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1

Decreased white matter integrity in fronto-occipital fasciculus bundles: relation to visual information processing in alcohol-dependent subjects.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol abuse is characterized by impaired cognitive abilities with a more severe deficit in visual than in verbal functions. Neuropathologically, it is associated with widespread brain structural compromise marked by gray matter shrinkage, ventricular enlargement, and white matter degradation. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the impairment of visual processing abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects, and its correlation with white matter microstructural alterations, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). To that end, a DTI study was carried out on 35 alcohol-dependent subjects and 30 healthy male control subjects. Neuropsychological tests were assessed for visual processing skills and deficits were reported as raw dysfunction scores (rDyS). Reduced FA (fractional anisotropy) and increased MD (mean diffusivity) were observed bilaterally in inferior and superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (FOF) fiber bundles. A significant inverse correlation in rDyS and FA values was observed in these fiber tracts whereas a positive correlation of these scores was found with the MD values. Our results suggest that FOF fiber bundles linking the frontal lobe to occipital lobe might be related to visual processing skills. This is the first report of an alteration of the white matter microstructure of FOF fiber bundles that might have functional consequences for visual processing in alcohol-dependent subjects who exhibit no neurological complications. PMID:24388377

Bagga, Deepika; Sharma, Aakansha; Kumari, Archana; Kaur, Prabhjot; Bhattacharya, Debajyoti; Garg, Mohan Lal; Khushu, Subash; Singh, Namita

2014-02-01

2

The anatomy of fronto-occipital connections from early blunt dissections to contemporary tractography.  

PubMed

The occipital and frontal lobes are anatomically distant yet functionally highly integrated to generate some of the most complex behaviour. A series of long associative fibres, such as the fronto-occipital networks, mediate this integration via rapid feed-forward propagation of visual input to anterior frontal regions and direct top-down modulation of early visual processing. Despite the vast number of anatomical investigations a general consensus on the anatomy of fronto-occipital connections is not forthcoming. For example, in the monkey the existence of a human equivalent of the 'inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus' (iFOF) has not been demonstrated. Conversely, a 'superior fronto-occipital fasciculus' (sFOF), also referred to as 'subcallosal bundle' by some authors, is reported in monkey axonal tracing studies but not in human dissections. In this study our aim is twofold. First, we use diffusion tractography to delineate the in vivo anatomy of the sFOF and the iFOF in 30 healthy subjects and three acallosal brains. Second, we provide a comprehensive review of the post-mortem and neuroimaging studies of the fronto-occipital connections published over the last two centuries, together with the first integral translation of Onufrowicz's original description of a human fronto-occipital fasciculus (1887) and Muratoff's report of the 'subcallosal bundle' in animals (1893). Our tractography dissections suggest that in the human brain (i) the iFOF is a bilateral association pathway connecting ventro-medial occipital cortex to orbital and polar frontal cortex, (ii) the sFOF overlaps with branches of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and probably represents an 'occipital extension' of the SLF, (iii) the subcallosal bundle of Muratoff is probably a complex tract encompassing ascending thalamo-frontal and descending fronto-caudate connections and is therefore a projection rather than an associative tract. In conclusion, our experimental findings and review of the literature suggest that a ventral pathway in humans, namely the iFOF, mediates a direct communication between occipital and frontal lobes. Whether the iFOF represents a unique human pathway awaits further ad hoc investigations in animals. PMID:23137651

Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Kawadler, Jamie M; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Danek, Adrian; Catani, Marco

2014-07-01

3

BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY White matter structural connectivity underlying  

E-print Network

and fractional anisotropy value of the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left anterior thalamic. These results underscore the causal role of left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left anterior thalamic-damaged patient Abbreviations: ATR = anterior thalamic radiation; IFOF = inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus

Caramazza, Alfonso

4

Maxillary changes and occlusal traits in crania with artificial fronto-occipital deformation.  

PubMed

Artificial fronto-occipital deformation of the cranial vault was typical of pre-Columbian cultures in the central Andean coastal regions. We have studied the influence of this deformation on maxillary and mandibular morphology. Measurements were performed on 86 adult Ancon skulls with anteroposterior deformation. Undeformed skulls from the area of Makatampu (n = 52) were used as the control group. To explore the influence of the deformity on occlusion, the skulls were categorized using the Angle classification and the alignment of the interincisor midline. In the group of deformed skulls, there was an increase in lateral growth of the vault and of the base of the skull (P < 0.001), giving rise to a greater interpterygoid width of the maxilla (P < 0.001), and an increase in the transverse diameter of the palatal vault. The mandible presented an increase in the length of the rami (P < 0.001) and in the intercondylar width, with no alteration of mandibular length. The deformed skulls had normal (class I) occlusion, with no displacement of the midline. The difference in the asymmetry index between the two groups was not statistically significant. Artificial fronto-occipital deformation of the cranial vault provoked compensatory lateral expansion of the base that was correlated with the transverse development of the maxilla and mandible. Occlusion and sagittal intermaxillary position were not affected by the cranial deformity. These results provide evidence of the integration between the neurocranium and the viscerocranium in craniofacial development, and support the hypothesis of a compensatory effect of function. PMID:21990029

Jimenez, Publio; Martinez-Insua, Arturo; Franco-Vazquez, Jaime; Otero-Cepeda, Xose Luis; Santana, Urbano

2012-01-01

5

Beyond the arcuate fasciculus: consensus and controversy in the connectional anatomy of language.  

PubMed

The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into function, but recent investigations using a variety of methodologies in both humans and non-human primates have provided conflicting accounts of pathways central to language. Some of the pathways classically considered language pathways, such as the arcuate fasciculus, are now argued to be domain-general rather than specialized, which represents a radical shift in perspective. Other pathways described in the non-human primate remain to be verified in humans. In this review, we examine the consensus and controversy in the study of fibre pathway connectivity for language. We focus on seven fibre pathways-the superior longitudinal fasciculus and arcuate fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, extreme capsule, middle longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus-that have been proposed to support language in the human. We examine the methods in humans and non-human primate used to investigate the connectivity of these pathways, the historical context leading to the most current understanding of their anatomy, and the functional and clinical correlates of each pathway with reference to language. We conclude with a challenge for researchers and clinicians to establish a coherent framework within which fibre pathway connectivity can be systematically incorporated to the study of language. PMID:23107648

Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

2012-12-01

6

Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.  

PubMed

Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing. PMID:24655122

Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

2014-07-01

7

Evaluation of Diffusion-Tensor Imaging-Based Global Search and Tractography for Tumor Surgery Close to the Language System  

PubMed Central

Pre-operative planning and intra-operative guidance in neurosurgery require detailed information about the location of functional areas and their anatomo-functional connectivity. In particular, regarding the language system, post-operative deficits such as aphasia can be avoided. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, the connectivity between functional areas can be reconstructed by tractography techniques that need to cope with limitations such as limited resolution and low anisotropic diffusion close to functional areas. Tumors pose particular challenges because of edema, displacement effects on brain tissue and infiltration of white matter. Under these conditions, standard fiber tracking methods reconstruct pathways of insufficient quality. Therefore, robust global or probabilistic approaches are required. In this study, two commonly used standard fiber tracking algorithms, streamline propagation and tensor deflection, were compared with a previously published global search, Gibbs tracking and a connection-oriented probabilistic tractography approach. All methods were applied to reconstruct neuronal pathways of the language system of patients undergoing brain tumor surgery, and control subjects. Connections between Broca and Wernicke areas via the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were validated by a clinical expert to ensure anatomical feasibility, and compared using distance- and diffusion-based similarity metrics to evaluate their agreement on pathway locations. For both patients and controls, a strong agreement between all methods was observed regarding the location of the AF. In case of the IFOF however, standard fiber tracking and Gibbs tracking predominantly identified the inferior longitudinal fasciculus that plays a secondary role in semantic language processing. In contrast, global search resolved connections in almost every case via the IFOF which could be confirmed by probabilistic fiber tracking. The results show that regarding the language system, our global search is superior to clinically applied conventional fiber tracking strategies with results similar to time-consuming global or probabilistic approaches. PMID:23308093

Richter, Mirco; Zolal, Amir; Ganslandt, Oliver; Buchfelder, Michael; Nimsky, Christopher; Merhof, Dorit

2013-01-01

8

Uncinate fasciculus abnormalities in recent onset schizophrenia and affective psychosis: A diffusion tensor imaging study  

E-print Network

years of first hospitalization (12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 patients with affective psychosisUncinate fasciculus abnormalities in recent onset schizophrenia and affective psychosis studies in chronic schizophrenia are the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulum bundle (CB). The purpose

9

Dissecting the uncinate fasciculus: disorders, controversies and a hypothesis  

PubMed Central

The uncinate fasciculus is a bidirectional, long-range white matter tract that connects lateral orbitofrontal cortex and Brodmann area 10 with the anterior temporal lobes. Although abnormalities in the uncinate fasciculus have been associated with several psychiatric disorders and previous studies suggest it plays a putative role in episodic memory, language and social emotional processing, its exact function is not well understood. In this review we summarize what is currently known about the anatomy of the uncinate, we review its role in psychiatric and neurological illnesses, and we evaluate evidence related to its putative functions. We propose that an overarching role of the uncinate fasciculus is to allow temporal lobe-based mnemonic associations (e.g. an individual’s name + face + voice) to modify behaviour through interactions with the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, which provides valence-based biasing of decisions. The bidirectionality of the uncinate fasciculus information flow allows orbital frontal cortex-based reward and punishment history to rapidly modulate temporal lobe-based mnemonic representations. According to this view, disruption of the uncinate may cause problems in the expression of memory to guide decisions and in the acquisition of certain types of learning and memory. Moreover, uncinate perturbation should cause problems that extend beyond memory to include social–emotional problems owing to people and objects being stripped of personal value and emotional history and lacking in higher-level motivational value. PMID:23649697

Von Der Heide, Rebecca J.; Skipper, Laura M.; Klobusicky, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

10

Pathways to seeing music: enhanced structural connectivity in colored-music synesthesia.  

PubMed

Synesthesia, a condition in which a stimulus in one sensory modality consistently and automatically triggers concurrent percepts in another modality, provides a window into the neural correlates of cross-modal associations. While research on grapheme-color synesthesia has provided evidence for both hyperconnectivity-hyperbinding and disinhibited feedback as potential underlying mechanisms, less research has explored the neuroanatomical basis of other forms of synesthesia. In the current study we investigated the white matter correlates of colored-music synesthesia. As these synesthetes report seeing colors upon hearing musical sounds, we hypothesized that they might show unique patterns of connectivity between visual and auditory association areas. We used diffusion tensor imaging to trace the white matter tracts in temporal and occipital lobe regions in 10 synesthetes and 10 matched non-synesthete controls. Results showed that synesthetes possessed hemispheric patterns of fractional anisotropy, an index of white matter integrity, in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a major white matter pathway that connects visual and auditory association areas to frontal regions. Specifically, white matter integrity within the right IFOF was significantly greater in synesthetes than controls. Furthermore, white matter integrity in synesthetes was correlated with scores on audiovisual tests of the Synesthesia Battery, especially in white matter underlying the right fusiform gyrus. Our findings provide the first evidence of a white matter substrate of colored-music synesthesia, and suggest that enhanced white matter connectivity is involved in enhanced cross-modal associations. PMID:23454047

Zamm, Anna; Schlaug, Gottfried; Eagleman, David M; Loui, Psyche

2013-07-01

11

Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens' arithmetic scores  

PubMed Central

Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter (GM) volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children's arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren. PMID:24367320

Li, Yongxin; Hu, Yuzheng; Wang, Yunqi; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

2013-01-01

12

DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING OF THE UNCINATE FASCICULUS IN FIRST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA  

E-print Network

DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING OF THE UNCINATE FASCICULUS IN FIRST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING OF THE UNCINATE FASCICULUS IN FIRST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA BACKGROUND This study compares diffusion) to those of age-matched controls (NCs). METHODS Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were acquired on a 3T GE

13

Diffusion Tensor Anisotropy in Adolescents and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We acquired diffusion tensor images on 33 normal adults aged 22–64 and 15 adolescents aged 14–21. We assessed relative anisotropy in stereotaxically located regions of interest in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiations, frontal anterior fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, temporal lobe white matter, cingulum bundle, frontal inferior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal superior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiations. All of these

Jason S. Schneiderman; Monte S. Buchsbaum; M. Mehmet. Haznedar; Erin A. Hazlett; Adam M. Brickman; Lina Shihabuddin; Jesse G. Brand; Yuliya Torosjan; Randall E. Newmark; Cheuk Tang; Jonathan Aronowitz; Reshmi Paul-Odouard; William Byne; Patrick R. Hof

2007-01-01

14

Reading impairment in a patient with missing arcuate fasciculus  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a child (“S”) who was treated with radiation therapy at age 5 for a recurrent malignant brain tumor. Radiation successfully abolished the tumor but caused radiation-induced tissue necrosis, primarily affecting cerebral white matter. S was introduced to us at age 15 because of her profound dyslexia. We assessed cognitive abilities and performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure cerebral white matter pathways. Diffuse white matter differences were evident in T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion anisotropy, and mean diffusivity measures in S compared to a group of 28 normal female controls. In addition, we found specific white matter pathway deficits by comparing tensor orientation directions in S’s brain with those of the control brains. While her principal diffusion direction maps appeared consistent with those of controls over most of the brain, there were tensor orientation abnormalities in the fiber tracts that form the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in both hemispheres. Tractography analysis indicated that the left and right arcuate fasciculus (AF), as well as other tracts within the SLF, were missing in S. Other major white matter tracts, such as the corticospinal and inferior occipitofrontal pathways, were intact. Functional MRI measurements indicated left-hemisphere dominanance for language with a normal activation pattern. Despite the left AF abnormality, S had preserved oral language with average sentence repetition skills. In addition to profound dyslexia, S exhibited visuospatial, calculation, and rapid naming deficits and was impaired in both auditory and spatial working memory. We propose that the reading and visuospatial deficits were due to the abnormal left and right SLF pathways, respectively. These results advance our understanding of the functional significance of the SLF and are the first to link radiation necrosis with selective damage to a specific set of fiber tracts. PMID:18775735

Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Schwartzman, Armin; Perry, Lee M.; Dougherty, Robert F.

2009-01-01

15

Uncinate Fasciculus Abnormalities in Recent Onset Schizophrenia and Affective Psychosis: A Diffusion Tensor  

E-print Network

Uncinate Fasciculus Abnormalities in Recent Onset Schizophrenia and Affective Psychosis Neuroscience Division, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School

16

Superior longitudinal fasciculus and language functioning in healthy aging.  

PubMed

Structural deterioration of brain tissue in older adults is thought to be responsible for the majority of age-related cognitive decline. Disruption of widespread cortical networks due to a loss of axonal integrity may also play an important role. Research examining correlations between structural change and functional decline has focused heavily on working memory, processing speed, and executive processes while other aspects of cognition, such as language functioning, have received less attention. The current study aimed to determine whether age-related changes in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), are responsible for the deterioration in language functioning associated with age. Subjects included 112 right-handed volunteers (ages 19-76). For each subject, the SLF of the left hemisphere was reconstructed from diffusion tensor images (DTI). Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted from parietal (SLFp) and temporal (SLFt) bundles. Language functioning was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and Semantic Fluency Test (SFT). Regression analyses revealed that males and females showed a different pattern of decline in FA across adulthood. For males, greater SLFt FA was significantly associated with increased COWAT performance, and there was a positive relationship between both age and SLFp FA with BNT scores. In females, greater SLFp FA was related to lower COWAT performance. Taken together, the results suggest that white matter integrity of the SLF follows a different pattern of decline in adulthood for males and females, and this decline differentially affects language functioning. PMID:24680744

Madhavan, Kiely M; McQueeny, Tim; Howe, Steven R; Shear, Paula; Szaflarski, Jerzy

2014-05-01

17

Learning to read improves the structure of the arcuate fasciculus.  

PubMed

The acquisition of literacy results from an effortful learning process that leads to functional changes in several cortical regions. We explored whether learning to read also leads to anatomical changes within the left intrahemispheric white matter pathways that interconnect these regions. Using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, we compared illiterates with ex-illiterates who learned to read during adulthood and literates who learned to read during their childhood. Literacy related to an increase in fractional anisotropy and a decrease in perpendicular diffusivity in the temporo-parietal portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. The microstructure within this pathway correlated with the reading performance and the degree of functional activation within 2 dominant brain regions involved in reading: The Visual Word Form Area in response to letter strings, and the posterior superior temporal cortex in response to spoken language. Thus, the acquisition of literacy is associated with a reinforcement of left temporo-parietal connections whose microstructure predicts overall reading performance and the functional specialization of the Visual Word Form Area. This anatomical magnetic resonance imaging marker may be useful to predict developmental reading disorders. PMID:23236205

Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Cohen, Laurent; Amemiya, Eduardo; Braga, Lucia W; Dehaene, Stanislas

2014-04-01

18

Cingulate Fasciculus Integrity Disruption in Schizophrenia: A Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor  

E-print Network

schizophrenia patients and 18 male control subjects, group-matched for age, parental socio- economic statusCingulate Fasciculus Integrity Disruption in Schizophrenia: A Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor gyrus (CG), may play a role in the pathophysi- ology of schizophrenia; however, the cingulum bundle (CB

19

Anatomical Properties of the Arcuate Fasciculus Predict Phonological and Reading Skills in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a century, neurologists have hypothesized that the arcuate fasciculus carries signals that are essential for language function; however, the relevance of the pathway for particular behaviors is highly controversial. The primary objective of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between individual variation in the microstructural properties of arcuate fibers and behavioral

Jason D. Yeatman; Robert F. Dougherty; Elena Rykhlevskaia; Anthony J. Sherbondy; Gayle K. Deutsch; Brian A. Wandell; Michal Ben-Shachar

2011-01-01

20

Am J Psychiatry 159:5, May 2002 813 Uncinate Fasciculus Findings in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Am J Psychiatry 159:5, May 2002 813 Article Uncinate Fasciculus Findings in Schizophrenia in schizophrenia. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stud- ies, however, have not shown compelling integ- rity. The first three diffusion tensor imag- ing studies in schizophrenia showed lower

21

The relationship between uncinate fasciculus white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children.  

PubMed

During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent functional MRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8-11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children. PMID:24949818

Schaeffer, David J; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Pierce, Jordan E; Allison, Jerry D; Yanasak, Nathan E; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L; McDowell, Jennifer E

2014-08-20

22

Letter to the Editors The uncinate fasciculus and extraversion in schizotypal  

E-print Network

Letter to the Editors The uncinate fasciculus and extraversion in schizotypal personality disorder extraversion and agreeableness (Gurrera et al., 2005a). Since brain regions connected by the UF play important), and lower mean Extraversion (43.6±13.5 vs. 59.7±4.9, t=-3.20, df=17, p=.005) and Agreeableness (41.8±14.1 vs

23

Microstructural connectivity of the arcuate fasciculus in adolescents with high-functioning autism  

PubMed Central

The arcuate fasciculus is a white matter fiber bundle of great importance in language. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to infer white matter integrity in the arcuate fasciculi of a group of subjects with high-functioning autism and a control group matched for age, handedness, IQ, and head size. The arcuate fasciculus for each subject was automatically extracted from the imaging data using a new volumetric DTI segmentation algorithm. The results showed a significant increase in mean diffusivity (MD) in the autism group, due mostly to an increase in the radial diffusivity (RD). A test of the lateralization of DTI measurements showed that both MD and fractional anisotropy (FA) were less lateralized in the autism group. These results suggest that white matter microstructure in the arcuate fasciculus is affected in autism and that the language specialization apparent in the left arcuate of healthy subjects is not as evident in autism, which may be related to poorer language functioning. PMID:20132894

Fletcher, P. Thomas; Whitaker, Ross T.; Tao, Ran; DuBray, Molly B.; Froehlich, Alyson; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

2010-01-01

24

Quantification of the spatiotemporal microstructural organization of the human brain association, projection and commissural pathways across the lifespan using diffusion tensor tractography  

PubMed Central

Using diffusion tensor tractography, we quantified the microstructural changes in the association, projection, and commissural compact white matter pathways of the human brain over the lifespan in a cohort of healthy right-handed children and adults aged 6–68 years. In both males and females, the diffusion tensor radial diffusivity of the bilateral arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, corticospinal, somatosensory tracts, and the corpus callosum followed a U-curve with advancing age; fractional anisotropy in the same pathways followed an inverted U-curve. Our study provides useful baseline data for the interpretation of data collected from patients. PMID:20127357

Kamali, Arash; Abid, Humaira; Kramer, Larry A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

2010-01-01

25

'For the benefit of the people': the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae, Antwerp 1512.  

PubMed

The article deals with the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae based on the Latin edition, Venice 1495, with the famous woodcuts created in 1494 for the Italian translation of the original Latin edition of 1491. The woodcuts are compared with the Venetian model. New features in the Antwerp edition include the Skeleton and the Zodiac Man, bot originally based on German models. The text also deals with other woodcuts in the Low Countries based on these Venetian illustrations. The Appendices provide a short title catalog of all the editions and translations based on the Venetian edition and a stemma. PMID:19642255

Coppens, Christian

2009-01-01

26

A Combined fMRI and DTI Examination of Functional Language Lateralization and Arcuate Fasciculus Structure: Effects of Degree versus Direction of Hand Preference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationship between hand preference degree and direction, functional language lateralization in Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and structural measures of the arcuate fasciculus. Results revealed an effect of degree of hand preference on arcuate fasciculus structure, such that consistently-handed individuals,…

Propper, Ruthe E.; O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Whalen, Stephen; Tie, Yanmei; Norton, Isaiah H.; Suarez, Ralph O.; Zollei, Lilla; Radmanesh, Alireza; Golby, Alexandra J.

2010-01-01

27

Pediatric traumatic brain injury: Language outcomes and their relationship to the arcuate fasciculus  

PubMed Central

Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in long-lasting language impairments alongside dysarthria, a motor-speech disorder. Whether this co-morbidity is due to the functional links between speech and language networks, or to widespread damage affecting both motor and language tracts, remains unknown. Here we investigated language function and diffusion metrics (using diffusion-weighted tractography) within the arcuate fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the corpus callosum in 32 young people after TBI (approximately half with dysarthria) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 17). Only participants with dysarthria showed impairments in language, affecting sentence formulation and semantic association. In the whole TBI group, sentence formulation was best predicted by combined corpus callosum and left arcuate volumes, suggesting this “dual blow” seriously reduces the potential for functional reorganisation. Word comprehension was predicted by fractional anisotropy in the right arcuate. The co-morbidity between dysarthria and language deficits therefore seems to be the consequence of multiple tract damage. PMID:23756046

Liegeois, Frederique J.; Mahony, Kate; Connelly, Alan; Pigdon, Lauren; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Morgan, Angela T.

2013-01-01

28

Pediatric traumatic brain injury: language outcomes and their relationship to the arcuate fasciculus.  

PubMed

Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in long-lasting language impairments alongside dysarthria, a motor-speech disorder. Whether this co-morbidity is due to the functional links between speech and language networks, or to widespread damage affecting both motor and language tracts, remains unknown. Here we investigated language function and diffusion metrics (using diffusion-weighted tractography) within the arcuate fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the corpus callosum in 32 young people after TBI (approximately half with dysarthria) and age-matched healthy controls (n=17). Only participants with dysarthria showed impairments in language, affecting sentence formulation and semantic association. In the whole TBI group, sentence formulation was best predicted by combined corpus callosum and left arcuate volumes, suggesting this "dual blow" seriously reduces the potential for functional reorganisation. Word comprehension was predicted by fractional anisotropy in the right arcuate. The co-morbidity between dysarthria and language deficits therefore seems to be the consequence of multiple tract damage. PMID:23756046

Liégeois, Frédérique J; Mahony, Kate; Connelly, Alan; Pigdon, Lauren; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Morgan, Angela T

2013-12-01

29

Diffusion tensor tractography of the arcuate fasciculus in patients with brain tumors: Comparison between deterministic and probabilistic models  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the deterministic and probabilistic tracking methods of diffusion tensor white matter fiber tractography in patients with brain tumors. Materials and Methods We identified 29 patients with left brain tumors <2 cm from the arcuate fasciculus who underwent pre-operative language fMRI and DTI. The arcuate fasciculus was reconstructed using a deterministic Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking (FACT) algorithm and a probabilistic method based on an extended Monte Carlo Random Walk algorithm. Tracking was controlled using two ROIs corresponding to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Tracts in tumoraffected hemispheres were examined for extension between Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, anterior-posterior length and volume, and compared with the normal contralateral tracts. Results Probabilistic tracts displayed more complete anterior extension to Broca’s area than did FACT tracts on the tumor-affected and normal sides (p < 0.0001). The median length ratio for tumor: normal sides was greater for probabilistic tracts than FACT tracts (p < 0.0001). The median tract volume ratio for tumor: normal sides was also greater for probabilistic tracts than FACT tracts (p = 0.01). Conclusion Probabilistic tractography reconstructs the arcuate fasciculus more completely and performs better through areas of tumor and/or edema. The FACT algorithm tends to underestimate the anterior-most fibers of the arcuate fasciculus, which are crossed by primary motor fibers.

Li, Zhixi; Peck, Kyung K.; Brennan, Nicole P.; Jenabi, Mehrnaz; Hsu, Meier; Zhang, Zhigang; Holodny, Andrei I.; Young, Robert J.

2014-01-01

30

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies on Arcuate Fasciculus in Stroke Patients: A Review  

PubMed Central

Aphasia is one of the most common and devastating sequelae of stroke. The arcuate fasciculus (AF), an important neural tract for language function, connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. In this review article, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on the AF in stroke patients were reviewed with regard to the usefulness for diagnosis (seven studies), prediction of prognosis (two studies), and recovery of aphasia (three studies). Although scant studies on this topic have been conducted in stroke patients, DTI for the AF appears to provide useful information on the presence or severity of injury of the AF, prognosis prediction of aphasia, and recovery mechanisms of aphasia in stroke patients. Therefore, further DTI studies on these topics should be encouraged, especially studies on prognosis prediction and recovery mechanisms of aphasia. In addition, research on other neural tracts known to be involved in aphasia as well as the AF in both hemispheres should be encouraged. PMID:24198780

Jang, Sung Ho

2013-01-01

31

Sex Differences of Uncinate Fasciculus Structural Connectivity in Individuals with Conduct Disorder  

PubMed Central

Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common behavior disorders in adolescents, such as impulsivity, aggression, and running from school. Males are more likely to develop CD than females, and two previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated abnormal microstructural integrity in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in boys with CD compared to a healthy control group. However, little is known about changes in the UF in females with CD. In this study, the UF was illustrated by tractography; then, the fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, mean diffusion, radial diffusivity (RD), and the length and number of the UF fiber bundles were compared between male and female patients with CD and between female patients with CD and female healthy controls, as well as between males with CD and healthy males. We found that males with CD showed significantly higher FA of the bilateral UF and significantly lower RD of the left UF when comparing with females with CD. Meanwhile, significantly higher FA and lower RD of the bilateral UF were also found in boys with CD relative to the male healthy controls. Our results replicated previous reports that the microstructural integrity of the UF was abnormal in boys with CD. Additionally, our results demonstrated significant gender effects on the UF of patients with CD, which may indicate why boys have higher rates of conduct problems than girls. PMID:24829912

Zhang, Jibiao; Gao, Junling; Shi, Huqing; Huang, Bingsheng; Wang, Xiang; Situ, Weijun; Cai, Weixiong; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao

2014-01-01

32

Individual differences in crossmodal brain activity predict arcuate fasciculus connectivity in developing readers.  

PubMed

Crossmodal integration of auditory and visual information, such as phonemes and graphemes, is a critical skill for fluent reading. Previous work has demonstrated that white matter connectivity along the arcuate fasciculus (AF) is predicted by reading skill and that crossmodal processing particularly activates the posterior STS (pSTS). However, the relationship between this crossmodal activation and white matter integrity has not been previously reported. We investigated the interrelationship of crossmodal integration, both in terms of behavioral performance and pSTS activity, with AF tract coherence using a rhyme judgment task in a group of 47 children with a range of reading abilities. We demonstrate that both response accuracy and pSTS activity for crossmodal (auditory-visual) rhyme judgments was predictive of fractional anisotropy along the left AF. Unimodal (auditory-only or visual-only) pSTS activity was not significantly related to AF connectivity. Furthermore, activity in other reading-related ROIs did not show the same AV-only AF coherence relationship, and AV pSTS activity was not related to connectivity along other language-related tracts. This study is the first to directly show that crossmodal brain activity is specifically related to connectivity in the AF, supporting its role in phoneme-grapheme integration ability. More generally, this study helps to define an interdependent neural network for reading-related integration. PMID:24456399

Gullick, Margaret M; Booth, James R

2014-07-01

33

White matter alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In This study, we used Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D), parallel diffusivity (D//) and perpendicular diffusivity (D), to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelization. TBSS was applied to analyze the FA data. After, the regions with alteration were studied with D, D// and D maps. Patients exhibited widespread degradation of FA. With D, D// and D maps analysis we found alterations in corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, internal capsule, corona radiate, Sagittal stratum, cingulum, fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exist demyelization and axonal damage in patients with TLE.

Diniz, P. B.; Salmon, C. E.; Velasco, T. R.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Leite, J. P.; Santos, A. C.

2011-03-01

34

Abnormal Language Pathway in Children with Angelman Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Angelman Syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by pervasive developmental disability with failure to develop speech. We examined the basis for severe language delay in Angelman Syndrome patients using diffusion tensor imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging/diffusion tensor imaging was performed in seven genetically confirmed Angelman Syndrome children (age:70±26 months, five males) and four age-matched controls to investigate the microstructural integrity of arcuate fasciculus and other major association tracts. Six of seven Angelman Syndrome children had unidentifiable left arcuate fasciculus while all controls had identifiable arcuate fasciculus. The right arcuate fasciculus was absent in six of seven Angelman Syndrome children and one of four controls. Diffusion tensor imaging color map suggested aberrant morphology of the arcuate fasciculus region. Other association tracts, including uncinate fasciculus, inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior-longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tract, were identifiable but showed decreased fractional anisotropy in Angelman Syndrome children. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient was seen in all tracts except uncinate fasciculus when compared to controls. Angelman Syndrome patients have global impairment of white matter integrity in association tracts, particularly, the arcuate fasciculus which shows severe morphological changes. This could be due to a potential problem with axon guidance during brain development possibly due to loss of UBE3A gene expression. PMID:21481743

Wilson, Benjamin J.; Sundaram, Senthil K.; Huq, AHM; Jeong, Jeong-Won; Halverson, Stacey R.; Behen, Michael E.; Bui, Duy Q.; Chugani, Harry T.

2011-01-01

35

Effect of clozapine on white matter integrity in patients with schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

Several diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported disturbed white matter integrity in various brain regions in patients with schizophrenia, whereas only a few studied the effect of antipsychotics on DTI measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on DTI findings in patients with schizophrenia, and to compare the findings with those in unaffected controls. The study included 16 patients with schizophrenia who were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, a neurocognitive test battery, and DTI at baseline and 12 weeks after the initiation of clozapine treatment. Eight unaffected controls were assessed once with the neurocognitive test battery and DTI. Voxel-wise analysis of DTI data was performed via tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Compared with the control group, the patient group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in 16 brain regions, including the bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, superior and inferior parietal lobules, cingulate bundles, cerebellum, middle cerebellar peduncles, and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, whereas the patients had higher FA in six regions, including the right parahippocampus, left anterior thalamic radiation, and right posterior limb of the internal capsule before clozapine treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine, white matter FA was increased in widespread brain regions. In two of the regions where FA had initially been lower in patients compared with controls (left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and superior parietal lobule), clozapine appeared to increase FA. An improvement in semantic fluency was correlated with the increase in FA value in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. An increase in FA following 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine suggests that this treatment alters white matter microstructural integrity in patients with schizophrenia previously treated with typical and/or atypical antipsychotics and, in some locations, reverses a previous deficit. PMID:25012780

Ozcelik-Eroglu, Elcin; Ertugrul, Aygun; Oguz, Kader Karli; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Karahan, Sevilay; Yazici, Mumin Kazim

2014-09-30

36

Horizontal portion of arcuate fasciculus fibers track to pars opercularis, not pars triangularis, in right and left hemispheres: a DTI study.  

PubMed

The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter pathway traditionally considered to connect left Broca's area with posterior language zones. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in eight healthy subjects (5 M) to track pathways in the horizontal mid-portion of the AF (hAF) to subregions of Broca's area - pars triangularis (PTr) and pars opercularis (POp); and to ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the right and left hemispheres (RH, LH). These pathways have previously been studied in the LH, but not in the RH. Only 1/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between PTr and hAF in the RH (also, only 1/8 in the LH). In contrast to PTr, 5/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between POp and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Fiber tracts for vPMC were similar to those of POp, where 7/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between vPMC and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Our designated hAF could have included some of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) III, because it is difficult to separate the two fiber bundles. The SLF III has been previously reported to connect supramarginal gyrus with POp and vPMC in the LH. Thus, although the present DTI study showed almost no pathways between PTr and hAF in the RH (and in the LH), robust pathways were observed between POp and/or vPMC with hAF in the RH (and in LH). These results replicate previous studies for the LH, but are new, for the RH. They could contribute to better understanding of recovery in aphasia. PMID:20438853

Kaplan, Elina; Naeser, Margaret A; Martin, Paula I; Ho, Michael; Wang, Yunyan; Baker, Errol; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2010-08-15

37

Patterns of Dysgraphia in Primary Progressive Aphasia Compared to Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We report patterns of dysgraphia in participants with primary progressive aphasia that can be explained by assuming disruption of one or more cognitive processes or representations in the complex process of spelling. These patterns are compared to those described in participants with focal lesions (stroke). Using structural imaging techniques, we found that damage to the left extrasylvian regions, including the uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and sagittal stratum (including geniculostriate pathway and inferior longitudinal fasciculus), as well as other deep white and grey matter structures, was significantly associated with impairments in access to orthographic word forms and semantics (with reliance on phonology-to-orthography to produce a plausible spelling in the spelling to dictation task). These results contribute not only to our understanding of the patterns of dysgraphia following acquired brain damage but also the neural substrates underlying spelling. PMID:22713396

Faria, Andreia V.; Crinion, Jenny; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Cooley, Shannon; Mori, Susumu; Hillis, Argye E.

2013-01-01

38

The language connectome: new pathways, new concepts.  

PubMed

The field of the neurobiology of language is experiencing a paradigm shift in which the predominant Broca-Wernicke-Geschwind language model is being revised in favor of models that acknowledge that language is processed within a distributed cortical and subcortical system. While it is important to identify the brain regions that are part of this system, it is equally important to establish the anatomical connectivity supporting their functional interactions. The most promising framework moving forward is one in which language is processed via two interacting "streams"--a dorsal and ventral stream--anchored by long association fiber pathways, namely the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and two less well-established pathways, the middle longitudinal fasciculus and extreme capsule. In this article, we review the most up-to-date literature on the anatomical connectivity and function of these pathways. We also review and emphasize the importance of the often overlooked cortico-subcortical connectivity for speech via the "motor stream" and associated fiber systems, including a recently identified cortical association tract, the frontal aslant tract. These pathways anchor the distributed cortical and subcortical systems that implement speech and language in the human brain. PMID:24342910

Dick, Anthony Steven; Bernal, Byron; Tremblay, Pascale

2014-10-01

39

Subcortical anatomy of the lateral association fascicles of the brain: A review.  

PubMed

Precise knowledge of the connectivities of the different white matter bundles is of great value for neuroscience research. Our knowledge of subcortical anatomy has improved exponentially during recent decades owing to the development of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging tractography (DTI). Although DTI tractography has led to important progress in understanding white matter anatomy, the precise trajectory and cortical connections of the subcortical bundles remain poorly determined. The recent literature was extensively reviewed in order to analyze the trajectories and cortical terminations of the lateral association fibers of the brain.The anatomy of the following tracts is reviewed: superior longitudinal fasciculus, middle longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, frontal aslant tract, and vertical occipital fasciculus. The functional role of a tract can be inferred from its topography within the brain. Knowing the functional roles of the cortical areas connected by a certain bundle, it is possible to develop new insights into the putative functional properties of such connections. PMID:24453050

Martino, Juan; De Lucas, Enrique Marco

2014-05-01

40

Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Patients with epilepsy and malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are at high risk for language and other cognitive impairment. Specific impairments, however, are not well correlated with the extent and locale of dysplastic cortex; such findings highlight the relevance of aberrant cortico-cortical interactions, or connectivity, to the clinical phenotype. The goal of this study was to determine the independent contribution of well-described white matter pathways to language function in a cohort of pediatric patients with epilepsy. Materials and methods Patients were retrospectively identified from an existing database of pediatric epilepsy patients with the following inclusion criteria: 1. diagnosis of MCDs, 2. DTI performed at 3 T, and 3. language characterized by a pediatric neurologist. Diffusion Toolkit and Trackvis (http://www.trackvis.org) were used for segmentation and analysis of the following tracts: corpus callosum, corticospinal tracts, inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILFs), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFOFs), uncinate fasciculi (UFs), and arcuate fasciculi (AFs). Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated for each tract. Wilcoxon rank sum test (corrected for multiple comparisons) was used to assess potential differences in tract parameters between language-impaired and language-intact patients. In a separate analysis, a machine learning algorithm (random forest approach) was applied to measure the independent contribution of the measured diffusion parameters for each tract to the clinical phenotype (language impairment). In other words, the importance of each tract parameter was measured after adjusting for the contribution of all other tracts. Results Thirty-three MCD patients were included (age range: 3–18 years). Twenty-one patients had intact language, twelve had language impairment. All tracts were identified bilaterally in all patients except for the AF, which was not identified on the right in 10 subjects and not identified on the left in 11 subjects. MD and/or FA within the left AF, UF, ILF, and IFOF differed between language-intact and language-impaired groups. However, only parameters related to the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with the clinical phenotype. Conclusions Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs. PMID:25379446

Paldino, Michael J.; Hedges, Kara; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

41

White matter structural connectivity underlying semantic processing: evidence from brain damaged patients.  

PubMed

Widely distributed brain regions in temporal, parietal and frontal cortex have been found to be involved in semantic processing, but the anatomical connections supporting the semantic system are not well understood. In a group of 76 right-handed brain-damaged patients, we tested the relationship between the integrity of major white matter tracts and the presence of semantic deficits. The integrity of white matter tracts was measured by percentage of lesion voxels obtained in structural imaging and mean fractional anisotropy values obtained in diffusion tensor imaging. Semantic deficits were assessed by jointly considering the performance on three semantic tasks that vary in the modalities of input (visual and auditory stimuli) and output (oral naming and associative judgement). We found that the lesion volume and fractional anisotropy value of the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left anterior thalamic radiation, and left uncinate fasciculus significantly correlated with severity of impairment in all three semantic tasks. These associations remained significant even when we controlled for a wide range of potential confounding variables, including overall cognitive state, whole lesion volume, or type of brain damage. The effects of these three white matter tracts could not be explained by potential involvement of relevant grey matter, and were (relatively) specific to object semantic processing, as no correlation with performance on non-object semantic control tasks (oral repetition and number processing tasks) was observed. These results underscore the causal role of left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left anterior thalamic radiation, and left uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing, providing direct evidence for (part of) the anatomical skeleton of the semantic network. PMID:23975453

Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso; Bi, Yanchao

2013-10-01

42

Differences in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus but no general disruption of white matter tracts in children with autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

One of the most widely cited features of the neural phenotype of autism is reduced “integrity” of long-range white matter tracts, a claim based primarily on diffusion imaging studies. However, many prior studies have small sample sizes and/or fail to address differences in data quality between those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typical participants, and there is little consensus on which tracts are affected. To overcome these problems, we scanned a large sample of children with autism (n = 52) and typically developing children (n = 73). Data quality was variable, and worse in the ASD group, with some scans unusable because of head motion artifacts. When we follow standard data analysis practices (i.e., without matching head motion between groups), we replicate the finding of lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in multiple white matter tracts. However, when we carefully match data quality between groups, all these effects disappear except in one tract, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Additional analyses showed the expected developmental increases in the FA of fiber tracts within ASD and typical groups individually, demonstrating that we had sufficient statistical power to detect known group differences. Our data challenge the widely claimed general disruption of white matter tracts in autism, instead implicating only one tract, the right ILF, in the ASD phenotype. PMID:24449864

Koldewyn, Kami; Yendiki, Anastasia; Weigelt, Sarah; Gweon, Hyowon; Julian, Joshua; Richardson, Hilary; Malloy, Caitlin; Saxe, Rebecca; Fischl, Bruce; Kanwisher, Nancy

2014-01-01

43

Origin and neurochemical properties of bulbospinal neurons projecting to the rat lumbar spinal cord via the medial longitudinal fasciculus and caudal ventrolateral medulla  

PubMed Central

Bulbospinal systems (BS) originate from various regions of the brainstem and influence spinal neurons by classical synaptic and modulatory mechanisms. Our aim was to determine the brainstem locations of cells of origin of BS pathways passing through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM). We also examined the transmitter content of spinal terminations of the CVLM pathway. Six adult rats received Fluorogold (FG) injections to the right intermediate gray matter of the lumbar cord (L1–L2) and the b-subunit of cholera toxin (CTb) was injected either into the MLF or the right CVLM (3 animals each). Double-labeled cells were identified within brainstem structures with confocal microscopy and mapped onto brainstem diagrams. An additional 3 rats were injected with CTb in the CVLM to label axon terminals in the lumbar spinal cord. Double-labeled cells projecting via the MLF or CVLM were found principally in reticular regions of the medulla and pons but small numbers of cells were also located within the midbrain. CVLM projections to the lumbar cord were almost exclusively ipsilateral and concentrated within the intermediate gray matter. Most (62%) of terminals were immunoreactive for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 while 23% contained the vesicular GABA transporter. The inhibitory subpopulation was glycinergic, GABAergic or contained both transmitters. The proportions of excitatory and inhibitory axons projecting via the CVLM to the lumbar cord are similar to those projecting via the MLF. Unlike the MLF pathway, CVLM projections are predominantly ipsilateral and concentrated within intermediate gray but do not extend into motor nuclei or laminia VIII. Terminations of the CVLM pathway are located in a region of the gray matter that is rich in premotor interneurons; thus its primary function may be to coordinate activity of premotor networks. PMID:24808828

Huma, Zilli; Du Beau, Amy; Brown, Christina; Maxwell, David J.

