obtained for spontaneous eye movements. 5. Type II neurons were located in both fastigial and dentate nuclei and were activated antidromically from the restiform body, the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex, the red nucleus and the pontine nuclei. Type II neurons were not related to spontaneous eye movements. These neurons increased their firing rate in response to contralateral head rotation and during ipsilateral optokinetic stimulation, and decreased it with the oppositely directed movements. 6. Saccade-related neurons were located mostly in the fastigial and dentate nuclei. Fastigial neurons were activated antidromically from the medial longitudinal fasciculus, while dentate neurons were activated from the red nucleus. These neurons fired a burst of spikes whose duration was significantly related to saccade duration. Dentate neurons responded during the omni-directional saccades, while some fastigial neurons fired more actively during contralateral saccades. 7. These three types of neuron represent the output channel for oculomotor signals of the posterior vermis and paravermis. It is proposed that type I EPV neurons correspond to a group of premotor neurons directly involved in oculomotor control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7965834

Gruart, A; Delgado-García, J M

1994-01-01

169

Frontolimbic neural circuitry at 6 months predicts individual differences in joint attention at 9 months.  

PubMed

Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9- to 10-month period as a time interval of maximal individual differences. We then demonstrate that fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal pole, measured in 6-month-olds predicts individual differences in responding to joint attention at 9 months of age. The white matter microstructure of the right uncinate was not related to receptive language ability at 9 months. These findings suggest that the development of core nonverbal social communication skills in infancy is largely supported by preceding developments within right lateralized frontotemporal brain systems. PMID:23432829

Elison, Jed T; Wolff, Jason J; Heimer, Debra C; Paterson, Sarah J; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

2013-03-01

170

An Anatomical Variation of the Lesser Occipital Nerve in the “Carefree part” of the Posterior Triangle  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of the lesser occipital nerve (LON) at an anomalous location in the “carefree part” within the posterior triangle has been seldom reported in the literature. We are reporting a rare case of location of the LON in the “carefree part” of the posterior triangle, in a 55-year-old formalin embalmed male cadaver. LON, after emerging from the posterior margin of the sternomastoid muscle (SM), ran obliquely towards the trapezius muscle. Here, it hooked around the unusual separated muscle fasciculus of the trapezius, 7.5 cm below the superior nuchal line. Further, LON gave contributions to spinal accessory nerve (SAN); one deep into the SM and another one in the posterior triangle. The knowledge on the unusual location and course of the LON and its contribution to the SAN is significantly important while an anaesthetic blockade is being performed for the management of a cervicogenic headache and a super selective radical neck dissection. PMID:24959430

Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B; Rao KG, Mohandas; Patil, Jyothsna

2014-01-01

171

Social cognition and the anterior temporal lobes: a review and theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Memory for people and their relationships, along with memory for social language and social behaviors, constitutes a specific type of semantic memory termed social knowledge. This review focuses on how and where social knowledge is represented in the brain. We propose that portions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) play a critical role in representing and retrieving social knowledge. This includes memory about people, their names and biographies and more abstract forms of social memory such as memory for traits and social concepts. This hypothesis is based on the convergence of several lines of research including anatomical findings, lesion evidence from both humans and non-human primates and neuroimaging evidence. Moreover, the ATL is closely interconnected with cortical nuclei of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex via the uncinate fasciculus. We propose that this pattern of connectivity underlies the function of the ATL in encoding and storing emotionally tagged knowledge that is used to guide orbitofrontal-based decision processes. PMID:23051902

McCoy, David; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Ross, Lars A.

2013-01-01

172

Projections from the rostral mesencephalic reticular formation to the spinal cord - An HRP and autoradiographical tracing study in the cat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Horseradish peroxidase was injected, or implanted unilaterally, into various levels of the spinal cord of anesthetized cats, to trace the distribution of projections to the spinal cord, of neurons in Field H of Forel, including the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF), and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal with adjacent reticular formation (INC-RF). Results indicate that, unlike the neurons projecting to the extraocular muscle motoneurons, the major portion of the spinally projecting neurons are not located in the riMLF or INC proper, but in adjacent areas, i.e., the ventral and lateral parts of the caudal third of the Field H of Forel and in the INC-RF. Neurons in caudal Field H of Forel, project, via the ventral part of the ventral funicululs, to the lateral part of the upper cervical ventral horn.

Holstege, G.; Cowie, R. J.

1989-01-01

173

Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children  

PubMed Central

Aerobic fitness has been found to play a positive role in brain and cognitive health of children. Yet, many of the neural biomarkers related to aerobic fitness remain unknown. Here, using diffusion tensor imaging, we demonstrated that higher aerobic fitness was related to greater estimates of white matter microstructure in children. Higher fit 9- and 10-year-old children showed greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in sections of the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to lower fit children. The FA effects were primarily characterized by aerobic fitness differences in radial diffusivity, thereby raising the possibility that estimates of myelination may vary as a function of individual differences in fitness during childhood. White matter structure may be another potential neural mechanism of aerobic fitness that assists in efficient communication between gray matter regions as well as the integration of regions into networks. PMID:25191243

Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Holtrop, Joseph L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2014-01-01

174

Neural control and modulation of swimming speed in the larval zebrafish.  

PubMed

Vertebrate locomotion at different speeds is driven by descending excitatory connections to central pattern generators in the spinal cord. To investigate how these inputs determine locomotor kinematics, we used whole-field visual motion to drive zebrafish to swim at different speeds. Larvae match the stimulus speed by utilizing more locomotor events, or modifying kinematic parameters such as the duration and speed of swimming bouts, the tail-beat frequency, and the choice of gait. We used laser ablations, electrical stimulation, and activity recordings in descending neurons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) to dissect their contribution to controlling forward movement. We found that the activity of single identified neurons within the nMLF is correlated with locomotor kinematics, and modulates both the duration and oscillation frequency of tail movements. By identifying the contribution of individual supraspinal circuit elements to locomotion kinematics, we build a better understanding of how the brain controls movement. PMID:25066084

Severi, Kristen E; Portugues, Ruben; Marques, João C; O'Malley, Donald M; Orger, Michael B; Engert, Florian

2014-08-01

175

The impact of depression on Veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of military personnel deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom were exposed to war-zone events associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression (DEP) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The co-occurrence of TBI, PTSD and DEP in returning Veterans has recently increased research and clinical interest. This study tested the hypothesis that white matter abnormalities are further impacted by depression. Of particular relevance is the uncinate fasciculus (UF), which is a key fronto-temporal tract involved in mood regulation, and the cingulum; a tract that connects to the hippocampus involved in memory integration. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 25 patients with a combination of PTSD, TBI and DEP and 20 patients with PTSD and TBI (no DEP). Microstructural changes of white matter were found in the cingulum and UF. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was lower in Veterans with DEP compared to those without DEP. PMID:25559772

Isaac, Linda; Main, Keith L; Soman, Salil; Gotlib, Ian H; Furst, Ansgar J; Kinoshita, Lisa M; Fairchild, J Kaci; Yesavage, Jerome A; Ashford, J Wesson; Bayley, Peter J; Adamson, Maheen M

2015-02-01

176

White matter morphometric changes uniquely predict children's reading acquisition.  

PubMed

This study examined whether variations in brain development between kindergarten and Grade 3 predicted individual differences in reading ability at Grade 3. Structural MRI measurements indicated that increases in the volume of two left temporo-parietal white matter clusters are unique predictors of reading outcomes above and beyond family history, socioeconomic status, and cognitive and preliteracy measures at baseline. Using diffusion MRI, we identified the left arcuate fasciculus and superior corona radiata as key fibers within the two clusters. Bias-free regression analyses using regions of interest from prior literature revealed that volume changes in temporo-parietal white matter, together with preliteracy measures, predicted 56% of the variance in reading outcomes. Our findings demonstrate the important contribution of developmental differences in areas of left dorsal white matter, often implicated in phonological processing, as a sensitive early biomarker for later reading abilities, and by extension, reading difficulties. PMID:25212581

Myers, Chelsea A; Vandermosten, Maaike; Farris, Emily A; Hancock, Roeland; Gimenez, Paul; Black, Jessica M; Casto, Brandi; Drahos, Miroslav; Tumber, Mandeep; Hendren, Robert L; Hulme, Charles; Hoeft, Fumiko

2014-10-01

177

Studies on the delayed neurotoxicity of organophosphorus compounds--(III).  

PubMed

TOCP (Tri-orthocresyl phosphate), an organophosphorus compound, has been implicated in producing neuropathy in the male S. D. rats. Repeated subcutaneous doses of TOCP (600 mg/kg) for up to 6 weeks produced ataxia, most striking at 50 days after final injection, followed by gradual recovery. Ultrastructurally, the internal structure of affected nerve fibers was primarily composed of altered smooth endoplasmic reticulum, tubular membrane system, and mitochondria, although myelin sheath was found to be essentially normal. In the histopathological examination, axonal and myelin degeneration was disclosed in the gracile nucleus and in the gracile fasciculus of the cords as well as in the sciatic nerves. The localization and degree of these changes were considered to be "dying back", showing systemic neuropathy. In addition, muscular lesion showed small group atrophy, corresponding to Type I fiber atrophy. PMID:2993636

Itoh, H; Kishida, H; Takeuchi, E; Tadokoro, M; Uchikoshi, T; Oikawa, K

1985-05-01

178

Depressive symptoms and white matter dysfunction in retired NFL players with concussion history  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether correlates of white matter integrity can provide general as well as specific insight into the chronic effects of head injury coupled with depression symptom expression in professional football players. Method: We studied 26 retired National Football League (NFL) athletes who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning. Depressive symptom severity was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) including affective, cognitive, and somatic subfactor scores (Buckley 3-factor model). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were processed using tract-based spatial statistics from FSL. Correlations between FA and BDI-II scores were assessed using both voxel-wise and region of interest (ROI) techniques, with ROIs that corresponded to white matter tracts. Tracts demonstrating significant correlations were further evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic curve that utilized the mean FA to distinguish depressed from nondepressed subjects. Results: Voxel-wise analysis identified widely distributed voxels that negatively correlated with total BDI-II and cognitive and somatic subfactors, with voxels correlating with the affective component (p < 0.05 corrected) localized to frontal regions. Four tract ROIs negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with total BDI-II: forceps minor, right frontal aslant tract, right uncinate fasciculus, and left superior longitudinal fasciculus. FA of the forceps minor differentiated depressed from nondepressed athletes with 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms in retired NFL athletes correlate negatively with FA using either an unbiased voxel-wise or an ROI-based, tract-wise approach. DTI is a promising biomarker for depression in this population. PMID:23709590

Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Cullum, C. Munro; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Kraut, Michael A.; Womack, Kyle B.

2013-01-01

179

Frontotemporal neural systems supporting semantic processing in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that semantic memory for object concepts involves both representations of visual feature knowledge in modality-specific association cortex and heteromodal regions that are important for integrating and organizing this semantic knowledge so that it can be used in a flexible, contextually appropriate manner. We examined this hypothesis in an fMRI study of mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were presented with pairs of printed words and asked whether the words matched on a given visual-perceptual feature (e.g., guitar, violin: SHAPE). The stimuli probed natural kinds and manufactured objects, and the judgments involved shape or color. We found activation of bilateral ventral temporal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during semantic judgments, with AD patients showing less activation of these regions than healthy seniors. Moreover, AD patients showed less ventral temporal activation than did healthy seniors for manufactured objects, but not for natural kinds. We also used diffusion-weighted MRI of white matter to examine fractional anisotropy (FA). Patients with AD showed significantly reduced FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, which carry projections linking temporal and frontal regions of this semantic network. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that semantic memory is supported in part by a large-scale neural network involving modality-specific association cortex, heteromodal association cortex, and projections between these regions. The semantic deficit in AD thus arises from gray matter disease that affects the representation of feature knowledge and processing its content, as well as white matter disease that interrupts the integrated functioning of this large-scale network. PMID:24425352

Peelle, Jonathan E; Powers, John; Cook, Philip A; Smith, Edward E; Grossman, Murray

2014-03-01

180

Brain changes within the visuo-spatial attentional network in posterior cortical atrophy.  

PubMed

Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by basic visual and high order visual-spatial dysfunctions. In this study, we investigated long-distance deafferentation processes within the frontal-parietal-occipital network in ten PCA patients using a MRI-PET combined approach. Objective voxel-based [18F]FDG-PET imaging measured metabolic changes in single patients. Comprehensive investigation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and grey-matter density with voxel-based morphometry were obtained in a subgroup of 6 patients. Fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus correlated with the PET metabolic changes within the inferior parietal and frontal eye field regions. [18F]FDG-PET analysis showed in each PCA case the typical bilateral hypometabolic pattern, involving posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital cortex, with additional hypometabolic foci in the frontal eye fields. Voxel-based morphometry showed right-sided atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex, as well as a limited temporal involvement. DTI revealed extensive degeneration of the major anterior-posterior connecting fiber bundles and of commissural frontal lobe tracts. Microstructural measures in the superior longitudinal fasciculus were correlated with the PET metabolic changes within the inferior parietal and frontal eye field regions. Our results confirmed the predominant occipital-temporal and occipital-parietal degeneration in PCA patients. [18F]FDG-PET and DTI-MRI combined approaches revealed neurodegeneration effects well beyond the classical posterior cortical involvement, most likely as a consequence of deafferentation processes within the occipital-parietal-frontal network that could be at the basis of visuo-perceptual, visuo-spatial integration and attention deficits in PCA. PMID:25114070

Cerami, Chiara; Crespi, Chiara; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Dodich, Alessandra; Marcone, Alessandra; Magnani, Giuseppe; Coppi, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F; Perani, Daniela

2015-01-01

181

Influence of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene on the brain and working memory in men with normal FMR1 alleles  

PubMed Central

The fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuronal circuits that are essential for cognitive functioning. We explored the functional linkage(s) among lymphocytic FMR1 gene expression, brain structure, and working memory in healthy adult males. We acquired T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging from 34 males (18–80 years, mean ± SD = 43.6 ± 18.4 years) with normal FMR1 alleles and performed genetic and working memory assessments. Brain measurements were obtained from fiber tracts important for working memory (i.e. the arcuate fasciculus, anterior cingulum bundle, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the genu and anterior body of the corpus callosum), individual voxels, and whole brain. Both FMR1 mRNA and protein (FMRP) levels exhibited significant associations with brain measurements, with FMRP correlating positively with gray matter volume and white matter structural organization, and FMR1 mRNA negatively with white matter structural organization. The correlation was widespread, impacting rostral white matter and 2 working-memory fiber tracts for FMRP, and all cerebral white matter areas except fornix and cerebellar peduncles and all 4 fiber tracts for FMR1 mRNA. In addition, the levels of FMR1 mRNA as well as the fiber tracts demonstrated significant correlation with working memory performance. While FMR1 mRNA exhibited negative correlation with working memory, fiber tract structural organization showed positive correlation. These findings suggest that the FMR1 gene is a genetic factor in common for both working memory and the brain structure, and has implications for our understanding of the transmission of intelligence and brain structure. PMID:23063447

Wang, Jun Yi; Hessl, David; Iwahashi, Christine; Cheung, Katherine; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Hagerman, Paul J.; Rivera, Susan M.

2012-01-01

182

Structural and Diffusion Property Alterations in Unaffected Siblings of Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Disrupted white matter integrity and abnormal cortical thickness are widely reported in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship between alterations in white matter connectivity and cortical thickness in OCD is unclear. In addition, the heritability of this relationship is poorly understood. To investigate the relationship of white matter microstructure with cortical thickness, we measure fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter in 30 OCD patients, 19 unaffected siblings and 30 matched healthy controls. Then, we take those regions of significantly altered FA in OCD patients compared with healthy controls to perform fiber tracking. Next, we calculate the fiber quantity in the same tracts. Lastly, we compare cortical thickness in the target regions of those tracts. Patients with OCD exhibited decreased FA in cingulum, arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus near the right superior temporal gyrus and uncinate fasciculus. Siblings showed reduced FA in arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule and anterior limb of internal capsule. Significant reductions in both fiber quantities and cortical thickness in OCD patients and their unaffected siblings were also observed in the projected brain areas when using the arcuate fibers near the left superior parietal lobule as the starting points. Reduced FA in the left superior parietal lobule was observed not only in patients with OCD but also in their unaffected siblings. Originated from the superior parietal lobule, the number of fibers was also found to be decreased and the corresponding cortical regions were thinner relative to controls. The linkage between disrupted white matter integrity and the abnormal cortical thickness may be a vulnerability marker for OCD. PMID:24489665

Shi, Changzheng; Miao, Guodong; Yang, Qiong; Gao, Wei; Wolff, Jason J.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Shen, Dinggang

2014-01-01

183

White matter pathway supporting phonological encoding in speech production: a multi-modal imaging study of brain damage patients.  

PubMed

In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of the left SLF in phonological encoding in speech production. PMID:25359657

Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

2014-10-31

184

The architecture of the chess player's brain.  

PubMed

The game of chess can be seen as a typical example for an expertise task requiring domain-specific training and experience. Despite intensive behavioural studies the neural underpinnings of chess performance and expertise are not entirely understood. A few functional neuroimaging studies have shown that expert chess players recruit different psychological functions and activate different brain areas while they are engaged in chess-related activities. Based on this functional literature, we predicted to find morphological differences in a network comprised by parietal and frontal areas and especially the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ), fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty expert chess players and 20 control subjects were investigated using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were reduced in chess players compared with those of control men in the OTJ and precunei. The volumes of both caudate nuclei were not different between groups, but correlated inversely with the years of chess playing experience. Mean diffusivity was increased in chess players compared with that of controls in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the Elo score (a chess tournament ranking) was inversely related to mean diffusivity within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. To the best of our knowledge we showed for the first time that there are specific differences in grey and white matter morphology between chess players and control subjects in brain regions associated with cognitive functions important for playing chess. Whether these anatomical alterations are the cause or consequence of the intensive and long-term chess training and practice remains to be shown in future studies. PMID:25065494

Hänggi, Jürgen; Brütsch, Karin; Siegel, Adrian M; Jäncke, Lutz

2014-09-01

185

Reduced Fractional Anisotropy in the Visual Limbic Pathway of Young Adults Witnessing Domestic Violence in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Witnessing domestic violence (WDV) is a traumatic childhood experience associated with increased risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder and reduced IQ scores. Specific affects of WDV on brain development have not been assessed. We sought to ascertain whether WDV was associated with abnormalities in white matter (WM) tract integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty subjects who witnessed domestic violence (16F/ 4M, mean age 22.4±2.48 yrs) but were not physically or sexually abused were compared to 27 healthy controls (19F/ 8M, 21.9±1.97 yrs) without exposure to trauma or Axis I and II disorders. DTI images were acquired with a 3T Siemens Trio scanner. Group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), covaried by age, gender, parental education, perceived financial sufficiency, IQ and degree of exposure to parental verbal aggression were assessed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), which projects FA values onto an alignment-invariant fiber tract representation. FA values in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus of left lateral occipital lobe were significantly lower (p<0.05 corrected for multiple comparison) in the WDV group. FA values correlated inversely with ratings of depression, anxiety, somatization, ‘limbic irritability’ and neuropsychological measures of processing speed. Measures of radial but not axial diffusivity were affected suggesting alterations in myelination. Degree of FA reduction was associated with duration of witnessing interparental verbal aggression and with exposure between ages 7 – 13 years. The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects occipital and temporal cortex and is the main component of the visual–limbic pathway that subserves emotional, learning and memory functions that are modality specific to vision. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to childhood maltreatment is associated with alterations in fiber pathways that convey the adverse experience to frontal, temporal or limbic regions. PMID:21985907

Choi, Jeewook; Jeong, Bumseok; Polcari, Ann; Rohan, Michael L.; Teicher, Martin H.

2011-01-01

186

The association of white matter volume in psychotic disorders with genotypic variation in NRG1, MOG and CNP: a voxel-based analysis in affected individuals and their unaffected relatives  

PubMed Central

We investigated the role of variation in putative psychosis genes coding for elements of the white matter system by examining the contribution of genotypic variation in three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) neuregulin 1 (NRG1) SNP8NRG221533, myelin oligodendrocytes glycoprotein (MOG) rs2857766 and CNP (rs2070106) and one haplotype HAPICE (deCODE) to white matter volume in patients with psychotic disorder and their unaffected relatives. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and blood samples for genotyping were collected on 189 participants including patients with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar I disorder (BDI), unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients and healthy volunteers. The association of genotypic variation with white matter volume was assessed using voxel-based morphometry in SPM5. The NRG1 SNP and the HAPICE haplotype were associated with abnormal white matter volume in the BDI group in the fornix, cingulum and parahippocampal gyrus circuit. In SZ the NRG1 SNP risk allele was associated with lower white matter volume in the uncinate fasciculus (UF), right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Healthy G-homozygotes of the MOG SNP had greater white matter volume in areas of the brainstem and cerebellum; this relationship was absent in those with a psychotic disorder and the unaffected relatives groups. The CNP SNP did not contribute to white matter volume variation in the diagnostic groups studied. Variation in the genes coding for structural and protective components of myelin are implicated in abnormal white matter volume in the emotion circuitry of the cingulum, fornix, parahippocampal gyrus and UF in psychotic disorders. PMID:23032943

Cannon, D M; Walshe, M; Dempster, E; Collier, D A; Marshall, N; Bramon, E; Murray, R M; McDonald, C

2012-01-01

187

Sensory-to-motor integration during auditory repetition: a combined fMRI and lesion study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to investigate the neurological underpinnings of auditory-to-motor translation during auditory repetition of unfamiliar pseudowords. We tested two different hypotheses. First we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 healthy subjects to determine whether a functionally defined area in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), referred to as Sylvian-parietal-temporal region (Spt), reflected the demands on auditory-to-motor integration during the repetition of pseudowords relative to a semantically mediated nonverbal sound-naming task. The experiment also allowed us to test alternative accounts of Spt function, namely that Spt is involved in subvocal articulation or auditory processing that can be driven either bottom-up or top-down. The results did not provide convincing evidence that activation increased in either Spt or any other cortical area when non-semantic auditory inputs were being translated into motor outputs. Instead, the results were most consistent with Spt responding to bottom up or top down auditory processing, independent of the demands on auditory-to-motor integration. Second, we investigated the lesion sites in eight patients who had selective difficulties repeating heard words but with preserved word comprehension, picture naming and verbal fluency (i.e., conduction aphasia). All eight patients had white-matter tract damage in the vicinity of the arcuate fasciculus and only one of the eight patients had additional damage to the Spt region, defined functionally in our fMRI data. Our results are therefore most consistent with the neurological tradition that emphasizes the importance of the arcuate fasciculus in the non-semantic integration of auditory and motor speech processing. PMID:24550807

Parker Jones, ‘?iwi; Prejawa, Susan; Hope, Thomas M. H.; Oberhuber, Marion; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Leff, Alex P.; Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

2014-01-01

188

Distinct Parietal and Temporal Pathways to the Homologues of Broca's Area in the Monkey  

PubMed Central

The homologues of the two distinct architectonic areas 44 and 45 that constitute the anterior language zone (Broca's region) in the human ventrolateral frontal lobe were recently established in the macaque monkey. Although we know that the inferior parietal lobule and the lateral temporal cortical region project to the ventrolateral frontal cortex, we do not know which of the several cortical areas found in those regions project to the homologues of Broca's region in the macaque monkey and by means of which white matter pathways. We have used the autoradiographic method, which permits the establishment of the cortical area from which axons originate (i.e., the site of injection), the precise course of the axons in the white matter, and their termination within particular cortical areas, to examine the parietal and temporal connections to area 44 and the two subdivisions of area 45 (i.e., areas 45A and 45B). The results demonstrated a ventral temporo-frontal stream of fibers that originate from various auditory, multisensory, and visual association cortical areas in the intermediate superolateral temporal region. These axons course via the extreme capsule and target most strongly area 45 with a more modest termination in area 44. By contrast, a dorsal stream of axons that originate from various cortical areas in the inferior parietal lobule and the adjacent caudal superior temporal sulcus was found to target both areas 44 and 45. These axons course in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, with some axons originating from the ventral inferior parietal lobule and the adjacent superior temporal sulcus arching and forming a simple arcuate fasciculus. The cortex of the most rostral part of the inferior parietal lobule is preferentially linked with the ventral premotor cortex (ventral area 6) that controls the orofacial musculature. The cortex of the intermediate part of the inferior parietal lobule is linked with both areas 44 and 45. These findings demonstrate the posterior parietal and temporal connections of the ventrolateral frontal areas, which, in the left hemisphere of the human brain, were adapted for various aspects of language production. These precursor circuits that are found in the nonlinguistic, nonhuman, primate brain also exist in the human brain. The possible reasons why these areas were adapted for language use in the human brain are discussed. The results throw new light on the prelinguistic precursor circuitry of Broca's region and help understand functional interactions between Broca's ventrolateral frontal region and posterior parietal and temporal association areas. PMID:19668354

Petrides, Michael; Pandya, Deepak N.