2014-01-01

44

Neuroanatomical Abnormalities and Cognitive Impairments Are Shared by Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected First-Degree Relatives  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the search for genes with a definitive role in its etiology has been elusive. Deconstructing the disorder in its endophenotypic traits, where the variance is thought to be associated with a fewer number of genes, should boost the statistical power of molecular genetic studies and clarify the pathophysiology of ADHD. In this study, we tested for neuroanatomical and cognitive endophenotypes in a group of adults with ADHD, their unaffected first-degree relatives, and typically developing control subjects. Methods Sixty participants, comprising 20 adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 20 typically developing control subjects matched for age and gender undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry with DARTEL was performed to obtain regional gray and white matter volumes. General linear analyses of the volumes of brain regions, adjusting for age and total intracranial volume, were used to compare groups. Sustained attention and response inhibition were also investigated as cognitive endophenotypes. Results Neuroanatomical abnormalities in gray matter volume in the right inferior frontal gyrus and white matter volume in the caudal portion of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were shared between ADHD probands and their unaffected first-degree relatives. In addition, impairments in sustained attention were also found to be shared between ADHD patients and their relatives. Conclusions Cognitive impairments in sustained attention and neuroanatomical abnormalities in the right inferior frontal gyrus and the posterior part of right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus are putative neurocognitive endophenotypes in adult ADHD. PMID:24199662

Pironti, Valentino Antonio; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Muller, Ulrich; Dodds, Chris Martin; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward Thomas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn

2014-01-01

45

Delineation of Early and Later Adult Onset Depression by Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Due to a lack of evidence, there is no consistent age of onset to define early onset (EO) versus later onset (LO) major depressive disorder (MDD). Fractional anisotropy (FA), derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), has been widely used to study neuropsychiatric disorders by providing information about the brain circuitry, abnormalities of which might facilitate the delineation of EO versus LO MDD. Method In this study, 61 pairs of untreated, non-elderly, first-episode MDD patients and healthy controls (HCs) aged 18–45 years old received DTI scans. The voxel-based analysis method (VBM), classification analysis, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and regression analyses were used to determine abnormal FA clusters and their correlations with age of onset and clinical symptoms. Results Classification analysis suggested in the best model that there were two subgroups of MDD patients, delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, by which MDD patients could be divided into EO (18–29 years old) and LO (30–45 years old) groups. LO MDD was characterized by decreased FA, especially in the white matter (WM) of the fronto-occipital fasciculus and posterior limb of internal capsule, with a negative correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms; in marked contrast, EO MDD showed increased FA, especially in the WM of the corpus callosum, corticospinal midbrain and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, while FA of the WM near the midbrain had a positive correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Specific abnormalities of the brain circuitry in EO vs. LO MDD were delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, as demonstrated by distinct abnormal FA clusters with opposite correlations with clinical symptoms. This DTI study supported the evidence of an exact age for the delineation of MDD, which could have broad multidisciplinary importance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703742 PMID:25393297

Yu, Hongjun; Nie, Binbin; Li, Na; Luo, Chunrong; Li, Haijun; Liu, Fang; Bai, Yan; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

2014-01-01

46

Lithium and GSK3-? Promoter Gene Variants Influence White Matter Microstructure in Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Lithium is the mainstay for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3-? (GSK3-?). The less active GSK3-? promoter gene variants have been associated with less detrimental clinical features of BD. GSK3-? gene variants and lithium can influence brain gray matter structure in psychiatric conditions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of white matter (WM) integrity showed widespred disruption of WM structure in BD. In a sample of 70 patients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD, we investigated the effect of ongoing long-term lithium treatment and GSK3-? promoter rs334558 polymorphism on WM microstructure, using DTI and tract-based spatial statistics with threshold-free cluster enhancement. We report that the less active GSK3-? rs334558*C gene-promoter variants, and the long-term administration of the GSK3-? inhibitor lithium, were associated with increases of DTI measures of axial diffusivity (AD) in several WM fiber tracts, including corpus callosum, forceps major, anterior and posterior cingulum bundle (bilaterally including its hippocampal part), left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left posterior thalamic radiation, bilateral superior and posterior corona radiata, and bilateral corticospinal tract. AD reflects the integrity of axons and myelin sheaths. We suggest that GSK3-? inhibition and lithium could counteract the detrimental influences of BD on WM structure, with specific benefits resulting from effects on specific WM tracts contributing to the functional integrity of the brain and involving interhemispheric, limbic, and large frontal, parietal, and fronto-occipital connections. PMID:22990942

Benedetti, Francesco; Bollettini, Irene; Barberi, Ignazio; Radaelli, Daniele; Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

2013-01-01

47

Cortico-Cortical, Cortico-Striatal, and Cortico-Thalamic White Matter Fiber Tracts Generated in the Macaque Brain via Dynamic Programming  

PubMed Central

Abstract Probabilistic methods have the potential to generate multiple and complex white matter fiber tracts in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, a method based on dynamic programming (DP) is introduced to reconstruct fibers pathways whose complex anatomical structures cannot be resolved beyond the resolution of standard DTI data. DP is based on optimizing a sequentially additive cost function derived from a Gaussian diffusion model whose covariance is defined by the diffusion tensor. DP is used to determine the optimal path between initial and terminal nodes by efficiently searching over all paths, connecting the nodes, and choosing the path in which the total probability is maximized. An ex vivo high-resolution scan of a macaque hemi-brain is used to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of DP. DP can generate fiber bundles between distant cortical areas (superior longitudinal fasciculi, arcuate fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and fronto-occipital fasciculus), neighboring cortical areas (dorsal and ventral banks of the principal sulcus), as well as cortical projections to the hippocampal formation (cingulum bundle), neostriatum (motor cortical projections to the putamen), thalamus (subcortical bundle), and hippocampal formation projections to the mammillary bodies via the fornix. Validation is established either by comparison with in vivo intracellular transport of horseradish peroxidase in another macaque monkey or by comparison with atlases. DP is able to generate known pathways, including crossing and kissing tracts. Thus, DP has the potential to enhance neuroimaging studies of cortical connectivity. PMID:23879573

Lal, Rakesh M.; An, Michael; Poynton, Clare B.; Li, Muwei; Jiang, Hangyi; Oishi, Kenichi; Selemon, Lynn D.; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I.

2013-01-01

48

Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N=20) and monolinguals (N=20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging. PMID:24103400

Gold, Brian T; Johnson, Nathan F; Powell, David K

2013-11-01

49

Brain structures associated with executive functions during everyday events in a non-clinical sample.  

PubMed

Executive functions involve control processes such as goal-oriented planning, flexible strategy generation, sustaining set maintenance, self-monitoring, and inhibition. Executive functions during everyday events (EFEEs) are distinct from those measured under laboratory settings; the former can be severely impaired while the latter remain intact. Non-routine everyday problems due to executive dysfunctions affect individual functioning in everyday life and are of great clinical interest. Despite the importance of anatomical bases underlying better EFEEs, such bases have never been investigated among non-clinical samples. Using voxel-based morphometry to measure regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and regional white matter volume (rWMV) and diffusion tensor imaging to determine fractional anisotropy values, we identified the anatomical correlates of better EFEEs using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire in 303 normal young subjects (168 men and 135 women). Better EFEEs were associated with a smaller rGMV in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) spread across Brodmann areas (BA) 25, 11, and 12 and larger rWMV in the WM area of OFC adjacent to BA 11. Furthermore, individual EFEEs were positively associated with rWMV in the temporal areas, primarily the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the latter of which connects OFC and posterior regions. Thus, our findings suggest that brain structures involving OFC, together with other regions, contribute to the maintenance of effective EFEEs among non-clinical subjects. PMID:22851058

Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-07-01

50

Facial affect recognition linked to damage in specific white matter tracts in traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Emotional processing deficits have recently been identified in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), specifically in the domain of facial affect recognition. However, the neural networks underlying these impairments have yet to be identified. In the current study, 42 individuals with moderate to severe TBI and 23 healthy controls performed a task of facial affect recognition (Facial Emotion Identification Test (FEIT)) in order to assess their ability to identify and discriminate six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, shame, and fear. These individuals also underwent structural neuroimaging including diffusion tensor imaging to examine white matter (WM) integrity. Correlational analyses were performed to determine where in the brain WM damage was associated with performance on the facial affect recognition task. Reduced performance on the FEIT was associated with reduced WM integrity (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity) in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus in individuals with TBI. Poor performance on the task was additionally associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in lingual gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus. The results implicate a pattern of WM and GM damage in TBI that may play a role in emotional processing impairments. PMID:25223759

Genova, Helen M; Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Binder, Allison; Deluca, John; Lengenfelder, Jeannie

2015-02-01

51

White Matter Integrity Predicts Delay Discounting Behavior in 9- to 23-Year-Olds: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Healthy participants (n = 79), ages 9–23, completed a delay discounting task assessing the extent to which the value of a monetary reward declines as the delay to its receipt increases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to evaluate how individual differences in delay discounting relate to variation in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within whole-brain white matter using voxel-based regressions. Given that rapid prefrontal lobe development is occurring during this age range and that functional imaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex in discounting behavior, we hypothesized that differences in FA and MD would be associated with alterations in the discounting rate. The analyses revealed a number of clusters where less impulsive performance on the delay discounting task was associated with higher FA and lower MD. The clusters were located primarily in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes and were localized within white matter tracts, including portions of the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and splenium of the corpus callosum. FA increased and MD decreased with age in the majority of these regions. Some, but not all, of the discounting/ DTI associations remained significant after controlling for age. Findings are discussed in terms of both developmental and age-independent effects of white matter organization on discounting behavior. PMID:18767918

Olson, Elizabeth A.; Collins, Paul F.; Hooper, Catalina J.; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

2014-01-01

52

Thalamo-cortical connectivity in children born preterm mapped using probabilistic magnetic resonance tractography.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of studying white matter tracts and connections between the thalamus and the cortex in 2-year-old infants who were born preterm by probabilistic magnetic resonance (MR) tractography. Using this approach, we were able to visualize and quantify connectivity distributions in a number of white matter tracts, including the corticospinal tracts, optic radiations, fibers of the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and to map the distribution within thalamus of fibers connecting to specific cortical regions. In eleven infants with no MR evidence of focal cerebral lesions and appropriate neurodevelopment as shown by general quotient (GQ) scores above 100, we mapped cortical connections to the thalamus that appeared similar to those reported in adults. However, in a proof-of-principle experiment, we examined one further child with marked white matter abnormalities and found that the volume and pattern of thalamo-cortical connections were severely disrupted. This technique promises to be a useful tool for assessing connectivity in the developing brain and in infants with lesions. PMID:17174575

Counsell, Serena J; Dyet, Leigh E; Larkman, David J; Nunes, Rita G; Boardman, James P; Allsop, Joanna M; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Srinivasan, Latha; Cowan, Frances M; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary A; Edwards, A David

2007-02-01

53

Multivariate pattern analysis of DTI reveals differential white matter in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed group differences in white matter between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy controls. However, the results of these studies were based on average differences between the two groups, and therefore had limited clinical applicability. The objective of this study was to investigate whether fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter can be used to discriminate between patients with OCD and healthy controls at the level of the individual. DTI data were acquired from 28 OCD patients and 28 demographically matched healthy controls, scanned using a 3T MRI system. Differences in FA values of white matter between OCD and healthy controls were examined using a multivariate pattern classification technique known as support vector machine (SVM). SVM applied to FA images correctly identified OCD patients with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 82% resulting in a statistically significant accuracy of 84% (P ? 0.001). This discrimination was based on a distributed network including bilateral prefrontal and temporal regions, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior fronto-parietal fasciculus, splenium of corpus callosum and left middle cingulum bundle. The present study demonstrates subtle and spatially distributed white matter abnormalities in individuals with OCD, and provides preliminary support for the suggestion that that these could be used to aid the identification of individuals with OCD in clinical practice. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2643–2651, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24048702

Li, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqi; Tang, Wanjie; Yang, Yanchun; Li, Bin; Kemp, Graham J; Mechelli, Andrea; Gong, Qiyong

2014-01-01

54

Emerging structure-function relations in the developing face processing system.  

PubMed

To evaluate emerging structure-function relations in a neural circuit that mediates complex behavior, we investigated age-related differences among cortical regions that support face recognition behavior and the fiber tracts through which they transmit and receive signals using functional neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging. In a large sample of human participants (aged 6-23 years), we derived the microstructural and volumetric properties of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and control tracts, using independently defined anatomical markers. We also determined the functional characteristics of core face- and place-selective regions that are distributed along the trajectory of the pathways of interest. We observed disproportionately large age-related differences in the volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean and radial, but not axial, diffusivities of the ILF. Critically, these differences in the structural properties of the ILF were tightly and specifically linked with an age-related increase in the size of a key face-selective functional region, the fusiform face area. This dynamic association between emerging structural and functional architecture in the developing brain may provide important clues about the mechanisms by which neural circuits become organized and optimized in the human cortex. PMID:23765156

Suzanne Scherf, K; Thomas, Cibu; Doyle, Jaime; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-11-01

55

Altered white matter microstructure is associated with social cognition and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a highly penetrant genetic mutation associated with a significantly increased risk for psychosis. Aberrant neurodevelopment may lead to inappropriate neural circuit formation and cerebral dysconnectivity in 22q11DS, which may contribute to symptom development. Here we examined: (1) differences between 22q11DS participants and typically developing controls in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures within white matter tracts; (2) whether there is an altered age-related trajectory of white matter pathways in 22q11DS; and (3) relationships between DTI measures, social cognition task performance, and positive symptoms of psychosis in 22q11DS and typically developing controls. Sixty-four direction diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired on 65 participants (36 22q11DS, 29 controls). We examined differences between 22q11DS vs. controls in measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), using both a voxel-based and region of interest approach. Social cognition domains assessed were: Theory of Mind and emotion recognition. Positive symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Compared to typically developing controls, 22q11DS participants showed significantly lower AD and RD in multiple white matter tracts, with effects of greatest magnitude for AD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Additionally, 22q11DS participants failed to show typical age-associated changes in FA and RD in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Higher AD in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO) and left uncinate fasciculus was associated with better social cognition in 22q11DS and controls. In contrast, greater severity of positive symptoms was associated with lower AD in bilateral regions of the IFO in 22q11DS. White matter microstructure in tracts relevant to social cognition is disrupted in 22q11DS, and may contribute to psychosis risk.

Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Villalon-Reina, Julio E.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Senturk, Damla; Chow, Carolyn; Thompson, Paul M.; Bearden, Carrie E.

2014-01-01

56

White Matter Hyperintensities, Exercise and Improvement in Gait Speed: Does the Type of Gait Rehabilitation Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on brain MRI are associated with cognitive and mobility impairment in older adults. We examined whether WMH in tracts in older adults with mobility impairment are linked to outcomes of gait rehabilitation interventions. Design A 12-week randomized controlled single-blind trial. Setting University-based mobility research laboratory. Participants Ambulatory adults aged 65 and older with mobility impairment. Intervention A conventional gait intervention focusing on walking, endurance, balance, and strength (WEBS, n=21) compared to a task-oriented intervention focused on timing and coordination of gait (TC, n=23). Measurements We measured self-paced gait speed over an instrumented walkway, pre and post intervention, and quantified WMH and brain volumes on pre-intervention brain MRI using an automated segmentation process. We overlaid a white matter tract atlas on the segmented images to measure tract WMH volumes and normalized WMH volumes to total brain volume. Aggregate WMH volumes in all white matter tracts and individual WMH volumes in specific longitudinal tracts (the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the fronto-occipital fasciculus) and cingulum were obtained. Results Gait speed gains in the TC group were of the same magnitude, independent of the WMH volume measures in all except the cingulum. However, in the WEBS group, gain in gait speed was smaller with greater overall tract WMH volumes (P<0.001) and with greater WMH volume in the three longitudinal tracts (P< 0.001 to 0.025). Conclusion Gains in gait speed with two types of gait rehabilitation are associated with individual differences in WMH. Task-oriented therapy that targets timing and coordination of gait may particularly benefit older adults with WMH in brain tracts that influence gait and cognition. PMID:23590257

Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Perera, Subashan; Rosano, Caterina; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Brach, Jennifer S.; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.

2013-01-01

57

Left hemisphere fractional anisotropy increase in noise-induced tinnitus: a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of white matter tracts in the brain.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a contemporary neuroimaging modality used to study connectivity patterns and microstructure of white matter tracts in the brain. The use of DTI in the study of tinnitus is a relatively unexplored methodology with no studies focusing specifically on tinnitus induced by noise exposure. In this investigation, participants were two groups of adults matched for etiology, age, and degree of peripheral hearing loss, but differed by the presence or absence (+/-) of tinnitus. It is assumed that matching individuals on the basis of peripheral hearing loss, allows for differentiating changes in white matter microstructure due to hearing loss from changes due to the effects of chronic tinnitus. Alterations in white matter tracts, using the fractional anisotropy (FA) metric, which measures directional diffusion of water, were quantified using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) with additional details provided by in vivo probabilistic tractography. Our results indicate that 10 voxel clusters differentiated the two groups, including 9 with higher FA in the group with tinnitus. A decrease in FA was found for a single cluster in the group with tinnitus. However, seven of the 9 clusters with higher FA were in left hemisphere thalamic, frontal, and parietal white matter. These foci were localized to the anterior thalamic radiations and the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. The two right-sided clusters with increased FA were located in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus. The only decrease in FA for the tinnitus-positive group was found in the superior longitudinal fasciculus of the left parietal lobe. PMID:24212050

Benson, Randall R; Gattu, Ramtilak; Cacace, Anthony T

2014-03-01

58

White matter integrity, language, and childhood onset schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background The heterogeneity of symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can be explained by abnormal connectivity between brain regions. Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a particularly severe form of schizophrenia, with an onset during a key time period for both cerebral pruning and myelination. Methods Diffusion tensor images were acquired from 18 children and adolescents with COS and 25 controls. The COS group was divided into two sub-groups--one with linguistic impairment (LI) and the other without (NLI). The fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) data from the two COS sub-groups were compared to each other and to the controls using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses, which is a voxel-based method used to identify regions of white matter abnormalities. Results TBSS identified several regions in the left hemisphere where the LI group had increased AD and RD relative to the NLI and the control groups. These areas primarily localized to linguistic tracts: left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Regions of increased RD overlapped regions of increased AD, with the former showing more pronounced effects. Conclusions Studies of adult-onset schizophrenia typically identify areas of higher RD but unchanged AD; however, normal development studies have shown that while RD decreases are pronounced over this age range, smaller decreases in AD can also be detected. The observed increases in both RD and AD suggest that developmental disturbances affecting the structural connectivity of these pathways are more severe in COS accompanied by severe linguistic impairments. PMID:22405729

Clark, Kristi; Narr, Katherine L.; O’Neill, Joseph; Levitt, Jennifer; Siddarth, Prabha; Phillips, Owen; Toga, Arthur; Caplan, Rochelle

2012-01-01

59

White Matter Integrity is Reduced in Bulimia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate brain white matter (WM) functionality in bulimia nervosa (BN) in relation to anxiety. Method Twenty-one control (CW, mean age 27±7 years) and 20 BN women (mean age 25±5 years) underwent brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure fractional anisotropy (FA; an indication of WM axon integrity) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; reflecting WM cell damage). Results FA was decreased in BN in the bilateral corona radiata extending into the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the corpus callosum, the right sub-insular white matter and right fornix. In CW but not BN trait anxiety correlated negatively with fornix, corpus callosum and left corona radiata FA. ADC was increased in BN compared to CW in the bilateral corona radiata, corpus callosum, inferior fronto-occipital and uncinate fasciculus. Alterations in BN WM functionality were not due to structural brain alterations. Discussion WM integrity is disturbed in BN, especially in the corona radiate, which has been associated with taste and brain reward processing. Whether this is a premorbid condition or an effect from the illness is yet uncertain. The relationships between WM FA and trait anxiety in CW but not BN may suggest that altered WM functionality contributes to high anxious traits in BN. PMID:23354827

Mettler, Lisa N.; Shott, Megan E.; Pryor, Tamara; Yang, Tony T.; Frank, Guido K.W.

2013-01-01

60

Diffusion tensor tractography in hypothyroidism and its correlation with memory function.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) was performed to determine the microstructural changes in the white matter fibre tracts of hypothyroid patients compared to controls and to correlate these changes with memory dysfunction scores. DTT and Postgraduate Institute Memory Scale test were performed in eight hypothyroid patients and eight healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures [fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] from all of the major cerebral tracts were calculated and a comparison was made between the patient group and controls. Pearson's correlation was performed between Memory Dysfunction score and DTI measures. Significant changes in DTI measures were observed in various white matter fibre tracts in hypothyroid patients compared to controls. In hypothyroid patients, an inverse correlation of Memory Dysfunction score with FA was observed in the right and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, whereas a positive correlation with MD was observed in the right anterior thalamic radiation among all white matter tracts. These findings suggest that microstructural changes in white matter fibres may contribute to the underlying dysfunction in memory in hypothyroid patients. PMID:25131823

Singh, S; Trivedi, R; Singh, K; Kumar, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

2014-11-01

61

Altered fimbria-fornix white matter integrity in anorexia nervosa predicts harm avoidance  

PubMed Central

The eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with high anxiety. The brain mechanisms that drive those behaviors are unknown. In this study we wanted to test whether brain WM integrity is altered in AN, and related to heightened anxiety. Sixteen adult women with AN (mean age 24±7 years) and 17 healthy control women (CW, mean age 25±4 years) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain. The DTI brain images were used to calculate the fractional anisotropy (FA) of WM tracts, which is a measure for WM integrity. AN individuals compared to CW showed clusters of significantly reduced FA (p<0.05, corrected) in the bilateral fimbria-fornix, fronto-occipital fasciculus, as well as posterior cingulum WM. In the AN group, Harm Avoidance was predicted by left (F=5.8, Beta=?0.54, p<0.03) and right (F=6.0, Beta=?0.55, p<0.03) fimbria-fornix FA. Those findings were not due to WM volume deficits in AN. This study indicates that WM integrity is abnormal in AN in limbic and association pathways, which could contribute to disturbed feeding, emotion processing and body perception in AN. The prediction of Harm Avoidance in AN by fimbria-fornix WM integrity suggests that this pathway may be mechanistically involved in high anxiety in AN. PMID:21498054

Kazlouski, Demitry; Rollin, Michael D.H.; Tregellas, Jason; Shott, Megan E.; Jappe, Leah M.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Pryor, Tamara; Yang, Tony T.; Frank, Guido K.W.

2011-01-01

62

Sex-linked white matter microstructure of the social and analytic brain.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism in the brain is known to underpin sex differences in neuropsychological behaviors. The white matter (WM) microstructure appears to be coupled with cognitive performances. However, the issues concerning sex differences in WM remains to be determined. This study used the tract-based spatial statistics on diffusion tensor imaging concurrently with the assessments of Empathizing Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) in forty healthy female and forty male adults. Females exhibited greater fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fronto-occipital fasciculus, body of the corpus callosum, and WM underlying the parahippocampal gyrus. Males exhibited larger FA in the bilateral internal capsule, WM underlying the medial frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, hippocampus, insula, postcentral gyrus, frontal and temporal lobe. Interestingly, the interaction analysis of dispositional measures by sex showed that females had a positive correlation between FA of the WM underlying the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus and EQ but a negative correlation between FA of the occipital and postcentral gyrus and SQ. Males displayed the opposite effect. The findings indicate a sexual dimorphism of WM microstructure. Divergent correlations of WM microstructure and neuropsychological behaviors between sexes may account for the higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in males. PMID:20633662

Chou, Kun-Hsien; Cheng, Yawei; Chen, I-Yun; Lin, Ching-Po; Chu, Woei-Chyn

2011-01-01

63

Longitudinal changes of structural connectivity in traumatic axonal injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify structural connectivity change occurring during the first 6 months after traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor tractography for predicting long-term outcome. Methods: The participants were 28 patients with mild to severe traumatic axonal injury and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Neuroimaging was obtained 0–9 days postinjury for acute scans and 6–14 months postinjury for chronic scans. Long-term outcome was evaluated on the day of the chronic scan. Twenty-eight fiber regions of 9 major white matter structures were reconstructed, and reliable tractography measurements were determined and used. Results: Although most (23 of 28) patients had severe brain injury, their long-term outcome ranged from good recovery (16 patients) to moderately (5 patients) and severely disabled (7 patients). In concordance with the diverse outcome, the white matter change in patients was heterogeneous, ranging from improved structural connectivity, through no change, to deteriorated connectivity. At the group level, all 9 fiber tracts deteriorated significantly with 7 (corpus callosum, cingulum, angular bundle, cerebral peduncular fibers, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi) showing structural damage acutely and 2 (fornix body and left arcuate fasciculus) chronically. Importantly, the amount of change in tractography measurements correlated with patients' long-term outcome. Acute tractography measurements were able to predict patients' learning and memory performance; chronic measurements also determined performance on processing speed and executive function. Conclusions: Diffusion tensor tractography is a valuable tool for identifying structural connectivity changes occurring between the acute and chronic stages of traumatic brain injury and for predicting patients' long-term outcome. PMID:21813787

Wang, J.Y.; Bakhadirov, K.; Abdi, H.; Devous, M.D.; Marquez de la Plata, C.D.; Moore, C.; Madden, C.J.

2011-01-01

64

A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study assessing white matter fiber tracts after sports-related concussion.  

PubMed

Abstract The extent of structural injury in sports-related concussion (SRC) is central to the course of recovery, long-term effects, and the decision to return to play. In the present longitudinal study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity within 2 days, 2 weeks, and 2 months of concussive injury. Participants were right-handed male varsity contact-sport athletes (20.2±1.0 years of age) with a medically diagnosed SRC (no loss of consciousness). They were compared to right-handed male varsity non-contact-sport athletes serving as controls (19.9±1.7 years). We found significantly increased radial diffusivity (RD) in concussed athletes (n=12; paired t-test, tract-based spatial statistics; p<0.025) at 2 days, when compared to the 2-week postinjury time point. The increase was found in a cluster of right hemisphere voxels, spanning the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), the retrolenticular part of the IC, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (sagittal stratum), and the anterior thalamic radiation. Post-hoc, univariate, between-group (controls vs. concussed), mixed-effects analysis of the cluster showed significantly higher RD at 2 days (p=0.002), as compared to the controls, with a trend in the same direction at 2 months (p=0.11). Results for fractional anisotropy (FA) in the same cluster showed a similar, but inverted, pattern; FA was decreased at 2 days and at 2 months postinjury, when compared to healthy controls. At 2 weeks postinjury, no statistical differences between concussed and control athletes were found with regard to either RD or FA. These results support the hypothesis of increased RD and reduced FA within 72?h postinjury, followed by recovery that may extend beyond 2 weeks. RD appears to be a sensitive measure of concussive injury. PMID:24786666

Murugavel, Murali; Cubon, Valerie; Putukian, Margot; Echemendia, Ruben; Cabrera, Javier; Osherson, Daniel; Dettwiler, Annegret

2014-11-15

65

Relationship of a variant in the NTRK1 gene to white matter microstructure in young adults.  

PubMed

The NTRK1 gene (also known as TRKA) encodes a high-affinity receptor for NGF, a neurotrophin involved in nervous system development and myelination. NTRK1 has been implicated in neurological function via links between the T allele at rs6336 (NTRK1-T) and schizophrenia risk. A variant in the neurotrophin gene, BDNF, was previously associated with white matter integrity in young adults, highlighting the importance of neurotrophins to white matter development. We hypothesized that NTRK1-T would relate to lower fractional anisotropy in healthy adults. We scanned 391 healthy adult human twins and their siblings (mean age: 23.6 ± 2.2 years; 31 NTRK1-T carriers, 360 non-carriers) using 105-gradient diffusion tensor imaging at 4 tesla. We evaluated in brain white matter how NTRK1-T and NTRK1 rs4661063 allele A (rs4661063-A, which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs6336) related to voxelwise fractional anisotropy-a common diffusion tensor imaging measure of white matter microstructure. We used mixed-model regression to control for family relatedness, age, and sex. The sample was split in half to test reproducibility of results. The false discovery rate method corrected for voxelwise multiple comparisons. NTRK1-T and rs4661063-A correlated with lower white matter fractional anisotropy, independent of age and sex (multiple-comparisons corrected: false discovery rate critical p = 0.038 for NTRK1-T and 0.013 for rs4661063-A). In each half-sample, the NTRK1-T effect was replicated in the cingulum, corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior corona radiata, and uncinate fasciculus. Our results suggest that NTRK1-T is important for developing white matter microstructure. PMID:22539856

Braskie, Meredith N; Jahanshad, Neda; Stein, Jason L; Barysheva, Marina; Johnson, Kori; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Ringman, John M; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

2012-04-25

66

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

67

Reading Impairment in a Patient with Missing Arcuate Fasciculus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the case of a child ("S") who was treated with radiation therapy at age 5 for a recurrent malignant brain tumor. Radiation successfully abolished the tumor but caused radiation-induced tissue necrosis, primarily affecting cerebral white matter. "S" was introduced to us at age 15 because of her profound dyslexia. We assessed cognitive…

Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Schwartzman, Armin; Perry, Lee M.; Dougherty, Robert F.

2009-01-01

68

Atlas-based white matter analysis in individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome) and unaffected siblings  

PubMed Central

Background Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, MIM#192430, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of about 40 genes at the q11.2 band of one copy of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS present with deficits in cognition and social functioning, high risk of psychiatric disorders, volumetric reductions in gray and white matter (WM) and some alterations of the WM microstructure. The goal of the current study was to characterize the WM microstructural differences in individuals with VCFS and unaffected siblings, and the correlation of WM microstructure with neuropsychological performance. We hypothesized that individuals with VCFS would have decreased indices of WM microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD)), particularly in WM tracts to the frontal lobe, and that these measures would be correlated with cognitive functioning. Methods Thirty-three individuals with VCFS (21 female) and 16 unaffected siblings (8 female) participated in DTI scanning and neuropsychological testing. We performed an atlas-based analysis, extracted FA, AD, and RD measures for 54 WM tracts (27 in each hemisphere) for each participant, and used MANOVAs to compare individuals with VCFS to siblings. For WM tracts that were statistically significantly different between VCFS and siblings (pFDR?fasciculus, and decreased AD in multiple WM tracts (bilateral superior and posterior corona radiata, dorsal cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, superior cerebellar peduncle, posterior thalamic radiation, and left anterior corona radiata, retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, external capsule, sagittal stratum). We also found significant correlations of AD with measures of executive function, IQ, working memory, and/or social cognition. Conclusions Our results suggest that individuals with VCFS display abnormal WM connectivity in a widespread cerebro-anatomical network, involving tracts from/to all cerebral lobes and the cerebellum. Future studies could focus on the WM developmental trajectory in VCFS, the association of WM alterations with psychiatric disorders, and the effects of candidate 22q11.2 genes on WM anomalies. PMID:22853778

2012-01-01

69

Genetics of brain fiber architecture and intellectual performance.  

PubMed

The study is the first to analyze genetic and environmental factors that affect brain fiber architecture and its genetic linkage with cognitive function. We assessed white matter integrity voxelwise using diffusion tensor imaging at high magnetic field (4 Tesla), in 92 identical and fraternal twins. White matter integrity, quantified using fractional anisotropy (FA), was used to fit structural equation models (SEM) at each point in the brain, generating three-dimensional maps of heritability. We visualized the anatomical profile of correlations between white matter integrity and full-scale, verbal, and performance intelligence quotients (FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ). White matter integrity (FA) was under strong genetic control and was highly heritable in bilateral frontal (a(2)=0.55, p=0.04, left; a(2)=0.74, p=0.006, right), bilateral parietal (a(2)=0.85, p<0.001, left; a(2)=0.84, p<0.001, right), and left occipital (a(2)=0.76, p=0.003) lobes, and was correlated with FIQ and PIQ in the cingulum, optic radiations, superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, internal capsule, callosal isthmus, and the corona radiata (p=0.04 for FIQ and p=0.01 for PIQ, corrected for multiple comparisons). In a cross-trait mapping approach, common genetic factors mediated the correlation between IQ and white matter integrity, suggesting a common physiological mechanism for both, and common genetic determination. These genetic brain maps reveal heritable aspects of white matter integrity and should expedite the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms affecting fiber connectivity and cognition. PMID:19228974

Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Shattuck, David W; Lee, Agatha D; Madsen, Sarah K; Avedissian, Christina; Klunder, Andrea D; Toga, Arthur W; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J; Srivastava, Anuj; Balov, Nikolay; Thompson, Paul M

2009-02-18

70

Fiber tract-specific white matter lesion severity Findings in late-life depression and by AGTR1 A1166C genotype.  

PubMed

Past work demonstrated that late-life depression is associated with greater severity of ischemic cerebral hyperintense white matter lesions, particularly frontal lesions. However, these lesions are also associated with other neuropsychiatric deficits, so these clinical relationships may depend on which fiber tracts are damaged. We examined the ratio of lesion to nonlesioned white matter tissue within multiple fiber tracts between depressed and nondepressed elders. We also sought to determine if the AGTR1 A1166C and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms contributed to vulnerability to lesion development in discrete tracts. The 3T structural MR images and blood samples for genetic analyses were acquired on 54 depressed and 37 nondepressed elders. Lesion maps were created through an automated tissue segmentation process and applied to a probabilistic white matter fiber tract atlas allowing for identification of the fraction of the tract occupied by lesion. The depressed cohort exhibited a significantly greater lesion ratio only in the left upper cingulum near the cingulate gyrus (F((1,86)) = 4.62, P = 0.0344), supporting past work implicating cingulate dysfunction in the pathogenesis of depression. In the 62 Caucasian subjects with genetic data, AGTR1 C1166 carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios across multiple tracts including the anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In contrast, BDNF Met allele carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios only in the frontal corpus callosum. Although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons, this study supports our hypothesis and provides preliminary evidence that genetic differences related to vascular disease may increase lesion vulnerability differentially across fiber tracts. PMID:22021115

Taylor, Warren D; Zhao, Zheen; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Payne, Martha E; Steffens, David C; Krishnan, Ranga R; Hauser, Elizabeth; MacFall, James R

2013-02-01

71

The multimodal connectivity of the hippocampal complex in auditory and visual hallucinations.  

PubMed

Hallucinations constitute one of the most representative and disabling symptoms of schizophrenia. Several Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings support the hypothesis that distinct patterns of connectivity, particularly within networks involving the hippocampal complex (HC), could be associated with different hallucinatory modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate HC connectivity as a function of the hallucinatory modality, that is, auditory or visual. Two carefully selected subgroups of schizophrenia patients with only auditory hallucinations (AH) or with audio-visual hallucinations (A+VH) were compared using the following three complementary multimodal MRI methods: resting state functional MRI, diffusion MRI and structural MRI were used to analyze seed-based Functional Connectivity (sb-FC), Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and shape analysis, respectively. Sb-FC was significantly higher between the HC, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the caudate nuclei in A+VH patients compared with the AH group. Conversely, AH patients exhibited a higher sb-FC between the HC and the thalamus in comparison with the A+VH group. In the A+VH group, TBSS showed specific higher white matter connectivity in the pathways connecting the HC with visual areas, such as the forceps major and the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus than in the AH group. Finally, shape analysis showed localized hippocampal hypertrophy in the A+VH group. Functional results support the fronto-limbic dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia, while specific structural findings indicate that plastic changes are associated with hallucinations. Together, these results suggest that there are distinct connectivity patterns in patients with schizophrenia that depend on the sensory-modality, with specific involvement of the HC in visual hallucinations. PMID:23318999

Amad, A; Cachia, A; Gorwood, P; Pins, D; Delmaire, C; Rolland, B; Mondino, M; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

2014-02-01

72

Artifact quantification and tractography from 3T MRI after placement of aneurysm clips in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients  

PubMed Central

Background The application of advanced 3T MRI imaging techniques to study recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complicated by the presence of image artifacts produced by implanted aneurysm clips. To characterize the effect of these artifacts on image quality, we sought to: 1) quantify extent of image artifact in SAH patients with implanted aneurysm clips across a range of MR sequences typically used in studies of volumetry, blood oxygen level dependent signal change (BOLD-fMRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-MRI) and 2) to explore the ability to reconstruct white matter pathways in these patients. Methods T1- and T2-weighted structural, BOLD-fMRI, and DW-MRI scans were acquired at 3T in two patients with titanium alloy clips in ACOM and left ACA respectively. Intensity-based planimetric contouring was performed on aligned image volumes to define each artifact. Artifact volumes were quantified by artifact/clip length and artifact/brain volume ratios and analyzed by two-way (scan-by-rater) ANOVAs. Tractography pathways were reconstructed from DW-MRI at varying distances from the artifacts using deterministic methods. Results Artifact volume varied by MR sequence for length (p = 0.007) and volume (p < 0.001) ratios: it was smallest for structural images, larger for DW-MRI acquisitions, and largest on fMRI images. Inter-rater reliability was high (r = 0.9626, p < 0.0001), and reconstruction of white matter connectivity characteristics increased with distance from the artifact border. In both patients, reconstructed white matter pathways of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were clearly visible within 2 mm of the artifact border. Conclusions Advanced 3T MR can successfully image brain tissue around implanted titanium aneurysm clips at different spatial ranges depending on sequence type. White matter pathways near clip artifacts can be reconstructed and visualized. These findings provide a reference for designing functional and structural neuroimaging studies of recovery in aSAH patients after clip placement. PMID:21970560

2011-01-01

73

PRELIMINARY REPORT In Vivo Visualization of White Matter Fiber Tracts of  

E-print Network

, the inferior fronto- occipital fasciculi, and optic radiations were visualized. Results: Our results suggest tractography (or "WM fiber tracking") techniques have been developed to establish interregional connectivity for resolving their smaller ana- tomic structures. In addition, the developing infant brain possesses vastly

74

White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts

Martin Vestergaard; Kathrine Skak Madsen; William F. C. Baaré; Arnold Skimminge; Lisser Rye Ejersbo; Thomas Z. Ramsøy; Christian Gerlach; Per Åkeson; Olaf B. Paulson; Terry L. Jernigan

2011-01-01

75

Diffusion tensor spectroscopy and imaging of the arcuate fasciculus Jaymin Upadhyay,a,b  

E-print Network

characterization of AF is possible. In this study, water-based diffusion tensor probabilistic mapping was first on the diffusion of water, which is not particular to either the intra- or extra-axonal compartments, and thus its. Diffusion properties of NAA, which solely reflect the intra-axonal space, indicated possible leftward

Reber, Paul J.