2009-01-01

189

Relating brain anatomy and cognitive ability using a multivariate multimodal framework  

PubMed Central

Linking structural neuroimaging data from multiple modalities to cognitive performance is an important challenge for cognitive neuroscience. In this study we examined the relationship between verbal fluency performance and neuroanatomy in 54 patients with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) and 15 age-matched controls, all of whom had T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging. Our goal was to incorporate measures of both gray matter (voxel-based cortical thickness) and white matter (fractional anisotropy) into a single statistical model that relates to behavioral performance. We first used eigenanatomy to define data-driven regions of interest (DD-ROIs) for both gray matter and white matter. Eigenanatomy is a multivariate dimensionality reduction approach that identifies spatially smooth, unsigned principal components that explain the maximal amount of variance across subjects. We then used a statistical model selection procedure to see which of these DD-ROIs best modeled performance on verbal fluency tasks hypothesized to rely on distinct components of a large-scale neural network that support language: category fluency requires a semantic-guided search and is hypothesized to rely primarily on temporal cortices that support lexical-semantic representations; letter-guided fluency requires a strategic mental search and is hypothesized to require executive resources to support a more demanding search process, which depends on prefrontal cortex in addition to temporal network components that support lexical representations. We observed that both types of verbal fluency performance are best described by a network that includes a combination of gray matter and white matter. For category fluency, the identified regions included bilateral temporal cortex and a white matter region including left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and frontal–occipital fasciculus. For letter fluency, a left temporal lobe region was also selected, and also regions of frontal cortex. These results are consistent with our hypothesized neuroanatomical models of language processing and its breakdown in FTD. We conclude that clustering the data with eigenanatomy before performing linear regression is a promising tool for multimodal data analysis. PMID:24830834

Cook, Philip A.; McMillan, Corey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Gee, James C.; Grossman, Murray

2014-01-01

190

Long-term intensive training induced brain structural changes in world class gymnasts.  

PubMed

Many previous studies suggested that both short-term and long-term motor training can modulate brain structures. However, little evidence exists for such brain anatomical changes in top-level gymnasts. Using diffusion-weighted and structural magnetic resonance images of the human brain, we applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) as well as FA-VBA (voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy, a VBM-style analysis) methods to quantitatively compare the brain structural differences between the world class gymnasts (WCG) and the non-athlete groups. In order to reduce the rate of false positive findings, we first determined that the clusters defined at a threshold of t > 2.3 and a cluster significance of p < 0.05 (FWE-corrected) across all subjects were the brain regions that showed significant differences in a between-group comparison. We then constructed several between-group comparisons based on the repeated diffusion or structural MRI data and created the intersecting regions from multiple between-group comparisons. Thus, we found significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) not only in the white matter of the WCG in areas that included the bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior occipito-frontal fascicle, but also in the gray matter of the WCG in areas that included the bilateral middle cingulum, bilateral postcentral gyri, and bilateral motor regions. We also identified significantly increased gray matter density in the WCG, especially in the left inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior and superior parietal lobule, bilateral superior lateral occipital cortex, left cuneus, left angular gyrus, and right postcentral gyrus. We speculate that the brain changes of the WCG may reflect the gymnasts' extraordinary ability to estimate the direction of their movements, their speed of execution, and their identification of their own and surrounding objects' locations. Our findings suggest that our method of constructing intersecting regions from multiple between-group comparison can considerably reduce the false positives, and our results provide new insights into the brain structure changes induced by long-term intensive gymnastic training. PMID:24297657

Huang, Ruiwang; Lu, Min; Song, Zheng; Wang, Jun

2015-03-01

191

Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes APOE and TOMM40, and brain white matter integrity in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936?  

PubMed Central

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ? genotype has previously been significantly associated with cognitive, brain imaging, and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes (e.g., age of onset). In the TOMM40 gene, the rs10524523 (“523”) variable length poly-T repeat polymorphism has more recently been associated with similar ph/enotypes, although the allelic directions of these associations have varied between initial reports. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, the present study aimed to investigate whether there are independent effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 genotypes on human brain white matter integrity in a community-dwelling sample of older adults, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (mean age = 72.70 years, standard deviation = 0.74, N approximately = 640–650; for most analyses). Some nominally significant effects were observed (i.e., covariate-adjusted differences between genotype groups at p < 0.05). For APOE, deleterious effects of ?4 “risk” allele presence (vs. absence) were found in the right ventral cingulum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. To test for biologically independent effects of the TOMM40 523 repeat, participants were stratified into APOE genotype subgroups, so that any significant effects could not be attributed to APOE variation. In participants with the APOE ?3/?4 genotype, effects of TOMM40 523 status were found in the left uncinate fasciculus, left rostral cingulum, left ventral cingulum, and a general factor of white matter integrity. In all 4 of these tractography measures, carriers of the TOMM40 523 “short” allele showed lower white matter integrity when compared with carriers of the “long” and “very-long” alleles. Most of these effects survived correction for childhood intelligence test scores and vascular disease history, though only the effect of TOMM40 523 on the left ventral cingulum integrity survived correction for false discovery rate. The effects of APOE in this older population are more specific and restricted compared with those reported in previous studies, and the effects of TOMM40 on white matter integrity appear to be novel, although replication is required in large independent samples. PMID:24508314

Lyall, Donald M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Bastin, Mark E.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Murray, Catherine; Lutz, Michael W.; Saunders, Ann M.; Roses, Allen D.; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Royle, Natalie A.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David. J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

2014-01-01

192

[Neural representation of human body schema and corporeal self-consciousness].  

PubMed

The human brain processes every sensation evoked by altered posture and builds up a constantly changing postural model of the body. This is called a body schema, and somatic signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints, i.e. proprioceptive signals, largely contribute its formation. Recent neuroimaging techniques have revealed neuronal substrates for human body schema. A dynamic limb position model seems to be computed in the central motor network (represented by the primary motor cortex). Here, proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals from muscle spindles are transformed into motor commands, which may underlie somatic perception of limb movement and facilitate its efficient motor control. Somatic signals originating from different body parts are integrated in the course of hierarchical somatosensory processing, and activity in higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices is capable of representing a postural model of the entire body. The left fronto-parietal network associates internal motor representation with external object representation, allowing the embodiment of external objects. In contrast, the right fronto-parietal regions connected by the most inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus fibers seem to have the functions of monitoring bodily states and updating body schema. We hypothesize that activity in these right-sided fronto-parietal regions is deeply involved in corporeal self-consciousness. PMID:24748084

Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo

2014-04-01

193

The role of the right inferior frontal gyrus in the pathogenesis of post-stroke psychosis.  

PubMed

Psychotic symptoms have previously been reported following right hemisphere brain injury. We sought to identify the specific neuroanatomical basis of delusions following stroke by studying a series of patients with post-stroke psychosis. Lesion overlap analysis was conducted on three individuals with delusions following right hemisphere stroke. These cases were compared with a control group of patients with similar anatomical damage. The main outcome measures were presence of delusions and presence of behavioural susceptibility. The right inferior frontal gyrus and underlying white matter, including the superior longitudinal fasciculus and anterior corona radiata, were involved in all three cases. All three had a preexisting untreated psychiatric disorder. In contrast, only one of nine control cases with equivalent lesions had evidence of previous psychiatric disorder (p = 0.0182, Fisher's exact test), and this was being treated at the time of stroke. We provide clinical evidence from patients with structural brain lesions implicating damage to the right inferior frontal lobe in the generation of persistent psychosis following stroke. We suggest that preexisting psychiatric disease provided a behavioural susceptibility to develop delusions in these individuals. PMID:24449063

Devine, Michael J; Bentley, Paul; Jones, Brynmor; Hotton, Gary; Greenwood, Richard J; Jenkins, I Harri; Joyce, Eileen M; Malhotra, Paresh A

2014-03-01

194

White Matter Tract Integrity Predicts Visual Search Performance in Young and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging research has identified fronto-parietal attention networks involved in visual search, with mixed evidence regarding whether different networks are engaged when the search target differs from distracters by a single (elementary) versus multiple (conjunction) features. Neural correlates of visual search, and their potential dissociation, were examined here using integrity of white matter connecting the fronto-parietal networks. The effect of aging on these brain-behavior relationships was also of interest. Younger and older adults performed a visual search task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to reconstruct two fronto-parietal (superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, SLF and ILF) and two midline (genu, splenium) white matter tracts. As expected, results revealed age-related declines in conjunction, but not elementary, search performance; and in ILF and genu tract integrity. Importantly, integrity of the SLF, ILF, and genu tracts predicted search performance (conjunction and elementary), with no significant age group differences in these relationships. Thus, integrity of white matter tracts connecting fronto-parietal attention networks contributes to search performance in younger and older adults. PMID:21402431

Bennett, Ilana J.; Motes, Michael A.; Rao, Neena K.; Rypma, Bart

2011-01-01

195

Possible confounding factors on cerebral diffusion tensor imaging measurements  

PubMed Central

Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is prone to numerous systemic confounding factors that should be acknowledged to avoid false conclusions. Purpose To investigate the possible effects of age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, and education on cerebral DTI parameters in a generally healthy homogenous sample with no neurological or psychiatric diseases. Material and Methods Forty (n?=?40) subjects (mean age, 40.3 years; SD, 12.3) underwent brain DTI with 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At enrolment, all the subjects were interviewed with respect to general health, education, history of smoking, and alcohol consumption. Studied DTI parameters included: (i) fractional anisotropy (FA); and (ii) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Region-of-interest (ROI)-based measurements were estimated at 13 anatomical locations bilaterally on the axial images, except for the corpus callosum in which the ROIs were placed on the sagittal images. Circular ROI measurements were mainly used. Freehand ROI method was used with the forceps minor, uncinate fasciculus, and thalamus. Intra-observer variability and repeatability were assessed. Results The most consistent finding was that aging decreased FA values in the frontal brain regions. Regarding the other confounding factors, the results were discontinuous and no concrete conclusions could be drawn from these findings. In general, intra-observer repeatability of the DTI measurement was considered relatively good. Conclusion Age should be noted as considerable confounding factors in ROI-based DTI analysis. More research on the effects of gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, and education is needed.

Nenonen, Miina; Hakulinen, Ullamari; Brander, Antti; Ohman, Juha; Dastidar, Prasun

2015-01-01

196

A combinatorial optogenetic approach to medial habenula function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The habenula is a brain region found in all vertebrate species. It consists of medial and lateral subnuclei which make complex descending connections to the brainstem. Although the medial habenula (MHb) and its projection, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR), have been recognized for decades, their function remains obscure. The small size of the MHb in rodents, and the cellular and molecular complexity of this region, have made it difficult to study the function of this region with high specificity. Here we describe a Cre-mediated genetic system for expressing the microbial opsin channelrhodopsin (ChR2) specifically in the dorsal (dMHb) and ventral (vMHb) medial habenula. Genetically targeted expression of ChR2 allows MHb neurons to be selectively activated with light in acute brain slices with electrophysiological readouts, and in vivo by means of custom-built fiber optic cannulas. These tools will allow highly specific studies of MHb circuitry and the role of the MHb in behaviors related to addiction and mood regulation.

Turner, Eric E.; Hsu, Yun-Wei; Wang, Si; Morton, Glenn; Zeng, Hongkui

2013-03-01

197

Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity.  

PubMed

Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) as well as multimodal integration regions. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. Furthermore, the plasticity of this system as a result of long term and intense interventions suggest the potential for music making activities (e.g., forms of singing) as an intervention for neurological and developmental disorders to learn and relearn associations between auditory and motor functions such as vocal motor functions. PMID:25725909

Schlaug, Gottfried

2015-01-01

198

Different regulatory elements within the MyoD promoter control its expression in the brain and inhibit its functional consequences in neurogenesis.  

PubMed

MyoD is a key basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor capable of converting many cells into skeletal muscle. Together with Myf5 it is essential for initiating skeletal myogenesis. In this report, the restricted domains of MyoD-lacZ expression have been revealed in the embryonic mouse brain by the analysis of transgenic mice with reporter genes driven by MyoD regulatory elements. The MD6.0-lacZ transgene was localized in the basal plate of pons, medulla oblongata (i.e. the medial longitudinal fasciculus) and spinal cord of wild-type and mutant mouse embryos at various stages of development, whereas the 258/-2.5lacZ transgene was not detected in the brain. In addition, MyoD RNA and MyoD protein accumulations were monitored in neurons expressing MD6.0-lacZ transgene. Although MyoD was detected in muscle myotomal cells, it was absent in MD6.0-lacZ-expressing neurons. This would account for the lack of myogenic conversion in brain structures and the absence of a neural phenotype in MyoD-/- embryos and mice. Together, these data indicate that within the promoter of MyoD different regulatory elements control its expression and prevent the functional consequences of MyoD in neurogenesis. PMID:12182809

Kablar, Boris

2002-06-01

199

Associations of white matter integrity and cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.  

PubMed

Typical brain development includes coordinated changes in both white matter (WM) integrity and cortical thickness (CT). These processes have been shown to be disrupted in schizophrenia, which is characterized by abnormalities in WM microstructure and by reduced CT. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between WM markers and cortex-wide CT in healthy controls (HCs) and patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Using diffusion tensor imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study (130 HC and 111 SCZ), we tested for associations between (a) fractional anisotropy in selected manually labeled WM pathways (corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) and CT, and (b) the number of lesion-like WM regions ("potholes") and CT. In HC, but not SCZ, we found highly significant negative associations between WM integrity and CT in several pathways, including frontal, temporal, and occipital brain regions. Conversely, in SCZ the number of WM potholes correlated with reduced CT in the left lateral temporal gyrus, left fusiform, and left lateral occipital brain area. Taken together, we found differential patterns of association between WM integrity and CT in HC and SCZ. Although the pattern in HC can be explained from a developmental perspective, the reduced gray matter CT in SCZ patients might be the result of focal but spatially heterogeneous disruptions of WM integrity. PMID:23661633

Ehrlich, Stefan; Geisler, Daniel; Yendiki, Anastasia; Panneck, Patricia; Roessner, Veit; Calhoun, Vince D; Magnotta, Vincent A; Gollub, Randy L; White, Tonya

2014-05-01

200

Axonal degeneration in paraplegin-deficient mice is associated with abnormal mitochondria and impairment of axonal transport  

PubMed Central

In several neurodegenerative diseases, axonal degeneration occurs before neuronal death and contributes significantly to patients’ disability. Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by selective degeneration of axons of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis. HSP may therefore be considered an exemplary disease to study the local programs mediating axonal degeneration. We have developed a mouse model for autosomal recessive HSP due to mutations in the SPG7 gene encoding the mitochondrial ATPase paraplegin. Paraplegin-deficient mice are affected by a distal axonopathy of spinal and peripheral axons, characterized by axonal swelling and degeneration. We found that mitochondrial morphological abnormalities occurred in synaptic terminals and in distal regions of axons long before the first signs of swelling and degeneration and correlated with onset of motor impairment during a rotarod test. Axonal swellings occur through massive accumulation of organelles and neurofilaments, suggesting impairment of anterograde axonal transport. Retrograde axonal transport is delayed in symptomatic mice. We speculate that local failure of mitochondrial function may affect axonal transport and cause axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that a timely therapeutic intervention may prevent the loss of axons. PMID:14722615

Ferreirinha, Fatima; Quattrini, Angelo; Pirozzi, Marinella; Valsecchi, Valentina; Dina, Giorgia; Broccoli, Vania; Auricchio, Alberto; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Gaeta, Laura; Casari, Giorgio; Ballabio, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I.

2004-01-01

201

Detectability of neural tracts and nuclei in the brainstem utilizing 3DAC-PROPELLER.  

PubMed

Despite clinical importance of identifying exact anatomical location of neural tracts and nuclei in the brainstem, no neuroimaging studies have validated the detectability of these structures. The aim of this study was to assess the detectability of the structures using three-dimensional anisotropy contrast-periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (3DAC-PROPELLER) imaging. Forty healthy volunteers (21 males, 19 females; 19-53 years, average 23.4 years) participated in this study. 3DAC-PROPELLER axial images were obtained with a 3T-MR system at four levels of the brainstem: the lower midbrain, upper and lower pons, and medulla oblongata. Three experts independently judged whether five tracts (corticospinal tract, medial lemniscus, medial longitudinal fasciculus, central tegmental and spinothalamic tracts) and 10 nuclei (oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, spinal trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibular, hypoglossal, prepositus, and solitary nuclei, locus ceruleus, superior and inferior olives) on each side could be identified. In total, 240 assessments were made. The five tracts and eight nuclei were identified in all the corresponding assessments, whereas the locus ceruleus and superior olive could not be identified in 3 (1.3%) and 16 (6.7%) assessments, respectively. 3DAC-PROPELLER seems extremely valuable imaging method for mapping out surgical strategies for brainstem lesions. PMID:23607742

Nishikawa, Taro; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Matsuzawa, Hitoshi; Terumitsu, Makoto; Nakada, Tsutomu; Fujii, Yukihiko

2014-01-01

202

A dedicated visual pathway for prey detection in larval zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish larvae show characteristic prey capture behavior in response to small moving objects. The neural mechanism used to recognize objects as prey remains largely unknown. We devised a machine learning behavior classification system to quantify hunting kinematics in semi-restrained animals exposed to a range of virtual stimuli. Two-photon calcium imaging revealed a small visual area, AF7, that was activated specifically by the optimal prey stimulus. This pretectal region is innervated by two types of retinal ganglion cells, which also send collaterals to the optic tectum. Laser ablation of AF7 markedly reduced prey capture behavior. We identified neurons with arbors in AF7 and found that they projected to multiple sensory and premotor areas: the optic tectum, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) and the hindbrain. These findings indicate that computations in the retina give rise to a visual stream which transforms sensory information into a directed prey capture response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04878.001 PMID:25490154

Semmelhack, Julia L; Donovan, Joseph C; Thiele, Tod R; Kuehn, Enrico; Laurell, Eva; Baier, Herwig

2014-01-01

203

Development of Tectal Connectivity across Metamorphosis in the Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)  

PubMed Central

In the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), the process of metamorphosis culminates in the appearance of new visual and visuomotor behaviors reflective of the emergence of binocular vision and visually-guided prey capture behaviors as the animal transitions to life on land. Using several different neuroanatomical tracers, we examined the substrates that may underlie these behavioral changes by tracing the afferent and efferent connectivity of the midbrain optic tectum across metamorphic development. Intratectal, tectotoral, tectotegmental, tectobulbar, and tecto-thalamic tracts exhibit similar trajectories of neurobiotin fiber label across the developmental span from early larval tadpoles to adults. Developmental variability was apparent primarily in intensity and distribution of cell and puncta label in target nuclei. Combined injections of cholera toxin subunit ? and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin consistently label cell bodies, puncta, or fiber segments bilaterally in midbrain targets including the pretectal gray, laminar nucleus of the torus semicircularis, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Developmentally stable label was observed bilaterally in medullary targets including the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, and reticular gray, and in forebrain targets including the posterior and ventromedial nuclei of the thalamus. The nucleus isthmi, cerebellum, lateral line nuclei, medial septum, ventral striatum, and medial pallium show more developmentally variable patterns of connectivity. Our results suggest that even during larval development, the optic tectum contains substrates for integration of visual with auditory, vestibular, and somatosensory cues, as well as for guidance of motivated behaviors. PMID:21266803

Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela

2011-01-01

204

Neural Correlates of Amusia in Williams Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital amusia is defined by marked deficits in pitch perception and production. Though historically examined only in otherwise typically developing (TD) populations, amusia has recently been documented in Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder with a unique auditory phenotype including auditory sensitivities and increased emotional responsiveness to music but variable musical skill. The current study used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine neural correlates of amusia in 17 individuals with WS (4 of whom met criteria for amusia). Consistent with findings from TD amusics, amusia in WS was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). The relationship between amusia and FA in the inferior component of the SLF was particularly robust, withstanding corrections for cognitive functioning, auditory sensitivities, or musical training. Though the number of individuals with amusia in the study is small, results add to evidence for the role of fronto-temporal disconnectivity in congenital amusia and suggest that novel populations with developmental differences can provide a window into understanding gene-brain-behavior relationships that underlie musical behaviors. PMID:25422929

Lense, Miriam D.; Dankner, Nathan; Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2014-01-01

205

Genetic and neuroanatomic associations in sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are sensitive for tau or TDP-43 pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Neuroimaging analyses have revealed distinct distributions of disease in FTLD patients with genetic mutations. However, genetic influences on neuroanatomic structure in sporadic FTLD have not been assessed. In this report, we use novel multivariate tools, Eigenanatomy, and sparse canonical correlation analysis to identify associations between SNPs and neuroanatomic structure in sporadic FTLD. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed that rs8070723 (MAPT) was associated with gray matter variance in the temporal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analyses revealed that rs1768208 (MOBP), rs646776 (near SORT1), and rs5848 (PGRN) were associated with white matter variance in the midbrain and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In an independent autopsy series, we observed that rs8070723 and rs1768208 conferred significant risk of tau pathology relative to TDP-43, and rs646776 conferred increased risk of TDP-43 pathology relative to tau. Identified brain regions and SNPs may help provide an in vivo screen for underlying pathology in FTLD and contribute to our understanding of sporadic FTLD. PMID:24373676

McMillan, Corey T; Toledo, Jon B; Avants, Brian B; Cook, Philip A; Wood, Elisabeth M; Suh, Eunran; Irwin, David J; Powers, John; Olm, Christopher; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Grossman, Murray

2014-06-01

206

Cryptic organisation within an apparently irregular rostrocaudal distribution of interneurons in the embryonic zebrafish spinal cord  

SciTech Connect

The molecules and mechanisms involved in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the developing vertebrate spinal cord have been investigated extensively and many are well known. Conversely, knowledge of mechanisms patterning cellular distributions along the rostrocaudal axis is relatively more restricted. Much is known about the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurons and spinal cord cells derived from neural crest but there is little known about the rostrocaudal patterning of most of the other spinal cord neurons. Here we report data from our analyses of the distribution of dorsal longitudinal ascending (DoLA) interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We show that, although apparently distributed irregularly, these cells have cryptic organisation. We present a novel cell-labelling technique that reveals that DoLA interneurons migrate rostrally along the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of the spinal cord during development. This cell-labelling strategy may be useful for in vivo analysis of factors controlling neuron migration in the central nervous system. Additionally, we show that DoLA interneurons persist in the developing spinal cord for longer than previously reported. These findings illustrate the need to investigate factors and mechanisms that determine 'irregular' patterns of cell distribution, particularly in the central nervous system but also in other tissues of developing embryos.

Wells, Simon, E-mail: simon.wells@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia) [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Conran, John G., E-mail: john.conran@adelaide.edu.au [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tamme, Richard, E-mail: rtamme@ttu.ee [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Gaudin, Arnaud, E-mail: a.gaudin@uq.edu.au [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Webb, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.webb@worc.ox.ac.uk [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Lardelli, Michael, E-mail: michael.lardelli@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia) [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

2010-11-15

207

High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) Probabilistic Tractography of the Auditory Radiation  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The auditory radiation crosses other white matter tracks and cannot reliably be delineated or quantitatively assessed with DTI fiber tracking. This study investigates whether HARDI fiber tracking can be used to robustly delineate the full extent of the tract. Materials and Methods HARDI (64-direction, b=3000 s/mm2) and DTI (30-direction, b=1000 s/mm2) were acquired from 25 control subjects between the ages of 8 and 26 years. Probabilistic HARDI and DTI fiber tracking of the auditory radiation was performed with starting and filter regions automatically generated from the freesurfer white matter parcellation. DTI fiber tracking was performed with both the 64 and 30-direction data sets. Fiber tracking trials demonstrating connectivity from Heschl's gyrus to the medial geniculate nucleus were considered successful. Results HARDI fiber tracking success rate was 98% and significantly higher than the 64-direction DTI rate of 50% or the 30-direction DTI rate of 42% (p<0.001). The success rates of HARDI fiber tracking for the left and right auditory radiations were not significantly different. In contrast, the left auditory radiation was successfully delineated with DTI fiber tracking at a higher rate than the right auditory radiation. Conclusions HARDI can discriminate the complex white matter pathways at the junction of the auditory radiation and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. HARDI fiber tracking can reliably delineate the auditory radiation. PMID:23493892

Berman, Jeffrey I.; Lanza, Matthew R.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

2014-01-01

208

The relationship of brain structure to age and executive functioning in adolescent disruptive behavior disorder.  

PubMed

Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD. PMID:25533028

Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

2015-03-30

209

Tractography reveals diffuse white matter abnormalities in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.  

PubMed

Cerebral involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is well-established but not well characterized. This study applied new Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) tractography to characterize white matter disturbance in adults with DM1. Forty-five participants with DM1 and 44 control participants had MRIs on a Siemens 3T TIM Trio scanner. Data were processed with TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) and 7 tracts were evaluated. Bilateral disturbances in white matter integrity were seen in all tracts in participants with DM1 compared to controls. There were no right-left hemisphere differences. The resulting DTI metrics were correlated with cognitive functioning, particularly working memory and processing speed. Motor speed was not significantly correlated with white matter microstructural integrity and, thus, was not the core explanation for the working memory and processing speed findings. White matter integrity was correlated with important clinical variables including the muscular impairment rating scale (MIRS). CTG repeat length was moderately associated with white matter status in corticospinal tract and cingulum. Sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) was moderately associated with white matter status in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum. Overall, the results add to an emerging literature showing widespread white matter disturbances in both early-onset and adult-onset DM1. Results suggest that further investigation of white matter pathology is warranted in DM1 and that non-invasive measures such as DTI have a potentially important clinical value in characterizing the status of individuals with DM1. PMID:24768314

Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura S; Day, John W

2014-06-15

210

Channeling of developing rat corticospinal tract axons by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

CNS myelin contains 2 membrane proteins that are potent inhibitors of neurite growth (NI-35 and NI-250). Because myelin formation starts at different times in different regions and tracts of the CNS, this inhibitory property of myelin could serve boundary and guidance functions for late-growing fiber tracts. In the rat, the corticospinal tract (CST) grows into and down the spinal cord during the first 10 postnatal days, in close proximity to the sensory tracts fasciculus cuneatus and gracilis. Immunofluorescence for myelin constituents showed that, in the rostral half of the spinal cord, the myelinating tissue of these ascending tracts surrounds the growing, myelin-free CST in a channellike fashion. Elimination of oligodendrocytes by x-irradiation of the newborn rats, or application of antibody IN-1, which neutralizes the inhibitory substrate property of CNS myelin, resulted in significant anatomical aberration of CST fibers. In particular, the tract was larger in cross-section, and aberrant CST fibers and fascicles intermixed with the neighboring sensory ascending tracts. These results assign an important channeling and guard-rail function to the oligodendrocyte-associated neurite growth inhibitors for the developing CST in the rat spinal cord.

Schwab, M.E.; Schnell, L. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland))

1991-03-01

211

Topographical histology of the posterolateral corner of the knee, with special reference to laminar configurations around the popliteus tendon: a study of elderly Japanese and late-stage fetuses.  

PubMed

We investigated the histology of laminar configurations at the posterolateral corners of 40 knees (18 late-stage fetuses, 22 elderly persons). In the fetuses, the deeply located popliteal fascia and the superficially located inferior geniculate vascular sheath were evident in a space between the popliteus tendon (PT) and the biceps femoris and gastrocnemius. Along, and deep to, the popliteal fascia, the popliteus muscle parenchyma developed into both the PT and another dense connective tissue mass. The PT attached to the fibula (i.e., the fetal popliteofibular ligament) and to the base of the lateral meniscus (i.e., the fetal popliteomeniscal fasciculus). This laminar configuration was essentially maintained in the elderly. The fetal dense connective tissue of the popliteus origin seemed to correspond to the adult arcuate ligament. However, because a connective tissue complex (including the PT and the arcuate and popliteofibular ligaments) was often well developed, the complex involved the inferior geniculate vascular sheath and popliteal fascia. A spectrum of variations was found in how thickly the complex developed. Thus, clear separation of the PT from the surrounding tissues often became difficult. Notably, the connective tissue complex could be peeled in different manners, depending on the site and the individual. Therefore, macroscopic variation in the posterolateral corner, including the apparent absence of some ligaments, seemed to be related to the thickness and number of layers developed by the connective tissue complex, possibly due to an adaptation to the individual's mechanical environment during growth and aging. PMID:15666123

Minowa, Takeshi; Murakami, Gen; Suzuki, Daisuke; Uchiyama, Eiichi; Kura, Hideji; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2005-01-01

212

White Matter Alterations in Deficit Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia can be classified into two separate syndromes: deficit and nondeficit. Primary, enduring negative symptoms are used to define the deficit form of the illness, which is believed to have a unique neurobiological substrate. Previous research suggests that an aberrant prefrontal-thalamic-parietal network underlies deficit schizophrenia. In this study we conducted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking to assess the integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the major white matter tract that connects prefrontal and parietal cortical regions, in deficit and nondeficit people with schizophrenia. We also used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to assess neurochemistry in the left middle prefrontal and left inferior parietal cortical regions. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia (10 deficit and 10 nondeficit) and 11 healthy subjects participated in this study. Results revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter integrity, in the right hemisphere SLF and frontal white matter in the deficit subjects. There were no differences in MRS metabolite concentrations among groups. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI study to show compromised integrity of the major white matter tract that connects frontal and parietal regions in deficit schizophrenia. These findings provide further support for altered frontal-parietal network in deficit schizophrenia. PMID:19052539

Rowland, Laura M.; Spieker, Elena A.; Francis, Alan; Barker, Peter B.; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

2008-01-01

213

Functional responses and structural connections of cortical areas for processing faces and voices in the superior temporal sulcus.  

PubMed

It was the aim of this study to delineate the areas along the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) for processing of faces, voices, and face-voice integration using established functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizers and to assess their structural connectivity profile with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We combined this approach with an fMRI adaptation design during which the participants judged emotions in facial expressions and prosody and demonstrated response habituation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) which occurred irrespective of the sensory modality. These functional data were in line with DTI findings showing separable fiber projections of the three different STS modules converging in the OFC which run through the external capsule for the voice area, through the dorsal superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) for the face area and through the ventral SLF for the audiovisual integration area. The OFC was structurally connected with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and activation in these two areas was correlated with faster stimulus evaluation during repetition priming. Based on these structural and functional properties, we propose that the OFC is part of the extended system for perception of emotional information in faces and voices and constitutes a neural interface linking sensory areas with brain regions implicated in generation of behavioral responses. PMID:23507387

Ethofer, Thomas; Bretscher, Johannes; Wiethoff, Sarah; Bisch, Jeanne; Schlipf, Sarah; Wildgruber, Dirk; Kreifelts, Benjamin

2013-08-01

214

Longitudinal assessment of neuroanatomical and cognitive differences in young children with type 1 diabetes: association with hyperglycemia.  

PubMed

Significant regional differences in gray and white matter volume and subtle cognitive differences between young diabetic and nondiabetic children have been observed. Here, we assessed whether these differences change over time and the relation with dysglycemia. Children ages 4 to <10 years with (n = 144) and without (n = 72) type 1 diabetes (T1D) had high-resolution structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive tests at baseline and 18 months and continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c performed quarterly for 18 months. There were no differences in cognitive and executive function scores between groups at 18 months. However, children with diabetes had slower total gray and white matter growth than control subjects. Gray matter regions (left precuneus, right temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes and right medial-frontal cortex) showed lesser growth in diabetes, as did white matter areas (splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior-parietal lobe, bilateral anterior forceps, and inferior-frontal fasciculus). These changes were associated with higher cumulative hyperglycemia and glucose variability but not with hypoglycemia. Young children with T1D have significant differences in total and regional gray and white matter growth in brain regions involved in complex sensorimotor processing and cognition compared with age-matched control subjects over 18 months, suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may be detrimental to the developing brain. PMID:25488901

Mauras, Nelly; Mazaika, Paul; Buckingham, Bruce; Weinzimer, Stuart; White, Neil H; Tsalikian, Eva; Hershey, Tamara; Cato, Allison; Cheng, Peiyao; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina; Aye, Tandy; Fox, Larry; Arbelaez, Ana Maria; Wilson, Darrell; Tansey, Michael; Tamborlane, William; Peng, Daniel; Marzelli, Matthew; Winer, Karen K; Reiss, Allan L

2015-05-01

215

Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have begun to address how the brain's gray and white matter may be shaped by meditation. This research is yet to be integrated, however, and two fundamental questions remain: Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? If so, what is the magnitude of these differences? To address these questions, we reviewed and meta-analyzed 123 brain morphology differences from 21 neuroimaging studies examining ?300 meditation practitioners. Anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis found eight brain regions consistently altered in meditators, including areas key to meta-awareness (frontopolar cortex/BA 10), exteroceptive and interoceptive body awareness (sensory cortices and insula), memory consolidation and reconsolidation (hippocampus), self and emotion regulation (anterior and mid cingulate; orbitofrontal cortex), and intra- and interhemispheric communication (superior longitudinal fasciculus; corpus callosum). Effect size meta-analysis (calculating 132 effect sizes from 16 studies) suggests a global 'medium' effect size (Cohen's d¯=0.46; r¯=.19). Publication bias and methodological limitations are strong concerns, however. Further research using rigorous methods is required to definitively link meditation practice to altered brain morphology. PMID:24705269

Fox, Kieran C R; Nijeboer, Savannah; Dixon, Matthew L; Floman, James L; Ellamil, Melissa; Rumak, Samuel P; Sedlmeier, Peter; Christoff, Kalina

2014-06-01

216

Using in vivo probabilistic tractography to reveal two segregated dorsal ‘language-cognitive’ pathways in the human brain?  

PubMed Central

Primate studies have recently identified the dorsal stream as constituting multiple dissociable pathways associated with a range of specialized cognitive functions. To elucidate the nature and number of dorsal pathways in the human brain, the current study utilized in vivo probabilistic tractography to map the structural connectivity associated with subdivisions of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The left SMG is a prominent region within the dorsal stream, which has recently been parcellated into five structurally-distinct regions which possess a dorsal–ventral (and rostral-caudal) organisation, postulated to reflect areas of functional specialisation. The connectivity patterns reveal a dissociation of the arcuate fasciculus into at least two segregated pathways connecting frontal-parietal-temporal regions. Specifically, the connectivity of the inferior SMG, implicated as an acoustic-motor speech interface, is carried by an inner/ventro-dorsal arc of fibres, whilst the pathways of the posterior superior SMG, implicated in object use and cognitive control, forms a parallel outer/dorso-dorsal crescent. PMID:23937853

Cloutman, Lauren L.; Binney, Richard J.; Morris, David M.; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2013-01-01

217

Epidemiological and clinical aspects will guide the neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Although neurobiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder (BD) are still unclear, neural models of the disease have recently been conceptualised thanks to neuroimaging. Indeed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigating structural and functional connectivity between different areas of the brain suggest an altered prefrontal-limbic coupling leading to disrupted emotional processing in BD, including uncinate fasciculus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, cingulate cortex as well corpus callosum. Specifically, these models assume an altered prefrontal control over a hyperactivity of the subcortical limbic structures implicated in automatic emotional processing. This impaired mechanism may finally trigger emotional hyper-reactivity and mood episodes. In this review, we first summarised some key neuroimaging studies on BD. In the second part of the work, we focused on the heterogeneity of the available studies. This variability is partly due to methodological factors (i.e., small sample size) and differences among studies (i.e., MRI acquisition and post-processing analyses) and partly to the clinical heterogeneity of BD. We finally outlined how epidemiological studies should indicate which risk factors and clinical dimensions of BD are relevant to be studied with neuroimaging in order to reduce heterogeneity and go beyond diagnostic categories. PMID:25592435

Houenou, J; Perlini, C; Brambilla, P

2015-04-01

218

More insights into early brain development through statistical analyses of eigen-structural elements of diffusion tensor imaging using multivariate adaptive regression splines.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the maturational changes of the three eigenvalues (?1 ? ?2 ? ?3) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) during early postnatal life for more insights into early brain development. In order to overcome the limitations of using presumed growth trajectories for regression analysis, we employed Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) to derive data-driven growth trajectories for the three eigenvalues. We further employed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to carry out statistical inferences on the growth trajectories obtained with MARS. With a total of 71 longitudinal datasets acquired from 29 healthy, full-term pediatric subjects, we found that the growth velocities of the three eigenvalues were highly correlated, but significantly different from each other. This paradox suggested the existence of mechanisms coordinating the maturations of the three eigenvalues even though different physiological origins may be responsible for their temporal evolutions. Furthermore, our results revealed the limitations of using the average of ?2 and ?3 as the radial diffusivity in interpreting DTI findings during early brain development because these two eigenvalues had significantly different growth velocities even in central white matter. In addition, based upon the three eigenvalues, we have documented the growth trajectory differences between central and peripheral white matter, between anterior and posterior limbs of internal capsule, and between inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Taken together, we have demonstrated that more insights into early brain maturation can be gained through analyzing eigen-structural elements of DTI. PMID:23455648

Chen, Yasheng; Zhu, Hongtu; An, Hongyu; Armao, Diane; Shen, Dinggang; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili

2014-03-01

219

Is there a critical lesion site for unilateral spatial neglect? A meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation  

PubMed Central

The critical lesion site responsible for the syndrome of unilateral spatial neglect has been debated for more than a decade. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to provide for the first time an objective quantitative index of the consistency of lesion sites across anatomical group studies of spatial neglect. The analysis revealed several distinct regions in which damage has consistently been associated with spatial neglect symptoms. Lesioned clusters were located in several cortical and subcortical regions of the right hemisphere, including the middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, caudate nucleus, and posterior insula, as well as in the white matter pathway corresponding to the posterior part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Further analyses suggested that separate lesion sites are associated with impairments in different behavioral tests, such as line bisection and target cancellation. Similarly, specific subcomponents of the heterogeneous neglect syndrome, such as extinction and allocentric and personal neglect, are associated with distinct lesion sites. Future progress in delineating the neuropathological correlates of spatial neglect will depend upon the development of more refined measures of perceptual and cognitive functions than those currently available in the clinical setting. PMID:22514528

Molenberghs, Pascal; Sale, Martin V.; Mattingley, Jason B.

2012-01-01

220

Dissociable morphometric profiles of the affective and cognitive dimensions of alexithymia.  

PubMed

Alexithymia ("no words for feelings") is a psychological construct that can be divided in a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension reflects the ability to identify, verbalize and analyze feelings, whereas the affective dimension reflects the degree to which individuals get aroused by emotional stimuli and their ability to fantasize. These two alexithymia dimensions may differentially put individuals at risk to develop psychopathology. However, their neural correlates have rarely been investigated. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the cognitive and affective alexithymia dimension are associated with unique anatomical profiles. Structural MRI scans of 57 participants (29 males; mean age: 34) were processed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) - Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the common and specific associations between gray and white matter volume and alexithymia subdimensions. The results revealed that the cognitive dimension was related to lower dorsal anterior cingulate volume. In contrast, the affective alexithymia was associated with lower gray matter volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lower white matter volume in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) near the angular gyrus. No relationship between corpus callosum volume and alexithymia was observed. These results are consistent with the idea that there are two separable neural systems underlying alexithymia. This finding might encourage future research into the link between specific alexithymia subtypes and the development of psychopathology. PMID:24699037

van der Velde, Jorien; van Tol, Marie-José; Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

2014-05-01

221

Evaluation of voxel-based group-level analysis of diffusion tensor images using simulated brain lesions.  

PubMed

We simulated brain lesions in mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) images of healthy subjects to evaluate the performance of voxel-based analysis (VBA) with SPM2. We increased MD and decreased FA, simulating the most typical abnormalities in brain pathologies, in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), corticospinal tract (CST), and corpus callosum (CC). Lesion sizes varied from 10 to 400 voxels (10.5 mm³ each) and intensity changes from 10 to 100%. The VBA contained eddy current correction, spatial normalization, smoothing, and statistical analysis. The preprocessing steps changed the intensities of MD and FA lesions from the original values, and many lesions remained undetected. The detection thresholds varied between the three brain areas, and between MD and FA images. Although spatial smoothing often improved the sensitivity, it also markedly enlarged the estimated lesion sizes. Since conventional VBA preprocessing significantly affected the outcome and sensitivity of the method itself, the impact of analysis steps should be verified and considered before interpreting the findings. Our results provide insight into the sizes and intensity changes of lesions that can be detected with VBA applied to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. PMID:21978550

Hiltunen, Jaana; Seppä, Mika; Hari, Riitta

2011-12-01

222

Lesions in the central tegmental tract in autopsy cases of developmental brain disorders.  

PubMed

We retrospectively analyzed central tegmental tract (CTT) lesions in 120 consecutive autopsy cases of developmental brain disorders to investigate the significance of symmetrical CTT lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of CTT lesions have been sporadically reported in various cases of child neurological diseases. In this study, symmetrical CTT lesions were observed in 25 (20.8%) among 120 cases of developmental brain disorders. These 25 cases were classified into three groups (groups I-III) in decreasing order of the severity of the lesion. Compared to five cases of group I in which CTT lesions were accompanied by diffuse tegmental damage, 20 cases of groups II or III developed relatively selective CTT lesions in which the medial longitudinal fasciculus and/or medial or lateral lemniscus were preserved. The causes of brain disorders in all three groups seemed to be different, and lysosomal disorders and congenital brain anomalies were frequently seen in cases in groups II and III, respectively. The dentato-rubro-olivary system is known to be involved in palatal myoclonus, and five out of 13 cases in group II showed myoclonic epilepsy. Compared with 95 cases without the CTT lesion, the changes in the pontine reticular formation were more closely associated with the CTT lesion than those in the inferior olivary nucleus. In conclusion, in cases of developmental brain disorders, the neuropathology of the symmetrical CTT lesion should be investigated. PMID:20970935

Shioda, Mutsuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Osawa, Makiko

2011-08-01

223

Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span.  

PubMed

Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying the brain effects of acquiring specialized sensorimotor skills. For example, musicians learn and repeatedly practice the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation) while receiving continuous multisensory feedback. This association learning can strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) while activating multimodal integration regions (e.g., around the intraparietal sulcus). We argue that training of this neural network may produce cross-modal effects on other behavioral or cognitive operations that draw on this network. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. These enhancements suggest the potential for music making as an interactive treatment or intervention for neurological and developmental disorders, as well as those associated with normal aging. PMID:20889966

Wan, Catherine Y; Schlaug, Gottfried

2010-10-01

224

[Clinical study of two cases of traumatic cerebellar injury].  

PubMed

Two cases of traumatic cerebellar injury complicated with a traumatic medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome or cerebellar mutism were reported, and the cause of these mechanisms was discussed: Case 1: A 9-year-old boy who struck his head in the occipital region during an automobile accident was operated on for a delayed traumatic intracerebellar hematoma. The operation improved the level of his consciousness but MLF syndrome was noticed. The mechanism of traumatic MLF syndrome was discussed in relation to vascular injury and to neurovascular friction. The outcome of the syndrome including our case, which recovered spontaneously, seemed to support the theory of neurovascular injury. Case 2: A 6-year-old boy who struck his head in the temporooccipital region during an automobile accident was admitted to our hospital without conciousness. On admission, contusion of the temporal lobe and left cerebellar hemisphere was demonstrated by a computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A mute state (cerebellar mutism) was recognized after his recovery of consciousness. The cause of the cerebellar mutism was thought to be an injury of the cerebellar vermis or left cerebellar hemisphere. The findings of CT scan and MRI in our case suggested that the cause of the cerebellar mutism was the contusion of these areas. PMID:2406638

Yokota, H; Nakazawa, S; Kobayashi, S; Taniguchi, Y; Yukihide, T

1990-01-01

225

Research with rTMS in the treatment of aphasia  

PubMed Central

This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca’s area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients. PMID:20714075

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Kaplan, Elina; Bashir, Shahid; Hamilton, Roy; Coslett, H. Branch; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

226

Independent Component Analysis-Based Identification of Covariance Patterns of Microstructural White Matter Damage in Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The existing DTI studies have suggested that white matter damage constitutes an important part of the neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study aimed to identify the regional covariance patterns of microstructural white matter changes associated with AD. In this study, we applied a multivariate analysis approach, independent component analysis (ICA), to identify covariance patterns of microstructural white matter damage based on fractional anisotropy (FA) skeletonised images from DTI data in 39 AD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The multivariate ICA decomposed the subject-dimension concatenated FA data into a mixing coefficient matrix and a source matrix. Twenty-eight independent components (ICs) were extracted, and a two sample t-test on each column of the corresponding mixing coefficient matrix revealed significant AD/HC differences in ICA weights for 7 ICs. The covariant FA changes primarily involved the bilateral corona radiata, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the cingulum, the hippocampal commissure, and the corpus callosum in AD patients compared to HCs. Our findings identified covariant white matter damage associated with AD based on DTI in combination with multivariate ICA, potentially expanding our understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms of AD. PMID:25775003

Ouyang, Xin; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Guo, Xiaojuan

2015-01-01

227

Music Making as a Tool for Promoting Brain Plasticity across the Life Span  

PubMed Central

Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying the brain effects of acquiring specialized sensorimotor skills. For example, musicians learn and repeatedly practice the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation) while receiving continuous multisensory feedback. This association learning can strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) while activating multimodal integration regions (e.g., around the intraparietal sulcus). We argue that training of this neural network may produce cross-modal effects on other behavioral or cognitive operations that draw on this network. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. These enhancements suggest the potential for music making as an interactive treatment or intervention for neurological and developmental disorders, as well as those associated with normal aging. PMID:20889966

Wan, Catherine Y.; Schlaug, Gottfried

2010-01-01

228

Atrophy in white matter fiber tracts in multiple sclerosis is not dependent on tract length or local white matter lesions.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of tissue injury outside the white matter (WM) plaques of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not yet been clearly defined. To better understand the pathogenesis of this injury and the associated atrophy, we investigated volume loss over time in 20 WM fiber tracts. We defined two main aims: (1) to examine whether certain fiber tracts were more prone to atrophy, and to test the possible relation of tract atrophy to tract length and selected MS-specific variables; and (2) to investigate the possible relation of atrophy to lesion load (whole brain and in the specific tract). Local volume change was assessed between two distant time points for each MS patient studied. Fiber tracts were segmented automatically using a tractography-based atlas. Results demonstrate volume loss in all fiber tracts. The uncinate fasciculus and anterior-thalamic radiation had the greatest yearly percentage atrophy. Disease type, duration, median expanded disability status scale, total lesion load, and gender exhibited significant effects on atrophy in at least one tract. Together, these data are more consistent with a pathogenesis for the degeneration related to diffuse inflammation rather than the secondary effects of focal lesions. PMID:18611990

Kezele, I B; Arnold, D L; Collins, D L

2008-07-01

229

Fronto–Temporal Disconnectivity in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we previously reported abnormalities in two critical white matter tracts in schizophrenia, the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle (CB), both related to fronto–temporal connectivity. Here, we investigate these two bundles in unmedicated subjects with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Methods Fifteen male SPD subjects and 15 male control subjects were scanned with line-scan DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (Dm) were used to quantify water diffusion, and cross-sectional area was defined with a directional threshold method. Exploratory correlation analyses were evaluated with Spearman’s rho, followed by post hoc hierarchical regression analyses. Results We found bilaterally reduced FA in the UF of SPD subjects. For CB, there was no significant group difference for FA or Dm measures. Additionally, in SPD, reduced FA in the right UF was correlated with clinical symptoms, including ideas of reference, suspiciousness, restricted affect, and social anxiety. In contrast, left UF area was correlated with measures of cognitive function, including general intelligence, verbal and visual memory, and executive performance. Conclusions These findings in SPD suggest altered fronto–temporal connectivity through the UF, similar to findings in schizophrenia, and intact neocortical–limbic connectivity through the CB, in marked contrast with what has been reported in schizophrenia. PMID:15978550

Nakamura, Motoaki; McCarley, Robert W.; Kubicki, Marek; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Maier, Stephan E.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Kikinis, Ron; Shenton, Martha E.

2009-01-01

230

White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.  

PubMed

Prior diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies examining schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and schizophrenia, separately have shown that compared with healthy controls (HCs), patients show frontotemporal white matter (WM) abnormalities. This is the first DTI study to directly compare WM tract coherence with tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) across the schizophrenia spectrum in a large sample of demographically matched HCs (n = 55), medication-naive SPD patients (n = 49), and unmedicated/never-medicated schizophrenia patients (n = 22) to determine whether (a) frontal-striatal-temporal WM tract abnormalities in schizophrenia are similar to, or distinct from those observed in SPD; and (b) WM tract abnormalities are associated with clinical symptom severity indicating a common underlying pathology across the spectrum. Compared with both the HC and SPD groups, schizophrenia patients showed WM abnormalities, as indexed by lower FA in the temporal lobe (inferior longitudinal fasciculus) and cingulum regions. SPD patients showed lower FA in the corpus callosum genu compared with the HC group, but this regional abnormality was more widespread in schizophrenia patients. Across the schizophrenia spectrum, greater WM disruptions were associated with greater symptom severity. Overall, frontal-striatal-temporal WM dysconnectivity is attenuated in SPD compared with schizophrenia patients and may mitigate the emergence of psychosis. PMID:24962608

Lener, Marc S; Wong, Edmund; Tang, Cheuk Y; Byne, William; Goldstein, Kim E; Blair, Nicholas J; Haznedar, M Mehmet; New, Antonia S; Chemerinski, Eran; Chu, King-Wai; Rimsky, Liza S; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Hazlett, Erin A

2015-01-01

231

The Dide-Botcazo syndrome: forgotten and misunderstood.  