76

White Matter Differences in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Between First Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia Patients  

E-print Network

of treatment and/or a progression of the disease. Tractography Results of the ILFAnterior and Posterior ROI), Michael J. Lyons (5), Marek Kubicki(1, 4), Martha E. Shenton (1, 4) (1) Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory

77

Differences in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus but no general disruption of white matter tracts in  

E-print Network

,e , and Nancy Kanwishera,1 a Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology for review December 8, 2013) One of the most widely cited features of the neural phenotype of autism of white matter tracts in autism, instead implicating only one tract, the right ILF, in the ASD phenotype

Kanwisher, Nancy

78

Bryonora, Praha, 34 (2004) 41 Vzda A. (2003): Lichenes rariores exsiccati. Fasciculus 4950 (numeris 481500). Brno.  

E-print Network

among Central European species of the aquatic moss Cinclidotus. ­ Cryptogamie Bryologie 24: 147. ­ Journal of Molecular Evolution 55: 595­605. Aldous A. R. (2002): Nitrogen translocation in Sphagnum mosses (2004) Allen B. (ed.) (2002): Moss flora of Central America. Part 2. Encalyptaceae

Kucera, Jan

79

Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

2012-01-01

80

Aberrant Diffusion and Geometric Properties in the Left Arcuate Fasciculus of Developmentally Delayed Children: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One of the neurologic substrates of poor language in children with DD is the abnormal development of perisylvian language networks. We sought to determine whether this manifests as aberrant regional changes in diffusivity or geometry of the left AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed DTI studies in 16 young (age, 55.4 ± 18.95 months) patients with DD and 11 age- and sex-matched TD children (age, 60.09 ± 21.27 months). All children were right-handed. To detect the malformation of left AF structure in native or standard space, we proposed new methodology consisting of 2 complementary approaches, principal fiber orientation quantification in color-coded anisotropic maps and tract-based morphometry analysis. RESULTS Patients with DD did not show the typical pattern of age-related maturity of the AP and ML pathways passing through the left AF (R2 of the AP pathway: DD versus TD = 0.002 versus 0.4542; R2 of the ML pathway: DD versus TD = 0.002 versus 0.4154). In addition, the patients with DD showed significantly reduced FA in the temporal portion of the AF (mean FA of DD versus TD = 0.37 ± 0.11 versus 0.48 ± 0.06, P < .001), and the AF showed higher curvatures in the parietotemporal junction, resulting in sharper bends to the Wernicke area (mean curvature of DD versus TD = 0.12 ± 0.03 versus 0.06 ± 0.02, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS The proposed methods successfully revealed regional abnormalities in the axonal integrity of the left AF in the patients with DD. These abnormalities support the notion that the perisylvian language network is malformed in children with DD. PMID:21183617

Jeong, J.-W.; Sundaram, S.K.; Kumar, A.; Chugani, D.C.; Chugani, H.T.

2011-01-01

81

Regional but not global brain damage contributes to fatigue in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Purpose To use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and advanced analysis to assess the role of lesions in normal-appearing white matter ( NAWM normal-appearing white matter ) and gray matter ( GM gray matter ) damage, global versus regional damage, and atrophy versus microstructural abnormalities in the pathogenesis of fatigue in multiple sclerosis ( MS multiple sclerosis ). Materials and Methods Local ethics committee approval and written informed consent were obtained. Dual-echo, double inversion-recovery, high-resolution T1-weighted and diffusion-tensor ( DT diffusion tensor ) MR was performed in 31 fatigued patients, 32 nonfatigued patients, and 35 control subjects. Global and regional atrophy and DT diffusion tensor MR measures of damage to lesions, NAWM normal-appearing white matter , and GM gray matter were compared (analysis of variance). Results Lesional, atrophy, and DT diffusion tensor MR measures of global damage to brain, white matter ( WM white matter ), and GM gray matter did not differ between fatigued and nonfatigued patients. Compared with nonfatigued patients and control subjects, fatigued patients experienced atrophy of the right side of the accumbens (mean volume ± standard deviation, 0.37 mL ± 0.09 in control subjects; 0.39 mL ± 0.1 in nonfatigued patients; and 0.33 mL ± 0.09 in fatigued patients), right inferior temporal gyrus ( ITG inferior temporal gyrus ) (Montreal Neurological Institute [ MNI Montreal Neurological Institute ] coordinates: 51, -51, -11; t value, 4.83), left superior frontal gyrus ( MNI Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates: -10, 49, 24; t value, 3.40), and forceps major ( MNI Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates: 11, -91, 18; t value, 3.37). They also had lower fractional anisotropy ( FA fractional anisotropy ) of forceps major ( MNI Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates: -17, -78, 6), left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus ( MNI Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates: -25, 2, -11), and right anterior thalamic radiation ( ATR anterior thalamic radiation ) ( MNI Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates: 11, 2, -6) (P < .05, corrected). More lesions were found at T2-weighted imaging in fatigued patients. Multivariable model was used to identify right ITG inferior temporal gyrus atrophy (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [ CI confidence interval ]: 0.82, 0.97; P = .009) and right ATR anterior thalamic radiation FA fractional anisotropy (odds ratio, 0.74; 95% CI confidence interval : 0.61, 0.90; P = .003) as covariates independently associated with fatigue (C statistic, 0.85). Conclusion Damage to strategic brain WM white matter and GM gray matter regions, in terms of microstructural abnormalities and atrophy, contributes to pathogenesis of fatigue in MS multiple sclerosis , whereas global lesional, WM white matter , and GM gray matter damage does not seem to have a role. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24927473

Rocca, Maria A; Parisi, Laura; Pagani, Elisabetta; Copetti, Massimiliano; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Colombo, Bruno; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

2014-11-01

82

Differences in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus but no general disruption of white matter tracts in children with autism spectrum disorder  

E-print Network

One of the most widely cited features of the neural phenotype of autism is reduced “integrity” of long-range white matter tracts, a claim based primarily on diffusion imaging studies. However, many prior studies have small ...

Koldewyn, Kami

83

7 CFR 1709.117 - Application requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...high energy cost communities to be served. (6) Project management. The applicant...perform project management functions. If...of the eligible community. The description...announcement. (11) Rural development...

2012-01-01

84

7 CFR 1709.117 - Application requirements.  

...high energy cost communities to be served. (6) Project management. The applicant...perform project management functions. If...of the eligible community. The description...announcement. (11) Rural development...

2014-01-01

85

7 CFR 1709.117 - Application requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...high energy cost communities to be served. (6) Project management. The applicant...perform project management functions. If...of the eligible community. The description...announcement. (11) Rural development...

2011-01-01

86

7 CFR 1709.117 - Application requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...high energy cost communities to be served. (6) Project management. The applicant...perform project management functions. If...of the eligible community. The description...announcement. (11) Rural development...

2013-01-01

87

Cephalometric Features of Moyamoya Disease: A case control study  

PubMed Central

Contribution of authors Adnan I Qureshi, Waqas I Gilani MD, Sarwat I. Gilani MD, Malik M. Adil MD . Equally assisted in the synthesis and discussion of ideas, and share equal responsibility for the information written in the manuscript above. Conflict Of Interest No conflict of interests. Running title Cephalometric Features of Moyamoya Disease Background Moyamoya disease is highly prevalent among patients with syndromes that have unique cephalometric characteristics such as Down syndrome. We performed a case control study to investigate the relationship between cephalometric parameters and Moyamoya disease. Methods Patients [aged 16-82 years] with angiographically confirmed Moyamoya disease who underwent cranial CT scan were analyzed. We identified three controls for each patient who were matched for age (±1 year), gender, and race (white or African American). The fronto-occipital diameter, bi-parietal diameter, and distance between bregma and occiput were measured from the head CT scans of cases and controls. The cephalic index was calculated by determining the ratio between bi-parietal diameter and fronto-occipital diameter and multiplying the value by 100. Results A total of 13 cases of Moyamoya disease and 39 controls were analyzed. The stage of Moyamoya disease in cases was as follows: stage 1 (n=0), stage 2 (n=1), stage 3 (n=4), stage 4 (n=2), stage 5 (n=5) and stage 6 (n=1). There was a significantly greater bi-parietal diameter in Moyamoya disease patients compared with controls (141.5±3.7 mm versus 136.9±5.4 mm, p=0.007). There was a significantly greater fronto-occipital diameter in Moyamoya disease patients compared with controls (186.5±6.5 mm versus 180.2±8.7mm, p=0.02). The distance between bregma and occiput was shorter among cases compared with controls (81.1±6.2 versus 87.5±7.0, p=0.01). Conclusions We observed an association between cephalometric parameters and Moyamoya disease. Further study of the unique cephalometric characteristics among Moyamoya disease patients may provide additional insight into disease occurrence in white and African American populations.

Qureshi, Adnan I; Gilani, Waqas I; Gilani, Sarwat I.; Adil, Malik M.

2014-01-01

88

White matter diffusion alterations in normal women at risk of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Increased white matter mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) has been observed in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to determine whether similar alterations of white matter occur in normal individuals at risk of AD. Diffusion tensor images were acquired in 42 cognitively normal right-handed women with both a family history of dementia and at least one apolipoprotein E4 allele. These were compared with images from 23 normal women without either AD risk factor. Group analyses were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle. These findings demonstrate that specific white matter pathways are altered in normal women at increased risk of AD years before the expected onset of cognitive symptoms. PMID:18801597

Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Andersen, Anders H; Powell, David A; Lovell, Mark A; Xiong, Shuling; Gold, Brian T

2010-07-01

89

Inter Subject Variability and Reproducibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging within and between different imaging sessions  

E-print Network

), left anterior thalamic radiation (ATR L), right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR R), left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF L), right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF R), left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF L), right inferior... available Figure 1. Region of interest template. T1 weighted magnetic resonance image in MNI152 space (2 mm resolution) showing frontal lobe left (Frontal L), frontal lobe right (Frontal R), anterior corpus callosum (ACC), caudate left (Caudate L), caudate...

Veenith, Tonny V.; Carter, Eleanor; Grossac, Julia; Newcombe, Virginia F. J.; Outtrim, Joanne G.; Lupson, Victoria; Williams, Guy B.; Menon, David K.; Coles, Jonathan P.

2013-06-28

90

26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. (a)(1) This section applies if...of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is serving in a...

2012-04-01

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26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.  

...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. (a)(1) This section applies if...of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is serving in a...

2014-04-01

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26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. 1.692-1 Section 1.692-1...the Armed Forces of the United States upon death. (a)(1) This section applies if...of the United States, and (ii) His death occurs while he is serving in a...

2013-04-01

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26 CFR 25.2701-1 - Special valuation rules in the case of transfers of certain interests in corporations and...  

...common stock to A's child. Section 2701...change in the capital structure of an entity (a “capital...transactions: (i) A capital structure transaction, if...of each class to P's child in a manner that reduces...common stock to P's child. Section 2701...

2014-04-01

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75 FR 55355 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibility  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regard to the standards on: (a) Field sanitation, 29 CFR 1928.110; and (b) Temporary...C. 667 to continue to enforce field sanitation and temporary labor camp standards if...of such States with respect to field sanitation and temporary labor camps....

2010-09-10

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40 CFR 86.435-78 - Extrapolated emission values.  

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...minimum test distance and the useful life, or if all points used to generate...below the standards, predicted useful life emissions shall be calculated. If...of each pollutant obtained from the half life test will be multiplied by the...

2011-07-01

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40 CFR 86.435-78 - Extrapolated emission values.  

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...minimum test distance and the useful life, or if all points used to generate...below the standards, predicted useful life emissions shall be calculated. If...of each pollutant obtained from the half life test will be multiplied by the...

2012-07-01

97

40 CFR 86.435-78 - Extrapolated emission values.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minimum test distance and the useful life, or if all points used to generate...below the standards, predicted useful life emissions shall be calculated. If...of each pollutant obtained from the half life test will be multiplied by the...

2010-07-01

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...minimum test distance and the useful life, or if all points used to generate...below the standards, predicted useful life emissions shall be calculated. If...of each pollutant obtained from the half life test will be multiplied by the...

2013-07-01

99

2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2007:3(5) 669674 669  

E-print Network

elderly nondepressed subjects were matched for age and sex; 8 subjects had mid- to late mapping delineated the uncinate fasciculus in each hemisphere, which guided measurement of the fractional anisotropy of the uncinate fasciculus in the temporal stem. After controlling for age and sex, differences

Utah, University of

100

4. Clayden JD et al. NeuroImage, under review. 5. Clayden JD et al. 2007, TMI. 26:1555-1561.  

E-print Network

such as the anterior thalamic radiations, cingulum bundles, uncinate and arcuate fasciculi. Tract-averaged mean FA connections. Age 11 IQ was significantly correlated with FA in the left uncinate fasciculus, r=0.27 (p .01) and age 70 IQ correlated with left uncinate fasciculus FA (trend) and MD, r=0.15, -0.19 (p

Clayden, Jonathan D.

101

Fig.1 Steps for atlas-based reference tract generation in left uncinate. The green cross indicates the seed point. Atlas-based reference tracts improve automatic white matter segmentation with neighbourhood tractography  

E-print Network

cingulum, left arcuate fasciculus, left uncinate fasciculus and left anterior thalamic radiation (ATRFig.1 Steps for atlas-based reference tract generation in left uncinate. The green cross indicates with an acquired voxel dimension of 2.3Ã?2.3Ã?2.8 mm3 . Seed points were selected in the MNI brain2 in the left

Clayden, Jonathan D.

102

Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is associated with a distributed pattern of brain white matter damage.  

PubMed

This study assesses the patterns of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) compared with healthy controls and cognitively unimpaired PD patients (PD-Cu). Three-dimensional T1-weighted and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 43 PD patients and 33 healthy controls. Cognition was assessed using a neuropsychological battery. Tract-based spatial statistics was applied to compare DT MRI indices between groups on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to assess GM atrophy. Thirty PD patients were classified as MCI. Compared with healthy controls, PD-Cu and PD-MCI patients did not have GM atrophy. No region of WM damage was found in PD-Cu patients when compared with healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls and PD-Cu patients, PD-MCI patients showed a distributed pattern of WM abnormalities in the anterior and superior corona radiata, genu, and body of the corpus callosum, and anterior inferior fronto-occipital, uncinate, and superior longitudinal fasciculi, bilaterally. Subtle cognitive decline in PD is associated with abnormalities of frontal and interhemispheric WM connections, and not with GM atrophy. DT MRI might contribute to the identification of structural changes in PD-MCI patients prior to the development of dementia. PMID:23843285

Agosta, Federica; Canu, Elisa; Stefanova, Elka; Sarro, Lidia; Tomi?, Aleksandra; Špica, Vladana; Comi, Giancarlo; Kosti?, Vladimir S; Filippi, Massimo

2014-05-01

103

Changes in whole-brain functional networks and memory performance in aging.  

PubMed

We used resting-functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 98 healthy older adults to analyze how local and global measures of functional brain connectivity are affected by age, and whether they are related to differences in memory performance. Whole-brain networks were created individually by parcellating the brain into 90 cerebral regions and obtaining pairwise connectivity. First, we studied age-associations in interregional connectivity and their relationship with the length of the connections. Aging was associated with less connectivity in the long-range connections of fronto-parietal and fronto-occipital systems and with higher connectivity of the short-range connections within frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. We also used the graph theory to measure functional integration and segregation. The pattern of the overall age-related correlations presented positive correlations of average minimum path length (r = 0.380, p = 0.008) and of global clustering coefficients (r = 0.454, p < 0.001), leading to less integrated and more segregated global networks. Main correlations in clustering coefficients were located in the frontal and parietal lobes. Higher clustering coefficients of some areas were related to lower performance in verbal and visual memory functions. In conclusion, we found that older participants showed lower connectivity of long-range connections together with higher functional segregation of these same connections, which appeared to indicate a more local clustering of information processing. Higher local clustering in older participants was negatively related to memory performance. PMID:24814675

Sala-Llonch, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Palacios, Eva M; Domènech, Sara; Salvà, Antoni; Bargalló, Nuria; Bartrés-Faz, David

2014-10-01

104

Anatomy of the visual word form area: adjacent cortical circuits and long-range white matter connections  

PubMed Central

Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion selective human cortex. Three distinct white matter fascicles pass within close proximity to the VWFA: (1) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (2) the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus and (3) the vertical occipital fasciculus. The vertical occipital fasciculus terminates in or adjacent to the functionally defined VWFA voxels in every individual. The vertical occipital fasciculus projects dorsally to language and reading related cortex. The combination of functional responses from cortex and anatomical measures in the white matter provides an overview of how the written word is encoded and communicated along the ventral occipital-temporal circuitry for seeing words. PMID:22632810

Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

2012-01-01

105

White Matter Correlates of Cognitive Capacity Studied With Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Implications  

E-print Network

fasciculus. We observed gender differences in FA (males>females) and tested for gender differences in FA area that does not significantly differ by gender. Keywords Cognitive reserve . Diffusion tensor

106

Differential vulnerability of gray matter and white matter to intrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants at 12 months corrected age.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Underlying neuroanatomical substrates are partially documented. We hypothesized that at 12 months preterm infants would evidence specific white-matter microstructure alterations and gray-matter differences induced by severe IUGR. Twenty preterm infants with IUGR (26-34 weeks of gestation) were compared with 20 term-born infants and 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age. Preterm groups showed no evidence of brain abnormalities. At 12 months, infants were scanned sleeping naturally. Gray-matter volumes were studied with voxel-based morphometry. White-matter microstructure was examined using tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between diffusivity indices in white matter, gray matter volumes, and perinatal data was also investigated. Gray-matter decrements attributable to IUGR comprised amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus and insula bilaterally, left occipital and parietal lobes, and right perirolandic area. Gray-matter volumes positively correlated with birth weight exclusively. Preterm infants had reduced FA in the corpus callosum, and increased FA in the anterior corona radiata. Additionally, IUGR infants had increased FA in the forceps minor, internal and external capsules, uncinate and fronto-occipital white matter tracts. Increased axial diffusivity was observed in several white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy positively correlated with birth weight and gestational age at birth. These data suggest that IUGR differentially affects gray and white matter development preferentially affecting gray matter. At 12 months IUGR is associated with a specific set of structural gray-matter decrements. White matter follows an unusual developmental pattern, and is apparently affected by IUGR and prematurity combined. PMID:24361462

Padilla, Nelly; Junqué, Carme; Figueras, Francesc; Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Bargalló, Núria; Arranz, Angela; Donaire, Antonio; Figueras, Josep; Gratacos, Eduard

2014-01-30

107

Is Aberrant Functional Connectivity A Psychosis Endophenotype? A Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share overlapping symptoms and risk genes. Shared aberrant functional connectivity is hypothesized in both disorders and in relatives. Methods We investigated resting state functional MRI (fMRI) in 70 schizophrenia and 64 psychotic bipolar probands, their respective first-degree relatives (N = 70 and 52) and 118 healthy subjects. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to identify components representing various resting state networks and assessed spatial aspects of functional connectivity within all networks. We first investigated group differences using five-level, one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), followed by post-hoc t-tests within regions displaying ANCOVA group differences and correlation of such functional connectivity measures with symptom ratings to examine clinical relationships. Results Seven different networks revealed abnormalities (five-level one-way ANCOVA, family-wise error correction p < 0.05): (A) fronto-occipital, (B) midbrain/cerebellum, (C) frontal/thalamic/basal ganglia, (D) meso/paralimbic, (E) posterior default mode network, (F) fronto-temporal/paralimbic and (G) sensorimotor networks. Abnormalities in networks B and F were unique to schizophrenia probands only. Furthermore, abnormalities in networks D and E were common to both patient groups. Finally, networks A, C and G showed abnormalities shared by probands and their relative groups. Negative correlation with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative and positive scores were found in regions within network C and F respectively, and positive correlation with PANSS negative scores was found in regions in network D among schizophrenia probands only. Conclusion Schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar probands and their relatives share both unique and overlapping within-network brain connectivity abnormalities, revealing potential psychosis endophenotypes. PMID:23746539

Khadka, Sabin; Meda, Shashwath A.; Stevens, Michael C.; Glahn, David C.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Sweeney, John A.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; O’Neil, Kasey; Schretlen, David; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

2013-01-01

108

Multivariate searchlight classification of structural MRI in children and adolescents with autism  

PubMed Central

Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with a prevalence of nearly 1:100. Structural imaging studies point to disruptions in multiple brain areas, yet the precise neuroanatomical nature of these disruptions remains unclear. Characterization of brain structural differences in children with ASD is critical for development of biomarkers that may eventually be used to improve diagnosis and monitor response to treatment. Methods We use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) along with a novel multivariate pattern analysis (MPA) approach and searchlight algorithm to classify structural magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 24 children and adolescents with autism and 24 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched neurotypical participants. Results Despite modest VBM differences, MPA revealed that the groups could be distinguished with accuracies of around 90% based on gray matter in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex, and bilateral medial temporal lobes, all regions within the default mode network (DMN). Abnormalities in the PCC were associated with impaired ADI-R communication scores. Gray matter in additional prefrontal, lateral temporal, and subcortical structures also discriminated between the two groups with accuracies between 81-90%. White matter in the inferior fronto-occipital and superior longitudinal fasciculi, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, achieved up to 85% classification accuracy. Conclusions Multiple brain regions, including those belonging to the DMN, exhibit aberrant structural organization in children with autism. Brain-based biomarkers derived from structural MRI data may eventually contribute to identification of the neuroanatomical basis of symptom heterogeneity and to the development of more targeted early intervention. PMID:21890111

Uddin, Lucina Q.; Menon, Vinod; Young, Christina B.; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Khouzam, Amirah; Minshew, Nancy J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

2011-01-01

109

Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed.  

PubMed

Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD). However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon ) a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC). Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon ) was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra ) was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion metrics appear to improve specificity and sensitivity to white matter deficits in this population. PMID:24624327

Lazar, Mariana; Miles, Laura M; Babb, James S; Donaldson, Jeffrey B

2014-01-01

110

Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Treatment-Na?ve Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-Deficit/Hiperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder, but its neuroanatomical circuitry is still relatively understudied, especially in the adult population. The few morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies available to date have found heterogeneous results. This may be at least partly attributable to some well-known technical limitations of the conventional voxel-based methods usually employed to analyze such neuroimaging data. Moreover, there is a great paucity of imaging studies of adult ADHD to date that have excluded patients with history of use of stimulant medication. Methods A newly validated method named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA) was applied to multimodal (structural and DTI) MRI data acquired from 22 treatment-naïve ADHD adults and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). Results Regarding DTI data, we found higher fractional anisotropy in ADHD relative to HC encompassing the white matter (WM) of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal left gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus; reductions in trace (a measure of diffusivity) in ADHD relative to HC were also found in fronto-striatal-parieto-occipital circuits, including the right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral cingulate gyrus, as well as the left body and right splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi. Volumetric abnormalities in ADHD subjects were found only at a trend level of significance, including reduced gray matter (GM) in the right angular gyrus, and increased GM in the right supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions Our results suggest that adult ADHD is associated with neuroanatomical abnormalities mainly affecting the WM microstructure in fronto-parieto-temporal circuits that have been implicated in cognitive, emotional and visuomotor processes. PMID:25310815

Chaim, Tiffany M.; Zhang, Tianhao; Zanetti, Marcus V.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louza, Mario R.; Doshi, Jimit; Serpa, Mauricio H.; Duran, Fabio L. S.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Davatzikos, Christos; Busatto, Geraldo F.

2014-01-01

111

Axonal deficits in young adults with High Functioning Autism and their impact on processing speed  

PubMed Central

Microstructural white matter deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been suggested by both histological findings and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies, which show reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD). However, imaging reports are generally not consistent across studies and the underlying physiological causes of the reported differences in FA and MD remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further characterize white matter deficits in ASD by employing an advanced diffusion imaging method, the Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI), and a two-compartment diffusion model of white matter. This model differentially describes intra- and extra-axonal white matter compartments using Axonal Water Fraction (faxon) a measure reflecting axonal caliber and density, and compartment-specific diffusivity measures. Diagnostic utility of these measures and associations with processing speed performance were also examined. Comparative studies were conducted in 16 young male adults with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and 17 typically developing control participants (TDC). Significantly decreased faxon was observed in HFA compared to the control group in most of the major white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, cortico-spinal tracts, and superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi. Intra-axonal diffusivity (Daxon) was also found to be reduced in some of these regions. Decreased axial extra-axonal diffusivity (ADextra) was noted in the genu of the corpus callosum. Reduced processing speed significantly correlated with decreased faxon and Daxon in several tracts. faxon of the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculi showed good accuracy in discriminating the HFA and TDC groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest altered axonal microstructure in young adults with HFA which is associated with reduced processing speed. Compartment-specific diffusion metrics appear to improve specificity and sensitivity to white matter deficits in this population. PMID:24624327

Lazar, Mariana; Miles, Laura M.; Babb, James S.; Donaldson, Jeffrey B.

2014-01-01

112

Associations between White Matter Hyperintensities and ? Amyloid on Integrity of Projection, Association, and Limbic Fiber Tracts Measured with Diffusion Tensor MRI  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between A? deposition and white matter pathology (i.e., white matter hyperintensities, WMH) on microstructural integrity of the white matter. Fifty-seven participants (mean age: 78±7 years) from an ongoing multi-site research program who spanned the spectrum of normal to mild cognitive impairment (Clinical dementia rating 0–0.5) and low to high risk factors for arteriosclerosis and WMH pathology (defined as WMH volume >0.5% total intracranial volume) were assessed with positron emission tomography (PET) with Pittsburg compound B (PiB) and magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the relationship between A? deposition and WMH pathology on fractional anisotropy (FA) from 9 tracts of interest (i.e., corona radiata, internal capsule, cingulum, parahippocampal white matter, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal, superior and inferior front-occipital fasciculi, and fornix). WMH pathology was associated with reduced FA in projection (i.e., internal capsule and corona radiate) and association (i.e., superior longitudinal, superior and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi) fiber tracts. A? deposition (i.e., PiB positivity) was associated with reduced FA in the fornix and splenium of the corpus callosum. There were interactions between PiB and WMH pathology in the internal capsule and parahippocampal white matter, where A? deposition reduced FA more among subjects with WMH pathology than those without. However, accounting for apoE ?4 genotype rendered these interactions insignificant. Although this finding suggests that apoE4 may increase amyloid deposition, both in the parenchyma (resulting in PiB positivity) and in blood vessels (resulting in amyloid angiopathy and WMH pathology), and that these two factors together may be associated with compromised white matter microstructural integrity in multiple brain regions, additional studies with a longitudinal design will be necessary to resolve this issue. PMID:23762308

Chao, Linda L.; DeCarli, Charles; Kriger, Stephen; Truran, Diana; Zhang, Yu; Laxamana, Joel; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Jagust, William J.; Sanossian, Nerses; Mack, Wendy J.; Chui, Helena C.; Weiner, Michael W.

2013-01-01

113

White-matter microstructure and gray-matter volumes in adolescents with subthreshold bipolar symptoms  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in white-matter (WM) microstructure, as lower fractional anisotropy (FA), have been reported in adolescent-onset bipolar disorder and in youth at familial risk for bipolarity. We sought to determine whether healthy adolescents with subthreshold bipolar symptoms (SBP) would have early WM microstructural alterations and whether those alterations would be associated with differences in gray-matter (GM) volumes. Forty-two adolescents with three core manic symptoms and no psychiatric diagnosis, and 126 adolescents matched by age and sex, with no psychiatric diagnosis or symptoms, were identified after screening the IMAGEN database of 2223 young adolescents recruited from the general population. After image quality control, voxel-wise statistics were performed on the diffusion parameters using tract-based spatial statistics in 25 SBP adolescents and 77 controls, and on GM and WM images using voxel-based morphometry in 30 SBP adolescents and 106 controls. As compared with healthy controls, adolescents with SBP displayed lower FA values in a number of WM tracts, particularly in the corpus callosum, cingulum, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, uncinate fasciculi and corticospinal tracts. Radial diffusivity was mainly higher in posterior parts of bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi and right cingulum. As compared with controls, SBP adolescents had lower GM volume in the left anterior cingulate region. This is the first study to investigate WM microstructure and GM morphometric variations in adolescents with SBP. The widespread FA alterations in association and projection tracts, associated with GM changes in regions involved in mood disorders, suggest altered structural connectivity in those adolescents. PMID:23628983

Paillere Martinot, M-L; Lemaitre, H; Artiges, E; Miranda, R; Goodman, R; Penttila, J; Struve, M; Fadai, T; Kappel, V; Poustka, L; Conrod, P; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G J; Buchel, C; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Lawrence, C; Loth, E; Mann, K; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Schumann, G; Martinot, J-L; L, Reed; S, Williams; A, Lourdusamy; S, Costafreda; A, Cattrell; C, Nymberg; L, Topper; L, Smith; S, Havatzias; K, Stueber; C, Mallik; TK, Clarke; D, Stacey; Wong C, Peng; H, Werts; S, Williams; C, Andrew; S, Desrivieres; S, Zewdie; I, Häke; N, Ivanov; A, Klär; J, Reuter; C, Palafox; C, Hohmann; C, Schilling; K, Lüdemann; A, Romanowski; A, Ströhle; E, Wolff; M, Rapp; R, Brühl; A, Ihlenfeld; B, Walaszek; F, Schubert; C, Connolly; J, Jones; E, Lalor; E, McCabe; A, Ní Shiothcháin; R, Whelan; R, Spanagel; F, Leonardi-Essmann; W, Sommer; S, Vollstaedt-Klein; F, Nees; S, Steiner; M, Buehler; E, Stolzenburg; C, Schmal; F, Schirmbeck; P, Gowland; N, Heym; C, Newman; T, Huebner; S, Ripke; E, Mennigen; K, Muller; V, Ziesch; C, Büchel; U, Bromberg; L, Lueken; J, Yacubian; J, Finsterbusch; N, Bordas; S, de Bournonville; Z, Bricaud; Briand F, Gollier; J, Massicotte; JB, Poline; H, Vulser; Y, Schwartz; C, Lalanne; V, Frouin; B, Thyreau; J, Dalley; A, Mar; N, Subramaniam; D, Theobald; N, Richmond; M, de Rover; A, Molander; E, Jordan; E, Robinson; L, Hipolata; M, Moreno; M, Arroyo; D, Stephens; T, Ripley; H, Crombag; Y, Pena; M, Lathrop; D, Zelenika; S, Heath; D, Lanzerath; B, Heinrichs; T, Spranger; B, Fuchs; C, Speiser; F, Resch; J, Haffner; P, Parzer; R, Brunner; A, Klaassen; I, Klaassen; P, Constant; X, Mignon; T, Thomsen; S, Zysset; A, Vestboe; J, Ireland; J, Rogers

2014-01-01

114

Differences in resting-state fMRI functional network connectivity between schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar probands and their unaffected first-degree relatives  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share overlapping symptoms and genetic etiology. Functional brain dysconnectivity is seen in both disorders. Methods We compared 70 schizophrenia and 64 psychotic bipolar probands, their respective unaffected first-degree relatives (N= 70 and 52) and 118 healthy subjects, all group age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched. We used functional network connectivity (FNC) analysis to measure differential connectivity among 16 fMRI RSNs. First, we examined connectivity differences between probands and controls. Next, we probed these dysfunctional connections in relatives for potential endophenotypes. Network connectivity was then correlated with PANSS scores to reveal clinical relationships. Results Three different network pairs were differentially connected in probands (FDR-corrected q<0.05) involving 5 individual resting-state networks: (A) Fronto/Occipital, (B) anterior Default Mode/Prefrontal, (C) Meso/Paralimbic, (D) Fronto-Temporal/Paralimbic & (E) Sensory-motor. One abnormal pair was unique to schizophrenia, (C-E), one unique to bipolar, (C-D) and one (A-B) shared. Two of these 3 combinations (A-B, C-E) were also abnormal in bipolar relatives, but none in schizophrenia relatives (non-significant trend for C-E). The Paralimbic circuit (C-D), that uniquely distinguished bipolar probands, contained multiple mood-relevant regions. Network relationship C-D correlated significantly with PANSS negative scores in bipolar probands and A-B was correlated to PANSS positive and general scores in schizophrenia. Conclusions Schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar probands share several abnormal RSN connections, but there are also unique neural network underpinnings between disorders. We identified specific connections and clinical relationships that may also be candidate psychosis endophenotypes, although these do not segregate straightforwardly with conventional diagnoses. PMID:22401986

Meda, Shashwath A.; Gill, Adrienne; Stevens, Michael C.; Lorenzoni, Raymond P.; Glahn, David C.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Sweeney, John A.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Thaker, Gunvant; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

2013-01-01

115

Impaired empathic abilities and reduced white matter integrity in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Empathic abilities are impaired in schizophrenia. Although the pathology of schizophrenia is thought to involve disrupted white matter integrity, the relationship between empathic disabilities and altered white matter in the disorder remains unclear. The present study tested associations between empathic disabilities and white matter integrity in order to investigate the neural basis of impaired empathy in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 69 age-, gender-, handedness-, education- and IQ level-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Empathic abilities were assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), the associations between empathic abilities and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity, were examined in the patient group within brain areas that showed a significant FA reduction compared with the controls. The patients with schizophrenia reported lower perspective taking and higher personal distress according to the IRI. The patients showed a significant FA reduction in bilateral deep white matter in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, a large portion of the corpus callosum, and the corona radiata. In schizophrenia patients, fantasy subscales positively correlated with FA in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi and anterior thalamic radiation, and personal distress subscales negatively correlated with FA in the splenium of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that disrupted white matter integrity in these regions constitutes a pathology underpinning specific components of empathic disabilities in schizophrenia, highlighting that different aspects of empathic impairments in the disorder would have, at least partially, distinct neuropathological bases. PMID:24099786

Fujino, Junya; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Miyata, Jun; Sugihara, Genichi; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya

2014-01-01

116

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study on the White Matter Skeleton in Individuals with Sports-Related Concussion  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recognizing and managing the effects of cerebral concussion is very challenging, given the discrete symptomatology. Most individuals with sports-related concussion will not score below 15 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, but will present with rapid onset of short-lived neurological impairment, demonstrating no structural changes on traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. The return-to-play decision is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been primarily based on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be a more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. We assessed white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity in varsity level college athletes with sports-related concussion without loss of consciousness, who experienced protracted symptoms for at least 1 month after injury. Evaluation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the WM skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) revealed a large cluster of significantly increased MD for concussed subjects in several WM fiber tracts in the left hemisphere, including parts of the inferior/superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, and posterior thalamic and acoustic radiations. Qualitative comparison of average FA and MD suggests that with increasing level of injury severity (ranging from sports-related concussion to severe traumatic brain injury), MD might be more sensitive at detecting mild injury, whereas FA captures more severe injuries. In conclusion, the TBSS analysis used to evaluate diffuse axonal injury of the WM skeleton seems sensitive enough to detect structural changes in sports-related concussion. PMID:21083414

Cubon, Valerie A.; Putukian, Margot; Boyer, Cynthia

2011-01-01

117

Gravity influences top-down signals in visual processing.  

PubMed

Visual perception is not only based on incoming visual signals but also on information about a multimodal reference frame that incorporates vestibulo-proprioceptive input and motor signals. In addition, top-down modulation of visual processing has previously been demonstrated during cognitive operations including selective attention and working memory tasks. In the absence of a stable gravitational reference, the updating of salient stimuli becomes crucial for successful visuo-spatial behavior by humans in weightlessness. Here we found that visually-evoked potentials triggered by the image of a tunnel just prior to an impending 3D movement in a virtual navigation task were altered in weightlessness aboard the International Space Station, while those evoked by a classical 2D-checkerboard were not. Specifically, the analysis of event-related spectral perturbations and inter-trial phase coherency of these EEG signals recorded in the frontal and occipital areas showed that phase-locking of theta-alpha oscillations was suppressed in weightlessness, but only for the 3D tunnel image. Moreover, analysis of the phase of the coherency demonstrated the existence on Earth of a directional flux in the EEG signals from the frontal to the occipital areas mediating a top-down modulation during the presentation of the image of the 3D tunnel. In weightlessness, this fronto-occipital, top-down control was transformed into a diverging flux from the central areas toward the frontal and occipital areas. These results demonstrate that gravity-related sensory inputs modulate primary visual areas depending on the affordances of the visual scene. PMID:24400069

Cheron, Guy; Leroy, Axelle; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; De Saedeleer, Caty; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Vidal, Manuel; Dan, Bernard; Berthoz, Alain; McIntyre, Joseph

2014-01-01

118

Tract-based Analysis of Magnetization Transfer Ratio and Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Frontal and Frontotemporal Connections in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background: In the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, aberrant connectivity between brain regions may be a central feature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown altered fractional anisotropy (FA) in white brain matter in schizophrenia. Focal reductions in myelin have been suggested in patients using magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging but to what extent schizophrenia may be related to changes in MTR measured along entire fiber bundles is still unknown. Methods: DTI and MTR images were acquired with a 1.5-T scanner in 40 schizophrenia patients and compared with those of 40 healthy participants. The mean FA and mean MTR were measured along the genu of the corpus callosum and the left and right uncinate fasciculus. Results: A higher mean MTR of 1% was found in the right uncinate fasciculus in patients compared with healthy participants. A significant negative correlation between age and mean FA in the left uncinate fasciculus was found in schizophrenia patients but not in healthy participants. Conclusions: Decreased FA in the left uncinate fasciculus may be more prominent in patients with longer illness duration. The increased mean MTR in the right uncinate fasciculus could reflect a compensatory role for myelin in these fibers or possibly represent aberrant frontotemporal connectivity. PMID:19042913

Mandl, Rene C. W.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Luigjes, Judy; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, Rene S.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

2010-01-01

119

Microstructural abnormalities in language and limbic pathways in orphanage-reared children: a diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging fiber tractography to examine the miscrostructural integrity of limbic and paralimbic white matter tracts in 36 children (age M = 124 months) with histories of early deprivation, raised from birth in orphanages and subsequently adopted into the United States, compared to 16 age-matched typically developing children. We found increased mean diffusivity bilaterally in the arcuate fasciculus and increased mean diffusivity and reduced fractional anisotropy bilaterally in the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum in children with early deprivation. Microstructural integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus and right cingulum was related to language and behavioral functioning, respectively. White matter abnormalities were also associated with length of deprivation and time in the adoptive home. Our findings suggest that white matter pathways, connecting limbic and paralimbic brain regions is abnormal in children with histories of early deprivation, with some pathways appearing more susceptible to early deprivation than others. PMID:23358628

Kumar, Ajay; Behen, Michael E; Singsoonsud, Piti; Veenstra, Amy L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Helder, Emily; Chugani, Harry T

2014-03-01

120

Frontotemporal anatomical connectivity and working-relational memory performance predict everyday functioning in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Hippocampal (relational memory) and prefrontal cortex (PFC; working memory) impairments have been found in patients with schizophrenia (SP), possibly due to a dysfunctional connection between structures. Neuroanatomical studies that describe reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus support this idea. The dysconnection hypothesis in SP was investigated by examining frontotemporal anatomical connectivity (uncinate fasciculus FA) and PFC-hippocampal memory and their relationship with each other and everyday functioning. PFC-hippocampal memory was examined with two working-relational memory tasks: transverse patterning and a virtual Morris water task. SP exhibited a performance deficit on both tasks and had lower FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus than healthy volunteers. Lower frontotemporal anatomical connectivity was related to lower working-relational memory performance, and both predicted worse everyday functioning. PMID:22882287

Hanlon, Faith M; Houck, Jon M; Klimaj, Stefan D; Caprihan, Arvind; Mayer, Andrew R; Weisend, Michael P; Bustillo, Juan R; Hamilton, Derek A; Tesche, Claudia D

2012-10-01

121

Fronto-temporal Anatomical Connectivity and Working-Relational Memory Performance Predict Everyday Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal (relational memory) and prefrontal cortex (PFC; working memory) impairments have been found in patients with schizophrenia (SP), possibly due to a dysfunctional connection between structures. Neuroanatomical studies that describe reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus support this idea. The dysconnection hypothesis in SP was investigated by examining fronto-temporal anatomical connectivity (uncinate fasciculus FA) and PFC-hippocampal memory and their relationship with each other and everyday functioning. PFC-hippocampal memory was examined with two working-relational memory tasks: transverse patterning and virtual Morris water task. SP exhibited a performance deficit on both tasks and had lower FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus than healthy volunteers. Lower fronto-temporal anatomical connectivity was related to lower working-relational memory performance, and both predicted worse everyday functioning. PMID:22882287

Hanlon, Faith M.; Houck, Jon M.; Klimaj, Stefan D.; Caprihan, Arvind; Mayer, Andrew R.; Weisend, Michael P.; Bustillo, Juan R.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Tesche, Claudia D.