PubMed

Bilateral infarcts of the posterior cerebral arteries are associated with a range of visual and memory deficits. In 1902, Dide and Botcazo presented a clinico-pathological case study linking visual field defects, topographical disorientation, retro-anterograde amnesia and alexia with bilateral medial occipito-temporal lesions. Based on the findings they suggested the occipital lobe and inferior longitudinal fasciculus played an important role in memory. The combination of deficits was subsequently referred to on occasion as Dide-Botcazo syndrome but the term was largely forgotten until revived in the 1980s. More recently, some authors have included visual anosognosia--Anton's syndrome--in the syndrome, a feature that was not in the original case report. Here we present a historical review of Dide-Botcazo syndrome, illustrated with a recent case with almost identical clinical features to that described by Dide and Botcazo. Although Dide and Botcazo's theory of occipital amnesia has been superseded by developments in our understanding of the neurobiology of memory, it seems fitting to remember in some way their description of a clinical association of visual and memory deficits. We suggest Dide-Botcazo syndrome be used to describe a variant of vascular dementia, where visual field deficits are associated with memory impairment and, depending on the location of the vascular lesions, visual perceptual dysfunction, topographic, imagery or dreaming deficits. PMID:23473855

Lazzarino De Lorenzo, Lucio G; Ffytche, Dominic H; Di Camillo, Eva; Buiatti, Tania

2014-07-01

232

Medial vestibulospinal tract lesions impair sacculo-collic reflexes.  

PubMed

The medial vestibulospinal tract (VST) is known to mediate the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in the contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). To determine whether disruption of the medial VST in the medulla impairs formation of VEMP, we measured VEMP in 14 patients with medial medullary infarction (MMI). VEMP was induced by a short tone burst and was recorded in contracting SCM while patients turned their heads forcefully to the contralateral side against resistance. Normative data were obtained from 47 healthy volunteers. Seven patients (50%) had abnormal VEMP in the side of the MMI lesion, absent in two, decreased in four, and delayed in two. One patient showed both decreased and delayed response. Of the seven patients with abnormal VEMP, five had the lesions that extended to the dorsal tegmentum while five of the seven patients with normal VEMP showed restricted anteromedial lesions mainly involving the pyramids. Spontaneous nystagmus (4/7, 57%), gaze-evoked nystagmus (6/7, 86%), and ocular tilt reaction/tilt of the subjective visual vertical (4/7, 57%) were frequently observed in the patients with abnormal VEMP. The abnormal VEMP in patients with infarctions involving the medullary tegmentum supports that VEMP is mediated by the medial VST descending within the medial longitudinal fasciculus. PMID:20054695

Kim, Seonhye; Lee, Hak-Seung; Kim, Ji Soo

2010-05-01

233

[Enzyme histochemical study of the brain of Chthonerpeton indistinctum (Gymnophiona, Amphibia)].  

PubMed

In the brain of the Caecilian species Chthonerpeton indistinctum the following enzymes have been demonstrated by means of histochemical techniques: acid phosphatase, alpha-naphthylacetate esterase, acetylcholin esterase. Acid phosphatase occurs in the cytoplasm of the neurons in 4 different types of localization. Its activity in the ventral parts of the brain is markedly higher than in the dorsal ones. Of particularly high activity are: the motor neurons in the tegmentum, the nucleus mesencephali trigemini, individual large neurons in the marginal zone of the grey matter of the telencephalon, which seems to be a special character of the Caecilians among the Amphibia. The ependyma exhibits local differences in respect of acid phosphatase activity. alpha-Naphthylacetate esterase marks in particular the secretory neurons of the hypothalamus, the large perikarya of the nucleus mesencephali trigemini and the motor neurons of the tegmentum. In the telencephalon the alpha-naphthylacetate esterase activity corresponds to that of acid phosphatase. Acetylcholin esterase marks--with certain restrictions--cholinergic neurons. These predominate in Chthonerpeton in the caudal parts of the brain. In the telencephalon amygdala, septal area striatum and the mitral cells are of comparatively high activity. The neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus are particularly rich in this enzyme. As an anurans the cholinergic fasciculus retroflexus as asymmetric. The tectum opticum is of secondary simplicity and does not exhibit a clearly recognizable stratification. PMID:524986

Welsch, U; Tan, S H

1979-01-01

234

Whole brain functional connectivity using phase locking measures of resting state magnetoencephalography  

PubMed Central

The analysis of spontaneous functional connectivity (sFC) reveals the statistical connections between regions of the brain consistent with underlying functional communication networks within the brain. In this work, we describe the implementation of a complete all-to-all network analysis of resting state neuronal activity from magnetoencephalography (MEG). Using graph theory to define networks at the dipole level, we established functionally defined regions by k-means clustering cortical surface locations using Eigenvector centrality (EVC) scores from the all-to-all adjacency model. Permutation testing was used to estimate regions with statistically significant connections compared to empty room data, which adjusts for spatial dependencies introduced by the MEG inverse problem. In order to test this model, we performed a series of numerical simulations investigating the effects of the MEG reconstruction on connectivity estimates. We subsequently applied the approach to subject data to investigate the effectiveness of our method in obtaining whole brain networks. Our findings indicated that our model provides statistically robust estimates of functional region networks. Application of our phase locking network methodology to real data produced networks with similar connectivity to previously published findings, specifically, we found connections between contralateral areas of the arcuate fasciculus that have been previously investigated. The use of data-driven methods for neuroscientific investigations provides a new tool for researchers in identifying and characterizing whole brain functional connectivity networks. PMID:25018690

Schmidt, Benjamin T.; Ghuman, Avniel S.; Huppert, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

235

The role of the habenula in drug addiction  

PubMed Central

Interest in the habenula has greatly increased in recent years. The habenula is a small brain structure located posterior to the thalamus and adjacent to the third ventricle. Despite its small size, the habenula can be divided into medial habenula (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb) nuclei that are anatomically and transcriptionally distinct. The habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia primarily via the stria medullaris. The fasciculus retroflexus is the primary habenular output from the habenula to the midbrain and governs release of glutamate onto gabaergic cells in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and onto the interpeduncular nucleus. The resulting GABA released from RMTg neurons inactivates dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra compacta. Through this process, the habenula controls dopamine levels in the striatum. Thus, the habenula plays a critical role in reward and reward-associated learning. The LHb also modulates serotonin levels and norepinephrine release, while the MHb modulates acetylcholine. The habenula is a critical crossroad that influences the brain’s response to pain, stress, anxiety, sleep, and reward. Dysfunction of the habenula has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, and the effects of drugs of abuse. This review focuses on the possible relationships between the habenula and drug abuse. PMID:24734015

Velasquez, Kenia M.; Molfese, David L.; Salas, Ramiro

2014-01-01

236

The Role of Low and High Spatial Frequencies in Exogenous Attention to Biologically Salient Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool that permits the detection and processing of biologically salient events even when the individual is engaged in a resource-consuming task. Indirect data suggest that the spatial frequency of stimulation may be a crucial element in this process. Behavioral and neural data (both functional and structural) were analyzed for 36 participants engaged in a digit categorization task in which distracters were presented. Distracters were biologically salient or anodyne images, and had three spatial frequency formats: intact, low spatial frequencies only, and high spatial frequencies only. Behavior confirmed enhanced exogenous attention to biologically salient distracters. The activity in the right and left intraparietal sulci and the right middle frontal gyrus was associated with this behavioral pattern and was greater in response to salient than to neutral distracters, the three areas presenting strong correlations to each other. Importantly, the enhanced response of this network to biologically salient distracters with respect to neutral distracters relied on low spatial frequencies to a significantly greater extent than on high spatial frequencies. Structural analyses suggested the involvement of internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus and corpus callosum in this network. Results confirm that exogenous attention is preferentially captured by biologically salient information, and suggest that the architecture and function underlying this process are low spatial frequency-biased. PMID:22590649

Carretié, Luis; Ríos, Marcos; Periáñez, José A.; Kessel, Dominique; Álvarez-Linera, Juan

2012-01-01

237

A Brain Network Processing the Age of Faces  

PubMed Central

Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships. PMID:23185334

Homola, György A.; Jbabdi, Saad; Beckmann, Christian F.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

2012-01-01

238

Independent component analysis-based identification of covariance patterns of microstructural white matter damage in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The existing DTI studies have suggested that white matter damage constitutes an important part of the neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to identify the regional covariance patterns of microstructural white matter changes associated with AD. In this study, we applied a multivariate analysis approach, independent component analysis (ICA), to identify covariance patterns of microstructural white matter damage based on fractional anisotropy (FA) skeletonised images from DTI data in 39 AD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The multivariate ICA decomposed the subject-dimension concatenated FA data into a mixing coefficient matrix and a source matrix. Twenty-eight independent components (ICs) were extracted, and a two sample t-test on each column of the corresponding mixing coefficient matrix revealed significant AD/HC differences in ICA weights for 7 ICs. The covariant FA changes primarily involved the bilateral corona radiata, the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the cingulum, the hippocampal commissure, and the corpus callosum in AD patients compared to HCs. Our findings identified covariant white matter damage associated with AD based on DTI in combination with multivariate ICA, potentially expanding our understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms of AD. PMID:25775003

Ouyang, Xin; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Guo, Xiaojuan

2015-01-01

239

Anterograde tracing of projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus to the vestibular nuclei.  

PubMed

This study used the anterograde transport of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to identify the course and terminal distribution of projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to the vestibular nuclei in rats. After iontophoretic injection of BDA into the medial and lateral regions of DRN, anterogradely labeled fibers descend within the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the ventricular fiber plexus to terminate within two discrete regions of the vestibular nuclear complex. One terminal field was located primarily ipsilateral to the injection site and involved rostrodorsal aspects of the vestibular nuclei, including superior vestibular nucleus and rostral portions of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). The other terminal field involved caudoventral aspects of both ipsilateral and contralateral MVN and LVN and was less heavily innervated. These findings confirm that the vestibular nuclei are targeted by a regionally-selective projection from the DRN. The segregation of DRN terminals into anatomically distinct fields indicates that the DRN-vestibular nucleus projections are organized to selectively modulate processing within specific functional domains of the vestibular nuclear complex. In particular, these terminal fields may be organized to modulate vestibular regions involved in eye movement-related velocity storage, coordination of vestibular and affective responses, and the bilateral coordination of horizontal eye movement reflexes. PMID:16989955

Halberstadt, A L; Balaban, C D

2006-12-01

240

A Brain Centred View of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Tinnitus: From Otology to Hodology  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Comorbid psychiatric disorders are frequent among patients affected by tinnitus. There are mutual clinical influences between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders, as well as neurobiological relations based on partially overlapping hodological and neuroplastic phenomena. The aim of the present paper is to review the evidence of alterations in brain networks underlying tinnitus physiopathology and to discuss them in light of the current knowledge of the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. Methods. Relevant literature was identified through a search on Medline and PubMed; search terms included tinnitus, brain, plasticity, cortex, network, and pathways. Results. Tinnitus phenomenon results from systemic-neurootological triggers followed by neuronal remapping within several auditory and nonauditory pathways. Plastic reorganization and white matter alterations within limbic system, arcuate fasciculus, insula, salience network, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, auditory pathways, ffrontocortical, and thalamocortical networks are discussed. Discussion. Several overlapping brain network alterations do exist between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders. Tinnitus, initially related to a clinicoanatomical approach based on a cortical localizationism, could be better explained by an holistic or associationist approach considering psychic functions and tinnitus as emergent properties of partially overlapping large-scale neural networks. PMID:25018882

Minichino, Amedeo; Panico, Roberta; Testugini, Valeria; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

241

COGNITIVE PROCESSING SPEED AND THE STRUCTURE OF WHITE MATTER PATHWAYS: CONVERGENT EVIDENCE FROM NORMAL VARIATION AND LESION STUDIES  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relation between cognitive processing speed and structural properties of white matter pathways via convergent imaging studies in healthy and brain-injured groups. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to diffusion tensor imaging data from thirty-nine young healthy subjects in order to investigate the relation between processing speed, as assessed with the Digit-Symbol subtest from WAIS-III, and fractional anisotropy, an index of microstructural organization of white matter. Digit-Symbol performance was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy of white matter in the parietal and temporal lobes bilaterally and in the left middle frontal gyrus. Fiber tractography indicated that these regions are consistent with the trajectories of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. In a second investigation, we assessed the effect of white matter damage on processing speed using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis of data from seventy-two patients with left hemisphere strokes. Lesions in left parietal white matter, together with cortical lesions in supramarginal and angular gyri were associated with impaired performance. These findings suggest that cognitive processing speed, as assessed by the Digit-Symbol test, is closely related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts associated with parietal and temporal cortices and left middle frontal gyrus. Further, fiber tractography applied to VBM results and the patient findings suggest that the superior longitudinal fasciculus, a major tract subserving fronto-parietal integration, makes a prominent contribution to processing speed. PMID:18602840

Turken, And U.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Bammer, Roland; Baldo, Juliana; Dronkers, Nina F.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2008-01-01

242

Altered cortical structures and tract integrity of the mirror neuron system in association with symptoms of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The mirror neuron system (MNS) may be implicated in schizophrenia. This study investigated MNS structures, including the pars opercularis (Pop), the supramarginal gyrus (SMg), the third branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and callosal fibers interconnecting bilateral Pop (CC-Pop) and SMg (CC-SMg), and clarified their relationships with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Participants comprised 32 schizophrenia patients and 32 matched controls who received T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, T1WI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). The cortical measures were computed from the T1WI data. Tract integrity was assessed using a tractography-based analysis of the generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) derived from the DSI data. Pearson?s correlations and multiple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the associations between MNS structures and positive and negative symptom scores of schizophrenia. Cortical thickness in bilateral Pop and SMg were significantly thinner and mean GFA of CC-Pop was significantly decreased in patients. Negative symptoms were significantly correlated with left SMg volume, and positive symptoms were significantly correlated with right SMg thickness. Multiple linear regression analysis showed left SMg volume to be the strongest contributor to the negative symptoms. The association between left SMg volume and negative symptoms may reflect the degree of social cognition impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:25659475

Tseng, Chieh-En Jane; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liu, Chih-Min; Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

2015-03-30

243

Differential White Matter Connectivity in Early Mild Cognitive Impairment According to CSF Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous group and certain MCI subsets eventually convert to dementia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are known to predict this conversion. We sought evidence for the differences in white matter connectivity between early amnestic MCI (EMCI) subgroups according to a CSF phosphorylated tau181p/amyloid beta1–42 ratio of 0.10. From the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, 16 high-ratio, 25 low-ratio EMCI patients, and 20 normal controls with diffusion tensor images and CSF profiles were included. Compared to the high-ratio group, radial diffusivity significantly increased in both sides of the corpus callosum and the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in the low-ratio group. In widespread white matter skeleton regions, the low-ratio group showed significantly increased mean, axial, and radial diffusivity compared to normal controls. However, the high-ratio group showed no differences when compared to the normal group. In conclusion, our study revealed that there were significant differences in white matter connectivity between EMCI subgroups according to CSF phosphorylated tau181p/amyloid beta1–42ratios. PMID:24614676

Lim, Jae-Sung; Park, Young Ho; Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Yong; Kim, SangYun

2014-01-01

244

A distributed network critical for selecting among tool-directed actions.  

PubMed

Tools pose a challenge to the need to select actions appropriate for task goals and environmental constraints. For many tools (e.g., calculator), actions for "using" and "grasping-to-move" conflict with each other and may compete during selection. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that enable selection between possible tool actions or their neural substrates. The study of patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke, many of whom are deficient in tool-use action (apraxic), provides an opportunity to elucidate these issues. Here, 31 such patients pantomimed or recognized tool use actions for "conflict" and "non-conflict" tools. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), lesion subtraction, and tractographic overlap analyses were used to determine brain regions necessary for selecting among tool-directed actions. Lesions to posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) tended to impair production of use actions similarly for both conflict and non-conflict tools. By contrast, lesions to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/anterior insula, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) specifically impaired production of use actions for conflict tools. Patients' errors on conflict tools suggested inappropriate selection of grasping actions and difficulty selecting single actions. Use/grasp conflict had no effect on action recognition. We suggest that the SMG/SLF/IFG pathway implements biased competition between possible tool actions, while aIPS and pMTG compute the structure-based and skilled use actions, respectively, that constitute input to this competitive process. This is the first study to demonstrate a reliable link between a characteristic of single tools (i.e., their association with different use and grasp actions) and action selection difficulties. Additionally, the data allow us to posit an SMG-involved subtype of apraxia characterized by an inability to resolve action competition. PMID:25681649

Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

2015-04-01

245

Profiles of white matter tract pathology in frontotemporal dementia.  

PubMed

Despite considerable interest in improving clinical and neurobiological characterisation of frontotemporal dementia and in defining the role of brain network disintegration in its pathogenesis, information about white matter pathway alterations in frontotemporal dementia remains limited. Here we investigated white matter tract damage using an unbiased, template-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) protocol in a cohort of 27 patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) representing both major genetic and sporadic forms, in relation both to healthy individuals and to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Widespread white matter tract pathology was identified in the bvFTD group compared with both healthy controls and Alzheimer's disease group, with prominent involvement of uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle and corpus callosum. Relatively discrete and distinctive white matter profiles were associated with genetic subgroups of bvFTD associated with MAPT and C9ORF72 mutations. Comparing diffusivity metrics, optimal overall separation of the bvFTD group from the healthy control group was signalled using radial diffusivity, whereas optimal overall separation of the bvFTD group from the Alzheimer's disease group was signalled using fractional anisotropy. Comparing white matter changes with regional grey matter atrophy (delineated using voxel based morphometry) in the bvFTD cohort revealed co-localisation between modalities particularly in the anterior temporal lobe, however white matter changes extended widely beyond the zones of grey matter atrophy. Our findings demonstrate a distributed signature of white matter alterations that is likely to be core to the pathophysiology of bvFTD and further suggest that this signature is modulated by underlying molecular pathologies. PMID:24510641

Mahoney, Colin J; Ridgway, Gerard R; Malone, Ian B; Downey, Laura E; Beck, Jonathan; Kinnunen, Kirsi M; Schmitz, Nicole; Golden, Hannah L; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Schott, Jonathan M; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick C; Warren, Jason D

2014-08-01

246

Discriminating Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder by Fusing FMRI and DTI in A Multimodal CCA+ Joint ICA Model  

PubMed Central

Diverse structural and functional brain alterations have been identified in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but with variable replicability, significant overlap and often in limited number of subjects. In this paper, we aimed to clarify differences between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia by combining fMRI (collected during an auditory oddball task) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. We proposed a fusion method, “multimodal CCA+ joint ICA’, which increases flexibility in statistical assumptions beyond existing approaches and can achieve higher estimation accuracy. The data collected from 164 participants (62 healthy controls, 54 schizophrenia and 48 bipolar) were extracted into “features” (contrast maps for fMRI and fractional anisotropy (FA) for DTI) and analyzed in multiple facets to investigate the group differences for each pair-wised groups and each modality. Specifically, both patient groups shared significant dysfunction in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and thalamus, as well as reduced white matter (WM) integrity in anterior thalamic radiation and uncinate fasciculus. Schizophrenia and bipolar subjects were separated by functional differences in medial frontal and visual cortex, as well as WM tracts associated with occipital and frontal lobes. Both patients and controls showed similar spatial distributions in motor and parietal regions, but exhibited significant variations in temporal lobe. Furthermore, there were different group trends for age effects on loading parameters in motor cortex and multiple WM regions, suggesting brain dysfunction and WM disruptions occurred in identified regions for both disorders. Most importantly, we can visualize an underlying function-structure network by evaluating the joint components with strong links between DTI and fMRI. Our findings suggest that although the two patient groups showed several distinct brain patterns from each other and healthy controls, they also shared common abnormalities in prefrontal thalamic WM integrity and in frontal brain mechanisms. PMID:21640835

Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Adali, Tülay; Kiehl, Kent A.; Caprihan, Arvind; Liu, Jingyu; Yamamoto, Jeremy; Calhoun, Vince D.

2011-01-01

247

Effects of alcohol use initiation on brain structure in typically developing adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol use in excessive quantities has deleterious effects on brain structure and behavior in adults and during periods of rapid neurodevelopment, such as prenatally. Whether similar outcomes characterize other developmental periods, such as adolescence, and in the context of less extensive use is unknown. Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that binge drinking as well as alcohol use disorders in adolescence are associated with disruptions in white matter microstructure and gray matter volumes. Objectives The current study followed typically developing adolescents from a baseline assessment, where no experience with alcohol was present, through two years, after which some individuals transitioned into regular use. Methods Participants (n = 55) completed MRI scans and behavioral assessments. Results Alcohol initiators (n = 30; mean baseline age 16.7 ± 1.3 years), compared to non-users (n = 25; mean baseline age 17.1 ± 1.2 years), showed altered patterns of neurodevelopment. They showed greater-than-expected decreases in cortical thickness in the right middle frontal gyrus from baseline to follow-up as well as blunted development of white matter in the right hemisphere precentral gyrus, lingual gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a relative decrease over time in fractional anisotropy in the left caudate/thalamic region as well as in the right inferior frontal occipital fasciculus. Alcohol initiators did not differ from non-users at the baseline assessment; the groups were largely similar in other premorbid characteristics. Conclusions Subclinical alcohol use during mid-to-late adolescence is associated with deviations in neurodevelopment across several brain tissue classes. Implications for continued development and behavior are discussed. PMID:24200204

Luciana, Monica; Collins, Paul F.; Muetzel, Ryan L.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2014-01-01

248

Cortical activity predicts which older adults recognize speech in noise and when.  

PubMed

Speech recognition in noise can be challenging for older adults and elicits elevated activity throughout a cingulo-opercular network that is hypothesized to monitor and modify behaviors to optimize performance. A word recognition in noise experiment was used to test the hypothesis that cingulo-opercular engagement provides performance benefit for older adults. Healthy older adults (N = 31; 50-81 years of age; mean pure tone thresholds <32 dB HL from 0.25 to 8 kHz, best ear; species: human) performed word recognition in multitalker babble at 2 signal-to-noise ratios (SNR = +3 or +10 dB) during a sparse sampling fMRI experiment. Elevated cingulo-opercular activity was associated with an increased likelihood of correct recognition on the following trial independently of SNR and performance on the preceding trial. The cingulo-opercular effect increased for participants with the best overall performance. These effects were lower for older adults compared with a younger, normal-hearing adult sample (N = 18). Visual cortex activity also predicted trial-level recognition for the older adults, which resulted from discrete decreases in activity before errors and occurred for the oldest adults with the poorest recognition. Participants demonstrating larger visual cortex effects also had reduced fractional anisotropy in an anterior portion of the left inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, which projects between frontal and occipital regions where activity predicted word recognition. Together, the results indicate that older adults experience performance benefit from elevated cingulo-opercular activity, but not to the same extent as younger adults, and that declines in attentional control can limit word recognition. PMID:25740521

Vaden, Kenneth I; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

2015-03-01

249

The accessory optic system of Rana pipiens: neuroanatomical connections and intrinsic organization.  

PubMed

The accessory optic system of Rana pipiens was investigated by autoradiographic, horseradish peroxidase, and Golgi techniques, revealing a complexity of neuroanatomical organization previously unrecognized. Retinal afferents project to the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) via a primary bundle and more diffuse, medial bundle of optic axons, both of which contain large- and small-diameter fibers. At least six types of retinal ganglion cell contribute to the basal optic root (BOR), including giant ganglion cells, two intermediate-sized ganglion cell types, small ganglion cells, and two types of displaced ganglion cell. The major retinal projection is contralateral, but a small, ipsilateral component also exists. Afferents from neurons which are postsynaptic to the thalamic retinal terminal fields also reach nBOR. Four distinct cell types were identified within the terminal field of nBOR: stellate neurons (63%), amacrine cells (19%), elongate neurons (14%), and large ganglionic neurons (4%). Both stellate and amacrine cells appear to be intrinsic neurons, while elongate and ganglionic neurons constitute the efferent neuron population of nBOR. In addition, cells which lie medial to the terminal field, pyriform and commissural neurons, send dendrites into nBOR. Pyriform neurons project to the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) and cranial nerve nuclei III and IV, while commissural neurons project to the contralateral nBOR. Large reticular neurons of the nMLF also send dendrites into nBOR. Efferent projections from nBOR were observed in the large-celled pretectal nucleus and in nucleus lateralis profundus. A second major projection originates from the peri-nBOR region and is associated with the oculomotor system and with the nMLF. Efferent projections from the nMLF to the vestibular nuclei and to the rostral spinal cord were also observed, as well as projections which reach the brainstem from the large-celled pretectal nucleus, the posterior thalamic and anterior mesencephalic central gray. PMID:7035505

Montgomery, N; Fite, K V; Bengston, L

1981-12-20

250

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals  

PubMed Central

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-01-01

251

Improving diffusion-weighted imaging of post-mortem human brains: SSFP at 7 T.  

PubMed

Post-mortem diffusion imaging of whole, human brains has potential to provide data for validation or high-resolution anatomical investigations. Previous work has demonstrated improvements in data acquired with diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (DW-SSFP) compared with conventional diffusion-weighted spin echo at 3T. This is due to the ability of DW-SSFP to overcome signal-to-noise and diffusion contrast losses brought about by tissue fixation related decreases in T2 and ADC. In this work, data of four post-mortem human brains were acquired at 3T and 7 T, using DW-SSFP with similar effective b-values (b(eff)~5150 s/mm(2)) for inter-field strength comparisons; in addition, DW-SSFP data were acquired at 7 T with higher b(eff) (~8550 s/mm(2)) for intra-field strength comparisons. Results demonstrate that both datasets acquired at 7 T had higher SNR and diffusion contrast than data acquired at 3T, and data acquired at higher b(eff) had improved diffusion contrast than at lower b(eff) at 7 T. These results translate to improved estimates of secondary fiber orientations leading to higher fidelity tractography results compared with data acquired at 3T. Specifically, tractography streamlines of cortical projections originating from the corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, and superior longitudinal fasciculus were more successful at crossing the centrum semiovale and projected closer to the cortex. Results suggest that DW-SSFP at 7 T is a preferential method for acquiring diffusion-weighted data of post-mortem human brain, specifically where the primary region of interest involves crossing white matter tracts. PMID:25128709

Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Clare, Stuart; Lam, Wilfred; Ansorge, Olaf; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Miller, Karla

2014-11-15

252

Electroconvulsive therapy mediates neuroplasticity of white matter microstructure in major depression  

PubMed Central

Whether plasticity of white matter (WM) microstructure relates to therapeutic response in major depressive disorder (MDD) remains uncertain. We examined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) correlates of WM structural connectivity in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a rapidly acting treatment for severe MDD. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) applied to DTI data (61 directions, 2.5?mm3 voxel size) targeted voxel-level changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), and radial (RD), axial (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) in major WM pathways in MDD patients (n=20, mean age: 41.15 years, 10.32 s.d.) scanned before ECT, after their second ECT and at transition to maintenance therapy. Comparisons made at baseline with demographically similar controls (n=28, mean age: 39.42 years, 12.20 s.d.) established effects of diagnosis. Controls were imaged twice to estimate scanning-related variance. Patients showed significant increases of FA in dorsal fronto-limbic circuits encompassing the anterior cingulum, forceps minor and left superior longitudinal fasciculus between baseline and transition to maintenance therapy (P<0.05, corrected). Decreases in RD and MD were observed in overlapping regions and the anterior thalamic radiation (P<0.05, corrected). Changes in DTI metrics associated with therapeutic response in tracts showing significant ECT effects differed between patients and controls. All measures remained stable across time in controls. Altered WM microstructure in pathways connecting frontal and limbic areas occur in MDD, are modulated by ECT and relate to therapeutic response. Increased FA together with decreased MD and RD, which trend towards normative values with treatment, suggest increased fiber integrity in dorsal fronto-limbic pathways involved in mood regulation. PMID:24713861

Lyden, H; Espinoza, R T; Pirnia, T; Clark, K; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Woods, R P; Narr, K L

2014-01-01

253

Autoradiographic localization of putative nicotinic receptors in the rat brain using sup 125 I-neuronal bungarotoxin  

SciTech Connect

Neuronal bungarotoxin (NBT), a snake venom neurotoxin, selectively blocks nicotinic receptors in many peripheral and central neuronal preparations. alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha BT), on the other hand, a second toxin isolated from the venom of the same snake, is an ineffective nicotinic antagonist in most vertebrate neuronal preparations studied thus far. To examine central nicotinic receptors recognized by NBT, we have characterized the binding of 125I-labeled NBT (125I-NBT) to rat brain membranes and have mapped the distribution of 125I-NBT binding in brain sections using quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. The binding of 125I-NBT was found to be saturable, of high affinity, and heterogeneously distributed in the brain. Pharmacological studies suggested that more than one population of sites is labeled by 125I-NBT. For example, one component of 125I-NBT binding was also recognized by alpha BT, while a second component, not recognized by alpha BT, was recognized by the nicotinic agonist nicotine. The highest densities of these alpha BT-insensitive, nicotine-sensitive sites were found in the fasciculus retroflexus, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. alpha BT-sensitive NBT binding sites were found in highest density in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, and the medial mammillary nucleus (lateral part). The number of brain regions with a high density of 125I-NBT binding sites, blocked either by alpha BT or by nicotine, is low when compared with results obtained using other approaches to studying the central distribution of nicotinic receptors, such as labeling with 3H-nicotine or labeling with cDNA probes to mRNAs coding for putative receptor subunits.

Schulz, D.W.; Loring, R.H.; Aizenman, E.; Zigmond, R.E. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-01-01

254

Neuropathology of chronic GM2 gangliosidosis due to hexosaminidase A deficiency.  

PubMed

Autopsy studies of late-onset GM2 gangliosidosis are sparse and only one adult case is on record. The case of partial Hex A deficiency presented here started in childhood as spinal muscular atrophy which progressed slowly over 4 decades. Cognitive function remained intact throughout the entire course, but during the last few years of life allodynia supervened. The patient died at 44 years of age. In good correlation with clinical observations the autopsy findings showed the most severe accumulation of lipid and consequent regressive change in the anterior horns of the spinal cord. Extensive but less severe storage was found in other spinal cord neurons, brain stem and selected basal ganglia. Cerebral cortex was virtually spared by storage but was the site of excessive formation of lipofuscin which was also present in many other neurons in the CNS. Marked storage and ganglionic loss was also found in the dorsal root ganglia, and the fasciculus gracilis was severely depleted of myelinated fibers. Electron microscopy showed accumulated gangliosides almost exclusively in the form of single and coalescing zebra bodies. In conclusion, the pathology in this case of chronic GM2 gangliosidosis, though in part conforming with previous observations, differed in several aspects. First, the cerebral cortex was--with only a few exceptions--free of ganglioside storage. Also spared was the cerebellum. In addition, homogeneous accumulation of zebra bodies contrasted with heterogeneity of neuronal inclusions found in other chronic cases. Finally, the involvement of sensory neurons was prominent and potentially related to allodynia. Molecular study of HEXA gene in this patient showed an TATC1278/? genotype. PMID:18808061

Kornfeld, M

2008-01-01

255

CNTNAP2 polymorphisms and structural brain connectivity: a diffusion-tensor imaging study  

PubMed Central

CNTNAP2 is a gene on chromosome 7 that has shown associations with autism and schizophrenia, and there is evidence that it plays an important role for neuronal synchronization and brain connectivity. In this study, we assessed the relationship between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), a putative marker of anatomical brain connectivity, and multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spread out over this large gene. 81 healthy controls and 44 patients with schizophrenia (all Caucasian) underwent DTI and genotyping of 31 SNPs within CNTNAP2. We employed Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) for inter-subject brain registration and computed average diffusivity values for six major white matter tracts. Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) were computed to test for possible associations with genotypes. The strongest association, which survived rigorous Bonferroni correction, was between rs2710126 genotype and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus (p=.00003). This anatomical location is particularly interesting given the enriched fronto-temporal expression of CNTNAP2 in the developing brain. For this SNP, no phenotype association has been reported before. There were several further genotype-DTI associations that were nominally significant but did not survive Bonferroni correction, including an association between axial diffusivity in the dorsal cingulum bundle and a region in intron 13 (represented by rs2710102, rs759178, rs2538991), which has previously been reported to be associated with anterior-posterior functional connectivity. We present new evidence about the effects of CNTNAP2 on brain connectivity, whose disruption has been hypothesized to be central to schizophrenia pathophysiology. PMID:23871450

von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Wigand, Marlene C.; Kubicki, Marek; Leicht, Gregor; Giegling, Ina; Karch, Susanne; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Ballinger, Thomas; Eckbo, Ryan; Bouix, Sylvain; Jäger, Lorenz; Shenton, Martha E.; Rujescu, Dan; Mulert, Christoph

2013-01-01

256

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the detection of white matter lesions in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is recognized as a precursor to dementia. The amnestic MCI progresses usually to Alzheimer disease. Amnestic MCI multiple domain (md-MCI) seems to progress more rapidly than amnestic MCI single domain (a-MCI). In an attempt to identify patients at risk, we examined white matter changes in MCI subtypes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We also tried to correlate DTI findings to neuropsychological tests. Forty-four amnestic single domain (a-MCI) patients, 19 amnestic multi domain (md-MCI), and 25 cognitively normal (NC) controls were included in the present study. All participants were assessed clinically using a battery of cognitive tests. DTI was performed to measure fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Areas studied were corpus callosum, posterior cingulum (PC), anterior cingulum (AC), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). ADC and FA of the above areas were related to the scores of certain neuropsychological tests that evaluate visual and verbal memory. No difference in DTI measurements was found between the two MCI subtypes. ADC in MCI cases was increased in comparison with NC in the genu, PC, right SLF, and left AC. FA was spared. Verbal memory was related to ADC of the genu, PC, right AC and right SLF, and to FA of the left SLF. Visual memory was related to ADC of the genu, PC, right AC, and SLF. The strongest correlation found was between the visual memory and the ADC of the right PC (Spearman ? = 0.45, p < 0.001). DTI revealed that ADC was increased in certain brain areas in MCI patients. No difference in DTI measurements was found between the two MCI subtypes. DTI indices correlate with cognitive performance. PMID:23625776

Sali, Dimitra; Dimitra, Sali; Verganelakis, D A; Gotsis, E; Toulas, P; Papatriantafillou, J; Karageorgiou, C; Thomaides, T; Kapsalaki, E Z; Hadjigeorgiou, G; Papadimitriou, A

2013-12-01

257

White Matter Microstructural Changes as Vulnerability Factors and Acquired Signs of Post-Earthquake Distress  

PubMed Central

Many survivors of severe disasters need psychological support, even those not suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The critical issue in understanding the psychological response after experiencing severe disasters is to distinguish neurological microstructural underpinnings as vulnerability factors from signs of emotional distress acquired soon after the stressful life event. We collected diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data from a group of healthy adolescents before the Great East Japan Earthquake and re-examined the DTIs and anxiety levels of 30 non-PTSD subjects from this group 3–4 months after the earthquake using voxel-based analyses in a longitudinal DTI study before and after the earthquake. We found that the state anxiety level after the earthquake was negatively associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right anterior cingulum (Cg) before the earthquake (r?=??0.61, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected), and positively associated with increased FA changes from before to after the earthquake in the left anterior Cg (r?=?0.70, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected) and uncinate fasciculus (Uf) (r?=?0.65, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected). The results demonstrated that lower FA in the right anterior Cg was a vulnerability factor and increased FA in the left anterior Cg and Uf was an acquired sign of state anxiety after the earthquake. We postulate that subjects with dysfunctions in processing fear and anxiety before the disaster were likely to have higher anxiety levels requiring frequent emotional regulation after the disaster. These findings provide new evidence of psychophysiological responses at the neural network level soon after a stressful life event and might contribute to the development of effective methods to prevent PTSD. PMID:24400079

Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hanawa, Sugiko; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sakuma, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-01-01

258

The role of the lateral habenula in punishment.  

PubMed

The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment. Here we used a within-subjects punishment task to assess the role of LHb in the acquisition and expression of punishment as well as in aversive choice. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused footshock deliveries (punished lever) but continued pressing a second lever that did not cause footshock (unpunished lever). Infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (NBQX) into LHb had no effect on the acquisition or expression of this punishment, or on aversive choice, but did increase locomotion. Infusion of the sodium channel blocker bupivacaine likewise had no effect on expression of punishment. However, infusion of the calcium channel blocker mibefradil did affect expression of punishment by significantly decreasing the latency with which rats responded on the punished lever and significantly increasing unpunished lever-pressing. Taken together, these findings indicate that the LHb plays a limited role in punishment, influencing only latency to respond. This role is linked to calcium channel permeability and not AMPA receptor or sodium channel permeability. PMID:25365401

Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Philip; McNally, Gavan P

2014-01-01

259

Primary Position Upbeat Nystagmus during an Acute Attack of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Ocular manifestation is one of the frequent signs of an acute attack in multiple sclerosis (MS), although primary position upbeat nystagmus (PPUN) is rare. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of PPUN in MS and to determine the lesions that are responsible for this sign. Methods The medical records of 120 MS patients with acute brain lesions were reviewed over a consecutive period of 9 years; of these, 6 patients were found to have PPUN. Other ocular motor abnormalities were analyzed in combination with upbeat nystagmus, video-oculographic findings, and lesions detected on brain MRI. Results Lesions in the pontine tegmentum involving the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and ventral tegmental tract (VTT) were the most common, being observed in three of the six patients with PPUN. One patient exhibited caudal medullary lesions bilaterally affecting the paramedian portion of the posterior tegmentum, and two patients exhibited multiple lesions involving the pons with the cerebral peduncle or medulla. In five patients, other ocular motor dysfunctions, such as gaze-evoked nystagmus (n=3) and internuclear ophthalmoplegia (n=1), were found in combination with upbeat nystagmus. Conclusions PPUN is an infrequent, ocular manifestation noted during an acute attack of MS, and was observed in 5% of the present cases. Brainstem lesions in these cases primarily involved the pontine tegmentum and the caudal medulla. These findings support the theory that upbeat nystagmus is attributable to damage to the upward vestibulo-ocular reflex pathway related to the vestibular nucleus, VTT, and interconnecting pathways. PMID:24465261

Kim, Jee-Ae; Jeong, In-Hye; Lim, Young-Min

2014-01-01

260

Selective asymmetry in a conserved forebrain to midbrain projection.  

PubMed

How the left and right sides of the brain acquire anatomical and functional specializations is not well understood. The zebrafish has proven to be a useful model to explore the genetic basis of neuroanatomical asymmetry in the developing forebrain. The dorsal diencephalon or epithalamus consists of the asymmetric pineal complex and adjacent paired nuclei, the left and right medial habenulae, which in zebrafish larvae, exhibit differences in their size, neuropil density and patterns of gene expression. In all vertebrates, axons from the medial habenular nuclei project within a prominent fiber bundle, the fasciculus retroflexus, to a shared midbrain target, the interpeduncular nucleus of the ventral tegmentum. However, in zebrafish, projections from the left habenula innervate the dorsal and ventral regions of the target nucleus, whereas right habenular efferents project only to the ventral region. A similar dorsoventral difference in habenular connectivity is found in another teleost species, the highly derived southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostima. In this flatfish, directional asymmetry of the habenular projection appears to be independent of the left-right morphology and orientation that an individual adopts post-metamorphosis. Comparative anterograde labeling of the brains of salamanders, frogs and mice reveals that axons emanating from the left and right medial habenulae do not project to different domains, but rather, they traverse the target nucleus in a complementary mirror image pattern. Thus, although the habenulo-interpeduncular conduction system is highly conserved in the vertebrate brain, the stereotypic dorsoventral topography of left-right connections appears to be a feature that is specific to teleosts. PMID:17592620

Kuan, Yung-Shu; Gamse, Joshua T; Schreiber, Alexander M; Halpern, Marnie E

2007-09-15

261

Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

2005-01-01

262

A novel approach with "skeletonised MTR" measures tract-specific microstructural changes in early primary-progressive MS.  

PubMed

We combined tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to assess white matter (WM) tract-specific short-term changes in early primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and their relationships with clinical progression. Twenty-one PPMS patients within 5 years from onset underwent MT and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at baseline and after 12 months. Patients' disability was assessed. DTI data were processed to compute fractional anisotropy (FA) and to generate a common WM "skeleton," which represents the tracts that are "common" to all subjects using TBSS. The MT ratio (MTR) was computed from MT data and co-registered with the DTI. The skeletonization procedure derived for FA was applied to each subject's MTR image to obtain a "skeletonised" MTR map for every subject. Permutation tests were used to assess (i) changes in FA, principal diffusivities, and MTR over the follow-up, and (ii) associations between changes in imaging parameters and changes in disability. Patients showed significant decreases in MTR over one year in the corpus callosum (CC), bilateral corticospinal tract (CST), thalamic radiations, and superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. These changes were located both within lesions and the normal-appearing WM. No significant longitudinal change in skeletonised FA was found, but radial diffusivity (RD) significantly increased in several regions, including the CST bilaterally and the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. MTR decreases, RD increases, and axial diffusivity decreases in the CC and CST correlated with a deterioration in the upper limb function. We detected tract-specific multimodal imaging changes that reflect the accrual of microstructural damage and possibly contribute to clinical impairment in PPMS. We propose a novel methodology that can be extended to other diseases to map cross-subject and tract-specific changes in MTR. PMID:23616276

Bodini, Benedetta; Cercignani, Mara; Toosy, Ahmed; De Stefano, Nicola; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

2014-02-01

263

Longitudinal changes in patients with traumatic brain injury assessed with diffusion tensor and volumetric imaging  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with brain volume loss, but there is little information on the regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes that contribute to overall loss. Since axonal injury is a common occurrence in TBI, imaging methods that are sensitive to WM damage such as diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) may be useful for characterizing microstructural brain injury contributing to regional WM loss in TBI. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and DTI were used to evaluate regional changes in TBI patients compared to matched controls. Patients received neuropsychological testing and were imaged approximately 2 months and 12.7 months post injury. Paradoxically, neuropsychological function improved from Visit 1 to Visit 2, while voxel-based analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) from the DTI images, and voxel-based analyses of the GM and WM probability maps from the T1-weighted images, mainly revealed significantly greater deleterious GM and WM change over time in patients compared to controls. Cross-sectional comparisons of the DTI measures indicated that patients have decreased FA and increased MD compared to controls over large regions of the brain. TBI affected virtually all of the major fiber bundles in the brain including the corpus callosum, cingulum, the superior and inferior longitudinal fascicules, the uncinate fasciculus, and brain stem fiber tracts. The results indicate that both GM and WM degeneration are significant contributors to brain volume loss in the months following brain injury, and also suggest that DTI measures may be more useful than high-resolution anatomical images in assessment of group differences. PMID:18556217

Bendlin, Barbara; Ries, Michele L.; Lazar, Mariana; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Rowley, Howard A.; Sherman, Jack E.; Johnson, Sterling C.

2008-01-01

264

Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging: The coordinated use of multiple, mutually informative probes to understand brain structure and function.  

PubMed

Differing imaging modalities provide unique channels of information to probe differing aspects of the brain's structural or functional organization. In combination, differing modalities provide complementary and mutually informative data about tissue organization that is more than their sum. We acquired and spatially coregistered data in four MRI modalities--anatomical MRI, functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)--from 20 healthy adults to understand how interindividual variability in measures from one modality account for variability in measures from other modalities at each voxel of the brain. We detected significant correlations of local volumes with the magnitude of functional activation, suggesting that underlying variation in local volumes contributes to individual variability in functional activation. We also detected significant inverse correlations of NAA (a putative measure of neuronal density and viability) with volumes of white matter in the frontal cortex, with DTI-based measures of tissue organization within the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and with the magnitude of functional activation and default-mode activity during simple visual and motor tasks, indicating that substantial variance in local volumes, white matter organization, and functional activation derives from an underlying variability in the number or density of neurons in those regions. Many of these imaging measures correlated with measures of intellectual ability within differing brain tissues and differing neural systems, demonstrating that the neural determinants of intellectual capacity involve numerous and disparate features of brain tissue organization, a conclusion that could be made with confidence only when imaging the same individuals with multiple MRI modalities. PMID:22076792

Hao, Xuejun; Xu, Dongrong; Bansal, Ravi; Dong, Zhengchao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhishun; Kangarlu, Alayar; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Shova, Satie; Gerber, Andrew J; Peterson, Bradley S

2013-02-01

265

Disruption of brain white matter microstructure in women with anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of anorexia nervosa is still unknown. Multiple and distributed brain regions have been implicated in its pathophysiology, implying a dysfunction of connected neural circuits. Despite these findings, the role of white matter in anorexia nervosa has been rarely assessed. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize alterations of white matter microstructure in a clinically homogeneous sample of patients with anorexia nervosa. Methods Women with anorexia nervosa (restricting subtype) and healthy controls underwent brain DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps between the groups. Furthermore, axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) measures were extracted from regions showing group differences in either FA or MD. Results We enrolled 19 women with anorexia nervosa and 19 healthy controls in our study. Patients with anorexia nervosa showed significant FA decreases in the parietal part of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF; pFWE < 0.05), with increased MD and RD but no differences in AD. Patients with anorexia nervosa also showed significantly increased MD in the fornix (pFWE < 0.05), accompanied by decreased FA and increased RD and AD. Limitations Limitations include our modest sample size and cross-sectional design. Conclusion Our findings support the presence of white matter pathology in patients with anorexia nervosa. Alterations in the SLF and fornix might be relevant to key symptoms of anorexia nervosa, such as body image distortion or impairments in body–energy–balance and reward processes. The differences found in both areas replicate those found in previous DTI studies and support a role for white matter pathology of specific neural circuits in individuals with anorexia nervosa. PMID:24913136

Via, Esther; Zalesky, Andrew; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Pujol, Jesús; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Menchón, José Manuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís; Fornito, Alex

2014-01-01

266

Chronic methylmercurialism in the cat.  

PubMed

The mercury levels in 69 muscle samples from fish weighing from 0.3 to 200 kg caught in Moreton Bay, Queensland, in the latter half of 1976 ranged from less than 10 to 2,030 ng/g. Mercury levels in blood samples from 53 humans and 100 dogs in Brisbane almost all contained less than 10 ng/ml while the level in 162 cats sampled ranged from less than 10 to 329 ng/ml. Chronic methylmercurialism developed in 2 cats dosed daily with methylmercury, bound to cysteine, at the rate of 0.6 mg/kg body weight for 74 and 77 days respectively. Terminal clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, knuckling over at the carpus and tarsus, hypermetria initially involving the forelegs and later the hindlegs, sluggish reflexes, paresis involving all limbs, persistent crying, apparent blindness, tonic and clonic convulsions and salivation. Pathological changes were confined to the nervous system and included degeneration of neurones and perivascular cuffing in the cerebrocortical grey matter, focal atrophy of the granular layer, focal spongiosus of the molecular layer and degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and demyelination in the fibre tracts of the dorsal funiculus, mainly the fasciculus cuneatus and in the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts. Terminal blood methylmercury levels were in excess of 18 microgram/ml, while brain methylmercury levels ranged from 21.0 to 28.4 microgram/g. The liver and kidney contained the highest total levels of mercury of 50 to 80 microgram/g, of which 23 to 37% was inorganic. PMID:687273

Gruber, T A; Costigan, P; Wilkinson, G T; Seawright, A A

1978-04-01

267

Associations Between White Matter Microstructure and Infants’ Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory emerges in infancy and plays a privileged role in subsequent adaptive cognitive development. The neural networks important for the development of working memory during infancy remain unknown. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic fiber tracking to characterize the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles hypothesized to support working memory in 12-month-old infants (n=73). Here we show robust associations between infants’ visuospatial working memory performance and microstructural characteristics of widespread white matter. Significant associations were found for white matter tracts that connect brain regions known to support working memory in older children and adults (genu, anterior and superior thalamic radiations, anterior cingulum, arcuate fasciculus, and the temporal-parietal segment). Better working memory scores were associated with higher FA and lower RD values in these selected white matter tracts. These tract-specific brain-behavior relationships accounted for a significant amount of individual variation above and beyond infants’ gestational age and developmental level, as measured with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Working memory was not associated with global measures of brain volume, as expected, and few associations were found between working memory and control white matter tracts. To our knowledge, this study is among the first demonstrations of brain-behavior associations in infants using quantitative tractography. The ability to characterize subtle individual differences in infant brain development associated with complex cognitive functions holds promise for improving our understanding of normative development, biomarkers of risk, experience-dependent learning and neuro-cognitive periods of developmental plasticity. PMID:22989623

Short, Sarah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Connelly, Mark; Maltbie, Eric; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Reznick, J. Steven; Gilmore, John H.