2014-01-01

122

Patterns of Cortical Reorganization in the Adult Marmoset After a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we used microelectrode recordings of multiunit responses to evaluate patterns of the reactivation of somatosensory cortex after sensory loss produced by spinal cord lesions in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). These New World monkeys have become a popular model in studies of cortical organization and function. Primary somatosensory cortex and adjoining somatosensory areas can become extensively deactivated by lesions of somatosensory afferents as they ascend in the dorsal columns of the cervical spinal cord. Six to 7 weeks after complete lesions of the cuneate fasciculus subserving the forelimb at cervical levels 5–6, the hand region in contralateral areas 3b and 1 was reactivated by inputs from the forelimb, but excluded representations of some or all digits. In a similar manner, recording sites from the forelimb region of areas 2–5 responded to parts of the forelimb but not to digits after an extensive lesion of the contralateral cuneate fasciculus at C5–C6. Lesions that damaged only the gracile fasciculus or a small percentage of the cuneate fasciculus did not produce changes in the gross hand representation in contralateral areas 3b, 3a, 1, and 2. Finally, a complete but lower lesion of the cuneate fasciculus at C8 produced some abnormalities in the reactivation, but the digits were represented. The results indicate that areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2–5 of the somatosensory cortex are extensively reactivated after large, apparently complete lesions of the contralateral cuneate fasciculus, but afferents from the digits may not contribute to their reactivation. PMID:23681952

Bowes, Charnese; Burish, Mark; Cerkevich, Christina; Kaas, Jon

2014-01-01

123

A Tractography Study in Dyslexia: Neuroanatomic Correlates of Orthographic, Phonological and Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diffusion tensor imaging tractography is a structural magnetic resonance imaging technique allowing reconstruction and assessment of the integrity of three dimensional white matter tracts, as indexed by their fractional anisotropy. It is assumed that the left arcuate fasciculus plays a crucial role for reading development, as it connects two…

Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Poelmans, Hanne; Sunaert, Stefan; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

2012-01-01

124

Multiparametric MRI Characterization and Prediction in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Graph Theory and  

E-print Network

of Ophthalmology, Radiology, Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America Abstract fasciculus language pathways [6,7], as well as reduced cerebellar- cortical interconnectivity [8]. Functional

Duong, Timothy Q.

125

An accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle: a case report and embryologic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory fasciculi of the hypothenar muscles have been involved in vascular and nerve compressions. During a routine dissection an accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle arising from the tendon of the palmaris longus muscle was found in the lower third of the forearm. The accessory fasciculus ran through Guyon’s canal enclosing the ulnar nerve and vessels. It was

F. Soldado-Carrera; N. Vilar-Coromina; A. Rodríguez-Baeza

2000-01-01

126

Investigating the contribution of ventral-lexical and dorsal-sublexical pathways during reading in bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest the existence of ventral-lexical and dorsal-sublexical systems for reading. The relative contribution of these pathways can be manipulated by stimulus type and task demands. However, little is known about how bilinguals use these systems to read in their second language. In this study diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between white matter (WM) integrity and reaction time in a group of 12 Chinese–English bilingual and 11 age-matched English monolingual adults. Considering a dual-route model of reading, the following four tracts were isolated in both the left and right hemispheres using a tractography measurement approach. Ventral tracts included the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The dorsal tracts of interest were the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). A significant correlation between the reaction time in a reading task and the mean diffusivity (MD) value was observed in the right UF in both bilingual and monolingual groups. Moreover, in the bilingual group we observed significantly more positive relationships between reaction time and MD in the right AF, and bilaterally in the SLF. We concluded that the relative contribution of the dorsal system for reading is greater in bilinguals than monolinguals. Further, these findings implicate a role of the right hemisphere in reading. PMID:25071533

Bakhtiari, Reyhaneh; Boliek, Carol; Cummine, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

127

To appear in Consciousness and Cognition A Spiking Neuron Model of Cortical  

E-print Network

broadcast and competition based on spiking neurons and inspired by the hypothesis of a global neuronal bundles of association fibres, such as the arcuate fasciculus and the occipito- frontal fasciculi (Wakana evidence that cortical wiring, with its dense local connections and sparser long-range projections, enjoys

Shanahan, Murray

128

Brain regions underlying repetition and auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question.Aims:

Juliana V. Baldo; Shira Katseff; Nina F. Dronkers

2012-01-01

129

Brain regions underlying repetition and auditory-verbal short-term memory deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A deficit in the ability to repeat auditory-verbal information is common among individuals with aphasia. The neural basis of this deficit has traditionally been attributed to the disconnection of left posterior and anterior language regions via damage to a white matter pathway, the arcuate fasciculus. However, a number of lesion and imaging studies have called this notion into question.Aims:

Juliana V. Baldo; Shira Katseff; Nina F. Dronkers

2011-01-01

130

Tracking the roots of reading ability: white matter volume and integrity correlate with phonological awareness in prereading and early-reading kindergarten children.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia, an unexplained difficulty in learning to read, has been associated with alterations in white matter organization as measured by diffusion-weighted imaging. It is unknown, however, whether these differences in structural connectivity are related to the cause of dyslexia or if they are consequences of reading difficulty (e.g., less reading experience or compensatory brain organization). Here, in 40 kindergartners who had received little or no reading instruction, we examined the relation between behavioral predictors of dyslexia and white matter organization in left arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the parietal portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus using probabilistic tractography. Higher composite phonological awareness scores were significantly and positively correlated with the volume of the arcuate fasciculus, but not with other tracts. Two other behavioral predictors of dyslexia, rapid naming and letter knowledge, did not correlate with volumes or diffusion values in these tracts. The volume and fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate showed a particularly strong positive correlation with a phoneme blending test. Whole-brain regressions of behavioral scores with diffusion measures confirmed the unique relation between phonological awareness and the left arcuate. These findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus, which connects anterior and posterior language regions of the human brain and which has been previously associated with reading ability in older individuals, is already smaller and has less integrity in kindergartners who are at risk for dyslexia because of poor phonological awareness. These findings suggest a structural basis of behavioral risk for dyslexia that predates reading instruction. PMID:23946384

Saygin, Zeynep M; Norton, Elizabeth S; Osher, David E; Beach, Sara D; Cyr, Abigail B; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Yendiki, Anastasia; Fischl, Bruce; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E

2013-08-14

131

Progressive White Matter Microstructure Damage in Male Chronic Heroin Dependent Individuals: A DTI and TBSS Study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs) with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years) and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10?20 years)] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da) and radial diffusivity (Dr) were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. Conclusions The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore, abnormal WM microstructure may correlate with decision-making impairments in HDIs. PMID:23650554

Su, Huanhuan; Lv, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuelin; Tian, Junzhang; Zhuo, Fuzhen

2013-01-01

132

Anatomy is strategy: skilled reading differences associated with structural connectivity differences in the reading network.  

PubMed

Are there multiple ways to be a skilled reader? To address this longstanding, unresolved question, we hypothesized that individual variability in using semantic information in reading aloud would be associated with neuroanatomical variation in pathways linking semantics and phonology. Left-hemisphere regions of interest for diffusion tensor imaging analysis were defined based on fMRI results, including two regions linked with semantic processing - angular gyrus (AG) and inferior temporal sulcus (ITS) - and two linked with phonological processing - posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). Effects of imageability (a semantic measure) on response times varied widely among individuals and covaried with the volume of pathways through the ITS and pMTG, and through AG and pSTG, partially overlapping the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the posterior branch of the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest strategy differences among skilled readers associated with structural variation in the neural reading network. PMID:24735993

Graves, William W; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H; Humphries, Colin; Stengel, Benjamin C; Seidenberg, Mark S

2014-06-01

133

[Tourette syndrome and reading disorder in a boy with left parietofrontal tract disruption].  

PubMed

We present the case of a nine-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome and reading disorder with a history of a severe infectious process in the late neonatal period. Brain MRI showed a left parietal malacotic cavity and diffusion tensor imaging and tractography showed a striking disruption of the white matter bundle that joins the left parietal region with the ipsilateral frontal region with involvement of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and of the left arcuate fasciculus. Although Tourette syndrome and reading disorder are fundamentally hereditary neuropsychiatric disorders, they can also occur secondary to cerebral alterations like those existing in this boy. The introduction of modern neuroimaging techniques in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders (or the risk of developing them) can be very useful in the diagnosis and prognosis in the future. PMID:22019420

Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, D; Fernández-Jaén, A; Gómez Herrera, J J; Jiménez de la Peña, M

2014-01-01

134

Brain pathways and behavioral responses to weak electric fields in parasitic sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).  

PubMed

The authors characterized the behavioral and brain responses of parasitic sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) to weak electric fields. Lampreys showed preferences for the cathodal end of the testing aquarium after electric stimulation. Within a range of cathodal fields (-0.1 to -30.0 mu-V/cm), lampreys exhibited increased active behaviors. In contrast, anodal fields decreased most active behaviors below baseline. Exposure to electric fields resulted in changes in Western blot patterns for the neuronal activity markers Fos, Fos-B. and Jun in whole-brain homogenate. Electric stimulation also increased Fos-B immunoreactivity in the octavolateral and the habenula-fasciculus retroflexus-interpeduncular systems. These results confirm that the octavolateral system is associated with electroreception and suggest that the habenula-fasciculus retroflexus-interpeduncular system may be pan of the electroreceptive network. PMID:15174939

Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yun, Sang-Seon; Teeter, John; Li, Weiming

2004-06-01

135

The Projection of Cervical Primary Fibers to the DCN of the Squirrel, Sciurus niger: Fiber Sorting in the Dorsal Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course and terminal distribution of cervical primary afferents in the dorsal column nuclei were studied in the fox squirrel, Sciurus niger. Unilateral rhizotomies were performed at cervical levels C3, C4, C5, C6 and C8. For all spinal levels studied except C8, degeneration in the medullary cuneate fasciculus was present within two distinct groups. They included a large oblique lateral

B. C. Albright; J. I. Johnson; E. M. Ostapoff

1983-01-01

136

On the generation of vertical and torsional rapid eye movements in the monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) in generating the vertical and torsional components of rapid eye movements was examined. The on-directions of burst neurons in the riMLF of alert Rhesus monkeys were obtained during quick phase nystagmus in three dimensions. The distinguishing feature of these burst neurons was the torsional component of their

T. Vilis; K. Hepp; U. Schwarz; V. Henn

1989-01-01

137

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia.  

PubMed

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca's region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel M; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-08-01

138

A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia  

PubMed Central

The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca’s region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

Mesulam, Marsel M.; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

2013-01-01

139

Outcomes of Diffusion Tensor Tractography-Integrated Stereotactic Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the effect of use of tractography of the critical brain white matter fibers created from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging on reduction of morbidity associated with radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Tractography of the pyramidal tract has been integrated since February 2004 if lesions are adjacent to it, the optic radiation since May 2006, and the arcuate fasciculus since October 2007. By visually confirming the precise location of these fibers, the dose to these fiber tracts was optimized. One hundred forty-four consecutive patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations who underwent radiosurgery with this technique between February 2004 and December 2009 were analyzed. Results: Tractography was prospectively integrated in 71 of 155 treatments for 144 patients. The pyramidal tract was visualized in 45, the optic radiation in 22, and the arcuate fasciculus in 13 (two tracts in 9). During the follow-up period of 3 to 72 months (median, 23 months) after the procedure, 1 patient showed permanent worsening of pre-existing dysesthesia, and another patient exhibited mild transient hemiparesis 12 months later but fully recovered after oral administration of corticosteroid agents. Two patients had transient speech disturbance before starting integration of the arcuate fasciculus tractography, but no patient thereafter. Conclusion: Integrating tractography helped prevent morbidity of radiosurgery in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

Koga, Tomoyuki, E-mail: kouga-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Maruyama, Keisuke; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ota, Takahiro; Shin, Masahiro [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kunii, Naoto [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Terahara, Atsuro; Aoki, Shigeki; Masutani, Yoshitaka [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Nobuhito [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-02-01

140

Cortico-subcortical organization of language networks in the right hemisphere: an electrostimulation study in left-handers.  

PubMed

We have studied the configuration of the cortico-subcortical language networks within the right hemisphere (RH) in nine left-handers, being operated on while awake for a cerebral glioma. Intraoperatively, language was mapped using cortico-subcortical electrostimulation, to avoid permanent deficit. In frontal regions, cortical stimulation elicited articulatory disorders (ventral premotor cortex), anomia (dorsal premotor cortex), speech arrest (pars opercularis), and semantic paraphasia (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Insular stimulation generated dysarthria, parietal stimulation phonemic paraphasias, and temporal stimulation semantic paraphasias. Subcortically, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (inducing phonological disturbances when stimulated), inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus (eliciting semantic disturbances during stimulation), subcallosal fasciculus (generating control disturbances when stimulated), and common final pathway (inducing articulatory disorders during stimulation) were identified. These cortical and subcortical structures were preserved, avoiding permanent aphasia, despite a transient immediate postoperative language worsening. Both intraoperative results and postsurgical transitory dysphasia support the major role of the RH in language in left-handers, and provide new insights into the anatomo-functional cortico-subcortical organization of the language networks in the RH-suggesting a "mirror" configuration in comparison to the left hemisphere. PMID:18708080

Duffau, Hugues; Leroy, Marianne; Gatignol, Peggy

2008-12-01

141

Regional White Matter Damage Predicts Speech Fluency in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Recently, two different white matter regions that support speech fluency have been identified: the aslant tract and the anterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus (ASAF). The role of the ASAF was demonstrated in patients with post-stroke aphasia, while the role of the aslant tract shown in primary progressive aphasia. Regional white matter integrity appears to be crucial for speech production; however, the degree that each region exerts an independent influence on speech fluency is unclear. Furthermore, it is not yet defined if damage to both white matter regions influences speech in the context of the same neural mechanism (stroke-induced aphasia). This study assessed the relationship between speech fluency and quantitative integrity of the aslant region and the ASAF. It also explored the relationship between speech fluency and other white matter regions underlying classic cortical language areas such as the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Damage to these regions, except the ILF, was associated with speech fluency, suggesting synergistic association of these regions with speech fluency in post-stroke aphasia. These observations support the theory that speech fluency requires the complex, orchestrated activity between a network of pre-motor, secondary, and tertiary associative cortices, supported in turn by regional white matter integrity. PMID:25368572

Basilakos, Alexandra; Fillmore, Paul T.; Rorden, Chris; Guo, Dazhou; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fridriksson, Julius

2014-01-01

142

Neural Plasticity After Pre-Linguistic Injury to the Arcuate and Superior Longitudinal Fasciculi  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of girl who was born prematurely and diagnosed periventricular leukomalacia, a condition characterized by severe injury to the white matter tracts primarily surrounding the ventricles. At 12 years of age, we obtained diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data on this child as part of a research protocol. Multiple analyses of DTI data, including tractography, showed that the left and right arcuate and superior longitudinal fasciculi were missing in the child though all other major white matter tracts were present. Standardized psychometric tests at age 12 years revealed that despite early language delays, she had average scores on expressive language, sentence repetition, and reading, functions that have been hypothesized to depend on signals carried by the arcuate fasciculus. We identified intact ventral connections between the temporal and frontal lobes through the extreme capsule fiber system and uncinate fasciculus. Preserved language and reading function after serious injury to the arcuate fasciculus highlights the plasticity of the developing brain after severe white matter injury early in life. PMID:21937035

Yeatman, Jason D; Feldman, Heidi M

2011-01-01

143

Decision-making deficit of a patient with axonal damage after traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were reported to have difficulty making advantageous decisions, but the underlying deficits of the network of brain areas involved in this process were not directly examined. We report a patient with TBI who demonstrated problematic behavior in situations of risk and complexity after cerebral injury from a traffic accident. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was used to reveal his deficits in the decision-making process. To examine underlying deficits of the network of brain areas, we examined T1-weighted structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Tc-ECD SPECT in this patient. The patient showed abnormality in IGT. DTI-MRI results showed a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fasciculus between the brain stem and cortical regions via the thalamus. He showed significant decrease in gray matter volumes in the bilateral insular cortex, hypothalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex, possibly reflecting Wallerian degeneration secondary to the fasciculus abnormalities. SPECT showed significant blood flow decrease in the broad cortical areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VM). Our study showed that the patient had dysfunctional decision-making process. Microstructural abnormality in the fasciculus, likely from the traffic accident, caused reduced afferent feedback to the brain, resulting in less efficient decision-making. Our findings support the somatic-marker hypothesis (SMH), where somatic feedback to the brain influences the decision-making process. PMID:24316983

Yasuno, Fumihiko; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Jun; Okada, Koji; Tanaka, Syohei; Shinkai, Takayuki; Taoka, Toshiaki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

2014-02-01

144

Major white matter fiber changes in medically intractable neocortical epilepsy in children: a diffusion tensor imaging study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the extent of microstructural changes in the major white matter fibers and to evaluate whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) adds any lateralizing information in children with medically intractable neocortical epilepsy secondary to focal cortical dysplasia. Patient group included twenty-three consecutively enrolled patients with medically intractable focal neocortical epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia histopathologically confirmed. Thirteen patients (56.5%) had no visible lesion on the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured for regions of interest (ROIs) in each major white matter fiber. FA in patients was compared with eighteen age-matched healthy controls. Patient group had lower FA values at corpus callosum, bilateral inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFO), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) compared to controls (p<0.05). In the left-side surgery group, the left SLF FA value was lower than controls, while in the right-side surgery group, the right SLF FA values were lower than controls (p<0.05). In the patient group as a whole, ipsilateral SLF FA was significantly lower than the contralateral SLF (p<0.05). Widespread decrease in FA values in the patients compared with the controls suggests that the pathologic changes extend diffusely to most major white matter tracts. In the patient group, the ipsilateral SLF to the seizure focus had greater change compared to the contralateral SLF. These data suggest that the detection of DTI abnormality has an added value to lateralization. PMID:22917916

Kim, H; Harrison, A; Kankirawatana, P; Rozzelle, C; Blount, J; Torgerson, C; Knowlton, R

2013-02-01

145

Influence of the BDNF genotype on amygdalo-prefrontal white matter microstructure is linked to nonconscious attention bias to threat.  

PubMed

Cognitive processing biases, such as increased attention to threat, are gaining recognition as causal factors in anxiety. Yet, little is known about the anatomical pathway by which threat biases cognition and how genetic factors might influence the integrity of this pathway, and thus, behavior. For 40 normative adults, we reconstructed the entire amygdalo-prefrontal white matter tract (uncinate fasciculus) using diffusion tensor weighted MRI and probabilistic tractography to test the hypothesis that greater fiber integrity correlates with greater nonconscious attention bias to threat as measured by a backward masked dot-probe task. We used path analysis to investigate the relationship between brain-derived nerve growth factor genotype, uncinate fasciculus integrity, and attention bias behavior. Greater structural integrity of the amygdalo-prefrontal tract correlates with facilitated attention bias to nonconscious threat. Genetic variability associated with brain-derived nerve growth factor appears to influence the microstructure of this pathway and, in turn, attention bias to nonconscious threat. These results suggest that the integrity of amygdalo-prefrontal projections underlie nonconscious attention bias to threat and mediate genetic influence on attention bias behavior. Prefrontal cognition and attentional processing in high bias individuals appear to be heavily influenced by nonconscious threat signals relayed via the uncinate fasciculus. PMID:23585520

Carlson, Joshua M; Cha, Jiook; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Hajcak, Greg

2014-09-01

146

Altered structural connectivity and trait anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This study tested association between anhedonia scores and white matter integrity in order to investigate the neural basis of trait anhedonia in schizophrenia. A total of 31 patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion weighted imaging and scoring of trait anhedonia using the Physical Anhedonia Scale. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we found that fractional anisotropy values of some white matter regions were differently correlated with Physical Anhedonia Scale scores between the two groups. The white matter regions that were more significantly correlated with trait anhedonia in patients than in controls included the left side of the cingulum, splenium of the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus I and II, anterior thalamic radiation, and optic radiation. Of these regions, fractional anisotropy values in the cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus II were positively correlated with trait anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that alterations in structural connectivity within large-scale brain networks, including the default mode and central executive networks, may contribute to the development of trait anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25017826

Lee, Jung Suk; Han, Kiwan; Lee, Seung-Koo; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin

2014-09-01

147

[A case of Sjögren syndrome with subacute combined degeneration-like posterior column lesion on cervical MRI].  

PubMed

We report a case of a 67 year-old man with bilateral sensory ataxia of the upper extremities. He was diagnosed as having ANCA-related angitis and Sjögren syndrome at age 60. On admission to our hospital at age 67, he presented with severe sensory ataxia in his upper extremities, while his lower extremity neurological symptoms were limited to the absence of tendon reflexes. Cervical MRI showed an increased T2 signal intensity in an area limited to the bilateral cuneate fasciculus. Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were normal. Plasma homocysteine, serum and urine methylmalonic acid were also normal. Eight-week intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 did not improve either his disorder or the MRI findings. His sensory ataxia might be attributed to Sjögren syndrome-associated ganglionopathy at the cervical level, and the MRI findings might reflect centripetal Wallerian degeneration in the cuneate fasciculus. Gracilis fasciculus are well-known as vulnerable regions in Sjögren-associated myelopathy, whereas cervical myelopathy, limited to cuneate fascicules, can emerge as Sjögren-associated disorders. PMID:22849991

Hongo, Yu; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Takeshima, Shinichi; Kamakura, Keiko; Kaida, Ken-Ichi

2012-01-01

148

Clinical findings and white matter abnormalities seen on diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with very low birth weight.  

PubMed

Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at high risk of perinatal white matter injury, which, when subtle, may not be seen using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between clinical findings and fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in white matter of adolescents born prematurely with VLBW was studied in 34 subjects (age = 15 years, birth weight fasciculus. Within this group of children, visual motor and visual perceptual deficits were associated with low FA values in the external capsule, posterior part of the internal capsule and in the inferior fasciculus. Children with low IQ had low FA values in the external capsule and inferior and middle superior fasciculus. Fine motor impairment was related to low FA values in the internal and external capsule and superior fasciculus. Eight VLBW children with inattention symptoms or a diagnosis of ADHD had significantly lower FA values in several areas. Mild social deficits correlated with reduced FA values in the external capsule and superior fasciculus. We conclude that DTI was able to detect differences in FA between VLBW adolescents and controls in several white matter areas at risk of periventricular leucomalacia in VLBW newborns. Our results show that low FA values in these areas were associated with perceptual, cognitive, motor and mental health impairments. These conclusions indicate that perinatal injury of white matter tracts persist with clinical significance in adolescence. PMID:17347255

Skranes, J; Vangberg, T R; Kulseng, S; Indredavik, M S; Evensen, K A I; Martinussen, M; Dale, A M; Haraldseth, O; Brubakk, A-M

2007-03-01

149

White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across all participants, age had an effect on FA, MD, and axial and radial diffusivities. Sex differences were observed in FA and radial diffusivity. Conclusion APOE4 genotype, parental family history of AD, age, and sex are all associated with microstructural white matter differences in late middle-aged adults. In participants at risk for AD, alterations in diffusion characteristics—both expected and unexpected—may represent cellular changes occurring at the earliest disease stages, but further work is needed. Higher mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were observed in participants who are more likely to be experiencing later stage preclinical pathology, including participants who were both older and carried APOE4, or who were positive for both APOE4 and parental family history of AD. PMID:24936424

Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

2014-01-01

150

White Matter Integrity and Prediction of Social and Role Functioning in Subjects at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background White matter microstructural disruptions have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether changes exist prior to disease onset or in high-risk individuals is unclear. Here we investigated white matter integrity, as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR), relative to healthy controls (HC), and the relationship between baseline DTI measures and functional outcome over time. Methods Thirty-six UHR participants and 25 HC’s completed baseline DTI scans. Subjects also completed clinical follow-up assessments approximately 6 (26 subjects) and 15 months (13 subjects) later. We used a rigorous registration approach (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in six major white matter tracts. Results Relative to the HC group, UHR subjects showed lower baseline FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the major frontal-parietal white matter connection. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated that UHR youth failed to show the same age-associated increases in FA in the hippocampus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus as HCs. Finally, lower baseline FA in the hippocampus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus predicted deterioration in social and role functioning in UHR participants at 15-month follow-up. Conclusions This is the first investigation of white matter microstructural alterations in a clinical high-risk sample. Our findings indicate that white matter development may be altered in youth at risk for psychosis, possibly due to disrupted developmental mechanisms, and further, that white matter integrity may be predictive of functional outcome. PMID:19423081

Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Niendam, Tara A.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

2009-01-01

151

Widespread reductions of white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hypercortisolism leads to various physical, psychological and cognitive symptoms, which may partly persist after the treatment of Cushing's disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate abnormalities in white matter integrity in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease, and their relation with psychological symptoms, cognitive impairment and clinical characteristics. Methods In patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease (n = 22) and matched healthy controls (n = 22) we examined fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter in a region-of-interest (ROI; bilateral cingulate cingulum, bilateral hippocampal cingulum, bilateral uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum) and the whole brain, using 3 T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach. Psychological and cognitive functioning were assessed with validated questionnaires and clinical severity was assessed using the Cushing's syndrome Severity Index. Results The ROI analysis showed FA reductions in all of the hypothesized regions, with the exception of the bilateral hippocampal cingulum, in patients when compared to controls. The exploratory whole brain analysis showed multiple regions with lower FA values throughout the brain. Patients reported more apathy (p = .003) and more depressive symptoms (p < .001), whereas depression symptom severity in the patient group was negatively associated with FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses showed increased radial and mean diffusivity in the patient group. Conclusion Patients with a history of endogenous hypercortisolism in present remission show widespread changes of white matter integrity in the brain, with abnormalities in the integrity of the uncinate fasciculus being related to the severity of depressive symptoms, suggesting persistent structural effects of hypercortisolism. PMID:24936417

van der Werff, Steven J.A.; Andela, Cornelie D.; Nienke Pannekoek, J.; Meijer, Onno C.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

2014-01-01

152

White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure. PMID:25379451

Pryweller, Jennifer R.; Schauder, Kimberly B.; Anderson, Adam W.; Heacock, Jessica L.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Loring, Whitney A.; Cascio, Carissa J.

2014-01-01

153

Structural brain changes related to bilingualism: does immersion make a difference?  

PubMed Central

Within the field of neuroscientific research on second language learning, considerable attention has been devoted to functional and recently also structural changes related to second language acquisition. The present literature review summarizes studies that investigated structural changes related to bilingualism. Furthermore, as recent evidence has suggested that native-like exposure to a second language (i.e., a naturalistic learning setting or immersion) considerably impacts second language learning, all findings are reflected with respect to the learning environment. Aggregating the existing evidence, we conclude that structural changes in left inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions have been observed in studies on cortical gray matter changes, while the anterior parts of the corpus callosum have been repeatedly found to reflect bilingualism in studies on white matter (WM) connectivity. Regarding the learning environment, no cortical alterations can be attributed specifically to naturalistic or classroom learning. With regard to WM changes, one might tentatively propose that changes in IFOF and SLF are possibly more prominently observed in studies investigating bilinguals with a naturalistic learning experience. However, future studies are needed to replicate and strengthen the existing evidence and to directly test the impact of naturalistic exposure on structural brain plasticity. PMID:25324816

Stein, Maria; Winkler, Carmen; Kaiser, Anelis; Dierks, Thomas

2014-01-01

154

Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.  

PubMed

Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 ± 17 years, range 28-87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally introduced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = -0.630, t(-3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = -0.678, t(-3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long segment of the arcuate fasciculus [beta = 0.730, t(2.732), P = 0.020] were predictors of longitudinal aphasia severity. Adding the volume of the right long segment to the first-level model increased the overall predictive power of the model from 28% to 57% [F(1,11) = 7.46, P = 0.02]. These findings suggest that different predictors of recovery are at play in the left and right hemisphere. The right hemisphere language network seems to be important in aphasia recovery after left hemispheric stroke. PMID:24951631

Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Kalra, Lalit; Murphy, Declan G M; Williams, Steven C R; Catani, Marco

2014-07-01

155

Propylene oxide causes central-peripheral distal axonopathy in rats  

SciTech Connect

In Wistar rats subjected daily to a 6-hr exposure of propylene oxide (PO) at a concentration of 1,500 ppm (5 times a wk for 7 wk), ataxia developed in the hindlegs. Myelinated fibers in hindleg nerves and in the fasciculus gracilis showed axonal degeneration, sparing the nerve cell body of the first sacral dorsal root ganglion and myelinated fibers of the first sacral dorsal and ventral roots. These pathologic findings are compatible with central-peripheral distal axonopathy. This is apparently the first animal model of PO neuropathy to be verified histologically.

Ohnishi, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Murai, Y.; Hayashida, Y.; Hori, H.; Tanaka, I.

1988-09-01

156

[A case of amnesic syndrome caused by hematoma in the left anterior medial thalamus].  

PubMed

We reported a case of amnestic syndrome caused by a hematoma in the left thalamus. The case was that of a 68-year-old, right-handed man who suddenly showed amnestic syndrome. He had neither motor paresis nor sensory disturbance. Clinical examination showed he had disorientation, anterograde amnesia and mild retrograde amnesia. Immediate recall and remote memory were intact, but recent memory was severely impaired. CT scan revealed a high density area in the anterior medial part of the left thalamus. We concluded that amnesia in this patient was caused by fasciculus mamillothalamicus damage because of a hematoma during thalamic hemorrhage. PMID:8559265

Maeshima, S; Naka, D; Nakai, K; Jianping, L; Itakura, T; Komai, N; Maeshima, E; Fujimoto, A

1996-01-01

157

Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates sensory neuronal involvement and clinical severity in neuronopathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine spinal cord MRI findings in neuronopathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome and their correlation with severity of sensory impairment.?METHODS—Clinical and electrophysiological features, pathological findings in the sural nerve, and hyperintensity on T2* weighted MRI in the spinal dorsal columns were evaluated in 14 patients with neuronopathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome.?RESULTS—Of 14 patients, 12 showed high intensity by T2* weighted MRI in the posterior columns of the cervical cord. High intensity areas were seen in both the fasciculus cuneatus and gracilis in nine patients, who showed severe and widespread sensory deficits in the limbs and trunk; these patients also had a high frequency of autonomic symptoms. Somatosensory evoked potentials often could not be elicited. Hyperintensity restricted to the fasciculus gracilis was seen in three patients, who showed sensory deficits restricted to lower limbs without trunk involvement, or with only partial limb involvement; no autonomic symptoms were noted. The two patients who did not show high intensity areas in the dorsal columns showed restricted sensory involvement in the limbs. All patients showed axonal loss predominantly affecting large fibres, without axonal sprouting.?CONCLUSIONS—High intensity areas on T2* weighted MRI in the spinal dorsal columns reflect the degree of sensory neuronal involvement in neuronopathy associated with Sjögren's syndrome; this finding could also be a helpful marker for estimating severity of this neuronopathy.?? PMID:11561032

Mori, K; Koike, H; Misu, K; Hattori, N; Ichimura, M; Sobue, G

2001-01-01

158

The projection of cervical primary fibers to the DCN of the squirrel, Sciurus niger: fiber sorting in the dorsal columns.  

PubMed

The course and terminal distribution of cervical primary afferents in the dorsal column nuclei were studied in the fox squirrel, Sciurus niger. Unilateral rhizotomies were performed at cervical levels C3, C4, C5, C6 and C8. For all spinal levels studied except C8, degeneration in the medullary cuneate fasciculus was present within two distinct groups. They included a large oblique lateral lamina and a small superficial group of degeneration. The superficial group was horizontal, located medial to the large lamina and appeared to be formed by the medial shifting of fibers away from the initial larger group. Fibers in the large primary lamina appeared to terminate primarily in the ventrolateral areas of the cuneate nucleus. Fibers from the superficial group, however, appeared to project mostly to dorsal cuneate nuclear areas. Hence, the dual transverse terminal patterns for cervical fibers in the cuneate nucleus appeared to be related directly to a fiber sorting process that involved the formation of two often separate ascending fiber groups in the cuneate fasciculus. The results of this study are compared with the mechanosensory mapping of the dorsal column nuclei in the squirrel. PMID:6303492

Albright, B C; Johnson, J I; Ostapoff, E M

1983-01-01

159

White matter integrity is associated with alcohol cue reactivity in heavy drinkers.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies have shown that white matter damage accompanies excessive alcohol use, but the functional correlates of alcohol-related white matter disruption remain unknown. This study applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 332 heavy drinkers (mean age = 31.2 ± 9.4; 31% female) to obtain averaged fractional anisotropy (FA) values of 18 white matter tracts. Statistical analyses examined correlations of FA values with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to an alcohol taste cue, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FA values of nine white matter tracts (anterior corona radiata, body of corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, external capsule, fornix, inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, posterior corona radiata, retrolenticular limb of internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly, negatively correlated with BOLD activation in medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, cingulum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, insula, and cerebellum. The inverse relation between white matter integrity and functional activation during the alcohol taste cue provides support for the hypothesis that lower white matter integrity in frontoparietal and corticolimbic networks is a factor in loss of control over alcohol consumption. PMID:24683509

Monnig, Mollie A; Thayer, Rachel E; Caprihan, Arvind; Claus, Eric D; Yeo, Ronald A; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

2014-03-01

160

Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins.  

PubMed

THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE POSSIBLE HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN THE HUMAN LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND COMPARABLE AUDITORY PROJECTION SYSTEMS IN THE MACAQUE BRAIN, IN AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE TWO EXISTING VIEWS ON LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a "ventral pathway" connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a "dorsal pathway" connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication. PMID:22347184

Aboitiz, Francisco

2012-01-01

161

Different Patterns of White Matter Degeneration Using Multiple Diffusion Indices and Volumetric Data in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Patients  

PubMed Central

Alzheime?s disease (AD) represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM). In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA) in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia. PMID:23300797

Alves, Gilberto Sousa; O’Dwyer, Laurence; Jurcoane, Alina; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Knöchel, Christian; Prvulovic, David; Sudo, Felipe; Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Valente, Letice; Moreira, Denise; Fu?er, Fabian; Karakaya, Tarik; Pantel, Johannes; Engelhardt, Eliasz; Laks, Jerson

2012-01-01

162

Different patterns of white matter degeneration using multiple diffusion indices and volumetric data in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients.  

PubMed

Alzheime?s disease (AD) represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM). In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA) in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia. PMID:23300797

Alves, Gilberto Sousa; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Jurcoane, Alina; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Knöchel, Christian; Prvulovic, David; Sudo, Felipe; Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Valente, Letice; Moreira, Denise; Fußer, Fabian; Fu?er, Fabian; Karakaya, Tarik; Pantel, Johannes; Engelhardt, Eliasz; Laks, Jerson

2012-01-01

163

Analyses of Disruption of Cerebral White Matter Integrity in Schizophrenia with MR Diffusion Tensor Fiber Tracking Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed cerebral white matter using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) to measure the diffusion anisotropy of water molecules. The goal of this study is the quantitative evaluation of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor images are acquired for patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects, group-matched for age, sex, and handedness. Fiber tracking is performed on the superior longitudinal fasciculus for the comparison between the patient and comparison groups. We have analysed and compared the cross-sectional area on the starting coronal plane and the mean and standard deviation of the fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient along fibers in the right and left hemispheres. In the right hemisphere, the cross-sectional areas in patient group are significantly smaller than those in the comparison group. Furthermore, in the comparison group, the cross-sectional areas in the right hemisphere are significantly larger than those in the left hemisphere, whereas there is no significant difference in the patient group. These results suggest that we may evaluate the disruption in white matter integrity in schizophrenic patients quantitatively by comparing the cross-sectional area of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the right and left hemispheres.

Yamamoto, Utako; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kito, Shinsuke; Koga, Yoshihiko

164

Long-term effects of postearthquake distress on brain microstructural changes.  

PubMed

Stressful events can have both short- and long-term effects on the brain. Our recent investigation identified short-term white matter integrity (WMI) changes in 30 subjects soon after the Japanese earthquake. Our findings suggested that lower WMI in the right anterior cingulum (Cg) was a pre-existing vulnerability factor and increased WMI in the left anterior Cg and uncinate fasciculus (Uf) after the earthquake was an acquired sign of postearthquake distress. However, the long-term effects on WMI remained unclear. Here, we examined the 1-year WMI changes in 25 subjects to clarify long-term effects on the WMI. We found differential FAs in the right anterior Cg, bilateral Uf, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and left thalamus, suggesting that synaptic enhancement and shrinkage were long-term effects. Additionally, the correlation between psychological measures related to postearthquake distress and the degree of WMI alternation in the right anterior Cg and the left Uf led us to speculate that temporal WMI changes in some subjects with emotional distress occurred soon after the disaster. We hypothesized that dynamic WMI changes predict a better prognosis, whereas persistently lower WMI is a marker of cognitive dysfunction, implying the development of anxiety disorders. PMID:24551840

Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Sugiura, Motoaki; Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hanawa, Sugiko; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Atsushi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-01-01

165

Compromised white matter microstructural integrity after mountain climbing: evidence from diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate cerebral microstructural alterations after single short-term mountain climbing. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) analysis of WM fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were carried out on 14 mountaineers before and after mountain climbing (6206?m). In addition, verbal and spatial 'two-back' tasks and serial reaction time task were also tested. No significant changes were detected in total and regional volumes of GM, WM, and cerebral spinal fluid after mountain climbing. Significant decreased FA values were found in the bilateral corticospinal tract, corpus callosum (anterior and posterior body, splenium), reticular formation of dorsal midbrain, left superior longitudinal fasciculus, right posterior cingulum bundles, and left middle cerebellar peduncle. In all the above regions, the radial diffusivity values tended to increase, except in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus the change was statistically significant. There were no significant changes in the two cognitive tests after mountain climbing. These findings indicate that short-term high-altitude exposure leads to disturbances mainly in cerebral WM, showing compromised fiber microstructural integrity, which may clarify the mechanisms underlining some cognitive and motor deficits tested previously. PMID:22724615

Zhang, Haiyan; Lin, Jianzhong; Sun, Yingchun; Huang, Yongxia; Ye, Huiming; Wang, Xiaochuan; Yang, Tianhe; Jiang, Xingtang; Zhang, Jiaxing

2012-06-01

166

Comparative morphology of the lateral meniscus of the knee in primates.  

PubMed Central

The morphology of the lateral meniscus has been studied in a series of 316 non-human primates, representative of 43 genera. The lateral meniscus has a crescentic shape in Prosimii, in Platyrrhinii (New World monkeys) and in Pongo pygmaeus. The lateral meniscus is disc-shaped, with a central foramen, in Catarrhinii (Old World monkeys), in Hylobates, in Gorilla and in Pan Troglodytes. In man, the lateral meniscus has a crescentic shape. Discoid lateral menisci are reported as anomalies in man; their origin has given rise to much discussion, but the comparative data favour a phylogenetic origin. The posterior fasciculus (Wrisberg's ligament) of the posterior menisco-femoral ligament is always present and large in all non-human primates; in man, it may be absent and seems to be a regressive structure. On the other hand, the anterior fasciculus (Humphry's ligament) exists only in man and seems to be a progressive structure. The posterior menisco-tibial attachments are weak or non-existent in non-human primates, but they are well-developed in man. The evolutionary development of these characters can be related to human bipedal locomotion. The lateral meniscus in some Prosimii contains one or two intramensical ossicles (lunulae). These structures are absent or very rare in all other primate groups. In man, intrameniscal ossicles are extremely unusual; their origin, phylogenetic or post-traumatic is controversial, but comparative data favour, at least in some cases, the persistence of an ancestral character. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2123845

Le Minor, J M

1990-01-01

167

Isolated bilateral horizontal gaze palsy as first manifestation of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Predilection sites for infratentorial multiple sclerosis lesions are well known and frequently involve the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis leading to classical internuclear ophthalmoplegia. We report a very rare oculomotor disorder due to a demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) lesion in the medial part of the lower pontine tegmentum. A 36-year-old man presented with sudden onset of blurred vision. Clinically there was limited eye adduction and abduction to either side, which corresponds to bilateral horizontal gaze palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a demyelinating CNS lesion affecting the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, abducens nuclei or abducens fibres in the medial part of the lower pontine tegmentum. Furthermore there were six further demyelinating white matter lesions fulfilling all Barkhof criteria for multiple sclerosis. Demyelinating CNS lesions causing isolated bilateral horizontal gaze palsy are exceptional and usually associated with further focal neurological deficits, which was not the case in the presenting patient. This is a unique video report of isolated bilateral horizontal gaze palsy as the initial manifestation of demyelinating CNS disease, which lead to definite diagnosis of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. PMID:24402040

Kipfer, Stefan; Crook, David W

2014-05-01

168

Higher Education is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

2013-01-01

169

Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571

Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

2013-09-01

170

White matter integrity is associated with alcohol cue reactivity in heavy drinkers  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies have shown that white matter damage accompanies excessive alcohol use, but the functional correlates of alcohol-related white matter disruption remain unknown. This study applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 332 heavy drinkers (mean age = 31.2 ± 9.4; 31% female) to obtain averaged fractional anisotropy (FA) values of 18 white matter tracts. Statistical analyses examined correlations of FA values with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to an alcohol taste cue, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). FA values of nine white matter tracts (anterior corona radiata, body of corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, external capsule, fornix, inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, posterior corona radiata, retrolenticular limb of internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly, negatively correlated with BOLD activation in medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, cingulum, thalamus, caudate, putamen, insula, and cerebellum. The inverse relation between white matter integrity and functional activation during the alcohol taste cue provides support for the hypothesis that lower white matter integrity in frontoparietal and corticolimbic networks is a factor in loss of control over alcohol consumption. PMID:24683509

Monnig, Mollie A; Thayer, Rachel E; Caprihan, Arvind; Claus, Eric D; Yeo, Ronald A; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

2014-01-01

171

White Matter Morphometric Changes Uniquely Predict Children's Reading Acquisition.  