2013-01-01

268

Neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in late-life depression and antidepressant treatment response  

PubMed Central

Background Apathy is a prominent feature of geriatric depression that predicts poor clinical outcomes and hinders depression treatment. Yet little is known about the neurobiology and treatment of apathy in late-life depression. This study examined apathy prevalence in a clinical sample of depressed elderly, response of apathy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, and neuroanatomical correlates that distinguished responders from nonresponders and healthy controls. Methods Participants included 45 non-demented, elderly with major depression and 43 elderly comparison individuals. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, depressed participants received escitalopram 10mg daily for 12 weeks. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were administered at baseline and 12 weeks. MRI scans were acquired at baseline for concurrent structural and diffusion tensor imaging of anterior cingulate grey matter and associated white matter tracts. Results 35.5% of depressed patients suffered from apathy. This declined to 15.6% (p<0.1) following treatment, but 43% of initial sufferers continued to report significant apathy. Improvement of apathy with SSRI was independent of change in depression but correlated with larger left posterior subgenual cingulate volumes and greater fractional anisotropy of left uncinate fasciculi. Limitations modest sample size, no placebo control, post-hoc secondary analysis, use of 1.5T MRI scanner Conclusions While prevalent in geriatric depression, apathy is separable from depression with regards to medication response. Structural abnormalities of the posterior subgenual cingulate and uncinate fasciculus may perpetuate apathetic states by interfering with prefrontal cortical recruitment of limbic activity essential to motivated behavior. PMID:25012429

Yuen, Genevieve S.; Gunning, Faith M.; Woods, Eric; Klimstra, Sibel A.; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

2014-01-01

269

Blocking central pathways in the primate motor system using high-frequency sinusoidal current.  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation with high-frequency (2-10 kHz) sinusoidal currents has previously been shown to produce a transient and complete nerve block in the peripheral nervous system. Modeling and in vitro studies suggest that this is due to a prolonged local depolarization across a broad section of membrane underlying the blocking electrode. Previous work has used cuff electrodes wrapped around the peripheral nerve to deliver the blocking stimulus. We extended this technique to central motor pathways, using a single metal microelectrode to deliver focal sinusoidal currents to the corticospinal tract at the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized adult baboons. The extent of conduction block was assessed by stimulating a second electrode caudal to the blocking site and recording the antidromic field potential over contralateral primary motor cortex. The maximal block achieved was 99.6%, similar to findings of previous work in peripheral fibers, and the optimal frequency for blocking was 2 kHz. Block had a rapid onset, being complete as soon as the transient activation associated with the start of the sinusoidal current was over. High-frequency block was also successfully applied to the pyramidal tract at the medulla, ascending sensory pathways in the dorsal columns, and the descending systems of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. High-frequency sinusoidal stimulation produces transient, reversible lesions in specific target locations and therefore could be a useful alternative to permanent tissue transection in some experimental paradigms. It also could help to control or prevent some of the hyperactivity associated with chronic neurological disorders. PMID:25475345

Fisher, Karen M; Jillani, Ngalla E; Oluoch, George O; Baker, Stuart N

2015-03-01

270

Preliminary Evidence for White Matter Tract Abnormalities in Young Adults Exposed to Parental Verbal Abuse  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric sequelae of exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) appears to be comparable to that of non-familial sexual abuse and witnessing domestic violence. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to ascertain whether PVA was associated with abnormalities in brain white matter (WM) tract integrity. Method 1271 healthy young adults were screened for exposure to childhood adversity. DTI was collected on 16 unmedicated subjects with history of high-level exposure to PVA but no other form of maltreatment (4M/12F, mean age 21.9±2.4 yrs), and 16 healthy controls (5M/11F, 21.0±1.6 yrs). Group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), covaried by parental education and income, were assessed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS), and correlated with symptom ratings and verbal IQ. Results Three WM tract regions had significantly reduced FA: (1) arcuate fasciculus in left superior temporal gyrus, (2) cingulum bundle by the posterior tail of the left hippocampus, and (3) the left body of the fornix. FA in these areas were strongly associated with average PVA scores (rs=-0.701, P<0.001; rs=-0.801, P<0.001; rs=0.524, P=0.002, respectively), and levels of maternal verbal abuse. Across groups FA in region 1 correlated with verbal IQ (rs=0.411, P=0.024) and verbal comprehension index (rs=0.437, P=0.016). FA in region 2 was inversely associated with ratings of depression (rs=-0.504), dissociation (rs=-0.373) and ‘limbic irritability’ (rs= -0.602). FA in region 3 was inversely correlated with ratings of somatization (rs=-0.389) and anxiety (rs=-0.311). Conclusions Exposure to PVA may be associated with alteration in the integrity of neural pathways with implications for language development and psychopathology. PMID:18692174

Choi, Jeewook; Jeong, Bumseok; Rohan, Michael L.; Polcari, Ann M.; Teicher, Martin H.

2009-01-01

271

Spatiotemporal Expression of Repulsive Guidance Molecules (RGMs) and Their Receptor Neogenin in the Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Neogenin has been implicated in a variety of developmental processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, apoptosis, migration and axon guidance. Binding of repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) to Neogenin inhibits axon outgrowth of different neuronal populations. This effect requires Neogenin to interact with co-receptors of the uncoordinated locomotion-5 (Unc5) family to activate downstream Rho signaling. Although previous studies have reported RGM, Neogenin, and/or Unc5 expression, a systematic comparison of RGM and Neogenin expression in the developing nervous system is lacking, especially at later developmental stages. Furthermore, information on RGM and Neogenin expression at the protein level is limited. To fill this void and to gain further insight into the role of RGM-Neogenin signaling during mouse neural development, we studied the expression of RGMa, RGMb, Neogenin and Unc5A-D using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and RGMa section binding. Expression patterns in the primary olfactory system, cortex, hippocampus, habenula, and cerebellum were studied in more detail. Characteristic cell layer-specific expression patterns were detected for RGMa, RGMb, Neogenin and Unc5A-D. Furthermore, strong expression of RGMa, RGMb and Neogenin protein was found on several major axon tracts such as the primary olfactory projections, anterior commissure and fasciculus retroflexus. These data not only hint at a role for RGM-Neogenin signaling during the development of different neuronal systems, but also suggest that Neogenin partners with different Unc5 family members in different systems. Overall, the results presented here will serve as a framework for further dissection of the role of RGM-Neogenin signaling during neural development. PMID:23457482

van den Heuvel, Dianne M. A.; Hellemons, Anita J. C. G. M.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

2013-01-01

272

Alterations in Cerebral White Matter and Neuropsychology in Patients with Cirrhosis and Falls  

PubMed Central

Background & Aim Falls are frequent in patients with cirrhosis but underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to determine the neuropsychological, neurological and brain alterations using magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) in cirrhotic patients with falls. Patients and methods Twelve patients with cirrhosis and falls in the previous year were compared to 9 cirrhotic patients without falls. A comprehensive neuropsychological and neurological evaluation of variables that may predispose to falls included: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES), Parkinson’s Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale, specific tests to explore various cognitive domains, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale to evaluate parkinsonism, scales for ataxia and muscular strength, and electroneurography. High-field MR (3T) including DTI and structural sequences was performed in all patients. Results The main neuropsychological findings were impairment in PHES (p = 0.03), Parkinson’s Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (p = 0.04) and in executive (p<0.05) and visuospatial-visuoconstructive functions (p<0.05) in patients with falls compared to those without. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in the neurological evaluation or in the visual assessment of MRI. MR-DTI showed alterations in white matter integrity in patients with falls compared to those without falls (p<0.05), with local maxima in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and corticospinal tract. These alterations were independent of PHES as a covariate and correlated with executive dysfunction (p<0.05). Conclusions With the limitation of the small sample size, our results suggest that patients with cirrhosis and falls present alterations in brain white matter tracts related to executive dysfunction. These alterations are independent of PHES impairment. PMID:25793766

Gómez-Ansón, Beatriz; Román, Eva; Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pires-Encuentra, Patricia; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Núñez, Fidel; Martinez-Horta, Saül; Vives-Gilabert, Yolanda; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Kulisevsky, Jaume; Guarner, Carlos; Soriano, Germán

2015-01-01

273

White matter integrity and its association with affective and interpersonal symptoms in borderline personality disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder involving a range of symptoms including marked affective instability and disturbances in interpersonal interactions. Neuroimaging studies are beginning to provide evidence of altered processing in fronto-limbic network deficits in the disorder, however, few studies directly examine structural connections within this circuitry together with their relation to proposed causative processes and clinical features. Methods In the current study, we investigated whether individuals with BPD (n = 20) have deficits in white matter integrity compared to a matched group of healthy controls (n = 18) using diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). We hypothesized that the BPD group would have decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, compared to the controls in white matter tracts connecting frontal and limbic regions, primarily the cingulum, fornix and uncinate fasciculus. We also investigated the extent to which any such deficits related to childhood adversity, as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire, and symptom severity as measured by the Zanarini rating scale for BPD. Results We report decreased white matter integrity in BPD versus controls in the cingulum and fornix. There were no significant relationships between FA and measures of childhood trauma. There were, however, significant associations between FA in the cingulum and clinical symptoms of anger, and in the fornix with affective instability, and measures of avoidance of abandonment from the Zanarini rating scale. Conclusions We report deficits within fronto-limbic connections in individuals with BPD. Abnormalities within the fornix and cingulum were related to severity of symptoms and highlight the importance of these tracts in the pathogenesis of the disorder. PMID:25685714

Whalley, Heather C.; Nickson, Thomas; Pope, Merrick; Nicol, Katie; Romaniuk, Liana; Bastin, Mark E.; Semple, Scott I.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Hall, Jeremy

2015-01-01

274

Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Frontotemporal Dementia  

PubMed Central

Objective Novel biomarkers for monitoring progression in neurodegenerative conditions are needed. Measurement of microstructural changes in white matter (WM) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a useful outcome measure. Here we report trajectories of WM change using serial DTI in a cohort with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Methods Twenty-three patients with bvFTD (12 having genetic mutations), and 18 age-matched control participants were assessed using DTI and neuropsychological batteries at baseline and ?1.3 years later. Baseline and follow-up DTI scans were registered using a groupwise approach. Annualized rates of change for DTI metrics, neuropsychological measures, and whole brain volume were calculated. DTI metric performances were compared, and sample sizes for potential clinical trials were calculated. Results In the bvFTD group as a whole, rates of change in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within the right paracallosal cingulum were greatest (FA: ?6.8%/yr, p?fasciculus (FA: ?7.9%/yr, p?

Mahoney, Colin J; Simpson, Ivor J A; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Schmitz, Nicole; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Schott, Jonathan M; Zhang, Hui; Ourselin, Sebastian; Warren, Jason D; Fox, Nick C

2015-01-01

275

Neuronal fiber bundle lengths in healthy adult carriers of the ApoE4 allele: A quantitative tractography DTI study  

PubMed Central

The epsilon 4 (e4) isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a known genetic risk factor for suboptimal brain health. Morphometry studies of brains with Alzheimer’s disease have reported significant alterations in temporal lobe brain structure of e4 carriers, yet it remains unclear if the presence of an e4 allele is associated with alterations in the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles in healthy populations. The present study used quantitative tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging (qtDTI) to examine the influence of the e4 allele on temporal lobe fiber bundle lengths (FBLs) in 64 healthy older adults with at least one e4 allele (carriers, N=23) versus no e4 allele (non-carriers, N=41). Subtests from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) were also analyzed to examine memory performance between groups. Analyses revealed shorter FBLs in the left uncinate fasciculus (UF) (p=.038) of e4 carriers compared to non-carriers. By contrast, neither FBLs specific to the temporal lobe nor memory performances differed significantly between groups. Increased age correlated significantly with shorter FBL in the temporal lobe and UF, and with decreased performance on tests of memory. This is the first study to utilize qtDTI to examine relationships between FBL and ApoE genotype. Results suggest that FBL in the UF is influenced by the presence of an ApoE e4 allele (ApoE4) in healthy older adults. Temporal lobe FBLs, however, are more vulnerable to aging than the presence of an e4 allele. PMID:23475756

Schofield, Peter R.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Cabeen, Ryan; Laidlaw, David H.; Akbudak, Erbil; Conturo, Thomas E.; Correia, Stephen; Paul, Robert H.

2013-01-01

276

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals.  

PubMed

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-04-01

277

Associations between fractional anisotropy and problematic alcohol use in juvenile justice-involved adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown associations between heavy alcohol use and white matter alterations in adolescence. Youth involved with the juvenile justice system engage in high levels of risk behavior generally and alcohol use in particular as compared to their non-justice-involved peers. Objectives This study explored white matter integrity among justice-involved adolescents. Analyses examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between adolescents with low and high levels of problematic alcohol use as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Methods Participants (N = 125; 80% male; 14–18 years) completed measures assessing psychological status and substance use followed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI data for low (n = 51) and high AUDIT (n = 74) adolescents were subjected to cluster-based group comparisons on skeletonized FA and MD data. Results Whole-brain analyses revealed significantly lower FA in clusters in the right and left posterior corona radiata (PCR) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in the high AUDIT group, as well as one cluster in the right anterior corona radiata that showed higher FA in the high AUDIT group. No differences in MD were identified. Exploratory analyses correlated cluster FA with measures of additional risk factors. FA in the right SLF and left PCR was negatively associated with impulsivity. Conclusion Justice-involved adolescents with alcohol use problems generally showed poorer FA than their low problematic alcohol use peers. Future research should aim to better understand the nature of the relationship between white matter development and alcohol use specifically as well as risk behavior more generally. PMID:24200206

Thayer, Rachel E.; Callahan, Tiffany J.; Weiland, Barbara J.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

2014-01-01

278

Pioneer midbrain longitudinal axons navigate using a balance of Netrin attraction and Slit repulsion  

PubMed Central

Background Longitudinal axons grow parallel to the embryonic midline to connect distant regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies suggested that repulsive midline signals guide pioneer longitudinal axons by blocking their entry into the floor plate; however, the role of midline attractants, and whether attractant signals may cooperate with repulsive signals, remains unclear. In this study we investigated the navigation of a set of pioneer longitudinal axons, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, in mouse embryos mutant for the Netrin/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) attractants, and for Slit repellents, as well as the responses of explanted longitudinal axons in vitro. Results In mutants for Netrin1 chemoattractant or DCC receptor signaling, longitudinal axons shifted away from the ventral midline, suggesting that Netrin1/DCC signals act attractively to pull axons ventrally. Analysis of mutants in the three Slit genes, including Slit1/2/3 triple mutants, suggest that concurrent repulsive Slit/Robo signals push pioneer axons away from the ventral midline. Combinations of mutations between the Netrin and Slit guidance systems provided genetic evidence that the attractive and repulsive signals balance against each other. This balance is demonstrated in vitro using explant culture, finding that the cues can act directly on longitudinal axons. The explants also reveal an unexpected synergy of Netrin1 and Slit2 that promotes outgrowth. Conclusions These results support a mechanism in which longitudinal trajectories are positioned by a push-pull balance between opposing Netrin and Slit signals. Our evidence suggests that longitudinal axons respond directly and simultaneously to both attractants and repellents, and that the combined signals constrain axons to grow longitudinally. PMID:25056828

2014-01-01

279

Differential projections from the vestibular nuclei to the flocculus and uvula-nodulus in pigeons (Columba livia).  

PubMed

The pigeon vestibulocerebellum is divided into two regions based on the responses of Purkinje cells to optic flow stimuli: the uvula-nodulus responds best to self-translation, and the flocculus responds best to self-rotation. We used retrograde tracing to determine whether the flocculus and uvula-nodulus receive differential mossy fiber input from the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. From retrograde injections into the both the flocculus and uvula-nodulus, numerous cells were found in the superior vestibular nucleus (VeS), the cerebellovestibular process (pcv), the descending vestibular nucleus (VeD), and the medial vestibular nucleus (VeM). Less labeling was found in the prepositus hypoglossi, the cerebellar nuclei, the dorsolateral vestibular nucleus, and the lateral vestibular nucleus, pars ventralis. In the VeS, the differential input to the flocculus and uvula-nodulus was distinct: cells were localized to the medial and lateral regions, respectively. The same pattern was observed in the VeD, although there was considerable overlap. In the VeM, the majority of cells labeled from the flocculus were in rostral margins on the ipsilateral side, whereas labeling from uvula-nodulus injections was distributed bilaterally throughout the VeM. Finally, from injections in the flocculus but not the uvula-nodulus, moderate labeling was observed in a paramedian area, adjacent to the medial longitudinal fasciculus. In summary, there were clear differences with respect to the projections from the vestibular nuclei to functionally distinct parts of the vestibulocerebellum. Generally speaking, the mossy fibers to the flocculus and uvula-nodulus arise from regions of the vestibular nuclei that receive input from the semicircular canals and otolith organs, respectively. PMID:18335537

Pakan, Janelle M P; Graham, David J; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R W

2008-05-20

280

Neuroradiological and Neurophysiological Characteristics of Patients With Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate neuroradiological and neurophysiological characteristics of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP), by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), and motor evoked potential (MEP). Methods Twenty-three patients with dyskinetic CP (13 males, 10 females; mean age 34 years, range 16-50 years) were participated in this study. Functional evaluation was assessed by the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) and Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS). Brain imaging was performed on 3.0 Tesla MRI, and volume change of the grey matter was assessed using VBM. The corticospinal tract (CST) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) were analyzed by DTT. MEPs were recorded in the first dorsal interossei, the biceps brachii and the deltoid muscles. Results Mean BADS was 16.4±5.0 in ambulatory group (GMFCS levels I, II, and III; n=11) and 21.3±3.9 in non-ambulatory group (GMFCS levels IV and V; n=12). Twelve patients showed normal MRI findings, and eleven patients showed abnormal MRI findings (grade I, n=5; grade II, n=2; grade III, n=4). About half of patients with dyskinetic CP showed putamen and thalamus lesions on MRI. Mean BADS was 20.3±5.7 in normal MRI group and 17.5±4.0 in abnormal MRI group. VBM showed reduced volume of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. In DTT, no abnormality was observed in CST, but not in SLF. In MEPs, most patients showed normal central motor conduction time. Conclusion These results support that extrapyramidal tract, related with basal ganglia circuitry, may be responsible for the pathophysiology of dyskinetic CP rather than CST abnormality. PMID:24855613

Park, Byung-Hyun; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Chung, Gyung-Ho

2014-01-01

281

Developmental Differences in Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Parameters in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) often presents during adolescence. Early detection and intervention decreases its subsequent severity. However, little is known about early predictors and biological underpinnings of BPD. The observed abnormal functional connectivity among brain regions in BPD led to studies of white matter, as the neural substrate of connectivity. However, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adult BPD have been inconclusive, and, as yet, there are no published DTI studies in borderline adolescents. Methods We conducted DTI tractography in 38 BPD patients (14-adolescents,24-adults) and 32 healthy controls (13-adolescents,19-adults). Results We found bilateral tract-specific decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in BPD adolescents compared to adolescent controls. ILF FA was significantly higher in adolescent controls compared to BPD adolescents, BPD adults and adult controls (WilksF(3,57)=3.55, p<0.02). Follow-up voxelwise TBSS analysis demonstrated lower FA in BPD adolescents compared to adolescent controls also in uncinate and occipitofrontal fasciculi. Discussion FA generally develops along an inverted U-shape curve, increasing through adolescence, and slowly decreasing in adulthood. Our findings suggest that, in adolescent BPD, this normal developmental “peak” in FA, which is seen in healthy controls, is not achieved. This suggests a possible neural substrate for the previously reported OFC-amygdala disconnect in adults with BPD. It raises the possibility that a white matter tract abnormality in BPD present in adolescence may not be appreciable in adulthood, but a functional abnormality in the coordination among brain regions persists. Our finding represents a possible biological marker to identify those at risk for developing BPD. PMID:23628384

New, Antonia S.; Carpenter, David M.; Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Ripoll, Luis H.; Avedon, Jennifer; Patil, Uday; Hazlett, Erin A.; Goodman, Marianne

2013-01-01

282

Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of a task switching paradigm involving word categorization. Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years), and 20 younger adults (18–27 years). From diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both components. Critically, age differences in task performance were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional component and was not evident in the nondecisional component. This result is the first demonstration that the integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of age-related changes in cognitive performance. PMID:18564054

Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

2009-01-01

283

Blocking central pathways in the primate motor system using high-frequency sinusoidal current  

PubMed Central

Electrical stimulation with high-frequency (2–10 kHz) sinusoidal currents has previously been shown to produce a transient and complete nerve block in the peripheral nervous system. Modeling and in vitro studies suggest that this is due to a prolonged local depolarization across a broad section of membrane underlying the blocking electrode. Previous work has used cuff electrodes wrapped around the peripheral nerve to deliver the blocking stimulus. We extended this technique to central motor pathways, using a single metal microelectrode to deliver focal sinusoidal currents to the corticospinal tract at the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized adult baboons. The extent of conduction block was assessed by stimulating a second electrode caudal to the blocking site and recording the antidromic field potential over contralateral primary motor cortex. The maximal block achieved was 99.6%, similar to findings of previous work in peripheral fibers, and the optimal frequency for blocking was 2 kHz. Block had a rapid onset, being complete as soon as the transient activation associated with the start of the sinusoidal current was over. High-frequency block was also successfully applied to the pyramidal tract at the medulla, ascending sensory pathways in the dorsal columns, and the descending systems of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. High-frequency sinusoidal stimulation produces transient, reversible lesions in specific target locations and therefore could be a useful alternative to permanent tissue transection in some experimental paradigms. It also could help to control or prevent some of the hyperactivity associated with chronic neurological disorders. PMID:25475345

Fisher, Karen M.; Jillani, Ngalla E.; Oluoch, George O.

2014-01-01

284

Analysis of the contribution of experimental bias, experimental noise, and inter-subject biological variability on the assessment of developmental trajectories in diffusion MRI studies of the brain.  

PubMed

Metrics derived from the diffusion tensor, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) have been used in many studies of postnatal brain development. A common finding of previous studies is that these tensor-derived measures vary widely even in healthy populations. This variability can be due to inherent inter-individual biological differences as well as experimental noise. Moreover, when comparing different studies, additional variability can be introduced by different acquisition protocols. In this study we examined scans of 61 individuals (aged 4-22years) from the NIH MRI study of normal brain development. Two scans were collected with different protocols (low and high resolution). Our goal was to separate the contributions of biological variability and experimental noise to the overall measured variance, as well as to assess potential systematic effects related to the use of different protocols. We analyzed FA and MD in seventeen regions of interest. We found that biological variability for both FA and MD varies widely across brain regions; biological variability is highest for FA in the lateral part of the splenium and body of the corpus callosum along with the cingulum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and for MD in the optic radiations and the lateral part of the splenium. These regions with high inter-individual biological variability are the most likely candidates for assessing genetic and environmental effects in the developing brain. With respect to protocol-related effects, the lower resolution acquisition resulted in higher MD and lower FA values for the majority of regions compared with the higher resolution protocol. However, the majority of the regions did not show any age-protocol interaction, indicating similar trajectories were obtained irrespective of the protocol used. PMID:25583609

Sadeghi, Neda; Nayak, Amritha; Walker, Lindsay; Okan Irfanoglu, M; Albert, Paul S; Pierpaoli, Carlo

2015-04-01

285

Improving diffusion-weighted imaging of post-mortem human brains: SSFP at 7 T  

PubMed Central

Post-mortem diffusion imaging of whole, human brains has potential to provide data for validation or high-resolution anatomical investigations. Previous work has demonstrated improvements in data acquired with diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (DW-SSFP) compared with conventional diffusion-weighted spin echo at 3 T. This is due to the ability of DW-SSFP to overcome signal-to-noise and diffusion contrast losses brought about by tissue fixation related decreases in T2 and ADC. In this work, data of four post-mortem human brains were acquired at 3 T and 7 T, using DW-SSFP with similar effective b-values (beff ~ 5150 s/mm2) for inter-field strength comparisons; in addition, DW-SSFP data were acquired at 7 T with higher beff (~ 8550 s/mm2) for intra-field strength comparisons. Results demonstrate that both datasets acquired at 7 T had higher SNR and diffusion contrast than data acquired at 3 T, and data acquired at higher beff had improved diffusion contrast than at lower beff at 7 T. These results translate to improved estimates of secondary fiber orientations leading to higher fidelity tractography results compared with data acquired at 3 T. Specifically, tractography streamlines of cortical projections originating from the corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, and superior longitudinal fasciculus were more successful at crossing the centrum semiovale and projected closer to the cortex. Results suggest that DW-SSFP at 7 T is a preferential method for acquiring diffusion-weighted data of post-mortem human brain, specifically where the primary region of interest involves crossing white matter tracts. PMID:25128709

Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Clare, Stuart; Lam, Wilfred; Ansorge, Olaf; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Miller, Karla

2014-01-01

286

Quantitative Tract-Specific Measures of Uncinate and Cingulum in Major Depression Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

PubMed Central

Previous findings suggested the role of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus in major depressive disorders (MDD), but the white matter microstructural abnormalities of the fibers connecting these brain structures are not known. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that white matter abnormalities are present in association fibers of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulum bundle (CB) among MDD subjects. A total of 21 MDD subjects aged between 30 and 65 years and 21 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. All subjects were right-handed and without history of diabetes or other cardiac diseases. We extracted quantitative tract-specific measures based on diffusion tensor imaging tractography to examine both diffusivity and geometric properties of the UF and CB. Significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity of the right UF were observed in MDD patients compared with HC (p<0.05), while their geometric characteristics remained relatively unchanged. Among MDD subjects, depression severity had a significant negative correlation with normalized number of fibers (NNF) in the right UF (r=?0.53, p=0.02). We also found significant age effect (oldR) in both groups in the FA measure of the CB. Our study demonstrates novel findings of white matter microstructural abnormalities of the right UF in MDD. In the MDD group, the severity of depression is associated with reduced NNF in the right UF. These findings have implications for both clinical manifestations of depression as well as its pathophysiology. PMID:22089322

Zhang, Aifeng; Leow, Alex; Ajilore, Olusola; Lamar, Melissa; Yang, Shaolin; Joseph, Josh; Medina, Jennifer; Zhan, Liang; Kumar, Anand

2012-01-01

287

White matter microstructural changes in psychogenic erectile dysfunction patients.  