PubMed

This study examined whether variations in brain development between kindergarten and Grade 3 predicted individual differences in reading ability at Grade 3. Structural MRI measurements indicated that increases in the volume of two left temporo-parietal white matter clusters are unique predictors of reading outcomes above and beyond family history, socioeconomic status, and cognitive and preliteracy measures at baseline. Using diffusion MRI, we identified the left arcuate fasciculus and superior corona radiata as key fibers within the two clusters. Bias-free regression analyses using regions of interest from prior literature revealed that volume changes in temporo-parietal white matter, together with preliteracy measures, predicted 56% of the variance in reading outcomes. Our findings demonstrate the important contribution of developmental differences in areas of left dorsal white matter, often implicated in phonological processing, as a sensitive early biomarker for later reading abilities, and by extension, reading difficulties. PMID:25212581

Myers, Chelsea A; Vandermosten, Maaike; Farris, Emily A; Hancock, Roeland; Gimenez, Paul; Black, Jessica M; Casto, Brandi; Drahos, Miroslav; Tumber, Mandeep; Hendren, Robert L; Hulme, Charles; Hoeft, Fumiko

2014-10-01

172

Cross-linguistic sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondence: Evidence from fMRI and DTI.  

PubMed

Non-arbitrary correspondences between spoken words and categories of meanings exist in natural language, with mounting evidence that listeners are sensitive to this sound symbolic information. Native English speakers were asked to choose the meaning of spoken foreign words from one of four corresponding antonym pairs selected from a previously developed multi-language stimulus set containing both sound symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli. In behavioral (n=9) and fMRI (n=15) experiments, participants showed reliable sensitivity to the sound symbolic properties of the stimulus set, selecting the consistent meaning for the sound symbolic words at above chances rates. There was increased activation for sound symbolic relative to non-symbolic words in left superior parietal cortex, and a cluster in left superior longitudinal fasciculus showed a positive correlation between fractional anisotropy (FA) and an individual's sensitivity to sound symbolism. These findings support the idea that crossmodal correspondences underlie sound symbolism in spoken language. PMID:24316238

Revill, Kate Pirog; Namy, Laura L; DeFife, Lauren Clepper; Nygaard, Lynne C

2014-01-01

173

Social cognition and the anterior temporal lobes: a review and theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Memory for people and their relationships, along with memory for social language and social behaviors, constitutes a specific type of semantic memory termed social knowledge. This review focuses on how and where social knowledge is represented in the brain. We propose that portions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) play a critical role in representing and retrieving social knowledge. This includes memory about people, their names and biographies and more abstract forms of social memory such as memory for traits and social concepts. This hypothesis is based on the convergence of several lines of research including anatomical findings, lesion evidence from both humans and non-human primates and neuroimaging evidence. Moreover, the ATL is closely interconnected with cortical nuclei of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex via the uncinate fasciculus. We propose that this pattern of connectivity underlies the function of the ATL in encoding and storing emotionally tagged knowledge that is used to guide orbitofrontal-based decision processes. PMID:23051902

McCoy, David; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Ross, Lars A.

2013-01-01

174

[White matter in developmental disorders].  

PubMed

The white matter is the main connection between different regions of the brain and helps them to work in a unified, coordinated way. Diffusion tensor imaging is an ideal technique with which to study it in order to detect the degree of integrity of these fibres. Nowadays, they are considered to play a significant role in the development and pathophysiology of different developmental disorders, and the aim of this study was to examine this role. On reviewing disorders such as autism, dyslexia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, certain fibres were found to be clearly involved. This was especially the case of the (arcuate) superior longitudinal fasciculus and the temporal-parietal network (related with the regulation of motor and attentional behaviour), the corpus callosum (which ensures the efficient and swift exchange of information between the hemispheres of the brain) and cingulate regions (which would be related with social cognition and self-consciousness). PMID:21894607

Guinea-Hidalgo, Ana; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

2011-09-16

175

The architecture of the chess player?s brain.  

PubMed

The game of chess can be seen as a typical example for an expertise task requiring domain-specific training and experience. Despite intensive behavioural studies the neural underpinnings of chess performance and expertise are not entirely understood. A few functional neuroimaging studies have shown that expert chess players recruit different psychological functions and activate different brain areas while they are engaged in chess-related activities. Based on this functional literature, we predicted to find morphological differences in a network comprised by parietal and frontal areas and especially the occipito-temporal junction (OTJ), fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty expert chess players and 20 control subjects were investigated using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were reduced in chess players compared with those of control men in the OTJ and precunei. The volumes of both caudate nuclei were not different between groups, but correlated inversely with the years of chess playing experience. Mean diffusivity was increased in chess players compared with that of controls in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the Elo score (a chess tournament ranking) was inversely related to mean diffusivity within the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. To the best of our knowledge we showed for the first time that there are specific differences in grey and white matter morphology between chess players and control subjects in brain regions associated with cognitive functions important for playing chess. Whether these anatomical alterations are the cause or consequence of the intensive and long-term chess training and practice remains to be shown in future studies. PMID:25065494

Hänggi, Jürgen; Brütsch, Karin; Siegel, Adrian M; Jäncke, Lutz

2014-09-01

176

Cognitive impairment with and without depression history: an analysis of white matter microstructure  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and late-life depression are clinical syndromes that often co-occur and may represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disease. The present study examined white matter microstructure in patients with MCI with and without a history of major depression compared with healthy controls. Methods Older adults with MCI and no history of major depression (MCI), adults with MCI and euthymic major depression (MCI-MD) and healthy controls underwent comprehensive medical, psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments. Participants also underwent diffusion tensor imaging, which was analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics. White matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and medical burden were also quantified. Results We enrolled 30 participants in the MCI group, 36 in the MCI-MD group and 22 in the control group. Compared with controls, participants in the MCI group had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation. Participants in the MCI-MD group had significantly reduced FA in the corpus callosum, internal capsule, external capsule, corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation, sagittal striatum, fornix, SLF, uncinate fasciculus and right cingulum compared with controls. No significant differences in FA were observed between the MCI and MCI-MD groups. Participants in the MCI-MD group had greater medical burden (p = 0.020) and WMH burden than controls (p = 0.013). Limitations Study limitations include the cross-sectional design and antidepressant medication use. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first to compare white matter microstructure in patients with MCI with and without a history of major depression and suggests that a common underlying structural white matter change may underpin cognitive impairment in both MCI groups. Further research is needed to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these microstructural changes. PMID:24359878

Duffy, Shantel L.; Paradise, Matt; Hickie, Ian B.; Lewis, Simon J.G.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lagopoulos, Jim

2014-01-01

177

The association of white matter volume in psychotic disorders with genotypic variation in NRG1, MOG and CNP: a voxel-based analysis in affected individuals and their unaffected relatives  

PubMed Central

We investigated the role of variation in putative psychosis genes coding for elements of the white matter system by examining the contribution of genotypic variation in three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) neuregulin 1 (NRG1) SNP8NRG221533, myelin oligodendrocytes glycoprotein (MOG) rs2857766 and CNP (rs2070106) and one haplotype HAPICE (deCODE) to white matter volume in patients with psychotic disorder and their unaffected relatives. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and blood samples for genotyping were collected on 189 participants including patients with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar I disorder (BDI), unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients and healthy volunteers. The association of genotypic variation with white matter volume was assessed using voxel-based morphometry in SPM5. The NRG1 SNP and the HAPICE haplotype were associated with abnormal white matter volume in the BDI group in the fornix, cingulum and parahippocampal gyrus circuit. In SZ the NRG1 SNP risk allele was associated with lower white matter volume in the uncinate fasciculus (UF), right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Healthy G-homozygotes of the MOG SNP had greater white matter volume in areas of the brainstem and cerebellum; this relationship was absent in those with a psychotic disorder and the unaffected relatives groups. The CNP SNP did not contribute to white matter volume variation in the diagnostic groups studied. Variation in the genes coding for structural and protective components of myelin are implicated in abnormal white matter volume in the emotion circuitry of the cingulum, fornix, parahippocampal gyrus and UF in psychotic disorders. PMID:23032943

Cannon, D M; Walshe, M; Dempster, E; Collier, D A; Marshall, N; Bramon, E; Murray, R M; McDonald, C

2012-01-01

178

Reduced Fractional Anisotropy in the Visual Limbic Pathway of Young Adults Witnessing Domestic Violence in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Witnessing domestic violence (WDV) is a traumatic childhood experience associated with increased risk for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder and reduced IQ scores. Specific affects of WDV on brain development have not been assessed. We sought to ascertain whether WDV was associated with abnormalities in white matter (WM) tract integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty subjects who witnessed domestic violence (16F/ 4M, mean age 22.4±2.48 yrs) but were not physically or sexually abused were compared to 27 healthy controls (19F/ 8M, 21.9±1.97 yrs) without exposure to trauma or Axis I and II disorders. DTI images were acquired with a 3T Siemens Trio scanner. Group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), covaried by age, gender, parental education, perceived financial sufficiency, IQ and degree of exposure to parental verbal aggression were assessed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), which projects FA values onto an alignment-invariant fiber tract representation. FA values in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus of left lateral occipital lobe were significantly lower (p<0.05 corrected for multiple comparison) in the WDV group. FA values correlated inversely with ratings of depression, anxiety, somatization, ‘limbic irritability’ and neuropsychological measures of processing speed. Measures of radial but not axial diffusivity were affected suggesting alterations in myelination. Degree of FA reduction was associated with duration of witnessing interparental verbal aggression and with exposure between ages 7 – 13 years. The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects occipital and temporal cortex and is the main component of the visual–limbic pathway that subserves emotional, learning and memory functions that are modality specific to vision. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to childhood maltreatment is associated with alterations in fiber pathways that convey the adverse experience to frontal, temporal or limbic regions. PMID:21985907

Choi, Jeewook; Jeong, Bumseok; Polcari, Ann; Rohan, Michael L.; Teicher, Martin H.

2011-01-01

179

The Neural Architecture of the Language Comprehension Network: Converging Evidence from Lesion and Connectivity Analyses  

PubMed Central

While traditional models of language comprehension have focused on the left posterior temporal cortex as the neurological basis for language comprehension, lesion and functional imaging studies indicate the involvement of an extensive network of cortical regions. However, the full extent of this network and the white matter pathways that contribute to it remain to be characterized. In an earlier voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of data from aphasic patients (Dronkers et al., 2004), several brain regions in the left hemisphere were found to be critical for language comprehension: the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, the anterior part of Brodmann's area 22 in the superior temporal gyrus (anterior STG/BA22), the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) extending into Brodmann's area 39 (STS/BA39), the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus (BA47), and the middle frontal gyrus (BA46). Here, we investigated the white matter pathways associated with these regions using diffusion tensor imaging from healthy subjects. We also used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess the functional connectivity profiles of these regions. Fiber tractography and functional connectivity analyses indicated that the left MTG, anterior STG/BA22, STS/BA39, and BA47 are part of a richly interconnected network that extends to additional frontal, parietal, and temporal regions in the two hemispheres. The inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus, the arcuate fasciculus, and the middle and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, as well as transcallosal projections via the tapetum were found to be the most prominent white matter pathways bridging the regions important for language comprehension. The left MTG showed a particularly extensive structural and functional connectivity pattern which is consistent with the severity of the impairments associated with MTG lesions and which suggests a central role for this region in language comprehension. PMID:21347218

Turken, And U.; Dronkers, Nina F.

2011-01-01

180

Distinct types of white matter changes are observed after anterior temporal lobectomy in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) is commonly adopted to control medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Depending on the side of resection, the degree to which Wallerian degeneration and adaptive plasticity occur after ATL has important implications for understanding cognitive and clinical outcome. We obtained diffusion tensor imaging from 24 TLE patients (12 left) before and after surgery, and 12 matched controls at comparable time intervals. Voxel-based analyses were performed on fractional anisotropy (FA) before and after surgery. Areas with postoperative FA increase were further investigated to distinguish between genuine plasticity and processes related to the degeneration of crossing fibers. Before surgery, both patient groups showed bilateral reduced FA in numerous tracts, but left TLE patients showed more extensive effects, including language tracts in the contralateral hemisphere (superior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate). After surgery, FA decreased ipsilaterally in both ATL groups, affecting the fornix, uncinate, stria terminalis, and corpus callosum. FA increased ipsilaterally along the superior corona radiata in both left and right ATL groups, exceeding normal FA values. In these clusters, the mode of anisotropy increased as well, confirming fiber degeneration in an area with crossing fibers. In left ATL patients, pre-existing low FA values in right superior longitudinal and uncinate fasciculi normalized after surgery, while MO values did not change. Preoperative verbal fluency correlated with FA values in all areas that later increased FA in left TLE patients, but postoperative verbal fluency correlated only with FA of the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our results demonstrate that genuine reorganization occurs in non-dominant language tracts after dominant hemisphere resection, a process that may help implement the inter-hemispheric shift of language activation found in fMRI studies. The results indicate that left TLE patients, despite showing more initial white matter damage, have the potential for greater adaptive changes postoperatively than right TLE patients. PMID:25089698

Pustina, Dorian; Doucet, Gaelle; Evans, James; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael; Skidmore, Christopher; Tracy, Joseph

2014-01-01

181

White matter tractography in early psychosis: clinical and neurocognitive associations  

PubMed Central

Background While many diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations have noted disruptions to white matter integrity in individuals with chronic psychotic disorders, fewer studies have been conducted in young people at the early stages of disease onset. Using whole tract reconstruction techniques, the aim of this study was to identify the white matter pathology associated with the common clinical symptoms and executive function impairments observed in young people with psychosis. Methods We obtained MRI scans from young people with psychosis and healthy controls. Eighteen major white matter tracts were reconstructed to determine group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) and then were subsequently correlated with symptomatology and neurocognitive performance. Results Our study included 42 young people with psychosis (mean age 23 yr) and 45 healthy controls (mean age 25 yr). Compared with the control group, the psychosis group had reduced FA and AD in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and forceps major indicative of axonal disorganization, reduction and/or loss. These changes were associated with worse overall psychiatric symptom severity, increases in positive and negative symptoms, and worse current levels of depression. The psychosis group also showed FA reductions in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus that were associated with impaired neurocognitive performance in attention and semantic fluency. Limitations Our analysis grouped 4 subcategories of psychosis together, and a larger follow-up study comparing affective and nonaffective psychoses is warranted. Conclusion Our findings suggest that impaired axonal coherence in the left ILF and forceps major underpin psychiatric symptoms in young people in the early stages of psychosis. PMID:25111788

Hatton, Sean N.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.; Scott, Elizabeth; Bennett, Maxwell R.

2014-01-01

182

Association between white matter fiber integrity and subclinical psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients and unaffected relatives.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate whether aberrant integrity of white matter (WM) fiber tracts represents a genetically determined biological marker of schizophrenia (SZ), and its relation with clinical symptoms. We collected brain DTI data from 28 SZ patients, 18 first-degree relatives and 22 matched controls and used voxel-based analysis with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between groups. Mean voxel-based FA values from the entire skeleton of each group were compared. We did a multiple regression analysis, followed by single post-hoc contrasts between groups. FA values were extracted from the statistically significant areas. The results showed significantly smaller FA values for SZ patients in comparison with controls in cortico-spinal tracts, in commissural fibers, in thalamic projections, in association fibers and in cingulum bundles. A significant increase of FA in SZ patients in comparison with healthy controls was only found in the arcuate fasciculus. Relatives had intermediate values between patients and controls which were deemed significant in the comparison to patients and controls in association fibers, arcuate fasciculus and cingulum bundles. Lower FA values in association fibers were significantly associated with predisposition toward hallucinations (in SZ patients and relatives), with higher PANSS scores of positive symptoms and with duration of illness (SZ patients). Our results suggest that clinical and subclinical presentations of psychotic symptoms are associated with aberrant integrity of multiple WM tracts. This association may represent an endophenotype of schizophrenia, since it is present in unaffected relatives as well. Such endophenotypes may serve as quantitative traits for future genetic studies and as candidate markers for early and preclinical identification of subjects at risk. PMID:22817874

Knöchel, Christian; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Alves, Gilberto; Reinke, Britta; Magerkurth, Jörg; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald; Linden, David E J; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

2012-09-01

183

Influence of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene on the brain and working memory in men with normal FMR1 alleles  

PubMed Central

The fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuronal circuits that are essential for cognitive functioning. We explored the functional linkage(s) among lymphocytic FMR1 gene expression, brain structure, and working memory in healthy adult males. We acquired T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging from 34 males (18–80 years, mean ± SD = 43.6 ± 18.4 years) with normal FMR1 alleles and performed genetic and working memory assessments. Brain measurements were obtained from fiber tracts important for working memory (i.e. the arcuate fasciculus, anterior cingulum bundle, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and the genu and anterior body of the corpus callosum), individual voxels, and whole brain. Both FMR1 mRNA and protein (FMRP) levels exhibited significant associations with brain measurements, with FMRP correlating positively with gray matter volume and white matter structural organization, and FMR1 mRNA negatively with white matter structural organization. The correlation was widespread, impacting rostral white matter and 2 working-memory fiber tracts for FMRP, and all cerebral white matter areas except fornix and cerebellar peduncles and all 4 fiber tracts for FMR1 mRNA. In addition, the levels of FMR1 mRNA as well as the fiber tracts demonstrated significant correlation with working memory performance. While FMR1 mRNA exhibited negative correlation with working memory, fiber tract structural organization showed positive correlation. These findings suggest that the FMR1 gene is a genetic factor in common for both working memory and the brain structure, and has implications for our understanding of the transmission of intelligence and brain structure. PMID:23063447

Wang, Jun Yi; Hessl, David; Iwahashi, Christine; Cheung, Katherine; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Hagerman, Paul J.; Rivera, Susan M.

2012-01-01

184

Brain stem origins of spinal projections in the lizard Tupinambis nigropunctatus.  

PubMed

In order to study brainstem origins of spinal projections, ten Tegu lizards (Tupinambis nigropunctatus) received complete or partial hemisections of the spinal cord at the first or second cervical segment. Their brains were processed for conventional Nissl staining. The sections were surveyed for the presence or absence of retrograde chromatolysis. Based on analysis and comparison of results from lesions in the various spinal cord funiculi, the following conclusions were reached: The interstitial nucleus projects ipsilaterally to the spinal cord via the medial longitudinal fasciculus, as does the middle reticular field of the metencephalon. The red nucleus and dorsal vagal motor nucleus both project contralaterally to the spinal cord via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. The superior reticular field in the rostral metencephalon and the ventrolateral vestibular nucleus project ipsilaterally to the spinal cord via the ventral funiculus. The dorsolateral metencephalic nucleus and the ventral part of the inferior reticular nucleus of the myelencephalon both project ipsilaterally to the spinal cord via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. Several brainstem nuclei in Tupinambis project bilaterally to the spinal cord. The ventrolateral metencephalic nucleus, for example, projects ipsilaterally to the cord via the medial longitudinal fasciculus and contralaterally via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. The dorsal part of the inferior reticular nucleus projects bilaterally to the spinal cord via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus. The nucleus solitarius complex projects contralaterally via the dorsal part of the lateral funiculus but ipsilaterally via the middle of the lateral funiculus. The inferior raphe nucleus projects bilaterally to the spinal cord via the middle part of the lateral funiculus. These data suggest that supraspinal projections in reptiles, especially reticulospinal systems, are more highly differentiated than previously thought. On the other hand, recent findings in cat, opossum, and monkey reveal that the organization of supraspinal pathways in the Tegu lizard bears a striking resemblance to that observed in mammals. PMID:7240441

Cruce, W L; Newman, D B

1981-05-10

185

Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes APOE and TOMM40, and brain white matter integrity in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ? genotype has previously been significantly associated with cognitive, brain imaging, and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes (e.g., age of onset). In the TOMM40 gene, the rs10524523 ("523") variable length poly-T repeat polymorphism has more recently been associated with similar ph/enotypes, although the allelic directions of these associations have varied between initial reports. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, the present study aimed to investigate whether there are independent effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 genotypes on human brain white matter integrity in a community-dwelling sample of older adults, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (mean age = 72.70 years, standard deviation = 0.74, N approximately = 640-650; for most analyses). Some nominally significant effects were observed (i.e., covariate-adjusted differences between genotype groups at p < 0.05). For APOE, deleterious effects of ?4 "risk" allele presence (vs. absence) were found in the right ventral cingulum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. To test for biologically independent effects of the TOMM40 523 repeat, participants were stratified into APOE genotype subgroups, so that any significant effects could not be attributed to APOE variation. In participants with the APOE ?3/?4 genotype, effects of TOMM40 523 status were found in the left uncinate fasciculus, left rostral cingulum, left ventral cingulum, and a general factor of white matter integrity. In all 4 of these tractography measures, carriers of the TOMM40 523 "short" allele showed lower white matter integrity when compared with carriers of the "long" and "very-long" alleles. Most of these effects survived correction for childhood intelligence test scores and vascular disease history, though only the effect of TOMM40 523 on the left ventral cingulum integrity survived correction for false discovery rate. The effects of APOE in this older population are more specific and restricted compared with those reported in previous studies, and the effects of TOMM40 on white matter integrity appear to be novel, although replication is required in large independent samples. PMID:24508314

Lyall, Donald M; Harris, Sarah E; Bastin, Mark E; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Murray, Catherine; Lutz, Michael W; Saunders, Ann M; Roses, Allen D; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C; Royle, Natalie A; Starr, John M; Porteous, David J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

2014-06-01

186

Gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume differences in children with Specific Language Impairment and/or Reading Disability.  

PubMed

We studied gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations that may be critical for language, through an optimized voxel-based morphometry evaluation in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to Typical Language Development (TLD). Ten children with SLI (8;5-10;9) and 14 children with TLD (8;2-11;8) participated. They received a comprehensive language and reading test battery. We also analyzed a subgroup of six children with SLI+RD (Reading Disability). Brain images from 3-Tesla MRIs were analyzed with intelligence, age, gender, and total intracranial volume as covariates. Children with SLI or SLI+RD exhibited a significant lower overall gray matter volume than children with TLD. Particularly, children with SLI showed a significantly lower volume of gray matter compared to children with TLD in the right postcentral parietal gyrus (BA4), and left and right medial occipital gyri (BA19). The group with SLI also exhibited a significantly greater volume of gray matter in the right superior occipital gyrus (BA19), which may reflect a brain reorganization to compensate for their lower volumes at medial occipital gyri. Children with SLI+RD, compared to children with TLD, showed a significantly lower volume of: (a) gray matter in the right postcentral parietal gyrus; and (b) white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (RILF), which interconnects the temporal and occipital lobes. Children with TLD exhibited a significantly lower CSF volume than children with SLI and children with SLI+RD respectively, who had somewhat smaller volumes of gray matter allowing for more CSF volume. The significant lower gray matter volume at the right postcentral parietal gyrus and greater cerebrospinal fluid volume may prove to be unique markers for SLI. We discuss the association of poor knowledge/visual representations and language input to brain development. Our comorbid study showed that a significant lower volume of white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus may be unique to children with SLI and Reading Disability. It was significantly associated to reading comprehension of sentences and receptive language composite z-score, especially receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension of stories. PMID:24418156

Girbau-Massana, Dolors; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Schwartz, Richard G

2014-04-01

187

Relating brain anatomy and cognitive ability using a multivariate multimodal framework  

PubMed Central

Linking structural neuroimaging data from multiple modalities to cognitive performance is an important challenge for cognitive neuroscience. In this study we examined the relationship between verbal fluency performance and neuroanatomy in 54 patients with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) and 15 age-matched controls, all of whom had T1- and diffusion-weighted imaging. Our goal was to incorporate measures of both gray matter (voxel-based cortical thickness) and white matter (fractional anisotropy) into a single statistical model that relates to behavioral performance. We first used eigenanatomy to define data-driven regions of interest (DD-ROIs) for both gray matter and white matter. Eigenanatomy is a multivariate dimensionality reduction approach that identifies spatially smooth, unsigned principal components that explain the maximal amount of variance across subjects. We then used a statistical model selection procedure to see which of these DD-ROIs best modeled performance on verbal fluency tasks hypothesized to rely on distinct components of a large-scale neural network that support language: category fluency requires a semantic-guided search and is hypothesized to rely primarily on temporal cortices that support lexical-semantic representations; letter-guided fluency requires a strategic mental search and is hypothesized to require executive resources to support a more demanding search process, which depends on prefrontal cortex in addition to temporal network components that support lexical representations. We observed that both types of verbal fluency performance are best described by a network that includes a combination of gray matter and white matter. For category fluency, the identified regions included bilateral temporal cortex and a white matter region including left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and frontal–occipital fasciculus. For letter fluency, a left temporal lobe region was also selected, and also regions of frontal cortex. These results are consistent with our hypothesized neuroanatomical models of language processing and its breakdown in FTD. We conclude that clustering the data with eigenanatomy before performing linear regression is a promising tool for multimodal data analysis. PMID:24830834

Cook, Philip A.; McMillan, Corey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Gee, James C.; Grossman, Murray

2014-01-01

188

Disrupted white matter in language and motor tracts in developmental stuttering.  

PubMed

White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by evaluating the relationship between white matter differences in people who stutter and factors such as age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. We replicated previous findings that showed reduced integrity in white matter underlying ventral premotor cortex, cerebral peduncles and posterior corpus callosum in people who stutter relative to controls. Tractography analysis additionally revealed significantly reduced white matter integrity in the arcuate fasciculus bilaterally and the left corticospinal tract and significantly reduced connectivity within the left corticobulbar tract in people who stutter. Region-of-interest analyses revealed reduced white matter integrity in people who stutter in the three pairs of cerebellar peduncles that carry the afferent and efferent fibers of the cerebellum. Within the group of people who stutter, the higher the stuttering severity index, the lower the white matter integrity in the left angular gyrus, but the greater the white matter connectivity in the left corticobulbar tract. Also, in people who stutter, handedness and age predicted the integrity of the corticospinal tract and peduncles, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine which of these white matter differences relate to the neural basis of stuttering and which reflect experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:23819900

Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Howell, Peter; Watkins, Kate E

2014-04-01

189

Dissociable morphometric profiles of the affective and cognitive dimensions of alexithymia.  

PubMed

Alexithymia ("no words for feelings") is a psychological construct that can be divided in a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension reflects the ability to identify, verbalize and analyze feelings, whereas the affective dimension reflects the degree to which individuals get aroused by emotional stimuli and their ability to fantasize. These two alexithymia dimensions may differentially put individuals at risk to develop psychopathology. However, their neural correlates have rarely been investigated. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the cognitive and affective alexithymia dimension are associated with unique anatomical profiles. Structural MRI scans of 57 participants (29 males; mean age: 34) were processed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) - Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the common and specific associations between gray and white matter volume and alexithymia subdimensions. The results revealed that the cognitive dimension was related to lower dorsal anterior cingulate volume. In contrast, the affective alexithymia was associated with lower gray matter volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lower white matter volume in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) near the angular gyrus. No relationship between corpus callosum volume and alexithymia was observed. These results are consistent with the idea that there are two separable neural systems underlying alexithymia. This finding might encourage future research into the link between specific alexithymia subtypes and the development of psychopathology. PMID:24699037

van der Velde, Jorien; van Tol, Marie-José; Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

2014-05-01

190

Alcohol Use and Cerebral White Matter Compromise in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, a period known to be critical in neurodevelopment. The adolescent brain may be particularly susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. While the cognitive deficits associated with alcohol use during adolescence have been well-documented, the neural substrates underlying these effects remain inadequately understood. Cerebral white matter has been suggested as a primary site of alcohol-related damage and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for the quantification of white matter integrity in vivo. This review summarizes results from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies employing DTI that indicate that white matter tracts, particularly those thought to be involved in executive functioning, continue to develop throughout adolescence and into adulthood. Numerous DTI studies reveal a positive correlation between white matter integrity and neurocognitive performance and, in adults, the detrimental effects of prolonged alcohol-dependence on white matter integrity. We provide a comprehensive review of the DTI studies exploring the relationship between alcohol use and white matter integrity in adolescents. Results from most of these studies suggest that alcohol use is associated with reduced white matter integrity, particularly in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and some evidence suggests that this relationship may be influenced by sex. We conclude by highlighting confounds and limitations of the available research and suggesting directions for future research. PMID:23583835

Elofson, Jonathan; Gongvatana, Win; Carey, Kate B.

2013-01-01

191

Development of white matter and reading skills.  

PubMed

White matter tissue properties are highly correlated with reading proficiency; we would like to have a model that relates the dynamics of an individual's white matter development to their acquisition of skilled reading. The development of cerebral white matter involves multiple biological processes, and the balance between these processes differs between individuals. Cross-sectional measures of white matter mask the interplay between these processes and their connection to an individual's cognitive development. Hence, we performed a longitudinal study to measure white-matter development (diffusion-weighted imaging) and reading development (behavioral testing) in individual children (age 7-15 y). The pattern of white-matter development differed significantly among children. In the left arcuate and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, children with above-average reading skills initially had low fractional anisotropy (FA) that increased over the 3-y period, whereas children with below-average reading skills had higher initial FA that declined over time. We describe a dual-process model of white matter development comprising biological processes with opposing effects on FA, such as axonal myelination and pruning, to explain the pattern of results. PMID:23045658

Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Wandell, Brian A

2012-10-30

192

White matter microstructure is associated with cognitive control in children.  

PubMed

Cognitive control, which involves the ability to pay attention and suppress interference, is important for learning and achievement during childhood. The white matter tracts related to control during childhood are not well known. We examined the relationship between white matter microstructure and cognitive control in 61 children aged 7-9 years using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This technique enables an in vivo characterization of microstructural properties of white matter based on properties of diffusion. Such properties include fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, measures thought to reflect specific biological properties of white matter integrity. Our results suggest that children with higher estimates of white matter integrity in the corona radiata, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiation, and cerebral peduncle were more accurate during incongruent (> > < > >, < < > < <) and neutral (-->-, --<--) trials of a task of cognitive control. Importantly, less interference during the task (i.e., incongruent and neutral difference scores) was associated with greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiation and cerebral peduncle. Fiber tracts in a frontal-parietal-striatal-motor circuit seem to play a role in cognitive control in children. PMID:23714226

Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Voss, Michelle W; Powers, John P; Knecht, Anya M; Pontifex, Matthew B; Drollette, Eric S; Moore, R Davis; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

2013-09-01

193

Frontoparietal white matter diffusion properties predict mental arithmetic skills in children.  

PubMed

Functional MRI studies of mental arithmetic consistently report blood oxygen level-dependent signals in the parietal and frontal regions. We tested whether white matter pathways connecting these regions are related to mental arithmetic ability by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure these pathways in 28 children (age 10-15 years, 14 girls) and assessing their mental arithmetic skills. For each child, we identified anatomically the anterior portion of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF), a pathway connecting parietal and frontal cortex. We measured fractional anisotropy in a core region centered along the length of the aSLF. Fractional anisotropy in the left aSLF positively correlates with arithmetic approximation skill, as measured by a mental addition task with approximate answer choices. The correlation is stable in adjacent core aSLF regions but lower toward the pathway endpoints. The correlation is not explained by shared variance with other cognitive abilities and did not pass significance in the right aSLF. These measurements used DTI, a structural method, to test a specific functional model of mental arithmetic. PMID:19948963

Tsang, Jessica M; Dougherty, Robert F; Deutsch, Gayle K; Wandell, Brian A; Ben-Shachar, Michal

2009-12-29

194

Late infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. An unusual case with predominantly myoclonic-epileptic symptomatology.  

PubMed

A case of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (I.N.A.D.) with late onset is described with protracted course and predominant myoclonic-epileptic symptomatology. A girl of 13 years died in myoclonic-epileptic state. She had suffered from a mild cerebellar deficit, slight intellectual impairment and increasing myoclonic attacks since the age of 5 years. A similar neurological syndrome, beginning at almost the same age, occurred in her younger brother who died at the age of 11 years from acute hepatic failure (without autopsy). Histological examination of the CNS in the girl revealed a diffuse neuroaxonal dystrophy, some areas of spongy degeneration in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, cortical atrophy of cerebellum accompanied by demyelination of the spinocerebellar tracts, the fasciculus gracilis and the cortico-bulbar tracts. Such histological features are in keeping with those of I.N.A.D. or Seitelberger's disease. The clinical features, however, differ considerably from the latter as well as from Hallervorden-Spatz's disease and seem to belong, instead, to the group of progressive myoclonus epilepsies. In the differential diagnosis of these rare conditions, therefore, also the I.N.A.D. ought to be considered. PMID:6789439

Barontini, F; Papini, M

1981-01-01

195

New Burgess shale type fauna in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation on Mt. Stephen, British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Excavation of a fossil locality discovered in 1981 on Mount Stephen, 5 km south of the Burgess shale site on Mount Wapta, has yielded about 1000 specimens of a new soft-bodied and lightly-sclerotized fauna. The fauna includes the trilobite, Glossopleura, which is characteristic of the lower part of the Stephen Formation, 100 m or more stratigraphically below the level of the Burgess shale fauna. The arthropod, Alalcomenaeus, a genus extremely rare in the Burgess shale, is by far the most numerous, followed by a new, fishlike arthropod with prominent eyes, and Branchiocaris, another extremely rare Burgess shale arthropod. Many Burgess shale animals are present, although the most common, Marrella, is absent. They include the arthropods Canadaspis, Naraoia, Plenocaris and Tuzoia, the worms Ottoia and Burgessochaeta, the onychophoran Aysheaia, the sponge Leptomitus, Wiwaxia of unknown affinities, and Fasciculus, a possible ctenophore. The Glossopleura fauna thus adds extant and extinct invertebrate groups to those already known in the Middle Cambrian epoch, mostly from the Burgess shale. It also demonstrates that the animals preserved in the Stephen Formation are evolutionarily stable.

Collins, D.H.

1985-01-01

196

A study of the reproducibility and etiology of diffusion anisotropy differences in developmental stuttering: a potential role for impaired myelination  

PubMed Central

Several diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions within the left perisylvian white matter (WM) of persistent developmental stutterers (PSs). However, these studies have not reached the same conclusions in regard to the presence, spatial distribution (focal/ diffuse), and directionality (elevated/reduced) of FA differences outside of the left perisylvian region. In addition, supplemental DTI measures (axial and radial diffusivities, diffusion trace) have yet to be utilized to examine the potential etiology of these FA reductions. Therefore, the present study sought to reexamine earlier findings through a sex- and age-controlled replication analysis and then to extend these findings with the aforementioned non-FA measures. The replication analysis showed that robust FA reductions in PSs were largely focal, left hemispheric, and within late-myelinating associative and commissural fibers (division III of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, callosal body, forceps minor of the corpus callosum). Additional DTI measures revealed that these FA reductions were attributable to an increase in diffusion perpendicular to the affected fiber tracts (elevated radial diffusivity). These findings suggest a hypothesis that will be testable in future studies: that myelogenesis may be abnormal in PSs within left-hemispheric fiber tracts that begin a prolonged course of myelination in the first postnatal year. PMID:20471482

Cykowski, M.D.; Fox, P.T.; Ingham, R.J.; Ingham, J.C.; Robin, D.A.

2011-01-01

197

A crucial role for the cortico-striato-cortical loop in the pathogenesis of stroke-related neurogenic stuttering.  

PubMed

Neurogenic stuttering is an acquired speech disorder characterized by the occurrence of stuttering-like dysfluencies following brain damage. Because the onset of stuttering in these patients is associated with brain lesions, this condition provides a unique opportunity to study the neural processes underlying speech dysfluencies. Lesion localizations of 20 stroke subjects with neurogenic stuttering and 17 control subjects were compared using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. The results showed nine left-hemisphere areas associated with the presence of neurogenic stuttering. These areas were largely overlapping with the cortico-basal ganglia-cortical network comprising the inferior frontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, basal ganglia, and their white matter interconnections through the superior longitudinal fasciculus and internal capsule. These results indicated that stroke-induced neurogenic stuttering is not associated with neural dysfunction in one specific brain area but can occur following one or more lesion throughout the cortico-basal ganglia-cortical network. It is suggested that the onset of neurogenic stuttering in stroke subjects results from a disintegration of neural functions necessary for fluent speech. PMID:22451328

Theys, Catherine; De Nil, Luc; Thijs, Vincent; van Wieringen, Astrid; Sunaert, Stefan

2013-09-01

198

Neurophysiology of Nicotine Addiction  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use is a major health problem, and nicotine is the main addictive component. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) to produce its initial effects. The nAChRs subtypes are composed of five subunits that can form in numerous combinations with varied functional and pharmacological characteristics. Diverse psychopharmacological effects contribute to the overall process of nicotine addiction, but two general neural systems are emerging as critical for the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry that includes the dopaminergic pathway originating in the ventral tegmental area and projecting to the nucleus accumbens is recognized as vital for reinforcing behaviors during the initiation of nicotine addiction. In this neural system ?2, ?4, and ?6 are the most important nAChR subunits underlying the rewarding aspects of nicotine and nicotine self-administration. On the other hand, the epithalamic habenular complex and the interpeduncular nucleus, which are connected via the fasciculus retroflexus, are critical contributors regulating nicotine dosing and withdrawal symptoms. In this case, the ?5 and ?4 nAChR subunits have critical roles in combination with other subunits. In both of these neural systems, particular nAChR subtypes have roles that contribute to the overall nicotine addiction process PMID:22454789

Dani, John A.; Jenson, Daniel; Broussard, John I.; De Biasi, Mariella

2012-01-01

199

Current themes in neuroimaging studies of reading  

PubMed Central

This editorial provides a summary of the highlights from 11 new papers that have been published in a special issue of Brain and Language on the neurobiology of reading. The topics investigate reading mechanisms in both adults and children. Several of the findings illustrate how responses in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex, and other reading areas, change with learning, expertise and the task: In the early stages of reading acquisition, learning/expertise increases activation in reading areas as well as in an attentionally-controlled, learning circuit. In later stages, expertise and efficiency decrease activation within the reading network and increase anatomical connectivity. Special interest is given to a white matter tract (the vertical occipital fasciculus) that projects dorsally from the left occipito-temporal cortex to the posterior parietal lobe. This observation fits with a magnetoencephalography study showing how activity in the angular gyrus is influenced by early occipito-temporal activity; with angular gyrus activity contributing to inferior frontal activity. Overall, the papers within the special issue illustrate the wide range of different techniques that can be used to reveal the functional anatomy of reading and the time course of activity within the different reading pathways. PMID:23473814

Price, Cathy J.

2013-01-01

200

"The Relationship between Executive Functioning, Processing Speed and White Matter Integrity in Multiple Sclerosis"  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between performance on executive tasks and white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A second aim was to examine how processing speed affects the relationship between executive functioning and FA. This relationship was examined in two executive tasks that rely heavily on processing speed: the Color-Word Interference Test and Trail-Making Test (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System). It was hypothesized that reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) is related to poor performance on executive tasks in MS, but that this relationship would be affected by the statistical correction of processing speed from the executive tasks. 15 healthy controls and 25 persons with MS participated. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between executive functioning and FA, both before and after processing speed was removed from the executive scores. Before processing speed was removed from the executive scores, reduced FA was associated with poor performance on Color-Word Interference Test and Trail-Making Test in a diffuse network including corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus. However, once processing speed was removed, the relationship between executive functions and FA was no longer significant on the Trail Making test, and significantly reduced and more localized on the Color-Word Interference Test. PMID:23777468

Genova, Helen M.; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Wylie, Glenn

2014-01-01

201

Conduction aphasia with intact visual object naming.  

PubMed

Conduction aphasia, most often caused by damage to the inferior parietal lobe and arcuate fasciculus, is usually characterized by mildly dysfluent speech with frequent phonemic paraphasic errors, impaired repetition, and impaired word finding and naming, but with relatively spared comprehension. We report an 86-year-old right-handed man with conduction aphasia caused by an infarction that damaged his right temporoparietal region. On testing with the Western Aphasia Battery, however, he named objects almost perfectly. To test his naming ability further, we showed him half the items in the Boston Naming Test; we described or defined the other half of the items, but did not show them to the patient. He performed excellently when naming the objects that he could see, but he had difficulty naming the objects that were only described or defined. These observations suggest that visual word naming may be mediated by a network that is somewhat independent of the networks that mediate spontaneous word finding and word finding based on verbal descriptions or definitions. PMID:24968010

Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Heilman, Kenneth M

2014-06-01

202

Whole brain functional connectivity using phase locking measures of resting state magnetoencephalography  

PubMed Central

The analysis of spontaneous functional connectivity (sFC) reveals the statistical connections between regions of the brain consistent with underlying functional communication networks within the brain. In this work, we describe the implementation of a complete all-to-all network analysis of resting state neuronal activity from magnetoencephalography (MEG). Using graph theory to define networks at the dipole level, we established functionally defined regions by k-means clustering cortical surface locations using Eigenvector centrality (EVC) scores from the all-to-all adjacency model. Permutation testing was used to estimate regions with statistically significant connections compared to empty room data, which adjusts for spatial dependencies introduced by the MEG inverse problem. In order to test this model, we performed a series of numerical simulations investigating the effects of the MEG reconstruction on connectivity estimates. We subsequently applied the approach to subject data to investigate the effectiveness of our method in obtaining whole brain networks. Our findings indicated that our model provides statistically robust estimates of functional region networks. Application of our phase locking network methodology to real data produced networks with similar connectivity to previously published findings, specifically, we found connections between contralateral areas of the arcuate fasciculus that have been previously investigated. The use of data-driven methods for neuroscientific investigations provides a new tool for researchers in identifying and characterizing whole brain functional connectivity networks. PMID:25018690

Schmidt, Benjamin T.; Ghuman, Avniel S.; Huppert, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

203

Axon tracts guide zebrafish facial branchiomotor neuron migration through the hindbrain  

PubMed Central

Appropriate localization of neurons within the brain is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. In the zebrafish hindbrain, the facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) undergo a chain-like tangential migration from their birthplace in rhombomere (r) 4 to their final destination in r6/r7. Here, we report that ablation of either the cell body or the trailing axon of the leading FBMN, or ‘pioneer’ neuron, blocks the migration of follower FBMNs into r5. This demonstrates that the pioneer neuron and its axon are crucial to the early migration of FBMNs. Later migration from r5 to r6 is not dependent on pioneer neurons but on the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of axons lying ventral to the FBMNs. We find that MLF axons enter r5 only after the pioneer neuron has led several followers into this region; the MLF is then contacted by projections from the FBMNs. The interactions between FBMNs and the MLF are important for migration from r5 to r6, as blocking MLF axons from entering the hindbrain can stall FBMN migration in r5. Finally, we have found that the adhesion molecule Cdh2 (N-cadherin) is important for interactions between the MLF and FBMNs, as well as for interactions between the trailing axon of the pioneer neuron and follower FBMNs. Interestingly, migration of pioneer neurons is independent of both the MLF and Cdh2, suggesting pioneer migration relies on independent cues. PMID:23325758

Wanner, Sarah J.; Prince, Victoria E.

2013-01-01

204

Evaluation of fiber tracking from subsampled q-space data in diffusion spectrum imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is capable of resolving crossing and touching fiber bundles in a given voxel. Acquisition of DSI data involves sampling large number of points in the q-space which significantly increases scan times. The scan times can be reduced by exploiting the symmetry of the q-space. In this study the fiber pathways for five (fornix, cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and crossing fibers in the centrum semiovale region) fiber bundles derived using three subsampled data sets of different sizes derived from the 257 samples in the q-space are compared. The coefficient of variation of the ratio of the number of fiber pathways for each subsample data set to the original data points, averaged over all the 10 subjects, was used for quantitatively investigating the effect of subsampling on the tractography. The effect of threshold angles on tractography is also investigated. The effect of subsampling on the orientation distribution function (ODF) was quantitatively evaluated using both scalar and vector measures derived from the ODF. A streamline tractography method that improves the curvature problem and reduces the local truncation error to further improve the mapping of fiber pathways is adapted. Analysis of the fiber pathways in ten normal subjects, based on qualitative and quantitative methods, shows that the 129 and 198 q-space points provide very similar result with angle of threshold between 41° and 45°. Based on the scan time advantage, 129 subsampled points appear to be adequate for tractography. PMID:23602724

Tefera, Getaneh Bayu; Zhou, Yuxiang; Juneja, Vaibhav; Narayana, Ponnada A

2013-07-01

205

Mapping joint grey and white matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease using joint independent component analysis  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease concomitant with grey and white matter damages. However, the interrelationship of volumetric changes between grey and white matter remains poorly understood in AD. Using joint independent component analysis, this study identified joint grey and white matter volume reductions based on structural magnetic resonance imaging data to construct the covariant networks in twelve AD patients and fourteen normal controls (NC). We found that three networks showed significant volume reductions in joint grey–white matter sources in AD patients, including (1) frontal/parietal/temporal-superior longitudinal fasciculus/corpus callosum, (2) temporal/parietal/occipital-frontal/occipital, and (3) temporal-precentral/postcentral. The corresponding expression scores distinguished AD patients from NC with 85.7%, 100% and 85.7% sensitivity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 75.0%, 66.7% and 75.0% specificity for joint sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore, the combined source of three significant joint sources best predicted the AD/NC group membership with 92.9% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. Our findings revealed joint grey and white matter loss in AD patients, and these results can help elucidate the mechanism of grey and white matter reductions in the development of AD. PMID:23123779

Guo, Xiaojuan; Han, Yuan; Chen, Kewei; Wang, Yan; Yao, Li

2013-01-01

206

Morphometry and connectivity of the fronto-parietal verbal working memory network in development.  

PubMed

Two distinctly different maturational processes - cortical thinning and white matter maturation - take place in the brain as we mature from late childhood to adulthood. To what extent does each contribute to the development of complex cognitive functions like working memory? The independent and joint contributions of cortical thickness of regions of the left fronto-parietal network and the diffusion characteristics of the connecting pathway of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in accounting for verbal working memory performance were investigated, using a predefined regions of interest-approach. 108 healthy participants aged 8-19 years underwent MRI, including anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), as well as cognitive testing using a digit span task. Radial diffusivity of the SLF, as well as cortical thickness of supramarginal gyrus and rostral middle frontal cortex, were negatively related to digit span forwards performance, independently of age. Radial diffusivity of the SLF was also negatively related to digit span backwards. A multi-modal analysis showed that cortical thickness and SLF microstructure were complementary in explaining working memory span. Furthermore, SLF microstructure and cortical thickness had different impact on working memory performance during the developmental period, suggesting a complex developmental interplay. The results indicate that cortical and white matter maturation each play unique roles in the development of working memory. PMID:22001853

Østby, Ylva; Tamnes, Christian K; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

2011-12-01

207

Cytoskeletal components and calibers in developing fish Mauthner axon (Salmo gairdneri Rich.).  

PubMed

In developing axons of many vertebrates, microtubular density is inversely correlated with fiber caliber. It is suggested that microtubules are causally related to axonal caliber. For this reason, cytoskeletal analysis during development of the fish Mauthner axon, which displays a giant caliber, is of particular interest. The Mauthner axon originates from the Mauthner cell in the medulla and runs in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis in the spinal cord. At embryonic, larval and postlarval stages in trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich.), the following parameters were measured on conventional electron micrographs of Mauthner axon cross sections; axonal caliber, number of microtubules per axons, and microtubular and neurofilament densities. Results at each stage point to an inverse correlation between axonal caliber (x) and microtubular density (y) expressed by the equation y = axb (R = 0.932). Furthermore, three periods of Mauthner axon development are identified on the basis of the cytoskeletal content: (1) embryonic; the Mauthner axon has small caliber with a high microtubule density, (2) elongation period (larval stages); the axon enlarges and a transient peak of microtubules, corresponding to the caliber increment, is observed, and (3) postlarval; the axon enlarges still further (greater than 500 microns 2) but has the lowest microtubular content. During this period neurofilaments are the main axonal component. PMID:1797871

Alfei, L; Medolago Albani, L; Mosetti, A R; Scarfo, C; Stefanelli, A

1991-12-01

208

Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. (Fishberg Research Center for Neurobiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1991-03-15

209

Descending projections to the hindbrain and spinal cord in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, almost all motor neurons innervating skeletal muscles are located in the hindbrain and spinal cord, and all brain centers that control behavior have descending projections into these parts of the central nervous system. With tracer injections into the spinal cord and hindbrain, we have studied cell groups with descending projections in the paddlefish. Spinal cord injections reveal retrogradely labeled cells in all reticular and raphe nuclei, as well as the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle. Additional cell groups with projections to the spinal cord are the nucleus of the fasciculus solitarius, descending trigeminal nucleus, several octavolateral nuclei, the dorsal hypothalamic nucleus, and the pretectum. The only primary sensory fibers with descending projections are trigeminal fibers. Hindbrain injections reveal a number of additional cell groups in di- and mesencephalon. The most prominent source is the mesencephalic tectum. Other descending cells were found in the dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus, ventral thalamus, torus semicircularis, lateral mesencephalic nucleus, and the central gray of the mesencephalon. Our data show that descending spinal projections are comparable to those of other vertebrates and that the tectum is the most important motor control center projecting to the hindbrain. A surprising result was that the dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus also projects to the hindbrain. This nucleus is thought to be a center that relays sensory information to the telencephalon. Further studies are needed to determine the complete set of projections of the dorsal thalamus in paddlefish and other fishes to gain insights into its functional role. PMID:20051233

Metzen, Michael G; Chambwa, Mwaka; Wilkens, Lon A; Hofmann, Michael H

2010-03-01

210

[Neural representation of human body schema and corporeal self-consciousness].  

PubMed

The human brain processes every sensation evoked by altered posture and builds up a constantly changing postural model of the body. This is called a body schema, and somatic signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints, i.e. proprioceptive signals, largely contribute its formation. Recent neuroimaging techniques have revealed neuronal substrates for human body schema. A dynamic limb position model seems to be computed in the central motor network (represented by the primary motor cortex). Here, proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals from muscle spindles are transformed into motor commands, which may underlie somatic perception of limb movement and facilitate its efficient motor control. Somatic signals originating from different body parts are integrated in the course of hierarchical somatosensory processing, and activity in higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices is capable of representing a postural model of the entire body. The left fronto-parietal network associates internal motor representation with external object representation, allowing the embodiment of external objects. In contrast, the right fronto-parietal regions connected by the most inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus fibers seem to have the functions of monitoring bodily states and updating body schema. We hypothesize that activity in these right-sided fronto-parietal regions is deeply involved in corporeal self-consciousness. PMID:24748084

Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo

2014-04-01

211

Patterns of Gene Expression Associated with Pten Deficiency in the Developing Inner Ear  

PubMed Central

In inner ear development, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is necessary for neuronal maintenance, such as neuronal survival and accurate nerve innervations of hair cells. We previously reported that Pten conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited disorganized fasciculus with neuronal apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). To better understand the genes and signaling networks related to auditory neuron maintenance, we compared the profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using microarray analysis of the inner ear in E14.5 Pten cKO and wild-type mice. We identified 46 statistically significant transcripts using significance analysis of microarrays, with the false-discovery rate set at 0%. Among the DEGs, expression levels of candidate genes and expression domains were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis using DEGs identified significant signaling networks associated with apoptosis, cellular movement, and axon guidance (i.e., secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1)-mediated cellular movement and regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (Rgs4)-mediated axon guidance). This result was consistent with the phenotypic defects of SGNs in Pten cKO mice (e.g., neuronal apoptosis, abnormal migration, and irregular nerve fiber patterns of SGNs). From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and Rgs4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons. PMID:24893171

Kim, Hyung Jin; Ryu, Jihee; Woo, Hae-Mi; Cho, Samuel Sunghwan; Sung, Min Kyung; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Mi-Hyun; Park, Taesung; Koo, Soo Kyung

2014-01-01

212

Diffusion tensor imaging predictors of treatment outcomes in major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Background Functional neuroimaging studies implicate anterior cingulate and limbic dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) and responsiveness to antidepressants. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables characterisation of white matter tracts that relate to these regions. Aims To examine whether DTI measures of anterior cingulate and limbic white matter are useful prognostic biomarkers for MDD. Method Of the 102 MDD out-patients from the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D) who provided baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, 74 completed an 8-week course of antidepressant medication (randomised to escitalopram, sertraline or extended-release venlafaxine) and were included in the present analyses. Thirty-four matched controls also provided DTI data. Fractional anisotropy was measured for five anterior cingulate-limbic white matter tracts: cingulum cingulate and hippocampus bundle, fornix, stria terminalis and uncinate fasciculus. (Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00693849.) Results A cross-validated logistic regression model demonstrated that altered connectivity for the cingulum part of the cingulate and stria terminalis tracts significantly predicted remission independent of demographic and clinical measures with 62% accuracy. Prediction improved to 74% when age was added to this model. Conclusions Anterior cingulate-limbic white matter is a useful predictor of antidepressant treatment outcome in MDD. PMID:24970773

Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Williams, Leanne M; Song, Yun Ju; Usherwood, Tim; Grieve, Stuart M

2014-10-01

213

Cognitive processing speed and the structure of white matter pathways: convergent evidence from normal variation and lesion studies.  

PubMed

We investigated the relation between cognitive processing speed and structural properties of white matter pathways via convergent imaging studies in healthy and brain-injured groups. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to diffusion tensor imaging data from thirty-nine young healthy subjects in order to investigate the relation between processing speed, as assessed with the Digit-Symbol subtest from WAIS-III, and fractional anisotropy, an index of microstructural organization of white matter. Digit-Symbol performance was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy of white matter in the parietal and temporal lobes bilaterally and in the left middle frontal gyrus. Fiber tractography indicated that these regions are consistent with the trajectories of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. In a second investigation, we assessed the effect of white matter damage on processing speed using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis of data from seventy-two patients with left-hemisphere strokes. Lesions in left parietal white matter, together with cortical lesions in supramarginal and angular gyri were associated with impaired performance. These findings suggest that cognitive processing speed, as assessed by the Digit-Symbol test, is closely related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts associated with parietal and temporal cortices and left middle frontal gyrus. Further, fiber tractography applied to VBM results and the patient findings suggest that the superior longitudinal fasciculus, a major tract subserving fronto-parietal integration, makes a prominent contribution to processing speed. PMID:18602840

Turken, Andu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Bammer, Roland; Baldo, Juliana V; Dronkers, Nina F; Gabrieli, John D E

2008-08-15

214

Tractography reveals diffuse white matter abnormalities in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.  

PubMed

Cerebral involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is well-established but not well characterized. This study applied new Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) tractography to characterize white matter disturbance in adults with DM1. Forty-five participants with DM1 and 44 control participants had MRIs on a Siemens 3T TIM Trio scanner. Data were processed with TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) and 7 tracts were evaluated. Bilateral disturbances in white matter integrity were seen in all tracts in participants with DM1 compared to controls. There were no right-left hemisphere differences. The resulting DTI metrics were correlated with cognitive functioning, particularly working memory and processing speed. Motor speed was not significantly correlated with white matter microstructural integrity and, thus, was not the core explanation for the working memory and processing speed findings. White matter integrity was correlated with important clinical variables including the muscular impairment rating scale (MIRS). CTG repeat length was moderately associated with white matter status in corticospinal tract and cingulum. Sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) was moderately associated with white matter status in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum. Overall, the results add to an emerging literature showing widespread white matter disturbances in both early-onset and adult-onset DM1. Results suggest that further investigation of white matter pathology is warranted in DM1 and that non-invasive measures such as DTI have a potentially important clinical value in characterizing the status of individuals with DM1. PMID:24768314

Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura S; Day, John W

2014-06-15

215

Tract-Based Morphometry for White Matter Group Analysis  

PubMed Central

We introduce an automatic method that we call tract-based morphometry, or TBM, for measurement and analysis of diffusion MRI data along white matter fiber tracts. Using subject-specific tractography bundle segmentations, we generate an arc length parameterization of the bundle with point correspondences across all fibers and all subjects, allowing tract-based measurement and analysis. In this paper we present a quantitative comparison of fiber coordinate systems from the literature and we introduce an improved optimal match method that reduces spatial distortion and improves intra- and inter-subject variability of FA measurements. We propose a method for generating arc length correspondences across hemispheres, enabling a TBM study of interhemispheric diffusion asymmetries in the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and cingulum bundle (CB). The results of this study demonstrate that TBM can detect differences that may not be found by measuring means of scalar invariants in entire tracts, such as the mean diffusivity (MD) differences found in AF. We report TBM results of higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left hemisphere in AF (caused primarily by lower ?3, the smallest eigenvalue of the diffusion tensor, in the left AF), and higher left hemisphere FA in CB (related to higher ?1, the largest eigenvalue of the diffusion tensor, in the left CB). By mapping the significance levels onto the tractography trajectories for each structure, we demonstrate the anatomical locations of the interhemispheric differences. The TBM approach brings analysis of DTI data into the clinically and neuroanatomically relevant framework of the tract anatomy. PMID:19154790

O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Golby, Alexandra J.

2009-01-01

216

Association between Severe Upper Limb Spasticity and Brain Lesion Location in Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Association between the site of brain injury and poststroke spasticity is poorly understood. The present study investigated whether lesion analysis could document brain regions associated with the development of severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 39 chronic stroke patients. Spasticity was assessed at the affected upper limb with the modified Ashworth scale (shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers). Brain lesions were traced from magnetic resonance imaging performed within the first 7 days after stroke and region of interest images were generated. The association between severe upper limb spasticity (modified Ashworth scale ?2) and lesion location was determined with the voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping method implemented in MRIcro software. Colored maps representing the z statistics were generated and overlaid onto the automated anatomical labeling and the Johns Hopkins University white matter templates provided with MRIcron. Thalamic nuclei were identified with the Talairach Daemon software. Injuries to the insula, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and white matter tracts (internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) were significantly associated with severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. Further advances in our understanding of the neural correlates of spasticity may lead to early targeted rehabilitation when key regions are damaged. PMID:24963473

Picelli, Alessandro; Tamburin, Stefano; Gajofatto, Francesca; Zanette, Giampietro; Praitano, Marialuigia; Saltuari, Leopold; Corradini, Claudio; Smania, Nicola

2014-01-01

217

Is there a pathway in the posterior funiculus that signals visceral pain?  

PubMed Central

Summary The present report provides evidence that axons in the medial part of the posterior column at T10 convey ascending nociceptive signals from pelvic visceral organs. This evidence was obtained from human surgical case studies and histological verification of the lesion in one of these cases, along with neuroanatomical and neurophysiological findings in animal experiments. A restricted lesion in this area can virtually eliminate pelvic pain due to cancer. The results remain excellent even in cases in which somatic structures of the pelvic body wall are involved. Following this procedure, neurological testing reveals no additional neurological deficit. There is no analgesia to pinprick stimuli applied to the body surface, despite the relief of the visceral pain. Since it is reasonable to attribute the favorable results of limited midline myelotomies to the interruption of axons of visceral nociceptive projection neurons in the posterior column, we have performed experiments in rats to test this hypothesis. The results in rats indicate that the dorsal column does indeed include a nociceptive component that signals pelvic visceral pain. The pathway includes neurons of the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway at the L6-S1 segmental level, axons of these neurons in the fasciculus gracilis, and neurons of the nucleus gracilis and the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. PMID:8951923

Hirshberg, R.M.; AI-Chaer, E.D.; Lawand, N.B.; Westlund, K.N.; Willis, W.D.

2011-01-01

218

F-Spondin/spon1b Expression Patterns in Developing and Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

F-spondin, an extracellular matrix protein, is an important player in embryonic morphogenesis and CNS development, but its presence and role later in life remains largely unknown. We generated a transgenic zebrafish in which GFP is expressed under the control of the F-spondin (spon1b) promoter, and used it in combination with complementary techniques to undertake a detailed characterization of the expression patterns of F-spondin in developing and adult brain and periphery. We found that F-spondin is often associated with structures forming long neuronal tracts, including retinal ganglion cells, the olfactory bulb, the habenula, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF). F-spondin expression coincides with zones of adult neurogenesis and is abundant in CSF-contacting secretory neurons, especially those in the hypothalamus. Use of this new transgenic model also revealed F-spondin expression patterns in the peripheral CNS, notably in enteric neurons, and in peripheral tissues involved in active patterning or proliferation in adults, including the endoskeleton of zebrafish fins and the continuously regenerating pharyngeal teeth. Moreover, patterning of the regenerating caudal fin following fin amputation in adult zebrafish was associated with F-spondin expression in the blastema, a proliferative region critical for tissue reconstitution. Together, these findings suggest major roles for F-spondin in the CNS and periphery of the developing and adult vertebrate. PMID:22768035

Akle, Veronica; Guelin, Emmanuel; Yu, Lili; Brassard-Giordano, Helena; Slack, Barbara E.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

2012-01-01

219

Social subordination stress and serotonin transporter polymorphisms: associations with brain white matter tract integrity and behavior in juvenile female macaques.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between social rank and brain white matter (WM) microstructure, and socioemotional behavior, and its modulation by serotonin (5HT) transporter (5HTT) polymorphisms in prepubertal female macaques. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, social status differences were found in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) WM and cortico-thalamic tracts, with subordinates showing higher WM structural integrity (measured as fractional anisotropy, FA) than dominant animals. 5HTT genotype-related differences were detected in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, where s-variants had higher FA than l/l animals. Status by 5HTT interaction effects were found in (1) external capsule (middle longitudinal fasciculus), (2) parietal WM, and (3) short-range PFC tracts, with opposite effects in dominant and subordinate animals. In most regions showing FA differences, opposite differences were detected in radial diffusivity, but none in axial diffusivity, suggesting that differences in tract integrity likely involve differences in myelin. These findings highlight that differences in social rank are associated with differences in WM structural integrity in juveniles, particularly in tracts connecting prefrontal, sensory processing, motor and association regions, sometimes modulated by 5HTT genotype. Differences in these tracts were associated with increased emotional reactivity in subordinates, particularly with higher submissive and fear behaviors. PMID:23908263

Howell, Brittany R; Godfrey, Jodi; Gutman, David A; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Zhang, Xiaodong; Nair, Govind; Hu, Xiaoping; Wilson, Mark E; Sanchez, Mar M

2014-12-01

220

White Matter Tract Integrity Predicts Visual Search Performance in Young and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging research has identified fronto-parietal attention networks involved in visual search, with mixed evidence regarding whether different networks are engaged when the search target differs from distracters by a single (elementary) versus multiple (conjunction) features. Neural correlates of visual search, and their potential dissociation, were examined here using integrity of white matter connecting the fronto-parietal networks. The effect of aging on these brain-behavior relationships was also of interest. Younger and older adults performed a visual search task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to reconstruct two fronto-parietal (superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, SLF and ILF) and two midline (genu, splenium) white matter tracts. As expected, results revealed age-related declines in conjunction, but not elementary, search performance; and in ILF and genu tract integrity. Importantly, integrity of the SLF, ILF, and genu tracts predicted search performance (conjunction and elementary), with no significant age group differences in these relationships. Thus, integrity of white matter tracts connecting fronto-parietal attention networks contributes to search performance in younger and older adults. PMID:21402431

Bennett, Ilana J.; Motes, Michael A.; Rao, Neena K.; Rypma, Bart

2011-01-01

221

A Brain Network Processing the Age of Faces  

PubMed Central

Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships. PMID:23185334

Homola, Gyorgy A.; Jbabdi, Saad; Beckmann, Christian F.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

2012-01-01

222

Channeling of developing rat corticospinal tract axons by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

CNS myelin contains 2 membrane proteins that are potent inhibitors of neurite growth (NI-35 and NI-250). Because myelin formation starts at different times in different regions and tracts of the CNS, this inhibitory property of myelin could serve boundary and guidance functions for late-growing fiber tracts. In the rat, the corticospinal tract (CST) grows into and down the spinal cord during the first 10 postnatal days, in close proximity to the sensory tracts fasciculus cuneatus and gracilis. Immunofluorescence for myelin constituents showed that, in the rostral half of the spinal cord, the myelinating tissue of these ascending tracts surrounds the growing, myelin-free CST in a channellike fashion. Elimination of oligodendrocytes by x-irradiation of the newborn rats, or application of antibody IN-1, which neutralizes the inhibitory substrate property of CNS myelin, resulted in significant anatomical aberration of CST fibers. In particular, the tract was larger in cross-section, and aberrant CST fibers and fascicles intermixed with the neighboring sensory ascending tracts. These results assign an important channeling and guard-rail function to the oligodendrocyte-associated neurite growth inhibitors for the developing CST in the rat spinal cord.

Schwab, M.E.; Schnell, L. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland))

1991-03-01

223

Development of tectal connectivity across metamorphosis in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).  

PubMed

In the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), the process of metamorphosis culminates in the appearance of new visual and visuomotor behaviors reflective of the emergence of binocular vision and visually-guided prey capture behaviors as the animal transitions to life on land. Using several different neuroanatomical tracers, we examined the substrates that may underlie these behavioral changes by tracing the afferent and efferent connectivity of the midbrain optic tectum across metamorphic development. Intratectal, tectotoral, tectotegmental, tectobulbar, and tecto-thalamic tracts exhibit similar trajectories of neurobiotin fiber label across the developmental span from early larval tadpoles to adults. Developmental variability was apparent primarily in intensity and distribution of cell and puncta label in target nuclei. Combined injections of cholera toxin subunit ? and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin consistently label cell bodies, puncta, or fiber segments bilaterally in midbrain targets including the pretectal gray, laminar nucleus of the torus semicircularis, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Developmentally stable label was observed bilaterally in medullary targets including the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, and reticular gray, and in forebrain targets including the posterior and ventromedial nuclei of the thalamus. The nucleus isthmi, cerebellum, lateral line nuclei, medial septum, ventral striatum, and medial pallium show more developmentally variable patterns of connectivity. Our results suggest that even during larval development, the optic tectum contains substrates for integration of visual with auditory, vestibular, and somatosensory cues, as well as for guidance of motivated behaviors. PMID:21266803

Horowitz, Seth S; Simmons, Andrea Megela

2010-01-01

224

Is there a critical lesion site for unilateral spatial neglect? A meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation  

PubMed Central

The critical lesion site responsible for the syndrome of unilateral spatial neglect has been debated for more than a decade. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to provide for the first time an objective quantitative index of the consistency of lesion sites across anatomical group studies of spatial neglect. The analysis revealed several distinct regions in which damage has consistently been associated with spatial neglect symptoms. Lesioned clusters were located in several cortical and subcortical regions of the right hemisphere, including the middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, caudate nucleus, and posterior insula, as well as in the white matter pathway corresponding to the posterior part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Further analyses suggested that separate lesion sites are associated with impairments in different behavioral tests, such as line bisection and target cancellation. Similarly, specific subcomponents of the heterogeneous neglect syndrome, such as extinction and allocentric and personal neglect, are associated with distinct lesion sites. Future progress in delineating the neuropathological correlates of spatial neglect will depend upon the development of more refined measures of perceptual and cognitive functions than those currently available in the clinical setting. PMID:22514528

Molenberghs, Pascal; Sale, Martin V.; Mattingley, Jason B.

2012-01-01

225

A Multimodal Assessment of the Genetic Control over Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Working memory performance is significantly influenced by genetic factors. Here, we assessed genetic contributions to both working memory performance and to neuroimaging measures focused on the network of brain regions associated with working memory, using a sample of 467 human participants from extended families. Imaging measures included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in major white matter tracts thought to be associated with working memory and structural MRI measures of frontal and parietal gray matter density. Analyses directly addressed whether working memory performance and neural structural integrity are influenced by common genetic factors (e.g. pleiotropy). While all cognitive measures, gray matter regions, and white matter tracts assessed were heritable, only performance on a spatial delayed response task and integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (a primary frontoparietal connection) shared genetic factors. As working memory may be a core component of other, higher level processes, such as general intelligence, this finding has implications for the heritability of complex cognitive functions, as well as for our understanding of the transmission of cognitive deficits in mental and neurological disorders. PMID:20554870

Karlsgodt, KH; Kochunov, P; Winkler, AM; Laird, AR; Almasy, L; Duggirala, R; Olvera, RL; Fox, PT; Blangero, J; Glahn, DC

2010-01-01

226

Research with rTMS in the treatment of aphasia.  

PubMed

This review of our research with rTMS to treat aphasia contains four parts: Part 1 reviews functional brain imaging studies related to recovery of language in aphasia with emphasis on nonfluent aphasia. Part 2 presents the rationale for using rTMS to treat nonfluent aphasia patients (based on results from functional imaging studies). Part 2 also reviews our current rTMS treatment protocol used with nonfluent aphasia patients, and our functional imaging results from overt naming fMRI scans, obtained pre- and post- a series of rTMS treatments. Part 3 presents results from a pilot study where rTMS treatments were followed immediately by constraint-induced language therapy (CILT). Part 4 reviews our diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study that examined white matter connections between the horizontal, midportion of the arcuate fasciculus (hAF) to different parts within Broca's area (pars triangularis, PTr; pars opercularis, POp), and the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the RH and in the LH. Part 4 also addresses some of the possible mechanisms involved with improved naming and speech, following rTMS with nonfluent aphasia patients. PMID:20714075

Naeser, Margaret A; Martin, Paula I; Treglia, Ethan; Ho, Michael; Kaplan, Elina; Bashir, Shahid; Hamilton, Roy; Coslett, H Branch; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2010-01-01

227

Multiple Indices of Diffusion Identifies White Matter Damage in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa. PMID:21738785

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D. Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

228

Multiple indices of diffusion identifies white matter damage in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa. PMID:21738785

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L W; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

229

Associations of white matter integrity and cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.  

PubMed

Typical brain development includes coordinated changes in both white matter (WM) integrity and cortical thickness (CT). These processes have been shown to be disrupted in schizophrenia, which is characterized by abnormalities in WM microstructure and by reduced CT. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of association between WM markers and cortex-wide CT in healthy controls (HCs) and patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Using diffusion tensor imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study (130 HC and 111 SCZ), we tested for associations between (a) fractional anisotropy in selected manually labeled WM pathways (corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, and superior longitudinal fasciculus) and CT, and (b) the number of lesion-like WM regions ("potholes") and CT. In HC, but not SCZ, we found highly significant negative associations between WM integrity and CT in several pathways, including frontal, temporal, and occipital brain regions. Conversely, in SCZ the number of WM potholes correlated with reduced CT in the left lateral temporal gyrus, left fusiform, and left lateral occipital brain area. Taken together, we found differential patterns of association between WM integrity and CT in HC and SCZ. Although the pattern in HC can be explained from a developmental perspective, the reduced gray matter CT in SCZ patients might be the result of focal but spatially heterogeneous disruptions of WM integrity. PMID:23661633

Ehrlich, Stefan; Geisler, Daniel; Yendiki, Anastasia; Panneck, Patricia; Roessner, Veit; Calhoun, Vince D; Magnotta, Vincent A; Gollub, Randy L; White, Tonya

2014-05-01

230

A possible mechanism for PTSD symptoms in patients with traumatic brain injury: central autonomic network disruption  

PubMed Central

Patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) often develop post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This syndrome, defined and diagnosed by psychological and behavioral features, is associated with symptoms such as anxiety and anger with an increase of arousal and vigilance, as well as flashbacks and nightmares. Many of these features and symptoms observed in PTSD may be in part the result of altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in response to psychological and physical challenges. Brain imaging has documented that TBI often induces white matter damage to pathways associated with the anterior limb of the internal capsule and uncinate fasciculus. Since these white matter structures link neocortical networks with subcortical and limbic structures that regulate autonomic control centers, injury to these pathways may induce a loss of inhibitory control of the ANS. In this review, the autonomic features associated with PTSD are discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury. We posit that TBI induced damage to networks that regulate the ANS increase vulnerability to PTSD. The means by which the vulnerability can be measured and tested are also discussed. PMID:24391583

Williamson, John B.; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Porges, Eric C.; Lamb, Damon G.; Porges, Stephen W.

2013-01-01

231

Genetic & Neuronanatomic Associations in Sporadic Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs that are sensitive for tau or TDP-43 pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Neuroimaging analyses have revealed distinct distributions of disease in FTLD patients with genetic mutations. However, genetic influences on neuroanatomical structure in sporadic FTLD have not been assessed. In this report we use novel multivariate tools, eigenanatomy and sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCAN), to identify associations between SNPs and neuroanatomical structure in sporadic FTLD. MRI analyses revealed that rs8070723 (MAPT) was associated with grey matter variance in the temporal cortex. DTI analyses revealed that rs1768208 (MOBP), rs646776 (near SORT1) and rs5848 (PGRN) were associated with white matter variance in the midbrain and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In an independent autopsy series we observed that rs8070723 and rs1768208 conferred significant risk of tau pathology relative to TDP-43, and rs646776 conferred increased risk of TDP-43 pathology relative to tau. Identified brain regions and SNPs may help provide an in vivo screen for underlying pathology in FTLD and contribute to our understanding of sporadic FTLD. PMID:24373676

McMillan, Corey T.; Toledo, Jon B.; Avants, Brian B.; Cook, Philip A.; Wood, Elisabeth M.; Suh, Eunran; Irwin, David J.; Powers, John; Olm, Christopher; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Grossman, Murray

2014-01-01

232

Possible ctenophoran affinities of the Precambrian "sea-pen" Rangea.  

PubMed

The Namibian Kuibis Quartzite fossils of Rangea are preserved three-dimensionally owing to incomplete collapse of the soft tissues under the load of instantaneously deposited sand. The process of fossilization did not reproduce the original external morphology of the organism but rather the inner surface of collapsed organs, presumably a system of sacs connected by a medial canal. The body of Rangea had tetraradial symmetry, a body plan shared also by the White Sea Russian fossil Bomakellia and possibly some other Precambrian frond-like fossils. They all had a complex internal anatomy, smooth surface of the body, and radial membranes, making their alleged colonial nature unlikely. Despite a different style of preservation, the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale frond-like Thaumaptilon shows several anatomical similarities to Rangea. The body plan of the Burgess Shale ctenophore Fasciculus, with its numerous, pinnately arranged comb organs, is in many respects transitional between Thaumaptilon and the Early Cambrian ctenophore Maotianoascus from the Chengjiang fauna of South China. It is proposed that the irregularly distributed dark spots on the fusiform units of the petaloid of Thaumaptilon represent a kind of macrocilia and that the units are homologous with the ctenophoran comb organs. These superficial structures were underlain by the complex serial organs, well represented in the fossils of Rangea. The Precambrian "sea-pens" were thus probably sedentary ancestors of the ctenophores. PMID:11948678

Dzik, Jerzy

2002-06-01

233

White Matter Disease Correlates with Lexical Retrieval Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To relate fractional anisotropy (FA) changes associated with the semantic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) to measures of lexical retrieval. Methods: We collected neuropsychological testing, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging on semantic variant PPA (svPPA) (n?=?11) and logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA) (n?=?13) patients diagnosed using published criteria. We also acquired neuroimaging data on a group of demographically comparable healthy seniors (n?=?34). FA was calculated and analyzed using a white matter (WM) tract-specific analysis approach. This approach utilizes anatomically guided data reduction to increase sensitivity and localizes results within canonically defined tracts. We used non-parametric, cluster-based statistical analysis to relate language performance to FA and determine regions of reduced FA in patients. Results: We found widespread FA reductions in WM for both variants of PPA. FA was related to both confrontation naming and category naming fluency performance in left uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum in svPPA and left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi in lvPPA. Conclusion: SvPPA and lvPPA are associated with distinct disruptions of a large-scale network implicated in lexical retrieval, and the WM disease in each phenotype may contribute to language impairments including lexical retrieval. PMID:24409166

Powers, John P.; McMillan, Corey T.; Brun, Caroline C.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C.; Grossman, Murray

2013-01-01

234

A Brain Centred View of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Tinnitus: From Otology to Hodology  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Comorbid psychiatric disorders are frequent among patients affected by tinnitus. There are mutual clinical influences between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders, as well as neurobiological relations based on partially overlapping hodological and neuroplastic phenomena. The aim of the present paper is to review the evidence of alterations in brain networks underlying tinnitus physiopathology and to discuss them in light of the current knowledge of the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. Methods. Relevant literature was identified through a search on Medline and PubMed; search terms included tinnitus, brain, plasticity, cortex, network, and pathways. Results. Tinnitus phenomenon results from systemic-neurootological triggers followed by neuronal remapping within several auditory and nonauditory pathways. Plastic reorganization and white matter alterations within limbic system, arcuate fasciculus, insula, salience network, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, auditory pathways, ffrontocortical, and thalamocortical networks are discussed. Discussion. Several overlapping brain network alterations do exist between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders. Tinnitus, initially related to a clinicoanatomical approach based on a cortical localizationism, could be better explained by an holistic or associationist approach considering psychic functions and tinnitus as emergent properties of partially overlapping large-scale neural networks. PMID:25018882

Minichino, Amedeo; Panico, Roberta; Testugini, Valeria; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

235

Frontostriatal fiber bundle compromise in HIV infection without dementia  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative fiber tracking derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to determine whether white matter association, projection, or commissural tracts are affected in nondemented individuals with HIV infection and to identify the regional distribution of sparing and impairment of fiber systems. Methods DTI measured fractional anisotropy and diffusivity, quantified separately for longitudinal (?L) diffusivity (index of axonal injury) and transverse (?T) diffusivity (index of myelin injury), in 11 association and projection white matter tracts and six commissural tracts in 29 men and 13 women with HIV infection and 88 healthy, age-matched controls (42 men and 46 women). Results The total group of HIV-infected individuals had higher diffusivity (principally longitudinal) than controls in the posterior sectors of the corpus callosum, internal and external capsules, and superior cingulate bundles. High longitudinal diffusivity, indicative of axonal compromise, was especially prominent in posterior callosal sectors, fornix, and superior cingulate bundle in HIV with AIDS. Unmedicated patients had notably high transverse diffusivity, indicative of myelin compromise, in the occipital forceps, inferior cingulate bundle, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Pontocerebellar projection fibers were resistant to HIV effects as were commissural fibers coursing through premotor and sensorimotor callosal sectors. Conclusion This quantitative survey of brain fiber tract integrity indicates that even nondemented HIV patients can have neuroradiological evidence for damage to association and commissural tracts. These abnormalities were vulnerable to exacerbation with AIDS and possibly mitigated by HAART. PMID:19730350

Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Kemper, Carol A.; Deresinski, Stanley; Sullivan, Edith V.

2010-01-01

236

Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture.  

PubMed

Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) learned to perform three short melodies on a piano keyboard in a pure audio-motor training condition (vision of their own fingers was occluded). Initial learning times ranged from 17 to 120 min (mean ± SD: 62 ± 29 min). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter microstructural arrangement. A correlation analysis revealed that higher FA values were associated with faster learning of piano melodies. These effects were observed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons relevant for the execution of voluntary movements, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract important for audio-motor transformations. These results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio-motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning. PMID:23904213

Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

2014-05-01

237

[Selective impairment and a unique recovery of bilateral horizontal gaze and facial palsy in a discrete pontine lesion: a case report].  