PubMed

Brain dysfunction in erectile dysfunction (ED) has been identified by multiple neuroimaging studies. A recent MRI study indicated grey matter alterations in ED patients. This study aims to investigate the microstructural changes of cerebral white matter (WM) in psychological ED patients and their possible correlations with clinical variables. Twenty-seven psychological ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were included and underwent a magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan. The tract-based spatial statistics were employed to identify the WM structure alterations in psychological ED patients. The multiple DTI-derived indices' [fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD)] correlations with the symptoms and their durations, respectively, were analysed. The IIEF-5, quality of erection questionnaire (QEQ) and the self-esteem and relationship (SEAR) questionnaire were used to assess the symptoms of psychological ED patients. Compared with HS, the psychological ED patients showed increased FA values, reduced MD values and reduced AD values in multiple WM tracts including the corpus callosum (genu, body and splenium), corticospinal tract, internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus (p < 0.05, threshold-free cluster enhancement corrected). Both of the IIEF scores and QEQ scores of ED patients showed a significantly negative correlation with the average FA values, and positive correlation with average AD values and MD values in the splenium of the corpus callosum (p < 0.05). The results provided preliminary evidence of WM microstructural changes in patients with psychological ED. The morphological alterations in the splenium of the corpus callosum were related to the symptom severity. PMID:24711250

Zhang, P; Liu, J; Li, G; Pan, J; Li, Z; Liu, Q; Qin, W; Dong, M; Sun, J; Huang, X; Wu, T; Chang, D

2014-05-01

288

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Parkinson’s Disease, Multiple System Atrophy and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study  

PubMed Central

Although often clinically indistinguishable in the early stages, Parkinson’s disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) have distinct neuropathological changes. The aim of the current study was to identify white matter tract neurodegeneration characteristic of each of the three syndromes. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to perform a whole-brain automated analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to compare differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between the three clinical groups and healthy control subjects. Further analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between these putative indices of white matter microstructure and clinical measures of disease severity and symptoms. In PSP, relative to controls, changes in DTI indices consistent with white matter tract degeneration were identified in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, corticospinal tract, superior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, superior cerebellar peduncle, medial lemniscus, retrolenticular and anterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle and external capsule bilaterally, as well as the left posterior limb of the internal capsule and the right posterior thalamic radiation. MSA patients also displayed differences in the body of the corpus callosum corticospinal tract, cerebellar peduncle, medial lemniscus, anterior and superior corona radiata, posterior limb of the internal capsule external capsule and cerebral peduncle bilaterally, as well as the left anterior limb of the internal capsule and the left anterior thalamic radiation. No significant white matter abnormalities were observed in the PD group. Across groups, MD correlated positively with disease severity in all major white matter tracts. These results show widespread changes in white matter tracts in both PSP and MSA patients, even at a mid-point in the disease process, which are not found in patients with PD. PMID:25405990

Worker, Amanda; Blain, Camilla; Jarosz, Jozef; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Barker, Gareth J.; Williams, Steve C. R.; Brown, Richard G.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Simmons, Andrew

2014-01-01

289

Assessment of whole brain white matter integrity in youths and young adults with a family history of substance-use disorders.  

PubMed

Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) are at a greater risk of developing substance use disorders than their peers with no such family histories (FH-) and this vulnerability is proportional to the number of affected relatives (FH density). The risk for developing substance use disorders peaks during adolescence to early adulthood in the general population, and that is thought to be related to delayed maturation of frontocortical and frontostriatal functional circuits. We hypothesized that FH+ youth and young adults have impaired myelination of frontocortical and frontostriatal white matter tracts. We examined fractional anisotropy (FA) data in 80 FH+ and 34 FH- youths (12.9?±?1.0 years) and in 25 FH+ and 30 FH- young adults (24.3?±?3.4 years). FH+ youths had lower FA values in both frontocortical and frontostriatal tracts as well as parietocortical tracts including the anterior, superior and posterior corona radiata and the superior frontal-occipital fasciculus. Moreover, FA values in these tracts were negatively correlated with FH density. FH+ adults had lower FA values in two frontocortical tracts: the genu of the corpus callosum and anterior corona radiata and also significant negative correlations between FA and FH density in these same tracts. In both groups, lower FA values corresponded to higher radial diffusivity suggesting reduced axonal myelination. We interpreted our findings as evidence for impaired myelination of frontal white matter that was proportional to FH density. Our data suggest that deficits may partially resolve with age, paralleling an age-related decline in risk for developing substance use disorders. PMID:24867528

Acheson, Ashley; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Rowland, Laura M; Winkler, Anderson M; Gaston, Frank; Mathias, Charles W; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Wright, Susan N; Hong, L Elliot; Dougherty, Donald M; Kochunov, Peter

2014-11-01

290

Midlife measurements of white matter microstructure predict subsequent regional white matter atrophy in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives While age-related brain changes are becoming better understood, midlife patterns of change are still in need of characterization, and longitudinal studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine if baseline fractional anisotropy (FA), obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) predicts volume change over a four-year interval. Experimental design Forty-four cognitively healthy middle-age adults underwent baseline DTI and longitudinal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Tensor Based Morphometry methods were used to evaluate volume change over time. FA values were extracted from regions of interest that included the cingulum, entorhinal white matter, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Baseline FA was used as a predictor variable, while gray and white matter atrophy rates as indexed by Tensor Based Morphometry were the dependent variables. Principal observations Over a four-year period, participants showed significant contraction of white matter, especially in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar regions (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Baseline FA in entorhinal white matter, genu, and splenium, was associated with longitudinal rates of atrophy in regions that included the superior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior corona radiata, temporal stem, and white matter of the inferior temporal gyrus (p<0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons). Conclusions Brain change with aging is characterized by extensive shrinkage of white matter. Baseline white matter microstructure as indexed by DTI was associated with some of the observed regional volume loss. The findings suggest that both white matter volume loss and microstructural alterations should be considered more prominently in models of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23861348

Ly, Martina; Canu, Elisa; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer; McLaren, Donald G; Dowling, N. Maritza; Alexander, Andrew L; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Bendlin, Barbara B

2013-01-01

291

The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective  

PubMed Central

The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution. When applied to syntax, this suggests that core computational components used today in language could have originally served non-linguistic functions such as motor control, non-verbal thought, or spatial reasoning. I outline three specific exaptationist hypotheses for spoken language. These three hypotheses each posit a change of functionality in a precursor circuit, and its transformation into a neural circuit or region specifically involved in language today. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the precursor mechanism for intentional vocal control, specifically direct cortical control over the larynx, was manual motor control subserved by the cortico-spinal tract. The second is that the arcuate fasciculus, which today connects syntactic and lexical regions, had its origin in intracortical connections subserving vocal imitation. The third is that the specialized components of Broca’s area, specifically BA 45, had their origins in non-linguistic motor control, and specifically hierarchical planning of action. I conclude by illustrating the importance of both homology (studied via primates) and convergence (typically analyzed in birds) for testing such evolutionary hypotheses. PMID:22207847

Fitch, W. Tecumseh

2011-01-01

292

Executive dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia is related to abnormalities in frontal white matter tracts  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and AD are linked to frontal and temporal lobe gray matter (GM) pathology. The aim of this study was to assess the relative contribution of white (WM) and GM abnormalities to cognitive dysfunction in bvFTD and AD. Fractional anisotropy (FA) for the corpus callosum, cingulum (Cg), and uncinate fasciculus (Unc) was determined in 17 bvFTD and 10 AD patients who underwent neuropsychological testing. Regressions were performed to assess the relative contribution of WM and GM abnormalities to cognitive deficits. Multiple regression analysis revealed that in bvFTD, the left anterior Cg FA was related to executive function, the right anterior Cg FA to visual-spatial attention and working memory, the right posterior Cg to visual-constructional abilities and the left Unc FA to Modified Trails Errors. After adding corresponding GM volumes, the left anterior Cg FA, the right anterior cingulate FA, the right posterior cingulate FA and the left uncinate FA remained significant predictors of the cognitive tasks. In the AD group, the left posterior Cg FA and right descending Cg FA were related to visual recall performance but did not remain significant predictors when GM volumes were added to the regression. These results suggest that reduced integrity of specific WM tracts contribute to cognitive deficits observed in bvFTD after accounting for GM atrophy. In AD, memory impairment was related to WM tract injury but this relationship was no longer observed when GM volumes were included. PMID:22037958

Zhang, Y.; Racine, C.; Laluz, V.; Neuhaus, J.; Chao, L.; Kramer, J.; Rosen, H.; Miller, B.; Weiner, M.

2013-01-01

293

gamma-diketone central neuropathy: quantitative morphometric analysis of axons in rat spinal cord white matter regions and nerve roots.  

PubMed

A quantitative analytical method was used to measure myelinated axon morphometric parameters (e.g., axon area, ratio of axon area/fiber area, and index of circularity) in rat nervous tissue during intoxication with 2,5-hexanedione (HD). Parameters were assessed in nerve roots (dorsal and ventral) and in ascending (gracile fasciculus and spinocerebellar tract) and descending (corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts) spinal cord white matter tracts (L4-L5) of rats intoxicated with HD at two different daily dose-rates (175 or 400 mg HD/kg/day, gavage). For each dose-rate, tissue was sampled at four neurological endpoints: unaffected, slight, moderate, and severe toxicity, as determined by gait analysis and measurements of grip strength. Results indicate that, regardless of the HD dose-rate, axon atrophy (reduced axon area) was a widespread, abundant effect that developed in concert with neurological deficits. The atrophy response occurred contemporaneously in both ascending and descending spinal tracts, which suggests that loss of caliber developed simultaneously along the proximodistal axon axis. In contrast, swollen axons were a numerically small component and were present in nerve roots and spinal tracts only during subchronic intoxication at the lower HD dose-rate (i.e., 175 mg/kg/day). Intoxication at the higher dose-rate (400 mg/kg/day) produced neurological deficits in the absence of axonal swellings. These observations in conjunction with our previous studies of HD-induced peripheral neuropathy (Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 135 (1995) 58; and Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 165 (2000) 127) indicate that axon atrophy, and not axonal swelling, is a primary neuropathic phenomenon. PMID:14613714

LoPachin, Richard M; Jortner, Bernard S; Reid, Maria L; Das, Soma

2003-11-15

294

Mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: an autoradiographic study of ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mice.  

PubMed

A previous study from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) was able to prevent the behavioral expression of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying this effect, we conducted this study, with the aims of analyzing ?4?2 nicotinic receptor density during NIC withdrawal and, in case we found any changes, of determining whether they could be prevented by pretreatment with BAC. Swiss Webster albino mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and brain autoradiography with [(3)H]epibatidine was carried out at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling during NIC withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), medial habenular nucleus (HbM), thalamic nuclei, dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus (fr), ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus and superior colliculus. BAC pretreatment prevented the increased ?4?2 nicotinic receptor binding sites in the AcbSh, MHb, thalamic nuclei, DLG nucleus and fr. The present results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling, evidenced in specific brain areas in NIC withdrawn animals. PMID:23500668

Varani, Andrés P; Antonelli, Marta C; Balerio, Graciela N

2013-07-01

295

Validating Serum S100B and Neuron-Specific Enolase as Biomarkers for the Human Brain – A Combined Serum, Gene Expression and MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Former studies have investigated the potential of serum biomarkers for diseases affecting the human brain. In particular the glial protein S100B, a neuro- and gliotrophin inducing plasticity, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of psychiatric diseases such as major depression and schizophrenia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a specific serum marker for neuronal damage. However, the specificity of these biomarkers for cell type and brain region has not been investigated in vivo until now. Methods We acquired two magnetic resonance imaging parameters sensitive to changes in gray and white matter (T1-weighted/diffusion tensor imaging) and obtained serum S100B and NSE levels of 41 healthy subjects. Additionally, we analyzed whole brain gene expressions of S100B in another male cohort of three subjects using the Allen Brain Atlas. Furthermore, a female post mortal brain was investigated using double immunofluorescence labelling with oligodendrocyte markers. Results We show that S100B is specifically related to white matter structures, namely the corpus callosum, anterior forceps and superior longitudinal fasciculus in female subjects. This effect was observed in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity – the latest an indicator of myelin changes. Histological data confirmed a co-localization of S100B with oligodendrocyte markers in the human corpus callosum. S100B was most abundantly expressed in the corpus callosum according to the whole genome Allen Human Brain Atlas. In addition, NSE was related to gray matter structures, namely the amygdala. This effect was detected across sexes. Conclusion Our data demonstrates a very high S100B expression in white matter tracts, in particular in human corpus callosum. Our study is the first in vivo study validating the specificity of the glial marker S100B for the human brain, and supporting the assumption that radial diffusivity represents a myelin marker. Our results open a new perspective for future studies investigating major neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22916238

Streitbürger, Daniel-Paolo; Arelin, Katrin; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Thiery, Joachim; Steiner, Johann; Villringer, Arno

2012-01-01

296

Upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors in upper motor neurons after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Unlike mammals, fish motor function can recover within 6-8weeks after spinal cord injury (SCI). The motor function of zebrafish is regulated by dual control; the upper motor neurons of the brainstem and motor neurons of the spinal cord. In this study, we aimed to investigate the framework behind the regeneration of upper motor neurons in adult zebrafish after SCI. In particular, we investigated the cell survival of axotomized upper motor neurons and its molecular machinery in zebrafish brain. As representative nuclei of upper motor neurons, we retrogradely labeled neurons in the nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (NMLF) and the intermediate reticular formation (IMRF) using a tracer injected into the lesion site of the spinal cord. Four to eight neurons in each thin sections of the area of NMLF and IMRF were successfully traced at least 1-15days after SCI. TUNEL staining and BrdU labeling assay revealed that there was no apoptosis or cell proliferation in the axotomized neurons of the brainstem at various time points after SCI. In contrast, axotomized neurons labeled with a neurotracer showed increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors, such as Bcl-2 and phospho-Akt (p-Akt), at 1-6days after SCI. Such a rapid increase of Bcl-2 and p-Akt protein levels after SCI was quantitatively confirmed by western blot analysis. These data strongly indicate that upper motor neurons in the NMLF and IMRF can survive and regrow their axons into the spinal cord through the rapid activation of anti-apoptotic molecules after SCI. The regrowing axons from upper motor neurons reached the lesion site at 10-15days and then crossed at 4-6weeks after SCI. These long-distance descending axons from originally axotomized neurons have a major role in restoration of motor function after SCI. PMID:22982298

Ogai, Kazuhiro; Hisano, Suguru; Mawatari, Kazuhiro; Sugitani, Kayo; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kato, Satoru

2012-12-01

297

The Role of the Lateral Habenula in Punishment  

PubMed Central

The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment. Here we used a within-subjects punishment task to assess the role of LHb in the acquisition and expression of punishment as well as in aversive choice. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused footshock deliveries (punished lever) but continued pressing a second lever that did not cause footshock (unpunished lever). Infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (NBQX) into LHb had no effect on the acquisition or expression of this punishment, or on aversive choice, but did increase locomotion. Infusion of the sodium channel blocker bupivacaine likewise had no effect on expression of punishment. However, infusion of the calcium channel blocker mibefradil did affect expression of punishment by significantly decreasing the latency with which rats responded on the punished lever and significantly increasing unpunished lever-pressing. Taken together, these findings indicate that the LHb plays a limited role in punishment, influencing only latency to respond. This role is linked to calcium channel permeability and not AMPA receptor or sodium channel permeability. PMID:25365401

Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Philip; McNally, Gavan P.

2014-01-01

298

White matter microstructural abnormalities in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Fragile X or Turner syndrome as evidenced by diffusion tensor imaging  

PubMed Central

Children with chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or Turner Syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14 years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925

Villalon, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

299

Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinico-pathologic features and emerging molecular mechanisms.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a syndrome designation describing inherited disorders in which lower extremity weakness and spasticity are the predominant symptoms. There are more than 50 genetic types of HSP. HSP affects individuals of diverse ethnic groups with prevalence estimates ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 per 100,000. Symptoms may begin at any age. Gait impairment that begins after childhood usually worsens very slowly over many years. Gait impairment that begins in infancy and early childhood may not worsen significantly. Postmortem studies consistently identify degeneration of corticospinal tract axons (maximal in the thoracic spinal cord) and degeneration of fasciculus gracilis fibers (maximal in the cervico-medullary region). HSP syndromes thus appear to involve motor-sensory axon degeneration affecting predominantly (but not exclusively) the distal ends of long central nervous system (CNS) axons. In general, proteins encoded by HSP genes have diverse functions including (1) axon transport (e.g. SPG30/KIF1A, SPG10/KIF5A and possibly SPG4/Spastin); (2) endoplasmic reticulum morphology (e.g. SPG3A/Atlastin, SPG4/Spastin, SPG12/reticulon 2, and SPG31/REEP1, all of which interact); (3) mitochondrial function (e.g. SPG13/chaperonin 60/heat-shock protein 60, SPG7/paraplegin; and mitochondrial ATP6); (4) myelin formation (e.g. SPG2/Proteolipid protein and SPG42/Connexin 47); (5) protein folding and ER-stress response (SPG6/NIPA1, SPG8/K1AA0196 (Strumpellin), SGP17/BSCL2 (Seipin), "mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia" owing to CcT5 mutation and presumably SPG18/ERLIN2); (6) corticospinal tract and other neurodevelopment (e.g. SPG1/L1 cell adhesion molecule and SPG22/thyroid transporter MCT8); (7) fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (e.g. SPG28/DDHD1, SPG35/FA2H, SPG39/NTE, SPG54/DDHD2, and SPG56/CYP2U1); and (8) endosome membrane trafficking and vesicle formation (e.g. SPG47/AP4B1, SPG48/KIAA0415, SPG50/AP4M1, SPG51/AP4E, SPG52/AP4S1, and VSPG53/VPS37A). The availability of animal models (including bovine, murine, zebrafish, Drosophila, and C. elegans) for many types of HSP permits exploration of disease mechanisms and potential treatments. This review highlights emerging concepts of this large group of clinically similar disorders. PMID:23897027

Fink, John K

2013-09-01

300

Track-weighted functional connectivity (TW-FC): a tool for characterizing the structural-functional connections in the brain.  

PubMed

MRI provides a powerful tool for studying the functional and structural connections in the brain non-invasively. The technique of functional connectivity (FC) exploits the intrinsic temporal correlations of slow spontaneous signal fluctuations to characterise brain functional networks. In addition, diffusion MRI fibre-tracking can be used to study the white matter structural connections. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in combining these two techniques to provide an overall structural-functional description of the brain. In this work we applied the recently proposed super-resolution track-weighted imaging (TWI) methodology to demonstrate how whole-brain fibre-tracking data can be combined with FC data to generate a track-weighted (TW) FC map of FC networks. The method was applied to data from 8 healthy volunteers, and illustrated with (i) FC networks obtained using a seeded connectivity-based analysis (seeding in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, PCC, known to be part of the default mode network), and (ii) with FC networks generated using independent component analysis (in particular, the default mode, attention, visual, and sensory-motor networks). TW-FC maps showed high intensity in white matter structures connecting the nodes of the FC networks. For example, the cingulum bundles show the strongest TW-FC values in the PCC seeded-based analysis, due to their major role in the connection between medial frontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex; similarly the superior longitudinal fasciculus was well represented in the attention network, the optic radiations in the visual network, and the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum in the sensory-motor network. The TW-FC maps highlight the white matter connections associated with a given FC network, and their intensity in a given voxel reflects the functional connectivity of the part of the nodes of the network linked by the structural connections traversing that voxel. They therefore contain a different (and novel) image contrast from that of the images used to generate them. The results shown in this study illustrate the potential of the TW-FC approach for the fusion of structural and functional data into a single quantitative image. This technique could therefore have important applications in neuroscience and neurology, such as for voxel-based comparison studies. PMID:23298749

Calamante, Fernando; Masterton, Richard A J; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Smith, Robert E; Willats, Lisa; Raffelt, David; Connelly, Alan

2013-04-15

301

Torsional Eye Movements Evoked by Unilateral Labyrinthine Galvanic Polarizations in the Squirrel Monkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical stimulation of vestibular-nerve afferents innervating the semicircular canals has been used to identify the extraocular muscles receiving activation or inhibition by individual ampullary nerves. This technique was originally developed by Szentagothai (1950) and led to the description of three neuron reflex arcs that connect each semicircular canal through an interneuron traversing in the region of the medial longitudinal fasciculus to one ipsilateral and one contralateral eye muscle. Selective ampullary nerve stimulation was subsequently used by Cohen and colleagues (Cohen and Suzuki, 1963; Cohen et al., 1964; Suzuki et al., 1964; Cohen et al., 1966) to study movements of the eyes and activation of individual extraocular muscles in response to stimulation of combinations of ampullary nerves. This work led to a description of the now familiar relationships between activation of a semicircular canal ampullary nerves and the anticipated movement in each eye. Disconjugacy of eye movements induced by individual vertical canal stimulation and dependence of the pulling direction of vertical recti and oblique muscles on eye position were also defined in these experiments. Subsequent studies have defined the mechanisms by which externally applied galvanic currents result in a change in vestibular-nerve afferent discharge. The currents appear to act at the spike trigger site. Perilymphatic cathodal currents depolarize the trigger site and lead to excitation whereas anodal currents hyperpolarize and result in inhibition. Afferents innervating all five vestibular endorgans appear to be affected equally by the currents (Goldberg et al., 1984). Irregularly discharging afferents are about 5-10 times more sensitive than regularly discharging ones because of the steeper slope of the former's faster postspike recovery of excitability in encoder sensitivity (Smith and Goldberg, 1986). Response adaptation similar to that noted during acceleration steps is apparent for longer periods of current administration. This adaptation is manifested as a perstimulus return toward resting discharge and poststimulus after-response in the opposite direction (Goldberg et al., 1984; Minor and Goldberg, l991). Cathodal currents (with respect to the perilymphatic space of the vestibule) are excitatory whereas anodal currents are inhibitory. Horizontal eye movements evoked by unilateral galvanic polarizations administered through chronically implanted labyrinthine stimulating electrodes have been studied in alert squirrel monkeys (Minor and Goldberg, 1991). We sought to extend this analysis by recording three-dimensional eye movements during galvanic stimulation. As predicted based upon roughly equal stimulation of ampullary nerves innervating the vertical canals, a substantial torsional component to the nystagmus is noted. The trajectory of torsional slow phases and nystagmus profile after the polarization provide insight into the central mechanisms that influence these responses.

Minor, Lloyd B.; Tomko, David L.; Paige, Gary D.

1995-01-01

302

White matter neuroanatomical differences in young children who stutter.  

PubMed

The ability to express thoughts through fluent speech production is a most human faculty, one that is often taken for granted. Stuttering, which disrupts the smooth flow of speech, affects 5% of preschool-age children and 1% of the general population, and can lead to significant communication difficulties and negative psychosocial consequences throughout one's lifetime. Despite the fact that symptom onset typically occurs during early childhood, few studies have yet examined the possible neural bases of developmental stuttering during childhood. Here we present a diffusion tensor imaging study that examined white matter measures reflecting neuroanatomical connectivity (fractional anisotropy) in 77 children [40 controls (20 females), 37 who stutter (16 females)] between 3 and 10 years of age. We asked whether previously reported anomalous white matter measures in adults and older children who stutter that were found primarily in major left hemisphere tracts (e.g. superior longitudinal fasciculus) are also present in younger children who stutter. All children exhibited normal speech, language, and cognitive development as assessed through a battery of assessments. The two groups were matched in chronological age and socioeconomic status. Voxel-wise whole brain comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics and region of interest analyses of fractional anisotropy were conducted to examine white matter changes associated with stuttering status, age, sex, and stuttering severity. Children who stutter exhibited significantly reduced fractional anisotropy relative to controls in white matter tracts that interconnect auditory and motor structures, corpus callosum, and in tracts interconnecting cortical and subcortical areas. In contrast to control subjects, fractional anisotropy changes with age were either stagnant or showed dissociated development among major perisylvian brain areas in children who stutter. These results provide first glimpses into the neuroanatomical bases of early childhood stuttering, and possible white matter developmental changes that may lead to recovery versus persistent stuttering. The white matter changes point to possible structural connectivity deficits in children who stutter, in interrelated neural circuits that enable skilled movement control through efficient sensorimotor integration and timing of movements. PMID:25619509

Chang, Soo-Eun; Zhu, David C; Choo, Ai Leen; Angstadt, Mike

2015-03-01

303

The Prognosis of Allocentric and Egocentric Neglect: Evidence from Clinical Scans  

PubMed Central

We contrasted the neuroanatomical substrates of sub-acute and chronic visuospatial deficits associated with different aspects of unilateral neglect using computed tomography scans acquired as part of routine clinical diagnosis. Voxel-wise statistical analyses were conducted on a group of 160 stroke patients scanned at a sub-acute stage. Lesion-deficit relationships were assessed across the whole brain, separately for grey and white matter. We assessed lesions that were associated with behavioural performance (i) at a sub-acute stage (within 3 months of the stroke) and (ii) at a chronic stage (after 9 months post stroke). Allocentric and egocentric neglect symptoms at the sub-acute stage were associated with lesions to dissociated regions within the frontal lobe, amongst other regions. However the frontal lesions were not associated with neglect at the chronic stage. On the other hand, lesions in the angular gyrus were associated with persistent allocentric neglect. In contrast, lesions within the superior temporal gyrus extending into the supramarginal gyrus, as well as lesions within the basal ganglia and insula, were associated with persistent egocentric neglect. Damage within the temporo-parietal junction was associated with both types of neglect at the sub-acute stage and 9 months later. Furthermore, white matter disconnections resulting from damage along the superior longitudinal fasciculus were associated with both types of neglect and critically related to both sub-acute and chronic deficits. Finally, there was a significant difference in the lesion volume between patients who recovered from neglect and patients with chronic deficits. The findings presented provide evidence that (i) the lesion location and lesion size can be used to successfully predict the outcome of neglect based on clinical CT scans, (ii) lesion location alone can serve as a critical predictor for persistent neglect symptoms, (iii) wide spread lesions are associated with neglect symptoms at the sub-acute stage but only some of these are critical for predicting whether neglect will become a chronic disorder and (iv) the severity of behavioural symptoms can be a useful predictor of recovery in the absence of neuroimaging findings on clinical scans. We discuss the implications for understanding the symptoms of the neglect syndrome, the recovery of function and the use of clinical scans to predict outcome. PMID:23133604

Chechlacz, Magdalena; Rotshtein, Pia; Roberts, Katherine L.; Bickerton, Wai-Ling; Lau, Johnny K. L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2012-01-01

304

Development of Cerebral Fiber Pathways in Cats revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging  

PubMed Central

Examination of the three-dimensional axonal pathways in the developing brain is key to understanding the formation of cerebral connectivity. By tracing fiber pathways throughout the entire brain, diffusion tractography provides information that cannot be achieved by conventional anatomical MR imaging or histology. However, standard diffusion tractography (based on diffusion tensor imaging, or DTI) tends to terminate in brain areas with low water diffusivity, indexed by low diffusion fractional anisotropy (FA), which can be caused by crossing fibers as well as fibers with less myelin. For this reason, DTI tractography is not effective for delineating the structural changes that occur in the developing brain, where the process of myelination is incomplete, and where crossing fibers exist in greater numbers than in the adult brain. Unlike DTI, diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) can define multiple directions of water diffusivity; as such, diffusion tractography based on DSI provides marked flexibility for delineation of fiber tracts in areas where the fiber architecture is complex and multidirectional, even in areas of low FA. In this study, we showed that FA values were lower in the white matter of newborn (postnatal day 0; P0) cat brains than in the white matter of infant (P35) and juvenile (P100) cat brains. These results correlated well with histological myelin stains of the white matter: the newborn kitten brain has much less myelin than that found in cat brains at later stages of development. Using DSI tractography, we successfully identified structural changes in thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical association tracts in cat brains from one stage of development to another. In newborns, the main body of the thalamo-cortical tract was smooth, and fibers branching from it were almost straight, while the main body became more complex and branching fibers became curved reflecting gyrification in the older cats. Cortico-cortical tracts in the temporal lobe were smooth in newborns, and they formed a sharper angle in the later stages of development. The cingulum bundle and superior longitudinal fasciculus became more visible with time. Within the first month after birth, structural changes occurred in these tracts that coincided with the formation of the gyri. These results show that DSI tractography has the potential for mapping morphological changes in low FA areas associated with growth and development. The technique may also be applicable to the study of other forms of brain plasticity, including future studies in vivo. PMID:19747553

Takahashi, Emi; Dai, Guangping; Wang, Ruopeng; Ohki, Kenichi; Rosen, Glenn D.; Galaburda, Albert M.; Grant, P. Ellen; Wedeen, Van J.

2009-01-01

305

Dissociated repetition deficits in aphasia can reflect flexible interactions between left dorsal and ventral streams and gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream  

PubMed Central

Assessment of brain-damaged subjects presenting with dissociated repetition deficits after selective injury to either the left dorsal or ventral auditory pathways can provide further insight on their respective roles in verbal repetition. We evaluated repetition performance and its neural correlates using multimodal imaging (anatomical MRI, DTI, fMRI, and18FDG-PET) in a female patient with transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA) and in a male patient with conduction aphasia (CA) who had small contiguous but non-overlapping left perisylvian infarctions. Repetition in the TCMA patient was fully preserved except for a mild impairment in nonwords and digits, whereas the CA patient had impaired repetition of nonwords, digits and word triplet lists. Sentence repetition was impaired, but he repeated novel sentences significantly better than clichés. The TCMA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex and insula. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-frontal and parieto-frontal segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and part of the left ventral stream together with well-developed right dorsal and ventral streams, as has been reported in more than one-third of females. The CA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolic activity in the left temporoparietal cortex with additional metabolic decrements in the left frontal lobe. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-parietal and temporo-frontal segments of the AF, but the ventral stream was spared. The direct segment of the AF in the right hemisphere was also absent with only vestigial remains of the other dorsal subcomponents present, as is often found in males. fMRI during word and nonword repetition revealed bilateral perisylvian activation in the TCMA patient suggesting recruitment of spared segments of the left dorsal stream and right dorsal stream with propagation of signals to temporal lobe structures suggesting a compensatory reallocation of resources via the ventral streams. The CA patient showed a greater activation of these cortical areas than the TCMA patient, but these changes did not result in normal performance. Repetition of word triplet lists activated bilateral perisylvian cortices in both patients, but activation in the CA patient with very poor performance was restricted to small frontal and posterior temporal foci bilaterally. These findings suggest that dissociated repetition deficits in our cases are probably reliant on flexible interactions between left dorsal stream (spared segments, short tracts remains) and left ventral stream and on gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream. PMID:24391569

Berthier, Marcelo L.; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Dávila, Guadalupe; Nabrozidis, Alejandro; Juárez y Ruiz de Mier, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Antonio; De-Torres, Irene; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Alfaro, Francisco; García-Casares, Natalia

2013-01-01

306

3D structure tensor analysis of light microscopy data for validating diffusion MRI.  

PubMed

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (d-MRI) is a powerful non-invasive and non-destructive technique for characterizing brain tissue on the microscopic scale. However, the lack of validation of d-MRI by independent experimental means poses an obstacle to accurate interpretation of data acquired using this method. Recently, structure tensor analysis has been applied to light microscopy images, and this technique holds promise to be a powerful validation strategy for d-MRI. Advantages of this approach include its similarity to d-MRI in terms of averaging the effects of a large number of cellular structures, and its simplicity, which enables it to be implemented in a high-throughput manner. However, a drawback of previous implementations of this technique arises from it being restricted to 2D. As a result, structure tensor analyses have been limited to tissue sectioned in a direction orthogonal to the direction of interest. Here we describe the analytical framework for extending structure tensor analysis to 3D, and utilize the results to analyze serial image "stacks" acquired with confocal microscopy of rhesus macaque hippocampal tissue. Implementation of 3D structure tensor procedures requires removal of sources of anisotropy introduced in tissue preparation and confocal imaging. This is accomplished with image processing steps to mitigate the effects of anisotropic tissue shrinkage, and the effects of anisotropy in the point spread function (PSF). In order to address the latter confound, we describe procedures for measuring the dependence of PSF anisotropy on distance from the microscope objective within tissue. Prior to microscopy, ex vivo d-MRI measurements performed on the hippocampal tissue revealed three regions of tissue with mutually orthogonal directions of least restricted diffusion that correspond to CA1, alveus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. We demonstrate the ability of 3D structure tensor analysis to identify structure tensor orientations that are parallel to d-MRI derived diffusion tensors in each of these three regions. It is concluded that the 3D generalization of structure tensor analysis will further improve the utility of this method for validation of d-MRI by making it a more flexible experimental technique that closer resembles the inherently 3D nature of d-MRI measurements. PMID:25665963

Khan, Ahmad Raza; Cornea, Anda; Leigland, Lindsey A; Kohama, Steven G; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Kroenke, Christopher D

2015-05-01

307

Repeatability and variation of region-of-interest methods using quantitative diffusion tensor MR imaging of the brain  

PubMed Central

Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly used in various diseases as a clinical tool for assessing the integrity of the brain’s white matter. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are nonspecific findings in most pathological processes affecting the brain’s parenchyma. At present, there is no gold standard for validating diffusion measures, which are dependent on the scanning protocols, methods of the softwares and observers. Therefore, the normal variation and repeatability effects on commonly-derived measures should be carefully examined. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 37.8 years, SD 11.4) underwent DTI of the brain with 3T MRI. Region-of-interest (ROI) -based measurements were calculated at eleven anatomical locations in the pyramidal tracts, corpus callosum and frontobasal area. Two ROI-based methods, the circular method (CM) and the freehand method (FM), were compared. Both methods were also compared by performing measurements on a DTI phantom. The intra- and inter-observer variability (coefficient of variation, or CV%) and repeatability (intra-class correlation coefficient, or ICC) were assessed for FA and ADC values obtained using both ROI methods. Results The mean FA values for all of the regions were 0.663 with the CM and 0.621 with the FM. For both methods, the FA was highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The mean ADC value was 0.727 ×10-3 mm2/s with the CM and 0.747 ×10-3 mm2/s with the FM, and both methods found the ADC to be lowest in the corona radiata. The CV percentages of the derived measures were < 13% with the CM and < 10% with the FM. In most of the regions, the ICCs were excellent or moderate for both methods. With the CM, the highest ICC for FA was in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (0.90), and with the FM, it was in the corona radiata (0.86). For ADC, the highest ICC was found in the genu of the corpus callosum (0.93) with the CM and in the uncinate fasciculus (0.92) with FM. Conclusions With both ROI-based methods variability was low and repeatability was moderate. The circular method gave higher repeatability, but variation was slightly lower using the freehand method. The circular method can be recommended for the posterior limb of the internal capsule and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the freehand method for the corona radiata. PMID:23057584

2012-01-01

308

Damage to white matter pathways in subacute and chronic spatial neglect: a group study and 2 single-case studies with complete virtual "in vivo" tractography dissection.  

PubMed

The exact anatomical localization of right hemisphere lesions that lead to left spatial neglect is still debated. The effect of confounding factors such as acute diaschisis and hypoperfusion, visual field defects, and lesion size may account for conflicting results that have been reported in the literature. Here, we present a comprehensive anatomical investigation of the gray- and white matter lesion correlates of left spatial neglect, which was run in a sample 58 patients with subacute or chronic vascular strokes in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. Standard voxel-based correlates confirmed the role played by lesions in the posterior parietal cortex (supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, and temporal-parietal junction), in the frontal cortex (frontal eye field, middle and inferior frontal gyrus), and in the underlying parietal-frontal white matter. Using a new diffusion tensor imaging-based atlas of the human brain, we were able to run, for the first time, a detailed analysis of the lesion involvement of subcortical white matter pathways. The results of this analysis revealed that, among the different pathways linking parietal with frontal areas, damage to the second branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF II) was the best predictor of left spatial neglect. The group study also revealed a subsample of patients with neglect due to focal lesion in the lateral-dorsal portion of the thalamus, which connects the premotor cortex with the inferior parietal lobule. The relevance of fronto-parietal disconnection was further supported by complete in vivo tractography dissection of white matter pathways in 2 patients, one with and the other without signs of neglect. These 2 patients were studied both in the acute phase and 1 year after stroke and were perfectly matched for age, handedness, stroke onset, lesion size, and for cortical lesion involvement. Taken together, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that anatomical disconnections leading to a functional breakdown of parietal-frontal networks are an important pathophysiological factor leading to chronic left spatial neglect. Here, we propose that different loci of SLF disconnection on the rostro-caudal axis can also be associated with disconnection of short-range white matter pathways within the frontal or parietal areas. Such different local disconnection patterns can play a role in the important clinical variability of the neglect syndrome. PMID:23162045

Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Aiello, Marilena; Merola, Sheila; Silvetti, Massimo; Lecce, Francesca; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Doricchi, Fabrizio

2014-03-01

309

Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinico-pathologic features and emerging molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a syndrome designation describing inherited disorders in which lower extremity weakness and spasticity are the predominant symptoms. There are more than 50 genetic types of HSP. HSP affects individuals diverse ethnic groups with prevalence estimates ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 per 100,000 [39, 70, 77, 154, 185]. Symptoms may begin at any age. Gait impairment that begins after childhood usually worsens very slowly over many years. Gait impairment that begins in infancy and early childhood may not worsen significantly. Post mortem studies consistently identify degeneration of corticospinal tract axons (maximal in the thoracic spinal cord) and degeneration of fasciculus gracilis fibers (maximal in the cervico-medullary region). HSP syndromes thus appear to involve motor-sensory axon degeneration affecting predominantly (but not exclusively) the distal ends of long central nervous system (CNS) axons. In general, proteins encoded by HSP genes have diverse functions including axon transport (e.g. SPG30/KIF1A, SPG10/KIF5A and possibly SPG4/Spastin); endoplasmic reticulum morphology (e.g. SPG3A/Atlastin, SPG4/Spastin, SPG12/reticulon 2, and SPG31/REEP1, all of which interact); mitochondrial function (e.g. SPG13/chaperonin 60/heat shock protein 60, SPG7/paraplegin; and mitochondrial ATP6; 4) myelin formation (e.g. SPG2/Proteolipid protein and SPG42/Connexin 47); 5) protein folding and ER-stress response (SPG6/NIPA1, SPG8/K1AA0196 (Strumpellin), SGP17/BSCL2 (Seipin) [113-115], “mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia” due to CcT5 mutation and presumably SPG18/ERLIN2); 6) corticospinal tract and other neurodevelopment (e.g. SPG1/L1 cell adhesion molecule and SPG22/thyroid transporter MCT8); 7) fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (e.g. SPG28/DDHD1, SPG35/FA2H, SPG39/NTE, SPG54/DDHD2, and SPG56/CYP2U1); and 8) endosome membrane trafficking and vesicle formation (e.g. SPG47/AP4B1, SPG48/KIAA0415, SPG50/AP4M1, SPG51/AP4E, SPG52/AP4S1, and VSPG53/VPS37A). The availability of animal models (including bovine, murine, zebrafish, Drosophila, and C. elegans) for many types of HSP permits exploration of disease mechanisms and potential treatments. This review highlights emerging concepts of this large group of clinically similar disorders. For recent review of HSP including historical descriptions, differential diagnosis, and additional references see [78]. PMID:23897027

Fink, John K.

2014-01-01

310

Characterizing a neurodegenerative syndrome: primary progressive apraxia of speech  

PubMed Central

Apraxia of speech is a disorder of speech motor planning and/or programming that is distinguishable from aphasia and dysarthria. It most commonly results from vascular insults but can occur in degenerative diseases where it has typically been subsumed under aphasia, or it occurs in the context of more widespread neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to determine whether apraxia of speech can present as an isolated sign of neurodegenerative disease. Between July 2010 and July 2011, 37 subjects with a neurodegenerative speech and language disorder were prospectively recruited and underwent detailed speech and language, neurological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging testing. The neuroimaging battery included 3.0 tesla volumetric head magnetic resonance imaging, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and [11C] Pittsburg compound B positron emission tomography scanning. Twelve subjects were identified as having apraxia of speech without any signs of aphasia based on a comprehensive battery of language tests; hence, none met criteria for primary progressive aphasia. These subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech included eight females and four males, with a mean age of onset of 73 years (range: 49–82). There were no specific additional shared patterns of neurological or neuropsychological impairment in the subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech, but there was individual variability. Some subjects, for example, had mild features of behavioural change, executive dysfunction, limb apraxia or Parkinsonism. Voxel-based morphometry of grey matter revealed focal atrophy of superior lateral premotor cortex and supplementary motor area. Voxel-based morphometry of white matter showed volume loss in these same regions but with extension of loss involving the inferior premotor cortex and body of the corpus callosum. These same areas of white matter loss were observed with diffusion tensor imaging analysis, which also demonstrated reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, particularly the premotor components. Statistical parametric mapping of the [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans revealed focal hypometabolism of superior lateral premotor cortex and supplementary motor area, although there was some variability across subjects noted with CortexID analysis. [11C]-Pittsburg compound B positron emission tomography binding was increased in only one of the 12 subjects, although it was unclear whether the increase was actually related to the primary progressive apraxia of speech. A syndrome characterized by progressive pure apraxia of speech clearly exists, with a neuroanatomic correlate of superior lateral premotor and supplementary motor atrophy, making this syndrome distinct from primary progressive aphasia. PMID:22382356

Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Master, Ankit V.; Lowe, Val J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

311

Executive deficits, not processing speed relates to abnormalities in distinct prefrontal tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is characterized by deficits on tests of executive function; however, the contribution of abnormal processing speed is unknown. Methods are confounded by tasks that depend on motor speed in patients with physical disability. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed multi-system cerebral involvement, with evidence of reduced white matter volume and integrity in predominant frontotemporal regions. The current study has two aims. First, to investigate whether cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are due to executive dysfunction or slowed processing speed using methodology that accommodates motor disability. This is achieved using a dual-task paradigm and tasks that manipulate stimulus presentation times and do not rely on response motor speed. Second, to identify relationships between specific cognitive impairments and the integrity of distinct white matter tracts. Thirty patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 30 age- and education-matched control subjects were administered an experimental dual-task procedure that combined a visual inspection time task and digit recall. In addition, measures of executive function (including letter fluency) and processing speed (visual inspection time and rapid serial letter identification) were administered. Integrity of white matter tracts was determined using region of interest analyses of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis did not show impairments on tests of processing speed, but executive deficits were revealed once visual inspection time was combined with digit recall (dual-task) and in letter fluency. In addition to the corticospinal tracts, significant differences in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were found between groups in a number of prefrontal and temporal white matter tracts including the anterior cingulate, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundles. Significant differences also emerged in the anterior corona radiata as well as in white matter underlying the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyri and the temporal gyri. Dual-task performance significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy measures in the middle frontal gyrus white matter and anterior corona radiata. Letter fluency indices significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy measures of the inferior frontal gyrus white matter and corpus callosum in addition to the corticospinal tracts and mean diffusivity measures in the white matter of the superior frontal gyrus. The current study demonstrates that cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to generic slowing of processing speed. Moreover, different executive deficits are related to distinct prefrontal tract involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dual-task impairment associating with dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction and letter fluency showing greater dependence on inferolateral prefrontal dysfunction. PMID:24056536

Pettit, Lewis D; Bastin, Mark E; Smith, Colin; Bak, Thomas H; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Abrahams, Sharon

2013-11-01

312

Voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of patients with early onset schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Investigation into the whole brain morphology of early onset schizophrenia (EOS) to date has been sparse. We studied the regional brain volumes in EOS patients, and the correlations between regional volume measures and symptom severity. Methods A total of 18 EOS patients (onset under 16 years) and 18 controls matched for age, gender, parental socioeconomic status, and height were examined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis using the Brain Analysis Morphological Mapping (BAMM) software package was employed to explore alterations of the regional grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes in EOS patients. Symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results EOS patients had significantly reduced GM volume in the left parahippocampal, inferior frontal, and superior temporal gyri, compared with the controls. They also had less WM volume in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The positive symptom score of PANSS (higher values corresponding to more severe symptoms) was negatively related to GM volume in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus. The negative symptom score was positively correlated with GM volume in the right thalamus. As for the association with WM volume, the positive symptom score of PANSS was positively related to cerebellar WM (vermis region), and negatively correlated with WM in the brain stem (pons) and in the bilateral cerebellum (hemisphere region). Conclusion Our findings of regional volume alterations of GM and WM in EOS patients coincide with those of previous studies of adult onset schizophrenia patients. However, in brain regions that had no overall structural differences between EOS patients and controls (that is, the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, the right thalamus, the cerebellum, and the pons), within-subject analysis of EOS patients alone revealed that there were significant associations of the volume in these areas and the symptom severity. These findings suggest that at an early stage of the illness, especially for those with onset before brain maturation, a wide range of disturbed neural circuits, including these brain regions that show no apparent morphological changes, may contribute to the formation of the symptomatology. PMID:19102744

Yoshihara, Yujiro; Sugihara, Genichi; Matsumoto, Hideo; Suckling, John; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Toyoda, Takao; Isoda, Haruo; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sakahara, Harumi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mori, Norio; Takei, Nori

2008-01-01

313

Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally, the strongest argument supporting a marked role of gravity in vertical eye position is that the eye movement alterations observed in the main, typical physiological and pathological conditions are precisely those that would be expected from a direct effect of gravity on the eyeballs, with, moreover, no single alternative interpretation existing so far that could account for all these different types of findings. PMID:19645894

Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

2009-05-01

314

Hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sauvagine-like immunoreactivity in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) central nervous system.  

PubMed

In the present study, immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay were used to investigate the presence of sauvagine in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic areas of the central nervous system (CNS) of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using a specific antiserum raised against synthetic non-conjugated sauvagine (SVG), a frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagei) skin peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family. Sauvagine-immunoreactive (SVG-ir) bipolar neurons were found in the nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis located in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. In the tectal mesencephalon, beaded SVG-ir fibres were present in the optic tectum, and in the torus semicircularis. Abundant SVG-ir varicose fibres were seen in the granulosa layer of the cerebellum, the nucleus isthmi, and the obex of the spinal cord. SVG-ir fibres were also seen by the alar plate of the rombencephalon. In the diencephalon, the antiserum stained parvocellular neurons of the preoptic nucleus (PON) which extended their dendrites into the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of the third ventricle and projected their ependymofugal fibres to the zona externa (ZE) of the median eminence. Immunopositive fibres were also present in the medial forebrain bundle at the chiasmatic field, the posterior thalamus, the pretectal gray, and the ventrocaudal hypothalamus. In the telencephalon (forebrain), SVG-ir fibres were seen in the medial septum, the lateral septum, and the amygdala. The SVG immunoreactivity could not be detected after using the SVG antiserum previously immunoabsorbed with synthetic SVG (0.1 microM), but immunoblock of the antiserum with sucker (Catostomus commersoni) urotensin I (sUI), sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) urotensin I, sucker CRF, rat/human CRF, or ovine CRF (0.1-10 microM) did not eliminate visualization of the immunoreactivity. In radioimmunoassay, the SVG antiserum did not crossreact with sUI, or the SVG fragments SVG1-16, SVG16-27, and SVG26-34, but it recognized the C-terminal fragment SVG35-40. Crossreaction with mammalian ovine CRF and rat/human CRF was negligible. Both hypothalamic and mesencephalic extracts gave parallel displacement curves to SVG. The results suggest the presence in the bullfrog brain of a SVG-like neuropeptide, i.e., a peptide of the CRF family, that either is SVG or shares high homology with the C-terminus of that peptide. The function of this neuropeptide in amphibians is not known at this time, but based on its anatomical distribution to the ZE it could affect the release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or other substances from the amphibian pars distalis. Involvement of the SVG-like peptide in behavioural (forebrain), visual (thalamus-tegmentum mesencephali-pretectal gray-optic tectum), motor coordination (cerebellum), and autonomic (spinal) functions, as well as an undefined interaction with the CSF in the bullfrog, seems likely. PMID:8822168

Gonzalez, G C; Bountzioukas, S; Gonzalez, E S; McMaster, D; Ko, D; Lederis, K; Lukowiak, K

1996-02-01

315

Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca’s aphasia to produce fluent speech  

PubMed Central

A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after the treatment phase. Patients were able to produce a greater variety of words with and without speech entrainment at 1 and 6 weeks after training. Treatment-related decrease in cortical activation associated with speech entrainment was found in areas of the left posterior-inferior parietal lobe. We conclude that speech entrainment allows patients with Broca’s aphasia to double their speech output compared with spontaneous speech. Neuroimaging results suggest that speech entrainment allows patients to produce fluent speech by providing an external gating mechanism that yokes a ventral language network that encodes conceptual aspects of speech. Preliminary results suggest that training with speech entrainment improves speech production in Broca’s aphasia providing a potential therapeutic method for a disorder that has been shown to be particularly resistant to treatment. PMID:23250889

Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

2012-01-01