PubMed

A 77-year-old woman with bilateral horizontal gaze palsy, right hemifacial weakness and incomplete quadriplegia was transferred to our hospital. Brain magnetic resonance imaging on the first day revealed a slit-like signal deficit of the basilar artery and an abnormal signal area at the dorsal midline portion of the lower pons. Quadriplegia fluctuated in several days after admission, then disappeared finally. In spite of the recovery of quadriplegia, bilateral facial weakness appeared on Day 14 after the onset. Concerning the impairment of extraocular movements, bilateral adduction restored gradually followed by improvement of the right abduction. The clinical course suggested the involvement of bilateral medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and abducens nuclei (or fibers) as the etiology of gaze palsy. Although bilateral MLF sign recovered within 3 weeks, and the abductor palsy of both eyes was persisted in mild degree. As imaging analysis did not always show the causative lesion, which correlated with the rapidly alternating signs in the patient, and careful neurological observation was therefore useful in the management of patients with brainstem dysfunction. PMID:21404613

Nagamine, Kazuhiro; Yazawa, Shogo; Nakao, Koichi; Ohi, Takekazu

2011-02-01

238

Profiles of white matter tract pathology in frontotemporal dementia.  

PubMed

Despite considerable interest in improving clinical and neurobiological characterisation of frontotemporal dementia and in defining the role of brain network disintegration in its pathogenesis, information about white matter pathway alterations in frontotemporal dementia remains limited. Here we investigated white matter tract damage using an unbiased, template-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) protocol in a cohort of 27 patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) representing both major genetic and sporadic forms, in relation both to healthy individuals and to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Widespread white matter tract pathology was identified in the bvFTD group compared with both healthy controls and Alzheimer's disease group, with prominent involvement of uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle and corpus callosum. Relatively discrete and distinctive white matter profiles were associated with genetic subgroups of bvFTD associated with MAPT and C9ORF72 mutations. Comparing diffusivity metrics, optimal overall separation of the bvFTD group from the healthy control group was signalled using radial diffusivity, whereas optimal overall separation of the bvFTD group from the Alzheimer's disease group was signalled using fractional anisotropy. Comparing white matter changes with regional grey matter atrophy (delineated using voxel based morphometry) in the bvFTD cohort revealed co-localisation between modalities particularly in the anterior temporal lobe, however white matter changes extended widely beyond the zones of grey matter atrophy. Our findings demonstrate a distributed signature of white matter alterations that is likely to be core to the pathophysiology of bvFTD and further suggest that this signature is modulated by underlying molecular pathologies. PMID:24510641

Mahoney, Colin J; Ridgway, Gerard R; Malone, Ian B; Downey, Laura E; Beck, Jonathan; Kinnunen, Kirsi M; Schmitz, Nicole; Golden, Hannah L; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Schott, Jonathan M; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick C; Warren, Jason D

2014-08-01

239

Associations between fractional anisotropy and problematic alcohol use in juvenile justice-involved adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown associations between heavy alcohol use and white matter alterations in adolescence. Youth involved with the juvenile justice system engage in high levels of risk behavior generally and alcohol use in particular as compared to their non-justice-involved peers. Objectives This study explored white matter integrity among justice-involved adolescents. Analyses examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between adolescents with low and high levels of problematic alcohol use as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Methods Participants (N = 125; 80% male; 14–18 years) completed measures assessing psychological status and substance use followed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI data for low (n = 51) and high AUDIT (n = 74) adolescents were subjected to cluster-based group comparisons on skeletonized FA and MD data. Results Whole-brain analyses revealed significantly lower FA in clusters in the right and left posterior corona radiata (PCR) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in the high AUDIT group, as well as one cluster in the right anterior corona radiata that showed higher FA in the high AUDIT group. No differences in MD were identified. Exploratory analyses correlated cluster FA with measures of additional risk factors. FA in the right SLF and left PCR was negatively associated with impulsivity. Conclusion Justice-involved adolescents with alcohol use problems generally showed poorer FA than their low problematic alcohol use peers. Future research should aim to better understand the nature of the relationship between white matter development and alcohol use specifically as well as risk behavior more generally. PMID:24200206

Thayer, Rachel E.; Callahan, Tiffany J.; Weiland, Barbara J.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Bryan, Angela D.

2014-01-01

240

Tract Profiles of White Matter Properties: Automating Fiber-Tract Quantification  

PubMed Central

Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts) in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile) may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA) values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ) that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further validation, AFQ Tract Profiles have potential for informing clinical management and decision-making. PMID:23166771

Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Myall, Nathaniel J.; Wandell, Brian A.; Feldman, Heidi M.

2012-01-01

241

Aortic pulse wave velocity predicts focal white matter hyperintensities in a biracial cohort of older adults.  

PubMed

Although the cross-sectional relationship of arterial stiffness with cerebral small vessel disease is consistently shown in middle-aged and young-old adults, it is less clear whether these associations remain significant over time in very old adults. We hypothesize that arterial stiffness is longitudinally associated with white matter characteristics, and associations are stronger within watershed areas. Neuroimaging was obtained in 2006-2008 from 303 elderly (mean age 82.9 years, 59% women, 41% black) with pulse wave velocity (PWV) measures in 1997-1998. Multivariable regression models estimated the coefficients for PWV (cm/sec) in relationship to presence, severity, and spatial distribution of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), gray matter volume, and fractional anisotropy from diffusion tensor, adjusting for demographic, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases from 1997-1998 to 2006-2008. Higher PWV in 1997-1998 was associated with greater WMH volume in 2006-2008 within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (age and total brain WMH adjusted, P=0.023), but not with WMH in other tracts or with fractional anisotropy or gray matter volume from total brain (P>0.2). Associations were stronger in blacks than in whites, remaining significant in fully adjusted models. Elderly with WMH in tracts related to processing speed and memory are more likely to have had higher PWV values 10 years prior, before neuroimaging data being available. Future studies should address whether arterial stiffness can serve as an early biomarker of covert brain structural abnormalities and whether early arterial stiffness control can promote successful brain aging, especially in black elderly. PMID:23172923

Rosano, Caterina; Watson, Nora; Chang, Yuefang; Newman, Anne B; Aizenstein, Howard J; Du, Yan; Venkatraman, Vijay; Harris, Tamara B; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

2013-01-01

242

White matter integrity and late-life depression in community-dwelling individuals: diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics.  

PubMed

Background Late-life depression has been associated with white matter changes in studies using the regions of interest approach. Aims To investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between white matter integrity and depression in community-dwelling individuals using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics. Method The sample comprised 381 participants aged between 72 and 92 years who were assessed twice within 2 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Tract-based spatial statistics were applied to investigate white matter integrity in currently depressed v. non-depressed elderly people and in those with a history of depression v. no history of depression. The relationship between white matter integrity and development of depressive symptoms after 2 years were analysed with logistic regression. Results Individuals with current depression had widespread white matter integrity reduction compared with non-depressed elderly people. Significant fractional anisotropy reductions were found in 45 brain areas with the most notable findings in the frontal lobe, association and projection fibres. A history of depression was not associated with reduced fractional anisotropy. White matter changes in the superior frontal gyrus, posterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the body of corpus callosum predicted depression at follow-up. Conclusions Reduced white matter integrity is associated with late-life depression and predicts future depressive symptoms whereas a history of depression is not related to white matter changes. Disruption to white matter integrity may be a biomarker to predict late-life depression. PMID:25147370

Reppermund, Simone; Zhuang, Lin; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Trollor, Julian N; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S

2014-10-01

243

Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.  

PubMed

Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts) in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile) may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA) values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ) that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further validation, AFQ Tract Profiles have potential for informing clinical management and decision-making. PMID:23166771

Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Myall, Nathaniel J; Wandell, Brian A; Feldman, Heidi M

2012-01-01

244

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Parkinson’s Disease, Multiple System Atrophy and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study  

PubMed Central

Although often clinically indistinguishable in the early stages, Parkinson’s disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) have distinct neuropathological changes. The aim of the current study was to identify white matter tract neurodegeneration characteristic of each of the three syndromes. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to perform a whole-brain automated analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to compare differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between the three clinical groups and healthy control subjects. Further analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between these putative indices of white matter microstructure and clinical measures of disease severity and symptoms. In PSP, relative to controls, changes in DTI indices consistent with white matter tract degeneration were identified in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, corticospinal tract, superior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, superior cerebellar peduncle, medial lemniscus, retrolenticular and anterior limb of the internal capsule, cerebral peduncle and external capsule bilaterally, as well as the left posterior limb of the internal capsule and the right posterior thalamic radiation. MSA patients also displayed differences in the body of the corpus callosum corticospinal tract, cerebellar peduncle, medial lemniscus, anterior and superior corona radiata, posterior limb of the internal capsule external capsule and cerebral peduncle bilaterally, as well as the left anterior limb of the internal capsule and the left anterior thalamic radiation. No significant white matter abnormalities were observed in the PD group. Across groups, MD correlated positively with disease severity in all major white matter tracts. These results show widespread changes in white matter tracts in both PSP and MSA patients, even at a mid-point in the disease process, which are not found in patients with PD. PMID:25405990

Worker, Amanda; Blain, Camilla; Jarosz, Jozef; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Barker, Gareth J.; Williams, Steve C. R.; Brown, Richard G.; Leigh, P. Nigel; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Simmons, Andrew

2014-01-01

245

Diffusion tractography of post-mortem human brains: Optimization and comparison of spin echo and steady-state free precession techniques  

PubMed Central

Diffusion imaging of post-mortem brains could provide valuable data for validation of diffusion tractography of white matter pathways. Long scans (e.g., overnight) may also enable high-resolution diffusion images for visualization of fine structures. However, alterations to post-mortem tissue (T2 and diffusion coefficient) present significant challenges to diffusion imaging with conventional diffusion-weighted spin echo (DW-SE) acquisitions, particularly for imaging human brains on clinical scanners. Diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (DW-SSFP) has been proposed as an alternative acquisition technique to ameliorate this tradeoff in large-bore clinical scanners. In this study, both DWSE and DW-SSFP are optimized for use in fixed white matter on a clinical 3-Tesla scanner. Signal calculations predict superior performance from DW-SSFP across a broad range of protocols and conditions. DW-SE and DW-SSFP data in a whole, post-mortem human brain are compared for 6- and 12-hour scan durations. Tractography is performed in major projection, commissural and association tracts (corticospinal tract, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum bundle). The results demonstrate superior tract-tracing from DW-SSFP data, with 6-hour DW-SSFP data performing as well as or better than 12-hour DW-SE scans. These results suggest that DW-SSFP may be a preferred method for diffusion imaging of post-mortem human brains. The ability to estimate multiple fibers in imaging voxels is also demonstrated, again with greater success in DW-SSFP data. PMID:22008372

Miller, Karla L.; McNab, Jennifer A.; Jbabdi, Saad; Douaud, Gwenaelle

2012-01-01

246

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals.  

PubMed

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-04-01

247

The Role of the Lateral Habenula in Punishment  

PubMed Central

The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment. Here we used a within-subjects punishment task to assess the role of LHb in the acquisition and expression of punishment as well as in aversive choice. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused footshock deliveries (punished lever) but continued pressing a second lever that did not cause footshock (unpunished lever). Infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (NBQX) into LHb had no effect on the acquisition or expression of this punishment, or on aversive choice, but did increase locomotion. Infusion of the sodium channel blocker bupivacaine likewise had no effect on expression of punishment. However, infusion of the calcium channel blocker mibefradil did affect expression of punishment by significantly decreasing the latency with which rats responded on the punished lever and significantly increasing unpunished lever-pressing. Taken together, these findings indicate that the LHb plays a limited role in punishment, influencing only latency to respond. This role is linked to calcium channel permeability and not AMPA receptor or sodium channel permeability. PMID:25365401

Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Philip; McNally, Gavan P.

2014-01-01

248

Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey  

SciTech Connect

The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

1988-07-01

249

Neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in late-life depression and antidepressant treatment response  

PubMed Central

Background Apathy is a prominent feature of geriatric depression that predicts poor clinical outcomes and hinders depression treatment. Yet little is known about the neurobiology and treatment of apathy in late-life depression. This study examined apathy prevalence in a clinical sample of depressed elderly, response of apathy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, and neuroanatomical correlates that distinguished responders from nonresponders and healthy controls. Methods Participants included 45 non-demented, elderly with major depression and 43 elderly comparison individuals. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, depressed participants received escitalopram 10mg daily for 12 weeks. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were administered at baseline and 12 weeks. MRI scans were acquired at baseline for concurrent structural and diffusion tensor imaging of anterior cingulate grey matter and associated white matter tracts. Results 35.5% of depressed patients suffered from apathy. This declined to 15.6% (p<0.1) following treatment, but 43% of initial sufferers continued to report significant apathy. Improvement of apathy with SSRI was independent of change in depression but correlated with larger left posterior subgenual cingulate volumes and greater fractional anisotropy of left uncinate fasciculi. Limitations modest sample size, no placebo control, post-hoc secondary analysis, use of 1.5T MRI scanner Conclusions While prevalent in geriatric depression, apathy is separable from depression with regards to medication response. Structural abnormalities of the posterior subgenual cingulate and uncinate fasciculus may perpetuate apathetic states by interfering with prefrontal cortical recruitment of limbic activity essential to motivated behavior. PMID:25012429

Yuen, Genevieve S.; Gunning, Faith M.; Woods, Eric; Klimstra, Sibel A.; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

2014-01-01

250

Disruption of brain white matter microstructure in women with anorexia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of anorexia nervosa is still unknown. Multiple and distributed brain regions have been implicated in its pathophysiology, implying a dysfunction of connected neural circuits. Despite these findings, the role of white matter in anorexia nervosa has been rarely assessed. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize alterations of white matter microstructure in a clinically homogeneous sample of patients with anorexia nervosa. Methods Women with anorexia nervosa (restricting subtype) and healthy controls underwent brain DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps between the groups. Furthermore, axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) measures were extracted from regions showing group differences in either FA or MD. Results We enrolled 19 women with anorexia nervosa and 19 healthy controls in our study. Patients with anorexia nervosa showed significant FA decreases in the parietal part of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF; pFWE < 0.05), with increased MD and RD but no differences in AD. Patients with anorexia nervosa also showed significantly increased MD in the fornix (pFWE < 0.05), accompanied by decreased FA and increased RD and AD. Limitations Limitations include our modest sample size and cross-sectional design. Conclusion Our findings support the presence of white matter pathology in patients with anorexia nervosa. Alterations in the SLF and fornix might be relevant to key symptoms of anorexia nervosa, such as body image distortion or impairments in body–energy–balance and reward processes. The differences found in both areas replicate those found in previous DTI studies and support a role for white matter pathology of specific neural circuits in individuals with anorexia nervosa. PMID:24913136

Via, Esther; Zalesky, Andrew; Sanchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Harrison, Ben J.; Pujol, Jesus; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Menchon, Jose Manuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcis; Fornito, Alex

2014-01-01

251

Improving diffusion-weighted imaging of post-mortem human brains: SSFP at 7 T  

PubMed Central

Post-mortem diffusion imaging of whole, human brains has potential to provide data for validation or high-resolution anatomical investigations. Previous work has demonstrated improvements in data acquired with diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (DW-SSFP) compared with conventional diffusion-weighted spin echo at 3 T. This is due to the ability of DW-SSFP to overcome signal-to-noise and diffusion contrast losses brought about by tissue fixation related decreases in T2 and ADC. In this work, data of four post-mortem human brains were acquired at 3 T and 7 T, using DW-SSFP with similar effective b-values (beff ~ 5150 s/mm2) for inter-field strength comparisons; in addition, DW-SSFP data were acquired at 7 T with higher beff (~ 8550 s/mm2) for intra-field strength comparisons. Results demonstrate that both datasets acquired at 7 T had higher SNR and diffusion contrast than data acquired at 3 T, and data acquired at higher beff had improved diffusion contrast than at lower beff at 7 T. These results translate to improved estimates of secondary fiber orientations leading to higher fidelity tractography results compared with data acquired at 3 T. Specifically, tractography streamlines of cortical projections originating from the corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, and superior longitudinal fasciculus were more successful at crossing the centrum semiovale and projected closer to the cortex. Results suggest that DW-SSFP at 7 T is a preferential method for acquiring diffusion-weighted data of post-mortem human brain, specifically where the primary region of interest involves crossing white matter tracts. PMID:25128709

Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Clare, Stuart; Lam, Wilfred; Ansorge, Olaf; Douaud, Gwenaelle; Miller, Karla

2014-01-01

252

White matter structures associated with empathizing and systemizing in young adults.  

PubMed

Empathizing is defined as the drive to identify the mental states of others in order to predict their behavior and respond with an appropriate emotion. Systemizing is defined as the drive to analyze a system in terms of the rules that govern it to predict its behavior. We undertook voxel-by-voxel investigations of regional white matter volume (rWMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging to discover the WM structural correlates of empathizing, systemizing, and their difference (D score: systemizing-empathizing). Whole brain analyses of covariance revealed that across both sexes, the D score was negatively correlated with rWMV in the WM area in the bilateral temporal lobe, near the right inferior frontal gyrus, near the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and near the posterior cingulate cortex and positively correlated with FA in an area involving the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were generally formed by both the correlation between WM structures and empathizing as well as the opposite correlation between WM structures and systemizing. A significant effect of interaction between sex and the D score on rWMV, which was mainly observed because of a positive correlation between rWMV and empathizing in females and a negative correlation between rWMV and systemizing in females, was found in an area close to the right inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction. Our results suggest that WM structures involving the default mode network and the mirror neuron system support empathizing, and that a WM structure relating to the external attention system supports systemizing. Further, our results revealed an overlap between positive/negative WM structural correlates of empathizing and negative/positive WM structural correlates of systemizing despite little correlation between empathizing and systemizing, which supports the previously held idea that there is a trade-off between empathizing and systemizing in the brain. PMID:23578577

Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-08-15

253

Validating Serum S100B and Neuron-Specific Enolase as Biomarkers for the Human Brain - A Combined Serum, Gene Expression and MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Former studies have investigated the potential of serum biomarkers for diseases affecting the human brain. In particular the glial protein S100B, a neuro- and gliotrophin inducing plasticity, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of psychiatric diseases such as major depression and schizophrenia. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a specific serum marker for neuronal damage. However, the specificity of these biomarkers for cell type and brain region has not been investigated in vivo until now. Methods We acquired two magnetic resonance imaging parameters sensitive to changes in gray and white matter (T1-weighted/diffusion tensor imaging) and obtained serum S100B and NSE levels of 41 healthy subjects. Additionally, we analyzed whole brain gene expressions of S100B in another male cohort of three subjects using the Allen Brain Atlas. Furthermore, a female post mortal brain was investigated using double immunofluorescence labelling with oligodendrocyte markers. Results We show that S100B is specifically related to white matter structures, namely the corpus callosum, anterior forceps and superior longitudinal fasciculus in female subjects. This effect was observed in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity – the latest an indicator of myelin changes. Histological data confirmed a co-localization of S100B with oligodendrocyte markers in the human corpus callosum. S100B was most abundantly expressed in the corpus callosum according to the whole genome Allen Human Brain Atlas. In addition, NSE was related to gray matter structures, namely the amygdala. This effect was detected across sexes. Conclusion Our data demonstrates a very high S100B expression in white matter tracts, in particular in human corpus callosum. Our study is the first in vivo study validating the specificity of the glial marker S100B for the human brain, and supporting the assumption that radial diffusivity represents a myelin marker. Our results open a new perspective for future studies investigating major neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22916238

Streitburger, Daniel-Paolo; Arelin, Katrin; Kratzsch, Jurgen; Thiery, Joachim; Steiner, Johann; Villringer, Arno

2012-01-01

254

Altered interhemispheric and temporal lobe white matter microstructural organization in severe chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Diffusion MRI investigations in schizophrenia provide evidence of abnormal white matter (WM) microstructural organization as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily in interhemispheric, left frontal and temporal WM. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), we examined diffusion parameters in a sample of patients with severe chronic schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI data were acquired on 19 patients with chronic severe schizophrenia and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using a 64 gradient direction sequence, (b=1300 s/mm(2)) collected on a Siemens 1.5T MRI scanner. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was determined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorder (SCID). Patients were treatment resistance, having failed to respond to at least two antipsychotic medications, and had prolonged periods of moderate to severe positive or negative symptoms. Analysis of diffusion parameters was carried out using TBSS. Individuals with chronic severe schizophrenia had significantly reduced FA with corresponding increased radial diffusivity in the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum, the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right external capsule, and the right temporal inferior longitudinal fasciculus. There were no voxels of significantly increased FA in patients compared with controls. A decrease in splenium FA was shown to be related to a longer illness duration. We detected widespread abnormal diffusivity properties in the callosal and temporal lobe WM regions in individuals with severe chronic schizophrenia who have not previously been exposed to clozapine. These deficits can be driven by a number of factors that are indistinguishable using in vivo diffusion-weighted imaging, but may be related to reduced axonal number or packing density, abnormal glial cell arrangement or function, and reduced myelin. PMID:24150571

Holleran, Laurena; Ahmed, Mohamed; Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; McFarland, John; Emsell, Louise; Leemans, Alexander; Scanlon, Cathy; Dockery, Peter; McCarthy, Peter; Barker, Gareth J; McDonald, Colm; Cannon, Dara M

2014-03-01

255

Termination of electroreceptor and mechanical lateral line afferents in the mormyrid acousticolateral area.  

PubMed

The projection regions of electroreceptor and mechanical lateral line afferents in electric fish of the mormyridae family are described. Electroreceptor afferents from the posterior dorsal skin run in the dorsal branch of the posterior lateral line nerve. Electroreceptor afferents from ventral skin and mechanical lateral line afferents and efferents run in the ventral branch of the nerve. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into each branch resulted in filling of its central terminals with the marker enzyme. The method yields a Golgi-like staining of afferent terminals, allowing some aspects of their morphology to be described. Comparison of results from dorsal and ventral branch injections shows the separate medullary regions to which electroreceptor and mechanical afferents project, and also demonstrates four separate somatotopic maps within the electroreceptor region. Mechanical afferents end predominantly ipsilaterally in nucleus anterior and eminentia granularis as has been suggested by others. Ipsilateral endings in nucleus octavius are also seen. Electroreceptor afferents end exclusively in the cortex and nucleus of posterior lateral line lobe (PLLL). Within the cortex there are three distinct maps of the skin surface which are separated from each other by discontinuities in the cellular layers. Somatotopic mapping is also present in the nucleus of PLLL though it is less precise than in the cortical zones. Large club endings of the cells of this nucleus are filled with HRP. Labeled cells are seen within a small midline nucleus located at the level of the eighth nerve just above the medial longitudinal fasciculus. These are probably the cell bodies of lateral line efferents. PMID:721966

Bell, C C; Russell, C J

1978-12-01

256

Exposure to Parental Verbal Abuse is Associated with Increased Gray Matter Volume in Superior Temporal Gyrus  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to parental verbal aggression (PVA) during childhood increases risk for the development of psychopathology, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. Other forms of childhood abuse have been found to be associated with alterations in brain structure. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether exposure to PVA was associated with discernible effects on brain morphology. Methods Optimized voxel based morphometry was performed on 21 unmedicated, right-handed subjects (18–25 years) with histories of PVA and 19 psychiatrically healthy controls of comparable age and gender. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV) – covaried by age, gender, parental education, financial stress, and total GMV – were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric MRI data sets (Siemens 3T trio scanner). Results GMV was increased by 14.1% in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG, BA 22) (P = 0.004, corrected cluster level). GMV in this cluster was associated most strongly with levels of maternal (? = 0.544, P < 0.0001) and paternal (? = 0.300, P < 0.02) verbal aggression and inversely associated with parental education (? = ?0.577, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Previous studies have demonstrated an increase in STG GMV in children with abuse histories, and found a reduction in fractional anisotropy in the arcuate fasciculus connecting Wernicke’s and frontal areas in young adults exposed to PVA. These findings and the present results suggest that the development of auditory association cortex involved in language processing may be affected by exposure to early stress and/or emotionally-abusive language. PMID:20483374

Tomoda, Akemi; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Rabi, Keren; Suzuki, Hanako; Navalta, Carryl P.; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.

2010-01-01

257

Carbocyanine Dye Usage in Demarcating Boundaries of the Aged Human Red Nucleus  

PubMed Central

Background Though the adult human magnocellular Red nucleus (mNr) is essentially vestigial and its boundaries with neighbouring structures have never been well demarcated, human studies in utero have shown a well developed semilunar mNr wrapping around the caudal parvicellular Red nucleus (pNr), similar to what is seen in quadrupeds. In the present study, we have sought to better delineate the morphological determinants of the adult human Red nucleus (ahRn). Methods and Findings Serial sections of ahRn show fine myelinated fibers arising from pNr and turning toward the central tegmental tract. DiI was deposited within a well restricted region of ahRn at the fasciculus retroflexus level and the extent of label determined. Nissl-stained serial sections allowed production of a 3-D mNr model, showing rudimentary, vestigial morphology compared with its well developed infant homologue. DiI within this vestigial mNr region at the level of the oculomotor nerve showed labeled giant/large mNr neurons, coarse fiber bundles at the ventral tegmental decussation and lateral lemniscal label. Conclusions Large amounts of DiI and a long incubation time have proven useful in aged human brain as a marker of long axons and large cell bodies of projecting neurons such as the rubrospinal projection and for clarifying nuclear boundaries of closed nuclei (e.g., the large human pNr). Our 3D model of adult human mNr appeared shrunken in shape and axially rotated compared with the infant mNr, the rotation being a common feature among mammalian mNr. PMID:21203458

Onodera, Satoru; Hicks, T. Philip

2010-01-01

258

Bulbospinal control of spinal cord pathways generating locomotor extensor activities in the cat  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recording of lumbosacral motoneurones in the decerebrate and partially spinalized cat injected with nialamide and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) was used to investigate the interneuronal convergence of two bulbospinal pathways and of the segmental pathways involved with the generation of extensor activities during locomotion. Deiter's nucleus (DN) or the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) was stimulated in alternation with, and in combination with, stimulation of group I afferents from extensor muscles or of contralateral flexor reflex afferents (coFRA). The evoked polysynaptic EPSPs were recorded in extensor motoneurones when long-latency, long-lasting discharges were evoked by the stimulation of coFRA and when the group I autogenetic inhibition in extensors was reversed to polysynaptic excitation. Spatial facilitation was inferred when the amplitude of the EPSPs evoked by the combined stimuli was notably larger than the algebraic sum of the EPSPs evoked by individual stimulation. Both DN (16 motoneurones) and MLF inputs (8 motoneurones) showed spatial facilitation when preceded by coFRA stimuli and both could reset the rhythm of fictive stepping by triggering a precocious extensor phase. MLF showed spatial facilitation with extensor group I inputs in 69 % of trials but DN failed to show spatial facilitation in any cells. These results indicate that DN and MLF project to the coFRA pathways of the extensor half-centre for locomotion and MLF, but not DN, converge on segmental interneurones of the extensor group I pathways. The implications of such convergence patterns on the functional organization of the extensor half-centre are discussed. PMID:10811739

Leblond, Hugues; Menard, Ariane; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

2000-01-01

259

Altered Development of White Matter in Youth at High Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study WM development in youth at high familial risk for BD. White matter (WM) alterations are reported in youth and adults with bipolar disorder (BD). WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. The authors compared age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy offspring having a parent with BD and healthy controls. Method A total of 45 offspring participated, including 20 healthy offspring with a parent diagnosed with BD (HBO) and 25 healthy control offspring of healthy parents (CONT). All were free of medical and psychiatric disorders. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and longitudinal diffusivity (L1) were examined using wholebrain analyses, covarying for age. Results Group by age interactions revealed a linear increase in FA, and linear decrease in RD, in CONT in left corpus callosum (CC) and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). In HBO, there was a linear decrease in FA and increase in RD, with age in left CC, and no relationship between FA, or RD, and age in right ILF. Curve fitting confirmed linear, and revealed non-linear, relationships between FA, and RD, with age in the above regions in CONT and HBO. Conclusions This is the first study to examine WM in healthy offspring at high familial risk for BD. Results from this cross-sectional study suggest altered development of WM in HBO relative to CONT in CC and temporal associative tracts, which may represent vulnerability markers for future BD and other psychiatric disorders in HBO. PMID:21093774

Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

2010-01-01

260

Reliability of Fiber Tracking Measurements in Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

The statistical reliability of diffusion property measurements was evaluated in ten healthy subjects using deterministic fiber tracking to localize tracts affected in motor neuron disease: corticospinal tract (CST), uncinate fasciculus (UNC), and the corpus callosum in its entirety (CC), and its genu (GE), motor (CCM), and splenium (SP) fibers separately. Measurements of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (?1), transverse diffusivity (??), and volume of voxels containing fibers (VV) were obtained within each tract. To assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, two raters carried out fiber tracking five times on each scan. Scan-rescan and longitudinal reliability were assessed in a subset of four subjects who had six scans, with two sets of three scans separated by one year. The statistical reliability of repeated measurements was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CV). Spatial agreement of tract shape was assessed using the kappa (?) statistic. Results Repeated same-scan fiber tracking evaluations showed good geometric alignment (intra-rater ? > 0.90, inter-rater ? > 0.76) and reliable diffusion property measurements (intra-rater ICC > 0.92, inter-rater ICC > 0.77). FA, MD, and ?? were highly reliable with repeated scans on different days, up to a year apart (ICC > 0.8). VV also exhibited good reliability, but with higher CVs. We were unable to demonstrate reproducibility of ?1. Longitudinal reliability after one year was improved by averaging measurements from multiple scans at each timepoint. Fiber tracking provides a reliable tool for the longitudinal evaluation of white matter diffusion properties. PMID:19744567

Danielian, Laura E.; Iwata, Nobue K.; Thomasson, David M.; Floeter, Mary Kay

2009-01-01

261

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals  

PubMed Central

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-01-01

262

White Matter Tract Damage in the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal and Corticobasal Dementia Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The phenotypes of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and the corticobasal syndrome present considerable clinical and anatomical overlap. The respective patterns of white matter damage in these syndromes have not been directly contrasted. Beyond cortical involvement, damage to white matter pathways may critically contribute to both common and specific symptoms in both conditions. Here we assessed patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal syndrome with whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging to identify the white matter networks underlying these pathologies. Twenty patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, 19 with corticobasal syndrome, and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Differences in tract integrity between (i) patients and controls, and (ii) patients with the corticobasal syndrome and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia were assessed with whole brain tract-based spatial statistics and analyses of regions of interest. Behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and the corticobasal syndrome shared a pattern of bilaterally decreased white matter integrity in the anterior commissure, genu and body of the corpus callosum, corona radiata and in the long intrahemispheric association pathways. Patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia showed greater damage to the uncinate fasciculus, genu of corpus callosum and forceps minor. In contrast, corticobasal syndrome patients had greater damage to the midbody of the corpus callosum and perirolandic corona radiata. Whereas several compact white matter pathways were damaged in both the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal syndrome, the distribution and degree of white matter damage differed between them. These findings concur with the distinctive clinical manifestations of these conditions and may improve the in vivo neuroanatomical and diagnostic characterization of these disorders. PMID:25054218

Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei Edson; Zahn, Roland; Cavanagh, Alyson; Tierney, Michael; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

2014-01-01

263

Usefulness of Diffusion Tensor Tractography in Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was conducted to assess the clinical relevance of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in pre- and post-operative evaluations of childhood epilepsy surgery. Materials and Methods Seventy-two patients who received epilepsy surgery between March 2004 and July 2008 were retrospectively analyzed (M : F=40 : 32, ages of 3 months to 24 years, mean age=8.9 years). DTT was performed using a 3.0 T scanner and single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging with 32-different diffusion gradient directions. We reviewed the data focusing on the type of surgery, final pathological diagnosis, and how the DTT data were clinically used. Results The most common form of childhood epilepsy surgery was complete resection of an epileptogenic lesion (n=52, 72.2%). The reported etiologies included cortical dysplasia (n=32, 44.4%), hippocampal sclerosis (n=9, 12.5%), brain tumors (n=7, 9.7%), and non-pathologic lesions (n=4, 5.6%) in the final diagnoses. Twenty-one dysplastic cortexes and four brain tumors involved an approximal relationship with the corticospinal tract (n=18), optic radiation (n=2), and arcuate fasciculus (n=5). Additionally, although DTT demonstrated white matter tracts clearly, DTT in the hippocampal sclerosis did not provide any additional information. In cases of callosotomy (n=18, 25%), post-operative DTT was utilized for the evaluation of complete resection in all patients. DTT information was not used in functional hemispherectomy (n=2, 2.8%). Conclusion Preoperatively, DTT was a useful technique in cases of cortical dysplasia and brain tumors, and in cases with callosotomy, postoperatively. DTT should be included among the routine procedures performed in management of epilepsy. PMID:23225794

Lee, Mi-Jung; Kim, Heung Dong; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Dong-Seok

2013-01-01

264

White matter microstructural changes as vulnerability factors and acquired signs of post-earthquake distress.  

PubMed

Many survivors of severe disasters need psychological support, even those not suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The critical issue in understanding the psychological response after experiencing severe disasters is to distinguish neurological microstructural underpinnings as vulnerability factors from signs of emotional distress acquired soon after the stressful life event. We collected diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data from a group of healthy adolescents before the Great East Japan Earthquake and re-examined the DTIs and anxiety levels of 30 non-PTSD subjects from this group 3-4 months after the earthquake using voxel-based analyses in a longitudinal DTI study before and after the earthquake. We found that the state anxiety level after the earthquake was negatively associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right anterior cingulum (Cg) before the earthquake (r?=?-0.61, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected), and positively associated with increased FA changes from before to after the earthquake in the left anterior Cg (r?=?0.70, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected) and uncinate fasciculus (Uf) (r?=?0.65, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected). The results demonstrated that lower FA in the right anterior Cg was a vulnerability factor and increased FA in the left anterior Cg and Uf was an acquired sign of state anxiety after the earthquake. We postulate that subjects with dysfunctions in processing fear and anxiety before the disaster were likely to have higher anxiety levels requiring frequent emotional regulation after the disaster. These findings provide new evidence of psychophysiological responses at the neural network level soon after a stressful life event and might contribute to the development of effective methods to prevent PTSD. PMID:24400079

Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hanawa, Sugiko; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sakuma, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

2014-01-01

265

The Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) of intelligence: converging neuroimaging evidence.  

PubMed

"Is there a biology of intelligence which is characteristic of the normal human nervous system?" Here we review 37 modern neuroimaging studies in an attempt to address this question posed by Halstead (1947) as he and other icons of the last century endeavored to understand how brain and behavior are linked through the expression of intelligence and reason. Reviewing studies from functional (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) and structural (i.e., magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, voxel-based morphometry) neuroimaging paradigms, we report a striking consensus suggesting that variations in a distributed network predict individual differences found on intelligence and reasoning tasks. We describe this network as the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). The P-FIT model includes, by Brodmann areas (BAs): the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BAs 6, 9, 10, 45, 46, 47), the inferior (BAs 39, 40) and superior (BA 7) parietal lobule, the anterior cingulate (BA 32), and regions within the temporal (BAs 21, 37) and occipital (BAs 18, 19) lobes. White matter regions (i.e., arcuate fasciculus) are also implicated. The P-FIT is examined in light of findings from human lesion studies, including missile wounds, frontal lobotomy/leukotomy, temporal lobectomy, and lesions resulting in damage to the language network (e.g., aphasia), as well as findings from imaging research identifying brain regions under significant genetic control. Overall, we conclude that modern neuroimaging techniques are beginning to articulate a biology of intelligence. We propose that the P-FIT provides a parsimonious account for many of the empirical observations, to date, which relate individual differences in intelligence test scores to variations in brain structure and function. Moreover, the model provides a framework for testing new hypotheses in future experimental designs. PMID:17655784

Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J

2007-04-01

266

Aerobic Exercise Moderates the Effect of Heavy Alcohol Consumption on White Matter Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic alcohol abuse is related to numerous deleterious neurobiological consequences, including loss of gray matter, damage to white matter, and impairment of cognitive and motor functions. Aerobic exercise has been demonstrated to slow cognitive decline and decrease the negative neural changes resulting from normal aging and from several diseases. It is possible that exercise may also prevent or repair alcohol-related neurological damage. The present study tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise protects white matter in anterior and dorsal areas of the brain from damage related to heavy alcohol use. Methods 60 individuals underwent a diffusion tensor imaging session and completed measures of alcohol consumption, loss of control over drinking and aerobic exercise participation. Analyses examined the relationship of exercise, alcohol and their interaction to fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), external capsule (EC), superior and anterior corona radiata and fornix. The relationship of aerobic exercise and alcohol consumption to self-reported loss of control over drinking were also examined. Results A significant interaction was observed between alcohol consumption and aerobic exercise participation on FA in the SLF and EC. In the models examining loss of control over drinking, a significant interaction between aerobic exercise and alcohol consumption was observed, such that alcohol consumption was associated with loss of control more strongly for low exercisers than high exercisers. Conclusions These results indicate that the association between heavy alcohol consumption and white matter damage in the EC and SLF, and the association between alcohol consumption and loss of control over drinking, are greater among individuals who do not exercise regularly. These results are consistent with the notion that exercise may protect white matter integrity from alcohol-related damage. PMID:23551199

Karoly, Hollis C.; Stevens, Courtney J.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee, E.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

2013-01-01

267

Delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure abnormalities in youth with a family history of alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Background Youth with family history of alcohol abuse have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Brain and behavior differences may underlie this increased vulnerability. The current study examined delay discounting behavior and white matter microstructure in youth at high-risk for alcohol abuse, as determined by a family history of alcoholism (FH+), and youth without such family history (FH?). Methods Thirty-three healthy youth (FH+ = 15, FH? = 18), ages 11 to 15 years, completed a delay discounting task and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Tract Based Spatial Statistics (Smith et al., 2006), as well as follow-up region-of-interest analyses, were performed in order to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) between FH+ and FH? youth. Results FH+ youth showed a trend toward increased discounting behavior and had significantly slower reaction times on the delay discounting paradigm compared to FH? youth. Group differences in FA were seen in several white matter tracts. Furthermore, lower FA in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right optic radiation statistically mediated the relationship between FH status and slower reaction times on the delay discounting task. Conclusion Youth with a family history of substance abuse have disrupted white matter microstructure, which likely contributes to less efficient cortical processing, and may act as an intrinsic risk-factor contributing to an increased susceptibility of developing AUD. In addition, FHP youth showed a trend toward greater impulsive decision making, possibly representing an inherent personal characteristic that may facilitate substance use onset and abuse in high-risk youth. PMID:20586754

Herting, Megan M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

2011-01-01

268

Grey and white matter abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy with and without mesial temporal sclerosis.  

PubMed

Temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-mts) and without (TLE-no) mesial temporal sclerosis display different patterns of cortical neuronal loss, suggesting that the distribution of white matter damage may also differ between the sub-groups. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of white matter damage in TLE-mts and TLE-no and to determine if identified changes are related to neuronal loss at the presumed seizure focus. The 4 T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T1-weighted data were acquired for 22 TLE-mts, 21 TLE-no and 31 healthy controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to identify grey matter (GM) volume atrophy. Correlation analysis was conducted between the FA maps and neuronal loss at the presumed seizure focus. In TLE-mts, reduced FA was identified in the genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, cingulum, external capsule, ipsilateral internal capsule and uncinate fasciculus. In TLE-no, FA decreases were identified in the genu, the body of the corpus callosum and ipsilateral anterior corona radiata. The FA positively correlated with ipsilateral hippocampal volume. Widespread extra-focal GM atrophy was associated with both sub-groups. Despite widespread and extensive GM atrophy displaying different anatomical patterns in both sub-groups, TLE-mts demonstrated more extensive FA abnormalities than TLE-no. The microstructural organization in the corpus callosum was related to hippocampal volume in both patients and healthy subjects demonstrating the association of these distal regions. PMID:23754695

Scanlon, Cathy; Mueller, Susanne G; Cheong, Ian; Hartig, Miriam; Weiner, Michael W; Laxer, Kenneth D

2013-09-01

269

Primary Position Upbeat Nystagmus during an Acute Attack of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Ocular manifestation is one of the frequent signs of an acute attack in multiple sclerosis (MS), although primary position upbeat nystagmus (PPUN) is rare. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of PPUN in MS and to determine the lesions that are responsible for this sign. Methods The medical records of 120 MS patients with acute brain lesions were reviewed over a consecutive period of 9 years; of these, 6 patients were found to have PPUN. Other ocular motor abnormalities were analyzed in combination with upbeat nystagmus, video-oculographic findings, and lesions detected on brain MRI. Results Lesions in the pontine tegmentum involving the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and ventral tegmental tract (VTT) were the most common, being observed in three of the six patients with PPUN. One patient exhibited caudal medullary lesions bilaterally affecting the paramedian portion of the posterior tegmentum, and two patients exhibited multiple lesions involving the pons with the cerebral peduncle or medulla. In five patients, other ocular motor dysfunctions, such as gaze-evoked nystagmus (n=3) and internuclear ophthalmoplegia (n=1), were found in combination with upbeat nystagmus. Conclusions PPUN is an infrequent, ocular manifestation noted during an acute attack of MS, and was observed in 5% of the present cases. Brainstem lesions in these cases primarily involved the pontine tegmentum and the caudal medulla. These findings support the theory that upbeat nystagmus is attributable to damage to the upward vestibulo-ocular reflex pathway related to the vestibular nucleus, VTT, and interconnecting pathways. PMID:24465261

Kim, Jee-Ae; Jeong, In-Hye; Lim, Young-Min

2014-01-01

270

Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI.  

PubMed

A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT) in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21), SZ patients (n = 21) and matched (age, gender, education) healthy control subjects (n = 21). In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus). The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD. PMID:25379425

Knöchel, Christian; Stäblein, Michael; Storchak, Helena; Reinke, Britta; Jurcoane, Alina; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent; Ghinea, Denisa; Wenzler, Sofia; Alves, Gilberto; Matura, Silke; Kröger, Anne; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

2014-01-01

271

Using diffusion tensor imaging and mixed-effects models to investigate primary and secondary white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

White matter (WM) degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be a key indicator of early damage in AD. Here, we analyzed WM diffusion tensor data using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics in conjunction with mixed-effects models. Four indices of diffusion were assessed in 61 healthy control, 19 non-amnestic MCIs, 14 amnestic MCIs, and 9 AD patients. The aim of the study was to use advanced mixed-effects models to investigate the retrogenesis hypothesis of AD, which suggests that tracts that are late to myelinate in ontogenetic development are the earliest to be affected in AD. Our results show that a number of late-myelinating pathways, including the parahippocampal region and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, were predominantly affected by changes in WM volume. Conversely, early-myelinating pathways were found to be affected by a combination of both WM and gray matter (GM) atrophy. A model of the entire WM structure of the brain returned GM models for two indices of diffusion, suggesting that more complex regional landscapes of diffusion lie hidden beneath a global analysis of the entire brain. Our results warn against an explanation of white matter damage that points simply to one of two mechanisms: secondary degeneration or direct damage of myelin. We suggest that tracts may be affected by both mechanisms, with the balance depending on whether tracts are early or late-myelinating. A greater understanding of the pattern of WM changes in AD may prove useful for the early detection of AD. PMID:21694456

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L W; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

272

Polygenic risk and white matter integrity in individuals at high risk of mood disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly heritable and genetically overlapping conditions characterised by episodic elevation and/or depression of mood. Both demonstrate abnormalities in white matter integrity, measured using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that are also heritable. However it is unclear how these abnormalities relate to the underlying genetic architecture of each disorder. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have demonstrated a significant polygenic contribution to BD and MDD, where risk is attributed to the summation of many alleles of small effect. Determining the effects of an overall polygenic risk profile score on neuroimaging abnormalities may help to identify proxy measures of genetic susceptibility and thereby inform models of risk prediction. Methods In the current study we determined the extent to which common genetic variation underlying risk to mood disorders (BD and MDD) was related to fractional anisotropy, an index of white matter integrity. This was conducted in unaffected individuals at familial risk of mood disorder (n=70) and comparison subjects (n=62). Polygenic risk scores were calculated separately for BD and MDD based on GWAS data from the Psychiatric Genome Consortia. Results We report that a higher polygenic risk allele load for MDD was significantly associated with decreased white matter integrity across both groups in a large cluster with a peak in the right-sided superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusions These findings suggest that the polygenic approach to examining brain imaging data may be a useful means of identifying traits linked to the genetic risk of mood disorders. PMID:23453289

Whalley, Heather C; Sprooten, Emma; Hackett, Suzanna; Hall, Lynsey; Blackwood, Douglas H; Glahn, David C; Bastin, Mark; Hall, Jeremy; Lawrie, Stephen M; Sussmann, Jessika E; McIntosh, Andrew M

2014-01-01

273

Electroconvulsive therapy mediates neuroplasticity of white matter microstructure in major depression.  

PubMed

Whether plasticity of white matter (WM) microstructure relates to therapeutic response in major depressive disorder (MDD) remains uncertain. We examined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) correlates of WM structural connectivity in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a rapidly acting treatment for severe MDD. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) applied to DTI data (61 directions, 2.5 mm(3) voxel size) targeted voxel-level changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), and radial (RD), axial (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) in major WM pathways in MDD patients (n=20, mean age: 41.15 years, 10.32 s.d.) scanned before ECT, after their second ECT and at transition to maintenance therapy. Comparisons made at baseline with demographically similar controls (n=28, mean age: 39.42 years, 12.20 s.d.) established effects of diagnosis. Controls were imaged twice to estimate scanning-related variance. Patients showed significant increases of FA in dorsal fronto-limbic circuits encompassing the anterior cingulum, forceps minor and left superior longitudinal fasciculus between baseline and transition to maintenance therapy (P<0.05, corrected). Decreases in RD and MD were observed in overlapping regions and the anterior thalamic radiation (P<0.05, corrected). Changes in DTI metrics associated with therapeutic response in tracts showing significant ECT effects differed between patients and controls. All measures remained stable across time in controls. Altered WM microstructure in pathways connecting frontal and limbic areas occur in MDD, are modulated by ECT and relate to therapeutic response. Increased FA together with decreased MD and RD, which trend towards normative values with treatment, suggest increased fiber integrity in dorsal fronto-limbic pathways involved in mood regulation. PMID:24713861

Lyden, H; Espinoza, R T; Pirnia, T; Clark, K; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Woods, R P; Narr, K L

2014-01-01

274

Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological correlates in traumatic brain injury patients  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often involves focal cortical injury and white matter (WM) damage that can be measured shortly after injury. Additionally, slowly evolving WM change can be observed but there is a paucity of research on the duration and spatial pattern of long-term changes several years post-injury. The current study utilized diffusion tensor imaging to identify regional WM changes in 12 TBI patients and nine healthy controls at three time points over a four year period. Neuropsychological testing was also administered to each participant at each time point. Results indicate that TBI patients exhibit longitudinal changes to WM indexed by reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, as well as FA increases in bilateral regions of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and portions of the optic radiation (OR). FA changes appear to be driven by changes in radial (not axial) diffusivity, suggesting that observed longitudinal FA changes may be related to changes in myelin rather than to axons. Neuropsychological correlations indicate that regional FA values in the corpus callosum and sagittal stratum (SS) correlate with performance on finger tapping and visuomotor speed tasks (respectively) in TBI patients, and that longitudinal increases in FA in the SS, SLF, and OR correlate with improved performance on the visuomotor speed (SS) task as well as a derived measure of cognitive control (SLF, OR). The results of this study showing progressive WM deterioration for several years post-injury contribute to a growing literature supporting the hypothesis that TBI should be viewed not as an isolated incident but as a prolonged disease state. The observations of long-term neurological and functional improvement provide evidence that some ameliorative change may be occurring concurrently with progressive degeneration. PMID:22723773

Farbota, Kimberly D.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Rowley, Howard A.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Johnson, Sterling C.

2012-01-01

275

Improved Sensitivity to Cerebral White Matter Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease with Spherical Deconvolution Based Tractography  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based fiber tractography (FT) is the most popular approach for investigating white matter tracts in vivo, despite its inability to reconstruct fiber pathways in regions with “crossing fibers.” Recently, constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) has been developed to mitigate the adverse effects of “crossing fibers” on DTI based FT. Notwithstanding the methodological benefit, the clinical relevance of CSD based FT for the assessment of white matter abnormalities remains unclear. In this work, we evaluated the applicability of a hybrid framework, in which CSD based FT is combined with conventional DTI metrics to assess white matter abnormalities in 25 patients with early Alzheimer’s disease. Both CSD and DTI based FT were used to reconstruct two white matter tracts: one with regions of “crossing fibers,” i.e., the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and one which contains only one fiber orientation, i.e. the midsagittal section of the corpus callosum (CC). The DTI metrics, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), obtained from these tracts were related to memory function. Our results show that in the tract with “crossing fibers” the relation between FA/MD and memory was stronger with CSD than with DTI based FT. By contrast, in the fiber bundle where one fiber population predominates, the relation between FA/MD and memory was comparable between both tractography methods. Importantly, these associations were most pronounced after adjustment for the planar diffusion coefficient, a measure reflecting the degree of fiber organization complexity. These findings indicate that compared to conventionally applied DTI based FT, CSD based FT combined with DTI metrics can increase the sensitivity to detect functionally significant white matter abnormalities in tracts with complex white matter architecture. PMID:22952880

Reijmer, Yael D.; Leemans, Alexander; Heringa, Sophie M.; Wielaard, Ilse; Jeurissen, Ben; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Biessels, Geert Jan

2012-01-01

276

Mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: an autoradiographic study of ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mice.  

PubMed

A previous study from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) was able to prevent the behavioral expression of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying this effect, we conducted this study, with the aims of analyzing ?4?2 nicotinic receptor density during NIC withdrawal and, in case we found any changes, of determining whether they could be prevented by pretreatment with BAC. Swiss Webster albino mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and brain autoradiography with [(3)H]epibatidine was carried out at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling during NIC withdrawal in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), medial habenular nucleus (HbM), thalamic nuclei, dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) nucleus, fasciculus retroflexus (fr), ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus and superior colliculus. BAC pretreatment prevented the increased ?4?2 nicotinic receptor binding sites in the AcbSh, MHb, thalamic nuclei, DLG nucleus and fr. The present results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in ?4?2 nicotinic receptor labeling, evidenced in specific brain areas in NIC withdrawn animals. PMID:23500668

Varani, Andrés P; Antonelli, Marta C; Balerio, Graciela N

2013-07-01

277

Developmental Differences in Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Parameters in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) often presents during adolescence. Early detection and intervention decreases its subsequent severity. However, little is known about early predictors and biological underpinnings of BPD. The observed abnormal functional connectivity among brain regions in BPD led to studies of white matter, as the neural substrate of connectivity. However, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adult BPD have been inconclusive, and, as yet, there are no published DTI studies in borderline adolescents. Methods We conducted DTI tractography in 38 BPD patients (14-adolescents,24-adults) and 32 healthy controls (13-adolescents,19-adults). Results We found bilateral tract-specific decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in BPD adolescents compared to adolescent controls. ILF FA was significantly higher in adolescent controls compared to BPD adolescents, BPD adults and adult controls (WilksF(3,57)=3.55, p<0.02). Follow-up voxelwise TBSS analysis demonstrated lower FA in BPD adolescents compared to adolescent controls also in uncinate and occipitofrontal fasciculi. Discussion FA generally develops along an inverted U-shape curve, increasing through adolescence, and slowly decreasing in adulthood. Our findings suggest that, in adolescent BPD, this normal developmental “peak” in FA, which is seen in healthy controls, is not achieved. This suggests a possible neural substrate for the previously reported OFC-amygdala disconnect in adults with BPD. It raises the possibility that a white matter tract abnormality in BPD present in adolescence may not be appreciable in adulthood, but a functional abnormality in the coordination among brain regions persists. Our finding represents a possible biological marker to identify those at risk for developing BPD. PMID:23628384

New, Antonia S.; Carpenter, David M.; Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Ripoll, Luis H.; Avedon, Jennifer; Patil, Uday; Hazlett, Erin A.; Goodman, Marianne

2013-01-01

278

Sex differences in white matter abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury: localization and correlation with outcome.  

PubMed

Purpose To evaluate sex differences in diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) white matter abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and to compare associated clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this study, with waiver of informed consent. DTI in 69 patients with mTBI (47 male and 22 female patients) and 21 control subjects (10 male and 11 female subjects) with normal conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images were retrospectively reviewed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated as a measure of white matter integrity. Patients with mTBI underwent serial neurocognitive testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Correlation between sex, white matter FA values, ImPACT scores, and time to symptom resolution (TSR) were analyzed with multivariate analysis and TBSS. Results No significant difference in age was seen between males and females (control subjects, P = .3; patients with mTBI, P = .34). No significant difference was seen in initial ImPACT symptom scores (P = .33) between male and female patients with mTBI. Male patients with mTBI had significantly decreased FA values in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) bilaterally (mean FA, 0.425; 95% confidence interval: 0.375, 0.476) compared with female patients with mTBI and control subjects (P < .05), with a significantly longer TSR (P = .04). Multivariate analysis showed sex and UF FA values independently correlated with TSR longer than 3 months (adjusted odds ratios, 2.27 and 2.38; P = .04 and P < .001, respectively), but initial symptom severity did not (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; P = .35). Conclusion Relative sparing of the UF is seen in female compared with male patients after mTBI, with sex and UF FA values as stronger predictors of TSR than initial symptom severity. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:24802388

Fakhran, Saeed; Yaeger, Karl; Collins, Michael; Alhilali, Lea

2014-09-01

279

Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI  

PubMed Central

A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT) in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21), SZ patients (n = 21) and matched (age, gender, education) healthy control subjects (n = 21). In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus). The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD. PMID:25379425

Knochel, Christian; Stablein, Michael; Storchak, Helena; Reinke, Britta; Jurcoane, Alina; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E.J.; van de Ven, Vincent; Ghinea, Denisa; Wenzler, Sofia; Alves, Gilberto; Matura, Silke; Kroger, Anne; Oertel-Knochel, Viola

2014-01-01

280

Frontolimbic brain networks predict depressive symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Psychiatric co-morbidities in epilepsy are of great concern. The current study investigated the relative contribution of structural and functional connectivity (FC) between medial temporal (MT) and prefrontal regions in predicting levels of depressive symptoms in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients with TLE [11 left TLE (LTLE); 10 right TLE (RTLE)] and 20 controls participated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), and mean diffusivity (MD) of the amygdala (AM) and hippocampus (HC). Functional MRI was performed to obtain FC strengths between the AM and HC and prefrontal regions of interest including anterior prefrontal (APF), orbitofrontal, and inferior frontal regions. Participants self-reported depression symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with stronger FC of ipsilateral HC-APF, lower FA of the bilateral UF, and higher MD of the ipsilateral HC in LTLE, and with lower FA of the contralateral UF in RTLE. Regression analyses indicated that FC of the ipsilateral HC-APF was the strongest contributor to depression in LTLE, explaining 68.7% of the variance in depression scores. Both functional and microstructural measures of frontolimbic dysfunction were associated with depressive symptoms. These connectivity variables may be moderating which patients present with depression symptoms. In particular, FC MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of depression-related dysfunction, at least in patients with LTLE. Employing sensitive measures of frontolimbic network dysfunction in TLE may help provide new insight into mood disorders in epilepsy that could eventually guide treatment planning. PMID:25223729

Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Kucukboyaci, N Erkut; Leyden, Kelly M; Cheng, Christopher E; Girard, Holly M; Iragui, Vicente J; Tecoma, Evelyn S; McDonald, Carrie R

2014-11-01

281

Descending projections of the hamster intergeniculate leaflet: relationship to the sleep/arousal and visuomotor systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), homolog of the primate pregeniculate nucleus, modulates circadian rhythms. However, its extensive anatomical connections suggest that it may regulate other systems, particularly those for visuomotor function and sleep/arousal. Here, descending IGL-efferent pathways are identified with the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, with projections to over 50 brain stem nuclei. Projections of the ventral lateral geniculate are similar, but more limited. Many of the nuclei with IGL afferents contribute to circuitry governing visuomotor function. These include the oculomotor, trochlear, anterior pretectal, Edinger-Westphal, and the terminal nuclei; all layers of the superior colliculus, interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the optic tract, the inferior olive, and raphe interpositus. Other target nuclei are known to be involved in the regulation of sleep, including the lateral dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum. The dorsal raphe also receives projections from the IGL and may contribute to both sleep/arousal and visuomotor function. However, the locus coeruleus and medial vestibular nucleus, which contribute to sleep and eye movement regulation and which send projections to the IGL, do not receive reciprocal projections from it. The potential involvement of the IGL with the sleep/arousal system is further buttressed by existing evidence showing IGL-efferent projections to the ventrolateral preoptic area, dorsomedial, and medial tuberal hypothalamus. In addition, the great majority of all regions receiving IGL projections also receive input from the orexin/hypocretin system, suggesting that this system contributes not only to the regulation of sleep, but to eye movement control as well.

Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.

2005-01-01

282

Hidden word learning capacity through orthography in aphasia.  

PubMed

The ability to learn to use new words is thought to depend on the integrity of the left dorsal temporo-frontal speech processing pathway. We tested this assumption in a chronic aphasic individual (AA) with an extensive left temporal lesion using a new-word learning paradigm. She exhibited severe phonological problems and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suggested a complete disconnection of this left-sided white-matter pathway comprising the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Diffusion imaging tractography confirmed the disconnection of the direct segment and the posterior indirect segment of her left AF, essential components of the left dorsal speech processing pathway. Despite her left-hemispheric damage and moderate aphasia, AA learned to name and maintain the novel words in her active vocabulary on par with healthy controls up to 6 months after learning. This exceeds previous demonstrations of word learning ability in aphasia. Interestingly, AA's preserved word learning ability was modality-specific as it was observed exclusively for written words. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that in contrast to normals, AA showed a significantly right-lateralized activation pattern in the temporal and parietal regions when engaged in reading. Moreover, learning of visually presented novel word-picture pairs also activated the right temporal lobe in AA. Both AA and the controls showed increased activation during learning of novel versus familiar word-picture pairs in the hippocampus, an area critical for associative learning. AA's structural and functional imaging results suggest that in a literate person, a right-hemispheric network can provide an effective alternative route for learning of novel active vocabulary. Importantly, AA's previously undetected word learning ability translated directly into therapy, as she could use written input also to successfully re-learn and maintain familiar words that she had lost due to her left hemisphere lesion. PMID:24262200

Tuomiranta, Leena M; Càmara, Estela; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Ripollés, Pablo; Saunavaara, Jani P; Parkkola, Riitta; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

2014-01-01

283

Assessment of whole brain white matter integrity in youths and young adults with a family history of substance-use disorders.  

PubMed

Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) are at a greater risk of developing substance use disorders than their peers with no such family histories (FH-) and this vulnerability is proportional to the number of affected relatives (FH density). The risk for developing substance use disorders peaks during adolescence to early adulthood in the general population, and that is thought to be related to delayed maturation of frontocortical and frontostriatal functional circuits. We hypothesized that FH+ youth and young adults have impaired myelination of frontocortical and frontostriatal white matter tracts. We examined fractional anisotropy (FA) data in 80 FH+ and 34 FH- youths (12.9?±?1.0 years) and in 25 FH+ and 30 FH- young adults (24.3?±?3.4 years). FH+ youths had lower FA values in both frontocortical and frontostriatal tracts as well as parietocortical tracts including the anterior, superior and posterior corona radiata and the superior frontal-occipital fasciculus. Moreover, FA values in these tracts were negatively correlated with FH density. FH+ adults had lower FA values in two frontocortical tracts: the genu of the corpus callosum and anterior corona radiata and also significant negative correlations between FA and FH density in these same tracts. In both groups, lower FA values corresponded to higher radial diffusivity suggesting reduced axonal myelination. We interpreted our findings as evidence for impaired myelination of frontal white matter that was proportional to FH density. Our data suggest that deficits may partially resolve with age, paralleling an age-related decline in risk for developing substance use disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5401-5413, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24867528

Acheson, Ashley; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Rowland, Laura M; Winkler, Anderson M; Gaston, Frank; Mathias, Charles W; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Wright, Susan N; Hong, L Elliot; Dougherty, Donald M; Kochunov, Peter

2014-11-01

284

Characterizing a neurodegenerative syndrome: primary progressive apraxia of speech  

PubMed Central

Apraxia of speech is a disorder of speech motor planning and/or programming that is distinguishable from aphasia and dysarthria. It most commonly results from vascular insults but can occur in degenerative diseases where it has typically been subsumed under aphasia, or it occurs in the context of more widespread neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to determine whether apraxia of speech can present as an isolated sign of neurodegenerative disease. Between July 2010 and July 2011, 37 subjects with a neurodegenerative speech and language disorder were prospectively recruited and underwent detailed speech and language, neurological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging testing. The neuroimaging battery included 3.0 tesla volumetric head magnetic resonance imaging, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and [11C] Pittsburg compound B positron emission tomography scanning. Twelve subjects were identified as having apraxia of speech without any signs of aphasia based on a comprehensive battery of language tests; hence, none met criteria for primary progressive aphasia. These subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech included eight females and four males, with a mean age of onset of 73 years (range: 49–82). There were no specific additional shared patterns of neurological or neuropsychological impairment in the subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech, but there was individual variability. Some subjects, for example, had mild features of behavioural change, executive dysfunction, limb apraxia or Parkinsonism. Voxel-based morphometry of grey matter revealed focal atrophy of superior lateral premotor cortex and supplementary motor area. Voxel-based morphometry of white matter showed volume loss in these same regions but with extension of loss involving the inferior premotor cortex and body of the corpus callosum. These same areas of white matter loss were observed with diffusion tensor imaging analysis, which also demonstrated reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, particularly the premotor components. Statistical parametric mapping of the [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans revealed focal hypometabolism of superior lateral premotor cortex and supplementary motor area, although there was some variability across subjects noted with CortexID analysis. [11C]-Pittsburg compound B positron emission tomography binding was increased in only one of the 12 subjects, although it was unclear whether the increase was actually related to the primary progressive apraxia of speech. A syndrome characterized by progressive pure apraxia of speech clearly exists, with a neuroanatomic correlate of superior lateral premotor and supplementary motor atrophy, making this syndrome distinct from primary progressive aphasia. PMID:22382356

Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Master, Ankit V.; Lowe, Val J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

285

Damage to white matter pathways in subacute and chronic spatial neglect: a group study and 2 single-case studies with complete virtual "in vivo" tractography dissection.  

PubMed

The exact anatomical localization of right hemisphere lesions that lead to left spatial neglect is still debated. The effect of confounding factors such as acute diaschisis and hypoperfusion, visual field defects, and lesion size may account for conflicting results that have been reported in the literature. Here, we present a comprehensive anatomical investigation of the gray- and white matter lesion correlates of left spatial neglect, which was run in a sample 58 patients with subacute or chronic vascular strokes in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. Standard voxel-based correlates confirmed the role played by lesions in the posterior parietal cortex (supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, and temporal-parietal junction), in the frontal cortex (frontal eye field, middle and inferior frontal gyrus), and in the underlying parietal-frontal white matter. Using a new diffusion tensor imaging-based atlas of the human brain, we were able to run, for the first time, a detailed analysis of the lesion involvement of subcortical white matter pathways. The results of this analysis revealed that, among the different pathways linking parietal with frontal areas, damage to the second branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF II) was the best predictor of left spatial neglect. The group study also revealed a subsample of patients with neglect due to focal lesion in the lateral-dorsal portion of the thalamus, which connects the premotor cortex with the inferior parietal lobule. The relevance of fronto-parietal disconnection was further supported by complete in vivo tractography dissection of white matter pathways in 2 patients, one with and the other without signs of neglect. These 2 patients were studied both in the acute phase and 1 year after stroke and were perfectly matched for age, handedness, stroke onset, lesion size, and for cortical lesion involvement. Taken together, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that anatomical disconnections leading to a functional breakdown of parietal-frontal networks are an important pathophysiological factor leading to chronic left spatial neglect. Here, we propose that different loci of SLF disconnection on the rostro-caudal axis can also be associated with disconnection of short-range white matter pathways within the frontal or parietal areas. Such different local disconnection patterns can play a role in the important clinical variability of the neglect syndrome. PMID:23162045

Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Aiello, Marilena; Merola, Sheila; Silvetti, Massimo; Lecce, Francesca; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Doricchi, Fabrizio

2014-03-01

286

Executive deficits, not processing speed relates to abnormalities in distinct prefrontal tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is characterized by deficits on tests of executive function; however, the contribution of abnormal processing speed is unknown. Methods are confounded by tasks that depend on motor speed in patients with physical disability. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed multi-system cerebral involvement, with evidence of reduced white matter volume and integrity in predominant frontotemporal regions. The current study has two aims. First, to investigate whether cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are due to executive dysfunction or slowed processing speed using methodology that accommodates motor disability. This is achieved using a dual-task paradigm and tasks that manipulate stimulus presentation times and do not rely on response motor speed. Second, to identify relationships between specific cognitive impairments and the integrity of distinct white matter tracts. Thirty patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 30 age- and education-matched control subjects were administered an experimental dual-task procedure that combined a visual inspection time task and digit recall. In addition, measures of executive function (including letter fluency) and processing speed (visual inspection time and rapid serial letter identification) were administered. Integrity of white matter tracts was determined using region of interest analyses of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis did not show impairments on tests of processing speed, but executive deficits were revealed once visual inspection time was combined with digit recall (dual-task) and in letter fluency. In addition to the corticospinal tracts, significant differences in fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were found between groups in a number of prefrontal and temporal white matter tracts including the anterior cingulate, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundles. Significant differences also emerged in the anterior corona radiata as well as in white matter underlying the superior, medial and inferior frontal gyri and the temporal gyri. Dual-task performance significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy measures in the middle frontal gyrus white matter and anterior corona radiata. Letter fluency indices significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy measures of the inferior frontal gyrus white matter and corpus callosum in addition to the corticospinal tracts and mean diffusivity measures in the white matter of the superior frontal gyrus. The current study demonstrates that cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to generic slowing of processing speed. Moreover, different executive deficits are related to distinct prefrontal tract involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dual-task impairment associating with dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction and letter fluency showing greater dependence on inferolateral prefrontal dysfunction. PMID:24056536

Pettit, Lewis D; Bastin, Mark E; Smith, Colin; Bak, Thomas H; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Abrahams, Sharon

2013-11-01

287

Prenatal cannabinoid and gene expression for neural adhesion molecule L1 in the fetal rat brain.  

PubMed

The consumption by women of cannabis derivatives during pregnancy and/or lactation affects the development of their offspring because like other psychoactive drugs, cannabinoids, the psychoactive ingredients of marijuana, can cross the placental barrier and be secreted into the maternal milk. Through this way, cannabinoids are able to affect the expression of key genes for neural developmental leading to neurotransmitter and behavioral disturbances. In this present study, we wanted to explore the influence of prenatal cannabinoid exposure on the gene expression of a key protein for brain development, the neural adhesion molecule L1, which plays an important role in processes of cell proliferation and migration, neuritic elongation and guidance, and synaptogenesis. To this end, pregnant rats were daily treated with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) since the 5th day of gestation up to the day before birth (GD21), day at which rats were killed and their pups removed for analysis of L1-mRNA levels in different brain structures. Our results confirmed that the levels of L1 transcripts were significantly increased after prenatal delta9-THC exposure in several regions such as the fimbria, stria terminalis, stria medullaris and corpus callosum, which share the properties of being white matter regions and containing, exclusively during development, an abundant population of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, the major targets for the action of plant-derived cannabinoids. L1-mRNA levels were also increased in grey matter structures such as the septum nuclei and the habenula, but remained unchanged in most of the grey matter structures analyzed (cerebral cortex, basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, basal ganglia and subventricular zones) and also in a few white matter structures (fornix and fasciculus retroflexus). An important aspect of these observations is that the increase in L1-mRNA levels reached statistical significance only in the case of delta9-THC-exposed males but not in the case of delta9-THC-exposed females where only trends or no effects were detected, this supporting previous evidence on a sexual dimorphism, with greater effects in male fetuses, for the action of cannabinoids in the developing brain. In summary, cannabinoids seem to influence the expression of L1 in specific brain structures during the prenatal period, which, considering the role played by this protein in different events related to neural development, might explain the neurotransmitter and behavioral disturbances reported after prenatal consumption of marijuana. PMID:15068010

Gómez, María; Hernández, Mariluz; Johansson, Björn; de Miguel, Rosario; Ramos, José Antonio; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

2003-12-30

288

Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinico-pathologic features and emerging molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a syndrome designation describing inherited disorders in which lower extremity weakness and spasticity are the predominant symptoms. There are more than 50 genetic types of HSP. HSP affects individuals diverse ethnic groups with prevalence estimates ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 per 100,000 [39, 70, 77, 154, 185]. Symptoms may begin at any age. Gait impairment that begins after childhood usually worsens very slowly over many years. Gait impairment that begins in infancy and early childhood may not worsen significantly. Post mortem studies consistently identify degeneration of corticospinal tract axons (maximal in the thoracic spinal cord) and degeneration of fasciculus gracilis fibers (maximal in the cervico-medullary region). HSP syndromes thus appear to involve motor-sensory axon degeneration affecting predominantly (but not exclusively) the distal ends of long central nervous system (CNS) axons. In general, proteins encoded by HSP genes have diverse functions including axon transport (e.g. SPG30/KIF1A, SPG10/KIF5A and possibly SPG4/Spastin); endoplasmic reticulum morphology (e.g. SPG3A/Atlastin, SPG4/Spastin, SPG12/reticulon 2, and SPG31/REEP1, all of which interact); mitochondrial function (e.g. SPG13/chaperonin 60/heat shock protein 60, SPG7/paraplegin; and mitochondrial ATP6; 4) myelin formation (e.g. SPG2/Proteolipid protein and SPG42/Connexin 47); 5) protein folding and ER-stress response (SPG6/NIPA1, SPG8/K1AA0196 (Strumpellin), SGP17/BSCL2 (Seipin) [113-115], “mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia” due to CcT5 mutation and presumably SPG18/ERLIN2); 6) corticospinal tract and other neurodevelopment (e.g. SPG1/L1 cell adhesion molecule and SPG22/thyroid transporter MCT8); 7) fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (e.g. SPG28/DDHD1, SPG35/FA2H, SPG39/NTE, SPG54/DDHD2, and SPG56/CYP2U1); and 8) endosome membrane trafficking and vesicle formation (e.g. SPG47/AP4B1, SPG48/KIAA0415, SPG50/AP4M1, SPG51/AP4E, SPG52/AP4S1, and VSPG53/VPS37A). The availability of animal models (including bovine, murine, zebrafish, Drosophila, and C. elegans) for many types of HSP permits exploration of disease mechanisms and potential treatments. This review highlights emerging concepts of this large group of clinically similar disorders. For recent review of HSP including historical descriptions, differential diagnosis, and additional references see [78]. PMID:23897027

Fink, John K.

2014-01-01

289

Torsional Eye Movements Evoked by Unilateral Labyrinthine Galvanic Polarizations in the Squirrel Monkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical stimulation of vestibular-nerve afferents innervating the semicircular canals has been used to identify the extraocular muscles receiving activation or inhibition by individual ampullary nerves. This technique was originally developed by Szentagothai (1950) and led to the description of three neuron reflex arcs that connect each semicircular canal through an interneuron traversing in the region of the medial longitudinal fasciculus to one ipsilateral and one contralateral eye muscle. Selective ampullary nerve stimulation was subsequently used by Cohen and colleagues (Cohen and Suzuki, 1963; Cohen et al., 1964; Suzuki et al., 1964; Cohen et al., 1966) to study movements of the eyes and activation of individual extraocular muscles in response to stimulation of combinations of ampullary nerves. This work led to a description of the now familiar relationships between activation of a semicircular canal ampullary nerves and the anticipated movement in each eye. Disconjugacy of eye movements induced by individual vertical canal stimulation and dependence of the pulling direction of vertical recti and oblique muscles on eye position were also defined in these experiments. Subsequent studies have defined the mechanisms by which externally applied galvanic currents result in a change in vestibular-nerve afferent discharge. The currents appear to act at the spike trigger site. Perilymphatic cathodal currents depolarize the trigger site and lead to excitation whereas anodal currents hyperpolarize and result in inhibition. Afferents innervating all five vestibular endorgans appear to be affected equally by the currents (Goldberg et al., 1984). Irregularly discharging afferents are about 5-10 times more sensitive than regularly discharging ones because of the steeper slope of the former's faster postspike recovery of excitability in encoder sensitivity (Smith and Goldberg, 1986). Response adaptation similar to that noted during acceleration steps is apparent for longer periods of current administration. This adaptation is manifested as a perstimulus return toward resting discharge and poststimulus after-response in the opposite direction (Goldberg et al., 1984; Minor and Goldberg, l991). Cathodal currents (with respect to the perilymphatic space of the vestibule) are excitatory whereas anodal currents are inhibitory. Horizontal eye movements evoked by unilateral galvanic polarizations administered through chronically implanted labyrinthine stimulating electrodes have been studied in alert squirrel monkeys (Minor and Goldberg, 1991). We sought to extend this analysis by recording three-dimensional eye movements during galvanic stimulation. As predicted based upon roughly equal stimulation of ampullary nerves innervating the vertical canals, a substantial torsional component to the nystagmus is noted. The trajectory of torsional slow phases and nystagmus profile after the polarization provide insight into the central mechanisms that influence these responses.

Minor, Lloyd B.; Tomko, David L.; Paige, Gary D.

1995-01-01

290

Sexual dimorphism in numbers of vasotocin-immunoreactive neurons in brain areas associated with reproductive behaviors in the roughskin newt.  

PubMed

Vasotocin (VT) and vasopressin control many endocrine and neuroendocrine functions, including the regulation of reproductive behaviors. In the roughskin newt (Taricha granulosa), VT administration can enhance courtship behaviors in males and egg-laying behaviors in females. This study used immunohistochemistry to investigate whether there are sex differences in VT in specific brain areas, and whether these differences persist in nonbreeding animals. Numbers of VT immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were counted in males and females collected in February, April, June, and August. Radioimmunoassay of plasma samples confirmed that testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone concentrations were higher in males than females, and that 17beta-estradiol concentrations were higher in females than males. In 11 brain areas, no sexual or seasonal differences in the number of VTir cells were found. But in 3 brain regions-the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), the nucleus amygdalae dorsolateralis (AMYG), and the anterior preoptic area (aPOA)-there were significantly greater numbers of VTir cells in males than in females, and these differences did not change seasonally. In the aPOA, an area important to male sex behaviors, the sexual dimorphism in VTir was particularly pronounced. In four brain regions, there were significantly greater numbers of VTir cells in females than males, but only in specific seasons. In April-collected (breeding) animals, more VTir cells were found in females than in males in the populations of VT cells within the pars dorsalis hypothalami and ventromedial hypothalamus, brain regions frequently associated with stress responses and female mating behaviors. In August-collected (nonbreeding) animals, more VTir cells were found in females than in males, in the region of the bed nucleus of the decussation of the fasciculus lateralis telencephali and in the nucleus visceralis superior, nucleus isthmi region. Significantly greater numbers of VTir cells were observed in the magnocellular preoptic area of males and females collected in February. These results indicate that the functional interactions between gonadal steroid hormones and VT are complex and appear to involve site-, sex-, and season-specific regulatory mechanisms. Furthermore, it seems likely that populations of VT neurons in the BNST, AMYG, and aPOA are involved in regulating male-specific behaviors, and that the VT neurons in the pars dorsalis hypothalami/ventromedial hypothalamus may be involved in female-specific behaviors. PMID:10642450

Moore, F L; Richardson, C; Lowry, C A

2000-02-01

291

Track-weighted functional connectivity (TW-FC): a tool for characterizing the structural-functional connections in the brain.  

PubMed

MRI provides a powerful tool for studying the functional and structural connections in the brain non-invasively. The technique of functional connectivity (FC) exploits the intrinsic temporal correlations of slow spontaneous signal fluctuations to characterise brain functional networks. In addition, diffusion MRI fibre-tracking can be used to study the white matter structural connections. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in combining these two techniques to provide an overall structural-functional description of the brain. In this work we applied the recently proposed super-resolution track-weighted imaging (TWI) methodology to demonstrate how whole-brain fibre-tracking data can be combined with FC data to generate a track-weighted (TW) FC map of FC networks. The method was applied to data from 8 healthy volunteers, and illustrated with (i) FC networks obtained using a seeded connectivity-based analysis (seeding in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, PCC, known to be part of the default mode network), and (ii) with FC networks generated using independent component analysis (in particular, the default mode, attention, visual, and sensory-motor networks). TW-FC maps showed high intensity in white matter structures connecting the nodes of the FC networks. For example, the cingulum bundles show the strongest TW-FC values in the PCC seeded-based analysis, due to their major role in the connection between medial frontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex; similarly the superior longitudinal fasciculus was well represented in the attention network, the optic radiations in the visual network, and the corticospinal tract and corpus callosum in the sensory-motor network. The TW-FC maps highlight the white matter connections associated with a given FC network, and their intensity in a given voxel reflects the functional connectivity of the part of the nodes of the network linked by the structural connections traversing that voxel. They therefore contain a different (and novel) image contrast from that of the images used to generate them. The results shown in this study illustrate the potential of the TW-FC approach for the fusion of structural and functional data into a single quantitative image. This technique could therefore have important applications in neuroscience and neurology, such as for voxel-based comparison studies. PMID:23298749

Calamante, Fernando; Masterton, Richard A J; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Smith, Robert E; Willats, Lisa; Raffelt, David; Connelly, Alan

2013-04-15

292

Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech  

PubMed Central

A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after the treatment phase. Patients were able to produce a greater variety of words with and without speech entrainment at 1 and 6 weeks after training. Treatment-related decrease in cortical activation associated with speech entrainment was found in areas of the left posterior-inferior parietal lobe. We conclude that speech entrainment allows patients with Broca’s aphasia to double their speech output compared with spontaneous speech. Neuroimaging results suggest that speech entrainment allows patients to produce fluent speech by providing an external gating mechanism that yokes a ventral language network that encodes conceptual aspects of speech. Preliminary results suggest that training with speech entrainment improves speech production in Broca’s aphasia providing a potential therapeutic method for a disorder that has been shown to be particularly resistant to treatment. PMID:23250889

Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

2012-01-01

293

The organization of monoamine-containing neurons in the brain of the sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) as revealed by fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

The morphological organization of the monoamine-containing neurons in the brain of the sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) was studied by means of the Falck-Hillarp histofluorescence method. No attempt was made to distinguish between norepinephrine and dopamine, both primary catecholamines (CA) yielding a similar yellow-green fluorescence after paraformaldehyde treatment. In the brain stem of this teleost fish, three groups of CA-containing neuronal somata have been found. First, there is a small collection of CA perikarya located just caudal to the obex of the fourth ventricle. The neurons of this medullo-sinal group give rise to numerous CA fibers many of which ascend within the central portion of the medulla. Intermingled with these CA fibers are some CA cells that constitute the central medullary group. The CA perikarya of this group are scattered between the levels of cranial nerves X and VIII. The tegmentum of the isthmus also contains a small group of very closely packed CA neurons. The large-sized CA cells of the isthmal group are located dorsolateral to the medial longitudinal fasciculus, partly within the periventricular gray. High densities of CA varicosities were also disclosed in various brain stem structures such as the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis and the cerebeller valvula. In addition, numerous serotonin (5-HT)-type neuronal somata were found in the raphe region of the brain stem, particularly at caudal mesencephalic, isthmal and rostral medullary levels. A large number of CA cell bodies were visualized in the sunfish hypothalamus. Most of them form two populations of small, round cells that are located along and partly within the ependymal walls of the posterior and lateral recesses of the third ventricle. These bipolar cells possess one short club-like process protruding into the ventricle and their thin ependymofugal processes contribute to the CA innervation of numerous hypothalamic regions. Large CA neurons apparently without direct CSF contact also occur in the area of nucleus posterior tuberis, at the level of the mesodiencephalic junction. Although the hypothalamic inferior lobes are devoid of CA cell bodies they are heavily innervated by CA axons. The sunfish telencephalon also receives a strikingly massive and complex monoaminergic innervation. Numerous CA fibers which are first observed at the level of the preoptic area, ascend through the central zone of the telencephalon and arborize profusely particularly within the medial zone of area dorsalis telencephali. Other CA fibers, as well as abundant fine 5-HT varicosities were found in the lateral zone of area dorsalis. Although the exact origin of the telencephalic CA afferents in Lepomis is not known, part of it may arise from the isthmal CA cell group which appears similar to the locus coeruleus of reptiles, birds and mammals. PMID:721968

Parent, A; Dube, L; Braford, M R; Northcutt, R G

1978-12-01